264

Auexcanµp ±parynxnn
I p a m m a r n u e c k a x
pyccko-anrnnñckax
XPECTOMATHR-
CAMOVHH1EBL
Hsoauue emopoe, ucnpae:euuoe u oono:ueuuoe
Cankr-Herepôypr
«YMHAR HAAHETA»
Mockna
«AH±PA-M»
2005
Hmµn People
nuun:
uuueeo ue u+emm npornn have nothing against
xæe uaθuue oe+ùucm
saknmueuua raknx cornamennñ, making such agreements,
++ùruue cam: oepnu+oumc
no nosxE, but latER
oam :+ùmo
korµa nosnnkaer cnop, when a dispute arises
w+u o oucn·mvm opaùsus
nnn oµna ns «Cropon» or one oI the parties
oo wau oe ðonaamus
(sa-)xouer noµrnepµnrt wishes to uphold
wnuius mv anxov:o
cnon npana, its rights,
umc paùmc
orcyrcrnne nnctmennoro the lack oI a written agreement
cornamennx ðo:ær oe o pumu oepnu+oum
moxer µocrannrt can cause
ræu roos
xnonort n norepn. trouble and losses.
mpao: æuo :ocus
Auexcanµp Hnxouaennu ±parynxnn
IPAMMATHHECKAR PYCCKO-AHIAHHCKAR
XPECTOMATHR-CAMOYHHTEAL
Hoµnncano n neuart 07.05.2005. uopmar 60!88/16. Iapnnrypa Times. Heuart o]cernax.
Fymara rnnorpa]ckax. Oô¡em 26 neu. n. Tnpax 5000 +ks. 3akas X
Hsµarentcknñ µom «AH¡PA-M»
E-mail: andrapublish¡yandex.ru
Orneuarano c rorontx µnanosnrnnon n OOO «Cenepo-3anaµntñ Heuarntñ ¡nop».
188350, Hennnrpaµckax oônacrt, r. Iarunna, yn. Conoµyxnna, 2
BBK 81.2 Anru.
± 72
±parynxnn A. H.
Ipammarnueckax pyccko-anrnnñckax xpecromarnx-camoyunrent.
CHô.: Ymnax nnanera: M.: AH¡PA-M, 2005. 416 c.
ISBN 5-87852-159-8
¡annax knnra xnnxercx upesntuañno +]]ekrnnntm yueôntm nocoônem, na-
nncanntm na ôase meroµnkn A. ¡parynknna. Ona ynnkantna n no manepe noµaun
yueônoro marepnana, n no kauecrny camoro marepnana. Knnrn A. ¡parynknna
nomoramr ncem xenammnm ôtcrpo n kauecrnenno ntyunrt anrnnñcknñ xstk.
© ¡parynknn A. H.
© «Ymnax nnanera»
ISBN 5-87852-159-8 © «AH¡PA-M», 2005
Anropckne npana samnment.
Hsµanne neuaraercx n anropckoñ peµaknnn
Hmôte nnµt konnponannx nnn nocnponsneµennx µannoñ knnrn moryr
ocymecrnnxrtcx rontko c nnctmennoro paspemennx anropa. Hpn nnrnponannn
cctnkn na µannym knnry n na ]amnnnm anropa xnnxmrcx oôxsarentntmn.
Ynaxaemte knnronsµarenn n knnroropronnt!
Tontko µannax knnra Hsµarentckoro µoma «Anµpa» xnnxercx anropckoñ.
He ncrynañre n npornnosakonnte ornomennx c µpyrnmn nsµarentcrnamn,
npeµnarammnmn cnoñ nenak noµ nnµom knnr A. ¡parynknna.
Coµepaanne
Ienepantnax nµex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Oô +roñ knnre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
O kommenrapnxx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
O moeñ «pvcuquµupoeauuoù mpaucrpunµuu» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
HACTL I. Yueõnme 1exc1m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Iuana I. «Hnuero c anrunncxnun cuonaun ne µeuaeu!» . . . . 21
Tekcr X1. «Menx sonyr .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Tekcr X2. «Ceñuac mt naxoµnmcx .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Tekcr X3. «uem ôontme mt yunmcx, .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Iuana II. Paõo1a c orouuauua+u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Tekcr X4. «× nokynam .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Tekcr X5. «Ham oren .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Tekcr X6. «Moñ ôpar xnnër .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Tekcr X7. «Moñ µpyr unraer .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Iuana III. «Hameu noncm !!!» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Tekcr X8. «O ceôe» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Tekcr X9. «× ne mory paôorart µoma .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Tekcr X10. «Ceñuac x mory pacckasart Bam .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Tekcr X11. «× xnny n Mockne .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Tekcr X12. «Oô +roñ knnre» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Tekcr X13. «× pemnn nauart .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Tekcr X14. «Hocne moero rpertero ypoka .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Tekcr X15. «× xnny n +rom crapom ropoµe» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Tekcr X16. «Mon mtcnn» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Tekcr X17. «uro µenart?» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Tekcr X18. «Ecnn ôt x ôtn .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Tekcr X19. «Kaxµtñ µent x .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Tekcr X20. «Bor moñ uemoµan .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Tekcr X21. «× nnkorµa ne ôtn n Honµone .» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Tekcr X22. «unnoco]nx npnanµna» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5
4
BHHMAHHE !
Ynnkantnax knnra, koropym Bt µepxnre n pykax, ]akrn-
ueckn npeµcrannxer coôom
nonnonenntñ ca+oyuumeuo anrnnñckoro!,
rak kak ona xnnxercx nennkonenntm co:emauue+ anrnnñckoñ
nparmu:ecroù epa++amuru n ôoraroro c:oeapuoeo sanaca.
Moxno ckasart, uro nocue +roñ knnrn Bam ocranercx
rontko nparmura, nparmura n emë pas nparmura ..!!!
Ho+romy nmenno n kauecrne ca+oyuumeua
x n npeµnaram Bam +ry knnry ncnontsonart ..!!!
¡anntñ pyccxo-anrnnñcknñ napnanr «Ipa++amu-
:ecroù xpecmo+amuu», n koropym nomnn nce yueônte rek-
crt, panee «pacruoauuie» no monm nocoônxm, opnenrnponan
na rex, µnx koro rnanntm xnnxercx
ymenne eoeopumo no-anrnnñckn
n nepeeooumi pycckne mercmi na anrnnñcknñ.
Oµnako y +roñ knnrn ecrt n eë anruo-pyccknñ «oeoù-
uur», npeµnasnauenntñ yxe µnx rex, µnx koro rnanntm xnnxercx
nosmoxnocrt nouu+amo anrnnñckym pe:i.
Btôop roro nnn nnoro napnanra +roñ sameuarentnoñ knnrn
sanncnr nnmt or Bamero xenannx
n or nepnoouepëµnocrn Bamnx neneñ n saµau .
B ckopom npemenn nnannpyercx ntxoµ n µnyx o:usueµoe
(÷ pyccxo-anrnnñckoro n anruo-pycckoro)
nmenno «Bercuuecroeo» napnanra xpecmo+amuu
n rnannoñ nentm roñ knnrn ôyµer oôoramenne Bamero anrnnñ-
ckoro yxe nmenno uercuroù
ro ecrt cuoea+u.
B «Bercuuecrym xpecmo+amur» roxe noñµyr v:eo-
uie mercmi pasnnunoñ remarnkn, koropte yxe nonnocrtm «sar-
porm» µnx Bac remy c:oeapuoeo +uuu+v+a, n koropte emë
ôontme oôorarxr n pasuooopas»m Bam cuoeapumù sanac.
Iuana IV. Æn1encxne 1exc1m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Tekcr X23. «Moñ µent» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Tekcr X24. «Oµnn ns monx neuepon» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Tekcr X25. «Bcrpeuax µpyra» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Tekcr X26. «Hnctmo» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Tekcr X27. «Tpenorn» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Tekcr X28. «Hnrpnxka» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Tekcr X29. «Myxunnt n xenmnnt ceroµnx» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Tekcr X30. Hs «The Beatles» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Iuana V. O xnnrax n oõ anrunncxou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Tekcr X31. «Baxnocrt anrnnñckoro» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Tekcr X32. «Ypok anrnnñckoro» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Tekcr X33. «Anrnnñcknñ xstk ceroµnx» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Tekcr X34. «O cnonapxx» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Tekcr X35. «Hent +roñ knnrn» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Iuana VI. «Ceroµnnmnne npoõueum» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Tekcr X36. «Homorax µpyry npeoµonert rpyµnte npemena» . . . 196
Tekcr X37. «Kak npenparnrt npemennym paôory n nocroxnnym?» . 204
Tekcr X38. «Kak sacrannrt Bamy ankery paôorart na Bac?» . . . . 213
Iuana VII. Pasronopm o õnsnece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Tekcr X39. «Mexµynapoµnax ropronnx» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Tekcr X40. «O ôasax µanntx» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Tekcr X41. «Hekoropte ycnonnx µocrankn» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Tekcr X42. «¡enonte noesµkn rpeôymr noµroronkn» . . . . . . . . 246
Tekcr X43. «Hnkakoro ônsneca ôes mpnµnueckoñ +kcneprnst» . . 254
HACTL II. «Hpmaox n anrunncxnn» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Hauano. «Btcoknñ crapr» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
1. «Pasôer» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
2. «Tonuok» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
3. «Honër» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
4. «Hpnsemnenne» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
5. «Tpnym]» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
6. Cnpanounax uacrt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
7
6
±OPOIHE HHTATEAH !
Knnra, npeµnaraemax Bamemy nnnmannm, xnnxercx ne rontko
upesntuañno nonesnoñ c roukn spennx npnneµënnoro n neñ yueô-
noro marepnana, no n ynnkantnoñ
no cnocoóy nooauu +roro marepnana.
Kaxµax xpecromarnx xnnxercx cóopuuro+ rex nnn nntx mer-
cmoe nnn orptnkon ns nnx, cnennantno noµoôpanntx µnx osua-
ro+ueuua yuamnxcx c onpeµenënntmn «cpesa+u» ynopxµouen-
ntx snannñ («me+a+u», :ercuroù n r.µ.), nnn xe µnx konkpernoro
oóyueuua yuamnxcx npn nomomn +rnx rekcron.
¡annym «Ipa++amuuecrym xpecmo+amur» noromy n mox-
no nasnart nmenno «yueóuoù», uro eë ocuoeuaa ]ynknnx
saknmuaercx ne rontko n rom, uroôt n pamkax xnntx cnxsntx
rekcron µart yuamemycx ôorartñ sanac anrnnñcknx cnon, no n
n ocnonnou n rom, uroôt µart Bam nosmoxno ôonee nonnoe
npeµcrannenne oô aueuuùcroù epa++amure
(n oô eë uraucax)
n oô¡ëme, neoôxoµnmom µnx cnoôoµnoro nnaµennx xstkom.
3anxrnx no +roñ knnre µaµyr Bam uyµecnym nosmoxnocrt ouent
oicmpoeo n nërkoro exowoeuu» n anrnnñcknñ, µnx uero Bam
ôyµer µocrarouno rontko nnnmarentno unrart +ry knnry n cra-
partcx sanomnnart kak moxno ôontme eomoemx ]pas n npeµno-
xennñ .
Kpome +roro, na npnmepe pasnooôpasntx n ôorartx cnona-
mn v:eouix mercmoe Bt caun ynnµnre, uro ôoxrtcx anr-
nnñckoro ne nyxno, n uro µaxe µonontno «c:owuie» anrnnñ-
ckne rekcrt okastnamrcx ne raknmn-ro yx n rpyµntmn µnx
nepeoa:u nx no-pycckn, ecnn k +romy noµxoµnrt c nomomtm
+oeù meroµnkn.
IEHEPAALHAR H±ER
¡pystx!
Cpasy xe cooômam Bam, uro nent µannoñ knnrn ue sak-
nmuaercx n rom, uroôt nomout Bam n nceeoo«nsyuennn» anr-
nnñckoro xstka
ne1!
Hent +roñ ornnunoñ xpecromarnn saknmuaercx n npeµoc-
rannennn Bam nosmoxnocrn
«nayunrtcx eoeopumo
no-anrnnñckn»,
nnn:
«nayunrtcx nepeeooumo ua aue:uùcruù
umóoù pyccknñ mercm» !!!
Beµt ecnn Bt, nanpnmep, kynnre mamnny, ro Bam nyxno
ôyµer yunrtcx esoumo na neñ n pasóupamoca n neñ, a ne snart
nasyôok «xu+u:ecruù cocmae n»moeo oo:ma rpen:euu» :eeoeo
nepeoueeo ro:eca» nnn «no:uiù nepe:eui c:v:aee vnompeo:e-
uu» oa+nepa» a +ro n ecrt ro, uemy Bac «v:am» n uem Bac
+vpiwam 99° rpaµnnnonntx meroµnk n 99° «npenooaeame-
:eù» anrnnñckoro, sacrannxx Bac nsyuart ue anrnnñcknñ xstk,
no ux sammenym nepcnm anrnnñckoñ rpammarnkn
c ux ôesymnoñ mep+uuo:oeueù
a ckopee, c kaknm-ro npoqwapeouo+!,
npn nomomn koroptx onn oucmauµupvrmc» or Bac
n c ux ne menee ôesymntmn n nenornuntmn «npaeu:a+u» .
V:ume co mnom aueuuùcruù,
a ue ôañkn o nëm !!!
9
8
xnnxmrcx naxntmn µnx ckopeñmero ycnoennx npannntnoro n ôo-
raroro anrnnñckoro.
Meroµ oôyuennx npn nomomn napa::e:iuix mercmoe peµok,
no upesntuañno +]]ekrnnen ocoôenno, ecnn yuamnñcx oônaµa-
er xenannem, repnennem n anannrnuecknmn cnocoônocrxmn.
Hanpnuep, nontsyxct nmenno napa::e:iui+u nepcnxmn
«Hoxoxµennñ Tenemaxa» na nemenkom n µpennerpeueckom xst-
kax, ntµammnñcx apxeonor Ienpnx munuan (koroptñ namën
Tpom) camocroxrentno ntyunn µpennerpeuecknñ.
B namem xe cnyuae +ror meroµ xnnxercx ocoõo +]]ekrnn-
ntm, rak kak anrnnñcknñ xstk oônaµaer ouent konkperntm ko-
nnuecrnom neµennmtx «o:e+eumoe» ÷ cnon, npocroe emsyó-
pueauue koroptx moxer pemnrt npakrnueckn nce «npoo:e+i»,
cnxsannte c npakrnuecknm onnaµennem xstkom.
H nmenno +où nnµ nooa:u yueôntx rekcron
npakrnueckn nonnax
«cuuxpouua» napa::e:iuocmi»
c cuuxpouuoù xe noµcrpounoñ mpaucrpunµueù
yuuraueu n ue u+eem npeµtµymnx auauoeoe.
Bo nropoñ uacrn µannoñ «Xpecmo+amuu» nmeercx npekpac-
nax rnana «Hpmxor e aueuuùcruù», cama no ceôe xnnxmmaxcx
camocroxrentntm yueôntm nocoônem. Ona ne rontko µaër yua-
memycx nonnym kaprnny uacmoaueù conpemennoñ nparmu:ec-
roù epa++amuru anrnnñckoro xstka, no n µemoncrpnpyer mom
rouky spennx na ceroµnxmnee ero cocroxnne, a rakxe ykastnaer
npxmoñ nyrt k oôneruennm nsyuennx u npenoµanannx anrnnñc-
koro c yuërom ceroµnxmnnx peannñ.
Hannune +roñ rnant n µenaer µannym knnry nonnonenntm
ca+oyuumeue+.
Ocnonntmn ornnunxmn +oux xpecromarnñ or nx peµknx ana-
noron xnnxmrcx:
1) cam cnocoo nooa:u yueônoro marepnana npn nomomn
µeñcrnnrentno napauueuoumx µnyxstuntx rekcron, uro µenaer
nosmoxntm (nyrëm npocroñ sa+eui cnon!) nsnoxenne npakrn-
ueckn nmôoñ Bameñ «pvccro»si:uoù» mtcnn no-anrnnñckn;
2) cnennantnax oopaoomra +rnx mercmoe raknm oôpa-
som, uroôt kaxµax crpouka pvccroeo rekcra (n 99° cnyuaen)
nonnocrtm coomeemcmeoeaua crpouke aue:uùcroù, a +ro n
cnom ouepeµt cosµaër nce npeµnoctnkn µnx nanneruañmero sa-
yunnannx anrnnñcknx cnon, rpammarnuecknx kareropnñ, nentx ro-
rontx npeµnoxennñ n nx ]parmenron (+urpoqpas) c nentm µant-
neñmero nx ncnontsonannx n Bameñ xnnoñ aue:opeun.
C +roñ xe nentm pyccraa uacrt rekcron µononnnrentno oô-
paôorana raknm cnocoôom, uroôt (nyrëm «noocrasor» |n ckoô-
kax| nnn «eos+eµeuuù» roro, uero uem n anrnnñckom rekcre,
oôosnauenntx «ea:o:ra+u») oônerunrt yuamemycx ôonee npa-
nnntntñ nepenoµ anrnnñcknx rekcron na pyccknñ, a rakxe ôonee
npannntnoe nonnmanne anrnnñckoro +euma:umema n coorner-
crnenno crpykrypt anrnnñckoro npeµnoxennx;
3) rpauua1nuecxoe «uano:ueuue» rekcron raknm oôpasom, uro
onn nknmuamr n ceôx npakrnueckn nce rpammarnueckne kareropnn n
xnnennx, neoôxoµnmte µnx peantnoro onnaµennx xnntm xstkom;
4) nannune (no ncemy rekcry knnrn) µannoñ rvpcueo+
noµc1pounon pvcuquµupoeauuoù mpaucrpunuuu,
makcnmantno npnônnxënnoñ k peantnoñ (a ne k uoea:usupoeau-
uoù) n npannntnoñ nonceµnennoñ anrnnñckoñ peun;
5) nocroxnnoe emoeueuue (pasnnuntmn cnocoôamn) no nce-
my rekcry knnrn ncex rex umaucoe («npusuaroe» rpammarnue-
cknx kareropnñ ÷ orou:auuù, roucmpvrµuù n r.n.), koropte
11
10
BHHMAHHE !!!
Tekcrt XX27, 28, 29, a rakxe ece rekcrt rnan 'VI¨ n
'VII¨ x ouent pekomenµym npoxoµnrt c npenoµana1eueu, rak
kak ykasannte rekcrt xnnxmrcx nac1onmnun aue:oa+epurau-
cru+u rekcramn, n nekoropte mecra n nnx (ns-sa ocooeuuoc-
meù anrnnñckoñ rpammarnkn n nekcnkn) ne na 100° «coena-
oarm» c pyccknmn. × ne cran «nooeou»mi» anrnnñckne uacrn
+rnx rekcron noµ pyccxne »siroeie pea:uu, nockontky xouy,
uroôt Bt yunnn nmenno o1ununmn, õora1mn n nac1onmnn
anrnnñcknñ xstk !!!
Mox pekomenµannx n µannom cnyuae oµnosnauna:
«3ayuueaùme nente rycru rekcron uausycmo !!!»,
rem ôonee, uro +ra knnra npeµnasnauena ue µnx urennx,
a o:» nnnmarentnoñ paoomi !!!
H, nonropxm, nockontky nmenno ns-sa onpeµenënntx (nemno-
rouncnenntx!) «ocooeuuocmeù» anrnnñckoro xstka nekoropte
mecra n rekcrax ecnn nx Bam ne oô¡xcnnrt! moryr npeµcran-
nxrt µnx Bac µononnnrentnym rpyµnocrt npn nx nsyuennn, ro
nmenno n +1nx cnyuaxx Bam n npnroµxrcx µononnnrentnte
oô¡xcnennx
cneµymero n µoôpoxenarentnoro uenoneka!
Kpome +roro, µaxe n cnyuaxx nonnoro c+mcuoeoeo connaµe-
nnx anrnnñcknx n pyccknx cmpo:er x ncë xe npomy Bac oôpa-
mart ocoôoe nnnmanne na «pasuuµi», nosmoxno nmemmnecx n
nnx (nop»oor c:oe n r.n.).
Fonee noµpoônoe nsnoxenne ne rontko moeñ roukn spennx, no
n camoñ nonoñ meroµnkn npenoµanannx anrnnñckoro nmeercx n
monx knnrax «Houuuu ceoù aueuuùcruù!», «Onmu+usupoeau-
umù yueóuur aueuuùcroeo», «Iapaumupoeauumù aueuuùcruù
sa 3,5 oua», «Peauu+amop Baueeo aueuuùcroeo», «Hoemù
ruaccumù ca+oyuumeuo», « Hoemù ómcmpmù aueuuùcruù» n
µp., koropte x pekomenµym Bam n kauecrne +]]ekrnnneñmnx exeµ-
nenntx yueôntx nocoônñ .
Hepnax xe uacrt µannoñ knnrn cocronr ns 43 napa::e:iuix
rekcron, pasµenënntx na 7 rnan n pacnonoxenntx no mepe
uapacmauu» nx (rpammarnueckoñ) cnoxnocrn, pacuupeuu»
sanaca nekcnkn, eë oooeaµeuu» n cneµua:usaµuu:
Inana I: 3 yueôntx rekcra, nonnocrtm cocrannenntx ns ueus+e-
uëuumx anrnnñcknx cnon. uynknnx +rnx rekcron saknmuaercx n rom,
uroôt na µene npoµemoncrpnponart Bam oepo+uym eaxuocmo uac-
roñ ueus+eu»e+ocmu anrnnñcknx cnon, ntxnnennoñ n ycnemno
ncnontsyemoñ mnom (ns +roñ «ueus+eu»e+ocmu» ntrekaer n macca
nosmoxnocreñ snaunrentnoro ycropeuua oôyuennx anrnnñckomy);
Inana II: 4 yueôntx rekcra µnx paôort c anrnnñcknmn
orou:auu»+u;
Inana III: 15 yueôntx rekcron n ]opme +ouo:oeoe na cno-
ôoµnte remt (or nepnoro nnna), coµepxamne ôontmoe konnue-
crno :ercuru n o:e+eumoe anrnnñckoñ rpammarnkn;
Inana IV: 8 «Æumeùcrux mercmoe» µnx nakaukn nonceµnen-
noñ nekcnkoñ na remt, k koroptm yuamnecx npnntknn emë n
mkone, n koropte nyxnt n umõou cnyuae (nesanncnmo or
meroµnkn npenoµanannx xstka);
Inana V: 5 rekcron «O ruueax u oo aue:uùcro+»;
Inana VI: «Ceeoou»uuue npoo:e+i» 3 rekcra, npeµcran-
nxmmne coôoñ ueaoanmupoeauuie ntµepxkn ns anrnnñckoñ n
amepnkanckoñ nyônnnncrnkn;
Inana VII: «Paseoeopi o ousuece» 5 rakxe ueaoanmupo-
eauuix rekcron µnx emë ôontmero oôoramennx n yxe cneµua:u-
saµuu Bameñ nekcnkn, a rakxe µnx µantneñmero ynennuennx oô¡ë-
ma Bamnx snannñ o npakrnueckoñ anrnnñckoñ rpammarnke.
13
12
µenart +ro kak moxno uame µo nonnoro ycnoennx nentx kyckon
rekcra, n koroptx nosµnee Bam ôyµer µocrarouno
npocro sa+euamo"
oµnn anrnnñckne cuoea na" µpyrne !!!
Ho+romy, nonropxm, mox «pero+euoaµu» N1»
snyunr cneµymmnm oôpasom:
«3yópume nente kyckn rekcron uausycmo !!!»
n pesyuomam ôyµer npocro eouueóumù !!!
(Kcrarn, n Amepnke mnorne nmenno mar n µenamr
mne nncann, uro n Htm-Hopke nnµenn nmµeñ, nµymnx no ynnne,
n unrammnx mom «Xpecmo+amur» npxmo na xoµy !!!).
B rex nemnorouncnenntx cnyuaxx, korµa Bt nnµnre, uro no:-
uoeo, ovrea:iuoeo connaµennx anrnnñckoñ n pycckoñ crpouek uem
(ns-sa ocooeuuocmeù anrnnñckoñ rpammarnkn nnn ns-sa urau-
coe nocrpoennx anrnnñcknx npeµnoxennñ), crapañrect
sayuueamo uausycmo me rycru anrnnñckoro mercma,
n koropte +rn «uecoenaoeuu»» nxoµxr!
HOBTOP:
Pyccraa uacrt rekcron µononnnrentno oôpaôorana raknm
cnocoôom, uroôt (nyrëm «noocrasor») oônerunrt yuamemycx
ôonee npannntntñ nepenoµ recron na anrnnñcknñ!
Oôpamañre ocoóoe nnnmanne na ro++eumapuu, cne-
µymmne sa rekcramn. Onn nomoryr Bam nouamo n yceoumo rpam-
marnueckne peannn anrnnñckoro xstka n maccy ero uraucoe.
O KOMMEH1APHBX
Mnorne rekcrt conponoxµamrcx noµpoôntmn
epa++amu:ecru+u ro++eumapu»+u
n rom uncne n k pasnnuntm cnyuaxm ynorpeônennx qop+ n o:e+eumoe,
u+emuu+ca n +rom rekcre n emoeueuum+ mnom.
NB !
Bce +rn qop+i n o:e+eumi
rakxe oóasameuoum µnx sav:ueauu»!
B ocrantntx rekcrax µocrarountmn xnnnnct:
a) ntµenenne pasuuuum+u upuqma+u ncero roro, na uro
neoôxoµnmo oôparnrt/oôpamart ocoóoe nnnmanne (n, coorner-
crnenno, sayun(na)rt nansycrt);
ô) nontrkn coônmµennx nonnoro coornercrnnx snauennn
pvccrux crpouek aue:uùcru+.
Oôenmn croponamn rekcra n pycckoñ, n anrnnñckoñ upes-
ntuañno yµoôno nontsonartcx µnx ca+oroumpoua npn ca+o-
cmoameuouo+ nepenoµe uacreñ rekcra nnn nentx rekcron c pyc-
ckoro na anrnnñcknñ n naoôopor.
Cuauaua npoumume ror nnn nnoñ mercm
ueuuro+,
oôpamax ocoôoe nnnmanne na rem nnn nntm cnocoôom ntµenen-
nte mecra n na ro++eumapuu, a sarem sakpoñre crpouky nnn on-
peµenënnym uacrt +roro rekcra, nepeneµnre eë nnctmenno nnn
ycrno na «.cruù» n ryr xe ceôx nponeptre!, µenax ocoôtñ
aknenr na anaunse cµenanntx (?) Bamn omnõox. Crapañrect
15
14
O MOEH
«PVCH0HHHPOBAHHOH TPAHCKPHHHHH»
B +roñ knnre (kak n n ocrantntx monx paôorax) x nontsy-
mct rak nastnaemoñ «pvcuquµupoeauuoù rpanckpnnnneñ»,
ro ecrt sev:auue anrunncxnx c:oe
x nepeµam pyccxnun ôyknamn.
× ôtn nepntm, kro cµenan +ro n Poccnn n name npemx ...
3ro nponsomno emë n 1998 roµy, korµa n npekpacnom ka-
nnnnrpaµckom nsµarentcrne «×nrapntñ ckas» x ntnycrnn cnom
camym nepnym knnry «CvnepPvroeoocmeo o:» v+uix :eum»ee».
Torµa +ra mox mpaucrpunµu» ntsnana npocro mknan na-
pekannñ n neµonontcrna n uro xe?!
Tenept c +oeù nërkoñ pykn pvcuquµupoeauuoù rpanc-
kpnnnneñ nontsymrcx ncë ôontme n ôontme pasnnuntx anropon
n cocrannreneñ cnonapeñ n ncë n nopxµke !
Oµnako c rex nop konrnnrenr monx unrareneñ snaunrent-
no pacmnpnncx, n coornercrnenno n cnxsn c ôonee ntcoknm
oóuu+ yponnem nx aue:osnannñ, n +roñ n n nocneµymmnx cnonx
(÷ +oux) paôorax µnx ôonee rounoñ nepeµaun aueuosevroe x nontsy-
mct yxe c:eovrµu+ napnanrom ceoeù rpanckpnnnnn ro+ou-
uupoeauui+ ro ecrt ocoõmun (oômenpnnxrtmn) sna(u)kamn
+ewovuapoouoù mpaucrpunµuu x nepeµam re aue:osevru, ko-
roptm uem ananoron n pycckom nponsnomennn, n koropte
+oeym nrpart
c+ic:opas:u:ume:iuvr pont.
3rnx «ocooix suaroe» 4, nnmc «ooi:uoe» anrnnñckoe 'w¨
n nor npnuepnme «npaeu:a» nx nponsnomennx:
B ro++eumapu»x k rekcram moryr ncrpeuartcx noemopm
nycrt onn Bac ne pasµpaxamr n ne yµnnnxmr kaxµoe oô¡xcne-
nne «npue»sauo» k konkpernoñ cnryannn nuenno n µannou
rekcre, a kpome +roro, noemopuie oô¡xcnennx nnoµxrcx mnom
emë n cnennantno µnx roro, uroôt uepes mnorokparnte nanomn-
nannx Bam ynennunrt nepoxrnocrt anromarnueckoro (?) sanomn-
nannx Bamn na camom µene naxnoñ nn]opmannn.
Takxe onpeµenënntm «ucmo:uuro+ pasopaweuu»» moxer
xnnxrtcx n nocroxnnoe, nonropxmmeecx «uae»s:ueoe» nmµeue-
nne mnom n rekcrax onpeµenënntx c:oe n/nn eipaweuuù
no neµt x nanncan +ry knnry µnx roro, uroôt Bam nomout!,
a ne µnx roro, uroôt Bam yroµnrt ..!
Ho+romy: nyxen Bam anrnnñcknñ nor n yunre ero ..!!!
±OPOIHE ±PY3LR !
¡ononnnrentno n ocoóo pekomenµym Bam
cnon npekpacnte «BHµEOKVPCM»
n nonmeônym knnry «5 ceucauuù»,
koropax ykaxer Bam npxmoñ nyrt k oôneruennm
sayuueauua anrnnñcknx cuoe !!!
3akast npnnnmamrcx no E-mail: andrapublish¡yandex.ru
B Cankr-Herepôypre snonnre no rene]ony (812) 274-18-12,
a n Mockne (095) 517-00-95.
Ho nonpocy oôyuennx anrnnñckomy no moeñ meroµnke snonnre
no rene]onam:
n Mockne: (095) 779-69-06, 779-69-07; 517-00-95
n Hnrepe: 8-903-301-27-57
n Pnre: 8-10-371-948-01-11
n Honµone: 078-99-77-81-98.
17
16
OuEHI BAÆHO !!!
B oóasameuoueùue+ nopnµxe Bt µonxnt coônmµart
µooonroryyy e:acuix,
rak kak or oo:eomiii rnacnoñ
+owem saeucemi µaxe c+mmmcu c:oea!
Hpnuëm, yurnre, uro
anrnoxstunte cumma1 pasuuµv
mexµy oooo:eoù n rpamroù rnacntmn !!!
Cnono c rpamroù Cnono c rakoñ xe,
rnacnoñ: no ooooueoù rnacnoñ:
Iull qy: ÷ nanonnenntñ, u: Iool qyy: ÷ µypak,
shit uium÷ µeptmo, u: sheet uiuum ÷ nncr
(ov+aeu),
bitch oum: ÷ cyka, u: beach ouum: ÷ nnxx,
cunt raum ÷ ro, uro ecrt n: can`t raaum ÷ ne mory.
rontko y xenmnn,
Ho ooo:eue e:acuie +ro HE «a¹a» n HE «o¹o»
ro ecrt +ro HE µna «a» n HE µna «o»,
nponsnecënnte oµno sa µpyrnm n orµentno ner!!!
3ro OµHH 3BYK, npocro +ror snyk npooraanyyr ...
H nmenno na nero nourn ncerµa naµaer yoapeuue !!!
To xe camoe ro ecrt µoonrorvv snvvkaa
nokastnaer ôykna «-y» n «ry».
æ e:acuiù snyk.
¡nx ero nponsnomennx npnrorontre pornk
k nponsnomennm 'i¨, no ckaxnre 'a¨;
œ e:acuiù snyk. Hnorµa noxow na name «è»,
no rakontm ue xnnxercx
¡nx ero nponsnomennx npnrorontre pornk
k nponsnomennm 'i¨, no ckaxnre 'o¨.
θ θθ θθ «e:vxa»» cornacnax.
¡nx eë npannutnoro nponsnomennx ntcyntre xstk
noµantme ueaµy syõaun n ntnyckañre nosµyx
(no 1outxo sµect!!!)
BE3 IOHOCA!!!
3nyk nnorµa noxow na name «c»,
a nnorµa na name «q»;
ð ðð ðð «seouruù» snyk.
H sµect nyxno ntcynyrt xstk mexµy syôamn
n roxe ntnyckart nosµyx (n roxe 1outxo sµect!),
no yxe C IOHOCOM!!!
3nyk moxer ôtrt noxow (no ne ôonee!!!) na name «s»,
no rakontm HE xnnxercx !!!;
w +ro kak «+», nponsnecennoe c HECOMKHVTBMH,
c HECÆATBMH,
c HEBBHB¹EHHBMH
ryôamn!!!
Hnorµa +ror snyk noxow na name «v», a nnorµa na name «e».
Voapeuue n rpanckpnnnnn x nokastnam,
«oe:a»» yµapnym rnacnym anpnon,
HE ntµenxx eë rvpcueo+,
n noµuëpknnax eë,
nanpnmep:
city cnmu ÷ ropoµ.
19
18
HACTL I
YHEBHLE TEKCTL
Emë pas oôpamam Bame nnnmanne na ro, uro nce rekcrt, npn-
neµënnte nnxe, noµroronnent ocoôtm oôpasom.
B 99° cnyuaen nmeercx nonnoe connaµenne mexµy pycckoñ n an-
rnnñckoñ crpoukamn kak n uacrn :ercuru (r. e. cnon), rak n n uacrn
rpammarnkn. B rex xe peµknx cnyuaxx, korµa ns-sa xnntx ocooeuuo-
cmeù nocrpoennx anrnnñckoro npeµnoxennx +roro ncë xe µocrnut
ne yµanoct, oµnnaxonme nnn coo1ne1c1nymmne cnona, o:e+eumi
nnn uacrn npeµnoxennx ntµenent oµnnakono nanpnmep, no:vwup-
ui+ rvpcueo+ (÷ uar:ouui+ upuqmo+) nnn noµuëpknnannem.
Kpome +roro, n oóoux napnanrax rekcra n n pycckom, n n
anrnnñckom (÷ r. e. n n :eeoù, n n npaeoù croponax) pasntmn
mpn]ramn (no:vwupui+, rvpcueo+, sae:aeui+u ovrea+u) n nx
couerannxmn (nnn noµuëpknnannem) ntµenent nce o:e+eumi
n ocooeuuocmu oôonx xstkon, na koropte n nmôom cnyuae nyx-
no oôparnrt ocoóoe nnnmanne, n nomomt n nsyuennn koroptx,
coôcrnenno ronopx, n xnnxercx oµnoñ ns neneñ µannoñ knnrn.
Hanpnmep, n ouent mnornx pyccxnx napnanrax rekcron sae-
uaeum+u ôyknamn mnom (n µonontno-rakn nanxsunno!) ntµene-
nt naoewuie n e:aeo:iuie okonuannx. Cµenano +ro µnx roro,
uroôt emë n emë pas npoµemoncrpnponart Bam omcymcmeue +rnx
orou:auuù n anrnnñckom n coornercrnenno ueus+euae+ocmo
anrnnñcknx cvµecmeume:iuix n npu:aeame:iuix no naµexam,
a anrnnñcknx e:aeo:oe no poµa´ m.
Ocnonntm ornnunem moeñ pvcuquµupoeauuoù mpaucrpun-
µuu (ro ecrt nepeµaun anrnnñckoro rekcra cnmnonamn nnctmen-
nocrn pycckoro xstka) xnnxercx ne rontko eë makcnmantnax npn-
õunaënnoc1t k annouy snyuannm anrnnñcknx cnon, no n
µononnnrentnoe nerpaµnnnonnoe ncnontsonanne pyccxnx õyxn
µnx ôonee rounoñ nepeµaun nponsnomennx
nekoroptx anrunncxnx snyxon.
NB!
OCOBOE nnnmanne oôparnre na ro, uro
yxe c camoro nepnoro rekcra
n cnoeñ mpaucrpunµuu
x sauacrym µam cuumuoe nponsnomenne
apmur:eù c cvµecmeume:iui+u (nnn c nx onpeoe:euu»+u),
a :acmuµi 'to¨ c e:aeo:a+u
ro ecrt mar, rar +ro n ecrt n peantnoñ xnsnn!
21
20
IAABA I
HHHEIO
C AHIHHHCKHMH CHOBAMH
HE µEBAEM !
3 TEKCTA,
nennkom cocroxmne
ns ueus+euèuuix anrnnñcknx cnon.
TEKCT X1
Hpnner! Hello! xo:ov
Menx sonyr . My name is .*
+aù uoù+ us .
× xnny n . I live in .
aù :ue uu .
× * yunrent. I am* a teacher.
aù æ+ ommi:o
Kaxµtñ µent Every day
+epu o+ù
x npnxoxy e** ukony I come to** mv school
aù ra+ mv +aù crvv:
n yuy moñ knacc, and teach my class
æuo mii: +aù r:æc
kak nponsnocnmo how to pronounce
xav mv npouavuc
Ocoôenno +ro ornocnrcx k +»ero+v suarv, koroptñ y menx
ncnontsyercx HE µnx pasoe:euu» snykon kak on nnorµa nc-
nontsyercx n pycckom (nanpnmep, n cnone «nB»uuµa» cornacnax
«n» neµt ue mxrkax xe! n +»eruù suar sµect ncnontsyercx
xnno «ue no uasua:euur»!)!
× xe ncnontsym +»eruù suar
u+euuo µnx nanxsunnoro noµuëpknnannx MBIKOC1H
nekoroptx anrnnñcknx snykon rnna 'sh¨ nnn 'g¨.
3 µOHHOBTOPA:
1) Honropxm, uro n «Ko++eumapuax» k rekcram ecrt mnoro
noemopoe onn nneµent mnom cneuuauouo µnx roro, uroôt
no xoµy µena nomorart Bam aemo+amu:ecru sanomnnart ro, uro
xnnxercx oueuo eaxum+ µnx Bameñ aue:oepa+omuocmu !!!;
2) Kpome +roro, µaxe n cnyuaxx nonnoro c+mcuoeoeo connaµe-
nnx pyccknx n anrnnñcknx cmpo:er x ncë xe npomy Bac oôpa-
mart ocoôoe nnnmanne na «pasuuµi», nosmoxno nmemmnecx n
nnx (nopaoor c:oe n r.n.);
3) H n rpernñ pas nonropxm:
n umóo+ cnyuae mox oouosuauuaa pekomenµannx
snyunr cneµymmnm oôpasom:
«3yópume rvcru rekcron ueum+u cmpoura+u
npxmo e+ecme co cuoea+u !!!».
23
22
no-anrnnñckn English
nue:uui
ouent xopomo. very well.
e+pu w+:
Cneµymmnm nerom Next summer we plan
mt nnannpyem uorcm ca+o wn n:æu
nocernmo Anrnnm. to ***** visit England.
mv ensum nue:ouo
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Mt nocemu+ We will visit
wn wn: ensum
cronnny crpanm****** the capital
of the country******
ðorænum: oe ðoraumpu
Honµon, London
:auoou
n x naµemct, and I hope
æuo aù xovn
uro +ro nyremecrnne that this trip
ðæm ðuc mpun
1 cnono " 2 cnona
óyoem* ouent nonesntm, will be* very helpIul
wn: ouu e+pu x+:nqv:
n uro ono*** and that it***
oacm (ovo. ep.) nam " will give us
æuo ðæm um wn: eue ac
ouent xopomym a very good
o e+pu evo
npannntno properly
npono:u
kaxµoe anrnnñckoe cnono, every English word,
+epu nue:uui wœœo
kak unramo umóoù how to read any
xav mv puuo +uu
anrnnñcknñ rekcr English text,
nue:uui morcm
n kak nepenoµnmo ero*** and how to translate it***
æuo xav mv mpouc:+ùm um
ua** pyccknñ (xstk). into** Russian.
numv pauiu
Mt nsyuaem We study
wn cmaou
anrnnñckym rpammarnky English grammar
nue:uui epæ+o
n anrnnñckym nnreparypy and English literature
æuo nue:uu· :nmpum:o
ouent rmarentno, very thoroughly,
e+pu θapo:u
n e pesyuomame +moeo and as a result
æuo æs opusa:m
moñ knacc +oxem my class can
+aù r:æc ræu
ronopnrt n unrart**** speak and read****
cnuur æuo puuo
25
24
A snaunr, OBB3A1EBLHO nyano ynorpeônxrt n rnaron 'be¨
n nmôoñ ns ero qop+ !!!;
** Oôpamañre ocoóoe nnnmanne na anrnnñckne npeouoeu, koropte
ynorpeônxmrcx kak oreuea:eumi nx pyccknm napnanram (sauac-
rym concem neoôxsarentno, uro coomeemcmeu» ôyµyr 100°-mn!);
*** Hockontky cnona «mercm» n «nvmeuecmeue» oôosnauamr
ue nmµeñ, ro no-anrnnñckn onn oôosnauamrcx mecronmennem 'it¨,
(a ne 'he¨ µnx «mercma»);
**** Hocne o:e+euma 'CAN¨ ræu ÷ «mout»
nepeµ nocneµymmnm rnaronom
ue ynorpeônxercx :acmuµa 'to¨,
rak kak +ue+eum 'can¨ ue xnnxercx nepntm rnaronom,
n coornercrnenno «noc:eovrµuù» rnaron
ue xnnxercx «emopi+» rnaronom !;
***** A nor ecnn anrnnñcknñ rnaron nµër nocne euaeoua
(nanpnmep, «xouy oeeami»)
ro ecrt xnnxercx emopm+ rnaronom,
ro nepeµ +rnm emopm+ rnaronom
oóasameuouo nyxno ynorpeônxrt :acmuµv 'to¨:
1 2 1 2
× xouy ¹ ôerart ÷ I want ¹ to ¹ run aù woum my pau;
****** '. OF the country¨ ÷ «. crpanM»,
'. OF your book¨ ÷ «. BamEH knnrH»,
'. impression OF you¨ ÷ «. nneuarnenne O1 Bac»
nanomnnam, uro npn nomomn anrnnñckoro npeµnora 'OF¨
oôpasyercx coomeemcmeue namemy pooumeuouo+y naµexy
(Cm. crp. 294).
NB: Hoµuepknyrte anrnnñckne c:oeoco:emauu»
sanomnnañre cpasy xe xax +reueaueumm
pyccknm ntpaxennxm.
µononnnrentnym supplementary opportunity
nosmoxnocrt can:u++umpu onom·mvuumu
yconepmencrnonamo to improve
(coeepueucmeoeami) mv u+npyve
nam anrnnñcknñ. our English.
avo nue:uui
3ro aeuaemca moeñ meuroñ, That is* my dream
ðæm us +aù opuu+
1 cnono " 2 cnona
n x coeuam ncë, and I will do all
æuo aù wn: ovv oo:
uro (x) +oey, that I can
ðæm aù ræu
utoôt rapanrnponamo, (in order) to make sure
(uu oooo) mv +oùr umo
1 cnono " 3 cnona
uro mt c+oxe+ that we will be able
ðæm wn wn: ouu +ùo:
ntnonnnmo +ro. to accomplish this.
mv oro+n:uui ðuc
* B pycckom xstke mt sauacrym
(ocoôenno, n uacmoaue+ npemenn!)
onvcrae+ rnaron «oimi» (n ero qop+i).
B anrnnñckom xe npeµnoxennn
npncyrcrnne umõoro rnarona
n umõon qop+e n n umõou epe+euu
xnnxercx oõnsa1eutnmu !!!
27
26
na nëm***. on it***.
ou um
Mt +oxe+ rakxe nnµert** We can also see**
wn ræu oo:cov cuu
µnyx myxunn two men
myv +ou
sa cronom. at the table.
æm ðom+ùo:
Oµnn myxunna oepxum One man has a Iork
(÷ «u+eem») nnnky wau +æu xæs oqoor
n cnoeñ**** (÷ n eeo) in his**** leIt hand
nenoñ pyke, uu xus :eqm xæuo
n nox and a kniIe
æuo ouaùq
n cnoeñ**** (÷ n eeo) in his**** right hand.
npanoñ pyke. uu xus paùm xæuo
* B pycckom xstke mt onyckaem rnaron «oimi» (n ero qop+i),
n anrnnñckom xe rnaron 'be¨
(kak n nmôoñ µpyroñ rnaron)
OBB3A1EBEH k ynorpeônennm
n umõon qop+e n n umõou epe+euu;
** Hocne o:e+euma 'CAN¨ ræu ÷ «mout»
(n nocne nmôoro µpyroro |+ooa:iuoeo| o:e+euma)
nepeµ nocneµymmnm rnaronom
ue ynorpeônxercx :acmuµa 'to¨;
TEKCT X2
Ceñuac mt uaxoou+ca Now we are
uav wn aa
n crononoñ. in the dining hall.
uu ðo oaùuuue xoo:
3ro * ôontmax komnara. It is² a large room.
um us a :aaoiwi pvv+
Ona nmeem ¹ oµno okno It has ¹ one window
(«B neñ .») um xæs wau wnuoov
n oµny µnept. and one door.
æuo wau ooo
Okno (ecmi)* omrpmmo. The window is* open.
ðownuoov us ovnu
Ceroµnx * xpknñ Today is* a bright
moo+ù us oopaùm
ocennnñ µent. autumn day.
oomo+ ooù
B crononoñ In the dining hall
uu ðooaùuuue xoo:
mt +oxe+ nnµert** we can see**
wn ræu cuu
ôontmoñ cron a big table
oone moùo:
c nepnem n contm with pepper and salt
wnð n+no æuo co:m
29
28
TEKCT X3
Ecnn onpeoeuëuumù apmur:i 'the¨ ðo nonropnrt 2 pasa,
ro +ro ôyµer yxe neuro COBCEM nonoe:
'1he ..., the ...¨ ÷ «He+ ..., me+ ...».
TEKCT ±AR YALBKH u 3A3YBPHBAHHR:
'1he more we study, the more we know.
ð ðð ðð+ +oo wn cmaou ð ðð ðð+ +oo wn uov
«He+ ôontme mt yunmcx, me+ ôontme mt snaem.
1he more we know, the more we Iorget.
ð ðð ðð+ +oo wn uov ð ðð ðð+ +oo wn qoe+m
He+ ôontme mt snaem, me+ ôontme mt saôtnaem.
1he more we Iorget, the less we know.
ð ðð ðð+ +oo wn qoe+m ð ðð ðð+ :ec wn uov
He+ ôontme mt saôtnaem, me+ mentme mt snaem.
1he less we know, the less we Iorget.
ð ðð ðð+ :ec wn uov ð ðð ðð+ :ec wn qoe+m
He+ mentme mt snaem, me+ mentme mt saôtnaem.
1he less we Iorget, the more we know.
ð ðð ðð+ :ec wn qoe+m ð ðð ðð+ +oo wn uov
He+ mentme mt saôtnaem, me+ ôontme mt snaem.
Why study?¨*.
waù cmaou
Tak sauem xe yunrtcx?».
* B pumopuuecro+ eonpoce
nocne cnona 'Why . ?¨ waù ÷ «Ho:e+v .?», «3a:e+ . ?»
nocneµymmnñ rnaron ynorpeônxercx óes :acmuµi 'to¨.
!!!!!!! Oôparnre µononnnrentnoe nnnmanne na ro, uro
µaxe BCB +ra uncro amepnkanckax «npucrasra»
cocrannena ns aôconmrno HEnsmenënntx anrnnñcknx cnon,
nsxrtx (óes us+eueuu» !!!) npa+o us cuoeapa !!!
*** «Cron» ue uenonek, no+romy uurarux 'he¨,
a 1outxo 'it¨;
**** Y aue:o»si:uix uem «ooµeeo» cnona «ceoù».
Bmecro nero onn n kaxµom konkpernom cnyuae
ncnontsymr noµxoµnmee npum»wame:iuoe +ecmo+euue
(ro ecrt cnona 'my¨. 'your¨, 'his¨, 'her¨, 'its¨, 'our¨, 'their¨,
koropte x nastnam «oõnsa1eutnmun onpeoe:ume:»+u»)
crp. 272).
Hoµuepknyrte c:oeoco:emauu»
sanomnnañre cpasy xe xax +reueaueumm pyccknm ntpaxennxm.
31
30
nomoramr mne help me
xo:n +uu
ouent cnntno. very much.
e+pu +am:
V menx uem I have no
aù xæe uov
ônnsknx µpyseù sµect, close IriendS* here
r:ovc qpouo3 xno
nocrouory since
cuuc
nce mon crapte µpysoa all my old IriendS
oo: +aù ov:o qpouo3
xnnyr n pasntx mecrax. live in diIIerent placeS.
:ue uu onqpoum n:+ùcu3
* bookS, magazineS, IriendS
'¹S¨ n konne cnona +ro ocnonnoñ nokasarent
+uoxecmeeuuoeo :uc:a cymecrnnrentntx.
Hnn naoôopor: uroôt cµenart
ns eouucmeeuuoeo uncna" +uoxecmeeuuoe,
µocrarouno k cnony npnôannrt '¹(e)S¨.
Ho na cneµymmeñ crpannne nmeercx cnncok 9 uenpaeu:i-
uix (ro ecrt ue noµunnxmmnxcx +romy npaeu:v) anrnnñcknx
cymecrnnrentntx.
Y nnx (÷ 'They have¨) coõc1nennme (µpennne) qop+i
+uowecmeeuuoeo uncna, koropte Bam npnµërcx npocro ntyunrt
nansycrt rar orµentnte cuoea.
IAABA II
HAuHHAEM HPHFABH×TI OKOHHAHHB !!!
YHEBHLE TEKCTL
µnx paôort c anrnnñcknmn orou:auu»+u.
TEKCT X4
('¹(e)S¨)
× nokynam I buy
aù oaù
ouent mnoro very many
e+pu ++uu
nontx anrnnñcknx ruue new English bookS*
u·mv nue:uui ovrC
n xypnanoe and magazineS*
æuo +æeosuu3
kaxµtñ mecxn, every month,
+epu +auθ
noromy uro because
ouroos
1-ñ rnar. 2-ñ rnar. 1-ñ rnar. 2-ñ rnar.
x xouy ** snart ncë! I want to** know
everything!
aù woum mv uov +epuθuue
3rn knnru These bookS
ðuus ovrC
33
32
TEKCT X5
('¹(e)S¨)
Ham oren Our Iather
avo qaaðo
nokynaem* n npoµaëm* buyS* and sellS*
oaù3 æuo co:3
pasnte crapte nonomannte diIIerent old broken carS.
mamnnm. onqpoum ov:o opovru raaC
Mt nomoraem emy We help him
wn xo:n xu+
mox cecrpa moem** my sister washES**
+rn mamnnm, these carS,
+aù cncmo wouiu3
ðuus raaC
x pemonrnpym nx, I Iix them,
aù qurc ð++
a nama mama and our mom
æuo avo +o+
cunraem* µentrn. countS* money.
ravumC +auu
V nac ecmo ¹ mnoro We have ¹ many
wn xæe ++uu
nocroxnntx knnenroe. constant clientS.
roucmoum r:aùoumC
Hx konnuecrno Their quantity
ð+o rwoumumu
9 «uenpaeu:iuix» cymecrnnrentntx
n ]opmt nx +uoxecmeeuuoeo :uc:a:
child :aù:o " children :i:opou ÷ µeru
Ioot qvm " feet quum ÷ crynnu (nor)
goose evvc " geese euuc ÷ rycu
louse :avc " lice :aùc ÷ nmu
man +æu " men +ou ÷ myxunnm
mouse +avc " mice +aùc ÷ mtmu
ox orc " oxen orcu ÷ ôtku
tooth mvvθ " teeth muuθ ÷ syôm
woman wy+ou " women wn+uu ÷ xenmnnm;
** Bcnomnnre, uro
nepeµ kaxµtm emopm+ nnn mpemou+ anrnnñcknm rnaronom
(cneµymmnm/-n sa «nepei+» rnaronom)
nyano crannrt :acmuµv/cnoneuko 'to¨ mv.
BAÆHO !
Ho 'to¨ ue crannrcx nocne (+ooa:iuix) +ue+eumoe,
rak kak onn ue xnnxmrcx (nepntmn) rnaronamn !!!
35
34
TEKCT X6
(n koropom ecrt nourn nce anrnnñckne orou:auu»)
Moñ ôpar xnnëm* My brother liveS*
+aù opaðo :ue3
n µoue ceoeeo µpyr`A** in his friend`S** house
uu xus qpouoC xavc
co ceou+u coôcrnenntmn with his own parentS.
poµnrena+u. wnð xus ovu n+opoumC
On ncerµa xoreu He always wanteD
xu oo:woùs woumuµ
xnmo cnokoñno to live quietLY
mv :ue rwaùomBH
co ceoeù oôoxae+oñ with his adoreD***
wnð xus ooooµ
n oôoxamueñ cemtëñ and adorIAG **** Iamily
æuo oooopHHI qæ+u:u
n ôo´ ntme+ µome. in a biggER house.
uu o one3 xavc
* Homnnre, uro nocue «OnC/ OnaC/ OnoC/ KroC?/ Moñ korC»
(ro ecrt nocne 'He/she/it/Who?/My cat¨)
n uacmoaue+ epe+euu k konny nocneµymmero rnarona
nyxno npnôannxrt orou:auue '¹(e)S¨;
** Ecnn Bam nyxno ooosua:umi «euaoeuoua» uero-nnôo,
ro K +romy «e:aoe:iµv» nyxno uepes anocmpoq
npnôannrt ' `S¨ ('McDonald`s¨ ÷ «Mak¡onantµ`oe»);
*** 3ro ÷ naccnnnoe onpeoeueuue (÷ 3-n qop+a rnarona),
snauamee, coornercrnenno (pas ono «naccueuoe»),
«oôoxae+tñ» ro ecrt: «ror, roeo .»;
**** 3ro ÷ akrnnnoe onpeoeueuue (÷ INGoea» qop+a rnarona),
snauamee, coornercrnenno (pas ono «armueuoe»),
«oôoxamunñ» ro ecrt: «ror, rmo .».
nocroxnno pacrëm* constantly growS*
roucmoum:u epov3

1

2 1 2
n µeuo namero o1na*** and our father`S*** business
æuo avo qaaðoC onsuuc
3 1 2 1 2 3
ouent nomoraem* nam. helpS* us very much.
xo:nC ac e+pu +am:
* Hocue «OnC/ OnaC/ OnoC/ KroC?/ Moñ korC»
(ro ecrt nocne 'He/she/it/Who?/My cat¨)
n uacmoaue+ epe+euu k konny nocneµymmero rnarona
nyxno npnôannxrt orou:auue '¹(e)S¨;
** Cnono okanunnaercx na uunauym coe:acuvr,
no+romy sµect orou:auue, npnôannennoe k nemy,
n nmeer qop+v 'ES¨;
*** Ecnn Bam nyxno ooosua:umi «euaoeuoua» uero-nnôo,
ro K +romy «e:aoe:iµv» nyxno uepes anocmpoq (' ` ')
npnôannrt ' `S¨:
'McDonald`s¨ ÷ «Mak¡onantµ`oe»
«Heù?».
37
36
ncm ceom xnsnt all his liIe
oo: xus :aùq
n pasntx mecrax, in diIIerent places,
uu onqpoum n:+ùcus
côeperaa*** kaxµym koneñky saving*** each penny
c+ùeuue uum: n+uu
na uëpntñ µent****, Ior a rainy day****,
qoo o p+ùuu ooù
n ero paôora and his work
æuo xus wœœr
ómua ncerµa cnxsaua***** was always connected²****
wos oo:woùs rou+rmuo
c knnra+u. with books.
wnð ovrc
Hpoµaxa*** knne Books selling***
ovrc c+:uue
ncerµa ómua always was
oo:woùs wos
2 2 1 2 2
nmônmtm sanxrnem
1
my uncle`s Iavourite occupation.
moeeo µxµ`u. +aù aur:c q+ùepum or·rn+ùuiu
Ero knnxntñ ônsnec His book business
xus ovr onsuuc
pacryunñ*** n is a growing*** and
us o epovuue æuo
TEKCT X7
(co ncemn ocnonnmun orou:auu»+u,
npncoeµnnxmmnmncx r rouuy anrnnñckoro cnona).
Moñ µpyr unraem My Iriend reads
+aù qpouo puuos
mnoro ruue. many books.
++uu ovrc
On oôtuno nokynaem nx* He usually buys them*
xu mvwie:u oaùs ðo+
NB:**
1) in my uncle`s 2) n ceµt+o+
uu +aù aur:c
2) seventh 3) knnxnom marasnne
c+eouθ θθ θθ
3) bookstore. 1) moeeo µxµ`u.
oyrcmoo
Moñ µxµx crapme, My uncle is older
+aù aur: us ov:o+
ue+ moñ oren than my Iather,
(÷ «moeeo orna»), ðæu +aù qaaðo
no nam µeµymka but our grandIather
oam avo epæuqaaðo
(ecmi) ca+mù craptñ is the oldest.
(÷ «ca+mù crapuuù»). us ðo ov:oucm
Moñ µxµx paôorau My uncle worked
+aù aur: wœœrm
}
"
39
38
o «uraqe/pvre/orue» ckaxyr 'it¨,
o «c:oue» ckaxyr 'it¨,
no n o «c:ouuxe» oôtuno moxe ckaxyr 'it¨
(a ue 'she¨) !!!;
** NB: Oôparnre ocoóoe nnnmanne na pasuuuy n nopxµke cnon !!!
*** 'Saving¨ ÷ «côeperaa» ryr INGoea» qop+a
coornercrnyer namemy oeenpu:acmur (÷ qop+e na «-a»);
*** 3µect ra xe INGoea» qop+a yxe oôosnauaer npouecc
('selling¨ ÷ «npoµaxa», «npoµanauue»);
*** A sµect INGoea» qop+a +ro yxe ax1nnnoe onpeoe:euue
('growing¨ ÷ «pacryunñ»,
'expanding¨ ÷ «pacmnpxmunñcx»);
**** 'For a rainy day¨ (ovrea:iuo: «¡nx µoxµnnnoro µnx») +ro
ntpaxenne coornercrnyer namemy ntpaxennm «Ha uëpntñ µent».
Oôparnre nnnmanne na orou:auue '-y¨, npn nomomn koro-
poro aue:o»si:uie ns cvµecmeume:iuoeo «µenamr» onpeoe:euue
('rain¨ " 'rainy¨ p+ùuu)
«µoxµt» " «µoxµnnntñ»;
***** Haccnnnoe onpeoe:euue;
****** H sµect oôparnre nnnmanne na pasuuuy n nopxµke cnon
n oôonx napnanrax.
pacmnpxmunñcx*** ônsnec. expanding*** business.
urcnæuouue onsuuc
On ouent ôtcrpo****** It spreads very quickly******
pacmnpxemc» um cnpoos e+pu rwnr:u
n cranonumc» and becomes
æuo oura+s
(ncë) mnpE n mnpE. widER and widER.
waùoo æuo waùoo
* THEM Anrnnñckne +ecmou+euu» moryr ôtrt oózermum-
+u, n x pekomenµym sayunrt nx ue kak «qop+i» cvo·ermuix
mecronmennñ, a npocro kak ca+ocmoameuoume cnona:
ME +uu ÷ MEH×, MHE, MHOH, MHOR
YOU mv ÷ TEF×, TEFE, TOFOH, TOFOR;
BAC, BAM, BAMH
HIM xu+ ÷ EIO, HEIO, HM, HHM
HER xœœ ÷ EË, HEË, ER, HER, EH, HEH
IT um ÷ EIO, HEIO, HM, HHM
EË, HEË, ER, HER, EH, HEH
(ue o nmµxx !)
US ac ÷ HAC, HAM, HAMH
THEM ðo+ ÷ HX, HHX, HMH, HHMH.
Hpnmepno +µak c konna XVIII nauana XIX neka n anrnnñckom
xstke nepecrano ynorpeônxrtcx nopmantnoe anrnnñckoe cnono
«mi» ('thou¨) ocranoct rontko 'You¨ mv ÷ «Bm»
n ceroµnx +rnm 'You¨ oôpamamrcx n k paôouemy, n k koponene .
Mecronmennem 'it¨ um no-anrnnñckn oôosnauaercx
BCË, rpo+e nmµeñ
(uesaeucu+o om roro, kakoro pooa +ror «npeo+em/:uµo»
n pycckom xstke):
41
40
noromy uro because
ouroos
nourn nce yueônnku almost all textbooks
oo:+ovcm oo: m+rcmovrc
oeuamm +ro. do it.
ovv um
1 2 1 2
× npocro xouy ckasamo Ba+, I just want to** tell you
aù ow»cm woum mv m+: mv
uro xorx that though
ðæm ðov
uenn ouent nn1epecye1 I`m very interested in
aù+ e+pu numpucmuo uu
mox paôora, my work
+aù wœœr
y menx ncë xe ecmo ¹ kyua I still have ¹ a lot
aù cmu: xæe o:om
µpyrux nnrepecoe. of other interests.
oe aðo numpucmc
1 2 1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
× nmônm ¹ xoµnmo I like ¹ to go**
aù :aùr mv eov
e rearp, to the theatre,
mv ðoθnomo
unrart µerekrnnm read*** detective**** stories,
puuo oum+rmue cmopus
n nponoµnrt npemx and spend*** time
æuo cnouo maù+
IAABA III
HAmEM BOBCR !!!
«MOHOAOIH O CEBE»
TEKCT X8
«O CEBE» 'ABOUT MYSELF¨
ooavm +aùc+:q
× paôoram kaxµtñ µent I work every day
aù wœœr +epu o+ù
c 10 ympa* from 10 a.m.*
qpo+ mou où æ+
oo 6 eeuepa*. till 6 p.m.*.
mu: curc nuu æ+
× ne coóupamco I`m not going
aù+ uom eovuue
pacckastnamo Bam, to tell you
mom+: mv
kak x ncram how I get up
xav aù eoman
ympo+ in the morning
uu ðo+oouuue
n kak x µoônpamci and how I get
æuo xav aù eom
oo cnoeñ paôorm, to my work
mv +aù wœœr
43
42
2 2-ñ rnaron
ynyumnmo ceoù anrnnñcknñ, to** improve my English
mv u+npyve +aù nue:uui
rak kak +ro since this is
cuuc ðuc us
npxmax µopora the direct route
ðo oaùp+rm pvvm
r ycnexy to success
mv corc+c
n oônacrn, (romopym) in the Iield (that)
uu ðoqnu:o (ðæm)
x nsôpan ... I have chosen ... ******.
aù xæe :ovsu
` 10 a.m. 6 p.m. anrnnuane moryr ne ronopnrt:
où æ+ nuu æ+ «10 uacon ympa»
nnn «6 uacon eeuepa».
Bmecro +rnx oôosnauennñ onn ncnontsymr corpaµeuu»:
'a.m.¨ µnx npemenn c 12 uacon noun (no:uo:i) µo 12 uacon µnx,
n
'p.m.¨ µnx npemenn c 12 uacon µnx (no:oeui) µo 12 uacon noun.
To ecrt onn ronopxr ue «23.00», a '11 p.m.¨
(÷ «11 uacon eeuepa»).
Hpnmept:
2 a.m. ÷ 2 uaca uouu, uo: 2 p.m. ÷ 2 uaca oua.
6 a.m. ÷ 6 uacon yrpa.
6 p.m. ÷ 6 uacon neuepa.
11 a.m. ÷ 11 uacon ympa,
no: 11 p.m. ÷ 11 uacon eeuepa;
** to tell ÷ TV mo: n rpanckpnnnnn :acmuµi 'to¨
to improve ÷ TV u+npyve, ykasant µne uop+i nponsnomennx,
to go ÷ TJeov, nockontky ceroµnx na camom µene nosmoxnt
µna napnanra eë nponsnomennx, a nmenno:
c kpacnnt+u µenymka+u. with beautiIul girls.
wnð o·mvmuqv: eœo:s
Mne euë cnnmkom pauo It`s too early Ior me
umc mvv œœ:u qoo +uu
aennmocn, to get** married,
moe+m +æpuo
rak kak cnauana since Iirst
cuuc qœœcm
1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
x xomeu óm ¹ µocrnuo I`d like to** ¹ reach
aùo :aùr mv pnum:
ycroñunnoeo ]nnanconoeo a solid Iinancial
+ co:uo qaùuæuui:
nonoxenua. situation.
cum·r+ùuiu
Ho x +oey coeuamo +ro, But I can do it
oam aù ræu ovv um
rontko paôoraa ynopno. only working***** hard.
ovu:u wœœruue xaao
Tak uro, ceñuac x µenam So, now I do
cov uav aù ovv
ncë, uro (n) uory, all I can (u:u: all my best)
oo: aù ræu (nnn: oo: +aù o+cm)
utoôt nonyunrt nontmenne. (in order) to get a promotion.
(uu oooo) moe+m onpo+ovuiu
1 1-ñ rnaron
Hpewoe eceeo x xouy First of all, I want
qœœcm oe oo: aù woum
45
44
***** workIAG hard orou:auue «¹IAG» coornercrnyer
pyccknm cvqqurca+ «-VL-», «-RL-», «-BL-», «-AL-» n r. n.,
nnn orou:auur oeenpu:acmu» «-B»,
nanpnmep:
ôyµyun npncoeµnneno k rnarony 'hORK¨ ÷ «paoomami»,
'¹IAG¨ npnµaër +romy rnarony snauennx:
a) paôoraKHnñ;
ô) paôoraBHnñ»;
n) paôoraB.
Takxe INGoea» qop+a npeµcrannxer coôoñ «ome:aeo:iuoe
cvµecmeume:iuoe» ro ecrt cvµecmeume:iuoe co cmtcnom
npouecca n co snauennem rnarona, or koroporo ono nponsneµeno,
nanpnmep:
om 'smoke¨ ÷ «kypnrt» " 'smokIAG¨ ÷ «kypEHHE»,
om 'shoot¨ ÷ «crpenxrt» " 'shootIAG¨ ÷ «crpentBA»;
****** '. I have chosen¨ ÷ «., (koropym) x nsôpan»:
'I have ¹ choseA¨ ovrea:iuo ÷
÷ «V +eua ¹ nsôpaHa» ÷ «× nsôpaB»,
ro ecrt:
«vop+a 'HAVE¨ ¹ 3-n qop+a
cmtcnonoro ruaroua»
nourn ncerµa ÷ pycckomy npoueoue+y npemenn
rnaronon coeepueuuoeo nnµa,
nanpnmep,
. have/ has MADE ÷ CµenaB/-n,
. have/ has killED ÷ YônB/-n,
. have/ has EATEN ÷ C¡eB/-n,
. have/ has BROUGHT ÷ HPHnëc/-nn,
. have/ has noticeD ÷ 3AmernB/-n.
1) «TV» nepeµ cuonaun, naunnammnmncx c euacumx,
a rakxe rorµa, korµa +ra :acmuµa nponsno-
cnrcx omoeuouo or nocneµymmero cnona
n cnennantno emoeuaemca ronopxmnm;
2) «TJ» nepeµ cuonaun, naunnammnmncx c coeuacumx
n rex cnyuaxx, korµa ns-sa ôtcrport peun
:acmuµa «to» cuueaemca
ro ecrt nponsnocnrcx cuumuo c nocne-
µymmnm cnonom, npnuëm «-J» n +rom «TJ»
npeµcrannxer coôoñ ne xnnoe «J»,
a e:acuiù snyk, ouent noxoxnñ na pycckoe
ôesyµapnoe «-O-» n cnone «kOpona».
(O qyuruuu :acmuµi 'to¨ cm. kommenrapnñ k rekcry X12).
Ecnn xe y Bac nosnnkamr koneôannx, rar n rom nnn nnom cnyuae
nponsnocnrt +ry :acmuµv, ne mopoutre ronony nn ceôe,
nn µpyrnm, n cmeno ronopnre «1V»,
rak kak rakoe nponsnomenne no ncex cnyuaxx
ne neµër nn k kaknm npoônemam, rem ôonee, uro eµnnoñ
crporoñ nopmt anrnnñckoro nponsnomennx n mnpe yxe
(k coxanennm?) npakrnueckn ne cymecrnyer.
Ecrt rontko onpeµenënnte opueumupi, koropte npenoµanarent
nnn yuamnñcx ntônpaer ceôe cam;
*** . read . and spend time . npn nepeuncnennn «sau»muù»
npn nomomn e:aeo:oe
mpemiu, :emeèpmie n r.µ. no cuëry rnaront
moryr ncnontsonartcx n nx 1-n ÷ c:oeapuoù ]opme,
ro ecrt BE3 :acmuµi 'to¨;
**** . detectivE storieS nanomnnam, uro npu:aeame:iuie
(x nastnam nx «onpeoe:euu»+u»)
HE nsmenxmrcx HH no uncnam,
HH no poµam, HH no naµexam.
Hpnmept:
nicE girlS ÷ cnmnarnunME µenymkH
a small house ÷ manentkHH µom
a small bench ÷ manentkAB ckameñka
I see an interesting book ÷ × nnxy nnrepecnVK knnrV;
47
46
nañrn* uuraroù** Iind* any**
qaùuo +uu
npnnnunoñ paôort. decent job.
ouucum owièo
* Hocne umõmx (+ooa:iuix) o:e+eumoe
(n µannom cnyuae nocne 'SHOULD¨ n 'COULD¨)
u n nx ompuµame:iuoù qop+e !!!)
ne yno1peõune1cn :acmuµa 'to¨,
nockontky «noc:eovrµuù» rnaron
ne nnune1cn emopi+ (no cuëry) rnaronom!
Bor cnncok +rnx +ooauoumx o:e+eumoe:
can ræu ÷ mout (qusu:ecru)
could rvo ÷ c/mor, c/ymen, c/mor ôt, c/ymen ôt
may +où ÷ moxno .
might +aùm ÷ nosmoxno ., moxer n .
must +acm ÷ µonxen/crnonart
will wn: ÷ norasame:i/oopasoeame:i óyoyueeo epe+euu
shall u»: ÷ norasame:i/oopasoeame:i óyoyueeo npemenn
µnx 'I¨ n 'We¨
would wvo ÷ . ôt .
should uro ÷ µonxen ôt ., cneµonano ôt ., cneµyer .
needn`t uuuoum ÷ «ne nyxno .», «ne naµo .»
.d` rather opaaðo ÷ . ckopee .
¹
than
÷ uem ...
.d` better oo+mo ÷ . nyume . ðæu
Ocoôennocrn +rnx o:e+eumoe saknmuamrcx n cneµymmem:
a) HH nepeµ nnmn, HH nocne nnx
HE ynorpeônxercx :acmuµa 'to¨
(rak kak onn ue rnaront !!!);
}
TEKCT X9
× ue +oey paôorart µoma, I can`t work at home
aù ræum wœœr æm xov+
noromy uro because
ouroos
y menx uem ¹ komntmrepa. I have no ¹ computer.
aù xæe uov ro+n·mvmo
Bom noue+y ¹ x oouxeu 1hat is why ¹ I have to
ðæm us waù aù xæe mv
paôorart n nameñ ônônnoreke, work in our library,
wœœr uu avo :aùopopu
rµe +ue paspeueuo where I`m allowed to *
(÷ +ue +oxuo) w+o aù+ o:avo mv
nontsonartcx nx komntmrepom. use their computer.
mvs ð+o ro+n·mvmo
Mne ¹ cueooeauo óm I ¹ should *
aù uro
sapaôoramo* nemnoro µener, make* some money
++ùr ca+ +auu
utoôt kynnrt umóoù komntmrep, to buy any computer,
mv oaù +uu ro+n·mvmo
no oo cux nop but until now
oam aumn: uav
x ue c+oe I couldn`t
aù rvoum
49
48
B +rnx cnyuaxx ncnontsymrcx
TOHIKO «sa+euumeuu» +ooa:iuix o:e+eumoe ÷ euaeoum:
J:e+eum ¹ rnaron
$ $
Cmor/y . ÷ . will ¹ BE ABLE TO .
Mor/nn ôt ., cmor/nn ôt ÷ . would ¹ BE ABLE TO .
u:u ÷ . COULD .
Ftn/n ôt µonx/-en/-nt ÷ . would ¹ HAVE TO do .
cµenart
Fyµ/y µonxen cµenart ÷ . will ¹ HAVE TO do .
Fyµer moxno . ÷ . will ¹ BE ALLOWED TO .
FY¡ET nyxno . ÷ . will ¹ NEED TO .;
µ) C nnmn ynorpeônxmrcx
1outxo cyózermuie mecronmennx 'I/you/he/she/it/we/they¨
a ue oô¡ekrnte (kak n pycckom):
Mue moxno . ÷" I may ... aù +où
Eù cneµyer . ÷" She should . uiu uro
Ha+ ne nyxno . ÷" We needn`t . wn uuuoum;
** B ompuµame:iuo+ npeµnoxennn/c umõmu ompuµauue+
(« . ue +oev .») cnono 'any¨ nmeer snauenne «uuraroù»:
Y menx uuroeoa ue ôtno ¹ uurarux µener.
I never had ¹ any money.
aù u+eo xæo +uu +auu
ô) K nnm HE npnôannxmrcx uurarue '¹S¨ (µaxe korµa peut
nµër o «HËM» nnn o «HEH»), n uurarue '¹ING¨ nnn '¹(e)D¨
(n npoueoue+ npemenn), rak kak y uux HE1 (thev don´t have)
uu :uµ, uu epe+èu
nockontky onn ue rnaront:
He caA swim ÷ On y+eem nnanart.
She mus1 run ÷ Ona oouxua ôerart.
It migh1 happen ÷ 3ro +oxem nponsoñrn.
She maY enter ÷ Eñ +oxuo noñrn.
She woulD come ÷ Ona óm npnmna.
He shoulD know ÷ Emy óm cueooeauo snart.
It wilL happen ÷ 3ro nponsoùoëm.
He needn`t come ÷ Emy ue uyxuo npnxoµnrt;
n) Bonpocume:iuie nnn ompuµame:iuie npeµnoxennx
c o:e+euma+u crpoxrcx óes µpyxeckoro yuacrnx uacmuu
'Do?/don`t¨, 'Does?/doesn`t¨ nnn 'Did?/didn`t¨.
Bonpoc saµaërcx CAMHM o:e+eumo+ (npnuëm +ror «eon-
pouarµuù» o:e+eum crannrcx n camom HA¹AHE nonpoca),
a ompuµauue 'NOT¨ cueµye1 npxmo sa o:e+eumo+
nnn xe npucoeouuaemca r nemy:
Can he swim? He cannot swim.
May she enter? She may not enter.
She wouldn`t come;
NB !!!
r) Onn HE ynorpeônxmrcx µpyr c µpyrom, ro ecrt nocue
oµnoro ns nnx ueuosa nocrannrt emopoù o:e+eum ns +roñ xe
rpynnt, nanpnmep:
ueuosa ronopnrt: 'I will ¹ can¨ nnn 'He would ¹ must¨,
rak kak nocne o:e+euma µonxen nµrn e:aeo:,
a o:e+eumi ue rnaront !!!
51
50
+oxem ómmo uyxuo n ero can need* in his
ræu uuuo uu xus
nonceµnennoñ xnsnn everyday liIe
(÷ «kaxµoµnennoñ»), +epuooù :aùq
nknmuaa meôent including Iurniture
uur:yvouue qœœuu:o
(kponaru, crynta, cronm, (beds, chairs, tables,
ooos :eos moùo:s
mka]m, knnxnte nonku, wardrobes, bookshelves,
wooopovos oyruie:es
konpm n r.µ.). carpets etc.).
raanumc umc+mopo
1o ecmo ¹ mt nmeem ecë 1hat is ¹ we have anything
(÷ «umo yeoouo»), ðæm us wn xæe +uuθuue
uro mt xornm. (that) we want.
ðæm wn woum
Hamn µern nmemm Our children have
(÷ V namnx µereñ ecmo) avo :m:opou xæe
ceou coócmeeume komnarm their own rooms
ð+o ovu pvv+s
n +rn komnarm and these rooms
æuo ðuus pvv+s
aeuammca nonnocrtm are totally theirs.
ux(-uu+u). aa movmo:u ð+oc
× nmônm knnru I like books,
aù :aùr ovrc
TEKCT X10
Ceñuac x +oey pacckasart Bam Now I can tell* you
uav aù ræu mo: mv
ouent mnoroe o ceóe (ca+o+). very much about myself.
e+pu +am: ooavm +aùc+:q
Mox cemtx nmeem My Iamily has
+aù qæ+u:u xæs
ue+uoeo oeuee, some money,
ca+ +auu
rak uro mt +oeuu so we could
cov wn rvo
noseouumo ceóe afford*
oqooo
nokynky npnnnunoro µoma buying a decent house
oaùuue o onucum xavc
n namem +urpopaùoue. in our neighborhood.
uu avo u+ùooxvo
Hontñ µom nmeem mnoro The new house has many
ðo u·mv xavc xæs ++uu
nennkonenntx komnam. wonderIul rooms.
wauooqv: pvv+s
3rn komnarm coµepxar These rooms contain
ðuus pvv+s roum+ùu
ecë, umo uenoneky everything that a man
+epuθuue ðæm o+æu
53
52
mt ue nokynaem uurarux*** we don`t buy any***
wn ooum oaù +uu
nenyxntx nemeñ (óououe). unnecessary things (anymore).
auu+cocopu θuues +uu+oo
* Hocne umõmx o:e+eumoe ro ecrt nocne cnon:
can, could, may, might, must, will, shall, would, should, needn`t,
.d`rather ., .d`better .
(u n nx ompuµame:iuoù qop+e !!!)
ue yno1peõune1cn :acmuµa 'to¨.
Tontko o:e+eum 'ought to .¨ cam no ceôe ynorpeônxercx
c +roñ :acmuµeù ('She ¹ ought to ¹ know!¨ ÷
÷ «Ona ¹ oouxua ómua óm ¹ snart»);
** Ecnn anrnnñckoe cnono okanunnaercx na '-f¨ nnn na '-fe¨,
ro npn oôpasonannn ero +uoxecmeeuuoeo :uc:a
(ro ecrt npn npnôannennn k ero konny '¹s¨)
+ro nocneµnee '-f¨ uacro npenpamaercx n" '-v-¨,
n ncë orou:auue renept yxe ntrnxµnr kak '-ves¨
('knife¨ " 'knives¨
uaùq " uaùes);
*** B ompuµame:iuo+ npeµnoxennn ro ecrt c ompuµauue+
(« . ue norvnae+ .») cnono 'any¨ nmeer snauenne «uuraroù».
Hoµuepknyrte anrnnñckne cnona n c:oeoco:emauu»
sanomnnañre cpasy xe xax +reueaueumm pyccknm ntpaxennxm.
mar umo renept x nakonen so now I Iinally have
u+em (÷ y menx ecmo) cov uav aù qaùuo:u xæe
naµëxnoe mecro, a secure place
o cur·mvo n:oùc
rµe x +oey xpannrt where I can keep*
w+o aù ræu ruun
ceom ônônnoreky. my library.
+aù :aùopopu
Mt oouxum ¹ yônpart We`ve got to ¹ clean
wne eam mv r:uuu
nam µom n pemonrnponart ero our house and repair it
avo xavc æuo pun+o um
e uyxuoe ¹ npemx in due ¹ time.
(÷ «roeoa omo ueooxoou+o»). uu o·mv maù+
Cueoymuu+ nerom Aext summer
uorcm ca+o
x óyoy oo:weu I will have to
aù wn: xæe mv
kynnrt nonym mamnny. buy a new car.
oaù o u·mv raa
1
Ceñuac mt ntraemcx Now we try
uav wn mpaù
2
côepeuo kaxµtñ µonnap, to save every dollar,
mv coùe +epu oa:o
mar umo so
cov
55
54
ona óm ¹ paôoraua*** she would ¹ work***
u·u wvo wœœr
n raro+-uuóo opyeo+ mecre. in some other place.
uu ca+ aðo n:oùc
Hamn µern xoµam Our children go
avo :m:opou eov
e**** mkony kaxµtñ µent. to**** school every day.
mv crvv: +epu o+ù
Tam onn nsyuamm There they study
ð+o ðoù cmaou
ryuy ¹ npeµmeroe. a lot of ¹ subjects.
o:om oe caoowiurmc
Moñ ctn nmôum My son likes
+aù cau :aùrc
nce ns uux, all oI them,
oo: oe ðo+
no óououe eceeo but most of all
oam +ovcm oe oo:
on nmôum anrnnñcknñ. he likes English.
xu :aùrc uue:uui
On snaem ¹ +accy He knows ¹ a lot of
xu uovs o:om oe
anrnnñcknx cnoe n English words and
nue:uui wœœos æuo
crnxoe uausycmo. verses by heart.
eœœcus oaù xaam
TEKCT X11
3ror rekcr na cnonx kypcax x µam kak µomamnee saµanne
no nepenoµy yxe nocue nepnoro sann1nn nesanncnmo or
crenenn nooeomoe:euuocmu nnn uenoµroronnennocrn yuamnx-
cx n onn ycnemno c nnm caun cnpannxmrcx.
Bam xe x npocro pekomenµym sasyôpnrt +ror rekcr npxmo
nennkom, onxrt xe npn neoôxoµnmocrn crapaxct ncrannxrt
n ero +urpoqpasi µpyrne/nmôte anrnnñckne cuona.
× xnny n Mockne I live in Moscow
aù :ue uu +ocrov
1 2 3 " 2 3 1
n xnap1npe moeñ cec1p`m* in my sister`s* flat
uu +aù cncmoc q:æm
co ceoeù cemtëñ, with my Iamily
wnð +aù qæ+u:u
cocroaueñ ns menx, consisting oI me,
roucncmuue oe +uu
moeñ xent n µnonx oemeù. my wiIe and two children.
+aù waùq æuo mvv :m:opou
× paôoram µoma, I work at home,
aù wœœr æmxov+
no mox xena but my wiIe
oam +aù waùq
paôoraem sa rpannneñ n works abroad and
wœœrc oopooo æuo
x ue** µymam, uro I don`t** think that
aù ooum θuur ðæm
57
56
1 cnono " 2 cnona
n x rynum and I will buv
æuo aù wn: oaù
nonte ôpmku µnx ceôx new trousers Ior me
u·mv mpavsos qoo +uu
n +uoeo mopoxenoeo and a lot of ice-cream
æuo o:om oe aùcrpnu+
µnx uux. Ior them.
qoo ðo+
Mt eµu+ +uoeo We eat a lot of
wn uum o:om oe
mopoxenoro, ice-cream
aùcrpnu+
noromy uro because
ouroos
1 2 " 2 1
mt eeo ouent umóu+. we like it very much.
wn :aùr um e+pu +am:
Ha+ ¹ uyxuo ómuo óm " he ****** ¹ should
wn uro
norparnrt spend***
cnouo
nemnoro µener, some money
ca+ +auu
nonyueuntx +uor received bv me
pucnueo oaù +uu
Mox µouka yuum My daughter learns
+aù ooomo :œœuc
]pannyscknñ xstk, French
qpoum:
n ona ronopum and she speaks
æuo uiu cnuurc
no-qpauuyscru ouent xopomo. French ***** very well.
qpoum: e+pu w+:
Mon oemu uacro My children oIten
+aù :m:opou oqu
cnpamnnamm menx ask me
aacr +uu
o monx nyremecrnnax, about my travels
ooavm +aù mpæe:s
noromy uro because
ouroos
1 2 " 2 1
x +uoeo nyremecrnonau, I travelled a lot
aù mpæe:o o:om
korµa (x) ómu monoµm+. when I was young.
w+u aù wos »ue
3anrpa Tomorrow
mo+opov
1 cnono " 2 cnona
mt noùoë+ no marasnnam, we will go shopping
wn wn: eov uënuue
59
58
noromy uro because
ouroos
onn oouxum ncranart they must get up**
ðoù +acm eoman
ouent pano. very early.
e+pu œœ:u
Ho x +oey unrart But I can read***
oam aù ræu puuo
n nncart and write***
æuo paùm
mar µonro, rar (x) xouy. as long as I want.
æs :oue æs aù woum
Mue upaeumc» ÷" I***** like
aù :aùr
+ror ¹ oópas xusuu this ¹ way of life
ðuc w+ù oe :aùq
n x µymam, uro and I think that
æuo aù θuur ðæm
x c/+oe óm xnrt mar I could live*** like this
aù rvo :ue :aùr ðuc
ncm ceom******** xnsnt. all my******** liIe.
oo: +aù :aùq
* Hpn nomomn ' `s ¨ nokasana «xosaùra» knaprnpt;
** 3ro oµno ns 4 anrnnñcknx «ue»
('don`t¨, 'doesn`t¨, 'didn`t¨ n 'won`t¨);
*** Hocne +ooa:iuix +ue+eumoe rnaron ue nsmenxercx;
**** Pycckne n anrnnñckne npeµnorn moryr ne connaµart;
sa mom nonym knnry. Ior my new book.
qoo +aù u·mv ovr
2 1 " 1 2
Hncauue ******* knne Books writing *******
ovrc paùmuue
µenaem menx makes me
+oùrc +uu
cnoôoµnm+ n cuacrnnnm+. Iree and happy.
qpuu æuo xænu
Beuepom In the evening
uu ðo nueuuue
1 cnono
"
3 cnona
mt eepuë+ca oôparno µomoñ, we will come back home,
wn wnn ra+ oær xov+
(ôyµem) un1a1t knnxku read books
puuo ovrc
n cuo1pe1t renennsop, and watch TV
æuo wom: mnu enu
cnµa n namnx sitting in our
cnmuue uu avo
yµoônmx kpecnax, comIortable armchairs,
ra+qomoo: aa+:eos
no ne cnnmkom nosµno. but not too late.
oam uom mvv :oùm
Monm oema+ ¹ uyxuo My children ¹ should
+aù :m:opou uro
uoxumoca cnamo n 9 uacon, go to bed at nine o`clock
(«nµrn n nocrent») eov mvo+o æm uaùu or:or
61
60
TEKCT X12
Hpn nsyuennn +roro $ rekcra ocoôoe nnnmanne oôparnre
na ynorpeônenne ueonpeoe:euuoeo apmur:»
n ntµenenntx npeo:oeoe.
«OB 3TOH KHHIE»
«ABOUT THIS BOOK»
ooavm ðuc ovr
1 2 1 2
Bt xorume nsyuamo You want to study English
anrnnñcknñ. mv woum mv cmaou nue:uui
Kaxµoe nyremecrnne Every journey begins
naunnaemcx +epu owiœœuu ouenus
c oouoeo manentkoro mara. with A small step.
wnð oc+oo: cmon
3ra knnra »e:»emc»* This book is* one of**
oouu+ us** ðuc ovr us wau oe
Bamux nepnmx maroe. your Iirst steps.
ëo qœœcm cmonc
3ro * oôtunax knnra, It is* a normal book
um us ouoo+: ovr
nmemuax oônoxky, having a cover,
xæeuue oraeo
400 crpannu mercma 400 pages of text
qoo xauopoo n+ùowius oem+rcm
n neckontko nnnmcrpannñ. and some illustrations.
æuo ca+ u:rcmp+ùuius
***** Aue:o»si:uie ue ronopxr
«no-]pannysckn» nnn «no-anrnnñckn» .
«Ouu» npocro ronopxr 'speak French¨, 'speak English¨
n ncë!;
****** B anrunncxou npeµnoxennn
«oeùcmevem» TOHIKO cyózermuoe mecronmenne,
a ue oo·ermuoe:
Mue ¹ nyxno yexart ÷" I ¹ need to leave.
E+v ¹ moxno ôerart ÷" He ¹ may run.
Ha+ ¹ cneµyer ntnnrt ÷" We ¹ should drink;
******* Hmeercx n nnµy npouecc;
******** Y aue:o»si:uix ne1 oômero cnona «ceoù»
no+romy «ouu» eceeoa yrounxmr, «ueù» .
Hpn +rom Bam nyxno nayunrtcx sa+euamo name cnono «ceoù»
coomeemcmeymuu+ anrnnñcknm cnonom ro ecrt eioupami
npannutnoe npum»wame:iuoe +ecmou+euue (x nx nastnam
«oóasameuoum+u onpeoe:ume:»+u») no cneµymmeñ
nonesneñmeñ raônnne:
I " MY +aù
YOU " YOUR ëo
HE " HIS xus
SHE " HER xœœ
IT " ITS umc
WE " OUR avo
THEY " THEIR ð+o
63
62
B sauu+amco aueuuùcru+ I`m A student of English**
(»siro+)** aù+ ocm·mvooum oe nue:uui
n x nsyuam eeo and I study it
æuo aù cmaou um
n** (oouoù) xstkonoñ mkone, at** A language school,
æm o:æuewuowi crvv:
rak uro, so,
cov
* ¹ oua +eua eaxuo** it is* ¹ important for me**
um us u+noomoum qoo +uu
nmemo xopomnñ yueônnk. to have A good textbook.
mv xæe oeyo m+rcmovr
1 1-ñ rnaron
B óyoyue+** mt nce xornm In the future** we all want
uu ðoq·mv:o wn oo: woum
2 2-ñ rnaron
nmemo xopouym paóomy, no to have A good job but
moxæe oeyo owièo oam
mt ue c+oxe+ we will not be able
wn wn: uom ouu +ùo:
nañmu (+rn) paôoune mecra, to Iind these jobs,
moqaùuo ðuus owièos
ecuu mt ue (ôyµem) ronopnrt if *** we don`t *** speak
uq wn ooum cnuur
na nnocrpanno+ xstke**. A Ioreign language**.
oqopuu :æuewuowi
3ro * nontñ yueônnk. This is* A new textbook.
ðuc us ouimv m+rcmovr
Ou * ouent noneseu, It is* very helpful
um us e+pu x+:nqv:
noromy uro because
ouroos
1 1
yueônnku nomoramr umoa+ textbooks help people
m+rcmovrc xo:n nuun:
2 2
nsyuamo pasnnunte nayku, to learn diIIerent sciences
mv :œœu onqpoum caùoucus
a +ror konkperntñ yueônnk and this particular textbook
æuo ðuc nomnrir:o m+rcmovr
1 cnono " 2 cnona
nomoxem Ba+ will help you
wn: xo:n mv
npoµnnnymo Bau anrnnñcknñ. to advance your English.
mv ooeaauc ëo nue:uui
Anrnnñcknñ * ue English is* not
nue:uui us uom
rpyµntñ xstk, A diIIicult language,
oonquro:m :æuewuowi
no, rar nce µpyrne xstku, but like all other languages
oam :aùr oo: aðo :æuewuowius
ou rpeôyem +uoeo npakrnku. it needs a lot of practice.
um uuuos o:om oe npærmuc
65
64
PACmHPEHHLE KOMMEHTAPHH
TO study, TO learn, to advance, to have, to Iind, to obtain
nanomnnam, uro :acmuµa 'TO .¨ nepeo anrnnñcknm rnaronom
ykastnaer na uecoeepueuuiù euo +roro rnarona
n nonnocrtm coornercrnyer orou:auu»+
«-TB /-TH» na rouue pycckoro rnarona,
nanpnmep: «ôeraTB», «nµTH».
Oµnako nocne nekoroptx rnaronon rnna 'help¨
(a nocne +ooa:iuix +ue+eumoe ncerµa!)
nocneµymmne rnaront uory1 ynorpeônxrtcx ões :acmuµi 'to¨;
I wanT, you begiN, Ecnn µeñcrnne nponcxoµnr
we helP, you neeD, n uacmoaue+ npemenn
they studY, people trY, ro ecrt ceù:ac nnn eoooµe,
these girlS preIeR ro nocne mecronmennñ «×/rt/nt/mt/onn/»,
a rakxe nocne cvo·ermoe,
croxmnx no +uoxecmeeuuo+ uncne,
anrnnñckne rnaront HE nsmenxmrcx.
Ho korµa n uacmo»µe+ xe npemenn
oeùcmevrm «OnC», «OnaC», «OnoC» nnn «KroC?»
('He beginS, she needS, it growS¨)
nnn kakoñ-nnôyµt cvo·erm,
croxmnñ n eouucmeeuuo+ :uc:e (nanpnmep: «Moñ korC»),
ro k rouµv rnarona nyxno npnôannxrt
okonuanne '¹(e)S¨ ÷ pycckomy «-e1/-u1»,
nanpnmep: 'He runS¨ ÷ «On ôerae1/ ôexu1»;
. DOA`1 speak Tam, rµe ecrt ompuµauue c rnaronom
ro ecrt npncyrcrnyer anrnnñckax ompuµame:iua» :acmuµa ÷
÷ oµno ns 4 anrnnñcknx «HE .»
(nanpnmep, «. HE snamr»),
cam anrnnñcknñ euaeou nooôme nnkorµa HE us+eu»emc»
(÷ doesn`t changE),
Mt * (+ro) rpynna umµeù, We are* A group of people,
wn aa oepyvn oe nuun:
koropme * sannrepeconaut who are* interested
xvv aa numpucmuo
n npo]eccnonantnoñ kaptepe, in A proIessional career,
uu onpoq+uiu: ropno
rak uro mt so we try hard **
ynopuo cmapae+ca**, cov wn mpaù xaao
utoôt ¹ nonyunmo in order to ¹ obtain
uu oooo mv oom+ùu
nannyumue pesyntrart. best results.
oocm pusa:mc
Bom noue+y** 1hat`s* the reason why**
ðæmc ðopnusu waù
mt npeµnounraem we preIer this textbook
+ror yueônnk wn npuqœœ ðuc m+rcmovr
opyeu+** yueônnka+. to other** textbooks.
mv aðo m+rcmovrc
* Bcë +ro qop+i rnarona 'be¨,
oóasameuoume µnx ynorpeônennx n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn;
** A rakne «c:v:au» npocro sayunnañre nansycrt;
*** Hocne 'IF¨ n anrnnñckom xstke ue ynompeóuammca
nokasarenn ovovµeeo npemenn o:e+eumi 'will¨ n 'shall¨
(kpome vcmo»eueeoc» ntpaxennx nexnnnocrn
'. iI you will .¨ ÷ «noxanyñcra»).
67
66
uro, coôcrnenno, snaunr
«BM1L n cocroxnnn . (c/µenart uro-ro)».
A nockontky eµnncrnennoñ nsuenneuon cocmae:»rµeù n
+rom ooopome xnnxercx (is) rnaron 'BE¨, ro mt saoµno nonro-
pnm n ero nosmoxnte qop+i npxmo n cocrane +roro xe nennko-
nennoro ooopoma:
I AM (not) able to .÷ I`m (not) .
u:u
You ARE (not) able to .÷ You`re (not) . ÷ You aren`t .
He IS (not) able to .÷ He`s (not) . ÷ He isn`t .
She IS (not) able to .÷ She`s (not) . ÷ She isn`t .
It IS (not) able to .÷ It`s (not) . ÷ It isn`t .
We ARE (not) able to .÷ We`re (not) . ÷ We aren`t .
They ARE (not) able to .÷ They`re (not) . ÷ They aren`t .
I, he, she, it WAS (not) able to . ÷ . wasn`t .
You, we, they WERE (not) able to . ÷ . weren`t .
Bce WILL BE able to . ÷ I`ll be . n r. µ. u:u ÷ . won`t be .
a nsmenxercx/samenxercx
1outxo ca+a ompuµame:iua» uacmuua
(DON`T ., DOESN`T ., DIDN`T . nnn hON`T .)
Hacm. epe+» Hpou. Byo.
n sanncnmocrn or roro,
KTO n/nn KOIµA uero-ro «HE oe:a.»;
WILL helP,
WILL NOT be able to . ycnoñre, noxanyñcra,
uro o:e+eum 'WILL¨
(n ero ompuµame:iuie qop+i 'WILL NOT " WON`T¨)
+ro konkpernte nokasarenn óyoyueeo npemenn,
koropte ncerµa croxr nepeo rnaronom.
Hocne o:e+euma «WILL» ca+ e:aeo: n umõou cuyuae
ocraërcx ueus+euèuui+, nanpnmep:
'I`LL knoW¨ ÷ 'I WILL knoW¨,
'I WON`T knoW¨ ÷ 'I WILL NOT knoW¨.
Kpome +roro, xouy µononnnrentno oôparnrt name nnnmanne
na ooopom 'WILL (NOT) BE ABLE TO .¨.
wn: (uom) ouu oùo: mv
3ro eµnncrnennax nosmoxnocrt «oôpasonannx óyoyue-
eo npemenn» µnx o:e+euma 'CAN¨ ræu ÷ «MOuI», rak kak
cam anrnnñcknñ o:e+eum 'CAN¨ HE nmeer cnoeñ qop+i
óyoyueeo npemenn (neµt o:e+eumi HE ynorpeônxmrcx µpyr c
µpyrom, no+romy oopasoeame:u ovovµeeo npemenn o:e+eumi
'will/shall¨ n neutsn c1ann1t nepeµ o:e+eumo+ 'can¨ !!!).
Ho+romy, uroôt ckasart «C¹+oev», «C+oweui», «C+owe+»,
«C+oevm» n r. µ., aue:o»si:uie nontsymrcx npekpacntm sa+e-
cmumeue+ o:e+euma 'CAN¨ ÷
÷ oôoporom/e:aeo:o+ 'BE ABLE TO .¨,
69
68
ôes anrnnñckoro xstka. without English.
wuðavm nue:uui
Bom noue+y 1hat`s why
ðæmc waù
u moñ ycnex, u mox kaptepa both my success and my career
oovθ +aù corc+c æuo +aù ropno
sanncxr om moero nporpecca depend on my progress
oun+uo ou +aù npoepoc
n anrnnñckom. in English.
uu nue:uui
Buepa x nouëu no +aeasuua+, Yesterday I went shopping
ecmoooù aù w+um uënuue
nocrouory (x) xoren kynnrt since I wanted to buy
cuuc aù woumuo mooaù
raroù-uuóyoo nontñ cnonapt some new dictionary
ca+ u·mv onruiuopu
µnx monx kypcon anrnnñckoro. Ior my English course.
qoo +aù nue:uui rooc
Ham npenoµanarent Our teacher told us
crasau nam avo mmi:o mov:o ac
nocrapamocx n nañmu to try and to Iind
mompaù æuo moqaùuo
raroù-uuóyoo nontñ yueônnk. some new textbook.
ca+ u·mv m+rcmovr
On noconeroeau nam He advised us to look Ior
nonckamo xu ooeaùso ac mo:yr qoo
TEKCT X13
1 2 1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
× pemnu nauamo I decided to start
aù oucaùouo mv cmaam
nonym ]asy (n) ceoeù* xnsnn. a new phase in my* liIe.
ou·mv qoùs uu +aù :aùq
1 2 1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
× xouy ynyumnmo ceoù* I want to improve my* English
anrnnñcknñ, aù woum mv u+npyve +aù nue:uui
mar :mo ¹ x c+oey so that ¹ I will be able
(«x óyoy e cocmoauuu») cov ðæm aù wn: onu +ùo:
ronopnmo n unramo to speak and to read English
no-anrnnñckn mocnnur æuo mv pnuo nue:uui
ouent ôerno. very Iluently.
e+pu q:mvoum:u
Anrnnñcknñ xstk aeuaemca English is our
namnm nue:uui us avo
mexµynapoµntm xstkom International Language
uumouæuiu: :æuewuowi
X1. Number 1.
ua+oo wau
Bt ue +oweme cµenart You cannot make
$ mv ræuom +oùr
$
uuraroù** npo]eccnonantnoñ any** proIessional career
kaptept +uu npoq+uiu: ropno
71
70
+moeo nsnecrnoro n of this Iamous and
oe ðuc q+ù+oc æuo
ônecrxmero +emooa. brilliant method.
opn:ioum ++θoo
× nosnonnu ceoe+v µpyry, I called mv Iriend,
(«+oe+v») aù roo:o +aù qpouo
mt cornacnunct ncrpernmocx we agreed to meet
wn oepnuo mo+num
n nenrpe ¹ eopooa. in the centre ¹ of the city.
uu ðoc+umo oe ðocnmu
Mt ncrpernunct We met
wn +om
n nmecre and went shopping together.
nouuu no +aeasuua+. æuo w+um uënuue moe+ðo
* Hy uem y «uux» oômero cnona «ceoù»!
no+romy aue:o»si:uie eceeoa yrounxmr, «ueù» .;
** B ompuµame:iuo+ npeµnoxennn/c ompuµauue+
(« . ue +oweme .»)
cnono 'any¨ nmeer snauenne «uuraroù».
raroù-uuóyoo yueônnk, some textbook
ca+ m+rcmovr
ocnonauntñ na based on
ooùcm ou
«Honom pycckom meroµe», the «New Russian Method»
ðou·mv pauiu ++θoo
cosµaunom created rpu+ùmuo
Anekcanµpo+ ¡parynknnm+. by A. Dragunkin oaù
%
Ke+?
3ror «Hontñ pyccknñ meroµ» This «New Russian Method»
ðuc u·mv pauiu ++θoo
»e:»emc» nanuyumen is the best way
nosmoxnocrtm us ðoo+cm w+ù
nsyunmo anrnnñcknñ to learn English
mo:œœu nue:uui
ouent ôtcrpo very quickly
e+pu rwnr:u
n ouent ycnemno. and very successIully.
æuo e+pu corc+cqv:u
B ouent pao nmemo I`m very glad to have
aù+ e+pu e:æo moxæe
marym xopomym such a good opportunity
nosmoxnocrt cam: o eyo onom·mvuumu
nponepnmo kauecrno to check the quality
mom:+r ðo rwo:umu
73
72
x óyoy (oimi) e cocmoauuu I will be able to**
(÷ «x c+oey») aù wn: ouu +ùo: mv
ronopnrt no-anrnnñckn ôerno, speak English Iluently
cnuur nue:uui q:mvoum:u
n ntpaxamo na +rom xstke and to express in this language
æuo mv urcnp+c uu ðuc :æueeuow·
nce ceou (÷ +ou) mtcnu. all my thoughts.
oo: +aù θoomc
To ecrt That is
ðæm us
x óyoy e cocmoauuu I will be able to**
(÷ «x c+oey») aù wn: ouu +ùo: mv
ckasart no-anrnnñckn say in English
coù uu nue:uui
npakrnueckn ecë. practically everything.
npærmuro:u +epuθuue
3ro +oxem ómmo This can be very important
ouent naxno, ðuc ræu ouu e+pu u+noomoum
noromy uro x xouy cµenamo because I want to make a career.
kaptepy. ouroos aù woum mv +oùr o ropno
A utoôt cµenart +ro, And to do this
æuo mv ovv ðuc
+ue uyxuo I need
aù uuuo
TEKCT X14
Ocoôoe nnnmanne oôparnre na c:oea n eipaweuu»,
pacnonoxennte n nauane rekcra
n emoeueuume oµnnakontm oôpasom.
Ho nnm Bt moxere yôeµnrtcx n rom, uro µnx roro,
uroôt nonyuart nonte npannntnte anrnnñckne npeµnoxennx,
Bam sauacrym µocrarouno npocro ôpart ns cnonapx
umõme (µpyrne) cnona!!!
Hocue moero mpemoeeo ypoka anrnnñckoro "
÷ After my third lesson oI English "
aaqmo +aù θœœo :ecu oe nue:uu·
u:u:
" Hepeo rnonm uernëprtm ypokom knrañckoro
÷ Before your fourth lesson oI Chinese
ouqoo ëo qooθ :ecu oe :aùunus
a +oey yxe crasamo no-aueuuùcru "
I can already say in English "
aù ræu oo:p+ou coù uu nue:uui
u:u:
" mm +oxeuo yxe cnemo no-rumaùcru
" you can already sing in Chinese
mv ræu oo:p+ou cuue uu :aùunus
nourn ncë, almost everything
oo:+ovcm +epuθuue
uro* x/rt (that)* I/you
ðæm aù/mv
xouy/xouemt ckasart/cnert. want to say / to sing.
woum moc+ù / mocnue
Ouent ckopo Very soon
e+pu cvvu
75
74
Tam x nocrapamct nañmu There I will try to Iind
ð+o aù wn: mpaù mv qaùuo
nontñ yueônnk, ocnonauntñ a new text-book based
o u·mv m+rcmovr ooùcm
na meroµe, cosµaunom on the method created
ou ðo++θoo rpu+ùmuo
Ke+?
$
Anekcanµpo+ ¡parynknnm+. by**** Alexander Dragunkin.
oaù a:ercauoo opaeyuruu
Ioeopam*****, 1hey say *****
ðoù coù
uro +ror meroµ that this method
ðæm ðuc ++θoo
npenoµanauua anrnnñckoro of teaching English
oe mmi:iue nue:uui
+oxem nomout nam can help us
ræu xo:n ac
ntyunmo npannutnmn to learn correct English
anrnnñcknñ mv :œœu rop+rm nue:uui
ouent ôtcrpo. very quickly.
e+pu rwnr:u
Hocne +roro AIter that
aaqmo ðæm
x noùoy no +aeasuua+. I will go shopping.
aù wn: eov uënuue
snamo anrnnñcknñ to know English very well.
ouent xopomo. mv uov nue:uu· e+pu w+:
Mon ôpar n cecrpa My brother and my sister
+aù opaðo æuo +aù cncmo
nsyuamr anrnnñcknñ roxe***, learn English too***,
:œœu nue:uui mvv
1 1 2
noromy uro onn xorxr
2
because they want to travel.
nyremecrnonamo. ouroos ðoù woum mompæe:
Kaxµtñ roµ onn esµxr Every year they go
+epu ùno ðoù eov
n rarym-uuóyoo crpany, to some country
mv ca+ raumpu
rµe onn ¹ oouxum where they ¹ have to
w+o ðoù xæe mv
ronopnrt no-anrnnñckn, speak English
cnuur nue:uui
nomo+y umo because local people
mecrnte nmµn ouroos :ovr: nuun:
1 ¹ 2 " 2 1
euë ue ronopxr no-pycckn. don`t speak Russian yet.
ooum cnuur pauiu em
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Ceroµnx x noùoy Today I will go
moo+ù aù wn: eov
2
"
1 2
n knnxntñ marasnn
1
to my Iriend`s book-store.
moeeo µpyr`a. mv +aù qpouos oyrcmoo
77
76
B nekoroptx cnryannxx +ro moxer ôtrt ouent «noxowe»
na pyccknñ xstk:
'I want to be loveD ¹ BY¹you!¨.
aù woum mv ouu :aeµ ¹ BAH mv
«× xouy ôtrt nmôHMoñ ¹ ro¹BOH!» ÷
÷ «× xouy, uroôt rt menx nmônn!»
(nena M+pnnnn Monpo);
***** B anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
oõnsa1eutno µonxen npncyrcrnonart cyózerm
(ro ecrt oeùcmevrµee :uµo).
Ho+romy n namn «oes:u:uie» ntpaxennx
« Ioeopam, uro .» nnn « Huuym, uro .»
aue:o»si:uie ncrannxmr mecronmenne «Ouu» ÷ '1hey¨,
n rorµa +rn ntpaxennx snyuar no-anrnnñckn yxe kak
«Ouu eoeop»m, uro .» ('1hey sav that .¨)
n «Ouu nuuvm, uro .» ('1hey write that .¨).
× saùoy e neckontko I will visit some shops
marasnnon, aù wn: ensum ca+ uènc
rµe x nocrapamct kynnmo where I will try to buy
w+o aù wn: mpaù mv oaù
nonym kaccery a new tape
o u·mv moùn
c monmn nmônmtmn necnxmn. with my Iavourite songs.
wnð +aù q+ùepum coues
* Cnono 'that¨ ðæm ÷ «..., uro ...»
HEOBB3A1EBLHO
µnx ynorpeônennx n pasronopnom anrnnñckom.
Moxno cnokoñno ckasart: '... almost evervthing I want to say¨;
** Homnnm, uro no-anrnnñckn ueuosa ckasart 'I will can¨,
rak kak o:e+eum nocne o:e+euma ynorpeônxrt ueuosa.
Ho+romy aue:o»si:uie n
sa+eu»rm nropoñ o:e+eum" euaeouo+ (÷ 'be able to .¨);
*** Arnnñckoe cnoneuko 'too¨ mvv ÷ «moxe», «marxe»
ncerµa crannrcx e caumn roueu
eicrasieauu» nnn npeµnoxennx
(nnn nx c+ic:oeoù uacrn);
**** Ecnn umo-mo cµenano/cosµano re+-mo (nnn ue+-mo),
ro ykaxnre na +roro «roeo-mo»
cnoneukom/npeµnorom 'BY¨ oaù.
79
78
Mon mart n oren My Iather and my mother
+aù qaaðo æuo +aù +aðo
ue paôoramm, don`t work
ooum wœœr
a moñ ôpar n mox cecrpa and my brother and my sister
æuo +aù opaðo æuo +aù cncmo
nsyuamm anrnnñcknñ. study English.
cmaou nue:uui
Onn +oeym ronopnrt They can speak*** English
no-anrnnñckn ðoù ræu cnuur nue:uui
ouent xopomo. very well.
e+pu w+:
V uac ¹ ôontmax knaprnpa, We have ¹ a big Ilat
wn xæe oone q:æm
n mt ue xomu+ noknµamo and we don`t want to leave
æuo wn ooum woum mv :uue
nam ropoµ. our city.
avo cnmu
1 2 3 " 1 3 2
Mm ero** ouent umóu+*. We like* it** very much.
wn :aùr um e+pu +am:
Kaxµoe yrpo mt eµnm xneô Every morning we eat bread
+epu +oouuue wn uum opoo
n ntëm monoko and drink milk
æuo opuur +u:r
+ro nomoraem nam this helps us
ðuc xo:nc ac
TEKCT X15
«R ÆHBY B 3TOM CTAPOM IOPO±E»
'I LIVE IN THIS OLD CITY¨
aù :ue uu ðuc ov:o cnmu
× xnny n +rom crapom ropoµe. I live in this old city.
aù :ue uu ðuc ov:o cnmu
V uac (ecmi) ¹ mnoro We have ¹ many
wn xæe ++uu
kpacnntx ynnu beautiIul streets
o·mvmuqv: cmpuumc
n sµannù. and buildings.
æuo on:ouues
Takxe* y uac ecmo We have
wn xæe
oµna peka*. one river, too*.
wau pneo mvv
Mt uacro nnanaem n neñ**. We oIten swim in it**.
wn oqu cwn+ uu um
Tt xnnëmt n rom nonom You live in that new city
ropoµe, mv :ue uu ðæm u·mv cnmu
n y eac ram uem pekn*. and you have no river there*.
æuo mv xæe uov pneo ð+o
Mox cemtx roxe* xnnëm My Iamily lives here, too*.
sµect*. +aù qæ+u:u :ues xno mvv
81
80
TEKCT X16
«MOH MLCAH» 'MY THOUGHTS¨
+aù θoomc
V +eua* sanxrna I have * my lectures every day.
kaxµtñ µent. aù xæe +aù :erm:oc +epu o+ù
× oouxeu* ynopno I have to * work hard
rpyµnrtcx, aù xæe mv wœœr xaao
1 2 1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
ecnn x xouy µoônmocx iI I want to achieve
uq aù woum mv o:mie
uero-nnôyµt n +roù xnsnu. something in this liIe.
ca+θuue uu ðuc :aùq
Moñ ôpar aeuaemca** My brother is**
+aù opaðo us
npeµcrannrene+ a representative
o ponpus+umomue
ôontmoù nnocrpannoù ]npmm, of a big Ioreign company
oe oone qopuu ra+nouu
koropax nponsnoµum ôymary. that produces paper.
ðæm npoo·mvcus n+ùno
On ** xopomnñ cnennanncr He is** a good specialist
xu us oeyo cn+uie:ucm
n µannoù oônacru, in this Iield,
uu ðuc quu:o
ómmo sµopontmn. to be healthy.
mv ouu x+:θu
* Oôparnre nnnmanne na nopnµox cuon
n pycckom n n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennxx;
** «Peka» ue xenmnna, «ropoµ» ue myxunna,
no+romy o nnx no-anrnnñckn ronopxr 'it¨;
*** Hocne +ooa:iuix +ue+eumoe ('. can speak .¨)
ue crannrcx :acmuµa 'to¨.
Kpome +roro, ncnomnnre, noxanyñcra, uro «ouu»
ue ronopxr «no-anrnnñckn»
«ouu» npocro 'speak English¨ !
83
82
npenoµananna nnocrpannoeo of teaching a Ioreign language.
xstka. oe mmi:iue oqopuu :æuewuowi
Bom ¹ namn yueônnku Here are ¹ our textbooks
xno aa avo m+rcmovrc
na ôase +roeo merooa based ****** on this method.
(÷ «ocnonaunte na .»). ooùcm ou ðuc ++θoo
Onn u+emm They have
ðoù xæe
ouent xopomym penyrannm. a very good reputation.
o e+pu evo pun·rm+ùuiu
* Cpannnre 2 pasumx snauennx rnarona 'have¨;
** Ynorpeônenne rnarona 'be¨ nnn ero qop+ oôxsarentno!;
*** IF he KAEW ... ÷ ECHH BM on 3HAB ... cnoneuko
'IF¨ nmeer µna snauennx:
«ECHH» n «ECHH BM»;
**** ... better than he DOES n µannom cnyuae rnaron 'do”
n qop+e 'DOES¨
3AMEHAE1 cnono 'KNOhS¨.
3ro xnnenne sa+eµeuu» ncrpeuaercx ouent uacro
n xnnxercx nopmoñ;
***** Bnµnre: no-pyccxn rnaron crour n npoueoue+ npemenn
(÷ «. nonyuau .»),
a no-anrnnñckn rnaron ne nsmenën,
rak kak
nocne umõoro o:e+euma (n rom uncne n nocne 'would¨)
anrnnñcknñ rnaron ue nsmenxercx !!!;
no y nero ecmo npoônemm but he has problems
oam xu xæs npoo:e+s
c nnocrpannt+u xstka+u. with Ioreign languages.
wnð qopuu :æuewuowius
Ecuu óm on suau anrnnñcknñ If he knew*** English
uq xu u·mv nue:uui
nyume, uem ¹ on suaem, better than ¹ he does****,
o+mo ðæu xu oas
on óm nonyuan***** he would earn*****
xu wvo œœu
n µna pasa õoutme. twice more.
mwaùc +oo
× ue rennñ, I`m not a genius,
aù+ uom ooiwinuies
no x +oey ntyunrt but I can learn
oam aù ræu :œœu
anrnnñcknñ ouent ôtcrpo, English very quickly
nue:uui e+pu rwnr:u
noromy uro sµect, n Poccnn since here in Russia
cuuc xno uu pau»
y nac ecmo «Hontñ pyccknñ we have the 'New Russian
wn xæe ðo u·mv pauiu
meroµ», koroptñ aeuaemca Method¨, that is
++θoo ðæm us
ca+m+ +]]ekrnnnm+ the most eIIicient method
meroµo+ ðo+ovcm uqnuieum  ++θoo
85
84
Hacmoauee npemx:
I, you, we, they HAJE
He, she, it, my dog HAS
÷ V . EC1L .
Hpoueouee npemx:
I, you, he, she, it, we, they HAD ÷
÷ V . BMB/-a/-o/-n
Byoyuee npemx:
I, you, he, she, it, we, they WILL HAJE ÷
÷ V . BVµ/-er/-yr;
2) ProperLY, quickLY orou:auue '¹LY¨
npnnaµnexnr uape:ur
n coomeemcmevem pyccknm orou:auu»+ «¹O» nnn «¹H»:
nexnO ÷ tenderLY
rpomkO ÷ loudLY
panO ÷ earLY
rexnnueckH ÷ tecnicalLY;
3) IF he KNEh . ÷ ECBH (BM) on 3HAB .
cnoneuko 'IF¨ nmeer µna snauennx:
«ECBH» n «ECHH BM».
Hmanct:
a) Kak n n pycckom xstke, c 'if¨ n ero snauennn «ECBH BM»
coueraercx TOHIKO HPOHEµHEE BPEMB rnarona,
ro ecrt ero 2-n qop+a (÷ «Inaron¹(e)D» y npaeu:iuix
rnaronon, n ocoôax µnx kaxµoro rnarona y uenpaeu:iuix);
ô) B ouent npannutnou anrnnñckom 'if¨ n ero
snauennn «ECHH BM»
rnaron 'BE¨ ynorpeônxercx
TOALKO n qop+e 'WERE¨
(a ue 'was¨)
nesanncnmo or :uµa, ro ecrt:
****** baseD on ... +ro 3-n qop+a rnarona
'base¨ ooùc ÷ «ocnontnart(-cx)»,
ro ecrt +ro naccnnnoe onpeoeueuue,
nponsneµënnoe ns +roro xe e:aeo:a.
Y npaeuuoumx rnaronon
+ra 3-n qop+a (÷ naccnnnoe onpeoeueuue)
oôpasyercx npaeuuouo
(÷ '¹(e)D¨),
a y uenpaeu:iuix rnaronon
eë nyxno ro1onon
ôpart ns 3-ro cronônka
nmôoñ «Tao:uµi uenpaeu:iuix e:aeo:oe»
no+romy-ro +ra qop+a n nastnaercx «3-eù»!,
nanpnmep:
baseD on . ÷ ocnonAHntñ na .
wantED ÷ xenaEMtñ; xenAHntñ
regardED ÷ paccmarpnnaEMtñ
IillED ÷ nanonnEHntñ
constructED ÷ nocrpoEHntñ
brought ÷ npnnecËHntñ
eateA ÷ c¡eµEHntñ
takeA ÷ nsx1tñ
killED ÷ yôn1tñ.
PACmHPEHHLE KOMMEHTAPHH
1) I HAJE, he HAS, we HAJE
anrnnuane nmecro «V +eu» ecmi .»
ronopxr «× u+em .».
To xe camoe onn µenamr n n µpyrnx epe+euax:
«× u+eu ...» nmecro «V +eu» ómu .»,
n: «× óyoy u+emi .»
nmecro «V menx óyoem .».
«HMETB» no-anrnnñckn 'HAJE¨ xæe,
n nor nce qop+i +roro oôtunoro rnarona,
pasµenënnte no epe+eua+:
87
86
TEKCT X17
«HTO ±EAATL?» 'WHAT TO DO?¨
wom mv ovv
1 2
Mt nce xoru+ xnmo We all want to live
wn oo: woum mv :ue
nyume, uem mt xueë+*. better than we do*.
o+mo ðæu wn ovv
Ho uro moxem nomout ua+ But what can help us
oam wom ræu xo:n ac
cµenamo ôtcrptñ nporpecc? to ** make a quick progress?
mv++ùr orwnr npoepoc
Bcë, (ueeo) mt xo1u+ All we want
oo: wn woum
(+ro) ôpamo, a ne µanamo! is to take, not to give!
us mom+ùr uom moene
Fontmnncrno ns nac µymamm, Most oI us think
+ovcm oe ac θuur
uro ncë sanncum that everything depends
ðæm +epuθuue oun+uos
om*** mecra, on*** the place
ou ðon:+ùc
rµe Bt paôoraeme, where you work,
w+o mv wœœr
no +ro but this is
oam ðuc us
Ecnn óm x BMB nërunkom ÷" IF I WERE a pilot.
Ecnn óm on BMB yunrenem ÷" IF HE WERE a teacher.
Ho kak uecrntñ uenonek x µonxen ormernrt, uro nnuno ncrpe-
uancx n c pesko ompuuameuoum+ ornomennem monoµtx aue:o-
eoeop»µux k +romy npannny onn cunramr, uro ynorpeônxrt
nocne 'if¨ (÷ «ec:u óm») rontko cnono 'were¨
+ro uncrtñ cnoônsm!
Ho+romy ne yµnnnxñrect, ecnn Bt n umõou cuyuae ycntmn-
re ]pasy 'If I was .¨ +ro, nosmoxno, ne omnôka, a nosuµu»
(renµennnx ?!);
n) Co cnoneukom 'IF¨ nn n oµnom ns ero snauennñ
n conpemennom anrnnñckom HE ynorpeônxmrcx
nokasarenn ovovµeeo npemenn o:e+eumi 'will/shall¨:
'IF I come¨ snaunr u «Ecuu x npnXOÆV»,
u «Ecuu x npnµV».
'IF HE comeS¨ snaunr u «Ecnn on npnXOµH1»,
u «Ecnn on npnµË1».
'IF WE sell it¨ snaunr u «Ecnn mt npoµaËM ero»,
u «Ecnn mt npoµaµHM ero».
Ho: '. iI you will!¨ ÷ «., noxanyñcra!»;
4) . he hOULD earn . o:e+eum 'WOULD¨.
nonnocrtm coomeemcmevem
pycckomy «BM»:
. he WOULD earn ÷ . on BM sapaôartnau .
Honropxm:
Hocne umõoro o:e+euma
anrnnñcknñ rnaron ue us+euaemca !!!
89
88
oaxe ne ¹ saue1nn eë. without even ¹ noticing it.
wuðavm nueu uovmucuue um
Xopomee mecro paôomm A good place of work
oeyo n:oùc oe wœœr
npocro µaëm Ba+ manc just gives you a chance
ow»cm eues mv o:aauc
npoµemoncrpnponamo to demonstrate
mv o++oucmpoùm
n npnmennmo and to apply
æuo mv on:aù
Bamu npnpoµnte your natural
ëo uæm:po:
cnocoônocru n rananrm, Iaculties and talents
qæro:mus æuo mæ:eumc
no onn ue rapanrnpymm Ba+ but they don`t garantee you
$ oam ðoù ooum eæpoumnu mv
$
uuraroù ôtcrpoù kaptepm, any***** quick career,
+uu rwnr ropno
1 2 " 1¹2
ecuu (rontko) Bt ue xennrect unless you marry
au:ec mv +æpu
na oµnoù ns one of your bosses` ******
wau oe ëo oocus
mnorouncnennmx µouepeù numerous daughters.
Bamux me]oe. u·mv+opoc ooomoc
aôconmrno omnôouno! completely wrong!
ro+n:num:u poue
Bcë nonnocrtm Everything entirely
+epuθuue uumao:u
sanncum om Bac, depends on you,
oun+uos ou mv
om Bameeo nnrennekra, on your intelligence,
ou ëo uum+:uowieuc
cmenocru, ntnocnnnocru courage, endurance,
rapuowi uuo·mvopouc
repnenna n roronnocru patience and readiness
n+ùuieuc æuo p+ouuoc
ncrpernmo ycnex to meet success
mo+num corc+c
n yµauy, korµa Ba+ and luck when**** you
æuo :ar w+u mv
nakonen-ro yµacmcx Iinally manage****
qaùuo:u +æuuoiwi
sanonyunmo nx oôoux. to get them both.
moe+m ðo+ oovθ
Henoµroronneuntñ uenonek An unprepared man
æu aunpun+oo +æu
moxem nerko can easily
ræu nusu:u
nponycrnrt nent, miss the aim
+uc ðo où+
91
90
**** '... WHEA you Iinally MAAAGE ...¨ ÷ «... korµa Bam
nakonen-ro yµaCTCB ...».
Bcnomnnre, noxanyñcra, uro nocue 'hHEN¨ (n nocne 'IF¨)
n cnyuae ncnontsonannx ero ue kak eonpocume:iuoeo c:oea,
HE nyxnt
nokasarenn ovovµeeo npemenn 'will/ shall¨,
no+romy ]pasa
'... hHEN you Iinally MANAGE ...¨ moxer snaunrt
u:
«... korµa Bam nakonen-ro voaË1c» ...»,
u:
«... korµa Bam nakonen-ro voaC1c» ...»;
***** Hocne nmôoro ompuµauu» ('. don`t guarantee .¨)
cnono 'any¨ snaunr «uuraroù»;
****** Ecnn «xos»uu/e:aoe:eµ» cam sakanunnaercx na '-s¨,
ro emë oµno ' `s¨ npnôannxrt ne nyxno
xnarnr rontko anocmpoqa: 'bosses
`
¨ ÷ «ôoccoe»
(ro ecrt «npnnaµnexamnñ oocca+»).
PACmHPEHHLE KOMMEHTAPHH
1) 'We all want .¨ ÷ «Mt nce xornm .» oôtunoe
npeµnoxenne c nopmantntm nopxµkom cnon,
oµnako cmorpnm µantme:
'The car we all want «Mamnna, KOTOPVR mt nce xornm
to have¨ nmert»
aue:o»si:uie ôonee ckynt na cnona,
n nor rakne «vmo:u»rµue» ncrankn
(rnna «. KOTOPVR .»)
onn uacro nponyckamr, oôxoµxct ôes nnx.
Fyµtre nnnmarentnt!
Hpnmept:
All (that) we want is . ÷ Bcë, ¹EIO mt xornm, +ro .
The man (that) I`m looking Ior ÷ uenonek, KOTOPOIO x nmy.
The woman (that) you loved ÷ Xenmnna, KOTOPVR rt nmônn.
I don`t have what you need ÷ Y menx ner TOIO, uro reôe nyxno;
* Inaron 'DO¨ ncnontsonan sµect µnx roro,
uroôt µnaxµt ne nonropxrt 'live¨ n oµnom npeµnoxennn,
ro ecrt on sa+eu»em µpyroñ anrnnñcknñ e:aeo:
sµect 'do¨ sa+euaem 'live¨;
** 3µect 'to¨ nepeµ 'make¨ crannrt +oxuo n uyxuo,
rak kak rnaron 'make¨
xnnxercx yxe emopm+ rnaronom,
n nµër ue sa o:e+eumo+ 'can¨,
a sa e:aeo:o+ 'help¨;
*** ... dependS OA you Hpeo:oeu, ynorpeônxemte
c remn nnn nntmn
anrnnñcknmn e:aeo:a+u,
HE BCEI±A connaµamr
c nx pyccknmn coomeemcmeu»+u.
Hanpnmep, pycckomy «sanncert OT ...»
coornercrnyer anrnnñckoe 'depend ON¨
(ro ecrt: «sanncert HA ...»),
pycckomy «cmorpert HA ...»
coornercrnyer 'look AT...¨
(ro ecrt: «cmorpert B ...»),
n rak µanee.
Ecrt e:aeo:i,
koropte n pycckom xstke ynorpeônxmrcx BE3 npeo:oeoe,
a n anrnnñckom 1outxo C npeo:oea+u:
«oxnµart/xµart KOIO-TO», no 'wait FOR ...¨,
u uaooopom:
«xennrtcx HA (ro+-mo)», no 'marry SOMEONE¨
(ões npeo:oea).
Ho+romy, pekomenµym cpasy xe sayunnart, C kaknm npeo:o-
eo+ (nnn, moxer, BE3 npeµnora nooôme?) ynorpeônxercx ror
nnn nnoñ anrnnñcknñ rnaron, n ne yµnnnxrtcx n ne nannkonart,
ecnn nµpyr Bt oônapyxnre rakne «uecoomeemcmeu»».
Bo mnornx cnonapxx nocne rnarona ykastnaercx n ro, c kaknm
npeµnorom (n c npeµnorom nn?) +ror rnaron ncnontsyercx;
93
92
4) ' .bosseS` daughterS¨ ÷ «µouepH me]OB»
npn nomomn µoôannennx ' `s¨
(ro ecrt 'S¨ c anocmpoqo+ ' ` ¨)
k nmôomy cvµecmeume:iuo+v nnn k u+euu coocmeeuuo+v
mt oôosnauaem «euaoeuoua/coocmeeuuura» uero-ro,
npnuëm ' `s¨ npnôtnnxercx nmenno K camomy BBAµEBLHV,
nanpnmep:
my Iather`s Ilat ÷ knaprnpa moEIO orn`A,
the expert`s opinion ÷ mnenne +kcnepr`A,
Britain`s Ioreign policy ÷ nnemnxx nonnrnka Fpnrann`H,
Iather-in-law`s car ÷ mamnna orunm`A.
Ho-pycckn n +rom cnyuae
euaoeueu cronr n pooume:iuo+ naoewe.
Oôparnre, noxanyñcra, ocoooe nnnmanne na ocooiù
nopaoor cuoe n anrnnñckom +knnnanenre pyccknm ntpaxennxm
on oópamumù !!!,
rak kak «ouu» ronopxr:
1 ¹ 2 1 ¹ 2 1 ¹ 2
Moeñ marep`H knaprnpa, +kcnepr`A mnenne, orunm`A mamnna,
ro ecrt cnauaua BHAµEHEH, a yx norom 1O, :e+ nnaµemr.
Takxe euë pas npomy Bac oôparnrt ocoóoe nnnmanne
nor na uro:
ecnn anrnnñckoe cnono, oôosnauammee euaoeuoua, camo sakanun-
naercx na '¹S¨ (nnn na µpyrym uun»µvr cornacnym), nnn ecnn
ono cronr no +uowecmeeuuo+ uncne n coornercrnenno rakxe
sakanunnaercx na 'S¨, ro emë oµno '¹S¨ k nemy HE npnôannxer-
cx, a ero npncyrcrnne rontko oõosnauae1cn anocmpoqo+:
our sisters` successes ÷ ycnexn namnx cecrëp.
avo cucmos corc+cus
2) 'UAprepareD¨ ÷ «HEnoµroronnEHntñ» ÷ 3-n qop+a
npannntnoro rnarona «prepare»
(«eomoeumi», «npueomae:ueami»),
xnnxmmaxcx naccnnntm onpeoeueuue+.
Hpncranka 'UN-.¨ au ÷ «HE-.»
npnµaër nmôomy onpeoe:euur
nnn nmôomy cnony,
K koropomy ona npncoeµnnxercx,
ompuuameuouoe (nnn oopamuoe) snauenne:
Onpeoe:euu»: Inaront:
uncivilized ÷ HEnnnnnnsonanntñ uncork ÷ OTkynopnnart
unpopular ÷ HEnonynxpntñ undress ÷ PA3µenart(-cx)
uncommon ÷ HEoôtuntñ undo ÷ PA3nxstnart
uncomIortable ÷ HEyµoôntñ unIasten ÷ PACcrërnnart;
3) '. OF work¨ ÷ «paôorM» npn nomomn npeo:oea 'OF¨
n anrnnñckom xstke oôpasyercx roucm-
pvrµu», coornercrnymmax namemy pooumeuouo+y naoewv. 3rnm
npeo:oeo+ ykastnamrcx ornomennx coocmeeuuocmu nnn npu-
uao:ewuocmu, a rakxe cosµamrcx onpeoe:ume:iuie roucmpvr-
µuu, npnuëm npeo:oe 'of ¨ moxer ynorpeônxrtcx c umõmu cvo·er-
mo+ (c cvµecmeume:iui+, c u+eue+ coocmeeuui+) npn +rom
yxe cauo +ro cvµecmeume:iuoe naunnaer ntcrynart
kak onpeoe:euue,
nanpnmep:
a game OF cards ÷ kaprO¹HAB nrpa,
uo:
a game OF words ÷ nrpa cnoB,
u:
the house OF my mother ÷ µom moEH marepH.
Emë oô oµnoñ nosmoxnocrn oôosnauennx «coocmeeuuura/
euaoeuoua» cmorpnre na cneµymmeñ crpannne;
95
94
Horom x óm AIter that I would
aaqmo ðæm aù wvo
noexan** e Honµon, go** to London
(«c¡esµnn») eov mv :auoou
utoôt ynyumnrt**** to improve ****
mv u+npyve
ceoù*** anrnnñcknñ. my*** English.
+aù nue:uui
A nocue Honµona And after London
æuo aaqmo :auoou
x óm ¹ nepnyncx** I would ¹ return**
aù wvo pumœœu
oôparno µomoñ back home
oær xov+
n kynnn** óm knaprnpm and I would buy** Ilats
æuo aù wvo oaù q:æmc
µnx ceóa n µnx ceoux*** Ior myself and Ior my***
qoo +aùc+:q æuo qoo +aù
poµnreneù. parents.
n+opoumc
Onn crapme nmµn, They are old people
ðoù aa ov:o nuun:
n x xouy, and I want
æuo aù woum
utoôt onn ÷" them ***** to
ðo+ mv
TEKCT X18
«ECAH BL R BMB ...»* 'IF I WERE ...¨*
uq aù wœœ
Ecuu óm x cran If I became*
uq aù our+ù+
ôorarm+ uenoneko+, a rich man
o pum: +æu
1 1-ñ rnaron
x óm nauan I would start**
aù wvo cmaam
2 2-ñ rnaron
necmu to lead
mv :uuo
aôconmrno nnym xnsnt, an absolutely diIIerent liIe,
æu æoco:rvm:u onqpoum :aùq
ro ecrt x óm ¹ nsmennn that is I would ¹ change
ðæm us aù wvo :+ùuowi
ceoù*** oôpas xnsnu. my*** way of liIe.
+aù w+ù oe :aùq
Hpexµe ncero First oI all
qœœcm oeoo:
x óm ¹ sannarnn** I would ¹ pay**
aù wvo noù
nce ceou*** µonru. all my*** debts.
oo: +aù oomc
97
96
x óm ¹ c/µenan**, I would ¹ do**
aù wvo ovv
ecuu óm (x) ómu* ôorar(tm). if I were* rich.
uq aù wœœ pum:
* 'If I became ...¨ ÷ «Ecuu óm x cmau ...»
nanomnnam, uro nocne 'IF¨
n ero cmtcne «Ec:u óm ...»
ncnontsyercx 2-n qop+a rnarona
ro ecrt npocmoe npoueouee epe+»
(kak n n pycckom xstke nocne «Ecnn óm ...»).
'If I were ...¨ ÷ «Ecuu óm x ómu ...»
emë pas nanomnnam, uro npn ynorpeônennn
e:aeo:a 'BE¨
nocne 'IF¨ n ero cmtcne «Ec:u óm ...»
n ouent npannntnom anrnnñckom
ncnontsyercx TOHIKO qop+a 'WERE¨
(a ue 'was¨)
nesanncnmo or :uµa n :uc:a,
nanpnmep:
Ecuu óm x BMB conµarom ÷" If I WERE ¹ a soldier
Ecuu óm on BMB onrnmncrom ÷" If heWERE ¹ an optimist,
n oôtunoe:
If you (we, they) WERE here ÷ Ecnn óm nt BMBH sµect;
** I would start ..., I would pay ... ÷ × óm ...
nanomnnam, uro 'hOULD¨ ÷
÷ pycckomy «BB»,
no n anrnnñckom nocue 'would¨ nµër
HE qop+a npoueoueeo epe+euu rnarona,
a 1outxo ero cuoeapuaa qop+a
( BE3 :acmuµi 'to¨)
ro ecrt npocro ruarou ns cuonapn (ueus+euèuuiù!);
xuuu***** nyume. have***** a better liIe.
(«u+euu nyumym xnsnt»). xæe oo+mo :aùq
× ne ¹ ônsnecmen, I`m not ¹ a businessman,
aù+ uom oonsuuc+æu
no µymam, uro but I think that
oam aù θuur ðæm
x ¹ c+oe óm I ¹ would be able to
aù wvo ouu +ùo: mv
orkptmo ]npmy open a company
ovnu ora+nouu
n µoônrtcx ycnexa. and win success.
æuo wnu corc+c
Mne npannrcx nomoramo I like to help
aù :aùr mv xo:n
nmµa+, rak uro people, so,
nuun: cov
x µymam, uro mox ]npma I think that my Iirm
aù θuur ðæm +aù qœœ+
+oeua óm could
rvo
cnennannsnponartcx specialize
cn+uie:aùs
ua nepenoµax. in translations.
uu mpouc:+ùuius
Bor uro That`s what
ðæmc wom
99
98
TEKCT X19
Kaxµtñ µent x Every day I walk
npoeyuueamco +epu o+ù aù woor
no ynnna+ moeeo ropoµka. down the streets of my town.
oavu ðocmpnumc oe +aù mavu
B renept nspocntñ uenonek, I`m a grown up man now
aù+ o epovu an +æu uav
n x xnny ouent cnokoñnoñ and I live a very quiet
æuo aù :ue o e+pu rwaùom
xnsntm. liIe.
:aùq
V menx ecmo ¹ µpyr I have ¹ a Iriend
aù xæe o qpouo
on paôoraem n mkone. he works in a school.
xu wœœrc uu o crvv:
Ou yunrent. He is a teacher.
xu us o mmi:o
Mm crapte µpystx, We are old Iriends,
wn aa ov:o qpouos
xorx mt uuroeoa ue* ómuu though we never* were
ðov wn u+eo wœœ
µocrarouno ônnskn close enough
r:ovc uuaq
on ómu akrnnntm he was an active boy,
mantunko+, xu wos æuærmue ooù
*** B anrnnñckom xstke uem «ooµeeo» cnona «ceoù»
nmecro nero n xaaµou konkpernom cnyuae ncnontsyercx noµ-
xoµnmee npum»wame:iuoe +ecmou+euue (nnn kak a nx
nastnam «oóasameuoumù onpeoe:ume:i» crp. 272):
my, your, his, her, its, our, their;
**** '... 1O improve my English¨ ÷
÷ «utoôt ynyumnrt ceoù anrnnñcknñ» 
'1O ...¨ nepeµ rnaronom moxer rakxe snaunrt
«utoôt ... (:mo-uuovoi coe:ami)»;
***** 'I WANT THEM 1O ...¨ ÷ «× xouy, u1Oôt OHH ...» ÷
÷ konkpernax qop+v:a µnx ntpaxennx
utero-nnôo we:auu» no ornomennm
k µpyromy :uµv.
Hpnuëm +ro «µpyroe uuuo» ncerµa
oôosnauaercx oózermum+ mecronmennem,
a e:aeo:, oôosnauammnñ mo,
umo µonxno cµenart +ro «µpyroe :uµo»,
ncerµa cronr n ueonpeoe:èuuoù qop+e
(C :acmuµeù 'to ...¨).
Hpnmept:
He wantS US 1O disappear ÷ On xouET, ¹1OBB +m ncuesnn.
We want HIM 1O leave ÷ Mt xorHM, ¹1OBB ou ymën.
I wantED YOU 1O laugh ÷ × xorEH, ¹1OBB mm cmexnact;
... would BE ABLE TO ... +ro (n µannom cnyuae) cuuouu+i
... could ... c roukn spennx pycckoro xstka,
rak kak oôa +rnx ntpaxennx
nepenoµxrcx kak (n snauar)
«Cmor(-na) ôt ...».
Ho pasnnune ncë xe cymecrnyer:
cnono «COULD» npeµnonaraer
+euiuvr crenent sanncnmocrn or nnemnnx oôcroxrentcrn
n, coornercrnenno,
oo´ :iuvr crenent veepeuuocmu.
101
100
kapra+u n nyrenoµnrena+u. maps and guidebooks.
+ænc æuo eaùoovrc
V ueeo ¹ ca+aa óououaa He has ¹ the biggest
xu xæs ðooneucm
konneknnx collection
ro:eruiu
µopoxntx kapr Eepon`m. oI Europe`s road maps
oe mvoponc povo +ænc
(koropym) x roeoa-:uoo I have ever seen.
euoeu. aù xæe +eo cuuu
× óm xomeu ¹ I`d like to ¹ travel,
¹ nonyremecrnonamo, aùo :aùr mv mpæe:
n x óm, koneuno, oeuau +ro, and I would certainly do it
æuo aù wvo cœœmu:u ovv um
ecuu óm ¹ x ue ómu if ¹ I were not
uq aù wœœ uom
raknm ôeµntm. so poor.
cov nyo
Mt oôa µymae+, We both think
wn oovθ θuur
uro +ue** nyxno that I** should
ðæm aù uro
ua:ami ceoë coôcrnennoe µeno, start my own business,
cmaam +aù ovu onsuuc
no y +eua ncerµa +auo but I`m always short of
oam aù+ oo:woùs uèom oe
nonntm +neprnu, Iull of energy,
qv: oe +uooiwu
a x ómu nennnm+, and I was lazy
æuo aù wos :+ùsu
n (x) ncerµa and I always
æuo aù oo:woùs
nmônu meuramo liked to dream
:aùrm moopnu+
o (ceoë+) ôyµymem. about my Iuture.
ooavm +aù q·mv:o
× ncë emë npooo:war I still keep on dreaming,
+e:ma1t, aù cmu: ruun ou opnu+uue
n (x) µymam, (uro) and I think I will dream
óyoy +eumamo æuo aù θuur aù wn: opuu+
ncm ceom xnsnt. all my liIe.
oo: +aù :aùq
Moñ µpyr nmôum My Iriend likes
+aù qpouo :aùrc
nyremecrnonamo, to travel,
mompæe:
no ou ue nmôum meuramo. but he doesn`t like to dream.
oam xu oasum :aùr moopnu+
He+?
$
On ncerµa okpyxëu He is always surrounded by
xu us oo:woùs copavuouo oaù
103
102
moero µpyra my Iriend
+aù qpouo
ooouxumo mne to lend me
mv :+uo +uu
nemnoro µener. some money.
ca+ +auu
Kpome +roro, a ue ynepen, Besides, I`m not sure
oucaùos aù+ uom umo
(nn) oacm ou mne whether he will give me
w+ðo xu wn: eue +uu
+rn µentrn, nnn ner. this money or not.
ðuc +auu oo uom
B nmôom cnyuae, x oouxeu In any case I must
uu +uu roùc aù +acm
npekparnrt +eumart, stop dreaming,
cmon opnu+uue
n x oouxeu ¹ ôtrt ôonee and I have to ¹ be more
æuo aù xæe mv onu +oo
ornercrnenntm sa ceom responsible Ior my
pucnoucuo: qoo +aù
coôcrnennym xnsnt. own liIe.
ovu :aùq
× ue +oey saôtrt, uro I can not Iorget that
aù ræuom qoe+m ðæm
For oau God gave
eoo eoùe
µener. money.
+auu
Moñ µpyr uacro My Iriend oIten
+aù qpouo oqu
cnpamnnaem menx: asks me:
aacrc +uu
«V reôx ecmo (xort) rarue- ? 'Do you have any***
uuóyoo*** ovv mv xæe +uu
nnanm na ôyµymee? plans Ior your Iuture?
n:æuc qoo ëo q·mv:o
1 2 1 2
Hocmapaùca nsmennrt 1ry to change
mpaù mv :+ùuowi
ceom xnsnt!». your liIe!¨.
ëo :aùq
B ue snam, I don`t know
aù ooum uov
umo crasamo n orner. what to say in response.
wom moc+ù uu pucnoouc
B óm oxorno ua:a: I would eagerly start
aù wvo nueo:u cmaam
ceoë coôcrnennoe µeno, no my own business, but
+aù ovu onsuuc oam
a cnnmkom crecnnrentntñ, I`m too shy
aù+ mvv u»ù
utoôt nonpocnrt to ask
mv aacr
105
104
TEKCT X20
Bom ¹ moñ uemoµan. Here is ¹ my suitcase.
xno us +aù c·mvmroùc
1 2 " 2 1
B nëm uexum* kyua nemeñ, 1here is* a lot oI things in it
(÷ «u+eemca»*) ð+o ns o:om oe θuues uu um
koropte óyoym uyxum +ue that I will (÷ I`ll) need
ðæm aù wn: (÷ aù:) uuuo
ua mre. in the South**.
uu ðocavθ
× oouxeu*** yexart sanrpa I`ve got to*** leave tomorrow
aùe eam mv :nue mo+opov
He+?
$
ua noesne (÷ noesµo+). by train.
oaù mpoùu
× cnpamnnam ceom noµpyry: I ask my girlIriend:
aù aacr +aù eœœ:qpouo
1 2 " 2 1
«uro emë +ue (uyxuo) 'What else should I take?¨.
nsxrt?». wom +:c uro aù moùr
A ona ronopum: And she says:
æuo uiu cos
«Bepu**** ncë, uro '1ake**** all (that)
moùr oo: (ðæm)
meóe +owem nouaooóumoca, you can need,
mv ræu uuuo
eë**** mne, it**** to me,
um mv +uu
n uro +ue** nentsx and that I** may not
æuo ðæm aù +où uom
pacrparnrt eë **** spend it ****
cnouo um
npocmo mar. for nothing.
qoouaθuue
* Anrnnñckoe cnono 'never¨ camo no ceôe cpasy ae snaunr
«uuroeoa ue .»;
** B anrunncxou npeµnoxennn ncerµa «oeùcmevem»
1outxo cyózerm,
koroptñ oôosnauaercx 1outxo cyózermui+ +ecmou+euue+
ro ecrt mouoro: I, you, he, she, it, we, they !!!;
*** B nonpoce 'anv¨ snaunr «(xomo) raroù-uuóyoo»;
**** 'LiIe¨ ue xenmnna, no+romy o neñ nyxno ronopnrt 'it¨.
107
106
ceoa coôcrnennax xnsnt, her own liIe,
xœœ ovu :aùq
a y +eu» (oo:wua oimi) and I should have
æuo aù uro xæe
ceoa (÷ «+oa»). mine.
+aùu
Koneuno, x ue xouy Certanly, I don`t want
cœœmu:u aù ooum woum
sacmaeuamo eë ¹ nnakart, to make her ¹ cry,
mo++ùr xœœ rpaù
noromy uro since
cuuc
+ue***** eè wa:ro, " I***** feel pitv for her
aù quu: nnmu qoo xœœ
n, eoooµe-mo eoeopa, and generallv speaking
æuo oiweuopo:u cnnuruue
x npeµnounram I preIer
aù npuqœœ
cmemunxcx xenmnn. laughing women.
:aaquue wn+uu
Kpome +roro, x npocro Besides oI that I simply
oucaùos oe ðæm aù cn+n:u
nmônm eë. love her.
:ae xœœ
Ho x µymam, But I think
oam aù θuur
n ue saôyµt nosnonumo mne and don`t Iorget to call me
æuo ooum qoe+m mv roo: +uu
(cpasy), rar mouoro ¹ as soon as ¹ you get there!¨.
¹ npneµeuo!». æs cvvu æs mv eom ð+o
3ro nepntñ pas This is the Iirst time
ðuc us ðoqœœcm maù+
(uro) x noknµam eë. that I leave her.
ðæm aù :uue xœœ
H (+ro) yxe ceoo+où And it`s already the seventh
æuo umc oo:p+ou ðoc+eouθ
pas sa +ror ynk+nµ time during this weekend
maù+ o·mvopuue ðuc wnurouo
NB!
x euwv, rar oua n:a:em. " (that) I see her crving.
ðæm aù cuu xœœ rpaùuue
× óm ue yesxan ôes neë, I wouldn`t leave without her
aù wvoum :uue wuðavm xœœ
no ua+***** nnorµa uaoo but we***** should
oam wn uro
paccranartcx. part sometimes.
naam ca+maù+s
× ncerµa oy+au, uro I always thought that
aù oo:woùs θoom ðæm
y neë oouxua ómmo she should have
uiu uro xæe
109
108
Kpome +roro, sµect nmeercx ouent konkpernax ocooeuuocmi
n nopxµke cnon (nocmorpnre ntme!), rak kak ooopom
'1here ¹ is/ are/ was/ were/ will be¨
ncerµa crannrcx n cauoe nauauo npeµnoxennx,
a ro, IµE ncë +ro «eucum-:ewum-cmoum-u+eemc»»
cronr n xonne npeµnoxennx !!!;
** «Cmopoui ceema» no-anrnnñckn ncerµa «oqop+:»rmc»»
onpeoeuëuum+ apmur:e+ 'the¨:
the North ð ðð ðð+ uooθ ÷ cenep
the South ð ðð ðð+ cavθ ÷ mr
the East ð ðð ðð+ uucm ÷ nocrok
the West ð ðð ðð+ w+cm ÷ sanaµ.
H aue:o»si:uie ronopxr «e mre/cenepe/nocroke/sanaµe» ÷ 'in¨,
a ue «ua .» !!!;
*** «µouxeu» ÷ 'must .¨, 'have/has to .¨
n ' `ve/ `s got to .¨;
**** uroôt no-anrnnñckn nonpocumo nnn npurasamo,
Bam µocrarouno npocro nsxrt rnaron ns cnonapx,
n «npurasamo» npxmo omu+ euaeouo+,
nnuyrt ero ue us+euaa !;
***** Tontko cyózermuoe mecronmenne !!!!!
****** Oôparnre ocoóoe nnnmanne na pasuuuy n nop»ore (oµnnx
n rex xe !!!) c:oe n µnyx uacrxx +roro anrnnñckoro npeµnoxennx.
Bcnomnnre qop+v:v:

%
" " " " " " " "
$
«× xouy, utoôt ou snan» " 'I want ¹ him ¹ to ¹ rnaron¨.
$ %

" " " " " " "
Hame cyózermuoe mecronmenne
nepexooum" n nx oo·ermuoe !!!
uro omo noc:eouuù pas, that it`s the last time
(ðæm) umc ðo:aacm maù+
uro x noknµam eë, that I leave her,
ðæm aù :uue xœœ
n nocne +roro and aIter that
æuo aaqmo ðæm
mt noxeuu+ca. we`ll get married.
wn: eom +æpuo
1 2 3 ÷ 1 2 3
I want ¹ to love ¹ her × xouy umóumo eë,
aù woum mv :ae xœœ
1 2 3 4 " 1 3 2 4******
n xouy, utoôt ona nmônna and I want ¹ her ¹ to love me!
menx! æuo aù woum xœœ mv :ae +uu
* there IS, there ARE +ro ocoõmn anrnnñcknñ ooopom,
koroptñ nyxno npocro nocnpnnxrt
kak µannocrt n ntyunrt nansycrt.
On nonnocrtm coornecrnyer pyccknm:
«nmeErcx nmeRrcx», «ecrt»
«nexHr nexAr»,
«croHr croBr»,
«nncHr nncBr», n rak µanee.
Pasuoù n +rom ooopome,
n sanncnmocrn or :uc:a n or epe+euu,
ôtnaer rontko qop+a rnarona 'BE¨:
1 2
There is a big house here/there.
There are big houses here/there.
There was a big house here/there.
There were big houses here/there.
There will be a big house here/there.
There will be big houses here/there.
111
110
1enepo x nepnnnuam, Aow I`m getting nervous,
uav aù+ e+muue uœœeoc
noromy uro mne kaxemc», because it seems to me
ouroos um cuu+s mv +uu
uro that
ðæm
mon nnanm ramm my plans are vanishing
+aù n:æus aa eæuuuiuue
n nosµyxe. in the air.
uu ðo +o
Y +eua ¹ cnnmkom mnoro I`ve got ¹ too much
aùe eam mvv +am:
paôort, (koropym x) work
wœœr
oouxeu coeuamo, to do
(÷ «r µenannm») mv ovv
n x oouxeu nomoramo and I have to help
æuo aù xæe mv xo:n
ceou+ my
+aù
crapentknm poµnrenxm, old parents,
ov:o n+opoumc
n y +eua and I have
æuo aù xæe
cuuuro+ mnoro µonron. too many debts.
mvv ++uu oomc
TEKCT X21
(3-n qop+a rnarona 'be¨)
$
× ¹ uuroeoa ue õ$mu ¹ e* ¹ Honµone.
I ¹ have never been ¹ to* ¹ London.
aù xæe u+eo ouuu mv :auoou
3ro ropoµ It is the city
um us ðocnmu
moeù meurm. of my dream.
oe +aù opuu+
1 1
× óm ouent xomeu I`d love to
aùo :ae mv
2 2
ynnµert nce me nsnecrnte see all those Iamous
cuu oo: ðovs q+ù+oc
ynnnm n sµanna, streets and buildings,
cmpuumc æuo on:ouues
2-n qop+a rnarona 'read¨

$
o koroptx x npouëu** I read so many books about**.
crontko knnr. aù poo cov ++uu ovrc ooavm
× nnannponau +ry I was planning this
aù wos n:æuuue ðuc
noesµky ncm ceom xnsnt***. trip all my liIe***. Then,
Horom mpun oo: +aù :aùq ðou
x nepecrau nnannponart. I stopped planning.
(÷ «npekparnu nnannponauue») aù cmonm n:æuuue
113
112
x óyoy µoxnµamocx I`ll be waiting Ior
aù: ouu w+ùmuue qoo
ero snonka oonosµna. his call untill late.
xus roo: aumn: :oùm
* Ecnn Bt xornre ckasart, uro «Bi eoe-mo noómeauu», ro nyx-
no ncnontsonart ntpaxenne 'have been to .¨, npnuëm n
µannom cnyuae n kauecrne coomeemcmeu» namemy «e»
aue:o»si:uie ncnontsymr npeµnor 'to¨ (a ue 'in¨):
× ómu e Mockne yxe 3 pasa ÷
÷ I have been to Moscow 3 times already;
aù xæe ouuu mv +ocrov θpuu maù+s oo:p+ou
** Oôparnre nnnmanne na mecro npeo:oea n oôonx napnanrax;
*** Cnona «all my life» oôxstnamr k ncnontsonannm
nmenno +1on roucmpvrµuu,
nepeµammeñ nuenno
ouumeuoume, pacm»uvmie µeñcrnnx;
**** «Peeyuapuocmo», «noemopae+ocmo» µeñcrnnñ moxno ne-
peµanart npn nomomn oôopora 'use to .¨ mvs mv, koroptñ cam
xe n nsmenxercx n sanncnmocrn or :uµa n or epe+euu +roro
«peev:»puoeo» µeñcrnnx:
We USE 1O hunt here every autumn.
wn mvs mv xaum xno +epu oomo+
Mt OBMHHO oxorn+cx sµect kaxµym ocent.
He USES 1O hunt here every autumn.
xu mvsus mv xaum xno +epu oomo+
On OBMHHO oxornmcx sµect kaxµym ocent.
We USED 1O hunt here every autumn.
wn mvso mv xaum xno +epu oomo+
Mt OBMHHO oxornunct sµect kaxµym ocent;
B ovovµe+ npemenn +ror oôopor ue ncnontsyercx!
***** B +rom npeµnoxennn ntnonnxercx npannno
«coe:acoeauu» epe+èu» (crp. 381).
Mox cecrpa ¹ namua My sister ¹ has found
+aù cncmo xæs qavuo
ouent nnrepecntñ a very interesting
o e+pu numpucmuue
nyrenoµnrent µnx menx, guide-book Ior me,
eaùooyr qoo +uu
rak uro ¹ x unram ero so ¹ I read it
cov aù puuo um
kaxµtñ µent. every day.
+epu o+ù
A oouu +où µpyr And a Iriend of mine
æuo o qpouo oe +aùu
nepecennucx e Honµon moved to London
+vveo mv :auoou
2 roµa (mo+v) uasao. 2 years ago.
mvv ùnos oeov
On peev:»puo**** snonnr mne. He uses to**** call me.
xu mvsus mv roo: +uu
Buepa x ysnau, Yesterday I learned
ecmoooù aù :œœuo
uro on óyoem snonnmo***** that he would call*****
ðæm xu wvo roo:
mne ceroµnx neuepom. me tonight.
+uu mvuaùm
Tak uro, So,
cov
115
114
o koroptx nyxno to worry about:
ôecnokonrtcx: mvwopu ooavm
1 cnono 3 cnona
uuu Bt ¹ eisoopoeeeme, either you ¹ will get well
aùðo mv wn: eom w+:
1 cnono " 2 cnona
uuu Bt ¹ ympëme. or you ¹ will die.
oo mv wn: oaù
Ecun Bt eisoopoeeeme, If* you get well,*
uq mv eom w+:
ro Bam ue o ue+ there is nothing
ð+o us uaθuue
ôecnokonrtcx. to worry about.
mvwopu ooavm
Ecun xe Bt ympëme, If* you die,*
uq mv oaù
ecmo rontko µne eeuu, there are only two things
ð+o aa ovu:u mvv θuues
o koroptx nyxno to worry about:
ôecnokonrtcx: mvwopu ooavm
1 cnono " 2 cnona
uuu Bt nonaoëme n pañ, either you will go to heaven
aùðo mv wn: eov mv xoeu
uuu n aµ. or hell.
oo xo:
Ecnn Bt nonaµëme If* you go* to heaven,
na neôeca, uq mv eov mv xoeu
TEKCT X22
A renept noyntôañrect, unrax nennkonenntñ oôpasen «vu-
:ocoquu up:auoµa», koroptñ x cnncan n Herepôypre n ornnunom
«Hpnanµckom nnnnom ôape «Le+por» na Tearpantnoñ nnomaµn.
«unnoco]nx npnanµna».
'An Irishman`s Philisophy¨.
æu aùpuui+æuc qu:ocoqu
Ecmo ncero µne eeuu, 1here are only two things
ð+o aa ovu:u mvv θuues
o koroptx uyxuo to worry about:
ôecnokonmocx: mv wopu ooavm
uuu Bt sµopont, either you are well
aùðo mv aa w+:
uuu Bt ôontnt. or you are sick.
oo mv aa cur
Ecnn Bt sµopont, II you are* well,
uq mv aa w+:
rorµa Bam ue o ue+ then there`s nothing
ðou ð+os uaθuue
ôecnokonrtcx. to worry about.
mvwopu ooavm
Ho ecnn Bt ôontnt, But iI you are* sick,
oam uq mv aa cur
ecmo rontko µne eeuu, there are only two things
ð+o aa ovu:u mvv θuues
117
116
IAABA IV
ÆH1EHCKHE TEKCTL
TEKCT X23
B +rom $ rekcre mnoro ntpaxennñ/c:oeoco:emauuù,
koropte nentsx nepenecrn c anrnnñckoro na pyccknñ µocnonno.
Ho+romy oôparnre ocoóoe nnnmanne
na pycckne oreuea:eumi nmenno maru+ anrnnñcknm
eipaweuu»+ (÷ na noµuëpknyrte qpasi n ooopomi),
a rakxe na ynorpeônenne npeouoeoe.
«MOH ±EHL» 'MY DAY¨
+aù ooù
× ncram e 7 uacon I get up at 7 o`clock
aù eoman æm coeu or:or
yrpa, in the morning,
uu ðo+oouuue
packptnam mropm n draw the curtains and
opoo ðorœœmuc æuo
µenam sapxµky do gymnasticS
ovv oiwiu+uæcmurc
(nnn: 'do my morning exercises¨)
ovv +aù +oouuue +rcocaùsus
nepeo in front of
uuqpaum oe
orkptrm+ okno+. an open window.
æu ovnu wnuoov
ro Bam ue o ue+ there is nothing to worry about.
ôecnokonrtcx. ð+o us uaθuue mvwopu ooavm
Ho ecnn Bt nonaµëme n aµ, But if* you go* to hell,
oam uq mv eov mv xo:
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Bt óyoeme you`ll be
mv: ouu
rak, Bauy +amo, sanxrt so damn busy
cov oæ+ onsu
noxnmaa pyku npnxrena+, shaking hands with Iriends,
uieùruue xæuos wnð qpouos
(uro) y Bac ue óyoem you won`t have time
npemenn mv wovum xæe maù+
(÷ «Bam óyoem ueroeoa»)
ôecnokonrtcx . to worry ...
mvwopu
* Hanomnnam, uro
nocne cnona 'If¨ uq ÷ n eeo cmtcne «Ecuu»
n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
ue ynompeóuammca
nokasarenn ovovµeeo npemenn 'will¨ n 'shall¨.
119
118
«Hucmpy+eum»
$
oµnu+ us nonoreneu, with one of the towels
wnð wau oe ðomavo:s
koropte ecmo n nannOH that are in the bathroom
ðæm aa uu ðooaaθpyv+
(uro µenaem menx cyxu+ ÷ (which makes me dry).
÷ «opanr menx»). wnm: +oùrc +uu opaù
Hocne +roro x nosnpamamct AIter that I go back
aaqmo ðæm aù eov oær
e (ceor) cnantnm, to mv bedroom,
mv +aù o+opvv+
oµenamct n dress and
opoc æuo
npnuëctnamct brush my hair
opaui +aù x+o
nepeo sepkano+ in front of a mirror
uuqpaum oe o+npo
(x ouent nmônm cmorpert (I like to look at myself
ua ceóa, aù :aùr mv :yr æm +aùc+:q
%
& & & & & & very much
e+pu +am:
noromy uro because
ouroos
myxunna n sepkane the man in the mirror
ðo+æu uu ðo+npo
Horom x nµy e nannym, Then I go to the bathroom
ðou aù eov mv ðo oaaθpyv+
rµe xopomentko momct, where I have a good wash
w+o aù xæe oeyo woui
n rµe x +oey nert and where I can sing
æuo w+o aù ræu cuue
mon nmônmme necnu my IaIourite songS
+aù q+ùepum coues
rak rpomko, kak ¹ xouy. as loudly as ¹ I want.
æs :avo:u æs aù woum
«Hucmpy+eum»
$
× momct xonoµnoù I wash with cold
aù woui wnð rov:o
n ropxueù noµoù and hot water
æuo xom woomo
(uro µenaem menx (which makes me brisk),
+neprnunm+), wnm: +oùrc +uu opucr
«Hucmpy+eum»
$
mamnyne+ n mtno+ with shampoo and soap
wnð un+nvv æuo covn
(uro µenaem menx uncrm+) (which makes me clean),
wnm: +oùrc +uu r:uuu
n sarem x ntrnpamco and then I dry MYSELF
(÷ «opam ceóa») æuo ðou aù opaù +aùc+:q
121
120
n ue yxnnam and I eat no supper
æuo aù uum uov cano
eeuepo+, in the evening
uu ðonueuuue
rak kak (x) xouy since I want to
cuuc aù woum mv
côepeut nemnoro sµoponta. save some health.
coùe ca+ xo:θ
Okono 8 uacoe At about 8 o`clock
æm ooavm oùm or:or
x yxoxy ns ceoeù knaprnpm I leave my Ilat
(÷ «noknµam cnom .») aù :uue +aù q:æm
n nµy ua (ceom) paôory, and go to my oIIice
æuo eov mv +aù oquc
rak kak x ¹ ncë emë xouy since I ¹ still want to try
nonpoôonart cuuc aù cmu: woum mompaù
cramo ôontmoñ mnmkoñ to become a big boss
mooura+ oone ooc
n paôoramo and to work
æuo mvwœœr
no 16 uacon n µent 16 hours a day
cnrcmnuu avoc oo+ù
e+ecmo ¹ 8. instead of ¹ 8.
uucm+o oe oùm
× nµy nemkom, I walk
aù woor
moñ ca+mù uyuuuù µpyr). is my best Iriend).
us +aù oocm qpouo
× ôpemct kaxµoe yrpo, I shave every morning
aù uieùe +epu +oouuue
a nnorµa n neuepo+, and sometimes in the evening,
æuo ca+maù+s uu ðonueuuue
korµa kyµa-nnôyµt nµy. when I go out.
w+u aù eov avm
× µepxy I keep
aù ruun
ouent xopomym ôpnrny a very good razor
oe+pu evo p+ùso
n kakoñ-nnôyµt and some shaving cream
rpe+ o:» opumi» æuo ca+ uieùeuue rpuu+
na nonke on the shelI
ou ðouie:q
naµ pakonnnoñ. above the wash-basin.
ooae ðowouio+ùcuu
× ue sanrpakam I eat no breakIast
aù uum uov op+rqocm
ympo+, in the morning,
uu ðo+oouuue
1
rak kak xouy since I want to
cuuc aù woum mv
2
côepeut nemnoro µener, save some money,
coùe ca+ +auu
123
122
(ecuu x yxe ue rontñ) (unless I`m already naked)
au:ec aù+ oo:p+ou u+ùruo
n noxyct cnart and go to bed
æuo eov mv ooo
nocne µyma aIter taking shower
aaqmo m+ùruue unvo
(o ovue cm. nmme). (see above).
cuu ooae
Kak nnµnme, As you can see,
æs mv ræu cuu
x cnnm 7 uacoe I sleep 7 hours
aù c:uun coeu avoc
(kak npannno). (as a rule).
æs opyv:
ecnn ¹ µent xopomnñ, iI it`s ¹ a Iine day,
uq umc oqaùu ooù
nnn eµy ua anroôyce, or I take a bus
oo aù moùr ooac
ecnn ¹ nµër µoxµt, iI it`s ¹ raining,
uq umc p+ùuuue
noromy uro ¹ +ro µemenne, because ¹ it is cheaper
ouroos um us :mino
uem kynnrt sonrnk. than to buy an umbrella.
ðæu mooaù æua+op+:o
Hocne okonuauua paôorm AIter Iinishing my work
aaqmo qnuuuiuue +aù wœœr
x nosnpamamct oôparno I return back home
oo+où aù pumœœu oær xov+
n µenam ncë, uro +oey, and do whatever I can
æuo ovv wom+eo aù ræu
e+ecmo moeo, :mooi µenart instead of ¹ doing
(÷ «nmecro ¹ µenauua») uucm+o oe oyvuue
ncë, uro xouy. whatever I want.
wom+eo aù woum
Okono nonynoun At about midnight
æm ooavm +nouaùm
x nµy e cnantnm, I go to my bedroom,
aù eov mv +aù o+opvv+
pasµenamct undress
auop+c
125
124
1 2 " 2 1
nmecro +roro ¹ e rearp. to the theater ¹ instead.
mv ðo θnomo uucm+o
Mt c+ompeuu We saw
wn coo
«Hnkonym µamy», 'The Queen oI Spades¨
ðorwnuu oe cn+ùos
n x nacnaxµaucx em* and I enjoyed it*
æuo aù uuowiëùo um
upesntuañno. very much.
e+pu +am:
Heuue ôtno nennkonennm+, The singing was excellent,
ðocnueuue wos +rco:eum
n nenen, koroptñ neu and the singer who sang
æuo ðocnueo xvv cæue
rnannym naprnm, the leading part
ðo:nuouue naam
ôtn nepeoruaccum+ nenno+ was a first-rate singer
wos o qœœcm p+ùm cnueo
n y (nero) ómu ¹ kpacnntñ and had ¹ a beautiIul
æuo xæo oo·mvmuqv:
cnntntñ ronoc. strong voice.
cmpoue eoùc
Opkecrpo+ µnpnxnponau** The orchestra was conducted**
(÷ «. ómu vnpae:»e+ .») ðooorucmpo wos rouoarmuo
TEKCT X24
«O±HH H3 MOHX BEHEPOB»
'ONE OF MY EVENINGS¨
wau oe +aù nueuuues
3µect ocoóoe nnnmanne oôparnre na noouëpruymme qop+i
uenpaeu:iuix anrnnñcknx rnaronon (n na nx pycckne coomeem-
cmeu»!) sayuueaùme +rn qop+i npnuo n 1exc1e
npocro rar cuoea !!!
Buepa neuepom Yesterday evening
ecmoooù nueuuue
x pemnu noñrn I decided to go
aù oucaùouo mv eov
e knno, to the cinema,
mv ðo cnuo+o
no norom oouu +où µpyr but then a Iriend of mine
oam ðou oqp+uo oe +aùu
1 2 1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
sauëu nanecrnrt +eua came to see me
(÷ «...utoôt nonnµart...») roù+ mv cuu +uu
n npuuëc +ue and brought me
æuo opoom +uu
ônner ua onepV. a ticket for the opera.
omnrum qoo ðo ovnopo
Tak uro, x nepeµyuau So, I changed my mind
cov aù :oùuoiwio +aù +aùuo
n nouëu and went
æuo w+um
127
126
n mt nouuu and we went
æuo wn w+um
e ôy]er to the reIreshment-room
mv ðopuqp+ui+oum pvv+
(utoôt) ntnnrt to have
mv xæe
no ôokanv mamnanckoeo. a glass of champagne.
oe:aac oe u»+n+ùu
Tam y uac cocmoauaco There we had
(«Y nac ôtna») ð+o wn xæo
ouent nnrepecnax ôeceµa a very interesting talk
o e+pu numpucmuue moor
oó onepe n about opera and
ooavm ovnopo æuo
o rekymux coôtrnax. about current events.
ooavm rapoum ue+umc
Hocne rearpa AIter the theater
aaqmo ðoθnomo
mt nouuu ¹ nporynxrtcx. we went ¹ Ior a walk.
wn w+um qoo owoor
Horoµa ôtna npekpacnoù The weather was Iine
ðow+ðo wos qaùu
n ómuo ouent menuo. and it was **** very warm.
æuo um wos e+pu woo+
Mue ouent upaeumca I like
aù :aùr
Ke+?
$
ouent nsnecrntñ by a very Iamous
(÷ «nsnecrnm+») oaù oe+pu q+ù+oc
µnpnxëp(-o+) n conductor and
rouoarmo æuo
mystka ôtna sameuarentnoù. the music was wonderIul.
ðo+·mvsur wos wauooqv:
Hockontky mt cuoeuu n noxe Since we sat in a box
cuuc wn cæm uu ooorc
neµaneko om cnenB, not Iar from the stage,
uom qaa qpo+ ðocm+ùowi
(ro) mt +oeuu nnµert ncë we could see everything
wn rvo cuu +epuθuue
ouent xopomo, n very well and
e+pu w+: æuo
x oóuapyxuu, uro I found that
aù qavuo ðæm
µekopannu ôtnn*** the scenery was*** marvellous.
uyµecntmn. ðocnuupu wos +aaeo:oc
Bo epe+a anrpakra During the interval
o·mopuue ðonumoe:
x ecmpemuu I met
aù +om
oouoeo ceoeeo crapoeo µpyra, an old Iriend of mine
æuov:o qpouo oe +aùu
129
128
TEKCT X25
«BCTPEHAR ±PYIA»
'MEETING A FRIEND¨
+numuue oqp+uo
× esau rakcn n I took a taxi and
aù mvr omærcu æuo
noexau e a+ponopr, went to the airport
w+um mv ðo+onoom
utoôt ncrpernrt to meet
mv +uum
oouoeo +oeeo an old Iriend of mine
crapoeo µpyra, æuov:o qpouo oe +aùu
koroptñ npuuemau who was coming
xvv wos ra+uue
+ru+ yrpo+ this morning
ðuc +oouuue
us-sa rpannnm. from abroad.
qpo+ oopooo
Xorx ¹ ómuo * Although ¹ it was *
oo:ðov um wos
pannee y1po, early morning
œœ:u +oouuue
a+ponopr ôtn the airport was
ðo+onoom wos
nonon xnsnu. Iull of liIe.
qv: oe :aùq
+ror rnn noroµm. this type of weather
ðuc maùn oe w+ðo
very much
e+pu +am:
Crannrcx n konen
npeµnoxennx.
× npuuëu µomoñ I came home
aù roù+ xov+
r nonynouu by midnight
oaù +nouaùm
n cuacrnnntñ. and happy.
æuo xænu
* «Hnkonax µama» ue xenmnna, a onepa, no+romy-ro ona “it”,
a ue “she”;
** Haccnnnan roucmpvrµu»;
*** Bnµnre:
no-pycckn «oeropaµuu» no +uoxecmeeuuo+ uncne,
a no-anrnnñckn n eouucmeeuuo+ (“scenery”) !
Ho+romy nocne cnona “scenery”
n nyxno ynorpeônrt 'was¨, a ue “were”;
**** B npaeuuouo+ n nouuo+ anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
oóasameuouo µonxen npncyrcrnonart cyózerm
(ro ecrt npeo+em nnn :uµo) nnn cnono, ero sa+eu»rµee.
3µect nmecro cvo·erma ncnontsyercx +ecmou+euue “it”.
131
130
sanrpakaun were having breakIast
wœœ xæeuue op+rqocm
nepeo before
ouqoo
nocaµkoù na cauouë1. getting on board.
e+muue ou oooo
Kar mo:iro As soon as
æs cvvu æs
paµno oô¡xnnuo, the radio announced ****
ðop+ùouov ouavucm
uro camonër that the plane
ðæm ðon:+ùu
ns CnµneB Irom Sidney
qpo+ cnouu
no1-no1 ¹ cnµe1****, was**** about ¹ to land
wos ooavm mv :æuo
nocnntmnkn n the porters and
ðonoomos æuo
nesµecymue rakcncrm the omnipresent taxi- drivers
ðo ov+uunp+sum mærcu opaùeos
nooóexauu came hurrying out
roù+ xapuue avm
r «Hpnnëry» to the 'Arrivals¨
mv ðo opaùe:s
n ceoeù neunoù in their eternal
(«n uxneñ») uu ð+o umœœu:
Fontmue anroôycm Big buses
oue oacus
npueosuuu were bringing
wœœ opnueuue
nyremecrnennnkoe ns ropoµa. travellers Irom town.
mpæe:es qpo+ mavu
B nnxne+ sane In the hall downstairs
uu ðoxoo: oavucmoos
naccaxnpa+ eseeuueauu ** passengers were having
næcuuowies wœœ xæeuue
nx ôarax their luggage weighed**
ð+o :aeuoiwi w+ùo
n npoeepauu** nx and their passports
æuo ð+o naacnoomc
nacnopra n ônnert. and tickets examined**.
æuo mnrumc uesæ+uuo
Hocnntmnkn (pas)uocuuu Porters were carrying
noomos wœœ ræpuue
ôarax naccaanpoe` ***. passengers` *** luggage.
næcuuowiec :aeuoiwi
B pecropane nanepxy In the restaurant upstairs
uu ðop+cmpoue ancm+oc
x oóuapyxuu I found
aù qavuo
mnoro nmµeù, koropte many people who
++uu nuun: xvv
133
132
nacnoprntñ konrpont passport control
naacnoom roumpov:
n nomua ua ramoxnm, and walked to the customs
æuo woorm mv ðoracmo+s
utoôt nx ôarax to have their luggage
mv xæe ð+o :aeuoiwi
ómu npoeepeu ** checked **
:orm
Ke+ ?
$
ramoxennnka+u. by the customs-oIIicers.
oaù ðoracmo+s oqucos
* B npaeuuouo+ n nouuo+ anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
oóasameuouo µonxen npncyrcrnonart cyózerm (ro ecrt
npeo+em nnn :uµo) nnn cnono, ero sa+eu»rµee.
3µect nmecro cvo·erma ncnontsyercx +ecmou+euue “it”;
** 3µect n µanee +ro npnmept roucmpvrµuù,
korµa uro-ro µenaercx «uyxu+u pvra+u»,
nanpnmep:
1 2 3 " 1 2 3
«Mue ¹ nouuuuuu ¹ uact» ÷ 'I had ¹ my watch ¹ repaired”;
*** Korµa ua rouue cnona yxe ecrt “-s” nnn µpyrax uun»µa»
cornacnax, ro µnx oôosnauennx «e:aoe:iµa» moxer ôtrt
µocrarouno 1outxo anocmpoqa, nanpnmep:
“My sisters’ dresses” ÷ «Hnartx monx cecrëp»;
norone sa knnenra+u. hunt for clients.
(«oxore») xaum qoo r:aùoumc
Hocue moeo rar (ca+o:èm) After making
cµenan aaqmo ++ùruue
(÷ «Hocne µenauua .»)
ouent kpyrntñ kpyxok a very round circle
o e+pu pavuo cœœr:
uao a+ponopro+, over the airIield
oveo ðo +oquu:o
nnnor n ero komanµa the pilot and his crew
ðonaù:om æuo xus rpvv
(«uxurr»)
nocaµnun ceom mamnny landed their machine
:æuouo ð+o +ouinuu
n noµpynnun and taxied up
æuo mærcuo an
r sµannm a+ponopra. to the airport-building.
mv ðo +onoom on:ouue
Ipynna naccaxnpoe A group of passengers
oepyvn oe næcuuowies
nennno emuua us lazily got out off
:+ùsu:u eam avm oq
orpomnoeo camonëra, the huge plane,
ðox·mvowi n:oùu
2 cnona " 1 cnono
npomua uuroeoa ue cnaunñ passed the never-sleeping
naacm ðo u+eo c:nunuue
135
134
TEKCT X26
«HHCLMO» 'A LETTER¨
o:emo
¡oporoñ µpyr! Dear Iriend!
ono qpouo
Mne It gives me
um eues +uu
ouent npnxrno a great pleasure
o epoùm n:+we
(÷ «Mne µocrannxer ôontmoe yµonontcrnne»)
ysnart, uro to learn that
mv :œœu ðæm
rt nuauupyeuo you are planning
mv aa n:æuuue
nocernrt nam ropoµ. to visit our city.
mv ensum avo cnmu
× snam, (uro) I know (that)
aù uov ðæm
rt ua+epeeaeuoca ¹ you are going to ¹ stay
¹ ocranonnrtcx mv aa eovuue mv cmoù
n rocrnnnnE, in a hotel,
uu o xovm+:
rak uro, +oey* reôx ynepnrt, so I can* assure you
cov aù ræu oumo mv
**** Pas npeoiovµuù n +1ou (anrnnñckom) npeµnoxennn e:aeo:
(“announceD”)
cronr n npoueoue+ epe+euu,
ro n noc:eovrµuù n +rom xe npeµnoxennn (anrnnñcknñ) e:aeo:
moxe µonxen croxrt n npoueoue+ npemenn (“was”)!
3µect paôoraer «Hpaeu:o coe:acoeauu» epe+èu» (crp. 381)!
NB:
“Be about to …” – ouu ooavm mv ÷
÷ «Coônpartcx (uro-ro cµenart)»
n us+eu»emc» n +rom eipaweuuu
mouoro rnaron “be”.
137
136
npa+o e rocrnnnnV, straght to the hotel,
cmpoùm mv ðo xovm+:
rak uro, rt ue nomepaeuo so you`ll lose no time.
npemenn. cov mv: :vvs uov maù+
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Tam rt uaùoëuo n There you`ll also find
ð+o mv: oo:cov qaùuo
nce nosmoxnte yµoôcrna, all possible conveniences
oo: nocuo: rouenu·eucus
nknmuaa nennkonenntñ including a wonderIull
uur:yvouue o wauooqv:
pecropan c restaurant with
p+cmpoue wnð
nstckannOH kyxnEH. an exquisite cuisine.
æu urcrwnsum rwusnuu
(Ta) Iocrnnnna, The hotel
ðoxovm+:
o (koropoñ) x nnuy, I`m writing about
aù+ paùmuue ooavm
uaxooumca npxmo n nenrpE is right in the center
us paùm uu ðoc+umo
eopooA n of the city and
oe ðocnmu æuo
óo´ uouaa uacmo most of
+ovcm oe
uro sµect** ecmo mnoro that there are many
ðæm ð+o aa ++uu
xopomHX rocrnnnH, good hotels here**,
evo xovm+:c xno
n x coeuam ecë, umo +oey, and I`ll do my best
æuo aù: ovv +aù oocm
utoôt saôponnponart to book
mv ovr
ca+mù yµoôntñ the most comIortable
ðo+ovcm ra+qomoo:
nomep µnx meóa room Ior you
pvv+ qoo mv
n moeñ nmônmoñ rocrnnnnE. in my Iavourite hotel.
uu +aù q+ùepum xovm+:
Tak uro, ecnn rt xouemt So, iI you wish
cov uq mv wnui
ôtrt ynepennBM e +rom, to be certain about it,
moonu cœœmu ooavm um
noxanyñcra, nosnonH +ue please, give me a call
n:uus eue +uu oroo:
nepeo (me+, rar) npneµemt before you come here.
cmµa. ouqoo mv ra+ xno
× ua +auuue omeesy reôx I`ll drive you
aù: opaùe mv
c noksana from the station
qpo+ ðocm+ùuiu
139
138
+uoeo µen a lot of things to do.
(«utoôt cµenart»). o:om oe θuues mv ovv
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Iocrnnnna npeoocmaeum eñ The hotel will get her
θoxovm+: wn: eom xœœ
xopomEIO rnµA, a good guide
oeyo eaùo
1 cnono " 2 cnona
koroptñ noeooum eë who will take her
xvv wn: moùr xœœ
no ropoµV, round the city,
pavuo ðocnmu
nokaxer eù nce mysen will show her all the museums
wn: uëv xœœ oo: ðo+·rvsno+s
n npoñµërcx c ueù no and will go shopping with her
marasnnam, æuo wn: eov uënuue wnð xœœ
noka rt sanxr. while you are busy.
waù: mv aa onsu
× nomnm, uro I remember that
aù pu+++oo ðæm
eceeoa, roeoa ona nonyuaer whenever she gets
wou+eo uiu eomc
ckontko-nnôyµt µener, (ro) some money,
ca+ +auu
oµexµa +ro nepnoe, clothes are the Iirst thing
r:ovðc aa ðoqœœcm θuue
uyuuHX myseEB, the best museums,
ðoo+cm +·rvsno+s
rearpOB n knno theaters and cinemas
θnomos æuo cnuo+os
uaxooamca na paccroxnnH are within
aa wuðnu
neckontkHX mnnyr xoµtôB a Iew minutes walk
oq·mv +nuumc woor
nnn esµB om ueë***. or drive from it***.
oo opaùe qpo+ um
Ecmo rakxe n 1here is also
ð+o us oo:cov
ôontmoñ a big
o oue
konneprntñ san concert hall
roucom xoo:
npxmo uepes µopory**. just across the road**.
ow»cm orpoc ðopovo
Ecnn rnox ouaponarentnax xena II your charming wiIe
uq ëo :aa+uue waùq
npuesxaem is coming along
us ra+uue o:oue
c moóom, with you
wnð mv
y neë óyoem she will have
uiu wn: xæe
141
140
TEKCT X27
«TPEBOIH» 'TROUBLES¨
mpao:s
1 2 " 1¹2
× uuroeoa ue* ôtna I never* was
aù u+eo wos
n maroù rpyµnoñ in such a diIIicult
uu cam:o onqur:m
cnryannn pantme. situation beIore.
cum·r+ùuiu ouqoo
× ncerµa ntrauact I always tried
aù oo:woùs mpaùo
ue nmemnnamocx not to interIere
uom mv uumoqno
3 1 2 " 1 2 3
n µeua µpyrux nmµ`eù, in other people`s aIIairs,
uu aðo nnun:s oq+os
no xnsnt sacmae:»ua menx but liIe made ** me
oam :aùq +oùo +uu
µenamo +ro. do ** that.
ovv ðæm
Xorx x (n) ue xoreua Though I didn`t want
$
ðov aù ououm woum
$
nmemo ¹ uurarux to have ¹ any troubles
nenpnxrnocreù, moxæe +uu mpao:s
x peeyuapuo *** I used *** to
aù mvso mv
ua uro ona nx*** rparnr! she spends it*** on!
uiu cnouos um ou
* Ho-anrnnñckn ueuosa ckasart npocro «Moev .»
rontko «B +oev .»,
rak kak nannune cyózerma (ro ecrt oeùcmevrµeeo :uµa)
n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn xnnxercx oóasameuoum+ !!!;
** Korµa Bt (no-anrnnñckn!) ronopnre,
uro 'here¨ nnn 'there¨ uro-ro «u+eemc»»,
ro anrnnñckoe «u+eemc»/u+ermc»» ÷ '1here is/are .¨
crannrcx e uauaue npeµnoxennx (nnn ero c+ic:oeoù uacrn),
a nor cnona, oôosnauammne «eoe» +ro «u+eemc»»
cranxrcx e roueu npeµnoxennx;
*** «Iocmuuuµa» n «oeuieu» ue nmµn,
no+romy n o rom, n o µpyrom anrnnuane ronopxr 'it¨.
Hpnuëm, anrnnñckoe cnono 'money¨ ÷ «oeuoeu» nmeer ront-
ko eµnncrnennoe uncno, a ue +uowecmeeuuoe, kak n pycckom.
Ho+romy o 'money¨ n ronopxr 'it¨, a ue 'thev¨.
143
142
uro nsmennuo moë mnenne that changed my mind
ðæm :+ùuoiwio +aù +aùuo
o npnknmuennax, about adventures,
ooavm ooe+um:os
koropte moxno nonyunrt available
(÷ «µocrynntx») oe+ù:oo:
n peantnom mnpe. in the real world.
nu ðopno: wœœ:o
× ómua ne µoma I was out
aù wos avm
rannenaua***** e dancing***** at
oæucuue æm
nsnecrnom knyôe, a well-known club
o w+: uovu r:ao
n ncm nout (nanponër) and throughout the night
æuo θpvvavm ðouaùm
x nocmoauuo****** I kept****** noticing
oôpamaua nnnmanne aù ronm uovmucuue
(na) µnyx monoµtx nmµeñ, two young people
mvv »ue nnun:
koropte omuuuauuco who stood out of the crowd
om (ocrantnoñ) ronnt xvv cmvvo avm oe ðorpavo
ouent pesko. in a big way.
uu oone w+ù
Oôa ómuu mnnnmym Both were at least
oovθ wœœ æm:nucm
n nnx nonaµaua*** come across*** them
ra+ orpoc ðo+
ncm ceom xnsnt. all my liIe.
oo: +aù :aùq
¡o ¹ neµannero npemenn Untill ¹ recently
aumn: pnucum:u
x uuroeoa ue* nepnua I never* believed
$ aù u+eo ou:nueo
$
uuraru+**** ncropnxm, any**** of the stories
+uu oe ðocmopus
(koropte) x unrana I`ve read
aùe poo
n xypnanax. in magazines.
uu +æeosuus
× nmem n nnµy, I mean
aù +uuu
(uro) nce +rn ncropnu all those stories
oo: ðovs cmopus
snyuaun o:» menx sounded to me
cavuouo mv +uu
kak ut`u-ro cnm. like somebody`s night-dreams.
:aùr ca+ooous uaùmopnu+s
uro-ro cnyunuoct co mnom, Something happened to me
ca+θuue xænuo mv +uu
oµnako, though,
ðov
145
144
Ona xe n npornnononoxnocrt She was by contrast
(emy) ómua uiu wos oaù roumpaacm
ncknmunrentno ôneµnoñ, an extremely pale
æu urcmpnu+:u noù:
c ptxnmn nonocamn, redhead,
(÷ «ptxyxoñ»), p+oxoo
n eë senënte rnasa and her green eyes
æuo xœœ epuuu aùs
µpamarnuno orrenxunct were dramatically offset
(÷ (ómuu . ommeueum .) wœœ opo+æmur:u oqc+m
He+?
$
eë by her
oaù xœœ
monouno-ôentm nnerom nnna. milk-white complexion.
+n:rwaùm ro+n:+ruiu
Hamn rnasa ecmpemuuuco, Our eyes met
avo aùs +om
n +ro ómu and this was
æuo ðuc wos
nepemù mar the first step
ðoqœœcm cmon
(no nanpannennm) r towards
mowooos
monm rpenoram. my troubles.
+aù mpao:s
(no) mecrt ]yron pocrom, six Ieet tall
curc quum moo:
n kaxµtñ (ns nnx) ôtn kpacnn and each was beautiIul
æuo uum: wos oimvmuqv:
no-cnoemy. in his own way.
uu xus ovu w+ù
On ómu uëpntm, He was black
xu wos o:ær
n ntrnxµeu, kak ecuu óm and looked as if
æuo :vrm æs uq
on ómu nsnaau he was sculptured
xu wos cra:n:oo
ns (uau-)nperpacueùueeo oI the finest
oe ðoqaùuucm
uëpnoro µepena. abony.
+oouu
Ero nonocm ******* His hair*******
xus x+o
ómuu******* crxnymt ryro was******* pulled tight
wos nv:o maùm
na ¹ sartnke, at ¹ the back oI his head
æm ðooær oe xus xoo
a ero rnasa and his eyes
æuo xus aùs
ómuu nponsnrentno rony- were a piercing blue.
ôtmn (÷ «.nponsnrentnoñ wœœ onnucuue o:mv
ronyônsnoñ»).
147
146
PACmHPEHHLE KOMMEHTAPHH
I never was ., ÷ × HHkorµa HE ôtn(a) .,
I never believed ÷ × HHkorµa HE nepnn(a) .
n anrnnñckom xstke ecrt cnona,
koropte CPA3Y xe snauar
«HHkorµa HE .», «HHkro HE .»,
«HHuro HE .» n r. n., no+romy
npnôannxrt k nnm
emë oµno ompuµauue 'NOT¨ nnn 'NO¨
HE nyxno !;
'. other people`S aIIairs¨ ÷ «. µena µpyrHX nmµEH»
nanomnnam, uro npnôannenne k cnony
ôyknt '`s¨ uepes anocmpoq
osnauaer «euaoeuoua» uero-nnôyµt,
npnuëm nopxµok cnon
n oôxsarentnom nopxµke H3MEHBETCB
n ntrnxµnr cneµymmnm oôpasom:
1 2 3
«¡pyrnx nmµ`eñ µena»,
ro ecrt CHAHABA crannrcx «BHAµEHEH»,
a rontko HO1OM ro, ¹EM «e:aoerm»;
'. liIe MADE me .¨ rnaron 'MAKE¨ n couerannn c
µpyrnmn rnaronamn nmeer snauenne
«sacmaeuamo», «npuuvwoami».
Hpn ynorpeônennn ero n +rom snauennn
n1opon rnaron
(ro ecrt mo, H1O sacmae:»rm µenart)
ncnontsyercx n 1-n (÷ c:oeapuoù) qop+e
(÷ BE3 uacrnnt 'to¨),
nanpnmep:
She MADE me ¹ SOLJE this problem.
uiu +oùo +uu co:e ðuc npoo:e+
Ona sacmaeuua menx pemnrt +ry npoônemy.
* B anrnnñckom xstke o1cy1c1nym1 oeoùuie ompuµauu»,
no+romy cnono 'never¨ cpasy xe snaunr «uuroeoa ue»;
** Hocne rnarona 'make¨ n ero cmtcne «sacmaeuamo»
nepeµ noc:eovrµu+ rnaronom ue uyxua :acmuµa 'to¨:
Ona sacrannxer nac ¹ cmexrtcx! ÷ She makes us ¹ laugh!;
uiu +oùrc ac :aaq
*** Oôopor 'use to ¹ e:aeo:¨ nepeµaër/oôosnauaer
peeyuapuocmo, noemopae+ocmo µeñcrnnñ.
B ocnonnom, ncnontsyercx n npoueoue+ npemenn!
«Bpe+a» sµect mt nokastnaem qop+où rnarona 'use¨:
'used to .¨ ÷ npoueouee npemx;
**** 'Any¨ nocne nmôoro ompuµauu» (n nocne 'never¨)
snaunr «uuraroù»;
***** Takoñ qop+où noµuepknnaercx npouecc
(«× ôtna. n mauueeaua»);
****** Coueranne 'Keep ¹ INGoea» qop+a rnarona¨
nepeµaër nocmoauuoe µeñcrnne;
******* Hpomy Bac oôparnrt ocoóoe nnnmanne na ro,
uro n µannom cnyuae n anrnnñckoñ uacrn
ynorpeônena qop+a 'WAS¨ ro ecrt rnaron 'BE¨
n npoueoue+ npemenn n n eouucmeeuuo+ uncne,
rorµa kak n pycckoñ uacrn rnaront n nponsnoµnte or nnx qop-
+i croxr no +uowecmeeuuo+ uncne («oi:H», «sam»uvmB»).
3ro npnmep roro, uro cymecrnymr anrnnñckne cnona, nmem-
mne 1outxo eouucmeeuuoe uncno (sµect, nanpnmep, cnono
'hair¨ ÷ «eo:ocB»), n c koroptmn anrnnñckne rnaront rakxe
ynorpeônxmrcx 1outxo n eouucmeeuuo+ uncne
('is¨, 'was¨).
149
148
B +roñ roucmpvrµuu no :uµa+ n no epe+eua+
nsuenne1cn TOHIKO rnaron 'KEEP¨
('kept¨ +ro 2-n qop+a,
ro ecrt npoueouee npemx rnarona 'keep¨ ÷
÷ n µannom cnyuae: «npooo:waua»);
. WAS sculptureD, ÷ rouno kak no-pycckn: «BMB nsnaBH»,
. WAS pullED tight ÷ «BMBu nnorno sarxny1t»
qop+a na '¹(e)D¨ ÷ 'pullED¨
+ro 3-n qop+a rnarona,
xnnxmmaxcx naccnnntm onpeoeueuue+.
He tried to MAKE me ¹ REGRET about it.
xu mpaùo mv++ùr +uu puep+m ooavm um
On (no)ntrancx sacmaeumo menx coxanert oô +rom;
'I didn`t want to .¨ o1pnna1eutnan qop+a e:aeo:oe
n anrnnñckom xstke oôpasyercx npn nomomn
4 ompuµame:iuix :acmuµ:
'DOA`1¨ n 'DOESA`1¨ (µnx uacmoaueeo npemenn),
'DIDA`1¨ (µnx npoueoueeo npemenn)
'WOA`1¨ (µnx óyoyueeo npemenn),
koropte nonnocrtm coornercrnymr pycckomy «. ue.».
Onn (+rn 4 anrnnñcknx «ue») pasµenxmrcx no epe+eua+,
no+romy
+rnmn xe uacmuua+u mt nokastnaem n epe+a «ompuµauu»»
(nnn no uu+ mt nnµnm/cntmnm epe+a +roro «ompuµauu»»);
'I USED to .¨ rnaron «USE»
n couerannn c µpyrnmn rnaronamn
npnµaër µeñcrnnm snauenne noemop»e+ocmu, peeyuapuocmu.
On nsmenxercx
no :uµa+ (I/you/we/they usE to ., he/she/it useS to .)
n no epe+eua+ ('. useD to .¨),
n moxer nepenoµnrtcx «uee:aeo:iui+u» cnonamn
(nanpnmep, uape:u»+u)
«peeyuapuo», «sauacmym», «oómuuo» n r. n.;
'I kept noticing him¨ ÷ «× nocmoauuo oôpamana na nero
nnnmanne».
'I kept noticing that .¨ ÷ «× ncë npemx sameuana, uro .»
coueranne rnarona 'KEEP¨
c INGoeoù qop+où µpyroro rnarona
osnauaer nocroxnnym noemopae+ocmo µeñcrnnx,
oôosnauaemoro +rnm opyeu+ rnaronom.
151
150
× ôtnA ram oµnA, I was there alone,
aù wos ð+o o:ovu
1ax ae xax n so was
cov wos
moH crapMH µpyr X., my old Iriend X,
+aù ov:o qpouo orc
koropOIO x ue euoe:a whom I hadn`t seen
(oo +roro momenra) xvv+ aù xæoum cuuu
+uoeo uem. for years.
qoo ùnos
× ne µonxna ómBa I diDn`t have to
aù ououm xæe mv
ronopnrt emy, uro tell him that
mo: xu+ ðæm
x ôtnA n pasrapE I was in the middle
aù wos uu ðo+no:
nmôonnOIO kpnsncA of a love crisis
oe o :ae rpaùcuc
on yxe µoraµaBcx he had already guessED.
(«k romy npemenn»). xu xæo oo:p+ou eocm
Bor nouemy That`s why
ðæmc waù
on npeµnOÆHB he suggestED
xu coowiecmuo
nepeñrn ns ôapA moving Irom the bar
(«nepexoµ») +yveuue qpo+ ðooaa
TEKCT X28
H sµect $ oôpamañre ocoóoe nnnmanne
na ntµenennte orou:auu» pyccknx us+euae+mx cnon,
koropte n anrnnñckom ue nsmenxmrcx.
Takxe cneµnre
sa uecoomeemcmeue+ pyccknx n anrnnñcknx npeo:oeoe.
«HHTPHÆKA» 'AN AFFAIR¨
æu oq+o
3ro nponsomBo, It happenED
um xænuo
nnn, ckopee, or, rather,
oo paaðo
HE nponsomBo it diD no´ ´ ´ ´´ t happen
um ouo uom xænu
e oµnOH rocrnnnnE at a hotel in London.
n HonµonE. æm oxovm+: uu :auoou
Takax rocrnnnna, The kind oI hotel
(«Tnn») ðoraùuo oe xovm+:
rµe napt where couples
w+o ran:s
perncrpnpyK1cx kak sign in as
caùu uu æs
mncrep n mnccnc Cmnr Mr. and Mrs. Smith
+ncmo æuo +ncus c+uθ
nnn Mp. n Mcc. ¡xoync. or Mr. and Mrs. Jones.
oo +ncmo æuo +ncus owëvus
153
152
uro x ue c+oeua* óm that I couldn`t* handle
cnpannrtcx (c) ðæm aù rvoum xæuo:
uu c kakHMH µononnnrent- any more complications
nMMH rpyµnocrBMH +uu +oo ro+n:ur+ùuius
n cnoEH** xnsnH. in my** liIe.
uu +aù :aùq
¡ena oôcroxBn Things were
θuues wœœ
µocrarouno nnoxo, bad enough, I sighED.
nsµoxnyBa x. oæo uuaq aù caùo
Korµa mt ¹ noou»Buci As we ¹ maDe our way
æs wn +oùo avo w+ù
nnepx no necrnnnE, up the stairs,
an ðocm+os
on µaB mne he gave me
xu eoùe +uu
1 2 3 " 2 3 1
nomep cnoEH** komnarM his** room number
xus pvv+ ua+oo
npocro ¹ na ror cnyuañ, just ¹ in case
ow»cm uur+ùc
(ecnn) x nepeµymam. I change(d) my mind.
aù :oùuoiwi(o) +aù +aùuo
«Mt emë óyoe+ 'Will we still be
wn: wn cmu: ouu
e oµnV us to one of
mv wau oe
orµentnMX komnar. the private rooms.
ðo npaùeum pvv+s
3µect x paccrasaBa emy, Here I tolD him
xno aù mov:o xu+
n uëm ôtnA moB npoônema. what my problem was.
wom +aù npoo:e+ wos
On oaB mne rpesntñ, He gave me sober,
xu eoùe +uu covoo
pannoµymntñ coner. disinterested advice.
ousnumpucmuo ooeaùc
Hocue uacOB cnË3 n Hours oI tears and
avos oe mnoc æuo
µepxauua sa pykn hand holding later,
xæuo xov:ouue :+ùmo
on npeµnOÆHB, uroôt he suggestED that
xu coowiecmuo ðæm
mt yµannnnct we retire
wn pumaùo
e ero cnantnK. to his bedroom.
mv xus o+opvv+
× ckasaBa «HET», I saiD* no,
aù coo uov
uro +ro neyµaunax mtcnt, that it wasn`t* a good idea,
ðæm um wosum oeyo aùono
155
154
TEKCT X29
«MYÆHHHL H ÆEHmHHL CEIO±HR»
'MEN AND WOMEN TODAY¨
+ou æuo wn+uu moo+ù
× nepm, uro I believe that
aù ou:nue ðæm
uuroeoa ue ómuo there`s never been
ð+os u+eo ouuu
óouee nnrepecnoro npemenn a more exciting time
o +oo urcaùmuue maù+
(utoôt) ôtrt xenmnnoñ. to be a woman.
moonu owy++u
Koneuno, emë cyuecmeymm Sure, there are still
(÷ «u+emmca») umo ð+o aa cmu:
mnoro «ntsonoe» many 'challenges¨
++uu :æ:euoiwius
nepanencrno n yponne the disparity in levels
ðo oucnæpumu uu :eeo:c
onnarm myxunn n xenmnn, of pay for men and women,
oe noù qoo +ou æuo wn+uu
nocroxnnax yrposa the constant threat
ðo roucmoum θpom
nacnnna n npecrynnocru, of violence and crime,
oe eaùo:ouc æuo rpaù+
ynekoneunnanne the perpetuation
ðo nœnom·r+ùuiu
µpystxMH, Iriends,
qpouos
ncxnnnnyBa x, I sobbED,
aù cooo
ecnn*** x ue iI I don`t***
uq aù ooum
nepeµymam?»***. change*** my mind?¨.
:oùuoiwi +aù +aùuo
On ¹ rueuyB mne, He ¹ gave me a nod
xu eoùe +uu ouoo
uro uorBo nerkO that coulD easiLY
ðæm rvo nusu:u
snaunrt «Her», have meant 'No¨
xæe +oum uov
mar xe rar u «¡a». as 'Yes¨.
æs ùec
* Oôparnre nnnmanne: nce 3 cnona nmemr qop+v npoueoueeo
npemenn +ro npnmep oõnsa1eutnoro «coe:acoeauu» epe+èu»
nnyrpn anrnnñckoro npeµnoxennx (crp. 381);
** Homnnm, uro ooµeeo cnona «ceoù» n anrnnñckom uem !;
*** Hocne 'if¨ n 99° cnyuaen ue ynompeóuammca
'will¨ n 'shall¨
(kpome eipaweuu» eew:ueocmu
'iI you will!¨ ÷ «noxanyñcra!»).
157
156
x uyncrnym (npncyrcrnne) I sense an optimism
onrnmnsm(a) aù couc æuonmu+us+
(e eosovxe). in the air.
uu ðo +o
Ou ecmo ne rontko It`s there not only
umc ð+o uom ovu:u
noromy, uro ¹ monoµte because ¹ young women
xenmnnt ouroos »ue wn+uu
ceroµnx cnntnEe**, today are strongEr**,
moo+ù aa cmpoueo
xpaôpEe**, bravEr**,
op+ùeo
óouee ncknmunrentnt**, more exceptional**
+oo urc+nuiu:
uem ¹ roeoa oi mo uu oi:o, than ¹ ever,
ðæu +eo
no marwe u noromy, uro, but also because,
oam oo:cov ouroos
necmorpx na ecë óouee despite the ever-more
oucnaùm ðo +eo+oo
konkypenrnoe n nanpxxënnoe competitive and stressIul
ro+n+mumue æuo cmp+cqv:
oômecrno, n koropom mt society in which we live,
xnnëm, cocaùomu uu wnm: wn :ue
nosmoxnocru the opportunities
ðo onom·mvuumus
Ke+?
$
onpeµenënnt+u by certain inIluential
nnnxrentnt+u oaù cœœmu uuq:r+uui:
kpyra+u oômecrna strands of society
cmpæuos oe cocaùomu
cmemnmx xenckux of ridiculous Iemale
oe puonr·r:oc quu++ù:
crepeornnoe, stereotypes,
cmnpuovmaùnc
nepannonecne nnacru. the imbalance of power.
ðo u+oæ:ouc oe navo
× +oeua óm npoµonxart. I could go on.
aù rvo eov ou
Ho, npanµa rakona , But, the truth is,
oam ðompyvθ us
(uro) ônaroµapx npeµtµymnm thanks to previous
θæurc mv npneioc
nokonennxm weuµuu generations of women,
oiwieuop+ùuius oe wn+uu
npemena menxmmca*. times are changing*.
maù+c aa :+ùuoiwiuue
Korµa x pasronapnnam When I talk
w+u aù moor
c µpyrnmn to other young women,
monoµtmn xenmnnamn, mv aðo »ue wn+uu
159
158
e mo epe+» rar ¹ uncno while ¹ the number
waù: ðoua+oo
paôoramunx xenmnn oI working women
oe wœœruue wn+uu
µeñcrnnrentno nospocuo has actually risen
xæs ær:vo:u paùsu
ua 2 mnnnnona****. by 2 millioA****.
oaù mvv +n:iou
Myxunnt +oeym ómmo Men can be excited
sannrpnronaut +ou ræu ouu urcaùmuo
Ke+?
$
cnntnm+u by powerIul,
oaù navoqv:
yµaunnnm+u xenmnna+u, successIul women,
corc+cqv: wn+uu

no marxe onn +oeym but they can
oam ðoù ræu
uyncrnonart ceôx feel intimidated
ncnyrauntmn. quu: uumu+uo+ùmuo
Ke+?
$
u+u. by them, too.
oaù ðo+ mvv
Oouu 30-nernnñ xonocrxk A 30-years-old bachelor says:
ronopnr: o θœœmu ùnos ov:o oæm:o:o cos
µnx xenmnn u+emmca. Ior women are there.
qoo wn+uu aa ð+o
Ho uro-ro But something
oam ca+θuue
nponcxoµum* c myxunnamn. is happening* to men.
us xænuuue mv +ou
Ioeopam, (uro) " 1hey say***
ðoù coù
nm rpyµno they`re having trouble*
ðoùp xæeuue mpao:
«yµepxnnart ronont 'keeping their heads
rnunuue ð+o xoos
uao noµoñ» above water¨
ooae woomo
rar nmôonnnkam, rar ornam as lovers, as Iathers
æs :aeos æs qaaðoc
n rar paôornnkam. and as workers.
æuo æs wœœros
uncno paoomarµux +vw:uu The number oI men in work
ðoua+oo oe +ou uu wœœr
cokparnuoco noumu ua has dropped by almost
(«ynano») xæs oponm oaù oo:+ovcm
3 mnnnnona**** 3 millioA****
θpuu +n:iou
sa nocneµnne 20 ner, over the last 20 years,
oveo ðo:aacm mw+umu ùnos
161
160
ona menx ôpocnua». she dumped me¨.
uiu oa+nm +uu
Xorx u+emmca (n) Though, there are
ðov ð+o aa
µpyrne cnyuan. other cases.
aðo r+ùcus
Oouu 29-nernnñ A 29 years-old
o mw+umu uaùu ùnos ov:o
meneµxep no npoµaxam sales executive says:
pacckastnaer: coù:s urs+r·rmue cos
«× sapaôartnam 'I earn
aù œœu
eopasoo +euoue, much less
+am: :ec
uem mox noµpyra. than my girl-Iriend.
ðæu +aù eœœ:qpouo
× ncerµa suau, I always knew
aù oo:woùs u·mv
(uro) oua xopouo no:v- she was a high earner******
:aem****** («nonyuaua»), uiu wos o xaù œœuo
µaxe µo roro, even beIore
uueu ouqoo
kak mt uauauu we started dating.
ecmpeuamoca. wn cmaamuo o+ùmuue
3mo ue It`s not
umc uom
«uertpe roµa ¹ 'Four years ¹ ago
¹ (mo+y) uasao qoo ùnos oeov
x ncrpeuaucx c ¹ µenymkoñ, I dated ¹ a girl,
aù o+ùmuo oeœœ:
koropax sapaôartnaua who earned
xvv œœuo
e oea pasa óououe, ue+ twice as much as me*****,
x***** (÷ «oeaxom rar x»), mwaùc æs +am: æs +uu
n ôtna óouee ycnemua** and was more successIul**
æuo wos +oo corc+cqv:
n npo]eccnonantnom nnane. proIessionally.
npoq+uiu:u
Y neë ôtna «FMB», She had a BMW car,
uiu xæo o ouu o+ oao: mv raa
ôontmax knaprnpa, n ona a big Ilat and she
oone q:æm æuo uiu
nokynaua nemn na Fonµ-crpnr. shopped in Bond Street.
uènm uu oovuo cmpuum
Ho korµa ona nonxua, uro But when she realized that
oam w+u uiu pno:aùso ðæm
x (uaxoouuca) nnxE I was lowER than her*****
neë***** aù wos :ovo ðæu xœœ
na connantnoñ necrnnne, on the social ladder,
ou ðocovuie: :æoo
163
162
nnn na rom, uroôt or by
oo oaù
nporvmumi rarue-mo oeuieu blowing some monev
o:ovuue ca+ +auu
na pomanrnuecknñ oôeµ. on a romantic meal.
ou o pov+æumur +uu:
× oouxeu µenart +rn nemn, I have to do these things
aù xæe mv ovv ðuus θuues
utoôt ne µart paspymnrtcx to keep my ego intact¨.
moemy «oeo». mornun +aù neov uumærm
* Taknm oôpasom nepeµaercx npouecc,
ro ecrt «ouumeuouoe» oeùcmeue;
** Bor Bam cpasy oôa npnmepa oôpasonannx anrnnñcknx
cmeneueù cpaeueuu»:
1) '¹(e)R¨ k cnonam,
k koroptm emë uuraroe orou:auue ue ómuo npnôanneno:
('strong¨ " 'strongER¨
«cnntntñ» " «cnntnEe»);
2) 'more¨ (÷ «óoue-e») nepeµ cnonamn,
r koroptm yxe oi:o uro-ro npuoae:euo:
('exept¹ion¹al¨ " 'more exeptional¨);
*** B anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
oõnsa1eutno µonxen npncyrcrnonart cyózerm
(ro ecrt oeùcmevrµee :uµo).
Ho+romy n namn «oes:u:uie» ntpaxennx
«Ioeopam, uro .» nnn «Huuym, uro .»
aue:o»si:uie ncrannxmr mecronmenne «Ouu» ÷ '1hey¨,
n rorµa +rn ntpaxennx snyuar no-anrnnñckn yxe kak
«Ouu eoeop»m, uro .» ('1hey sav that .¨)
n «Ouu nuuvm, uro .» ('1hey write that .¨);
nacrontko ôontmoe µeno, a big enough issue
oone uuaq nc·rv
utoôt paspymnrt to ruin
my pyuu
nam ro+nuerc omuoueuuù, our relationship,
avo pu:+ùuiuuiun
no x nnorµa but I sometimes
oam aù ca+maù+s
uyncrnym ceôx Ieel emasculated,
kacrpnponauntm, quu: u+æcr·r:oùmuo
kak, nanpnmep, ¹ korµa ona such as ¹ when she pays
nnarum cam: æs w+u uiu noùs
sa nam orµtx Ior our holidays
qoo avo xo:uooùs
nnn pasônpaemcx co cuërom or picks up the bill
oo nurcan ðoon:
n pecropane. in a restaurant.
uu op+cmpoue
× nacrannam na rom, uroôt I insist on treating her
aù uucncm ou mpnumuue xœœ
epe+» om epe+euu µapnrt eñ now and again
uav æuo oe+ùu
manentkne noµapkn, with little presents
wnð :um: np+sumc
korµa ona +roro ue xoëm*, when she`s not expecting it*,
w+u uius uom urcn+rmuue um
165
164
{
TEKCT X30
H, na sakycky napa crpouek ns 'The Beatles¨:
«Ecuu óm x nnmônncx 'If I FELL in love*
uq aù qo: uu :ae
B reôx, With you,
wnð mv
Hooôemana BB rt hOULD you promise**
wvo mv npo+uc
Ftrt nepnoñ To be true
mv ouu mpvv
H nomout mne And HELP me ***
æuo xo:n +uu
Honxrt? Understand?
auoocmæuo
Horomy uro x (vwe) '`Cause I`ve been****
roos aùe ouuu
Bnmônxncx pantme IN love beIore,
uu :ae ouqoo
H x oônapyxnn, And I Iound
æuo aù qavuo
uro nmôont +ro ôontme, That love is more
ðæm :ae us +oo
uem npocro Than just
ðæu ow»cm
¡epxAHne sa pykn .». HoldING handS .¨*****.
xov:ouue xæuos
**** Ho-pycckn «3 mnnnnonA» (÷ +uox. uncno) uero-ro,
a no-anrnnñckn «3 mnnnnoH .» ( uero-ro)
÷ '3 millioA¨ (óes '¹S¨);
***** B oôopore
'as much as .¨ ÷ «cmo:iro we ., rar u .»,
«maroù we ., rar u .»
ncnontsyercx 1outxo (anrnnñckoe) oózermuoe mecronmenne.
Kpome +roro,
no-pycckn ecrt oee nosmoxnocrn
cpannnrt koro-nnôo c kem-nnôo:
1) On cnntnee, ¹ ue+ x,
n:
2) On cnntnee ¹ +eu».
Ho-anrnnñckn xe (ôyknantno!) nyxno/moxno ronopnrt
1outxo:
«On cnntnee ¹ ue+ +eua» !!!

%
Oózermuoe mecronmenne !
Coornercrnenno, ecë +ro ntrnxµnr cneµymmnm oôpasom:
me
you
As much ¹ as him
She is better ¹ than ¹ her
Ona - nyume, ¹ ue+ it
us
them;
****** 3ro npnmep «co:emae+ocmu epe+èu»,
rak kak oóe uacrn anrunncxoro npeµnoxennx
croxr n npoueoue+ npemenn.
167
166
(ro ecrt n ero c:oeapuoù ]opme).
3ro moxer rpakronartcx kak ocooeuuocmi
nnn eo:iuocmi, npncymax paseoeopuoù
peun, n nosnonnrt ceôe ynorpeônxrt eë
ueocosuauuo moryr rontko re, µnx koro
anrnnñcknñ xstk poµnoñ nnn nmµn,
xopomo snammne anrnnñcknñ
µnx uac xe +ro morno óm ôtrt ouuóroù;
**** '`Cause I`ve been IN love beIore .¨ . ' `Cause¨ ÷
÷ cokpamënnoe 'Because¨;
***** HoldIAG nanomnnam, uro oµno ns snauennñ
INGoeoù qop+i
+ro o1ruaroutnoe cvµecmeume:iuoe
co cmtcnom rnarona,
r koropomy '¹ing¨ npnôanneno:
'TO hold¨ ÷ «µepxaTB», a 'holdIAG¨ ÷ «oepwAHHE»,
'TO run¨ ÷ «ôeraTB», a 'runnIAG¨ ÷ «oee», «oeeAHLE»,
'TO smoke¨ ÷ «kypnTB», a 'smokIAG¨ ÷ «rvpEHHE»,
'TO shoot¨ ÷ «crpenxTB», a 'shootIAG¨ ÷ «cmpe:iBA».
KOMMEHTAPHH
* 'II ¹ I FELL in love .¨ ÷ «Ecuu óm ¹ x BHRBHBCB .»
nanomnnam, uro nocne 'IF¨ n ero cmtcne
«ECHH BM .» rnaront (kak n n pycckom
xstke!) ynorpeônxmrcx TOHIKO no 2-ñ
qop+e (r. e. n npoueoue+ npemenn):
'FELL¨ ÷ 2-x qop+a rnarona 'FALL¨ qoo: ÷ «naoami»;
** 'WOULD you promise .?¨ ÷ «Tt BM nooôemana . ?»
nonpoct c +ooa:iui+u +ue+euma+u
saµamrcx BE3 eonpocume:iuoù :acmuµi 'DO .?¨
ca+u+u +rnmn +ue+euma+u,
npnuëm o:e+eum ntnocnrcx
n HAuAHO npeµnoxennx!
Hponcxoµnr +ro noromy,
uro npn nomomn ncex anrnnñcknx eonpocume:iuix :acmuµ
(ro ecrt npn nomomn 'Do .?/ Does .?/ Did .?/ Will .?¨)
nonpoct saµamrcx r rnaronam,
a o:e+eumi rnaronamn ue xnnxmrcx !!!
H emë pas oôpamam Bame nnnmanne
na ro, uro (n ornnune or pycckoro ananora!)
rnaron, cueoymuuù sa o:e+euma+u 'would¨ n/nn 'should¨,
ynorpeônxercx HE n npoueoue+ npeme-
nn,
a 1outxo n cnoeñ CAOBAPHOH qop+e
(óes :acmuµi 'to¨);
*** . help me understand kak yxe ronopnnoct pantme,
rnaron 'help¨ ÷ «no+oeami» µonyckaer
ynorpeônenne nocneµymmero rnarona
(n µannom cnyuae, rnarona 'understand¨)
BE3 uacrnnt 'TO¨
169
168
n nnµemo nonme mecra. and to see new places.
æuo mv cuu u·mv n:+ùcus
Korµa Bt nonaµaeme e*** When you get to***
w+u mv eom mv
uyxym crpany, a Ioreign country,
oqopuu raumpu
Bt ncerµa xornme you always want
mv oo:woùs woum
ysnamo to learn
mv :œœu
xax uoano õoutme as much as possible
(÷ «cmouoro, crouoro æs +am: æs nocuo:
nosmoxno»)
o mecrax, about places
ooavm n:+ùcus
o (koroptx)**** Bt you`ve heard about *****.
cumxauu. mve xœœo   ooavm
Tak uro, ¹ Bt ncerµa So, ¹ you always
cov mv oo:woùs
oouxum ¹ unrart have to ¹ read
xæe mv puuo
nyrenoµnrenu city-guides
cnmu eaùos
n npocnrt and ask
æuo aacr
mecrnmx xnreneù local people
:ovr: nuun:
IAABA V
«O KHHIAX n OB AHIAHHCKOM»
TEKCT X31
B +rom rekcre oôparnre ocoóoe nnnmanne
na pasuuuy n ynorpeônennn (n n «ueynorpeônennn»!)
pyccknx n anrnnñcknx npeµnoron.
«BAÆHOCTL AHIAHHCKOIO»
'IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH¨
u+noomouc oe nue:uui
1 2 1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
× nmônm nyremecrnonamo. I like to travel.
aù :aùr mv mpæe:
× ôtn e(-o)* I have been to*
aù xæe ouuu mv
mnorux enponeñckux many European
++uu roponnou
crpanax. countries.
raumpus
¹ Bcerµa It is ¹ always
um us oo:woùs
ouent nonnymue very exciting
e+pu urcaùmuue
ncrpeuamocx c** to meet**
mv +uum
nont+u nmµi+u new people**
u·mv nuun:
171
170
xstko+ n mnpe. language in the world.
:æuewuowi uu ðowœœ:o
¹ Ouent nouesno It`s ¹ very useful
umc e+pu mvcqv:
óeeuo ronopnmo to speak English

$
no-anrnnñckn, mv cnuur nue:uui


" " " " " " " fluently q:mvoum:u
rak kak +ru snanna****** since this****** knowledge
cuuc ðuc uoo:uowi
nomoramm ynnuroxnmo helps****** to destroy
xo:nc mv oucmpoù
mnoxecrno nckyccrnennmx many artiIicial
++uu aamuqnuie:
ôaptepoe barriers
oæpuoc
mexµy nmµt+u. between people.
oumwnuu nuun:
* «Hooieami e .» no-anrnnñckn ôyµer 'have been to .¨,
a ue 'in¨;
** Meet people, ÷ «Bcrpeuartcx C nmµtmn»,
speak Russian ÷ «Ionopnrt HO pycckn», n r. n.
Ecrt cnyuan, korµa aueuuùcruù rnaron
ynorpeônxercx óes npeµnora,
a ero pvccruù +knnnanenr c npeµnorom!
(n naoôopor:
«xµart koro-ro» ÷ 'wait for someone¨);
o*** nomomu. for*** help.
qoo xo:n
Bo1 noueuy That`s (the reason) why
ðæmc ðopnusu waù
x oôpamam rak I pay so
aù noù cov
mnoro nnnmanna much attention
+am: om+uuiu
ua*** mou to*** my
mv +aù
sanxrna anrnnñcknm English lessons.
(÷ «anrnnñckne ypoku»). nue:uui :ecuc
Xorx mnorne (nmµn) Though many people
ðov ++uu nuun:
n Enpone in Europe
uu mvopon
ceùuac ronopam nnn speak or understand
nonnmamm cnuur oo auoocmæuo
no-pycckn, Russian now,
pauiu uav
anrnnñcknñ xstk the English language
ðo nue:uui :æuewuowi
ocraëmcx ca+m+ remains the most
pu++ùus ðo+ovcm
nonynxpnm+ popular international
mexµynapoµnm+ non·r:o uumouæuiu:
173
172
nanpnmep:
advice ÷ coner/-t hair ÷ nonoc/-t
ooeaùc x+o
craft ÷ cyµ/-no/-a knowledge ÷ snann/-e/-x
rpaaqm uoo:uowi
evidence ÷ µokasarentcrn/-o/-a luggage ÷ ôarax.
+euoouc :aeuowi
furniture ÷ meôent nonsense ÷ epynµa, uenyxa.
qœœuum:o uoucouc
Coornercrnenno, c +rnmn % anrnnñcknmn cnonamn
euaeoum ncnontsymrcx n eouucmeeuuo+ uncne
(ro ecrt c '¹(e)S¨):
1HIS evidence showS ... ÷ 3r/o(-n) µokasarentcrn/o(-a)
ðuc +euoouc uëv3 µemoncrpnpy/er(-mr) ...
1HE aircraIt IS big ÷ T/or(-e) camonër(-t) ôontm/oñ(-ne).
ðo +orpaaqm  u3 oue
PACmHPEHHLE KOMMEHTAPHH
'I have been 1O London¨ ÷ «× ôtn (HOFIBAH) B Honµone».
Emë pas nonropxm, uro
korµa ronopxr, kro n rµe «ómu» nnn
«noómeau» n cmtcne «nocemuu»,
ro oôtuno ncnontsymr qop+v:v
'. HAVE/ HAS BEEN ¹ 1O .¨,
n koropoñ pont «. e .» ntnonnxer
npeµnor '1O¨, a ne 'in¨.
Oµnako npomy Bac oôparnrt nnnmanne n na ro,
uro n µpyrnx cnyuaxx ynorpeônennx
+roñ qop+v:i c rnaronom 'BE¨
ncnontsyercx oôtuntñ npeo:oe 'IN¨:
I have been IN love beIore ÷ × nnmônxncx n pantme.
She has never been IA this situation ÷ Ona nnkorµa
ne ôt(na)na B +roñ cnryannn;
*** Get to a country, ask for help, Hanomnnam,
pay attention to . uro anrnnñcknm npeouoea+
HE ncerµa coornercrnymr
nx pycckne «opami»»;
**** '. places you`ve ÷ «. mecra, o romopmx
heard about¨ Bt cntxann».
Mt yxe snaem, uro cnono 'that¨
n anrnnñckom µonontno uacro nponyckaercx;
***** '... places you`ve heard ABOU1¨ ÷
÷ «... mecra, O (koroptx) Bt cntxann».
Cnoeoôpasnoñ ocoôennocrtm anrnnñckoro xstka
xnnxercx nosmoxnocrt crannrt HPEµHOIH
nocue cnon, k koroptm onn ornocxrcx,
a nmenno e caumn roueu npeµnoxennx.
Pantme +ra nosmoxnocrt ôtna ocoôennocrtm paseoeop-
uoeo xstka, renept xe ona ncnontsyercx ôes orpannuennñ,
nanpnmep:
The man I managed to talk 1O ÷
ðo+æu aù +æuuowio momoor mv
÷ ¹e:oeer, C koroptm mne yµanoct noronopnrt.
The girl you loved BEFORE ÷ µeevura, koropym
ðoeœœ: mv :aeo ouqoo rt nmônn µO ...
The help we thanked FOR ÷ Ho+oµi, 3A koropym mt
ðox+:n wn θæurm qoo (no-)ônaroµapnnn;
****** thiS knowledgE helpS n anrnnñckom cymecrnymr
cnona, ynorpeônxmmnecx no-anrnnñckn
TOHIKO n eouucmeeuuo+ uncne,
n ro npemx kak nekoropte
nx pycckne coomeemcmeu»
moryr nmert u eouucmeeuuoe,
u +uowecmeeuuoe uncna,
175
174
TEKCT X32
«YPOK AHIAHHCKOIO»
'AN ENGLISH LESSON¨
æu nue:uui :ecu
H n +rom $ rekcre rakxe oôpamañre ocoóoe nnnmanne
na pasuuuy n ynorpeônennn (n n «ueynorpeônennn»!)
pyccknx n anrnnñcknx npeµnoron.
V nac We are having
wn aa xæeuue
ceùuac ypok anrnnñckoro. an English lesson now.
æunue:uui :ecu uav
Ham yunrent cmoum Our teacher is standing
avo mmi:o us cmæuouue
y µocku n at the blackboard and
æm ðo o:æroooo æuo
nuuem ynpaxnenna (is)* writing exercises
paùmuue +rcocaùsus
n anrnnñckue cnona ua ueù. and English words on it.
æuo nue:uui wœœos ou um
On µenaem +ro He makes it
xu +oùrc um
Hucmpy+eum (¹e+?)
$
kycko+ mena. with a piece of chalk.
wnð onnuc oe :oor
Ham yunrent npenooaëm Our teacher is teaching
avo mmi:o us mmi:iue
you HAJE 1O ¹ read . oôopor 'HAJE TO ¹ IHAIOH
(n cuoeapuoù qop+e)¨
xnnxercx sa+euume:e+/ sa+ecmume:e+/ cnnonnmom
o:e+euma 'MUST¨ ÷ «µOHÆEHcrnonart»,
no c roñ pasnnneñ, uro 'MUST¨
HE us+euaemca no epe+eua+ n :uµa+,
a oôopor 'HAJE TO .¨ nsmenxercx,
nanpnmep:
I have to ¹ go home ÷ × oouxeu ¹ nµrn µomoñ.
÷ I must ¹ go home.
He has to ¹ go home ÷ On oouxeu ¹ nµrn µomoñ.
÷ He must ¹ go home.
Bce had to ¹ go home ÷ Bce oouxum ómuu ¹
¹ nµrn µomoñ.
Bce`ll have to ¹ go home ÷ Bce oouxum óyoym ¹
¹ nµrn µomoñ;
the English language Btpaxenne «aue:uùcruù »sir»
moxer snyuart no-anrnnñckn
n kak 'English¨,
n kak 'the English language¨,
rorµa kak ntpaxenne 'the English¨
snaunr «aue:u:aue»;
Honnocrtm ntpaxenne «Bom no:e+v .»
snyunr no-anrnnñckn kak 'That`s the reason whv .¨,
no ôonee nonynxpna ero «corpaµèuua»» nepcnx:
'That`s why .¨ ðæmc waù.
177
176
mt +oxe+ euoemo we can see
wn ræu cuu
ôontmoñ ropoµ. a big city.
oone cnmu
B nëm (ecmo)** ¹ mnoro 1here are** ¹ many
ð+o aa ++uu
ntcokux n kpacnnmx tall and nice
moo: æuo uaùc
sµannù. buildings in it**.
on:ouuec uu um
Horoµa nnoxax, The weather is bad,
ðo w+ðo us oæo
uoëm cnntntñ ooxoo it`s raining heavily.
(÷ «ooxoum cnntno»). umc p+ùuuue x+eu:u
Hacmynaem ocent, Autumn is coming,
oomo+ us ra+uue
nncrta +euamm the leaves are changing
ðo:nues aa :+ùuowiuue
ceou (÷ ux) nnera. their colors.
ð+o ra:oc
Hekoropte us uux Some of them
ca+ oe ðo+
ncë emë senënme, are still green,
aa cmu: epuuu
no ecmo** yxe but there are** already
oam ð+o aa oo:p+ou
ua+ anrnnñcknñ (xstk). English to us.
nue:uui mv ac
Yuamnecx ¹ cuoam The students ¹ are sitting
ðocm·mvooumc aa cnmuue
sa cnonmn crona+u at their desks
æm ð+o oocrc
n c+omp»m ua nero. and (are)* looking at him.
æuo aa :yruue æm xu+
Onn ¹ nuuym They are ¹ writing
ðoù aa paùmuue
Hucmpy+eum (¹e+?)
$
pyuka+u, with pens,
wnð nouc
a nepeo ¹ nnmn and in front of ¹ them
æuo uuqpaum oe ðo+
mt +oxe+ euoemo knnru, we can see books,
wn ræu cuu ovrc
rerpaµku exercise-books
+rcocaùs ovrc
n cnonapu. and dictionaries.
æuo onruiuopus
B okna 1hrough the windows
(ôykn.: «Creoso okna .») θpvv ðownuoovs
nameeo r:acca of our class-room
oe avo r:æc pvv+
179
178
nokasart nam kapry show us the map
uëv ac ðo+æn
Fpnranckux ocrponoe. of the British Isles.
oe ðo opnmuui aù:s
Ha +roù kapre On this map
ou ðuc +æn
mt +oxe+ euoemo Anrnnm, we can see England,
wn ræu cuu nue:ouo
Bornanµnm, Y+ntc Scotland, Wales
crom:ouo w+ù:s
n Hpnanµnm. and Ireland.
æuo aùo:ouo
Anrnnx +ro rontko uacrt England is only a part
nue:ouo us ovu:u o naam
Coeµnnënnoeo ropoueecmea, of the United Kingdom,
oe ðo ruaùmuo rnueoo+
uro aeuaemca which is
wnm: us
o]nnnantnm+ the oIIicial name
nanmenonanne+ ðo oqnuie: uoù+
nceù crpanm. of the whole country.
oe ðo xov: raumpu
Hekoropme uacru Anrnnu Some parts of England
ca+ naamc oe nue:ouo
ouent kpacnnm. are very beautiIul.
aa e+pu o·mvmuqv:
mnoro xënrmx, many yellow ones ***
++uu e:ov wauc
nexaunx na semnE, lying on the ground,
:aùuue ou ðoepavuo
xorx rpana though the grass
ðov ðoepaac
ecë paeuo emë senënaa. is still green anyway.
us cmu: epuuu +uuwoù
Xorx noroµa (n) nnoxaa, Though the weather is bad,
ðov ðow+ðo us oæo
1 2 3 " 1 3 2
emë ue xo:oouo. it`s not cold yet.
umc uom rov:o em
Ho mt But we are
oam wn aa
cnnmkom sanxrm, too busy
mvv onsu
utoôt oôpamart to pay
mv noù
xomo raroe-mo nnnmanne any attention
+uu om+uuiu
ua nnemnnñ mnp. to the outside world.
mv ðo avmcaùo wœœ:o
Ham yunrent ¹ coóupaemca Our teacher ¹ is going to
avo mmi:o   us eovuue mv
181
180
PACmHPEHHLE KOMMEHTAPHH
1) We are havIAG, +ro konkpernte cnyuan
. is standIAG, ynorpeônennx INGoeoù qop+i
n cocrane roucmpvrµuù,
nepeµammnx «ouumeuoume» µeñcrnnx,
ro ecrt µeñcrnnx, «pacm»uvmie» no npeme-
nn nnn nponcxoµxmne n ouent konkperntñ
momenr/ orpesok/ npomexyrok npemenn,
nnn xe nepuoou:ecru nonropxmmnecx.
Hourn ncerµa +rn oeùcmeu» nmemr
npnnxsky k konkpernomy momenry
nnn nepnoµy npemenn.
NB!
Oµnako, ecnn paccmarpnnart «INGoevr qop+v» rnarona
yxe HE kak rnaron,
a kak armueuoe onpeoeueuue,
onnctnammee COC1OBHHE uenoneka,
a ue ero µeñcrnnx
(neµt, no cyrn µena, +ro rak n ecrt:
'smokIAG¨ ÷ «kypBHnñ» nnn «kypnBHnñ»),
ro nce +rn «vwacuie» INGoeie roucmpvrµuu
cranonxrcx aôconmrno nonxrntmn
n nerko ycnannaemtmn, nanpnmep:
'Now I ¹ am reading ¹ a book¨.
«Ceñuac x ¹ »e:»rci :umamuu+ ¹ knnry».
'She ¹ was reading ¹ a book when he came in¨.
«Ona ¹ oi:a :umaeueù ¹ knnry, korµa on eouëu».
J:e+eum Inaron Onpeoe:euue
$ $ $
'Tomorrow at 5 o`clock I will be signing this document¨.
«3anrpa n 5 uacon x ovov noonucieamuu+ +ror µokymenr».
B AnrnnH (ecmo)** mnoro 1here are** many
ð+o aa ++uu
osëp, pek, xonmoe lakes, rivers, hills
:oùrc pneoc xu:s
n rop, and mountains in England**,
æuo +avumuuc uu nue:ouo
no ropm but the mountains
oam ðo+avumuuc
ne ouent ntcoku. are not very high.
aa uom e+pu xaù
* 3rn '(is)¨ n '(are)¨ sµect ne nyxnt onn yxe ecrt panee,
n oµnoro 'is/are¨ xnaraer µnx oôenx INGoeix roucmpvrµuù.
× ncrannn emë no oµnomy 'is/are¨ rontko µnx roro, uroôt Bt
«ue paspiea:u» µnx ceôx INGoeie roucmpvrµuu
('. is standing . and writing .¨,
'. are sitting . and looking .¨);
** . there IS, there ARE ÷ «ecmo .», «u+emmca .».
Hanomnnam, uro +ro ocoôtñ anrnnñcknñ ooopom,
koroptñ nyxno npocro nocnpnnxrt kak µannocrt
n ntyunrt nansycrt.
On ncerµa crannrcx n nauaue anrnnñckoro npeµnoxennx
nnn ero c+ic:oeoù uacrn!
A cnona, oôosnauammne, «eoe» ncë +ro «uaxooumc»/u+eemc»»;
nyxno crannrt e roueu npeµnoxennx !;
*** B npaeuuouo+ n nouuo+ anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
oóasameuouo µonxen npncyrcrnonart cyózerm
(ro ecrt npeo+em nnn :uµo).
Hnorµa on moxer samenxrtcx cnoneukamn
'one¨ (ecnn peut nµër o eouucmeeuuo+ uncne)
nnn 'ones¨ (o +uoxecmeeuuo+ uncne).
183
182
TEKCT X33
«AHIAHHCKHH R3LK CEIO±HR»
'ENGLISH TODAY¨
nue:uui mvo+ù
OnenkH ornocnrentno EstimateS as to
+cmu+oùmc æs mv
konnuecrnA anrnoronopxmHX the number OF English userS
ðoua+oo oe nue:uui mvsoc
n mnpE in the world
uu ðowœœ:o
snaunrentnO pasnxrcx. vary considerabLY.
e+opu roucnoopoo:u
Hn]pM koneônmrcx or The IigureS range Irom
ðoqneoc poùuoiwi qpo+
ymepennBX 800 mnnnnonOB a conservative 800 millioA
o roucœœeomue 800 +n:iou
oùm xauopoo +n:iou
oo nentx 2 mnnnnapµOB up to as many as 2 billioA,
an mv æs ++uu æs mvv on:iou
nourn µnVX nxrMX almost two-IiIthS
oo:+ovcm mvv quqθc
nacenennB mnp`A. OF the world`S population.
oe ðowœœ:os non·r:+ùuiu
Hpoônema noµcuërA The problem OF calculation
ðonpoo:e+ oe ræ:r·r:+ùuiu
C INGoei+u qop+a+u cymecrnymr n ycroñunnte
ooopomi rnna:
'be goING to .¨ ÷ «ua+epeeamic»», «cooupamic»».
ouu eovuue mv
B +rom % ooopome nsmenxercx mouoro rnaron 'BE¨,
ro ecrt µnx (3) pasumx epe+èu (n :uµ)
Bt npocro ôyµere ncnontsonart pasume ero qop+i,
nnn pasum+u ero qop+a+u Bt ôyµere nokastnart
pasuoe npemx µeñcrnnx:
¡nx uacmoaueeo npemenn:
I am going to . (swim) ÷ × coônpamct . (non:aeami)
. is going to . ÷ . coônpaemcx .
. are going to . ÷ . coônpaeuocx, coônpae+cx,
coônpaemect .;
¡nx npoueoueeo npemenn:
. was going to . ÷ . coônpaBcx .
. were going to . ÷ . coônpaBnct .;
¡nx óyoyueeo npemenn:
. will be going to . ÷ . BVµ . coônpartcx .;
2) . writing WI1H pens . ÷ . nnmyr pyukAMH
npn nomomn npeµnora 'WI1H¨ wnð
n anrnnñckom xstke oôpasyercx nooooue
pycckoro meopumeuouoeo naoewa, koroptñ
ncnontsyercx, n uacrnocrn, µnx ykasannx na ro,
HEM uro-ro µenamr, r. e. na uucmpy+eum.
185
184
na (koropoñ) mt we settle on,
ocranonnmcx wn com: ou
a (na) 1 mnnnnapµ ôontme and 1 billion plus
æuo wau on:iou n:ac
BMBO BM pasymnBM WOULD BE a reasonable
wvo ouu opnusuo:
npnônnxenneM approximation,
onporcu++ùuiu
oµna nemt xcna. one thing is certain.
wau θuue us cœœmu
Anrnnñcknñ ceroµnx English today
nue:uui moo+ù
BBBBE1CB IS
us
mexµynapoµnBM xstkOM, the international language,
ðo uumouæuiu: :æuewuowi
n ôernocrt n anrnnñckOM and Iluency in English
æuo q:mvoucu uu nue:uui
oôecneunnaE1 µocryn provideS a passport
npoeaùos onaacnoom
e nocroxnno to the ever expandIAG
pacmnpxKHnñcx mv ðo +eo urcnæuouue
anrnoronopxmnñ mnp. anglophone world.
æue:oqovu wœœ:o
upeeama rpyµnocrBMH. is fraught with diIIicultieS.
us qpoom wnð onquro:mus
Hanpnmep, oouxum (:u) re, For example, are those
qoo uesaa+n: aa ðovs
kro emyuuu(-u) who HAJE learnED
xvv xæe :œœuo
anrnnñcknñ English
nue:uui
kak nropoñ nnn as a second or
æs oc+rouo oo
(kak) nnocrpanntñ xstk, a Ioreign language
oqopuu :æuewuowi
ómmo yumEHm ? to BE countED ?
(÷ «yuummeamoca»?). moonu ravumuo
Ecnn «oa», (ro) II so, how fluent
nackontko «óeeum+u» uq cov xav q:mvoum
µOHÆHB onn ómmo, MUST they be
+acm ðoù ouu
npexµe uem beIore
ouqoo
HX nknmuaK1 THEY ARE includeD
(«ôtrt nknmuËHntmn») ðoù aa uur:mvouo
n +mom cnncok? in the reconing?
uu ðop+ruuue
Karoù óm uu ómua ¹ nn]pa, Whatever ¹ the Iigure
wom+eo ðoqneo
187
186
We WERE to ¹ do this work ÷
÷ Mt oouxum ómuu ¹ coe:ami +ry paôory;
*** 'They ARE ¹ includeD¨ ÷ «Hx nknmuamr»:
qop+v:a
«Inaron 'BE¨ ¹ 3-x qop+a cmtcnonoro rnarona»
coornercrnyer pyckomy naccuey
n nepenoµnrcx kak «Meua .-rm/ -:u» n np.,
nanpnmep:
I`m ¹ regardED as an enemy ÷ Meu» paccmarpnnaK1 kak npara.
He`s ¹ regardED as a Iriend ÷ Eeo paccmarpnnaK1 kak µpyra.
We were ¹ regardED as strangers ÷ Hac paccmarpnnaBn
kak uyxakon.
They will be ¹ regardED as guests ÷ Hx óyoym paccmarpn-
nart kak rocreñ.
Kak Bt, naµemct, samernnn, no :uµa+ n no epe+eua+
us+euaemca % sµect
ncë ror xe rnaron 'BE¨.
KOMMEHTAPHH
* 800 millioA, 2 billioA korµa anrnnñckne cnona
'hundred¨, 'thousand¨, 'million¨ n 'billion¨
(«cro», «rtcxua», «mnnnnon» n «mnnnnapµ»)
naxoµxrcx n coc1ane uucuumeuoumx,
ro onn ynorpeônxmrcx
TOHIKO n eouucmeeuuo+ uncne,
nanpnmep:
Iive hundreD ÷ nxrtCOT,
ten thousanD ÷ µecxrt rtcx¹,
seven millioA ÷ cemt mnnnnonOB,
three billioA ÷ rpn mnnnnapµA.
Ho:
HundredS (thousandS, millionS, billionS) ¹ OF inhabitantS.
CornH (rtcxuH, mnnnnonB, mnnnnapµB) ¹ xnrenEH;
** . ARE to ¹ be countED ÷ «. oouxum ¹ ôtrt
noµcunrAHt/ yurEHt»
qop+v:a 'BE to .¨ n couerannn c µpyrnm rnaronom
nnn c µpyroñ rnarontnoñ roucmpvrµueù
osnauaer oouxeucmeoeauue c orrenkom eiuvwoeuuocmu.
3ra qop+v:a npnmenxercx (n ocnonnom)
n uacmoaue+ n n npoueoue+ npemenax,
a us+euaemca n neñ, ecrecrnenno, ca+ rnaron 'BE¨:
I AM to ¹ leave Ior Sochi tomorrow ÷
÷ 3anrpa x oouxeu ¹ v:ememi n Coun.
He IS to ¹ go now ÷ Tenept on oouxeu ¹ vùmu.
She WAS to ¹ complete this ÷
÷ Ona oouxua ómua ¹ saeepuumi +ro.
189
188
y ueeo (ecmi) ¹ µna it has ¹ two meanings:
snauenna: um xæs mvv +nuuuues
«nnµ mxrkoeo 'a kind of a soIt
oraùuo oe ocoqm
nnockoeo rononnoeo yôopa», Ilat hat¨
q:æm xæm
nnn: «nnockax kptmeuka or: 'a Ilat lid
oo oq:æm :uo
na ôyrtnke». on a bottle¨.
ou ooom:
Cnonapu rakxe nokastnamm, Dictionaries also show you
onruiuopus oo:cov uëv mv
kak nponsnocnmo cnona, how to spell the words,
xav mv cno: ðowœœos
n nomoramm Bam and help you
æuo xo:n mv
ncnontsonamo ux npannntno. to use them properly.
mv mvs ðo+ npono:u
¹ Beeue It is ¹ easier
um us nusuo
nckamo cnona to look words up
mv :vr wœœos an
n cnonape (rorµa), korµa in a dictionary when
uu oonruiuopu w+u
Bt +oxeme nasnart you can say
(«nepeuncnnrt») mv ræu coù
TEKCT X34
«O CAOBAPBX» 'ABOUT DICTIONARIES¨
ooavm onruiuopus
Cnonapu ouent nonesnm. Dictionaries are very useIuL.
onruiuopus aa e+pu mvcqv:
Hontsyact ¹ u+u, By using ¹ them
oaù mvsuue ðo+
Bt +oxeme onpeµennmo, you can Iind out
mv ræu qaùuo avm
uro snauum (raroe-uuóo) what a word means.
cnono. wom owœœo +uuus
Hnorµa Sometimes
ca+maù+s
Bt ¹ oônapyxume, you ¹ will find out
mv wn: qaùuo avm
uro ¹ y ueeo (u+eemc») ¹ that ¹ it has ¹ more
¹ ôontme, ðæm um xæs +oo
ue+ oµno snauenne. than one meaning.
ðæu wau +nuuuue
Hoc+ompnme ua cnono Look * at the word 'cap¨,
«cap», :vr æm ðowœœo ræn
nanpnmep! Ior example!
qoo uesaa+n:
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Bt ynnµume, uro You will see that
mv wn: cuu ðæm
191
190
ôtcrpee** more quickly**
+oo rwnr:u
ouent ckopo. very soon.
e+pu cvvu
* 'LOOK at the word .!¨ +ro noee:ume:iuoe uar:oueuue,
ro ecrt qop+a, koropoñ
npocam nnn npurasmeamm.
B anrnnñckom ncë +ro cµenart ouent nerko:
orkptn cnonapt, ynnµen cnono
+mu+ cuoeo+ n npocu nnn npurasieaù,
ue us+eu»» ero!;
** 3ro cmeneui cpaeueuu» napeunx,
npnuëm nockontky cnono 'quickly¨ xnnxercx cocmaeui+
ro ecrt n nëu yxe ecrt npnõanuennoe orou:auue
('quick¹ly¨)
ro nropoe orou:auue npuoae:»mi yxe ueuosa
(÷ +oë «Hpannno N3»:
«Ha uaeeueuuoe ue uaeeuueaù!»).
Ho+romy aue:o»si:uie n ronopxr ue «ôtcrpEe»,
a «óouee ôtcrpo» ÷ 'more quickly¨!
ôyknm an]annra the letters of the alphabet
ðo:emoc oe ðoæ:qooum
n npannntno+ nopxµke. in correct order.
uu rop+rm oooo
(µ:» moeo) utoôt nañrn cnono, 1o look up a word
mv :vr an owœœo
Bam rakxe óyoem uyxuo you will also need
mv wn: oo:cov uuuo
nnnmarentno nocmorpemo to look careIully
mv :yr reoqv:u
ua nce ôyknB n uë+. at all the letters in it.
(, cooepwaµuec») æm oo: ðo:emoc uu um
Cnauana At Iirst,
æm qœœcm
Bam ¹ +oxem nonaµoônrtcx you ¹ might need
mv +aùm uuuo
mnnyra nnn µne, a minute or two
o+nuum oo mvv
utoôt nañmu raroe-:uoo to Iind a word.
cnono. mv qaùuo owœœo
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Ho Bt nayunrect But you will learn
oam mv wn: :œœu
naxoµnmo ux to Iind them
moqaùuo ðo+
193
192
(koroptm)* Bt nontsyerect you use
mv mvs
kaxµtñ µent, every day
+epu o+ù
ue +oeym cymecrnonamo ôes cannot do without
ræuom ovv wuðavm
npannntnoù rpammarnku. correct grammar.
rop+rm epæ+o
Kaxµoe npeµnoxenne, Every sentence
+epu c+umouc
(koropoe)* Bt nponsnocnre, you pronounce
mv npouavuc
oouxuo coµepxart should contain
uro roum+ùu
rontko npannntnme only right
ovu:u paùm
rpammarnueckue komônnannu. grammatical combinations.
epæ+æmur: ro+ouu+ùuius
Ecnn** Bt (korµa-nnôyµt II** you ever talk**
ôyµere) oômartcx** uq mv +eo moor
c oôpasonaunm+ uenoneko+, to an educated man,
mv æu +o·rroùmuo +æu
Bt oouxum (ôyµere) you have to
mv xæe mv
oôpamamo ocoôoe nnnmanne pay special attention
noù cnoui: om+uuiu
TEKCT X35
«HEAL 3TOH KHHIH»
'THE PURPOSE OF THIS BOOK¨
ðonœœonoc oe ðuc ovr
Hent +roù knnru The purpose of this book
ðonœœnoc oe ðuc ovr
sarumuaemca (n rom), ¹ is ¹ to
¹ utoôt us mv
nokasamo Bam, show you
uëv mv
kak nontsonartmocx how to use grammar,
rpammarnkoù, xav mv mvs epæ+o
n (n rom,) utoôt and to
æuo mv
yôeµnmo Bac, convince you
rouenuuc mv
uro knnru, that the books
ðæm ðooyrc
(koropte)* Bt unraere, you read,
mv puuo
paôora, the work
ðowœœr
(koropym)* Bt ntnonnxere, you do
mv ovv
n xstk, and the language
æuo ðo:æuewuowi
195
194
* Bcnomnnre, uro n anrunncxou npeµnoxennn
nce +rn «romop.» ne xnnxmrcx oôxsarentntmn!;
** Hocne 'IF¨ ue ynorpeônxmrcx
norasame:u ovovµeeo npemenn o:e+eumi 'will¨ n 'shall¨:
. if you talk . ncnomnnre, uro anrnnñcknñ rnaron
nocne 'if¨ moxer nepenoµnrtcx na
pyccknñ xstk n uacmo»µu+,
n ovovµu+ npemenem.
Ho+romy, ntpaxenne 'If you talk .¨
moxer snaunrt
u «Ecnn Bt pasronapnnaeme .»
u «Ecnn Bt óyoeme pasronapnnart .»;
*** Hepeµ anrnnñcknm nopaoroem+ :uc:ume:iui+
oóasameuouo µonxen croxrt
oouu ns 21 oóasameuoumx onpeoe:ume:eù (crp. 272);
**** 'DOA`1 lose!¨ ÷ «HE repxñ!»,
'S1AR1 to work!¨ ÷ «HAHHHAH paôorart!»
+ro emë µna npnmepa
anrnnñckoro noeeuumeuouoeo naknonennx,
ro ecrt qop+i, npn nomomn koropoñ
npurasiearm, npoc»m, coeemvrm,
pero+euovrm nnn sanpeµarm.
Hpnuëm nocne «sanpemumeuouoù» :acmuµi 'Don`t ... !¨
nepeµ nocneµymmnm rnaronom HE cmaeumca :acmuµa 'to¨
(rak kak on xnnxercx nepei+ rnaronom),
no ecnn Bt «ro+auoveme» npn nomomn ruaroua ('Start . !¨),
ro nepeµ emopi+ rnaronom
+ra ' . to .¨ oõnsa1eutno nyxna !!!
µOHKOMMEHTAPHH
'. cannot do .¨ ÷ 'can¹not¨ +ro ompuµame:iua» qop+a
(+ooa:iuoeo) o:e+euma 'can¨ ÷ «+o:i».
'. should contain .¨ 'Should¨ rakxe xnnxercx o:e+eumo+.
Hocue |+ooa:iuix| o:e+eumoe nepeµ nocneµymmnm rnaronom
HE ynompeóuaemca :acmuµa 'to¨.
ua npannntnocrt to the correctness
mv ðo rop+rmuuc
Bameeo xstka, of your language,
oe ëo :æuewuowi
nockontky ero nepnoe since his Iirst***
cuuc xus qœœcm
nneuarnenne o Bac impression of you
u+np+uiu oe mv
óyoem sanncert will depend
wn: oun+uo
om nepnmx mnnyr on the Iirst*** minutes
ou ðoqœœcm +nuumc
Bameeo pasronopa. of your conversation.
oe ëo roueoc+ùuiu
Tak uro, ue repxñre**** So, don`t lose****
cov ooum :vvs
nnckontko (÷ «uuraroeo») any
+uu
µparonennoeo npemenu n precious time and
np+uiec maù+ æuo
1-ñ rnaron 2-ñ rnaron
uauuuaùme**** paôoramo start **** to work
cmapm mv wœœr
(start working
cmaam wœœruue)
uao Bamu+ anrnnñcku+ on your English
ou ëo nue:uui
kak moxno ôtcrpee! as soon as possible!
æs cvvu æs nocuo:
197
196
utoôt na (nero) onepemocx to lean or cry on.
nnn na (nëm) nonnakamo. mv :nuu oo rpaù ou
µonycmume*, Admit*
oo+nm
1 2 3 " 2 3 1
uro ôont Bamero µpyr`a that your Iriend`s pain
ðæm ëo qpouos noùu
sarparnnaem u Bac, aIIects you, too,
oq+rmc mv mvv
no yóeoumeco*, but make sure*
oam +oùr umo
uro (+ro) ua ero/eë +monnxx that it is her/ his emotions
ðæm um us xœœ xus u+ovuius
Bt ]okycnpyere nnnmanne, you Iocus on,
mv qovroc ou
a ne na ceoux coôcrnenntx. not your own.
uom ëo ovu
Fyµtre* ca+u+u coóom Be* yourself
ouu èoc+:q
n ue naunnañre* and don`t start*
æuo ooum cmaam
necrn ceôx nnaue. behaving diIIerently.
oux+ùeuue onqpoum:u
Tak uro, xorx So, although
cov oo:ðov
Bam +oxem ómmo rpyµno, it may be hard Ior you,
um +où ouu xaao qoo mv
IAABA VI
CEIO±HRmHHE HPOBAEML
TEKCT X36
«Houoran µpyry npeoµonert 1pyµnme npeuena»
'Helping a Friend through Tough Times¨
x+:nuue oqp+uo θpvv maq maù+s
Hnorµa ¹ rpyµno snamo, Sometimes it`s ¹ hard to know
ca+maù+s umc xaao mouov
uro µenamo what to do
wom mv oyv
n uro (nyxno) ronopnmo. and what to say.
æuo wom moc+ù
Ho n rpenoxnte momenrt But, in times oI trouble,
oam uu maù+s oe mpao:
cnona +vopocmu words of wisdom
wœœos oe wnsoo+
(+ro) nocneµnee, (uro) are the last thing
aa ðo:aacm θuue
Bam µpyr xouem cntmamo. your Iriend wants to hear.
ëo qpouo woumc moxno
(Bcë,) uro uyxuo What your Iriend needs
Bamemy opyey wom ëo qpouo uuuos
(+ro) µoôpoe cnntnoe is a good, strong shoulder
nneuo, us o evo cmpoue uëv:oo
199
198
Paspeuume* cnoemy µpyry Give* your Iriend
(÷ «µaùme .») eue ëo qpouo
no/ronopnmo. permission to talk.
nœœ+nuiu momoor
He cmapaùmeco* ¹ yñmu or Don`t try * to ¹ avoid
ooum mpaù mv oeoùo
ero/eë ôonn, her/his pain
xœœ xus noùu
He+? Karu+ oopaso+?
$
menxa remy pasronopa by changing the subject.
(÷ «nyrëm nsmeneuua»). oaù :+ùuowiuue ðocaoowiurm

%
He+? Karu+ oopaso+?
Bmnouuaùme* ceou Keep* vour promises.
oôemannx. ruun ëo npo+ucus
Ecnn Bt crasauu, (uro) II you said**
uq mv coo
Bt sarnxneme («sacro:eme») you would** pop in
(«Bvovµee n npoueoue+») mv wvo non nu
nponeµart ceoeeo µpyra, and see your Iriend,
æuo cuu ëo qpouo
oo»same:iuo coe:aùme +ro. make sure vou do it.
+oùr umo mv ovv um
Ecnn Bt npocro ckaxere, Just saying
(÷ «Hpocro ckasae»,) ow»cm c+ùuue
1 cnono " 2 cnona
(uro) Bt nomoxeme, that you will help
ðæm mv wn: xo:n
nocmapaùmeco* ôtrt try* to be
mpaù mv onu
me+ we ca+i+ uenonekom, the same person
ðoc+ù+ nœœcu
(romopi+) Bt ncerµa ómuu. (that) you always have been.
(ðæm) mv oo:woùs xæe ouuu
Ioeopume* mentue, 1alk* less,
moor :ec
cuyuaùme* ôontuE. listen* morE.
:ucu +oo
Xorx Bam, eos+oxuo, Although you may
oo:ðov mv +où
saxouercx µamo coner, want to give advice,
woum moene ooeaùc

1 2 3 " 1 3 2 4
on peµko orasmeaemca
4
it is seldom useIul.
nonesntm. um us c+:oo+ mvcqv:
¹ Iopasoo oo:ee It is ¹ much more constructive
koncrpykrnnno um us +a: +oo roucmparmue
(ôyµer) nomouo Bamemy to help** your Iriend
µpyry mv x+:n ëo qpouo
paccmorpert nce nosmoxnocrn *explore all the possibilities
urcn:oo oo: ðo nocuon:umus
n npoeoeopumi nx and **talk them out
æuo moor ðo+ avm
c Bamn. with you.
wnð mv
201
200
Huroeoa ue eoeopume * Aever sav * things like:
nnuero npoµe u+eo coù θuues :aùr
(÷ «. nemeñ rnna: »):
«Teôe cueooeauo óm 'You should
mv uro
(yxe) nepexumo +ro be over it
ouu oveo um
k ceroµnxmnemy µnm!». by now¨.
oaù uav
µaùme* cnoemy µpyry Allow* your Iriend
o:av ëo qpouo
cmo:iro npemenn, cro:iro as much time as
æs +am: maù+ æs
eñ/emy uyxuo, utoôt she/ he needs to talk,
ntronopnrtcx, uiu xu uuuos momoor
µaxe ecnn Bt ncë +ro even iI you have heard it all
cumuauu yxe uueu uq mv xæe xœœo um oo:
cmo pas. a hundred times already.
oxauopoo maù+s oo:p+ou
Byoome nparmu:ui*. Be practical*.
ouu npærmur:
3auacrym (+mo ) OIten, it is
oqu um us
ca+me +aueuorue nocrynkn the smallest gestures
ðoc+oo:ucm oiwieµes
(koropte) nomoramr that help the most.
oo:iue eceeo. ðæm xo:n ðo+ovcm
(ro) +ro +oxem might make you
sacrannrt Bac +aùm +oùr mv
uyncrnonart ceôx uyuue, Ieel better
quu: o+mo
no ecuu Bt ue but, unless you
oam au:ec mv
emnouuume +roro, follow it through,
qo:ov um θpvv
ro +ro uuueeo ue ¹ oacm it will do ¹ nothing
(÷ «uuueeo ue ¹ coeuaem») um wn: ovv uaθuue
Bamemy µpyry Ior your Iriend.
(÷ «µnx Bamero µpyra»). qoo ëo qpouo
Bmsoeume oront na ceôx! 1ake the Ilak!*
(÷ Haóepumeco nonnmannx!). moùr ðoq:ær
Honëcmnm nnmennx nnn The bereaved or
ðo oupnueo oo
naxoµxmnmcx n moke those in shock
(÷ «rem, |kro| n moke») ðovs uu uèr
mpvouo vc:vwumi. are hard to please.
aa xaao mv n:nus
He owuoaùme* Do not expect*
ovv uom urcn+rm
ônaroµapnocrn gratitude or acknowledgement.
nnn npnsnarentnocrn. ep+ùmum·rvo oo oruoo:uowi+oum
Byoome mepne:uei*. Be patient*.
ouu n+ùuieum
203
202
rak nastnaemoro «Byoyueeo e npoueoue+»,
ro ecrt rakoro cnyuax, korµa
(no-anrnnñckn) e npouuo+ ronopnnoct («ckasaBn») o rom,
uro emë rontko npousoùoëm («sarnxnE1E») e óyoyue+.
B +rnx cnyuax «óyoyuuocmo» µeñcrnnx
nepeµaërcx HE npn nomomn o:e+eumoe 'will/shall¨,
a 1OBLKO npn nomomn o:e+euma 'WOULD¨
(a c+mcu µeñcrnnx nepeµaërcx sua:u+i+ e:aeo:o+
n ero cuoeapuoù qop+e ro ecrt ueus+euèuui+) !!!:
× µymaB, uro (x) ¹ C1AHV ¹ npauom.
I though1 that I ¹ WOULD become ¹ a doctor.
aù θoom ðæm aù wvo oura+ ooarmo
Mt noµospenaBn, uro +rn nmµn ¹ HPEµAµV1 ¹ nac.
We suspectED that these people ¹ WOULD betrav ¹ us.
wn cocn+rmuo ðæm ðuus nuun: wvo oump+ù ac
Cm. crp. 381;
**** Cnonocoueranne 'be there¨ moxno paccmarpnnart
kak µe:iuoe eipaweuue co snauennxmn
«u+emoca», «npucymcmeoeamo»,
«uauuuecmeoeamo».
COBET.
Besµe oôpamañre nnnmanne na noµuëpknyrte ntpaxennx
onn xnnxmrcx oôpasnamn HE µocnonnoro nepenoµa,
a npu+epa+u nepeµaun OCHOBHOH MLCAH.
3rn ntpaxennx snaunrentno oôorarxr n ykpacxr Bam an-
rnnñcknñ, no+romy Bam cueoyem (÷ 'you SHOULD¨) sayunrt
nx nansycrt, n crapartcx onpoôonart nx n c µpyrnmn anrnnñcknmn
cnonamn.
B koneunom nrore, Ultimately,
a:mu+om:u
nomomt µpyry helping a Iriend
x+:nuue oqp+uo
no npemx kpnsnca through a crisis
θpvv orpaùcuc
+ro mentme (snaunr) oeuamo, is less about doing
us :ec ooavm oyvuue
n ôontme (snaunr) ómmo and more about being.
(c nnm). æuo +oo ooavm onuue
Ca+iù oo:iuoù noµapok, The greatest giIt
ðoep+ùmucm euqm
(koroptñ) mt +oxe+ we can give
cµenart wn ræu eue
(+ro) ¹ npocro is ¹ simply
us cn+n:u
npucymcmeoeamo (ram)*** to be there***.
(«oimi»). mv onu ð+o
* Bce ormeuennte seèsoo:roù ]parmenrt
xnnxmrcx oôpasnamn noeeuumeuouoeo uar:oueuu»;
** Hanomnnam, uro nocne rnarona 'help¨ nepeµ nocneµymmnmn
rnaronamn ('. explore¨, '. talk¨) ceroµnx yxe
ue oo»same:iuo crannrt :acmuµv 'to¨;
*** '. saiD (that) you ¹ would pop in .¨ ÷
÷ «. crasaBu, uro ¹ sae:»uE1E .»
+ro npekpacntñ npnmep
205
204
ôontmoe nneuarnenne a big impression
oone u+np+uiu
n komnannxx, within the companies
wuðnu ðo ra+nouus
ua (koropte) onn xome:u oi they`d like to work for.
paôoramo. ðoùo :aùr mv wœœr qoo
Beasmeaùmeco no Get involved in
eom uueov:eo uu
cmouoro ntsonoe, as many challenges
æs ++uu :æ:euowius
(no) crouoro (c-)moxere. as you can.
æs mv ræu
1 cnono " 2 cnona
3ro nomoxem It will help
um wn: xo:n
noµµepxnnart Bamy keep you interested
sannrepeconannocrt ruun mv numpucmuo
n npoµemoncrpnponart Bamn and show oII your abilities
µaponannx æuo uëv oq ëo oon:umus
n uauuyuue+ cnere. in the best light.
uu ðoo+cm :aùm
Camomornnannx SelI-motivation
co:q +ovmue+ùuiu
n +nrysnasm and enthusiasm
æuo uuθmvsuos+
+oeym ómmo can be
ræu ouu
TEKCT X37
«Kax npenpa1n1t npeuennym paõo1y
n noc1onnnym?»
'How to Turn a Temporary 1ob into a Permanent One?¨
xav mv mœœu o m++npopu owièo numv o nœœ+ououm wau
Ca+mù uoemù npnëm 1he newest job-hunting trick
npn noncke paôort ðou·mvucm owièo xaumuue mpur
sarumuaemca (e mo+, is
us
utoôt) ca+o+v aeumoca to take vourself
mom+ùr èoc+:q
ua paôory, to the job
mv ðo owiëo
(cropee) ue+ oxnµart, rather than * expect*
paaðo ðæu urcn+rm
utoôt** ona npnmna k reôe. it to** come to you.
um mv ra+ mv mv
Bom ¹ neckontko Here are ¹ some
xno aa ca+
xopomnx coneron pieces oI good advice
nnucus oe evo ooeaùc
µnx ntnycknnkoe, koropte Ior the graduates who
qoo ðo epæo·roùmc xvv
xorxr nponsnecmu want to make
woum mv +oùr
207
206
1 2 1 2
Hocmapaùmeco nonyunmo 1ry to get
mpaù mv e+m
ôonee mnpokoe npeµcrannenne a broader view
o opoooo e·mv
oó (+roñ) orpacnn. of the industry.
oe ðo nuoacmpu
Bt oouxum ¹ ysnart You should learn
(÷ «Bam uyxuo ómuo óm ¹») mv uro :œœu
kak moxno ôontme as much as possible
æs +am: æs nocuo:
o about
ooavm
1 2 3 " 2 3 1
ônsnece Bameñ ]npm`m your company`s business
ëo ra+nouus onsuuc
n uyncrnonart ceôx and Ieel
æuo quu:
kpañne ynepenuo, hugely conIident
x·mvowi:u rouquooum
pasronapnnaa when talking
w+u mooruue
1 2 3 " 1 3 2
c naprnëpamn komnann`u. with the company`s partners.
wnð ðo ra+nouus naamuoc
Bam nontñ ontr Your new experience
ëo u·mv urcnnpuouc
1 2 " 3 1 2
camtmn cnntntmn 3 a graduate`s greatest strength.
croponamn ntnycknnk`a. o epæo·roùmc ep+ùmucm cmpoueθ
Tak uro, ue nsôerañre So, don`t dodge
cov ooum ooowi
uero-nnôo something
ca+θuue
rontko nomo+v, :mo just because
ow»cm ouroos
Bt ue snaere, you don`t know
mv ooum uov
kak +ro µenaercx how to do it;
(÷ «kak cµenart +ro»); xav mv ovv um
cnennantno ¹ cnpamnnañre, make a point oI ¹ asking
+oùr onoùum oe aacruue
1 2 3 " 1 3 2
kak paôoraem nporpamma, how the soItware works,
xav ðocoqmwoo wœœrc
1 2 3 " 1 3 2
rµe uaxooamca kannronapt, where the stationary is,
w+o ðocm+ùuiupu us

1 2 3 " 1 3 4
kak omnpaeuammca cpounte how urgent packages
xav œœowieum næruowius

4 2
noctnkn, are sent aa coum
nnn uro-yroµno (eµè). or whatever.
oo wom+eo
209
208
Bueop»ùmeci e ontr Tap into the expertise
(÷ «Hoor:r:aùmeci r») mæn numv ðo +rcnamuus
(yxe) nmemmerocx oI existing staII
nepconana oe uesncmuue cmaaq
onn snamr they know
ðoù uov
nce nmancm all the short cuts,
(÷ «nce meroµm µocrnxennx»), oo: ðo uëomramc
mar umo, yunrect y nnx. so learn from them.
cov :œœu qpo+ ðo+
Byoome nexnnnt Be polite to the receptionists
c ômpo oôcnyxnnannx ouu no:aùm mv ðo puc+nuiuucmc
onn óyoym (eicmvnami) they will vouch Ior you
sa Bac ðoù wn: eavm: qoo mv
µaxe n Bame orcyrcrnne. even in your absence.
uueu uu ëo æocouc
Hamertre (µnx ceôx) Target the companies
(re) komnannn, maaeum ðora+nouus
ua (koropte) Bt µeñcrnn- you really want to work for.
rentno xornre paôoramo. mv pno:u woum mowœœr qoo
Bt nonaµëre You only get
mv ovu:u eom
(ryµa), kyµa Bt xornre where you want to get
nonacmo, w+o mv woum mv e+m
mouoro cnpamnnaa by asking.
(÷ «nymë+ cnpamnnauua»). oaù aacruue
1 cnono " 2 cnona
nocmaeum Bac enepeou will put you ahead
wn: nvm mv ox+o
µpyrnx conckareneù. of other wannabes.
oe aðo wouoous
He nosnonxñre Don`t let
ooum :em
(cnonm) cnaôtm croponam weaknesses
wnuruucus
ymentmamo Bamn cnntnte detract Irom your strengths.
cropont. oumpærm qpo+ ëo cmpoueθc
Hosaóomomeco (o rom, uroôt) Make sure
+oùr umo
ómmo xopomo you`re well-inIormed
nn]opmnponauntm, mvp w+: uuqoo+o
unraa rasert by reading newspapers,
(÷ «nymë+ ureuua»), oaù pnuouue u·mvcnoùnoc
cnennannsnponannte trade magazines
xypnant mpoùo +æeosuus
n ]npmennte ôyknert. and oIIice bulletins.
æuo oquc oy:umuus
Ecnn Bam neoôxoµnmo II you need
uq mv uuuo
kakoe-ro µononnnrentnoe some extra training,
oôyueune, ca+ +rcmpo mp+ùuuue
oprannsyñre ero µnx ceôx. book it up Ior yourselI.
ovr um an qoo èoc+:q
211
210
nonte ntpeskn (ns raser), new cuttings
u·mv ramuues
naxnte µnx komnannn relevant to the company
p+:ueoum mv ðora+nouu
n eë ônsneca, and its business,
æuo umc onsuuc
emucrueaùme nontx source new clients,
knnenron, cooc u·mv r:aùoumc
oóuoeuaùme ôast µanntx, update data bases,
anooùm o+ùmo o+ùcus
eomoeome peknamnte prepare presentation material
marepnant npun+o nposoum+ùuiu +æmnpio:
nnn omeeuaùme sa or cover the phones
rene]onnte snonkn, oo raeo ðo qovuc
korµa opveue omcymcmeymm. when others are out.
w+u aðoc aa avm
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Bcë +ro óyoem uacrtm This will all be part
ðuc wn: oo: ouu naam
Baueù ôyµymeñ paóomm, of your Iuture job
oe ëo q·mv:o owièo
n Bt óyoeme cmapamoca and you`ll be trying
æuo mv: ouu mpaùuue
cosµamo nnnmsnm, uro to create the illusion that
mv rpu+ùm ðo u:mvwiu ðæm
ona yxe Bama. it is already yours.
um us oo:p+ou ëos
Bt oouxum ocosnanart, uro You should realize that
mv uro pno:aùs ðæm
µaxe ouent xopomnm even very good
uueu e+pu evo
n npecrnxntm komnannx+ and prestigious companies
æuo npocmnowiec ra+nouus
uyxum xopomne paôornnkn, need good workers,
uuuo evo wœœroc
no rontko but only
oam ovu:u
orpannueunoe a limited Iew
neôontmoe konnuecrno o:n+umuo q·mv
aeuammca µeñcrnnrentno are actually competent.
komnerenrntmn. aa ærm:vo:u ro+nnumoum
Byoome ouent npeµaut µeny. Be very commited.
ouu e+pu ro+nmuo
Ocmaeaùmeco µonosµna, Stay late
cmoù :oùm
ecnn Bt uyxum, iI you`re needed
uq mvp unuouo
n empaxaùme xenanne and be willing
(÷ «óyoome xenamunmn») æuo ouu wn:uue
µenamo ncë, uro yroµno. to do anything.
mv ovv +uuθuue
Hpeouoxume coônpamo n Offer to collect and Iile
knaccn]nnnponamo oqo mv ro:erm æuo qaù:
213
212
TEKCT X38
«Kax sac1ann1t Bamy anxe1y paõo1a1t na Bac?»
'How to Make Your Application Form Work for You?¨
xav mv +oùr ëo æn:ur+ùuiu qoo+ wœœr qoo mv
¡nx ncex For all
qoo oo:
paóouux +ecm public service appointments
n nekommepuecknx nao:ur cœœeuc onoùum+oumc
oprannsannxx
(÷ «n oômecrnenntx»)
n µnx nospacramuero and Ior increasing
æuo qoo uurpnusuue
uncna ro+nauuù number of companies,
ua+oo oe ra+nouus
ycnemnoe sanonneuue the successIul completing
ðo corc+cqv: ro+n:numuue
anker oI application Iorms
oq æn:ur+ùuiu qoo+s
aeuaemca n µanntñ momenr is now
us uav
eµnncrnennoñ nosmoxnocrtm the only way
(÷ «eµnncrnenntm nyrëm») ðoovu:u w+ù
µoôpamocx to make it
mv +oùr um
oo craµnn nnrepntm. to the interview stage.
mv ðo numoe·rv cmoùowi
* Hocne c:oeoco:emauu»
'rather (than)¨ paaðo ðæu ÷ «ckopee ., uem . »
nepeµ nocneµymmnm rnaronom
ue uyxua :acmuµa 'to¨.
Cnono 'rather¨ nxoµnr n n cocran o:e+euma ' `d rather¨:
«× cropee sannauV
´
, ue+ vùoV!» nnµnre,
n oóeux uacrxx pyccxoro npeµnoxennx
rnaron cronr n óyoyue+ npemenn,
no-anrnnñckn xe
nocne o:e+eumoe '`d rather than¨ ÷ «cropee ., :e+ .»
n '`d better than¨ ÷ «:v:ue ., :e+ .»
rnaron us+eu»mi nooôme ne nyxno!,
a rakxe ue uyxuo ynorpeônxrt n uurarux 'will/shall¨:
«× uyuue ¹ sannauV
´
, ue+ ¹ yñµV!».
'I`d rather ¹ PAY than ¹ GO!¨;
%
& Anrn. rnaront "
%

ue nsmenent !
** 3µect oruërnnno nnµna
nosmoxnocrt snauennx «utoôt»
y cnoneuka/:acmuµi 'to¨ n roucmpvrµuu rnna
«Inaron ¹ oózermuoe mecronmenne ¹ to .»
(nuec1o namero cvo·ermuoeo !!!)
(oôparnre ocoôoe nnnmanne na pasuuuy n nopxµke cnon
n na «nepeeoo»
pycckoro cvo·ermuoeo mecronmennx
n" anrnnñckoe oózermuoe !!!):
1 2 " 2 1
× xouy, utoôt ou ¹ npnmën ÷ × want him ¹ to come.
1 2
Ona xµër, utoôt ouu ¹ nsnnnnnnct ÷
" 2 1
÷ She expects them ¹ to apologize.
215
214
a) uërko ntcrpannañre a) Marshal your Iacts!
ceou ]akrt +aaui: ëo qærmc
(÷ «]akrt o ceôe»)!
Ceeoume noeµnno Get together
eom moe+ðo
ecm naxnym nn]opmannm all the relevant inIormation
oo: ðo p+:ueoum uuqo++ùuiu
o ceoeù knann]nkannn, about your qualiIications,
ooavm ëo rwo:uqur+ùuius
ontre paôort, work experience,
wœœr urcnnpieuc
ocoôtx µocrnxennxx, special achievements
cnoui: o:mie+oumc
n o rom, kak Bt and your
æuo ëo
npeµnounraere nponoµnrt leisure pursuits.
cnoôoµnoe npemx. :ewe nœœc·rmc
Bt rakxe +oeuu óm You could also
mv rvo oo:cov
ormernrt ro, make notes oI
+oùr uovmc oe
uro Bt cunraere what you consider to be
wom mv roucnoo moonu
cnonmn ocoôenntmn your particular
ëo nomnr·r:o
ymennxmn skills and strengths.
n cnntntmn croponamn. cru:s æuo cmpoueθc
Hµex sarumuaemca (n rom), The idea is
ðo aùono us
uro that
ðæm
saµanaa kaxµomy kanµnµary by asking each candidate
(÷ «nymë+ saµanauua») oaù aacruue uum: ræuouoom
oµnn n re xe nonpoct, identical questions,
aùo+umur: rwoµius
¹ nerue it is ¹ easier
um us nusuo
nponoµnmo cpannennx. to make comparisons.
mo++ùr ro+n+pusuc
A nonoñ renµennneñ And the new trend
æuo ðou·mv mpouo
komnannñ for companies
qoo ra+nouus
aeuaemca oônaµanne is to have
(«nmert») us moxæe
ceou+u coocmeeuui+u their own
(«ux coôcrnennte») ð+o ovu
ankeramn («ankert»). Iorms.
qoo+s
Bom neckontko sonortx Here are some golden rules
npannn, xno aa ca+ eov:ou pvv:s
(koroptm) uyxuo cneµonamo to Iollow ¹ when
(÷ «utoôt») ¹ npn mv qo:ov w+u
sanonneuuu ankert Iilling out an application Iorm:
(«sanonnxa ankery»): qn:uue avm æu æn:ur+ùuiu qoo+
217
216
¹ Baxuo, uroôt It is ¹ essential that
um us uc+uuiuo: ðæm
Bt onpeµennnn you identiIy the key skills
knmuente ymennx, mv aùo+umuqaù ðo ruu cru:s
(koropte) uuem +ra sought by that organization
oprannsannx (÷ «ucro+me coom oaù ðæm ooeouaùs+ùuiu
+roù oprannsanneù»),
n npoµemoncrpnponann, uro and demonstrate that
æno o++oucmpoùm ðæm
y Bac ecmo you have
mv xæe
u+euuo me kauecrna, just the qualities
ow»cm ðorwo:umus
(koropte) ona xouem. it wants.
um woumc
3rn kauecrna These qualities
ðuus rwo:umus
oouxum ómmo npeµcranneut must be presented
+acm ouu npus+umuo
konkperno. in a concrete way.
uu o rourpnum w+ù
¹ Bmuo óm neµocrarouno It ¹ would be not enough
um wvo ouu uom uuaq
npocro ckasamo, uro just to say that
ow»cm mv coù ðæm
y Bac (u+eemc») xopomax you have good
mv xæe evo
3aeeoume nanky, Start a Iolder,
cmaam  o qov:oo
umoóm +ra nn]opmannx so that this inIormation
(÷ «rak, uro .») cov ðæm ðuc uuqo++ùuiu
ncerµa ómua noo pvroù; is always easily available;
us oo:woùs nusu:u oe+ù:oo:
ô) Hosauu+aùmeco b) Do some detective work!
nemnoxko paccneµonannxmn! ovv ca+ oum+rmue wœœr
Haùoume Find out
qaùuo avm
ncë, (uro) Bt +oxeme, everything you can
+epuθuue mv ræu
oô oprannsannn, about the organization
ooavm ðo ooeouaùs+ùuiu
(na koropym) Bt you are targeting.
nanennnaemect. mv aa maaeomuue
Hsyuume Study
cmaou
1 ¹ 1 " 2 1¹1
npeµmer µexrentnocrn
2
the company`s proIile
komnann`u, ðo ra+nouus npovqaù:
a norom cocmaeome cnncok and then make a list
æuo ðou +oùr o:ncm
moeo, (uro) +ra komnannx of what this company
oe wom ðuc ra+nouu
]akrnueckn uuem. is actually looking for.
us ærm:vo:u :yruue qoo
219
218
n nouosyùmeco em and use that as a Iirst draIt.
kak noµnnnnnkom. æuo mvs ðæm æs oqœœcm opaaqm
He noxaneñre npemenn, Take the time
moùr ðomaù+
utoôt onpeµennrt, to work out
mv wœœr avm
uro noµoñµëm kyµa, what will Iit where
wom wn: qum w+o
n kak and how
æuo xav
Bt ¹ coônpaemect you ¹ are going to
mv aa eovuue mv
pasmecrnmo nn]opmannm. space the inIormation.
cnoùc ðo uuqo++ùuiu
Cronupyùme Copy the Iinished Iorm
sanonneunym ankery, ronu ðo qnuuuim qoo+
utoôt cnepxrtcx c neñ, to use it as a reIerence
mv mvs um æs o p+qopouc
ecnn Bt ecë xe óyoeme iI you do get called
ntsnaut uq mv ovv eom roo:o
oua (ua) nnrepntm. for an interview.
qoo æu numoe·rv
3ro, k romy xe, This will also help you
nomoxem Bam ðuc wn: oo:cov xo:n mv
sanonnxrt noµoônte ankert Iill out similar Iorms
qu: avm cn+u:o qoo+s
n ôyµymem; in the Iuture;
uu ðoq·mv:o
kommynnkaôentnocrt. communication skills.
ro+·ruur+ùuiu cru:s
Bam uyxuo ckasart You should say
mv uro coù
uro-nnôyµt npoµe: something like:
ca+θuue :aùr
«Kak pykonoµnrent 'As leader oI
æs :nuoo oe
1 2 " 3 4 1 2
nayunoro oômecrna our school`s scientiIic society,
3 4 avo crvv:s caùoumnqur cocaùomu
nameñ mkon`m
x ouent mnoro ysnau I learned a lot
aù :œœuo o:om
u o nyônnuntx about both public speaking
ntcrynnennxx, ooavm oovθ nao:ur cnnuruue
u oó oômene mnennxmn»; and the exchange oI opinions¨;
æuo ðo urc:+ùuoiwi oe onnuieus
n) Huauupyùme npannntno! c) Plan properly!
n:æu npono:u
Hpoumume ankery Read the application Iorm
puuo ðo æn:ur+ùuiu qoo+
rmarentno, n sarem thoroughly and then
θapo:u æuo ðou
npoumume eë cnona. read it again.
puuo um oe+(ù)u
Cuu+ume c neë ronum Make a copy oI it
+oùr oronu oe um
221
220
Cocpeoomouomeco na Concentrate on
roucoumpoùm ou
onncaunn (moeo), desribing what you can
uro Bt +oxeme oucrpaùouue wom mv ræu
npnnnecrn e oprannsannm, bring to an organization,
opuue mv æu ooeouaùs+ùuiu
a ne (ua mo+) rather than
(÷ «ue+ ua rom, .»), paaðo ðæu
uro Bt naµeerect what you hope
wom mv xovn
nonyunmo om neë. to get out of it.
moe+m avm oe um
He saóyoome Don`t forget
ooum qoe+m
nknmunrt umóme to include any extra skills
µononnnrentnte ymennx, mv uur:mvo +uu +rcmpo cru:s
(romopie) y Bac +oeym you may have,
ôtrt mv +où xæe
rakne kak noxµeuue like driving
anromoônnx :aùr opaùeuue
nnn ymeuue ronopnrt or speaking
(÷ «ronopeuue») oo cnnuruue
na nnocrpannom xstke, a Ioreign language,
oqopuu :æuewuowi
ecnn Bt uyncrnyere, (uro) iI you Ieel (that)
uq mv quu: ðæm
r) «Hpooaeaùme» ceôx! d) 'Sell¨ yourselI !
co: èoc+:q
Byoome nosnrnnnt Be positive
ouu nosumue
n ue ôecnokoñrect o rom, and don`t worry about
æuo ooum wopu ooavm
uro Bama peut xnacruuea sounding boastful.
(÷ «snyuaunx xnacrnnno»). cavuouue oovcmqv:
Ceñuac ne npemx This isn`t the time
ðuc nsum ðomaù+
µnx noxnoñ ckpomnocrn. Ior Ialse modesty.
qoo qoo:c +ovoocmu
Hooy+aùme o (rom,) kak 1hink about how
θuur ooavm xav
Bt +oeuu óm ncnontsonart you could use
mv rvo mvs
ceom knann]nkannm n your qualiIications and
ëo rwo:uqur+ùuius æuo
ceoù ontr paôort your work experience
ëo wœœr urcnnpieuc
rak, uroôt in a way that
uu ow+ù ðæm
onn nokasannct makes them sound
+oùrc ðo+ cavuo
ocoôenno naxntmn particularly relevant
nomnr·r:o:u p+:ueoum
µnx paôort, ¹ (romopvr) to the job ¹ you want.
Bt xornre. mv ðoowiëo mv woum
223
222
Houosyùmeco uëpntmn Use black ink.
uepnnnamn. mvs o:ær uur
Huuume akkyparno, n Write neatly and,
paùm unum:u æuo
ecnn Bt snaere, iI you know
uq mv uov
(uro) Bam nouepk (that) your writing
ðæm ëo paùmuue
¹ rpyµen µnx urennx is ¹ hard to read,
(÷ «rpyµno unrart»), us xaao mv puuo
ucnouosyùme neuarnte use capital letters.
ôyknt. mvs rænum: :emoc
Hcnouosyùme cnonapt, Use a dictionary
mvs oonruiuopu
utoôt nponepxrt to double-check spelling;
npanonncanne; mv oao::+r cn+:uue
e) Byoome kparkn! I) Be concise!
ouu roucaùs
¹ He (ouent-ro) It is ¹ not
um us uom
xopouo a good idea
oeyo aùono
nknmuamo maccy to include masses
mv uur:mvo +aacus
µononnnrentnoñ of extra information
uuqop+auuu oe +rcmpo uuqo++ùuiu
na npnnarae+tx kycoukax on attached pieces of paper.
óy+aeu. ou omæ:m nnucus oe n+ùno
onn naxnt. they are relevant.
ðoù aa p+:ueoum
Paôoroµarenn cmpe+»mc» Employers are keen
u+n:oùos aa ruuu
ôpamo na paôory to recruit
mv purpyvm
kanµnµaron, nmemmnx well-rounded candidates,
pasnnunte nantkn, wo:pavuouo ræuouoomc
rak uro, nknmuañre umóme so include any hobbies,
xoôôn cov uur:mvo +uu xoous
nnn umóme narpaµt, or any prizes
oo +uu npaùsus
(romopie) Bt, eos+oxuo, you may ¹ have won.
saeoeea:u mv +où xæe wau
(÷ «... ¹ y Bac sanoënant»).
Pacnucieaùme cnom 'Talk up¨ your qualiIications
knann]nkannm moor an ëo rwo:uqur+ùuius
n ontr, and experience
æuo urcnnpieuc
utoôt sacrannrt nx snyuart to make them sound
mv ++ùr ðo+ cavuo
kak moxno ôonee as impressive as you can
nneuarnxmme, æs u+np+cue æs mv ræu
(no,) koneuno, oes without, oI course,
wuðavm oeroos
oômana; being dishonest;
ouuue oucouucm
µ) Hooy+aùme e) 1hink about presentation!
o npesenraôentnocrn! θuur ooavm nposoum+ùuiu
225
224
cnnmkom noµpoôum, n are too detailed and
aa mvv oum+ù:o æuo
+ro +oxem nponsnecrn it can make
um ræu +oùr
ouent nnoxoe nneuarnenne; a very bad impression;
o e+pu oæo u+np+uiu
x) Omeeuaùme ua nce g) Answer all the questions!
nonpoct! aauco oo: ðorw+µius
¹ Xnsnenno naxno It is ¹ very vital
um us e+pu eaùm:
sanonnxmo ¹ kaxµym rpa]y. to Iill in ¹ every box.
mv qu:-nu +epu oorc
Crapañrect ue cctnartcx na Try not to make reIerences to
mpaù uom mo++ùr p+qpoucus mv
µpyrne ncrounnkn other sources of information
uuqop+aµuu aðo coocus oe uuqo++ùuiu
+ro ne nomoxer, it is not helpful,
um us uom x+:nqv:
mar rar ankert because Iorms
ouroos qoo+s
rpeôymr cnenn]nueckym require speciIic
purwaùo cnocnqur
n ncuepntnammym and explicit inIormation.
nn]opmannm. æuo urcn:ncum uuqo++ùuiu
1 1
Eµnncrnennoe, (kak) The only way
ðo ovu:u w+ù
3ro uyxuo oeuamo rontko This should only be done
(moeoa), ðuc uro ovu:u ouu oau
korµa oô +rom when it is
w+u um us
cnennantno sanpamnnamr speciIically requested
(÷ «sanpomeuo»), cnocnqur:u purw+cmuo
n µaxe rorµa and, even then,
æuo uueu ðou
ona oouxua ocmaeamic» it should be kept
um uro ouu ronm
uacmouoro kparkoñ as brieI and as relevant
n no cymecrny, æs opuuq æuo æs p+:ueoum
uacrouoro +ro nosmoxno. as possible.
æs nocuo:
He ¹ noooaeaùmeci coônasny Do not ¹ be tempted
(«He ôyµtre coônasnent») ovv uom ouu m++muo
µanamo ycrapenmym to add any old inIormation
nn]opmannm mv æo +uu ov:o uuqo++ùuiu
rontko o:» moeo, utoôt just to fill up the spaces
sano:uumi npoôent ow»cm mv qu: an ðocn+ùcus
mexµy nonpocamn. between the questions.
oumenuu ðo rwoµius
Hnorµa ornert, Sometimes the answers
ca+maù+s ðoaaucoc
(romopie) µamr nmµn, (that) people give
ðæm nuun: eue
'
'
227
226
n ankery on an application Iorm
ou æu æn:ur+ùuiu qoo+
+oxem nnorµa ómmo can sometimes be
ræu ca+maù+s ouu
yrononno nakasyemtm a sackable oIIence;
npecrynnennem; o cæroo: oq+uc
n) Cueoume sa cnoeñ i) Check your vocabulary!
nekcnkoñ! :or ëo eor+o·r:opu
Hsóeeaùme ncnontsonaunx Avoid using
oeoùo mvsuue
nsnnmne unnecessarily
auu+cocopu:u
cnoxnoro xstka. complicated language.
ro+n:uroùmuo :æuewuowi
3ro ue nponsneµëm This will not impress.
(nyxnoro) nneuarnennx. ðuc wn: uom u+np+c
Cueoume sa saymntmn Watch out for wimpy words
cnonamn wom: avm qoo wn+nu wœœos
rnna 'mostlv¨, 'quite¨ like 'mostlv¨, 'quite¨
:aùr +ovcm:u rwaùm
nnn 'fairlv¨: or 'fairlv¨
oo q+o:u
onn ue (cos-)oamm they do not give the impression
nneuarnennx ðoù ovv uom eue ðo u+np+uiu
+uepeuu n +nrysnasma. of energy or enthusiasm.
oe +uooiwu oo uuθ·mvsuos+
norennnantntñ kanµnµar a prospective candidate
o npocn+rmue ræuouoom
+oxem orasamo can do
ræu ovv
camomy ceôe ycuyey himselI/ herselI justice
xu+c+:q/xœœc+:q owncmuc
+ro ornernrt na ncë, is to answer everything
us mv aauco +epuθuue
o uëm ero/eë cnpamnnamm; he/she is asked;
xu uiu us aacro
s) Huroeoa ue ¹ nrnre! h) Aever ¹ lie!
u+eo :aù
Kpome roro, ¹ uro Apart Irom the Iact ¹ that
onaam qpo+ ðoqærm ðæm
Bt +oxeme oimi noù+aui you might be caught out
(na +rom), mv +aùm ouu room avm
n Bac nonpoc»m pacckasart and asked to tell interviewers
komnccnn æuo aacro mv mo: numoe·rvos
o Bamem ntmtmnennom about your Iictional
ooavm ëo qnruiu:
no歉me na 3nepecr, ascent oI Everest,
æc+um oe +eopucm
nnnctnauue writing
paùmuue
saneµomo noxntx µanntx deliberate Ialsehoods
ou:nopum qoo:cxvos
229
228
H+eemca ue cnnmkom mnoro 1here are not too many
ð+o aa uom mvv ++uu
kyntrypntx pasnnunñ, cultural diIIerences
ra:m:opo: onqpoucus
n ¹ nerue and it is ¹ easier
æuo um us nusuo
nonnmamo µpyr µpyra, to understand each other,
mv auoocmæuo uum: aðo
ro ecrt ¹ nonxrt n i.g. ¹ understand and
ðæm us auoocmæuo æuo
ómmo nonxrm+. be understood.
ouu auoocmyo
Ho ycranonneuue But establishing
oam ucmæo:uuiuue
µenontx ornomennñ business relations
onsuuc pu:+ùuius
ue óyoem ¹ nërknm. is not going to be ¹ easy.
us uom eovuue moonu nusu
Bt oouxum nonnocrtm You should Iully
mv uro qy:u
noµroronnrtcx prepare yourselI
npun+o èoc+:q
n nocmapamoca nonyunmo and try to get
æuo mpaù mv e+m
cmouoro nonesnoñ as much useIul inIormation
nn]opmannn æs +am: mvcqv: uuqo++ùuiu
IAABA VII
PA3IOBOPL O BH3HECE
TEKCT X39
«MEƱYHAPO±HAR TOPIOBAR»
'INTERNATIONAL TRADE¨
uumouæuiu: mpoùo
Bt coóupaemeco Are you intending
aa mv uum+uouue
+kcnoprnponamo to export or to import?
nnn nmnoprnponamo? mv +rcnoom oo mv n+noom
(Hpouecc) Honck(a) nontx Seeking out new markets
ptnkon cnuruue avm u·mv +aarumc
n ynennueuue and increasing your earnings
Bamnx sapaôorkon æuo uurpnusuue ëo œœuuues
ncerµa npeocmaeuaem coóoù is always
us oo:woùs
npnnnekarentnym nepcnekrnny. an attractive prospect.
æu ompærmue npocnorm
¹ Bcerµa nerue It is ¹ always easier
um us oo:woùs nusuo
naunnamo co crpant, to start with a country
mocmaam wnð oraumpu
koropax nanomnnaem Bamy. which resembles your country.
wnm: pus++o:s ëo raumpu
231
230
n nocuyuaùme, ¹ uro and listen to ¹ what
æuo :ucu mv wom
onn +oeym ckasart. they can say.
ðoù ræu coù
Horom nacrynaem npemx Then comes the time
ðou ra+s ðomaù+
naunnamo pacuërt to begin calculations
moouenu ræ:r·r:+ùuius
n npoµymtnart and think over
æuo θuur oveo
1 2 3 " 2 3 1
crparernm Bamero ônsnec`a. your business` strategy.
ëo onsuuc cmpæmoowiu
He saóyoome npeµycmorpemo Don`t forget to Ioresee
ooum qoe+m mv qoocnu
snaunrentnte µonyckn, generous margins,
oiwieuopos +aaoiwiuus
utoôt ¹ ymentmnmo cnom so as to ¹ reduce your
cov æs mv puo·mvc ëo
sanncnmocrt succeptibility
corconmuon:umu
om nenpnxrntx cmpnpnson. to nasty surprises.
mv uaacmu conpaùsus
Hpnmnre pemennx Decide
oucaùo
no crparernn on your business strategy.
cnoero ônsneca. ou ëo onsuuc cmpæmoowiu
or pasnnuntx ontrntx Irom diIIerent experienced
qpo+ onqpoum urcnnp·eucm
n snamunx konrakron and knowing contacts
æuo uovuue roumærmc
n ncrounnkon, and sources
æuo coocus
crouoro +owuo. as possible.
æs nocuo:
Hauuume c (roro, uro) Start by looking
ornxnnrect cmaam oaù :yruue
nokpyr ceôx. around you.
opavuo mv
Ecuu Bt uaùoëme* If you find* necessary people
nyxntx nmµeñ, uq mv qaùuo u+cocopu nuun:
ue meµnnre don`t hesitate
ooum x+sumoùm
ncrynamo c nnmn n konrakr, to get in touch with them
moe+m uumam: wnð ðo+
n nonnocrtm nocnontsyñrect and make Iull use oI
æuo +oùr qv: mvc oe
nx snannxmn their knowledge
ð+o uoo:uowi
n ontrom. and experience.
æuo urcnnp·euc
Ceaxumeco c komnannxmn Contact companies in the area
n (nyxnoñ Bam) mecrnocrn roumærm ra+nouus uu ðo+puo
233
232
oouxum ôtrt pemeut should be decided
uro ouu oucaùouo
sapanee. in advance.
uu ooeaauc
A norom npnµëm* npemx And then comes² the time
(«npnxoµnr») æuo ðou ra+s ðomaù+
(n) µnx ôyxranrepon. Ior accountants.
qoo oravumoumc
Mexµynapoµnax An international
æu uumouæuiu:
ôyxranrepckax ]npma Iirm oI accountants
qœœ+ oe oravumoumc
ya 1ouno ôyµer nmert will** have
wn: xæe
snaunrentno ôo´ ntmne Iar greater resources
nosmoxnocrn qaa ep+ùmo pucoocus
n ontr mexµynapoµnoro and experience of Ioreign business
óusueca, æuo urcnnp·euc oe qopuu onsuuc
uem Bam mecrntñ ôyxranrep. than your local accountant.
ðæu ëo :ovr: oravumoum
To xe camoe The same
ðoc+ù+
uoae1 xaca1tcn n mpncron can be applied to lawyers
(÷ «moxer ôtrt «npu:oweuo»). ræu ouu on:aùo mv :ooùec
Bam mecrntñ mpncr Your local lawyer
ëo :ovr: :ooùe
Huauupyùme rmarentno, Plan careIully,
n:æu r+oqv:u
no noseouaùme cnryannn but allow things
oam o:av θuues
pasnnna1tcn uyume, go better
eov o+mo
uem Bt oxnµaun. than you expected.
ðæu mv urcn+rmuo
Ecmo nn y Bac nosmoxnocrn, Have you the resources
xæe mv ðopucoocus
utoôt cnpannrtcx to meet increasing
c pacryunmn mv +num uurpnusuue
1 2
"
2 1
saxnkamn na konnuecrno? volume demands?
eo:·rv+ ou+aauos
C+oxeme nn Bt Will you be able
wn: mv ouu oùo:
ckasamo «Xnarnr!», to say 'Enough!¨
moc+ù uuaq
korµa oôcroxrentcrna when things
w+u θuues
ue óyoym coornercrnonamo* do not come up*
(÷ «ne coornercrnymr») ovv uom ra+ an
Bamnm oxnµannxm? to your expectations?
mv ëo orcnorm+ùuius
3rn nonpoct These matters
ðuus +æmoc
235
234
TEKCT X40
«O BA3AX ±AHHLX»
'ABOUT DATA BASES¨
ooavm o+ùmo o+ùcus
Hcnontsonauue ôasB µannBX Using a data base
mvsuue oo+ùmo ooùc
moxer ôtrt nennkonennBM can be an excellent
ræu ouu æu +rco:eum
kparuañmnm noµxoµOM short cut
uëomram
r xopomEMV ônsnecV. to good business.
mv evo onsuuc
Iasernax ôasa µanntx, A newspaper data base,
o u·mvcnoùno o+ùmo ooùc
nanpnmep, Ior example,
qoo uesaa+n:
moxer oóecneuumo Bac can provide you
ræu npoeaùo mv
Hucmpy+eum
$
ece+, uro ôtno onyônnkonauo with everything published
(÷ «onyônnkonauntm») wnð +epuθuue nao:uuio
o konkpernoñ about a given
ooavm o eueu
orpacnH ônsnecA, branch of business,
opaaum: oe onsuuc
+oxem oimi might be
+aùm ouu
ne nnonne komnerenren not Iully versed
uom qy:u eœœco
n nonpocax µnoñnoro in the matters oI double taxation
nanorooônoxennx uu ðo+æmoc oe oao: mærc+ùuiu
n mexµynapoµntx and international
æuo uumouæuiu:
µenontx konrpakron. business contracts.
onsuuc roumpærmc
* Hocne cnona 'if¨ npakrnueckn ncerµa
(a nocne cnon 'when¨ n 'then¨ no mnornx cnyuaxx)
ue ynompeóuammca
nokasarenn ovovµeeo npemenn o:e+eumi 'will/ shall¨;
** Xouy ckasart, uro o:e+eum 'will¨
(ocoôenno, nponsnecënntñ c yµapennem!)
npnµaër ntpaxennm ôo´ ntmym crenent ynepennocrn:
On npnµër oóasameuouo! ÷ He will come! xu wu´u ra+
237
236
a +ro snaunr, uro which means that
wnm: +uuuc ðæm
c camOIO nauanA from the very beginning
qpo+ ðoe+pu ouenuuue
Bt +oxeme µanart you are able to give
mv aa oùo: mv eue
neckontko pasnnunBX several diIIerent criteria
kpnrepnEB c+epo: onqpoum rpum+puo
µnx nn]opmannH, Ior the inIormation
qoo ðo uuqo++ùuiu
(koropax) Ba+ nyxna. you require.
mv purwaùo
Kak, nanpnmep, Such as, Ior example,
cam: æs qoo uesaa+n:
korµa Bt uueme when you are looking for
w+u mv aa :yruue qoo
nocranmnkOB kakHX-ro suppliers oI some
con:aùos oe ca+
peµkHX marepnanOB rare raw materials
(÷ «peµkOIO ctptB») p+o poo +æmnpuo:s
n konkpernOH mecrnocrH in a certain area
uu o cœœmu +puo
nnn n orµentnOH or in a particular
oo uu o nomnr·r:o
orpacnH ônsnecA. branch of business.
opaaum: oe onsuuc
Hpakrnueckn ronopx, In practical terms
uu npærmur: mœœ+s
konkypenrE nnn npoµyknnH. a competitor or a product.
o ro+n+mumo oo o npooorm
¡enonax ôasa µanntx A business data base
o onsuuc o+ùmo ooùc
moxer ôtrt ncnontsonana can be used
(µnx roro), ræu ouu mvso
utoôt orcneµnrt to trace
mv mpoùc
norennnantnBX knnenrOB, prospective customers,
npocn+rmue racmo+oc
nanpnmep, nmnoprëpOB Ior example, importers
qoo uesaa+n: u+noomoc
nmenno BamEIO nnµA oI just your type
oe ow»cm ëo maùn
npoµyknnH. of product.
oe npooorm
Hnn, nepoxrno, ona moxer Or perhaps it can
oo noxænc um ræu
nomout Ba+ help* you
xo:n mv
nañrn nocranmnkA *Iind a supplier
qaùuo o con:aùo
kakOIO-nnôyµt nnnrA of some odd sized screw.
neoôtunOIO pasmepA. oe ca+ oo caùso crpyv
Bt uacro moxere ntôpart You can oIten select
mv ræu oqu cu:erm
neckontko napnanrOB, several variables,
c+epo: e+puoo:s
239
238
TEKCT X41
«HEKOTOPLE YCAOBHR ±OCTABKH»
'SOME CONDITIONS OF DELIVERY¨
ca+ rouonuius oe ou:nepu
Korµa Bt +kcnoprnpyere When exporting
w+u +rcnoomuue
nnn nmnoprnpyere ronapt, or importing goods,
oo n+noomuue evos
Ba+ uyxuo ¹ snart, you need ¹ to know
mv uuuo mv uov
kak onn how they
xav ðoù
npeono:aearmc» oimi are going to be
aa eovuue mv ouu
µocranneut. delivered.
ou:neoo
Ycnonnx nocrankn The delivery terms
ðo ou:nepu mœœ+s
no konrpakrV of the contract
oe ðo roumpærm
1 cnono " 2 cnona
onpeµenam, will determine
wn: oumœœ+uu
kakoñ naprnëp which partner
wnm: naamuo
+ro +oxem osnauart, that can mean
ðæm ræu +uuu
uro Bm noµnnctnaere µoronop that you sign an agreement
ðæm mv caùu æu oepnu+oum
c komnanneñ, (nmemmeñ) with a data base company,
ôasy µanntx, wnð o o+ùmo ooùc ra+nouu
n nocne +roro and aIter that,
æuo aaqmo ðæm
Bac noocoeouuam (÷ «Bt you`ll be coupled
óyoeme noµcoeµnneut») mv: ouu ran:o
uepes moµem via modem
eaùo +ovoo+
r +roñ komnannH. to this company.
mv ðuc ra+nouu
3ro nosnonnr Ba+ This will allow you
ðuc wn: o:av mv
ntstnart na +kpane to call-up on the screen
mv roo: an ou ðocrpnuu
BamEIO coôcrnennOIO of your own computer
komntmrepA oe ëo ovu ro+n·mvmo
1 2 " 2 1
nyxnVR Ba+ ¹ nn]opmannR the inIormation ¹ you require
ðo uuqo++ùuiu mv purwaùo
korµa ôt ona Ba+ whenever you need it.
nn nonaµoônnact wou+eo mv uuuo um
(÷ «kaxµtñ pas, korµa ona nam nyxna»).
* Bcnomnnre, uro n pasronopnom xstke nocue rnarona 'help¨
nepeµ nocneµymmnm rnaronom
+oxuo ue ynompeóuamo :acmuµv 'to¨.
241
240
koropte ycranannnnamr, which state
wnm: cmoùm
uro oµnn naprnëp that one partner
ðæm wau naamuo
1 cnono " 2 cnona
onnarum pacxoµt, will pay the costs,
wn: noù ðorocmc
a µpyroñ and the other
æuo ðo aðo
1 cnono " 2 cnona
npnmem na ceôx pnckn. will take the risks.
wn: moùr ðopncrc
Hsópauumù meroµ The chosen method
ðo :ovsu ++θoo
rpancnoprnponkH of transportation
oe mpæucnoom+ùuiu
+oxem sanncert can depend
ræu oun+uo
om cronmocrH, on the cost,
ou ðorocm
(or) konkpernOIO npemenH, the time taken,
ðomaù+ moùru
(or) nnµA ronapOB n r. µ. type of goods etc.
maùn oe evos umc+mpo
uertptmx rnanntmn The Iour major
ðo qoo ++ùowie
ornercrnenen sa is responsible Ior
us pucnoucuo: qoo
rpancnoprnponkV the transportation
ðo mpæucnoom+ùuiu
+1HX ronapOB. of these goods.
oe ðuus evos
Ornercrnennocrt uacro moxer Responsibility can oIten
pucnoucuon:umu ræu oqu
ómmo noµeneua be divided
ouu oueaùouo
rak(-nm oôpasom), uro so that
cov ðæm
npoµanen onnaunnaer the seller pays
ðoc+:o noùs
pacxoµt n pnckn the costs and risks
ðorocmc æuo pucrc
oo onpeµenënnOIO nynkrA, up to a given point,
an mv o eueu noùum
a nokynarent ¹ npnnnmaer and the buyer ¹ takes over
(pacxoµt n pnckn) æuo ðooaùo moùrc oveo
om roro mecra. from there.
qpo+ ð+o
H+emmca ¹ rakxe 1here are ¹ also
ð+o aa oo:cov
«oronopkn nocrankn», delivery clauses
ou:nepu r:oosus
243
242
+kcneprAMH no nepenoskE experts in transporting goods
ronapon +rcnœmc uu mpæucnoomuue evos
e pasnte crpant n ns nnx, to and Irom diIIerent countries,
mv æuo qpo+ onqpoum raumpus
n no ncemy, uro and in everything that
æuo uu +epuθuue ðæm
kacaercx ramoxennOIO entails customs regulations,
perynnponannB, uum+ù:s racmo+s poe·r:+ùuius
orpannuennH no nmnopry import / export restrictions,
n +kcnopry, n+noom +rcnoom pucmpnruius
ycnonnñ nocrankn, delivery terms,
ou:nepu mœœ+s
o]opmnennx ]akryp n r.µ. business invoicing etc.
onsuuc uueoùcuue umc+mpo
¡axe ecnn Bt Even iI you
nueu uq mv
n ocnonnom nonnmaere, basically understand
o+ùcur:u auoocmæuo
kak (+ra) cncrema paôoraer, how the system works
xav ðocncmo+ wœœrc
Bt +oxeme nanxrt you can employ
mv ræu u+n:où
+kcneµnnnonnOIO arenrA, a Iorwarding agent
o qoowoouue +ùoiweum
utoôt (on) nosaôornncx oóo to take care of all
ncEH mv moùr reo oe oo:
nnµamn nepenosok shipping methods are
aeuammca uinnuue ++θoos aa
mopckoñ, nasemntñ, sea, road,
cuu povo
xenesnoµopoxntñ rail and air.
n nosµymntñ. poù: æuo +o
Ecnn Bm ue yeepeum, II you are not sure
uq mv aa uom umo
kakoñ nnµ nepenoskH which method of transportation
wnm: ++θoo oe mpæucnoom+ùuiu
nanôonee noµxoµnr is most suitable
us +ovcm c·mvmo:
µnx BamHX ronapOB, Ior your goods,
qoo ëo evos
nnn kak or how
oo xav
µokymenrannx the documentation
ðo oor·r+oum+ùuiu
oouxua ómmo oqop+ueua, should be organized,
uro ouu ooeouaùso
1 2 " 2 1
ro µnx Bac ómuo óm it would be wise Ior you
pasymntm um wvo ouu waùs qoo mv
cnxsartcx c +kcneµnropOM. to contact a Iorwarding agent.
mv roumærm o qoowoouue +ùoiweum
3kcneµnropt aeuammca Forwarding agents are
qoowoouue +ùoiweumc aa
245
244
pasntmn +kcneµnnnonntmn diIIerent Iorwarding agencies
arenrcrnamn, onqpoum qoowoouue +ùoiweucus
umoóm ¹ Bt mornn so that ¹ you can
cov ðæm mv ræu
cpannnrt pacnenkn, compare prices,
ro+n+o npaùcus
rpa]nkn µnnxennx timetables and conditions.
n ycnonnx. maù+moùo:s æuo rouonuius
When regular deliveries
Korµa paccmarpnnamrcx
w+u p+e·r:o ou:nepus
perynxpnte nocrankn,
are being considered
aa onuue roucnooo
ro moxer ôtrt it may be best to look Ior
nyume nonckart um +où ouu oocm mv:yr qoo
cauVK µemënVK the cheapest alternative,
antrepnarnnV, ðo:minucm oo:mœœuomue
no Ba+ cueoyem nomnnrt, but you should remember
oam mv uro pu+++oo
uro nnskax cronmocrt that a low transportation cost
nepenoskn ðæm o :ov mpæucnoom+ùuiu rocm
ne oôxsarentno aeuaemca is not necessarily
us uom u+cocopu:u
(uau-)uyuuu+ pemennem. the best decision.
ðoo+cm oucnwiu
nnn o uacrH paôorB, or of part of the work
oo oe naam oe ðowœœr
koropax oouxua that has to
ðæm xæs mv
ómmo ntnonneua. be IulIilled.
ouu qv:qn:o
Mnorne +kcneµnnnonnte Many Iorwarding agents
arenrt ++uu qoowoouue +ùoiweumc
aeuammca n nepenosunkAMH, are also shippers,
aa oo:cov uinnoc
ro ecrt, onn moxe nepenosxr i.e. they transport
ðæm us ðoù mpæucnoom
ronapt, goods as well,
evos æs w+:
no onn rakxe +oeym but they also can
oam ðoù oo:cov ræu
nanxrt µpyrHX contract other shippers
nepenosunkOB, roumpærm aðo uinnoc
utoôt re ntnonnnnn to carry out
(÷ «utoôt ntnonnnrt») mv ræpu avm
camV nepenoskV. the transportation itselI.
ðo mpæucnoom+ùuiu umc+:q
¹ O:eui pero+euovemc» It is ¹ mostlv advisable
um us +ovcm:u ooeaùsoo:
cnxsartcx c neckontkHMH to contact several
mv roumærm c+epo:
¦
247
246
He+?
$
µpamarnunm+u akra+u by dramatic terrorist acts,
reppopnsma, oaù opo+æmur m+popucm ærmc
He+?
$
a oôtunm+u but by conventional illnesses
saôonenannx+u oam oaù roue+uuiu: n:uucus
n rpaµnnnonnoñ and traditional criminality.
npecrynnocrtm. æuo mpoonuiu: rpu+uuæ:umu
3aôonert, Falling ill,
qoo:uue n:
nnn nonacrt n necuacrntñ or suIIering an accident,
cnyuañ, oo caqpuue æu ærcuooum
nnn cmami wepmeoù or being subfected to
(÷ «nooeepeuvmic»») oo onuue caoowiermuo mv
npecrynnoñ akrnnnocrn criminal activity
rpn+uu: ærmneumu
no npemx npeôtnannx during a sojourn abroad
sa rpannneñ o·mopuue o coowièou oopooo
+oeuo óm nmert could have
rvo xæe
ceptësnte nocneµcrnnx. serious consequencies.
cnp·ec roucurwnucus
Hacnopra, noµnrentckne Passports, driving licences,
npana, naacnoomc opaùeuue :aùcoucus
kpeµnrnte kaproukn credit cards and other
n µpyrne rp+oum raaos æuo aðo
TEKCT X42
«±euonme noesµxn 1peõym1 noµro1onxn»
~Business trips require preparation¨
onsuuc mpunc purwaùo nponop+ùuiu
Hyremecrnnx Travels
mpæe:s
ncerµa accouuupoeauuco have always been associated
xæe oo:woùs ouuu ocovuiuoùmuo
c neonpeµenënnocrtm with uncertainty and danger.
n onacnocrtm. wnð aucœœmoumu æuo o+ùuowie
Xorx mt ue oouxum Although we shouldn`t
(oi:u oi) oo:ðov wn uroum
npeynennunnart onacnocrn, exaggerate the dangers,
uesæowiepoùm ðoo+ùuowiec
mt onpeµenënno ne µonxnt we deIinitely shouldn`t
wn o+quuum:u uroum
(n) nrnopnponart nx. ignore them.
ueuoo ðo+
Ca+me onacnte yrpost 1he most dangerous threats
ðo+ovcm o+ùuowiepoc θpomc
oua nyremecrnennnka to the traveller abroad
sa rpannneñ mv ðo mpæe:o oopooo
cosµamrcx ne are not generated
aa uom owieuop+ùmuo
249
248
Hem c+mcua It makes no sense
um +oùrc uov c+uc
noµnepramo ceôx to expose yourselI
mv urcnovs èoc+:q
pncky to the risk
mv ðopncr
nnesanno okasartcx oI suddenly being
(«nnesannoro oimu»») oe caou:u onuue
ôes (xomi) raroeo-uuóyoo without any
wuðavm +uu
yµocronepennx nnunocrn Iorm oI identiIication,
qoo+ oe aùooumuqur+ùuiu
nnn ôes ocnonntx or without the basic
oo wuðavm ðo o+ùcur
µokymenron, (nyxntx) documentation Ior the job
µnx paôort, oor·r+oum+ùuiu qoo ðoowëo
(koropym) npeµcronr cµenart. to be carried out.
mv ouu ræpuo avm
Btôop Bameñ rocrnnnnt Selecting your hotel
cu:ermuue ëo xovm+:
rakxe naxen. is also important.
us oo:cov u+noomoum
Cmoum ¹ nonnnmarentnee It pays to ¹ take a closer look
nocmorpert um noùs mv moùr o r:ovco :vr
ua ro, uro npeµnaraercx at what is available.
(«µocrynno»). æm wom us oe+ù:o:
noµoônte µokymenrt similar documents
cn+u:o oor·r+oumc
aeuammca are
aa
npnnnekarentntmn oua nopon attractive to thieves
ompærmue mv θuues
n (nx) rpyµno samennrt. and diIIicult to replace.
æuo onquro:m mv pun:+ùc
Tak uro, (nce) µannte So the registration numbers
(÷ «perncrpannonnte nomepa») cov ðo poowiucmp+ùuiu ua+ooc
raknx oorv+eumoe of such documentation
oe cam: oor·r+oum+ùuiu
µonxnt ôtrt nepenncant should be noted down
uro ouu uovmuo oavu
nepeµ or¡esµom beIore departure
ouqoo ounaam:o
n coxpanent oo+a. and kept at home.
æuo ronm æmxov+
¡pyroñ npakrnuecknñ cnocoô Another practical measure
ouaðo npærmur: ++wie
cµenart (]oro-)konnn is to take (photo)copies
us mv moùr qomoronus
naxntx oorv+eumoe of important documentation
oe u+noomoum oor·r+oum+ùuiu
nepeµ or¡esµom. beIore leaving.
ouqoo :nueuue
251
250
npnnnmartcx no nnnmanne be taken into account
(«ôtrt npnnxma») ouu moùru numv oravum
npu ¹ sakase rocrnnnnt. when ¹ booking your hotel.
w+u oyruue ëo xovm+:
Hoxapt n rocrnnnnax Hotel Iires
(÷ «Iocrnnnunte noxapt») xovm+: qaùos
uacro ôtnamr npnunnoñ oIten cause
oqu roos
ceptësnoro ypona n cmepreñ. serious damage and deaths.
cnpiec oæ+uowi æuo ooθc
Byoome ocropoxnt n Be careIul and try
nocrapañrect ouu reoqv: æuo mpaù
yµocronepnrtcx (n rom), uro to make sure (that)
mv +oùr umo ðæm
y Bac ecmo µocryn you have access
mv xæe ærcoc
r noxapnomy ntxoµy to a Iire escape
mv o qaùo ucr+ùn
c Bamero +raxa. from your hotel Iloor.
qpo+ ëo xovm+: q:oo
Pnck ¹ saôonenauua ¹ The risk oI ¹ Ialling ill ¹ abroad
¹ sa rpannneñ ðopncr oe qoo:uue n: oopooo
uacro coornocxr co is oIten related to
us oqu pu:+ùmuo mv
mnoxecrnom pasnnuntx a number oI diIIerent Iactors,
]akropon, oua+oo oe onqpoum qærmoc
Mecrononoxenne The location
ðo:ovr+ùuiu
sauacrym eaxuee, is oIten more important
us oqu +oo u+noomoum
uem than
ðæu
yponent oôcnyxnnannx. the service standard.
ðo cœœeuc cmæuooo
Ecnn nama rocrnnnna II your hotel is situated
pacnouoxeua uq ëo xovm+: us cum·r+ùmuo
nônnsn (÷ nenoµaneky) in the vicinity
uu ðoeucnuumu
om rpannopra, of communications
oe ro+·ruur+ùuius
(koroptm) Bam nyxno (that) you need to use
nontsonartcx, ðæm mv uuuo mv mvs
n (or) mecr, and places
æuo n:+ùcus
(koropte) Bt namepenaerect you intend to visit,
nocernrt, mv uum+uo mv ensum
rorµa Bt moxere c+konomnrt then you can save
ðou mv ræu coùe
+accy npemenn. a lot of time.
o:om oe maù+
Fesonacnocrt µonxna rakxe SaIety should also
c+ùqmu uro oo:cov
253
252
nmecro eooi us-noo rpaua, instead oI tap water,
uucm+o oe mæn woomo
nsôerart onpeµenënnoñ nnmn avoiding certain Iood etc.
(«usoeeauue») n r.µ. oeoùouue cœœmu qvvo umc+mpo
Ecnn Bt npoeooume II you are spending abroad
sa rpannneñ uq mv aa cn+uouue oopooo
µnnrentntñ nepnoµ epe+euu, an extended period of time
æu urcm+uouo nnopuoo oe maù+
(ro) Ba+ óyoem uyxeu you will need access
µocryn mv wn: uuuo ærcoc
k xopomeñ meµnnnnckoñ to a good medical
mv o evo ++our:
cnyxôe oxpant sµopontx. health care service.
xo:θ r+o cœœeuc
Bam cueoyem nontrartcx You should try
mv uro mpaù
cnxsartcx to get in touch
moe+m uumam:
c xopomnm µokropom with a good doctor
wnð o evo oarmo
n nsyunrt nosmoxnocrn and investigate the possibilities
æuo uue+cmueoùm ðonocuon:umus
nonyueuua (npaueônoñ) oI obtaining assistance
nomomn oe oom+ùuuue +cncmouc
(ecuu eopye ¹ Bt saôoneere) (should ¹ you Iall ill)
uro mv qoo: n:
kak moxno ôtcrpee. as soon as possible.
æs cvvu æs nocuo:
no umóym ôonesnt, (koropym) but any illness
oam +uu n:uuc
Bt ¹ +oeuu óm you ¹ are likely to
mv aa :aùr:u mv
sanonyunrt ¹ sa rpannneñ get ¹ abroad
eom oopooo
(sa ncknmuennem (except tropical ones),
rponnuecknx), urc+nm mponur: wauc
Bt rouno rak xe c+oeuu óm you are equally likely to
mv aa nrwo:u :aùr:u mv
sanonyunrt oo+a. get at home.
eom æmxov+
Hontrartcx nsôexart Trying to prevent
(«Hontrka») mpaùuue monpue+um
noµxnartnauua kakoñ-nnôyµt catching a speciIic illness
cnenn]nueckoñ ôonesnn ræm:iue o cnocnqur n:uuc
¹ rpyµno, is ¹ diIIicult,
us onquro:m
no Bt moxere but you can
oam mv ræu
npeµnpnnxrt koe-kakne mept, take some measures
moùr ca+ ++wiec
rar, uanpu+ep, ¹ nnrt such as ¹ drinking
(«numue») cam: æs opnuruue
mnnepantnym noµy mineral water
+nupo: woomo
255
254
nnorµa sometimes
ca+maù+s
oµnoñ nnn µnyx crpannn one or two pages
wau oo mvv n+ùowius
ôyµer µocrarouno. will suIIice.
wn: coqaùc
B nmôom cnyuae, However,
xav+eo
¹ eaxuo, uroôt it is ¹ important that
um us u+noomoum ðæm
µokymenr ôtn o]opmnen rak, this document is designed
ðuc oor·r+oum us ousaùuo
utoôt nosnonnrt ncem to allow all parties
yuacrnnkam mv o:av oo: naamus
noµrnepµnrt cnoë npncyrcrnne to conIirm their presence in it.
(«nx») n nëm. mv rouqœœ+ ð+o nposuc uu um
Ecnn panee (yxe) II many letters
nponsomën uq ++uu :emoc
oômen mnornmn nnctmamn have been previously exchanged
xæe ouuu npneioc:u urc:+ùuoiwio
n +uoeo µnckyccnñ and a lot of discussions
æuo o:om oe oucrauius
yxe cocmoauoco, have already taken place,
xæe oo:p+ou moùru n:oùc
TEKCT X43
«HHKAKOIO BH3HECA
BE3 KPH±HHECKOH 3KCHEPTH3L»
'NO BUSINESS
WITHOUT LEGAL EXPERTISE¨
uov onsuuc wuðavm :uue: +rcnamuus
¡oronop mexµy An agreement between
æu oepnu+oum oumwnuu
(µnymx n ôonee) ]npmamn (two and more) companies
mvv æuo +oo ra+nouus
µonxen xcno n cxaro must clearly and succinctly
+acm r:no:u æuo corcnurm:u
koncrarnponart npana state the rights
cmoùm ðopaùmc
n oôxsannocrn and responsibilities
æuo pucnoucuon:umus
yuacrnymmnx cmopou, of the parties concerned,
oe ðonaamus roucœœuo
ro ecrt (cropon), yuacrnymunx i.e. participating
ðæm us naamucun+ùmuue
n +rom cornamennn. in this agreement.
uu ðuc oepnu+oum
Cornamenne ue oouxuo An agreement doesn`t have to
æuoepnu+oum oasum xæe mv
ôtrt cnnmkom µnnnntm, be too long,
ouu mvv :oue
257
256
n raknm oôpasom onn and thereIore they leave out
ynyckamr æuo ð+oqoo ðoù :uue avm
mnoro naxntx many impotant
++uu u+noomoum
npoônem n µeraneñ. matters and details.
+æmoc æuo oum+ù:s
Onpeµenënnte rpeôonannx Certain requirements
cœœmu purwaù+oumc
n ycnonnx and conditions
æuo rouonuius
nponyckamrcx ¹ no ouuóre, are leIt out ¹ by mistake,
aa :eqm avm oaù+ucm+ùr
nekoropte uacrn (µoronopa) some sections
ca+ c+ruius
nsnoxeut are stated
aa cm+ùmuo
neuërko nnn ne nonnocrtm. vaguely or incompletely.
e+ùe:u oo uuro+n:num:u
Koneuno, nnorµa OI course, sometimes
oeroos ca+maù+s
rakne µoronopa such agreements
cam: oepnu+oumc
ôyµyr paôorart e :roo+ c:v:ae, will work anvwav
wn: wœœr +uuwoù
noromy uro oôa naprnëpa because both partners
ouroos oovθ naamuoc
¹ ómuo óm pasymno it ¹ would be wise
um wvo ouu waùs
n neoôxoµnmo and necessary
æuo u+cocopu
cymmnponart nce nynkrt, to summarize all the points
mv ca+opaùs oo: ðonoùumc
(no koroptm) «ooeoeopeuo», agreed upon
oepnuo onou
n oµnom µokymenre, in one document,
uu wau oor·r+oum
ro ecrt n konrpakre. i.e. in a business contract.
ðæm us uu oonsuuc roumpærm
Ouent mnornx cnopon Very many disputes
e+pu ++uu oucn·mvmc
moxno ôtno ôt nsôexart, could be avoided
rvo ouu oeoùouo
ecuu óm naprnëpt ómuu if the partners were
uq ðonaamuoc wœœ
óouee µantnonnµntmn. more long-sighted.
+oo :ouecaùmuo
Mnoro µoronopon Many agreements
++uu oepnu+oumc
cocrannxmrcx are drawn up
aa opoou an
ôes mpnµnueckoñ noµµepxkn, without legal assistance
wuðavm :nue: ocncmouc
259
258
enucaui n µoronop, written into the agreement,
pumu numv ðo oepnu+oum
rorµa cnopt then the disputes
ðou ðo oucn·mvmc
moryr oôpymnrtcx kak cner can come thick and Iast.
na ronony. ræu ra+ θur æuo qaacm
Mnorne ]npmt Many companies
++uu ra+nouus
counn yµoôntm have Iound it convenient
nocueooeameuouo xæe qavuo um rouenuioum

$
ynyumart
$
to develop
mv oue+:on
mexµynapoµnte µoronopa,
$
international contracts


$ uumouæuiu: roumpærmc

$
" successively,
corc+cue:u
no, rar npaeuuo, but as a rule,
oam æs o pvv:
]npma ncnontsyer the company uses
ðora+nouu mvsus
ceoù camtñ nocneµnnñ its most recent agreement
µoronop umc +ovcm puucum oepnu+oum
kak eµnncrnenntñ oôpasen, as a single model,
æs o cuue: +ovo:
npocro menxa µart, just changing dates
ow»cm :+ùuoiwiuue ooùmc
oµnnakono sannrepeconant have a mutual interest
n rom, (÷ «nmemr oôomµntñ xæe o +·mv:vo: numpucm
nnrepec»)
uroôt rapanrnponart in making sure
(«n rapanrnponauuu»), uu ++ùruue umo
(uro) µoronop the agreement
ðo oepnu+oum
óyoem ¹ ntnonneu, will be ¹ carried out,
wn: ouu ræpuo avm
n noromy, uro onn and because they
æuo ouroos ðoù
µeñcrnnrentno xorxr really want
pno:u woum
µenart ônsnec µpyr c µpyrom. to do business with each other.
mv ovv onsuuc wnð uum: aðo
Ho ecnn But iI
oam uq
+konomnueckax oôcranonka the economic climate
ðo urouo+ur r:aù+um
yxyµmaercx, deteriorates,
oumnopupoùmc

1

2
nnn nosnnkamr or unIoreseen
oo auqoocnuu

2

3

3

1
nenpeµnnµennte cnryannn, situations arise
cumir+ùuius opaùs
koropte oouxum oi:u, that should have (been)
ðæm uro xæe (ouuu)
no ue ómuu but haven`t been
oam xæeum ouuu
}
"
261
260
cocrannxrt µoronopa (rak), to draw up contracts
mv opoo an roumpærmc
utoôt nsôerart to avoid
mv oeoùo
ôyµymnx cnopon. Iuture disputes.
q·mv:o oucn·mvmc
Karue What kind of
wom raùuo oe
nsmenennx oôcroxrentcrn alterations to circumstances
oo:mop+ùuius mv cœœro+cmoucus
cµenamr neoôxoµnmtm will necessitate
wn: uuc+cumoùm
cocrannenne nonoro the drawing oI a new agreement?
µoronopa? ðo opoouue oe o u·mv oepnu+oum
¹ Bos+oxuo nn Is it ¹ possible
us um nocuo:
nnecrn naparpa], to introduce a paragraph
mv uumpoo·mvc o næpoepaaq
nsôannxmunñ nocranmnkon exempting suppliers
ues++muue con:aùos
or mecrntx nanoron, Irom local taxes,
qpo+ :ovr: mærcus
oruncnennñ na connyxµt, social charges,
covui: :aaowius
n ncrannxa and inserting
æuo uucœœmuue
cranµaprnte naparpa]t, the standard paragraphs
ðo cmæuooo næpoepaaqc
koropte npnmenxnnct which have been applied
wnm: xæe ouuu on:aùo
mnoro ner, Ior many years,
qoo ++uu ùnos
raknm oôpasom ¹ nonropxa hence ¹ replying
xouc pun:aùuue
yxe cymecrnymune omnôkn, the already existing mistakes,
ðo oo:p+ou uesncmuue +ucm+ùrc
nnoca nx npxmo putting them right
nymuue ðo+ paùm
n ceroµnxmnne in updated
(÷ «n oconpemeneunte») uu ano+ùmuo
nepcnn (µoronopon), versions,
eœœuius
n oôpamaa cnnmkom mano and paying too little attention
nnnmannx æuo n+ùuue mvv :um: om+uuiu
na nsmenxmunecx ycnonnx. to altering conditions.
mv oo:mopuue rouonuius
¹ Booôme, It is ¹ generally
um us owieuopo:u
upesntuañno naxno most important
+ovcm u+noomoum
263
262
n oµnom naparpa]e into one paragraph
numv wau næpoepaaq
+ro µaër (÷ «oôecneunnaer») that provides
ðæm npoeaùos
xopomym oômym kaprnny. a good overview.
o evo oveoe·rv
Ecnn nosmoxno, (ro) II possible
uq nocuo:
Bt µonxnt npeµycmorpert you should anticipate
mv uro æumncunoùm
n npeµynpeµnrt and prevent
æuo npue+um
umóme mpnµnueckne cnopt any legal disputes
+uu :uue: oucn·mvmc
npexµe, uem onn nosnnknyr. beIore they arise.
ouqoo ðoù opaùs
H Bt µonxnt nomnnrt, And you should remember
æuo mv uro pu+++oo
uro no mnornx crpanax that in many countries
ðæm uu ++uu raumpus
ycrnte cornamennx verbal agreements
eœœo: oepnu+oumc
ue aeuammca are not
aa uom
mpnµnueckn oôxstnamunmn. legally binding.
:nue:u oaùuouue
or nmnoprntx nomnnn import duties etc.?
n r. µ.? n+noom o·mvmus umc+mpo
1 cnono " 2 cnona
Kro nouecëm Who will bear
xvv wn: o+o
ocnonnoe ôpemx pacxoooe the brunt of costs
ðoopaum oe rocmc
n cnyuae ]opc-maxopa? caused by Iorce majeure?
rooso oaù qooc ++ùowie (+æowëo)
¹ Bceeoa It is ¹ always
um us oo:woùs
upesntuañno naxno extremely important
urcmpnu+:u u+noomoum
uërko sa]nkcnponart to state clearly
mv cmoùm r:no:u
& all parties`
$ oo: naamus
quuaucoeym

$
omeemcmeeuuocmo financial responsibility.
ncex yuacrnnk`oe. &
$
qaùuæuuiuo: pucnoucuon:umu
Hanpnmep, For example,
qoo uesaa+n:
xopomo coôpart a good idea is to gather
o evo aùono us mv eæðo
nce nenonte nonnrnkn all pricing policies
oo: npaùcuue no:ucus
264
Auexcanµp ±parynxnn
I p a m m a r n u e c k a x
pyccko-anrnnñckax
XPECTOMATHR-
CAMOVHH1EBL
Hsoauue emopoe, ucnpae:euuoe u oono:ueuuoe
Cankr-Herepôypr
«YMHAR HAAHETA»
Mockna
«AH±PA-M»
2005
Hmµn People
nuun:
uuueeo ue u+emm npornn have nothing against
xæe uaθuue oe+ùucm
saknmueuua raknx cornamennñ, making such agreements,
++ùruue cam: oepnu+oumc
no nosxE, but latER
oam :+ùmo
korµa nosnnkaer cnop, when a dispute arises
w+u o oucn·mvm opaùsus
nnn oµna ns «Cropon» or one oI the parties
oo wau oe ðonaamus
(sa-)xouer noµrnepµnrt wishes to uphold
wnuius mv anxov:o
cnon npana, its rights,
umc paùmc
orcyrcrnne nnctmennoro the lack oI a written agreement
cornamennx ðo:ær oe o pumu oepnu+oum
moxer µocrannrt can cause
ræu roos
xnonort n norepn. trouble and losses.
mpao: æuo :ocus
265
HACTL II
«HPLÆOK B AHIAHHCKHH»
HOCOBHE µnx H3VHEHHR – n OBVHEHHR
OBmHE PEKOMEH±AHHH:
cnauana npournre nect rekcr «Hpmxra» na oµnom µtxannn,
pasmertre ero mapkepom, ntµennn camte naxnte µnx Bac
mecra. Yôeµnrect, uro n rekcre nmemrcx ornert nourn
na nce nonpoct, koropte moryr y Bac nosnnkart
no mepe urennx +roro nocoônx.
Vuume anrnnñckne cuoea cpasy xe
npxmo n cocrane npu+epoe/oopasµoe
u no mepe urennx +roro nocoônx,
u cpasy xe nocne nepnoro npourennx,
nockontky +rn cnona Bam ecè paeuo oueuo uyxum .
Crapañrect sano¬uuamo n nx npousuoueuue,
n nx uanucauue !!!
Takxe sayuueaùme nansycrt n camn npu¬epm/oopasµi,
rak kak onn xnnxmrcx µnx Bac npomomuna+u,
n koroptx Bt nosµnee c/moxere npocro
sa¬euamo oµnn anrnnñckne cuoea na µpyrne,
nonyuax raknm oôpasom
maccy pasnooôpasntx npeµnoxennñ.
Yurnre, uro x ne mory nnnxrt na ro, c kakoñ ckopocrtm Bt ôyµere
sayunnart nonte anrnnñckne cnona, no saro
+mo nocoône µacr Bam uouen1autnym nosmoxnocrt
crponrt ns umõmx anrnnñcknx cnon
umõme no cnoxnocrn
npannutnme anrnnñckne npeµnoxennx.
Ho+romy ornecnrect k +roñ knnre
ue kak k cokpamënnomy orcrvpcv n anrnnñcknñ xstk,
a kak k nonnonennomy yueóuo¬y nocoóum,
nocne koroporo Bam na 80° nyxno ôyµer
rontko yuumo anrnnñckne cuoea !!!
————————————————————————————————
267 266
1. «PA3BEI».
(Hepntñ +ran 20 mnnyr urennx).
HHmOPMAHHOHHAR HO±IOTOBKA.
A) Hepnoe us+eueuue anrnnñckoro cnona ÷
÷ «Hpaeu.o “¹S”»:
npn neoôxoµnmocrn (nnn: no Bamemy xenannm)
r rouuy npakrnueckn umóoeo (kpome ncero-ro 27 mryk
cmorpn «Cnpaeouuym uacmo») cvuecmeume.iuoeo, nsxroro Bamn
npxmo ns nmôoro cnonapx, Bt ôyµere npnõanun1t orou:auue
“¹S¨, uroôt nocrannrt +ro cnono/ cvuecmeume.iuoe
no! ¬uoxecmeeuuoe uncno !!!
Table ! tableS ÷ Cron ! cronM.
moùo. moùo.3 ¹ Cm. crp. 288 !
HKAHC !!!
Oµnako n anrnnñckom ecrt n ntµenennax mnom epvnna
«ue-npaeu.iuix» cnon n rom uncne n cvuecmeume.iuix
ro ecrt cnon,
ue noµunnxmmnxcx oõmnu µnx ocrantntx cnon +roro knacca
npaeu.a+.
Taknx cnon ncero 4 euoa:
1) «HE-npannntnte» cvuecmeume.iuie ÷ 27 mryk (crp. 398):
2) «HE-npannntnte» e.aeo.i ÷ 178 mryk (crp. 349);
3) «HE-npannntnte» :uc.ume.iuie ÷ 7 mryk (crp. 393);
4) «HE-npannntnte» onpeoe.euu» ÷ 10 mryk (crp. 396).
Bce +rn «ue-npannntnte c.oea» ue us+eu»mmc» no ce-
roµnxmnnm npaeu.a+ n nce nx ro1onme qop+i (ro ecrt npocro
cuoea) Bam nyxno nocrenenno sayunrt nansycrt;
F) 3nakomnmcx c 43 HEus+eu»e+i+u anrnnñcknmn cnonamn
¹ c nmôtm konnuecrnom cnon us+eu»e+ix,
n uu ... c nnmn ue µenaem !!! –
ro ecrt eoooue ux uurar HE nsmenxem –
CTPOIA× PEKOMEH±AHHR.
Yunre BCË n CPA3Y emë n noromy, uro n +rom komnakrnom nocoônn
ner mecra µnx nonropon, rem ôonee, uro nn]opmannx, µanaemax n +rom
nocoônn,
xnnxercx roueuuoù n ca¬oðocmamouuoù
µnx µocrnxennx cynepaue.opesyntrara.
Ho+romy, ne mañrect µyptm, nanentrect na pesyntrar
n «Om ooopa ooopa ue uuume» ..!
————————————————————————————————
«BLCOKHH CTAPT».
(Hepnte 3 +rana 65 mnnyr).
3A±AHHE: suaro+cmeo co 127 c.oeecui+u eouuuµa+u
¹ c 3-x (oµnnakontmn!!!) orou:auu»+u.
HEAL: µocrnrnyrax n pesyntrare «3-x +manoe» (nnn sa 65 mnnyr)
mexuu:ecra» nosmoxnocrt ckasart no-anrnnñckn
70-80% roro, uro Bt oôtuno ronopnre no-pycckn.
BA3A. Btxnnennte mnom:
a) ]akr nannunx n anrnnñckom xstke µocrarounoro
konnuecrna nooôme HEus+eu»e+ix cnon,
ô) ]enomen uacroñ HEus+eu»e+ocmu
µaxe us+eu»e+ix anrnnñcknx cnon,
n) nonte saeucu+ocmu nnyrpn xstka n
r) nonte esau+oomuoueuu» mexµy cnonamn,
a rakxe ntµenennte ¬uom
µ) nonte «epvnni»/kareropnn cnon,
oô¡eµnnënnte eðuum¬/-u npusuaro+/-a+u.
BPEMR na osuaro+.euue:
Hepntñ +ran: «Pasóee» 20 mnnyr.
Bropoñ +ran: «1ouuor» 15 mnnyr.
Tpernñ +ran: «Houëm» 30 mnnyr.
269 268
H µaxe:
Moux pyr ÷ MY handS – +aù xæuo3
(Beµt naoereù-ro n anrnnñckom HET !!!).
Mou¬ pykam ÷ MY handS – +aù xæuo3
Mou¬u pykamn ÷ MY handS – +aù xæuo3
A rakxe:
Moeù pyku ÷ MY hand – +aù xæuo
Moeù pykoñ ÷ MY hand – +aù xæuo
Moeù pyke ÷ MY hand – +aù xæuo
n r. µ.
————————————————————————————————
AOIHKA:
mynxnnn uensmenxemtx «onpeoe.ume.eù» (crp. 272) ÷
÷ «onpeµeun1t» ooc.vrueae+oe cnono
– snaunr,
«onpeoe.ume.u» xnnxmrcx n «onpeðeueuua¬u»,
– snaunr,
n nce µpyrne onpeoe.euu»
roxe HE nsmenxmrcx
uu no pooa+, uu no :uc.a+, uu no naoera+,
n roxe aõcoum1no ueus+euèuui+u
moryr co:emamic»/ncnontsonartcx
c BKBMM cymecrnnrentntm ns .mooeo cnonapx
(n croxmnm n umóo¬ uncne) !!!
3naunr:
ntyunnaem +ror 21 «onpeoe.ume.i» (crp. 272),
crannm nocne umõoro ns nnx
umõoe µpyroe ueus+euèuuoe onpeoe.euu-e/-»
¹ umõoe cvuecmeume.iuoe npnuo ns cuonapn
(nnn no +uorecmeeuuo+ uncne ÷ «cnono¹S») –
n mt yxe moxem ckasart:
rak kak n anrnnñckom HE1 uu poooe, uu naoereù ..!!!
Mt 1outxo cr.aoieae+ c.oea co cnonamn !!!!!!;
————————————————————————————————
B) ¡am nn]opmannm, uro
umóoù (oôxsarentntñ) onpeoe.ume.i (")
ns 21 mrykn,
µannoñ µanee na crp. 272 (nanpnmep: 'my” – +aù ÷ «uon»),
moxno co:emami
c umóm¬ nensmenënntm cnonom/ cvuecmeume.iui+,
nsxrtm namn npnuo ns nmôoro cuonapn,
uuu (cooôpasno sµpanomy cmtcny
xpoue «onpeoe.ume.eù» “this”, “that”, “such a”, “an/a”)
co cnonom, nocrannenntm! namn
no +uorecmeeuuoe :uc.o (÷ “¹S” !),
rak kak camn onpeoe.ume.u HE nsmenxmrcx
uu no poµam, uu no uncnam, uu no naµexam
ro ecrt HHKAK !!!
3naunr (ntyunn +rn oõnsa1eutnme onpeoe.ume.u ÷ 21 mryky),
mt yae c/moxem ckasart
(÷ cnoxnrt umóoù onpeoe.ume.i (crp. 272)
c umóm¬ cymecrnnrentntm,
croxmnm n umóo¬ uncne !!!):
Pyccknñ onpeoe.ume.i Anrnnñcknñ onpeoe.ume.i
" us¬euaemca " ue us¬euaemca!!!

"
Moa pyka ÷ MY hand – +aù xæuo
Moù cron ÷ MY table – +aù moùo.
Moë connne ÷ MY sun – +aù cau
Mou pykH ÷ MY handS – +aù xæuo3
271 270
Ecnn xe Bt «ynaxaere Bamux cecmËP»
(a nx ¬uoeo!),
ro ncë panno c ocma.iui+u cnonamn
(xpoue «cecmEP» ÷ “sister¹S”)
rakxe uuueeo µenart ue naµo:
1 2 3 4 4 5
I ¹ respect ¹ my ¹ beautiful and clever ¹ sisterS.
aù pucn+rm +aù oìmvmuqv. æuo r.eeo cncmo3
× ¹ ynaxam ¹ moux ¹ kpacnnix n ymnix ¹ cecrèp.
Hpnuëm “sisterS” – cncmo3
snaunr n «cècmpM», n «cecmËP», n «cècmpAM»,
n nce ocrantnte napnanrt,
koropte Bt c +rnmn «cëcrpAMH» (÷ 1oae “sisterS”!)
moxere ceôe rontko nooôpasnrt!
A moxno n rak:
We ¹ solve ¹ many ¹ difficult ¹ problemS.
wn co.e ++uu onqur.m npoo.e+3
Mt ¹ pemaem ¹ mnoro ¹ rpyµntx ¹ npoônem
(n n +rom npeµnoxennn $ us+eueuo 1outxo cnono 'problemS¨) !
————————————————————————————————
NB.
Okonuanne '¹S¨ moxer nponsnocnrtcx u kak «-C», u kak «-3».
Ho nockontky +ra pasnnna n nponsnomennn ue nnnxer na cmtcn,
ro mt ne ôyµem ceñuac saocrpxrt na neñ nnnmannx.
————————————————————————————————
H1O «CKHA¡IBATI» n KAK «CKHA¡IBATI»,
uroôt nonyuart nonnte n npannntnte anrnnñckne npeµnoxennx
(npnuëm cpasy xe oôparnre ocoõoe nnnmanne na ro, uro
anrnnñckne euaeoum n +roñ ! cxe+e mt nooôme ue us¬euae¬ !).
1 ¹2 ¹3
Moa uncrax, ôenax n nexnax pyka ÷
1 ¹2 ¹3
÷ MY clean, white and tender hand.
+aù r.uuu waùm æuo m+uoo xæuo
Hnn µaxe:
Mou uncrme, ôenme n nexnme pykH÷
÷ MY clean, white and tender handS.
+aù r.uuu waùm æuo m+uoo xæuo3
BH±HTE,
«us+euu.oci» rontko cvuecmeume.iuoe (÷! “hand¹S”),
no n onpeoe.ume.i (“MY”), n nce onpeoe.euu» ocrannct
HEus+euèuui+u !!!
————————————————————————————————
CTHMYA
(uroôt y Bac cpasy xe ax pyukn saµëprannct!).
Bostmëm, nanpnmep, pycckoe npeµnoxenne
1 2 3 4 4 5
R ¹ ynaaam ¹ uom/cnom ¹ xpacnnym n yunym ¹ cec1py.
uroôt ckasart ro xe camoe ($) no-anrunncxn, nam nyxno
rontko nsxrt cnonapt, orkptrt ero, nañrn nce nyxnte nam
(anrnnñckne!) cnona n,
BOOFµE HH O±HO H3 HHX HE H3MEHRR
(ro ecrt HHHEIO c nnmn HE µenax !!!),
«cocmaeumi» nx n npannntnoe n nopmantnoe anrnnñckoe
npeµnoxenne:
1 2 3 4 4 5
I ¹ respect ¹ my ¹ beautiful and clever ¹ sister.
aù pucn+rm +aù oìmvmuqv. æuo r.eeo cncmo
273 272
* 31n cnona (sµect n µanee) ynorpeônent mnom µnx roro,
uroôt vmo:u»mi snauenne cnon aueuuùcrux!
————————————————————————————————
NB 1 !!!
Yurnre, uro uu oðuo ns 31 cnona +roñ rpynnt
HHkak HE us+eu»emc» !!!
————————————————————————————————
NB 2 !!!
H e.aeo. nocne cyózermumx +ecmou+euuù “I/you/we/they”
n nocne cvuecmeume.iuix no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ uncne
n uacmoaue¬ npemenn (!) us¬euamo HE uyxuo !!!
————————————————————————————————
NB 3 !!!
Oôparnre nnnmanne na pasuuuy (u n snauennn!)
mexµy anrnnñcknmn onpeoe.ume.»+u n ooìerma+u
(pyccxne coomeemcmeu» koroptm snyuar n ntrnxµxr oðuuaroeo):

(-uvm)
Onpeoe.ume.i
× nnxy EIO coóary ÷ I see HIS dog – aù cuu xu3 ooe
Ho: Ooìerm
× nnxy EIO ÷! I see HIM – aù cuu xuM

(-uue)
Onpeoe.ume.i
Mt cntmnm HX eouoca ÷ We hear THEIR voices.
wn xno ð+3 eoùcus
Ho: Ooìerm
Mt cntmnm HX ÷! We hear THEM – wn xno ð+M

(-uiù)
Onpeoe.ume.i
× nmônm EIO (o rvre) ueem ÷ I like ITS color – ra.o
Ho: Ooìerm
× nmônm EIO (ca+oeo´ «rvra») ÷! I like IT.
————————————————————————————————
PEKOMEH±AHHR.
Korµa Bt moxere samennrt cnona «EIO-» n «HX-» na! «eeoumù»
n «uxuuù», ro no-anrnnñckn cmeno ronopnre 'HIS¨ n '1HEIR¨.
A ecnn +rnx sa+eu nponsnecrn ueuosa, no moxno ncrannrt cnona «eeo
ca¬oeo» nnn «ux ca¬ux» cmeno ronopnre 'HIM¨ n '1HEM¨ !!!
————————————————————————————————
CXEMA noc1poennn anrnnñckoro npeµuoaennn (cnona XX 1-31):
1 ¹ 2 ¹ 3 ¹ 4 ¹ 5
" " " " "
CVB1EK1 ¹
(Kmo?
nnn Umo?)
Amõon
HEus¬euëu.
¹ IAAIOA
OBR3A1.
OHPEµE- ¹
BH1EBL
Amõoe
OHPEµE- ¹
BEHHE
(Karoù?)
OB1EK1
(Koeo?):
I – aù ÷ x
YOU– mv ÷ rt, nt
WE –wn ÷ mt
THEY –ðoù ÷ onn
nnn
umóoe
cvuecmeume.iuoe
mouoro
no ¬uox. uncne
(÷ «Cnono¹S»
nnn crp. 398).
¹ Cnono
AND æuo ÷ n
MY –+aù ÷ moñ
YOUR–ëo ÷ rnoñ, nam
HIS – xus ÷ ero, «eeouiù»*
HER – xœœ ÷ eë
ITS – umc ÷ «eeouiù»*, eë
OUR – avo ÷ nam
THEIR – ð+o ÷ nx(-uuù)*
NO – uov ÷ ne, ner
ANY – +uu ÷ nmôoñ
THIS – ðuc ÷ +ror
THAT – ðæm ÷ ror
EVERY– +epu ÷ kaxµtñ
EACH – uum: ÷ kaxµtñ
SOME – ca+ ÷ neknñ,
kakoñ-ro
nekoropte; neckontko
SUCH A– cam: o ÷ rakoñ
SUCH – cam: ÷ rakne
THESE – ðnus ÷ +rn
THOSE – ðovs ÷ re
menx ÷ ME – +uu
reôx ÷ YOU– mv
ero ÷ HIM– xu+
eë ÷ HER– xœœ
+ro ÷ IT – um
nac ÷ US – ac
nm, nx ÷ THEM
ðo+
nnn
umóoe
cvuecmeum.
n umóo¬
uncne.
AN-A – æu/o ÷ oµnn, kakoñ-ro

r.n.
«apmur.u»
THE – ðo ÷ ror camtñ, re camte (Crp. 388).
———————————$————————————————————
Ieuuauoumù Hroro: 31 cnono.
cronônk
¹ LOVE ¹ ¹ GOOD ¹ "
" "
"
"
"
"
"
"
}
$
"
$
"
$
"
(ca+oeo´ )
(ca+ux)
275 274
Ho koneuno xe onpeoe.ume.u “an/a¨ ÷ «oµnn»
ueuosa ncnontsonart nepeµ cvuecmeume.iui+,
croxmnm no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ uncne!
A snaunr:
HHKAKHX “an apples” nnn “a girls” !!!
To ecrt
uurarux «oouu xônokH» nnn «ooua µenouKH» !!!
H +ro ror cnyuañ, korµa cymecrnnrentnoe ¬oxem
ocrartcx ôes onpeoe.ume.» (¹ cm. crp. 391-392) !;
————————————————————————————————
2) «B3AHMOBM1ECHEHHE».
BCE «oóasameuoume onpeoe.ume.u»
(nnn xaaµmn ns unenon +roro $ «Ieuuauouoeo cronônka)
BM1ECHRK1/ samenxmr µpyr µpyra !!!
To ecrt,
ecnn nepeµ cymecrnnrentntm (nnn nepeµ eeo onpeoe.euu»+u)
ecrt oµno ns +rnx $ 21 cnon,
ro
paðo¬ nnn noðpað HE uoae1 ôtrt
uuraroeo µpyroro ns nnx !!!
A snaunr:
HHKAKHX “my any”, “the your” nnn “a this” !!!
————————————————————————————————
Coônmµenne +moeo $ ¬oeeo npannna npnnoµnr k nonnoñ
aue.orpamornocrn, rak kak
onpeoe.ume.u emmecuamm/ samenxmr u «apmur.i»,
o koropom Bt nanepnxka yxe cntmann,
n koroporo Bt, nosmoxno, ôonrect!!!
Hanpnmep
(n samertre, onpeoe.ume.u HE nsmenxmrcx):
Mt ¹ nnmem ¹ BKBME ¹ knnrH ÷ We ¹ write ¹ ANY ¹ bookS.
wn paùm +uu ovrC
KPAHHE BAXHO !!!
2 «Eðuumx npusuara»
no «Ieuuauouo¬y cronônky» $:
1) «OBR3A1EBLHOC1L npnmenennx»
oµnoro ns oóasameuoumx onpeoe.ume.eù
nepeµ cyuecmeumeuoum¬ !!!
Houemy cnona ns «Ieuua.iuoeo cmo.oura»
nasnant mnom «oóasameuoum¬u» onpeoe.ume.»+u?
Horomy, uro
ecnn MM, nanpnmep, no-pyccru moxem npocro ckasart:
«× mory oxmypnrt % µenymky!»,
ro no-aue.uùcru nmenno mar ckasart HEBL3R,
rak kak no-aueuuùcru nepeµ +roñ «oeevuroù»
(ecnn c neñ ncë o’kay!)
oóasameuouo µonxno croxrt xomo raroe-mo cnono
ns ntmenpnneµënnoro cmo.oura,
ro ecrt moxno/ nyano mouoro 1ax:
O F × 3 A T"E H I H O !!!
HIS ÷ eeo (÷ eeouvm)
NO ÷ uurarvm* (crp. 278)
ANY ÷ .movm
I can charm ¹ THIS ÷ omv ¹ girl.
aù ræu :aa+ SUCH A ÷ marvm
SOME ÷ uervm
A/THE ÷ oouv/mv ca+vm n r.µ.

$
Bes +roro
kareropnueckn ueuosa !!!
"
THESE ÷ omux
I can charm ¹ THOSE ÷ mex ¹ girlS.
SUCH ÷ marux
}
}
277 276
H µenaercx +ro oueuo npoc1o,
rak kak
nocne 'I” ÷ «x», 'you¨ ÷ «rt», «nt», 'we¨ ÷ «mt», 'they¨ ÷ «onn»
n nocne cvuecmeume.iuix no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ uncne
(÷ «cnono¹S»)
n uacmoaue¬ epe+euu (cm. na 6, 5 cm. nnxe)
c anrnnñcknm rnaronom
nooôme HHHEIO µenart HE naµo –
ôepnre ero, kak on ecrt n ueus¬euëuum¬ ncrannxñre
n Bame anrnnñckoe npeµnoxenne!
Hanpnmep:
HEus+euèu. rnaron ÷ "
Mt PABO1AEM ouent ycepµno ÷ We WORK very hard.
wn wœœr e+pu xaao
Te napHH TAHHVK1 sµect kaxµym nout.
Those guyS DANCE here every night.
ðovs eaù3 oaauc xno +epu uaùm
$ ÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron
A «uacmoauee epe+»» +ro korµa uro-ro nponcxoµnr
«ceeoou»», «ceù:ac», «menepi», «ooi:uo», «eceeoa»,
" «e uauu ouu» n r.n.
——————————————"——————————————————
BIYuHTE CAOBA (XX 32-38):
now – uav ÷ cenuac, 1enept
today – mvo+ù, moo+ù ÷ ceroµnn
generally – orieuopo.u ÷ oõmuno
usually – mvrie.u ÷ oõmuno
always – oo.woùs ÷ ncerµa
as a rule – æs opyv. ÷ xax npannuo
nowadays – uavoooùs ÷ n nac1onmee npeun
+
every ... (¹ minute, day, week, month, Sunday, year)
+epu +nuum ooù wnur +au cauooù ùno
xaaµ.: mnnyra, µent, neµenx, mecxn, nockpecente, roµ
n r. µ.;
————————————————————————————————
1 ¹ 2 3 4 5
× ¹ nnxy ¹ 31OIO ¹ ôontmoro kpacnnoro ôenoro cnona.
I ¹ see ¹ THIS ¹ big beautiful white elephant.
aù cuu ðuc oue oìmvmuqv. waùm +.uqoum
————————————————————————————————
NB !!!
Oôparnre ocoóoe nnnmanne $ !!!
Ckontko ôt onpeoe.euuù nn croxno nepeµ cvuecmeume.iui+
(« % oo.iuoù, rpacueiù, oe.iù .»), no
«oóasameuoumù onpeoe.ume.i»
ncë panno cronr HEPEµ ncemn onpeoe.euu»+u,
rak kak
nmôoñ «oóasameuoumù onpeoe.ume.i» –
+ro «onpeoe.euue N1» !!!
————————————————————————————————
BHHMAHHE !!!
1) B «Cxe¬e» (na crp. 272) cnpana y nac ecrt «ooìermi» (X5),
a n nauane cxemt ecrt «cvoìermi» (X1).
Cyózermo¬ nnn ooìermo+ moxer ôtrt cvuecmeume.iuoe n umóo¬
uncne ('cat¨ nnn “catS”), +ecmou+euue (“I”, “he” n r.µ.), u+»
coocmeeuuoe (Pete, Moscow n r.µ.).
(B ntmenpnneµënnoñ cxe+e x no1ouy µan Bam 1outxo
+ecmou+euu» 'I/ you/ we/ they¨, uro
nocne nnx |n uacmoaue¬ npemenn !|
anrnnñcknñ rnaron us+eu»mi ne nyxno !!!).
«Cyózerm» µeñcrnyer cau,
a «Ooìerm» noµnepraercx eos/oeùcmeum («cvoìerma»),
npnuëm camo
eos/ðeùcmeue ncerµa ntpaxaercx euaeouo¬
(r. e. cnonom, oôosnauammnm oeùcmeue nnn cocmo»uue).
3naunr, euaeouo¬ mt moxem «ce»sieami»
cvoìerm c ooìermo+ ...
279 278
× HE nnxy ¹ ôontmnx komek ÷ I see ¹ NO big cats.
aù cuu HOV oue ræmc
Bvrea.iuo: × nnxy ¹ HE ôontmnx komek.
Onpeoe.euue ÷ "
Mt ¹ HE :umae+ ¹ nontx knnr ÷ We ¹ read NO ¹ new books.
wn puuo HOV uìmv ovrc
Bvrea.iuo: Mt unr... ¹ HE nonte knnrn.
BH±HTE:
Mm ompuµae+ ruarou (÷ «… ue :umae+ .»),
a aue.o»si:uie (npn nomomn “NO”)
«ompuµamm» cymecrnnrentnoe
e¬ecme c ero onpeoe.euu»+u !!!
(“… NO new interesting books”).
To ecrt:
ueeo onn «ue euo»m» nnn «ue :umamm» –
– mo onn n ompuµamm !!!
±euan1e, peôxra, n Bm rak xe –
Bam uro, cnaôo´ , uro nn!
H1O MI VÆE TEXHHuECKH VMEEM ?
(uepes 10 mnnyr nocne nauana urennx !!!).
Bor Bam " , nanpnmep, 37 anrnnñcknx «c.oe» " (ue nxoµxmnx
n ntmeynomxnyrte 127), ns koroptx cnona n ro.ourax X 2, 4 n 5
nsxrt mnom npouseououo, n moryr ôtrt samenent
AKBLMH µpyrnmn nooômeHEus+euèuui+u
anrnnñcknmn cnonamn npa¬o us nmôoro cuoeapa.
Hs +rnx cnon nnn ns nmôtx µpyrnx moxno ryr xe
cnoxnrt (no cxeme, µannoñ panee na crp. 272) konoccantnoe
konnuecrno AKBLX ro+ouuaµuù, koropte xnnxmrcx
npannutnmun sua:u+i+u anrnnñcknmn npeµnoxennxmn
2) B nepeune «ooìermoe» na crp. 272 Bam µano 7 «ooìermuix
+ecmou+euuù» c nx snauennxmn
(÷ cnona rnna «+eu»», «eeo» n r. n.).
Oµnako nockontky n anrnnñckom HET naoereù,
ro +rn cnona (“me”, “him” n r.µ.)
coomeemcmevmm nceu pyccknm «eapuauma+», a nmenno:
ME – +uu ÷ menx, mne, mnom
YOU – mv ÷ reôx, reôe, roôom
nac, nam, namn
HIM – xu+ ÷ nm, emy, nnm, nemy, nëm
HER – xœœ ÷ eë, eñ, em, neë, neñ, nem
IT * – um ÷ ono, emy, nm, ona, eñ, em, on, emy *
US – ac ÷ nac, nam, namn
THEM – ðo+ ÷ nx, nm, nmn, nnx, nnm, nnmn.
* Y 'it” rak mnoro snauennñ/coomeemcmeuù noromy, uro
+mu¬ cnonom no-anrnnñckn oôosnauamrcx BCE n BCË,
rpo¬e myxunn n xenmnn (r.e. kpome umðeù)
(n uesaeucu+o or no.a/poµa:
cnon – cnonuxa, meµneµt – meµneµuµa,
nerep, nmôont, cron, cner n r. µ. ncë +ro “IT”);
————————————————————————————————
3) Ecnn nepeµ cvuecmeume.iui+
(nnn nepeµ eeo onpeoe.euu/-e+/-»+u)
Bt nocrannre c.oee:ro 'NO¨ uov ÷ «He», «He1», «Hnxaxon»,
ro Bt YÆE c/moxere ckasart o mnorom n
n ompuuameuouoù qop+e
(npnuëm ouent rameeopuuuo !!!).
Ho yurnre, uro ecnn ecrt «onpeoe.ume.i» 'NO¨, ro pxµom c nnm
yxe ôontme ueuosa ncnontsonart
uurarux µpyrnx «onpeoe.ume.eù» n rom uncne
n HHKAKOIO «apmur.»» !!!:
281 280
YCTAHOBOHHLH HPHMEP/OBPA3EH
na nocrpoenne npeµnoxennx ns ntmenpnneµënntx cnon:
I ¹ carry ¹ any ¹ clever ¹ monkey/s.
aù ræpu +uu r.eeo +auru/s
× ¹ nomy ¹ nmô... ¹ ymn... ¹ oôestx/-ny/-n.
mYPYHTE H BI TAK ÆE $ –
KTO/HTO BAM MEmAET ???
* BAÆHO !!!
Hosnakomtrect c moeñ nonoñ paspaôorkoñ noµ nasnannem
«Pyccko-Pycckne 0opmynt» u.u «PPm» !
Hx nent nomout Bam nonxrt npuuµun,
no koropomy aue.o»si:uie crpoxr nekoropte cnon roucmpvrµuu.
PPm +ro pyccxne ]past nnn ooopomi,
nonxrnte µnx pvccro»si:uix,
n xnnxmmnecx rountmn ra.ira+u/konnxmn
]pas/ooopomoe anrnnñcknx!
(Cm. crp. 399 n «Cnpaeo:uoù :acmu»).
————————————————————————————————
BL3YBPHTE !!!
A nor Bam n nepnax " PPm:
Aue.o»si:uie HE ronopxr: «Y menx/reôx/nac/nac/nnx ecrt ...»!
Ouu ron"opxr: " cnono X39
«× HMEK ...»
«Tt u¬eeuo ...»
«Mt u¬ee¬ ...»
«Bt u¬eeme ...»
«Onn u¬emm ...»
«3ru µenymku u¬emm ...»
÷ “I HAVE ...”
÷ “You have ...”
÷ “We have ...”
÷ “You have ...”
÷ “They have ...”
÷ “These girls have”
– aù xæe
– mv xæe
– wn xæe
– mv xæe
– ðoù xæe
– eœœ.s xæe
mne npocro nent cunrart, crouoro u+euuo npeµnoxennñ Bt moxere
ryr xe cnoxnrt
no x µymam, uro ôonee 20.000 ...
HAHAKHTE HA CMBCH
n
npocro ¹ cr.aoieaùme ¹ umóme cnona ¹ c umóm¬u µpyrnmn
cnonamn ns +roro " cnncka (ne ôecnokoxct o npaeu.iuocmu, rak
kak o neñ nosaôornnnct epe+» n ») !!!
Tontko (ecnn nyxno!) npnôannxñre '¹S¨ k cymecrnnrentnomy !!!
Takxe nomnnre o pasnnne mexµy:
“this/that” ! cymecrnnrentnoe n eðuucmeeuuo¬ :uc.e
n 'these/those” ! cymecrnnrentnoe no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬
:uc.e (÷ “¹S”)!

¹
A K B O -H/-E
Cvoìerm
Inaron Onpeoe.um. Onpeoe.euue Cymecrnnr.
1 ¹ 2 ¹ 3 ¹ 4 ¹ 5
I ¹
You
We
They
People
nuun.
(÷ umµn)
These girls
u m.o.
respect ¹
love
adore
hate
count
expect
carry
save
touch
touch
have*
u m.o.
my ¹
no
any
this
that
these
those
serious ¹
clever
big
beautiful
white
u m.o.
friend/s
girl/s
dog/s
table/s
hand/s
face/s
house/s
monkey/s
book/s
room/s
u m.o.
B µannom ntme cnncke ($) x noµuepknyn 5 nponsnoutno
ntôpanntx cnon n (nannenan na cmtcn!) npocro cuoanu +rn
cnona, nonyunn npn +rom
(rpammarnueckn) aõcoum1no npannutnoe
anrnnñckoe npeµnoxenne!
{
283 282
H: " cnono X 77 (crp. 47)
V ... HE BVµE1 (uuraroù) ¹ komkn ÷ ... WILL HAVE NO ¹ cat.
wn. xæe uov ræm
————————————————————————————————
¡OHOHHHTEHIHIE HPHMEPL
na qop¬m rnarona 'have” – xæe ÷ «u+emi»
(npnuëm +1n " qop+i Bt moxere ncnontsonart
c umõmun cvoìerma+u,
n rom uncne n c umõmun +ecmou+euu»+u):
V menx BMBA ¹ (mox) kpacnnax ¹ noµpyra.
I HAD ¹ (my) beautiful ¹ girlfriend.
aù xæo (+aù) oìmvmuqv. eœœ.qpouo
1 2
V nac HE BMBO ¹ ymntx µpyseñ.
2 1
We HAD NO ¹ clever friends.
wn xæo uov r.eeo qpouos
1¹2
V ... BVµE1 ¹ kyua ¹ npoônem.
1 2
... WILL HAVE ¹ a lot of ¹ problems.
... wn. xæe o.om oe npoo.e+s
$
Amõoe +ecmou+euue
Amõon cvoìerm
3 1¹2
V ... HE BVµE1 ¹ npoônem.
1 2 3
... WILL HAVE NO ¹ problems.
... wn. xæe uov npoo.e+s
$
Amõoe +ecmou+euue
Amõon cvoìerm
————————————————————————————————
YCTAHOBOHHLE HPHMEPL/OBPA3HL:
V nac EC1L ¹ mnoro ¹ ôentx komEK.
We HAVE ¹ many ¹ white catS.
wn xæe ++uu waùm ræmC
Bvrea.iuo: Mt HMEEM ¹ ...
Ecnn xe y nx µpyseñ, nanpnmep, «uem ¹ rouer»,
ro «ouu» orkponenno oô +rom n saxnnxmr:
V nnx HE1 ¹ ôontmnx ôentx komek.
They HAVE NO ¹ big white cats.
ðoù xæe uov oue waùm ræmc
V +rnx cronon HE1 noxek ÷ These tableS HAVE NO legs.
÷ 3rn cronM HE HMEK1 … ðuus moùo.3 xæe uov .ees
————————————————————————————————
HBH (pacmnpenne!):
«V menx/reôx/nero/neë/nac/nac/nnx BMB/-a/-o/-n» ÷!
"
÷! «×/rt/on/ona/ono/mt/nt/onn HMEB/-a/-o/-n» ÷
"
÷ “I/you/he/she/it/we/they HAD ...” ÷ Hpoueðuee npemx
xæo
(÷ rak nastnaemax «2-n qop+a rnarona»).
" cnono X 40
V ... HE BMB/-o (uuraroù) ¹ komkn ÷ ... HAD NO ¹ cat.
xæo uov ræm
————————————————————————————————
HBH:
«V menx/reôx/nero/neë/nac/nac/nnx BVµ/-er/-yr .» ÷!
"
÷! «×/rt/on/ona/ono/mt/nt/onn BVµ... HME1L …» ÷
" "
÷ «I/you/he/she/it/we/they WILL HAVE ...».
... wn. xæe
$
285 284
YCTAHOBOHHLE HPHMEPL/OBPA3HL:
Onn ¹ yesxamm (÷ yeµyr) ¹ saempa ÷ They ¹ leave ¹ tomorrow.
ðoù .uue mo+opov
3rn napnH ¹ npuómeamm …
These guyS ¹ arrive …
Onn ¹ npuómeamm (÷ npnôyµyr) cmµa ¹ e cueðymuee eocrpeceuoe.
They ¹ arrive here ¹ next Sunday.
ðoù opaùe xno uorcm cauooù
Ero ôparLR ¹ norynamm ¹ nam µom ¹ saempa.
(÷ kynxr)
His brotherS ¹ buy ¹ our house ¹ tomorrow.
xus opaðoC oaù avo xavc mo+opov
Mnoro rocrEH ¹ npuðym ¹ nocuesaempa.
Many guestS ¹ come ¹ the day after tomorrow.
++uu eocmC ra+ ðoo+ù aaqmo mo+opov
————————————————————————————————
OOOHEHL BAÆHO !!!
Hepeµ xaaµmu emopi+, mpemiu+ n r.µ.
anrnnñcknm rnaronom
n oóasameuoueùue¬ nopxµke
uyxuo cmaeumo cnoneuko/:acmu:rv “to”:
1 2 1 % 2
× ¹ xouy ¹ % %% %% nptramo ÷ I ¹ want ¹ to jump.
aù woum mv or»+n
————————————————————————————————
OFAH¡EHHOE PACHHPEHHE.
Uacmuµa “to” – mv (nepeµ e.aeo.o+) moxer emë snaunrt
«utoôt»:
1 2 3
× paôoram, ¹ utoôt ¹ ôtrt n cocroxnnn yunrtcx!
I work ¹ to ¹ be able to study!
aù wœœr mv ouu oùo. mv cmaou
PE3KME.
3asyõpnnan npnmept/oôpasnt ($) n konnpyx nx, Bt
c nomomtm cnonapx VÆE moxere ckasart ouent unoroe
o ceoux, meoux, eauux, uauux u ux(-uux) oeùcmeu»x
n uacmoaue¬ npemenn !!!
(A c rnaronom “have” – xæe ÷ «u+emi» – no ecex 3 epe+euax –
ro ecrt µaxe emë n n npoueðue¬ n n óyðyue¬ !!!).
————————————————————————————————
PACmHPEHHE X1.
KAACC !!! !
Ho ecnn n konen nnn n nauano Bamero anrnnñckoro npeµnoxennx
Bt nocrannre oµny ns cneµymmnx c.oeecuix eouuuµ (X 41-43),
ro Bt nonyunre momenrantnym nosmoxnocrt onucauu» µeñcrnnx,
npoucxoo»ueeo
n óyðyue¬ !!!
BL3YBPHTE: ! Tomorrow ÷ san1pa
(XX 41-43) mv+opov, mo+opov
The day after tomorrow ÷ nocuesan1pa
ðoo+ù aaqmo mo+opov
Next ... (¹ week, Sunday, year, summer, Christmas).
uorcm wnur cauooù ùno ca+o rpnc+oc
B/na cueµymmee: neµenx, nockpecente, roµ, nero, Poxµecrno,
u m.n.
KOHKPETHKA:
"
÷ nmôoñ ueus+euèuuiù rnaron
I ¹ leave ¹ tomorrow.
You ¹ come ¹ the day after tomorrow.
We ¹ arrive ¹ next ¹ week.
They ¹ u m.o. ¹ ~ ¹ Sunday.
People ¹ … ¹ ~ ¹ year.
These girls ¹ . ¹ ~ ¹ Summer.
u m.o. ¹ ~ ¹ Christmas, u m.o.
287 286
Y menx ner
ônnsknx µpysEH sµect,
nockontky
nce mon crapte µpy3LR
xnnyr n pasntx mecrAX.
I have no
aù xæe uov
close friendS here
r.ovc qpouo3 xno
since
cuuc
all my old friendS
oo. +aù ov.o qpouo3
live in different placeS.
.ue uu onqpoum n.+ùcu3
————————————————————————————————
2. «TOAHOK».
(Bropoñ +ran 15 mnnyr).
3A±AHHE: euè 14 cnon ¹ 3 us+eueuu» anrnnñckoro cnona
(koropte µant nnxe);
HEAL: npnoôperenne euè 5% aue.o»si:uix nosmoxnocreñ;
BPEMR: euè 15 mnnyr urennx.
————————————————————————————————
HOHECAACL !!!
Btyunnaem emë 14 ueus+eu»e+ix anrnnñcknx cnon ¹
¹ ckontko yroµno us+eu»e+ix, n cpasy xe nponsnoµnm
nepnme 3 us+eueuu» anrnnñckoro cnona: ! 1)2)3) ÷ “¹S”
(ns oõmero konnuecrna ncero-nancero
10 qvurµuoua.iuix us+eueuuù, cymecrnymmnx n anrnnñckom !!!).
BAÆHAR HHmOPMAHHR.
B anrnnñckom nce qvurµuoua.iuie us+eueuu», nponcxoµxmne
(nnn: koropte Bt moxere nponsnoµnrt) co cnonom,
xnnxmrcx 1outxo
eueuuu¬u!
3rnx us+eueuuù ncero 10 umvr, n saknmuamrcx onn
n npnõanuennn r rouuy anrnnñckoro cnona
oµnoro ns 8 orou:auuù!
Kaxµtñ µent onn npnxoµxr cmµa, ¹ utoôt ¹ nonnµart nac.
Every day they come here ¹ to ¹ see us.
+epu o+ù ðoù ra+ xno mv cuu ac
utoôt ¹ cµenart +ro, rt µonxen ôtrt cnntntm!
To ¹ do this you must be strong!
mv ovv ðuc mv +acm ouu cmpoue
————————————————————————————————
CMOTPHTE, H1O BI VÆE YMEETE !!!
(Bcero uepes 15 mnnyr nocne nauana urennx !!!).
YCTAHOBOHHLH TEKCT X1
× nokynam
ouent mnoro
nontx anrnnñcknx knnI
n xypnanOB
kaxµtñ mecxn,
noromy uro
1 2
x xouy % %% %% snart ncë.
3rn knnrH
nomoramr mne
ouent cnntno.
I buy
aù oaù
very many
e+pu ++uu
new English bookS
uìmv nue.uui ovrC
and magazineS
æuo +æeosuu3
every month,
+epu +au
because
ouroos
1 2
I want to know everytning.
aù woum mvuov +epuuue
These bookS
ðuus ovrC
help me
xo.n +uu
very much.
e+pu +am:
289 288
oô OµHOM nn «rvcme», nanpnmep, mna peut,
nnn o MHOIHX «rvcmax» –
nonpoôyñre, nponsnecnre cnono 'bushS” – ovuc!
He ncerµa neµt n nonyunrcx!!!
Ho+romy n noµoôntx cnyuaxx (÷ nocne rak nastnaemtx
«uun»uux coe.acuix» ÷
÷ nocne “SH-”, “S-”, “CH-”, “J-”, “X” n “Z-”)
+ro '-E-¨ nepeµ '¹S” u na konne cvuecmeume.iuix,
u na konne e.aeo.oe (crp. 290)
oôxsarentno n ncrannxercx !!!
————————————————————————————————
NB !!!
Ho nocne coe.acuoù “-th” (kak ôt ona nn nponsnocnnact)
ovqepua» “-e-” HE cmaeumc»,
rak kak samertre !!! µnx aue.o»si:uix
(u ncropnueckn, u no npuuµunv oôpasonannx)
coe.acua» “-” õunae x «-1», uem k «-c»,
a coe.acua» “-ð” õunae x «-µ», uem k «-s» !!!,
no+romy:
5 mecxnEB ÷ 5 monthS – qaùe +auC, a ue “5 monthes”.
3 ôyµkH ÷ 3 boothS – puu ovvðC, a ue “3 boothes” !!!
————————————————————————————————
TPH “¹S”:
1) “¹(e)S¨ npnôannxñre K rouuy nmôoro (kpome 9¹18 ÷ 27
mryk cm. n «Cnpaeo:uoù :acmu») cymecrnnrentnoro ns cnonapx,
uroôt nocrannrt ero!
no! ¬uoxecmeeuuoe uncno:
table ! tableS – moùo.3
bush ! bushES – oyuiH3
tax ! taxES mærcH3 ÷ nanorH;
————————————————————————————————
(Taônnna +rnx 8 orou:auuù ecrt n «Cnpaeo:uoù :acmu»
µannoro nocoônx na crp. 401-402).
Bnyrpn anrnnñckoro cnona
mt HHHEIO c/µenart HE moxem !!!
————————————————————————————————
PE3KME ! 3naunr, nocne +1oro «Jmana» Bam ocranercx
ntyunrt ncero-nancero 7 nosmoxntx us+eueuuù !
(10 – 3 “·S” ÷ 7)
A nepnte 3 us+eueuu» ÷ +ro oµno n ro xe '¹S”,
rontko nnorµa +ro '¹S¨ npnôannxercx r rouuy anrnnñckoro
cnona n n nnµe '¹ES¨, ro ecrt c rak nastnaemtm
npomexyrountm/ «ovqepui+» “-e-”!
NB !
“-E-¨ noxnnxercx ueaµy rouµo+ cnona n orou:auue+ “¹S¨ rorµa,
korµa y Bac uem µpyroñ eos¬oxuocmu
IOBOCOM «norasami» +ro npnôannennoe orou:auue “¹S”
a nokasart-ro ero naµo !!!
Kak, nanpnmep, ôes +roro “-E-¨ Bt nponsnecëre cnono
“bush” – ovui ÷ «xyc1»
no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ uncne
(÷ “bushES” – oyuiH3 ÷ «kycrM») ?
A cnono “fixES” – qnrcH3 ÷ «unnHT» ?
Beµt nponsnecrn «qurcCCC» rak, uroôt ôtno oµnosnauno
cumuuo, uro '¹S¨ npnôanneno, nooôme nepeantno,
nockontky n anrnnñckom uem µonrnx coe.acuix ..!!!
BH±HTE !
Ecnn ôt ne npo+ervmo:uoe/«ovqepuoe» “-E-¨ n oôonx
+rnx $ cnyuaxx, ro orou:auue “¹S¨ cnnnanoct ôt c nocneµnnm
'-SH” nnn c '-S¨ (nnn, nanpnmep, c “-Z”),
n Bam coôeceµnnk ne nonxn ôt nnn npocro mor ôt ne ycntmart,
291 290
3) Tperte “ ’S” uepes anocmpoq (÷ “ ’ ¨ ) npnôannxñre
K rouuy anrnnñckoro cnona,
uroôt oôosnaunrt «euaðeuoua» uero-nnôo:
NB.
Tyr xe ncnomnnre 'McDonald’s” ÷ «Mak¡onantµ’OB» (Ueù?),
u.u «Harypantnte unnct 'Lay’s”» ÷ «Hoù’eem» (Uiu?),
u.u “Uncle Ben’s” ÷ «¡xµu Fen’HHt» (xcno, «Uiu?»).
————————————————————————————————
A nor n HEPBIH «HAHPRI»,
koroptñ saknmuaercx n us+eueuuu nopaðra cuoe
(no cpannennm c pyccknm!).
Bostmëm, nanpnmep, pycckym ]pasy:
1 2 3
«Knaprnpa moeñ marepH».
Byreauoume anrnnñckne oreuea.eum n nepenoµ (÷ PPm) +roñ
]past ntrnxµxr uyrt nnaue sa cuë1 us¬eueuua nopnµxa cnon:
2 3 1 ÷! 2 3 1
«Moeñ marep`H knaprnpa» ÷! “My mother’S flat”.
Kro «euaðeueu» knaprnpt? – Mart?
Tak nor nmenno r «¬amepu» n npnôannxercx +ro “ ’S” !!!
Emë pas oôparnre, noxanyñcra, ocoôoe nnnmanne na pasuuuy
n nopxµke cnon $" n pycckom n n anrnnñckom napnanrax.
Mt neµt moxe ronopnm:
«3ro xe ¬oeù ¬amepu reapmupa !!!» ...
————————————————————————————————
HEHHOE YKA3AHHE.
3asyôpnre pycckym ]pasy (÷ PPm)
1 2 3
«MOEH ¹ MATEP`H ¹ KBAPTHPA»,
n crpoñre nce Bamn anrnnñckne npeµnoxennx
c «BBAµEBLHEM» npxmo no neñ $ !!!
2) “¹(e)S” npnôannxñre K rouuy HRFOIO rnarona
n uacmoaue¬ npemenn
X 44 X 45 X 46
HOCBE mecronmennñ “HE”, “SHE”, “IT” n “WHO?” –
xu uiu um xvv
ro ecrt nocne «Ou», «Oua», «Ouo» n «Kmo?»,
koropte x pekomenµym «nepeuua:umi» n mnnte c.oee:ru!
! «OnC», «OnaC», «OnoC» n «KroC?»
(¹ µo kyun «Moñ korC»),
uroôt onn aemo¬amuuecru nanomnnann Bam o rom, uro
nocue nnx
K rouuy anrnnñckoro rnarona nyxno npuóaeumo “·(e)S”:
! ! ! !
He ¹ readS many ¹ bookS ÷ Ou ¹ unraE1 +uoeo ¹ knnI.
! !
She ¹ planS ¹ to ¹ leave ÷ Oua ¹ nnannpyE1 ¹ yexamo.
uiu n.æus mv .uue
————————————————————————————————
KPAHHE BAÆHO.
He orxoµx or kacct, npomy Bac nosnakomnrtcx emë c oµnnm kpañne
nyxntm cnonom/qop+où na '¹S” ÷
÷ “... HAS ...” – xæ3 ÷ «... HMEE1 ...» (X 47)

$
OnC, onaC, onoC, KroC?, Moñ korC ¹ haS
(ro ecrt +ro 'HAveS”, y koroporo cpeouuuoe “-ve-¨ npocro
co npemenem eiea.u.oci n norepxnoct):
V nero (ecmo) ¹ mnoro ¹ µpyseñ ÷ He HAS ¹ many ¹ friendS.
÷ On HMEE1 ¹ ... xu xæ3 ++uu qpouo3
H:
V nero HE1 ¹ xopomnx µpyseñ ÷ He HAS NO ¹ good friendS;
xu xæ3 uov evo qpouo3
————————————————————————————————
293 292
– rak kak HH y rarux anrnnñcknx +ecmou+euuù
(n rom uncne n y npum»rame.iuix)
HET uu naµexeñ, uu poµon, uu uncen,
a snaunr, camn onn (kak n ece anrn. onpeoe.euu»)
no pooa´ + n :uc.a+ HE nsmenxmrcx.
Ho ceñuac µeno ne rontko n +rom!
————————————————————————————————
Hpum»rame.iuie +ecmou+euu» 1-ro THHA ynorpeônxñre
TOALKO c µpyrnmn cnonamn/cvuecmeume.iui+u,
nesanncnmo or nx :uc.a n r. n.:
HHraroù «apmur.i» nepeµ me+, ue¬ «e.aoemm»
sµect ue uyxeu:
1 2 ! 2 1
“My father’S car” – +aù qaaðoc raa ÷ «Mamnna ¹ moeeo orn`A».
“My father’S cars” – +aù qaaðoc raac ÷ «Mamnnm moeeo orn`A».
Britain’S ¹ foreign policy – opumuc qopuu no.ucu ÷
÷ Bnemnxx nonnrnka ¹ Fpnrann`H.
————————————————————————————————
HKAHC !!! Tenept, snax o cymecrnonannn “ ’S” (÷ «xos»uu»)
Bam nerue ôyµer nonxrt n ycnonrt cneµymmnñ ouent naxntñ umauc.
3nañre, uro n anrunncxou xstke nmemrcx
2 (¡BA) pasnmx muna npum»rame.iuix +ecmou+euuù.
3AYHHTE (XX48-52) !
I: II:
moñ MY – +aù mine – +aùu X48
rnoñ, nam, Bam YOUR – ëo yourS – ëo3 X49
ero(-uiù) HIS – xus hiS – xus
eë HER – xœœ herS – xœœ3 X50
ero, eë (o ueoovu.) ITS – umc itS – umC
nam OUR – avo ourS – avo3 X51
nx(-uuù) THEIR – ð+o theirS – ð+o3 X52
Oôparnnn nnnmanne?
$
Besµe (kpome “mine¨) na konnax cnon npncy$rcrnyer “¹S”
(÷ «xos»uu») !!!
¹ Oômee µnx oôenx epvnn cnono «Ueù?» ÷ WHOSE? – xyvs
Haµemct, Bt nomnnre, uro, nanpnmep, 'MY” – +aù snaunr
n «¬où», n «¬oa», n «¬oë»,
n «¬ou», n «¬oux», n «¬ou¬» n r.µ. –
MY house, YOUR sisters, HIS cars n r.µ.
+aù xavc ëo cncmos xus raas
Moñ µou, rnon cëc1pm, ero uamnnm,
Moero µoua, rnonx cec1ëp, ero uamnnau.
31o1 rnn anrnnñcknx npum»rame.iuix +ecmou+euuù
nonnocrtm coornercrnyer
pyccxnu npum»rame.iui+ +ecmou+euu»+.
————————————————————————————————
Cnona xe 2-ro THHA ynorpeônxmrcx CAMOCTO×TEHIHO,
n oôtuno cnyxar kparknmn orneramn na nonpoct rnna
«Heù omo oo+?», nnn xe koporknmn, pesknmn yrnepxµennxmn:
3rn knnrn – ¬ou ÷ These books are mine (¹ crp. 295).
Te knnrn more ¬ou ÷ Those books are mine too.
ðovs ovrc aa +aùu mvv
3rn knnrn – meou ÷ These books are yours.
3rn knnrn meou? ÷ Are these books yours?
aa ðuus ovrc ëos
“Whose house is this one?” – “It’s mine!”, u.u npocro: “Mine!”
xyvs xavc us ðuc wau umc +aùu +aùu
«ueñ µom +ro(-r)» «Mon!».
× nnxy, uro rt nocnmt crapte pyôamkn! Bostmn MOH!
I see that you wear old shirts! Take MINE!
aù cuu ðæm mv w+o ov.o uiœœmc moùr +aùu
X95
295 294
EµË HPHMEPL.
My brother’s car ÷ the car of my brother ÷ mamnna moero ôpar`a,
+aù opaðoc raa ðo raa OB +aù opaðo ôparOBa mamnna;
His sister’s name ÷ the name of his sister ÷ nmx ero cecrp`m,
xus cncmos uoù+ ðo uoù+ OB xus cncmo «cecrpOBo» nmx.
3ror npeo.oe “of¨ nooôme ncnontsyercx µnx oôpasonannx
coomeemcmeu» romy, uro y nac nastnaercx poðumeuoum¬ naðexo¬,
npocro y ôeµnxxek-anrnnuan «naðexoe» HE1, nor nm n npnxoµnrcx
ncnontsonart oôxoµnte manënpt:
Branches of trees ÷ Bernn µepentEB
opaaum:is oe mpuus («-ee» ÷ “of”).
Millions of dollars ÷ Mnnnnont, kak Bt µymaere, :eeo?
+n.iouc oe oa.os («µonnapOB»).
The companies of our Iamily ÷ (Te) ]npmt namEH cemtH.
ðo ra+nouus oe avo qæ+u.u
————————————————————————————————
NB N 1 (emë pas nepnnrect cmµa nonosµnee!).
Bos+oreu n concem yx, kasanoct ôt, ueeos+oruiù napnanr
coueranne npeµnora 'of” ¹ «euaðeuoua» c '’s» na konne
(oôosnauennoro, npeµnournrentno, npocro u+eue+ coocmeeuui+)
nnn
«npeµnor 'of” ¹ npum»rame.iuoe +ecmou+euue 2-ro muna»
(crp. 292)
n +rom cnyuae ncë ntpaxenne npnoôperaer ommeuor
«oðuu us .»:
These friends ¹ OF JOHN’S . ÷ 3rn µpystx ¹ ¡xonA …
ðuus qpouos oe orëous
She is a friend ¹ OF MINE ÷ Ona – oµna ns ¹ MOHX ¹ noµpyr.
uiu us oqp+uo oe +aùu
He was a slave ¹ OF HERS ÷ On ôtn ¹ EË ¹ paôom;
xu wos oc.+ùe oe xœœs
————————————————————————————————
3ro HAHE! ÷ It’s OURS! – umc avos
The money is YOURS, and nobody will take it from you!
ðo+auu us ËO3 æuo uovooou wn. moùr um qpo+ mv'
¡entrn – 1BOH, n nnkro ne saôepër nx y (or) reôx!
————————————————————————————————
OTAHHHLH HPHMEP (n ouent annon !):
Scratch my back, and I’ll scratch YOURS !!! ÷ «Houemn mom
crpæm: +aù oær æuo aù. crpæm: ËO3 cnnnky,
a x meom!».
To ecrt: «Tt mne, x reôe!».
————————————————————————————————
PACmHPEHHE BO3MOXHOCTEH
(uyrt «oneperamuee» moxere nepnyrtcx k nemy n nosµnee!).
3 BAXHEHBHX HPEµBOIA:
1) Oôosnaunrt «euaðeuoua» nnn ntpasnrt omuoueuua
coócmeeuuocmu no-anrnnñckn moxno emë oµnnm cnocoôom.
B +rom cnyuae HEPE± «BHAµEHBHEM» nnn nepeµ
nceun ero onpeoe.euu»+u crannrcx ouent noxoxee na ero
pyccknñ oreuea.eum nekoe cnoneuko-npeo.oe.
3ro npeo.oe “of” ÷ «oe» nnn «oq»,
n emy n pycckom xstke ecrt ny npocro 100 °-x napa..e.i –
no rontko n nnµe ue npeo.oea, a cvqqurca «-OB-»:
FopncOBa mamnna ÷ the car OF Boris – ðo raa OB oopuc
OrnOB µom ÷ the house OF my father – ðo xavc OB +aù qaaðo
Ho ro, uro y pyccknx HPHCOEµHHRE1CR r rouuy cnona,
y anrnnuan cmaeumc» HEPEµ cnonom !!!
+
«A KBAPTHPA ¹ of MOEH MATEPH»,
nnn:
«The KBAPTHPA ¹ of MOEH MATEPH».
H:
297 296
(npnuëm CAMH +rn " «vrasvmuue c.oea»
uuroeða HE nsmenxmrcx !!!):
HE
SHE
IT
WHO?
– xu
– uiu
– um
– xvv
÷ on
÷ ona
÷ ono
÷ Kro?
MANY (X 53)
FEW (X 54)
SEVERAL (X 55)
A LOT OF (X 56)
PLENTY OF (X57)
SUCH (X 21)
¹
THESE
THOSE
– ++uu
– qìmv
– c+epo.
– o.om oe
– n.eumu oe
– cam:
– ðnus
– ðovs
÷ unoro
÷ uauo
÷ necxoutxo
÷ unoro
÷ unoro
÷ 1axne, 1axnx
n r. µ.
÷ +1n
÷ 1e
H1O n KAK CKHA¡IBATI:
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
! ! ! ! $ "
$ Hmôoñ " $ HEnsmenënnoe Hmôoe "
HE ¹ Iuarou¹S ¹ MANY ¹ OHPEµEBEHHE ¹ CYmECTBHT.¹S
n µp. n µp. ns cnonapx
"
KOHKPETHKA: "
! ! ! " ! ! ! ! !
$ " $ "
HE ¹ seeS ¹ MANY ¹ good ¹ friendS ¹ very often.
She ¹ meetS ¹ a lot of ¹ nice ¹ girlS ¹ e+pu oqu
It ¹ . ¹ several ¹ . ¹ guyS ¹ ouent uacro.
Who? ¹ … ¹ few ¹ . ¹ . ¹ .
¹ plenty of
¹ such
¹ these
¹ those
Hepenoµ nepnoro npnmepa $:
Ou ¹ nnµH1 ¹ MHOIO ¹ xopomnx ¹ µpy3EH ¹ ...
Hepenoµ nroporo npnmepa $:
Oua ¹ ncrpeuaE1 ¹ MHOIO ¹ mnntx ¹ µenymEK ¹ ...
————————————————————————————————
2) Hpeµnor 'BY” – «oaù» oôosnauaer,
«KEM» nnn «HEM» uro-ro cµenano:
A mistake made ¹ BY you.
o+ucm+ùr +oùo BAH mv
Omnôka, cµenannax ¹ TOFOK ÷ Tnox omnôka.
The house built ¹ BY this man ÷ ¡om, nocrpoenntñ ¹
ðoxavc ou.m BAH ðuc +æu ¹ 3THM uEHOBEKOM;
————————————————————————————————
3) Oµnako korµa peut nµër o uëm-nnôyµt,
uro mt paccmarpnnaem KAK HHC1PVMEH1,
ro ncnontsyñre npeo.oe “WITH” – wnð
(÷ pycckomy «c ...»):
To eat soup ¹ WITH a Iork ÷ Ecrt cyn ¹ nnnkOH.
mv uum cvvn wnð oqoor
I built it ¹ WITH my own hands.
aù ou.m um wnð +aù ovu xæuos
× nocrponn +ro ¹ cnoHMH coôcrnennMMH pykAMH.
————————————————————————————————
HOMOmL !
Emë oµna ¬oa paspaôorka emë oµna epynna anrnnñcknx cnon,
oô¡eµnnënntx eðuum¬ npusuaro+:
«VKA3VKHHE CHOBA»
(÷ «cnona-noocrasru»),
ro ecrt marue cnona,
koropte yrasmeamm Bam,
umo nyxno µenart nocue nnx !!!
HOCHE 12 «yrasymuux» cnon nnn «c.oe-noocrasor»
(¹ X 53-57), npnneµënntx µanee ,
Bt oõnsanm K rouuy nocneµymmero anrnnñckoro c.oea
npnôannxrt orou:auue “¹(e)S”
299 298
A nor BTOPOH «HAHPRI»,
cosµanntñ rem, uro
«Ooueeo» cnona «ceoù» n anrnnñckom HET !!!
Ho+romy nmecro nero ncerµa
(n n oóasameuoueùue¬ nopxµke !!!)
ncnontsyñre
noµxoµnmee npum»rame.iuoe +ecmou+euue,
nnn kak ronopm x
oµnn ns «oóasameuoumx onpeoe.ume.eù»
(cm. crp. 272).
To ecrt aue.o»si:uie BCEI±A «vmo:u»mm»,
HLK «reuv ouu .mo»m» nnn HLH «uoeu ouu +omm»!!!
Btôop nyxnoro/noµxoµxmero npum»rame.iuoeo +ecmo-
u+euu» ÷ oóasameuouoeo onpeoe.ume.» sanncnr or cyózer-
muoeo mecronmennx, koroptm oôosnauaercx oeùcmevmuee .uµo ÷
÷ cyózerm.
To ecrt sµect nmeer mecro cneµymmax noc1onnnan
np»+a» (n oopamua»!) saeucu+ocmi ÷ coomeemcmeue:
I &! MY – +aù ÷ moñ
YOU &! YOUR – ëo ÷ rnoñ, nam, Bam
HE &! HIS – xus ÷ ero, «eeouiù»*
SHE &! HER – xœœ ÷ eë
IT &! ITS – umc ÷ ero ÷ «eeouiù»*,
eë, «eùuiù»*
WE &! OUR – avo ÷ nam
THEY &! THEIR – ð+o ÷ nx(-uuù*).
* Homnnm, uro +rn cnona (sµect n panee) ynorpeônent mnom
µnx roro, uroôt vmo:u»mi snauenne cnon aueuuùcrux !
————————————————————————————————
KPYTO !!!
Bt yxe cnokoñno moxere ckasart no-anrnnñckn, nanpnmep, cneµymmee:
OHA ncrpeuaE1 ¹ 1AKHX kpacnntx napHEH ¹ ouent peµko.
SHE meetS ¹ SUCH beautiful guyS ¹ very seldom.
HLH +uumC cam: oìmvmuqv. eaù3 e+pu c+.oo+
K1O ¹ unraE1 ¹ HECKOBLKO ¹ nnrepecnMX ¹ knnI ¹ kaxµym neµenm?
WHO ¹ readS ¹ SEVERAL ¹ interesting ¹ bookS ¹ every week?
XVV puuo3 C3BP3B numpucmuue ovrC +epu wnur
————————————————————————————————
YCTAHOBOuHIE HPHMEPL/OBPA3HL.
Bcnomnnaem, uro
n uacmoaue¬ epe+euu c rnaronom
nnn HH:eeo HE uaoo µenart,
nnn K eeo rouuy nyxno npocro npnôannxrt “¹(e)S”
nocue “He”, “She”, “It”, “Who?”
(÷ nocne «OuC», «OuaC», «OuoC», «KmoC?»),
a rakxe nocue cvuecmeume.iuix n eðuucmeeuuo¬ uncne
(÷ nocue «Mox coôakaC»):
Kaxµtñµent ¹ MM ¹ cunraEM ¹ namnx kpacnntx coôak.
Every day ¹ WE ¹ COUNT ¹ our beautiful dogS.
+epu o+ù wn ravum avo oìmvmuqv. ooe3
Hx(-uue) µpystR ¹ noK1 ¹ ouent rpomko.
Their FRIENDS ¹ SING ¹ very loudly.
ð+o qpouo3 cuue e+pu .avo.u
OH uacro ¹ unraE1 ¹ MHOIO ¹ craptx anrnnñcknx ¹ xypnanOB.
HE often ¹ readS ¹ MANY ¹ old English ¹ magazineS.
xu oqu puuo3 ++uu ov.o nue.uui +æeosuu3
Hama COBAKA kycaE1 ncex ÷ Our DOG biteS everyone.
(÷ kaxµoro) avo ooe oaùmC +epuwau
————————————————————————————————
301 300
mox cecrpa moE1 nx, my sister washES them,
+aù cncmo wouiH3 ðo+
x pemonrnpym nx, I fix them,
aù qurc ðo+
a nama mama and our mom
æuo avo +o+
cunraE1 µentrn. countS money.
ravumC +auu
Y nac ecrt mnoro We have many
wn xæe ++uu
nocroxnntx knnenrOB, constant clientS,
roucmoum r.aùoumC
nx konnuecrno their quantity
ð+o rwoumumu
nocroxnno pacrË1. constantly growS
roucmoum.u epov3
n µeno namero orn`A and our father’S business
æuo avo qaaðoC onsuuc
ouent nomoraE1 nam. helpS us very much.
xo.nC ac e+pu +am:
————————————————————————————————
TPETHH «HAHPRI».
A nor ceñuac, oô¡eµnnnn npoñµennoe, Bt nayunrect cmpoumo
cnom/Bamy nepnym anrnnñckym roucmpyruum!
1 2 3
Mm ronopnm: «× xouy, ¹ utoôt ¹ ou ¹ µau mne .».
Y «uux» xe:
————————————————————————————————
1) ue cvoìermuoe mecronmenne, a oózermuoe (crp. 272)
(name «ou» ! “him”);
————————————————————————————————
HO±CKA3KH k npnmepam ":
1) «OnC» (cm. crp. 290);
1 2 3
2) «Moeñ marep`u knaprnpa».
YCTAHOBOuHIE HPHMEPL / OBPA3HL
¡H× KOHHPOBAHHR n HO±PAÆAHHR:
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
$ " $ "
OH oôtuno npoµaË1 ¹ mamnnM ¹ CBOEIO orn`A. "
HE usually sellS ¹ HIS father’S ¹ carS.
xu mvrie.u co.3 ¹ xus qaaðoC raaC
OHA uacro rnaµH1 ¹ pykH ¹ CBOEIO myx`A.
SHE often strokeS ¹ HER husband’S ¹ handS.
uiu oqu cmpovrC xœœ xasoouoC xæuo3
Moñ KO1 ¹ ncerµa nnxE1 ¹ CBOH nanM.
My CAT ¹ always lickS ¹ ITS pawS.
+aù ræm oo.woùs .urC umc noo3
OHH unraK1 ¹ CBOH knnrH.
THEY read ¹ THEIR bookS – ðoù puuo ð+o ovrC
YCTAHOBOHHLH TEKCT N2
(ncero uepes 20 mnnyr nocne nauana).
Ham oren Our father
avo qaaðo
nokynaE1 n npoµaË1 buyS and sellS
oaù3 æuo co.3
pasnte crapte mamnnM. different old carS.
onqpoum ov.o raaC
Mt nomoraem emy We help him –
wn xo.n xu+
303 302
Ho neµt n sµect roxe ronopx no-pycckn!
moxno ncnontsonart cnono «ceoù», koroporo n anrnnñckom uem!
H sµect roxe nmeercx noc1onnoe coomeemcmeue
(coornecnre mao.u:rv " c npnmepamn):
Coornercrnymmnñ emy
Ooìermuoe «sa+euume.i»
mecronmenne: cnona «ceoù»:
me ! my +aù
you ! your ëo
him ! his xus
her ! her xœœ
it ! its umc
us ! our avo
them ! their ð+o:
× xouy, utoôt ou c¡en ¹ ceoù ¹ sanrpak.
I want " him to eat ¹ his ¹ breakfast – op+rqocm
"
! ! !
$
Mt xornm, utoôt ouu yôpann ¹ ceom ¹ kponart.
We want " them to remove ¹ their ¹ bed.
"
! ! !
$
pu+yve ð+o ooo
————————————————————————————————
3. «HOAËT».
(Tpernñ +ran 30 mnnyr).
3A±AHHE: suaro+cmeo emë c 70 c.oeecui+u eouuuµa+u;
HEAL: µocrnxenne nosmoxnocrn ckasart no-anrnnñckn
mnnnmym 70-80% roro,
uro mt oôtuno ronopnm no-pycckn;
BPEMR: euè 30 mnnyr urennx.
————————————————————————————————
HOEEEXABH !!!
2) µpyron nop»oor c.oe
1 2 ! 2 1
(name «. :tooi ¹ ou …» ! “… him ¹ to …”);
————————————————————————————————
3) emopoù (n r.µ.) rnaron ue us+eu»ùme,
a oepume ero npa¬o us cuoeapa:
“… him ¹ to ¹ give me …”!!!
————————————————————————————————
3µect nonesnoñ ôyµer cneµymmax
«Cxema nocmoauumx coomeemcmeuù»:
1 2 ! 2 1
«… :tooi a …» ! “… me to ¹ ueus+eu. rnaron”
«… :tooi mm …» ! “… you to ¹ …”
«… :tooi ou …» ! “… him to ¹ …”
«… :tooi oua …» ! “… her to ¹ …”
«… :tooi ouo …» ! “… it to ¹ …”
«… :tooi ¬m …» ! “… us to ¹ …”
«… :tooi ouu …» ! “… them to ¹ …”.
To ecrt «ouu» ronopxr:
«× xouy ¹ eeo ¹ utoôt ¹ oami mne .».
“ I want ¹ him ¹ to ¹ give me …”:
× xouy, ¹ :tooi ¹ ouu ¹ vexa.n! ÷ I want ¹ them ¹ to ¹ leave!
aù woum ðo+ mv .uue
Onnxorxr, ¹ :tooi ¹ +i ¹ rvnu.n ¹ +ror craptñ µom!
"
They want ¹ us · to · buy ¹ this old house!
ðoù woum ac mv oaù ðuc ov.o xavc
————————————————————————————————
Takxe 'to¨ moxno npnpannxrt n k namemy «uto»:
On nnannpyer, ¹ uto » ¹ yeµy sanrpa.
He plans ¹ me to ¹ leave tomorrow.
xu n.æus +uu mv .uue mo+opov
305 304
26¹2 (crp. 307) cnyuaen HEus¬euae¬ocmu
anrnnñcknx rnaronon.
«HAC1HHM» n «3BEMEH1M», nocue koroptx
anrnnñcknñ rnaron HE us+eu»emc»:
HAC1HHM: 3BEMEH1M:
58) ... do ...! – ovv
59) ... does ...! – oas
60) ... did ...! – ouo
61) Do ...? ovv
62) Does ...? – oas
63) Did ...? – ouo
64) Will ...? – wn.
65) ... don’t ... – ooum
66) ... doesn’t ... – oasum
67) ... didn’t ... – ououm
68) ... won’t ... – woVum
69) Do ...! ÷ cu.iuiù
HPHKA3
70) Don’t ...! ÷ 3AHPE1
71) CAN – ræu ÷ uout, yue1t
72) COULD – rvo ÷ c/uor, c/yueu;
c/uor õm, c/yueu õm
73) MAY – +où ÷ uoano
74) MIGHT – +aùm ÷ nosuoano, …,
uoae1, …
75) MUST – +acm ÷ µouaen
76) OUGHT TO–oom mv ÷ µouaen õm
77) WILL – wn. ÷ oôpasonarent
óyðyu. npemenn
78) SHALL – u». ÷ ro xe camoe,
no ynorpeônxercx
1outxo c 'I¨ n 'We”
79) WOULD – wvo ÷ ... õm ...,
c1au õm …, ... õm c1au …
80) SHOULD – umo ÷ µouaen (ôtn) õm,
cueµonauo õm,
nyano (õmuo) õm …
81) NEEDN’T – uuuoum ÷ ne nyano ...,
ne naµo ...
82-83) ...’d better ... ÷ uyume ...
oo+mo
...’d rather ... ÷ cxopee ...
opaaðo
¹ PACmHPHTEAL: … than … – ðæu ÷ …, ueu …:
Better ¹ than ¹ me ÷ Hyume, ¹ ue¬ ¹ x.
o+mo ðæu +uu
$ Tontko oózermuoe mecronmenne !
Bor 29 cnyuaen HEus+eu»e+ocmu anrnnñckoro e.aeo.a.
H sµect Bam nyxno ntyunrt 2 rpynnt cnon ÷
÷ 34 cnona/eipareuu» ÷
÷ 34 c.oeecuie eouuuµi (X58-83 ¹ X85-92),
HOCBE koroptx
anrnnñcknñ e.aeo. ôepnre npnuo ns cuonapn
n nooõme ero HE nsmenxñre !!!
————————————————————————————————
«EµHHME HPH3HAKH»,
u.u
3 HPABHBA HO HEPBOH ! HOµIPVHHE cnon!
O±HO3HAHHEHmE !!!:
1) «B3AHMOHEHPHMEHEHHE»
BCE 26 uHEHOB 3TOH (!) HOµIPVHHB (÷ 26 cnon)
HEBL3R YHOTPEFH×TI ¡PYI C ¡PYIOM!
To ecrt unent nceñ +roñ nepnon nooepvnni NN 58-83
(÷ 26 cnon)
µpyr c µpyrom HE ynorpeônxmrcx !!!
A k o.e+euma+ ornocnrcx emë n sakon
«B3AHMOBM1ECHEHHR» –
ro ecrt onn emmecuamm µpyr µpyra (¹ cm. crp. 331);
2) Kpome +roro, caun unent +roñ nooepvnni «c.oe»
nooôme HE nsmenxmrcx !!!;
3) Hocue BCEX unenon +roñ nooepvnni (nocne XX 53-83)
anrnnñcknñ rnaron HE us¬euaemca !!!!!
————————————————————————————————
X84
«
H
p
e
ð
n
o
u
m
e
u
u
e
µ
e
ñ
c
r
n
n
x
»
V
c
u
.
u
m
e
.
i
u
i
e
B
o
n
p
o
c
u
m
e
.
i
u
i
e
307 306
¹ Emë 2 cnyuax ueus+eu»e+ocmu anrnnñckoro rnarona:
X27) HPOCLBA nnn HPHKA3 ÷ “Take this !”:
«Xouemt no-anrnnñckn uro-nnôyµt nonpocumo nnn npurasamo
orkpoñ cnonapt, ntôepn cnono/rnaron,
n npxmo +1nu cuonou npocu nnn npurasieaù,
nooôme ero HE us+eu»» !!!».
A. ¡parynknn;
————————————————————————————————
X28) n eocr.uµauu»x n n pumopu:ecrux nonpocax
nocne eonpocume.iuix c.oe:
Heus+euèuuiù rnaron (n BE3 :acmuµi “to” !!!!!).
"
“Why gamble?” – waù eæ+o. ÷ «A sauem uepami?» –
– cnpamnnaer cama ceôx K+pn n cepnane «Cekc n ôontmom
ropoµe», nponrpan xa.»euvm mryky ôakcon;
————————————————————————————————
29-ñ cnyuañ «ueus+eu»e+ocmu» anrnnñckoro e.aeo.a.
BTOPAR nooepvnna cnon ÷ «¹ 8 rnaronon» (XX85-92),
HOCBE koroptx opveue rnaront HE us+eu»mmc» !!!
Takxe nocne +rnx " 8 rnaronon
nepeµ noc.eovmuu+u rnaronamn
ue uyxuo crannrt :acmuµv “to” !!!
make
let
see
hear
feel
notice
observe
watch
– +oùr
– .em
– cuu
– xno
– quu.
– uovmuc
– oosœœe
– wom:
÷ sacrannxrt, npnnyxµart
÷ nosnonxrt, paspemart ÷ «µanart»
÷ nnµert
«nycrt»
÷ cntmart
÷ uyncrnonart
÷ sameuart
÷ naônmµart
÷ cneµnrt (sa)
$
Ca¬u xe +rn rnaront
¬oeym nsmenxrtcx kak yroµno !!!
CTPOIOE HAHOMHHAHHE !!!
Bo BCEX +rnx ($) 26 «c.v:a»x» (XX 58-83)
rnaront
u nocne :acmuµ, u nocne o.e+eumoe
crantre HEH3MEHEHHBMH,
ôepx nx npxmo ns cnonapx !!!
To ecrt: HE µenañre nooôme HHHEIO !!!
Cmorpnre npnmept nnxe!
————————————————————————————————
OHEHL HOAE3HAR µOHHHmOPMAHHR:
«Tpaouµuoua.ucmi» nastnamr «o.e+eumi» «+ooa.iui+u
e.aeo.a+u» no, npeµynpexµam +ro nx omnõxa, rak kak
y o.e+eumoe HE1 HH oðuoeo rnarontnoro npnsnaka !:
————————————————————————————————
1) J.e+eumi (n ornnune or e.aeo.oe !!!)
nooôme HE us¬euammca
(ro ecrt k nnm HE npnôannxercx HH oµnoro orou:auu») !!!
————————————————————————————————
2) HH cnena, HH cnpana or o.e+eumoe
(n ornnune or e.aeo.oe !!!)
HE cmaeumca :acmuµa “to” !!!
————————————————————————————————
3) Hannune o.e+euma (n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn)
HE ucrumuaem ueooxoou+ocmu nannunx rnarona !!!
————————————————————————————————
Bcë µeno n rom, uro 1000 ner nasaµ
+rn c.oea BMBH rnaronamn no onn nepecmauu nmn ôtrt,
rouno rak xe kak
ðepeeo, ntpocmee ns ce+e:ra, nepecmaëm ôtrt ce+e:ro+ !!!!!
Moxere nastnart +rn c.oea «+ooa.iui+u o.e+euma+u» !!!
————————————————————————————————
Inaront
«:vecmeeuuoeo
eocnpu»mu»».

moùr ðuc
}
309 308
YCTAHOBOuHIE HPHMEPL k n. 29 ()
u
uETBËPTIH «HAHPRI»
(÷! Bama nropax anrnnñckax «roucmpvrµu»»):
× nnxy, ¹ KAK OH ¹ nenyem eë pykH
"

Hoc.eovmu. rnaron ue nsmenxercx
"
! ! ! !
"
$ "
"
÷ I see ¹ HIM ¹ kiss her handS.

! ! ! ! ! !
$ "
"
Mt cntmnm, ¹ H1O OHA ¹ noèm ÷! "
÷! We hear ¹ HER ¹ sing.
(Bvrea.iuo: «Mt cntmnm ¹ EË ¹ nert»).
H uurarux 'to¨ !!!
3ror «uernëprtñ 'Hanpae¨» saknmuaercx (kak nnµnre $)
n rom, uro pycckax uacrt +roñ roucmpvrµuu
(÷ «… , rar ou .» nnn «. , umo oua …»)
HE nepenoµnrcx na anrnnñcknñ ovrea.iuo,
a +1on uacrn pycckoñ roucmpvrµuu npocro ncerµa coornercrnyer
onpeµenënnoe anrnnñckoe oózermuoe mecronmenne
(no HE cvoìermuoe, kak n pycckom),
a nmenno,
CXEMA:
————————————————————————————————
Anrnnñckoe oózermuoe
! ! ! ! ! ! +ecmou+euue "
$ $ "
«..., rar/umo ou ...» ÷! anrnnñckoe '... him ...”,
a «..., rar/umo oua ...» ÷! anrnnñckoe “... her ...”,
————————————————————————————————
n r.µ. !!!
Oôxsarentno n cpasy xe ntyunre ece $ +rn 8 rnaronon,
rak kak onn e umóo¬ cuyuae nyxnt Bam no xnsnn !!!
HPHMEPL:
BE3 “to” "
" " ÷ ueus+euèuuie rnaront
Tt ¹ sacmaeuaeuo ¹ menx ¹ C1PAµA1L!
You ¹ make ¹ me ¹ SUFFER!
mv +oùr +uu caqo
" BE3 “to”
"
Ona ¹ sacrannxem ¹ nac ¹ HH1L +ro nekapcrno kaxµtñ µent!
She ¹ makeS ¹ us ¹ DRINK this medicin every day!
uiu +oùrC ac opuur ðuc ++oucuu +epu o+ù
" BE3 “to”
"
He ¹ ða(ea)ù ¹ emy ¹ VH1H! ÷ Don’t ¹ let ¹ him ¹ GO!
ooum .em xu+ eov
Hoseouo ¹ eñ ¹ …
µaù ¹ eñ ¹ norannenart! ÷ Let ¹ her ¹ dance – .em xœœ oaauc
Inaron “Let¨ moxno emë npnpannxrt k namemy «Hycmo …!»
(no nocne 'Let” nµër 1outxo oózermuoe +ecmou+euue,
a ue cvoìermuoe, kak n pycckom!):
Hs¬euëuumù rnaron HEus+euèuuiù rnaron!
" "
Hycrt ¹ ou ¹ yxoµnr! ÷ Let ¹ him ¹ go! – .em xu+ eov
Orcmµa nonyunnoct n ncem nsnecrnoe npue.aueuue r oeùcmeum
“Let’s …” – .emc ÷ «µaeaù(-me) …!»:
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron Hs¬euëuumù rnaron!
" "
Let’s ¹ dance – .emc oaauc ÷ µaeaù(-me) norannyem!
————————————————————————————————
311 310
YCTAHOBOHHLE HPHMEPL/OBPA3HL
na :acmuµi n na o.e+eumi.
NB. Hpnuëm, yurnre, uro pasum¬u HAC1HHAMH
mt norasmeae¬ pasuoe BPEMR µeñcrnnx !!!
Hnn naoôopor:
no HAC1HHAM mt euðu¬ BPEMR !!!
VCHBH1EBLHME :acmuµi (do … !, does … !, did … !) –
ovv oas ouo
+rnmn :acmuµa+u
mt noo:èprueae+, ycuuueae¬ name ntckastnanne!
(H cmorpnre, kak anrnnñckoe “… do … !” – ovv
noxoxe na pycckoe «µa … !»).
————————————————————————————————
¡nx HAC1ORHEIO epe+euu:
Anrnnñcknñ rnaron
"
ue us+euèu
µA ¹ nmôum xe x reôx! = I ¹ DO ¹ love you!
" aù ðyy .ae mv
"
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
$
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷
"
µA ¹ paôoraem xe on(c)! ÷ He ¹ DOES ¹ work!
" " xu ðas wœœr
"
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
$
————————————————————————————————
¡nx HPOHEµHEIO epe+euu:
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷
"
µA ¹ npnxoµnBa xe ona! ÷ She ¹ DID ¹ come!
" " " uiu ðuð ra+
"
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
$
————————————————————————————————
3ro pycckoe c.oeoco:emauue («… rar oua …») moxer µaxe
ntrnxµert n kak «. sa me¬, rar oua .» no no-anrunncxn
+ro ncë panno ôyµer npocro! “… her …”:
Kaxµtñ µent x ¹ uao.moam ¹ sa me¬, rar oua ¹ yxoµnr k µpyry.
" "
Every day I ¹ watch ¹! her ¹ go to her friend.
+epu ooù aù wom: xœœ eov mv xœœ qpouo
————————————————————————————————
3HAHHT:
«..., rar/umo a ...»
«..., rar/umo mm/em ...»
«..., rar/umo ou ...»
«..., rar/umo oua ...»
«..., rar/umo ¬m ...»
«..., rar/umo ouu ...»
!
!
!
!
!
!
“... me ...”
“... you ...”
“... him ...”
¹

Inaron
“... her ...¨
ns cnonapx
“... us ...”
(Bes “to” !) –
“... them ...”
n HHKAKHX anrnnñcknx «..., rar ...» nnn «..., :mo ...»!!!
Fnaroµapx +roñ $ «mpaucqop+aµuu»
Bt nonyuaere momenrantnym nosmoxnocrt
cmpoumi Bamy cneµymmym anrnnñckym roucmpvrµum!!!
Cooômam Bam, uro npn mpaouµuouuo+ noµxoµe
oô¡xcnenne nocrpoennx +roñ roucmpvrµuu npeµcrannxer ns ceôx
nsnecrnym (÷ ôontmym) cnoxnocrt µnx npenoµanarenx,
a eë vceoeuue ne mentmym cnoxnocrt µnx yuamerocx.
HAHOMHHAHHE:
Hocue :acmuµ n o.e+eumoe
anrnnñckne e.aeo.i nooôme HE us+eu»ùme,
a npocro ôepnre nx npnuo ns cuonapn !!!
H uurarux 'to¨ !!!
"
" "
}
313 312
————————————————————————————————
HPOHEµHEE epe+» nokastnaem :acmuµeù “Did … ?”
(÷ oðua µnx ncex):
?
" ÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron
DID ¹ they work? ÷ ? ¹ Onn paôoraBn?
ðuµ ðoù wœœr
————————————————————————————————
+ 1 nonax :acmuµa
(Bt eë yxe snaere (n) kak o.e+eum !)
µnx BVµVHEIO epe+euu: WILL ... ? – Wn. ... ?:
?
"

÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron
WILL ¹ he work? ÷ ? BVµE1 ¹ on paôorart?
wnu xu wœœr

"
÷ HEus+euèuu. rnaron
WILL ¹ my brother ¹ live here?
wn. +aù opaðo .ue xno
BVµE1 ¹ moñ ôpar ¹ xnrt sµect?
————————————————————————————————
YCHAHM !!!
+eo
DO/DOES/DID/WILL you ¹ EVER ¹ wash your hands?
??? rt ¹ xomo roeða-uuóyðo ¹ wash ceou pykn?
woui ÷ mtrt
————————————————————————————————
KPAHHE BAÆHO !!!
Oµnako, ecnn n nonpoce ecrt emë
n eonpocume.iuoe cuoeo nnn eipareuue (crp. 315),
ro C nero u naunnan1e nonpoc,
a nyxnym :acmuµv crantre
CPA3Y ÆE HOCAE eonpocume.iuoeo c.oea!
To ecrt mt uuueeo ue us¬euae¬, a npocro n camom nauane
euë crannm n eonpocume.iuoe c.oeo nnn eipareuue.
————————————————————————————————
KPYTO !!!
Ecnn Bt +1n ae caume :acmuµi
(Do … ?, Does … ?, Did … ?)
nepenecëre e uauauo npeµnoxennx,
ro onn cranyr
BOHPOCH1EBLHMMH :acmuµa+u
(nnn kak ôt «eonpocume.iui+u suara+u»,
nocrannenntmn u e ua:a.o nonpoca/npeµnoxennx).
H sµect moxe mt +rnmn :acmuµa+u ue mouoro
«ooosua:ae+» cam ]akr eonpoca,
no nmenno uacmuueù
mt nokastnaem n BPEMR «eonpoca» !!!:
NB: Emë +rn :acmuµi moxno «npupaeu»mi» k uertpëm
anrnnñcknm «3ù!» nnn «Pasee?», nocne koroptx cneµyer cau nonpoc!
H µnx xaaµoro epe+euu cnoë «3ù!» nnn cnoë «Pasee?» !!!
————————————————————————————————
HAC1ORHEE epe+» nokastnaem 2-mx :acmuµa+u
(“Do … ?¨ n 'Does … ?”)
$
¡nx «OnC/onaC/onoC/ moñ korC»:

Anrnnñcknñ rnaron

A pyccknñ – us¬euëu!
?
"
÷ ueus+euèu
"
DO ¹ you work? ÷ ? ¹ Tt paôoraeuo ?
ðyy mv wœœr
?
"
÷ Anrnnñcknñ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron
DOES ¹ she work? ÷ ? ¹ Ona paôoraE1 ?
ða3 uiu wœœr


$
÷ ¡nx
«OnC/onaC/onoC/Moñ korC»
————————————————————————————————

$
Pyccknñ rnaron
us¬euëu !

$
A pyccknñ us¬euëu !
315 314
A y «uux»:
1 2 3
WHEN ¹ WILL you return ¹ my money?
w+u wn. mv pumœœu +aù +auu

H:
1 2 3
KAK CHBLHO ¹ ? ¹ rt menx nmônmt?
1 2 3
HOW MUCH ¹ DO ¹ you love me?
xav +am: ovv mv .ae +uu
————————————————————————————————
CHHCOK 23 BOHPOCH1EBLHMX CAOB
n BBPAÆEHHH — XX 93-112:
NB.
H e umóo¬ cnyuae! –
ncë «eonpocume.iuoe» mt npocro «cepeoae+»
e camoe uauauo nonpoca !!!!!
————————————————————————————————
CMOTPHTE:
1 2 3
1) × snam eë ÷ I know her – aù uov xœœ
A renept «uapauueae¬»:
¹ 4 1 2 3
2) DO ¹ I know her? ÷ ? ¹ × snam eë?
H emë «uapauueae+»:
¹ ¹
3) WHY ¹ DO ¹ I know her?
Houe¬y ¹ ? ¹ x snam eë?
————————————————————————————————
To ecrt ncë +nemenrapno:
1) «eina.u.u» eonpocume.iuoe c.oeo (nnn eipareuue);
2) uacmuueù «norasa.u» BPEMR;
3) a µantme ueus+euèuui+ IHAIOHOM
nepeoaeaùme CMMCB eonpoca n ncë !!!:
1 2 3 ! 1 3
WHERE ¹ DO ¹ you go now? ÷ KVµA ¹ rt ceñuac nµËHL?
w+o ovv mv eov uav
1 2 3 ! 1 3
WHAT ¹ DOES ¹ he know? ÷ H1O ¹ on snaE1?
wom oas xu uov
1 2 3 ! 1 3
HOW ¹ DID ¹ you do that? ÷ KAK ¹ rt +ro cµenaB?
xav ouð mv ovv ðæm
1 2¹3
KOIµA ¹ rt BEPHËHL ¹ mon µentrn?
Kro?
Koro?
ueñ?
Iµe? Kyµa?
Orkyµa?
uro? uero...? Kakoñ?
3auem? ¡nx uero? 3a uro?
Kaknm oôpasom? Kak?
Koroptñ (ns)? Kakoñ (ns)?
Kakoro rnna ... ?
Kakoro nnera...?
Korµa?
Houemy? 3auem?
Kak?
¡a kak (xe) ... !?
Kak µonro ... ?
Ckontko (c:umae+oeo)?
Ckontko (HEc:umae+oeo)?
Kak uacro?
... xort korµa-nnôyµt ... ?
... korµa yroµno ...
÷ Who?
÷ Whom? Who?
÷ Whose?
÷ Where?
÷ Where from?
÷ What?
÷ What for?
÷ In what way?
÷ Which (of)?
÷ What kind of ... ?
÷ What color ... ?
÷ When?
÷ Why?
÷ How?
÷ How come ... ?
÷ How long?
÷ How many?
÷ How much?
÷ How often?
÷ ... ever ... ?
xvv?
xvv+? xvv?
xvvs?
– w+o?
– w+o qpo+?
– wom?
– wom qoo?
uu wom w+ù?
– wnm: (on)?
– wom raùuo oe ... ?
– wom ra.o?
– w+u?
– waù?
xav?
xav ra+ ... ?
xav .oue ... ?
xav ++uu?
xav +am:?
xav oqu?
... +eo ... ?
Btpaxenne «Kak», «Kaknm oôpasom» nmeer eme napnanr
“In what manner?” – uu wom +æuo?
}
5 4 1 2 3
317 316
HOAHLH ATAC !!!
Ecnn K +1nu xe caumu :acmuµa+
(“Do¹”, “Does¹”, “Did¹” n “Will¹”)
npuoaeumi pycckoe
«He(m)» ÷ anrnnñckomy 'NoT” ÷! “¹N’T”,
ro onn npenpamamrcx!
n :acmuµi
O1PHHA1EBLHME (÷ pycckomy «... ue ...» ) !!!
————————————————————————————————
To ecrt renept mt nmeem 4 anrnnñcknx «... ue ...»,
nocue koroptx
cau rnaron 1oae nooôme HE us+eu»emc»,
a ôepërcx npnuo ns nmôoro cuonapn !
H sµect 1oae omu+u (4-mx) pasnmun anrnnñcknmn «ue»
mt ôyµem norasieami pasnoe BPEMR «ompuµauu»» !!!,
nnn xe
no omu+ «ue» mt ôyµem nnµert BPEMR
«ompuµauu»» !!!!!
————————————————————————————————
Ecrt
2 «ue» µnx HAC1ORHEIO epe+euu
ooum oasum
(÷ “don’t” n “doesn’t”):
" ÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron
× ¹ HE ¹ unraP ÷ I ¹ DON’T ¹ read. "
aù ðoum puuo "
H: "
OnC/onaC/onoC ¹ HE ¹ snaE1 ÷ He/she/it ¹ DOESN’T ¹ know.
xu/uiu/um ða3um uov
————————————————————————————————
· 3AHOMHHTE
emë 3 µononnnrentntx eonpocume.iuix eipareuu»
ðua yrpaueuua Bameñ aue.ope:u:
1) ¡a kak rt cmeemt ...? ÷ How dare you ¹ ...?
xav o+o mv ¹ ...
¡a kak rt cmeemt ¹ ockopônxrt eë?
How dare you ¹ insult her?
xav o+o mv uuca.m xœœ
Coomeemcmeeuuo:
¡a kak on cmeE1 ...? ÷ How dareS he ¹ ...? – ... o+os ...
2) Tt ôt (ne) xoren/-a ... ? ÷ Would you like to ¹ ... ?
Tt ne npornn ...? wvo mv .aùr mv ...
Tt ôt ne xorena ¹ noñrn co mnom?
Would you like to ¹ come with me?
wvo mv .aùr mv ra+ wnð +uu
3) Tt ne npout ... ? ÷ Do you care to ¹ ... ?
¡anañ, ..! ovv mv reo mv ¹ ...
¡anañ, ¹ norannyem! ÷ Do you care to ¹ dance?
Tt ne npout ¹ norannenart? ovv mv reo mv oaauc
Coomeemcmeeuuo:
A on/-a ne npout ¹ ...? ÷ DoeS s/he care to ...?
Hocne +mux $ eipareuuù 1oae npocro crantre
IHAIOH H3 CHOBAP×,
HE nsmenxx ero!
————————————————————————————————
319 318
ÆËCTKOE YCAOBHE HPABHHIHOCTH !!!
B anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn n umõou «epe+euu»
moxer ôtrt 1outxo oµno ompuµauue!!!:
× HE unram knnr ÷ I read NO books.
aù puuo uov ovrc
H.u: ÷ I DON’T read books – aù ooum puuo ovrc
H.u: ÷ I DON’T read ANY book/s – aù ooum puuo +uu ovr/c
$ $
He … uurarux …
Ho n anrnnñckom ecrt cnona,
koropte cpasy xe coornercrnymr
namnm ðeoùum¬ ompuµauu»+ (XX 113-117):
HHKOI¡A, HHKOI¡A HE ... ÷ NEVER – u+eo
HHKTO, HHKTO HE ... ÷ NOBODY – uovooou
nnn: ÷ NO ONE – uovwau
HHuTO, HHuTO HE ... ÷ NOTHING – uauue
HHI¡E, HHI¡E HE ...
÷ NOWHERE – uovwoo
HHKY¡A, HHKY¡A HE ...
1 2 1¹2
× HHKOIµA HE ôpemct ÷ I NEVER shave.
aù u+eo uieùe
1 2 1¹2
× HHKOIµA HE ymeu nnanart ÷ I could NEVER swim.
aù rvo u+eo cwn+
1 2 1¹2
× HHKOIµA HE nonmônm reôx ÷ I will NEVER love you.
aù wn. u+eo .ae mv
1 2 1¹2
× HE nnxy HHKOIO ÷ I see NOBODY – aù cuu uovooou
1 2 1¹2
On HE nmeer HHHEIO ÷ He has NOTHING – xu xæs uauue
÷ V nero HHHEIO HE1.
————————————————————————————————
1 «ue»
µnx HPOHEµHEIO epe+euu (÷ “didn’t” – ououm):
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ "
Amõon CVB1EKT ¹ HE ¹ nnµeB/-a/-o/-n ÷ ... ¹ DIDN’T ¹ see.
ðuðum cuu
————————————————————————————————
H 1 «ue»
µnx BVµVHEIO epe+euu
(“will¹not” ÷! “WON’T” – wovum):
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ "
Amõon CVB1EKT ¹ HE Vnnµnr ÷ ... ¹ WON’T ¹ see.
÷ ... ue óyðem euoemi woVum cuu
————————————————————————————————
Emë pas npocmorpnre nce :acmuµi $ n yôeµnrect n rom, uro
no HAC1HHAM mt moxem nnµert BPEMR µeñcrnnx,
nnn xe n rom, uro
HAC1HHAMH mt nokastnaem BPEMR µeñcrnnx !!!
————————————————————————————————
CHHIHOE HPHKA3AHHE
u 3AHPET
moxe oôpasymrcx +rnmn uacmuua¬u:

Pyccknñ

Anrnnñcknñ
" ÷ us¬euëuumù rnaron " ÷ ueus+euèuuiù rnaron
µA ¹ nakaxn xe ¹ ero!!! ÷ DO ¹ punish ¹ him!!!
ðyy nauuui xu+
" ÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron
HE ¹ nakastnañ ¹ ero! ÷ DON’T ¹ punish ¹ him!
ðoum nauuui xu+
————————————————————————————————
}
321 320
HE ronopn emy HHHEIO ! ÷ DON’T tell him ANYTHING !
ooum mo. xu+ +uuuue
————————————————————————————————
OHEHL BAÆHO
u HHTEPECHO
Bcnomnnm, uro anrnnñckne onpeoe.ume.u n onpeoe.euu»
HE nsmenxmrcx
uu no pooa+, uu no naoera+, uu no :uc.a+ !!!
A renept cnona npomy Bac oôparnrt ocoõoe nnnmanne
na oµnn ns «oóasameuoumx onpeoe.ume.eù» –
na yxe snakomoe Bam cnoneuko
“ANY” – +uu ÷ «BKBOH», «KAKOH VIOµHO»,
nontsyxct koroptm
Bt moxere nonnocrtm saôtrt oô «apmur.e» !!!:
× mory µocrart BKBVK knnry ÷ I can get ANY book.
aù ræu eom +uu ovr
————————————————————————————————
NB !
Oµnako n ompuuameuoumx npeµnoxennxx
“ANY¨ yxe snaunr «HHKAKOH»,
n ono ouent ycuuueaem Bame anrnnñckoe ntckastnanne:
× HE unram HHKAKHX knnr ÷ I DON’T read ANY books.
aù ooum puuo +uu ovrc
× ¹ HHKOIµA HE ¹ nomy ¹ HHKAKOIO ¹ ôentx.
I ¹ NEJER ¹ wear ¹ ANY ¹ underwear.
aù u+eo w+o +uu auoowoo
————————————————————————————————
H n eonpocumeuoumx npeµnoxennxx
“ANY¨ roxe upesntuañno k mecry!
1 2 1¹2
× HE (no-)mën HHKVµA ÷ I went NOWHERE.
aù w+um uovwoo
1 2 1¹2
HE ronopn emy HHHEIO! ÷ Tell him NOTHING!
mo. xu+ uauue
————————————————————————————————
3HAHTE, uro:
1) “NO” ÷ “NOT (u.u “¹N’T”) ¹ ANY”;
2) BCE ompuµauu» nocue nepnoro
oôosnauamrcx n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
cnonom 'ANY” – +uu
nnn «anycoµepxamnmn» cnonamn (XX 118-122 ¹ crp. 323):
KTO VIOµHO ÷ ANYBODY – +uuooou
nnn: ÷ ANYONE – +uuwau
uTO VIOµHO ÷ ANYTHING – +uuuue
I¡E VIOµHO
÷ ANYWHERE – +uuwoo
KY¡A VIOµHO
KOI¡A VIOµHO ÷ ANYTIME – +uumaù+
————————————————————————————————
CPABHHTE u 3A3YBPHTE!
Ho+romy, ecnn Bt ncnontsyere oµny ns ompuµame.iuix :acmuµ,
ro µantme +ro µonxno ntrnxµert yxe no1 1ax "
(n coornecnre +rn 4 npnmepa c npeµtµymnmn):
× HE nnxy ¹ HHKOIO ÷ I DON’T see ¹ ANYBODY.
aù ooum cuu +uuooou
On HE nmeer HHHEIO ÷ He DOESN’T have ANYTHING.
÷ V nero HHHEIO HE1 ÷ xu oasum xæe +uuuue
× HE (no-)mën HHKVµA ÷ I DIDN’T go ANYWHERE.
aù ououm eov +uuwoo
}
323 322
OBOIAmEHHE.
3anomnnre emë neckontko nonesneñmnx cnon c “ANY”:
ANYHOW – +uuxav ÷ kak yroµno
ANYWAY – +uuwoù ÷ kak ôt ro nn ôtno, n umõou cnyuae
ANYTIME – +uumaù+ ÷ korµa yroµno, n umõoe npemx:
× nañµy reôx e umóo¬ cuyuae! ÷ I’ll find you anyway !
aù. qaùuo mv +uuwoù
('I`ll ...¨ aù. &÷ 'I will ...¨).
————————————————————————————————
3YBPHTE HE CTECHBBCB !!!!!
YCTAHOBOuHIE HPHMEPL/OBPA3HL
HA 3BEMEH1M (¹ ueus+euèuuie rnaront).
!!!!! Hocue o.e+eumoe nepeµ rnaronom
ue cmaeumca :acmuµa “to” !!!
(Horomy uro o.e+eumi ue aeuammca «nepei+u rnaronamn» !):
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
× MOIV/VMEK nnanart ÷ I CAN swim – aù ræu cwn+
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
× C/MOI cµenart +ro ÷ I COULD do it – aù rvo ovv um
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
MHE* MOÆHO pnconart ÷ I* MAY draw – aù +où opoo
Bes 'to¨ " ÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron
On, BO3MOÆHO, npnµër ÷ He MIGHT come – xu +aùm ra+
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
Mt µOBÆHM sannarnrt ÷ We MUST pay – wn +acm noù
Ho n eonpocax
“ANY¨ yxe snaunr «(XO1L) KAKOH-HHBVµL»:
Tt unraemt (XO1L) KAKHE-HHBVµL anrnnñckne knnrn?
?Do you read ANY English books?
ovv mv puuo +uu nue.uui ovrc
————————————————————————————————
A nor renept cuo1pn1e:
ecnn Bt n Bame anrnnñckoe npeµnoxenne eoomuuume
ompuµame.iuvm nnn eonpocume.iuvm :acmuµv,
no1ou emvq.»:ume “ANY”,
a n xonen Bamero anrnnñckoro npeµnoxennx emë n
ecauoa.ume eipareuiuµe “at all” ÷ «eoooue-mo»,
æmoo. «coece+»,
ro Bam anrnnñcknñ (c roukn spennx nocroponnnx !!!)
moxno cunrart, uro cocroxncx !!!
(Tontko oôpamañre µononnnrentnoe nnnmanne
na pasuuuy n nopxµke cnon!):
× HE cunram ¹ HHKAKHX ¹ coôak ¹ COBCEM!
I DON’T count ¹ ANY ¹ dogs ¹ AT ALL!
aù ooum ravum +uu ooes æmoo.
÷ Tt nmeemt ...?
Y reôx ecrt XO1L KAKHE-HHBVµL µentrn BOOBHE?
?DO you have ANY money AT ALL?
ovv mv xæe +uu +auu æmoo.
Ona BOOBHE XO1L KAKHE-1O anrnnñckne knnrn unraer?
? DOES she read ANY English books AT ALL?
oas uiu puuo +uu nue.uui ovrc æmoo.
————————————————————————————————
325 324
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
On BM npnexan sanrpa ÷ He WOULD come tomorrow.
xu wvo ra+ mo+opov
" ÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron, H óes 'to¨
Ona C1ABA BM nrp"art, ecnn ôt (ona) nmeua xort kakne-ro µentrn.
She WOULD play if she had any money.
uiu wvo n.où uq uiu xæo +uu +auu
÷ Ona BM … ÷ ., ec.u oi v ueè ómuu .
HAM* moxno nnanart n +rom ôacceñne nentñ µent.
WE* may swin in this pool all day long.
wn +où cwn+ uu ðuc nvv. oo. ooù .oue
" ÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron, n óes 'to¨
EMV* BM CBEµOBABO nane"mart cnonx poµnreneñ kaxµym neµenm.
HE* SHOULD visit his parents every week.
xu umo ensum xus n+opoumc +epu wnur
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
EH* HE HVÆHO/ HE HAµO pacc"rpannartcx!
SHE* NEEDN’T be upset!
uiu uuuoum ouu anc+m
Houemy ¹ HM* HE HVÆHO ¹ yesxart sanrpa?
Why ¹ NEEDN’T THEY* ¹ leave tomorrow?
waù uuuoum ðoù .uue mo+opov
* Oôparnre nnnmanne na anrunncxne npeµnoxennx n uertpëx
nocneµnnx npnmepax n nnx e¬ecmo ooìermuix mecronmennñ
ncnontsymrcx mecronmennx cyózermume –
n rak ncerµa!
Cmorpnre 1-e «Basoeoe npaeu.o µpaevuruua» (crp. 329) !
————————————————————————————————
Ona BM µOBÆHA nrpart na ynnne ÷
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
÷ She OUGHT TO play in the street.
uiu oom mv n.où uu ðocmpnum
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ " H óes 'to¨
Onn BVµV1 ôerart ÷ They WILL run – ðoù wn. pau
÷ Onn HOôeryr ÷
Oôparnre nnnmanne:
rnaron “be” – ouu ÷ «ómmo» – +ro rakoñ xe rnaron,
kak n nce ocrantnte rnaront,
n ero óyðyuee epe+» oôpasyercx
rouno rak xe kak n y ncex µpyrnx rnaronon:
1 cnono ! 2 cnona
× BVµV ram ÷ I WILL BE ¹ there – aù wn. onu ð+o
To ecrt: I will be … ÷ × óyðy (ómmo) …
I will read … ÷ × ôyµy uumamo …
I will write … ÷ × ôyµy nucamo …
I will have ÷ × ôyµy u¬emo/V menx óyðem …,
n r.µ.
HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷ "
×/mt BVµV/BVµEM ecrt ÷ I/we SHALL eat – aù/wn u». uum
×/mt HOe+/HOeou+ ÷
————————————————————————————————
NB !
“Shall we … ?” moxer emë oôosnauart
n ouent nexnnnoe npue.aueuue r oeùcmeum:
u». wn eov mvo+o ono
SHALL we ¹ go to bed, dear? ÷ ¡anañ, npuuaxe¬, µoporax!
÷ A ue npuueuo nn nam, µoporoñ?
————————————————————————————————
327 326
Oµnako, ecnn n nonpoce
ecrt emë n eonpocumeuouoe cuoeo nnn eipareuue,
ro C ueeo n uauuuaùme nonpoc,
a o.e+eum crantre
CPA3Y ÆE HOCBE eonpocume.iuoeo c.oea:
1 2 3
KOIµA rt c/MOÆEHL ¹ nepnyrt mon µentrn?
Ho:
1 3 2
WHEN CAN you ¹ return my money?
w+u ræu mv pumœœu +aù +auu
————————————————————————————————
Hpn ompuuauuu
roxe «paoomamm» CAMH o.e+eumi,
n anrnnñckoe «HE(r)» ÷ 'NOT”
nnôo cueµye1 cpasy xe 3A o.e+eumo+,
nnôo npncoeµnnne1cn K nemy
n cnoeñ corpauëuuoù qop+e “¹N’T¨ nor n nce!!!:
Mt HE µOBÆHM nnarnrt ÷ We MUST NOT pay.
wn +acm uom noù
On BM HE npnexan sanrpa ÷ He WOULDN’T come tomorrow.
xu wvoum ra+ mo+opov
Ona HE C1ABA BM nrpart, ecnn ôt (ona) nmena xort kakne-ro µentrn.
She WOULDN’T play if she had any money.
uiu wvoum n.où uq uiu xæo +uu +auu
EMV* BM HE CBEµOBABO nanemart eë rak uacro!
HE* SHOULDN’T visit her so often!
xu umoum ensum xœœ cov oqu
————————————————————————————————
* Cmorpnre 1-e «Basoeoe npaeu.o µpaevuruua» (crp. 329) !
BOHPOCL n O1PHHAHHR
c 3BEMEH1AMH.
J.e+eumi n eonpocume.iuie n ompuµame.iuie :acmuµi
xnnxmrcx unenamn oµnoñ rpynnt
no+romy nx nmecre ncnontsonart HEBL3R
(÷ «B3AHMOHEHPHMEHEHHE») !!!
Kpome +roro, neµt nocne :acmuµ µonxnt nµrn e.aeo.i,
a o.e+eumi +ro HE rnaront ...
Ho+romy u nonpoct, u ompuµauu» «oe.ammc»»
CAMHMH 3BEMEH1AMH
BE3 «no+ouu»
eonpocume.iuix n ompuµame.iuix :acmuµ !!!
B nonpoce Bt (rouno kak no-pycckn !!!) npocro crantre
o.e+eum n uauauo npeµnoxennx,
ro ecrt uauuuaùme nonpoc c o.e+euma !!!
Bt moxere nsxrt umõon ns «Vcmauoeo:uix npu+epoe» (crp. 323)
n npeepamumi umõon npnmep n nonpoc:
1 2 3 ! 2 1 3 2 1 3
I* MAY draw ! MAY* I* draw? ÷ MOÆHO* mne* pnconart?
He MIGHT ¹ come ! MIGHT he ¹ come? ÷
÷ BO3MOÆHO .u, uro on npnµër?
1 2 3 ! 2 1 3
We MUST ¹ pay ! MUST we ¹ pay? ÷ µOBÆHM mt ¹
¹ sannarnrt?
n r. µ.
– ro ecrt Bt npocro nepeoe! cnono µenaere! emopm¬,
a emopoe! nepem¬ …
329 328
3 FA3OBIX «HPABHBA µPAIVHKHHA»:
1) «B npannntnom n nouuo¬ anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
BCEIµA npncyrcrnyer CVB1EK1
(ro ecrt 'mom, rmo µenaer¨).»
Cvoìerm moxer oôosnauartcx n mecronmennem,
no TOHBKO – koneuno xe! – CVB1EK1HBM
(÷ I, you, he, she, it, we, they)”.
HO3TOMY – cornacno «Hpaeuuy µpaeyuruua» X1 ($) –
c o.e+euma+u “may”, “should” n “needn’t¨ nyxno/moxno
ncnontsonart
1outxo anrnnñckne CVB1EK1HME mecronmennx
(xorx, ronopx no-pycckn, +i n +rnx cnyuaxx
nontsyemcx mecronmennxmn ooìermui+u!):
MHE ¹ MOÆHO ¹ nnrt nnno ÷! I ¹ MAY ¹ drink beer.
aù +où opuur ono
" ÷ «Eeouvm» (yrounxmr, uom?)
EMV ¹ CBEµVE1 ¹ nomtrt cnom mamnny.
HE ¹ SHOULD ¹ wash his car.
xu umo woui xus raa
HAM ¹ HE HVÆHO ¹ yesxart ÷! WE ¹ NEEDN’T ¹ leave.
wn uuuoum .uue
To ecrt sµect 1oae cymecrnyer
oôxsarentnoe nocmoauuoe coomeemcmeue
mexµy namnmn ooìermui+u, n «uxuu+u» cyózermui+u
mecronmennxmn!
To ecrt "
Pycckne . nepexoµxr n! Anrunncxne …:
Mue xouercx ÷! I want.
Teoe xouercx ÷! You want.
E+v xouercx ÷! He wants.
Eù xouercx ÷! She wants.
NB 1. Ecnn 'NO
´
T¨ cronr «ueuuro¬» (÷ ue «corpauèuuo»)
n, coornercrnenno, omðeuouo,
ro VµAPEHHE naµaer HA HEIO !!!;
————————————————————————————————
NB 2. BOHPOCM c yuacrnem o.e+eumoe
moxno saµanart n ompuuameuoum¬u qop+a+u o.e+eumoe:
COULDN’T you ¹ do this for me?
rvoum mv ovv ðuc qoo +uu
HE MOI BM rt ¹ cµenart +ro µnx menx?
————————————————————————————————
COKPAmËHHLE ompuµame.iuie qop+i o.e+eumoe:
CAN’T – ræum, raaum ÷ ue mory ..., ue ymem ...;
$ Txnvvvrt nyxno oõnsa1eutno!!!
COULDN’T
MAYN’T
MIGHTN’T
MUSTN’T
OUGHTN’T to
SHAN’T
WON’T*
WOULDN’T
SHOULDN’T
– rvoum
– +oùum
+aùmum
– +acmum
– oomum mv
– unaum
– wovum*
– wvoum
– umoum
÷ ue mor (ôt) ..., ue ymen ...;
ue cmor (ôt)..., ue cymen (ôt)...;
÷ uentsx ...;
÷ ue morno ..., ue moxer ...;
÷ ue µonxen ...;
÷ ue µonxen ôtn ôt ...;
÷ ue ôyµy, ue ôyµe¬;
÷ ue ôyµ... (oôo ecex);
÷ ... ôt ue ..., ue cran ôt ...,
ôt ue cran ...;
÷ ue cneµonano ôt ...,
ue cneµyer ...,
ue nyxno (ôtno) ôt ...,
ue µonxen (ôtn) ôt ...
* 3µect ecrt oµna manentkax onacuocmi µnx pycckoro yxa
cnono 'won’t” – woVum ÷ «ue óyð. » µnx mnornx pyccknx
snyunr nnn ntrnxµnr
ouent noxoxe na cnono 'want” – woum ÷ «xomemo» –
npocro ôyµtre nnnmarentnee, +ro pasume cnona .:
I won't want him to . ÷ × ue saxouy, utoôt on .
————————————————————————————————
331 330
————————————————————————————————
HAHOMHHAHHE.
Byðyuee epe+» ncex rnaronon oôpasyercx npn nomomn o.e+eumoe
'will¨ n 'shall¨:
I ¹ SHALL stav ¹ here in any case!
aù u». cmoù xno uu +uu roùc
× ¹ OC1AHVCL ¹ sµect n nmôom cnyuae!
She ¹ WILL be ¹ there.
uiu wn. ouu ð+o
Ona ¹ BVµE1 ¹ ram.
————————————————————————————————
XHTPOYMHOCTL AHIHOB3BUHBX.
«OBXOµ» sakonon «B3AHMOHEHPHMEHEHHR»
n/nn «B3AHMOBM1ECHEHHR» o.e+eumoe.
Hs ckasannoro na crp. 304 cneµyer, uro no-anrnnñckn xkoôt
neutsn ckasart, nanpnmep, «C¬oey», rak kak norasame.u/ oopaso-
eame.u óyðyueeo epe+euu ÷ o.e+eumi “will¨ n 'shall¨ rak xe
kak n cnona, nanpnmep,
“can” ÷ «+o:i», “may” ÷ «+oruo» n 'must” ÷ «oo.reu» –
xnnxmrcx unenamn oµnoñ rpynnt ÷ +ue¬euma¬u,
n no+romy µpyr c µpyrom HE coueramrcx !
Aue.o»si:uie camn sarnann ceôx n rynnk
no camn xe n namnn ns nero
npocroñ n rennantntñ ntxoµ!
Onn npocro npenpa1nun 4 nyxntx nm +ue¬euma
n! 5 ruarouon,
ro ecrt «comeopu.u» µnx o.e+eumoe cnnonnmt nnn
«empaxeuua-ðyóuëpm»
(koropte nyxno sanomnnrt «ueuuro¬»)!
E+v/eù (o xyke) ÷! It wants.
Ha+ xouercx ÷! We want.
Ba+ xouercx ÷! You want.
H+ xouercx ÷! They want;
2) «B npannntnom anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
BCEI±A npncyrcrnyer IAAIOA
n umõon qop+e»
(cm. rakxe crp. 337).
HO3TOMY cornacno «Hpaeuuy µpaeyuruua» X2 ($) –
no-anrnnñckn uyxuo ronopnrt «nouuocmom»:
Mt ¹ HAXOµHMCR ¹ n necy (a HE «Mt n necy»)!
We ¹ ARE ¹ …
1¹2 1 2
Mt ¹ BVµEM ¹ ram ÷ We ¹ WILL BE ¹ there – n 1outxo rak !!!
J.e+eum$ $ Inaron
Horomy uro e.aeo.
oõnsa1eutno oo.reu npucvmcmeoeami
n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn,
a neµt 'will” – HE rnaron, a o.e+eum !!!;
————————————————————————————————
3) «Ha uaeeueuuoe – ue uaeeuueaù !!!».
To ecrt, ecnn Bt yae npnôannnn k cnony oµno orou:auue,
ro ôontme k +romy cnony
npnôannxrt yxe HHHEIO HEAL3R !!!
(Ho k +1ouy npaeu.v ecrt 3 «oono.ueuu»» – cm. crp. 352 n 354).
3ro «Hpannno N3» o:eui cnntno nomoxer Bam
npn paôore co «cmeneu»+u cpaeueuu»» (crp. 394).
————————————————————————————————
333 332
BL3YBPHTE !!!
Cnona ÷ 0OPMM rnarona “BE” – ouu ÷
÷ «ómmo», «aeuamoca»; «uaxoðumoca» (XX 123-127),
oôxsarentnte µnx ynorpeônennx n anrnnñcknx npeµnoxennxx (¹ crp. 337):
TAFHHHA «HPEBPAHEHHH».
3BEMEH1M ! IAAIOAL: ÷ 3HAHEHHR:
1) CAN !
2) MAY !
2 «a») MAY NO
´
T
3) MUST !
~ !
4) NEEDN’T !
NB!
Oôparnre ocoóoe nnnmanne na µne nepnte «sa+eui» –
n nnx aue.o»si:uie ]akrnueckn
nmecro «+o:i» ronopxr «oimi n cocroxnnn …»
(÷ “be able to …”),
a nmecro «+oruo» ronopxr «oimi paspemënntm .»
(÷ “be allowed to …”).
$

Hs¬euae¬aa

cocmae.»mua» !!!
————————————————————————————————
BE able to ... ÷ MOuI, YMETI
óuu +ùo. mv ...
BE allowed to ... ÷ MOXHO ...
óuu o.avo mv ...
BE NO
´
T allowed to ... ÷ HEHI3× ...
óuu uom o.avo mv
HAVE to ... – xæe mv ...÷ ¡OHXEH ...
BE to ... – óuu mv ... ÷ ¡OHXEH ...
Don’t/doesn’t/didn’t/won’t NEED to …

$
3rnmn uacmuua¬u mt nokastnaem BPEMR
AM – æ+
ARE– aa
IS – us
WAS*

wos
WERE*

wœœ
WILL BE

wn. onu
÷ (x) ecrt, xnnxmct, naxoxyct ynorpeônxercx
mouoro c “I”;
÷ ecrt, xnnxemtcx, naxoµnmtcx; ynorpeônxercx
ecrt, xnnxemcx, naxoµnmcx; mouoro c
ecrt, xnnxerect, naxoµnrect; “you”, “we”, “they”
ecrt, xnnxmrcx, naxoµxrcx; nnn
c cymecrnnrentntmn
no ¬uoxecmeeu. :uc.e;
÷ ecrt, xnnxercx, naxoµnrcx – ynorpeônxercx
mouoro c “he”, “she”, “it”
nnn c cymecrnnrentntmn
n eðuucmeeuuo¬ :uc.e;
÷ ôtn, xnnxncx, naxoµnncx ynorpeônxercx
mouoro c “I”, “he”, “she”, “it”,
nnn c cymecrnnrentntmn
n eðuucmeeuuo¬ :uc.e;
÷ ôtnn, xnnxnnct, naxoµnnnct ynorpeônxercx
mouoro c “you”, “we”, “they”
nnn c cymecrnnrentntmn
no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ :uc.e;
÷ ôyµy/ôyµemt/ôyµer/ôyµem/ôyµere/ôyµyr xnnxrtcx/
naxoµnrtcx;
ôyµy/ôyµemt/ôyµer/ôyµem/ôyµere/ôyµyr
re+-mo, :e+-mo nnn eoe-mo.
* Cnona “was” n “were” xnnxmrcx rak nastnaemtmn
«2-un qop+a+u» ÷ «qop+a+u npoueðueeo npemenn»
anrnnñckoro rnarona “be” ÷ «oimi».
Ynorpeônxercx co nceun mecronmennxmn n cvoìerma+u.

$

0op¬a¬u “be” n “have” no ecex +rnx cnyuaxx
ôyµem norasieami epe¬a !
335 334
A o «npeepaueuu»x» N3 (crp. 332) moxno ckasart n rak:
ecnn nocne rnaronon “have” n “be” mt nocrannm :acmuµv “to” – mv,
ro OBA +rnx rnarona naunnamr snaunrt «µOBÆEH» !!!:
On µOBÆEH nµrn ÷ He HAS TO go – xu xæs mv eov
× µOBÆEH nµrn ÷ I AM TO go – aù æ+ mv eov
“What ¹ AM I TO ¹ do?” ÷ «uro ¹ x µOBÆEH ¹ µenart?»
wom æ+ aù mv ovv
oôpeuënno cnpamnnaer Kurt Russel
n amepnkanckom ]nntme «Pemenne ynnuroxnrt»:
“BE” – ouu ÷ «õm1t», «nnun1tcn», «naxoµn1tcn»,
“HAVE” – xæe ÷ «nue1t»,
a “BE to” / “HAVE to” ÷ «... µouaen ...».
Btyunre 0OPMM rnaronn 'be” n 'have”,
crpynnnponannte mnom no «epe+eua+»,
rak kak u+euuo u¬u Bt n ôyµere norasieami BPEMR:
————————————————————————————————
¡nx HPOHEµHEIO npemenn
(÷ 2-e qop+i !!!):
WAS/ WERE; HAD;
wos wœœ xæo
————————————————————————————————
¡nx HAC1ORHEIO npemenn:
AM / IS / ARE; HAVE/ HAS;
æ+ us aa xæe xæs
————————————————————————————————
¡nx BVµVHEIO npemenn:
WILL BE; WILL HAVE.
wn. onu wn. xæe
————————————————————————————————
Tenept (ro ecrt nocne «npeepaueuu»») +rn ôtnmne o.e+eumi
(nepnee, nx cuuouu+i) ¬oeym us+eu»mic» n ncnontsonartcx
rak, rar Bam/nam +ro nyxno n eðe Bam/nam +ro nyxno, noromy uro
n nnx noxnnnact/ecrt us¬euae¬aa uacrt ÷
÷ rnaront “BE¨ n 'HAVE”!
HPHMEPL/OBPA3HL:
1 2
Mne ¹ ¬oxuo BMBO ¹ nnanart 2 1
÷ I ¹ WAS + allowed TO ¹ swim.
aù wos o.avo mv cwn+
$
× ¹ ðouxeu BMB ¹ yexart ÷ I ¹ HAD TO ¹ leave – .uue
$ Kak nnµnre,
2-mn qop¬a¬u rnaronon 'be” n 'have”
mt nokastnaem BPEMR µeñcrnnx $ !!!
(2-e qop+i ÷ npoueðuee npemx!).
3rn «uoeie» rnaront camn (no ue nx qop+i)
moryr k romy xe cnokoñno couerartcx
c AKBLM o.e+eumo+:
1¹2 1 2
× ¹ C¬oey ¹ ôerart ÷ I ¹ WILL ¹ BE able TO ¹ run.
aù wn. ouu +ùo. mv pau
2 1 1 2
On ¹ ðouxeu BVµE1 ¹ yexart ÷ He ¹ WILL ¹ HAVE to ¹ leave.
xu wn. xæe mv .uue
Emy ¹ BM ¹ PA3PEHHBH ¹ nonnanart, ecnn ôt ...
He ¹ WOULD ¹ BE ALLOWED TO ¹ swim if ...
xu wvo ouu o.avo mv cwn+ uq ...

J.e+eum ÷
$ $
÷ HEus+euèuuiù rnaron ÷
$
————————————————————————————————
337 336
AEHTRHCKOE HPABHAO X2
(÷ Basonoe «Hpaeuuo µpaeyuruua» X2) rnacnr, uro
B KAƵOM npannntnom n nonnom anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
(n ornnune or pvccroeo npeµnoxennx)
uauuuue HRFOIO IBAIOBA
n umõon qop+e xnnxercx oóasameuoueùuu¬ !!!
(H rnarona “BE” nnn nepnee, ero qop¬ – TOXE !
On uro, xyxe µpyrnx rnaronon, uro nn?).
To ecrt aue.oeoeop»uuù HE ckasan ôt, nanpnmep:
«× n necy!».
On oóasameuouo ckasan ôt «ueuuro¬»:
«× HAXOÆVCL n necy» ÷ “I AM in the forest”.
aù æ+ uu ðo qopucm
Bvrea.iuo: «× EC1L n necy»
n TOALKO rak !!!
————————————————————————————————
YCTAHOBOHHLE HPHMEPL/OBPA3HL
(n nomnnm, uro µnx roro, uroôt «voerami» or «apmur.»»,
moxno/nyxno nepeµ cymecrnnrentntmn nnn nepeµ ux onpeoe-
.euu»+u ynorpeônxrt oðuu us 18 «ocrantntx»
onpeoe.ume.eù):
3ro nonnte n npannntnte npeµnoxennx,
rak kak n nnx ecrt
u rnaron, u onpeoe.ume.i !!!
" "
× – % ror ôentñ cnon ÷ I AM that white elephant.
aù æM ðæm waùm +.uqoum
Ona – % nama mart ÷ She IS our mother.
uiu H3 avo +aðo
Bor +rnmn-ro qop¬a¬u $ (C npnôannennoñ :acmuµeù
“to” – mv) Bt n ôyµere nokastnart,
KOIµA mt «µOHÆHB ...»,
«BMBH µOHÆHB ...»
nnn «BVµEM µOHÆHB ...»,
a rakxe
KOIµA mt «C-+ore+»
nnn KOIµA «nam BVµE1 moxno» !!!
3ro n ecrt eðuucmeeuuaa n ouent earua» qvurµu»
+rnx qop+ !!!
————————————————————————————————
HO±CKA3KA.
Tam, rµe n «sa+euume.e» ecrt “be” – samenxñre eeo qop+i
(am, is, are, was, were, will be),
ram xe, rµe n «sa+euume.e» ecrt “have” (“must” ÷ “have to”),
oeeaùme «no epe¬eua¬» qop+a+u “have”
(have, has, had, will have) !!!
————————————————————————————————
Anrnnñcknñ rnaron “to ¹ be¨ rak xe, kak n ero pyccknñ coopam ÷
÷ rnaron «óm ¹rt» (÷ «noxorecmi uaooopom !») oôosnauaer
¬ecmonouoxeuue :e.oeera nnn npeo+ema n +rom mnpe
(ne naxno coµua.iuoe, ro ecrt «K1O +ror ...?»,
nnn eeoepaqu:ecroe – ro ecrt «IµE +ror ...?»),
a rakxe nepeµaër ero CV1L –
– cy1t .uµa, npeo+ema, nou»mu» nnn »e.euu».
B pycckom npeµnoxennn naunune rnarona
(n rom uncne n rnarona «oimi»)
ne ncerµa oôxsarentno
(nanpnmep: «R – rpacuea» nnn «R – e uecy» rµe ryr rnaront?).
Torµa kak (ncnomnnre!)
339 338
BOHPOCM c yuacrnem qop+ “be”
moxno saµanart n ompuuameuoum¬u qop+a+u “be”:
“ISN’T she lovely?” ÷ «(Pasne) Ona HE ( ecmo) xopomentkax?».
usum uiu .ae.u (Hs necnn Crnnn Yanµ+pa).
————————————————————————————————
NB!
Oµnako, ecnn n nonpoce
ecrt emë n eonpocumeuouoe cuoeo nnn eipareuue,
ro nmenno C nero n naunnan1e nonpoc,
a qop+v “be” (umõym) crantre
CPA3Y ÆE HOCAE BOHPOCHTEHBHOIO CHOBA:
1 2 1 2
WHO ¹ ARE you? ÷ KTO ¹ (EC1L) rt?
xvv aa mv
WHERE ¹ IS this tree? ÷ IµE ¹ HAXOµH1CR +ro µepeno?
w+o us ðuc mpuu
WHEN ¹ WAS she there? ÷ KOIµA ¹ BMBA ona ram?
w+u wos uiu ð+o
————————————————————————————————
Hpn O1PHHAHHH
roxe «paoomamm» CAMH qop+i “be”,
n anrnnñckoe «HE(r)» ÷ 'NOT”
nnôo cueµye1 cpasy xe 3A qop+où “be” («µe.uro+»),
nnôo npncoeµnnne1cn K neñ
n cnoeñ corpauëuuoù qop+e “¹N’T¨ nor n ncë !!!
Bor cnncok COKPAmËHHLX qop+ rnaronon 'be¨ n 'have”,
n rom uncne n n ompuµame.iuoù qop+e
“Not¨ nocne 'am¨ ncerµa crannrcx omoe.iuo n µe.uro+:
I’m not – aù+ uom ÷ × ue xnnxmct ..., × ue naxoxyct ...):
Bt – HE uëpnte komkn ÷ You ARE ¹ NO black cats.
mv AA HOV o.ær ræmc
×/on/ona/ono BMB/-a/-o ram ÷ I/he/she/it WAS there – ð+o
Mt/nt/onn/komkn BMBH ram ÷ We/you/they/cats WERE there.
×/rt/on/ona/ono/mt/nt/onn/cnont BVµV1 ram ÷
÷ ... WILL BE there.

J.e+eum
$ $
Inaron
————————————————————————————————
BOHPOCM n O1PHHAHHR
«oe.ammc»» CAMHMH qop+a+u rnarona 'be” –
– BE3 yuac1nn
eonpocume.iuix n ompuµame.iuix :acmuµ.
Kpome +roro, neµt nocne :acmuµ µonxnt nµrn
camn ueus+euèuuie e.aeo.i, a HE nx qop+i ...
————————————————————————————————
B BOHPOCE Bt npocro crantre qop+v “be”
n nauauo npeµnoxennx,
ro ecrt C neë n naunnan1e eonpoc !!!
Bt moxere nsxrt umõon ns «Vcmauoeo:uix npu+epoe» ($)
n npeepamumi umõon npnmep n! eonpoc:
1 2 ! 2 1
I AM that white elephant ! AM I that white elephant?
You ARE ¹ NO black cats ! ARE you NO black cats?
I/he/she/it WAS there ! WAS ... there?
We/you/they/cats WERE there! ! WERE ... there?
1 2 3 2 1 3
... WILL BE there! ! WILL ... BE there?
$
Amõon cvoìerm/mecronmenne
341 340
Ho+romy, ecnn nepeµ cvuecmeume.iui+ nnn nepeµ EIO
onpeoe.euu»+u Bt nocrannnn 'NO”,
ro uuraru¬ µpyrnm ompuµauu»+ mecra yxe uem !!!
Ecnn xe Bt pemnnn ncnontsonart
ôonee ynnnepcantnoe 'NOT”/“¹N’T”
(n nmôoñ ero qop+e &,
n rom uncne n, nanpnmep, n cnoneukax “isn’t”, “don’t” n r. n.),
ro pekomenµym n sµect ecauoa.umi sameuarentnoe 'ANY”,
u µnx roro, uroôt onxrt xe «voerami» or «apmur.»»,
u µnx roro, uroôt ouent yrpacumo n uumeucuquuupoeamo
Bame aue.ontckastnanne:
× HE (aeuamco) momennnk(-o+)!
I’M NO crook! ÷ I AM NOT ¹ ANY crook! – rpvr
$
÷ HHKA$KOH x HE momennnk!
“NOT” moxno ncnontsonart nepeµ pasntmn uacrxmn peun:
I’m NOT there! ÷ × HE ram!
aù+ uom ð+o
She is NOT ugly! ÷ Ona HE crpamnax!
uiu us uom ae.u
————————————————————————————————
YCTAHOBOHHLH TEKCT N3
(ncero uepes 55 mnnyr nocne nauana urennx!):
You’re not
mvp uom
He’s not
xus uom
She’s not
uius uom
It’s not
umc uom
We’re not
wnp uom
They’re not
ðoùp uom
... was not
wos uom
... were not
wœœ uom
... have not
xæe uom
... has not
xæs uom
... had not
xæo uom
... will not have
wn. uom xæe
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
You aren’t
mv aaum
He isn’t
xu usum
She isn’t
uiu usum
It isn’t
um usum
We aren’t
wn aaum
They aren’t
ðoù aaum
... wasn’t
wosum
... weren’t
wœœum
... haven’t
xæeum
... hasn’t
xæsum
... hadn’t
xæoum
... won’t have
wovum xæe
÷ Tt/nt ue ...
÷ On ue ...
÷ Ona ue ...
÷ Ono ue ...
÷ Mt ue ...
÷ Onn ue ...
÷ ... ue ôtn ...
÷ ... ue ôtnn ...
÷ V ... uem ...
÷ V ... uem ...
÷ V ... ue ómuo ...
÷ V ... ue óyðem ...
Homnnm rontko, uro
ðeyx ompuµauuù n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
ôtrt HE MOÆE1 !!!
I CANNOT work at home
aù ræuom wœœr æmxov+
because
ouroos
I HAVE NO ¹ computer.
aù xæe uov ro+nìmvmo
× HE MOIV paôorart µoma,
noromy uro
V MEHR HE1 ¹ komntmrepa.
343 342
n koropom BPEMR,
KOIµA uro-ro «u+eemc»/oi.o/.era.o/cmo».o/euce.o»
nokastnaercx ecrecrnenno !!! – qop¬où rnarona “be” !!!
(Hpnuëm n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn nepeoe cnono 'there”
ue ncknmuaer emë oµno “there” n konne npeµnoxennx) !
————————————————————————————————
3A3YBPHTE !!!
B uauaue B rouue
Ta+ % %% %% mnoro nmµeñ ÷ There is ¹ a lot of people ¹ there.
ð+o ns o.om oe nuun. ð+o
B uauaue B rouue
Ta+ ¹ HHroeo HE1 ÷ There is NOBODY ¹ there.
ð+o ns uovooou ð+o
3 1 2 ! 1 2 3
Ha crone ¹ uexum ¹ komka ÷ There is ¹ a cat ¹ on the table.
ð+o ns orær ouðom+ùo.
Ha crone ¹ HE1 ¹ komkn ÷ There is NO ¹ cat ¹ on the table.
There isn’t ANY ¹ cat ¹ on the table.
Ta+ ¹ cmoau ¹ ôontmoñ komntmrep.
1here was ¹ a big computer ¹ there.
ð+o wos oone ro+nìmvmo ð+o
Bo µnope ¹ ómuo (÷ «u+e.oci») ¹ mnoro coôak ÷
÷ There were ¹ many dogs ¹ in the yard.
ð+o wœœ ++uu ooes uuðonao
3anrpa ¹ n monx kapmanax ¹ óyðem ¹ mnoro µener ÷
÷ There will be ¹ a lot of money ¹ in my pockets ¹ tomorrow.
ð+o wn. onu o.om oe +auu uu +aù norumc mo+opov
————————————————————————————————
Bor nouemy ¹ x µOBÆEH
paôorart n nameñ ônônnoreke,
rµe MHE PA3PEHEHO
(÷ MOÆHO)
nontsonartcx nx komntmrepom.
Mne ¹ CBEµOBABO BM
sapaôorart nemnoro µener,
u1Oôt kynnrt nmôoñ komntmrep,
no ¹ µo cnx nop
x ¹ ne C/MOI
nañrn HHKAKOH
npnnnunoñ paôort.
That is why ¹ I HAVE TO
ðæm us waù aù xæe mv
work in our library,
wœœr uu avo .aùopopu
where I’M ALLOWED TO
w+o aù+ o.avo mv
use their computer.
mvs ð+o ro+nìmvmo
I ¹ SHOULD
aù umo
make some money
+oùr ca+ +auu
TO buy any computer,
mv oaù +uu ro+nìmvmo
but ¹ until now
oam aumn. uav
I ¹ COULDN’T
aù rvoum
find ANY
qaùuo +uu
decent job.
ouucum orièo
————————————————————————————————
PACmHPEHHE I.
Aue.o»si:uie ue ronopxr « …ecmi», «… .erum»,
«… cmonm» nnn «. eucum» n cmtcne «. u+eemc» …»!
Bmecro +roro «ouu» ncnontsymr nocmoauumù ooopom
1 2 3 4
“There ¹ is/are/was/were/will be ¹ uro-ro ¹ ram-ro”,
ð+o Bpe¬a !
345 344
4. «HPH3EMAEHHE».
(uernëprtñ +ran 15 mnnyr).
Bt yxe snaere 3 “¹(e)S¨ no pas n anrnnñckom ecrt (ncero
nnmt!) 10 qvurµuoua.iuix orou:auuù (crp. 401-402), ro – coor-
nercrnenno – nocne «mpèx» µonxno ôtrt n
HETBËPTOE OKOHHAHHE.
3ro orou:auue camo no ceôe ouent Bam nonesno, rak kak n
ono c mnnnmantneñmnmn mpvoosampama+u camo´ snaunrentno
ynennunnaer Bam cnonapntñ sanac ...
Hpnôantre K rouuy rnarona
+ro 4-e orou:auue ÷ “¹(e)D”
(nponsnocnrcx n kak «-uo», n kak «-o», n kak «-m» –
– no uerounocrt nponsnomennx ue nnnxer na nonnmanne),
n Bt nonyunre 2 pesyntrara:
1) Tak nastnaemym «2-m qop+v» rnarona,
ro ecrt qop+v npoueðueeo epe¬euu +roro xe rnarona
snaunr, raknm oôpasom Bt nocrannre +ror rnaron!
n! npoueðuee epe+»:
punish ! punisheD ÷ nakasart ! nakas(tn)aB.
nauuui nauuui1
B anrnnñckom ecrt neckontko nosmoxnocreñ ckasart o uëm-
nnôyµt n npoueðue¬ epe+euu, no+romy nmenno +ry «2-m qop+v»
(÷ “¹(e)D” nnn cnono ns 2-ro cronônka «Tao.uµi uenpaeu.iuix
e.aeo.oe», o koropoñ npourëre nnxe) x pekomenµym ynorpeônxrt
rorµa, korµa Bt moxere ykasart,
roeða e npou.o+ +ro µeñcrnne
npousouuo/cocmoauoco –
ocoôenno nocne «yrasymuux c.oe» rnna:
nuepa ÷ yesterday – ecmoooù
nosanuepa ÷ the day before yesterday – ðoo+ù ouqoo ecmoooù
PACmHPEHHE II.
Ceñuac Bt nocr.aoieaeme anrnnñckne cnona,
pesko ynennunn npn +rom cnoñ c.oeapuiù sanac:
¹BODY ÷! +epuooou ÷ BCE
¹ONE ÷! +epuwau ÷ BCE
Kaxµtñ ÷ EVERY¹ ¹THING ÷! +epuuue ÷ BCË
+epu ¹TIME ÷! +epu maù+ ÷ KAƵMH PA3
¹WHERE ÷! +epuwoo ÷ BE3µE,
noecmðy
¹PLACE ÷! +epun.oùc ÷ BE3µE
(a+epurauus+)
H:
¹BODY ÷! ca+ooou ÷ K1O-1O
¹ONE ÷! ca+wau ÷ K1O-1O
Heknñ ÷ SOME¹ ¹THING ÷! ca+uue ÷ H1O-1O
¹TIMES ÷! ca+maù+s ÷ HHOIµA
¹WHERE ÷! ca+woo ÷ IµE-1O,
KVµA-1O
¹PLACE ÷! ca+n.oùc ÷ IµE-1O,
KVµA-1O
1) Cocmaeuie anrnnñckne cnona c 'Some-”
nmemr no-pycckn emë n coomeemcmeu» co cnonom
«-uuóyðo»: «rmo-uuóyðo», «:mo-uuóyðo», «eoe-uuóyðo/
rvoa-uuóyðo» !!!;
2) Cnona c '-one¨ ropasµo ôonee oema.usupoeaui,
n nmemr orrenok «raxðmù us …»;
3) Cnona c '-place¨ n.oùc xnnxmrcx a+epurauus+a+u.
————————————————————————————————
HPHMEP:
'EJERYBODY ¹ loves my body now...¨.
+epuooou .aes +aù ooou uav
«BCE renept nmôxr moë reno ...»
(crpouka ns amepnkanckoñ necnn).
{
{
347 346
¹
× ôt ntnnn noµkn, ECBH BM ¹ ona y menx BMBA.
I would drink vodka IF ¹ I HAD it.
aù wvo opuur eoora H4 aù Xæµ um
$ ÷ 2-n qop+a!
Bvrea.iuo: ..., ECBH BM ¹ x HMEB eë (HE xenmnny ÷ “it”!).
————————————————————————————————
NB !
Emë “IF” snaunr npocro «ECBH» –
n korµa BM saxornre ynorpeônrt “if” n +1ou ero snaue-
nnn, ro nocne nero moxere cnokoñno crannrt oôtunoe µnx mecro-
nmennñ “I” n “He”
cnono “WAS” (÷ ncë panno 2-n qop+a!):
ECBH ¹ x BMB ram, ... ÷ IF ¹ I WAS there ... – uq aù wos ð+o
ô) Hocne “if” µnx oôpasonannx ovovueeo epe+euu
HEBL3R ncnontsonart o.e+eumi “will” n “shall”,
no+romy nocne “if” µaxe µnx nepeµaun ovovueeo npemenn
npocro crantre rnaron
n nyanon qop+e npemenn uacmoaueeo:
ECBH mt 3AHBA1HM, … ÷ IF we PAY …
uq wn noù
ECBH on(C) HPHEµE1, … ÷ IF he comeS …;
uq xu ra+3
————————————————————————————————
BAÆHOOO !
2) Buóo, npnôannn 1o ae cauoe orou:auue “¹(e)D”,
Bt nonyuaere, coornercrnenno,
1o ae cauoe anrnnñckoe cnono
no +ro yxe
«3-n qop+a» rnarona ÷ HACCHBHOE onpeðeueuue,
neµanno ÷ recently – pnucum.u
n 2005 roµy ÷ in the year 2005 uu ðo ùno 2005
(n) nocueµnnn pas ÷ last – .aacm
(n) npomumn pas ÷ last time – .aacm maù+
n npomuym nxrnnny ÷ last Friday – .aacm qpaùou
n npomuoe Poxµecrno ÷ last Christmas – .aacm rpnc+oc
na npomuon neµene ÷ last week – .aacm wnur
n npomuou mecxne ÷ last month – .aacm +au
npomuon necnoñ ÷ last spring – .aacm cnpuue
n npomuou roµy ÷ last year – .aacm ùno
npomuon ocentm ÷ last autumn (aue..) – .aacm oomo+
÷ last fall (a+epur.) – .æcm qoo.
5 mnnyr nasaµ ÷ 5 minutes ago – qaùe +nuumc oeov
Hocne ncex +rnx $ cnon n ntpaxennñ
(ecnn onn ue conponoxµamrcx kaknmn-nnôo µononnnrentntmn
«vmo:ueuu»+u» rnna «eeci oeui» ÷ “all day long” – oo. ooù .oue,
koropte «veoo»m» nac n «npoµecc» ynnµnre!)
Bt µouanm ncnontsonart
nuenno 2-m qop+v rnarona (÷ “¹(e)D¨ nnn ns «Tao.uµi»).
————————————————————————————————
2 HYXHEHBHE BPE3KH:
a) Kpome +roro,
«2-m qop+v» rnarona (÷ “¹(e)D” nnn ns «Tao.uµi»)
Bt µonxnt ne µymax nn o uëm! ncnontsonart nocne cnoneuka
“IF” – uq n ero snauennn «Ecun BM ...»
(ono Bam, kcrarn, yxe n npnmepax ncrpeuanoct!).
CMOTPHTE !
TOuHO KAK HO-PYCCKH:
ECBH BM x pnconaB ÷ IF I paintED – uq aù n+ùumHµ
ECBH BM x BMB ram ÷ IF I WERE there – uq aù Wœœ ð+o
$ Hocne “if”

"
! ! n ero snauennn «ec.u óm»
! ns ncex qop+ rnarona “be”
ncnontsyercx 1outxo qop+a “were”.
349 348
“By” – oaù ÷ coomeemcmeue pycckomy meopumeuouo¬y naoerv:
by me – oaù +uu ÷ mnom,
by him – oaù xu+ ÷ u¬ (Kem?),
by my father – oaù +aù qaaðo ÷ mou¬ orno¬ n r. µ.
————————————————————————————————
PA3BEHBAHHE MHuOB. AKCHOMA.
uroôt nonyunrt
«qop+v npoueðueeo epe+euu» (÷ «2-m qop+v»)
nnn «naccnnnoe onpeðeueuue» (÷ «3-m qop+v»)
or anrnnñckoro rnarona,
K ue¬y (ro ecrt K rouuy +roro rnarona)
nyxno npnôannrt orou:auue “¹(e)D”.
3ro – ro xe camoe $ ovqepuoe “-e-”,
koropoe Bt ncrannxere n nepeµ '¹S”,
uroôt nmert nosmoxnocrt eouoco¬
«norasamo» npnôannennoe orou:auue:
× (na-)pnconaB ÷ I paintEd – aù n+ùumHo
NB!
Hpnôannenne “¹D” – +ro HPABHAO !!!
Ho 178 anrnnñcknx rnaronon +romy npaeuuy HE noo:uu»mmc»
ro ecrt y nnx ecrt ceou ÷ ðpyeue qop+i
H npoueðueeo epe+euu (÷ 2-n qop+a),
H naccnnnoro onpeðeueuua (÷ 3-n qop+a)
(nanpnmep: 1-n q.: 2-e q.: 3-n q.:
“be” – “was/were” – “been”).
3naunr, +mu 178 rnaronon «HE-HPABHBBHB» !!!
n +ro yxe ôyµer ue ror, KTO uro-ro «coe.a.»,
a mom, KOIO «coe.a.u» –
– ro ecrt mom,
C KEM uro-ro «coe.a.u» nnn «oe.amm»:
repair ! repairED ÷ unnnrt ! nounnEH/-ntñ,
pun+o pun+oµ nounnxEMtñ.
3ro okonuanne '¹D¨ ouent ônnsko pycckomy «-1-» n nonxrntx
ncem cnonax rnna «norvca1/iù», «no.o+a1/iù»,
«noµapana1/iù», «noµe.oea1/iù», n r.µ.
Hpnuëm, ecnn pyccrue cnona moryr nmert qop+v
n rpamrym: nakasaH,
n nouuym: nakasaH/ntñ,
ro anrunncxne «naccueuie onpeðeueuua» nmemr rontko
oðuy yxe ôonee HEus+eu»e+vm qop+v, nanpnmep:
punishED ÷ nakasAH, nakasAH/ntñ (÷ nakasa1/tñ),
nauuui1 nakasAH/nax, nakasAH/nomy, nakasAH/noñ n r. µ.
H +rn uoeie cnona/onpeoe.euu» (÷ “Inaron¹(e)D”)
Bt n 90° cnyuaen moxere oôpasontnart CAMH,
pesko ynennunnax rem camtm cnon c.oeapuiù sanac !!!
————————————————————————————————
HPHMEPL:
Herx HOKPACHB +ry creny.
Pete PAINTED this wall – nuum n+ùumuo ðuc woo.
(“painted” ÷ ax1nnnoe oeùcmeue).
Ho:
Crena, HOKPAHEHHAR ¹ Hereñ.
A wall PAINTED ¹ by Pete – o woo. n+ùumuo oaù nuum
(3µect ro xe $ camoe “painted” ÷ yxe »euiù naccnn).
351 350
TEHEPI CMOTPHTE:
1) 3ayunnanne 1-mx qop+ umõmx rnaronon
xnnxercx HOPMOH, a ue npoônemoñ
– rak sauem nx nooôme cunrart?
(Bt xe ncë panno nnkyµa ne µenerect
ôes cnon rnna «uaxooumi» nnn «mep»mi» npanµa?);
2) Bt c renxuteñ paµocrtm yunre cnona rnna
«oe.iù», «cuuuù» nnn «:èpuiù» –
– rak nouemy xe Bam camnm c rakoñ xe roronnocrtm k camoorµaue
ne ntyunrt (oðuopasoeo) 128 cnon rnna:
«nanµeu/uiù», «nanncau/uiù», «xynueu/uiù», «npoµau/uiù» n r.n.
(÷ 128 mryk 3-nx qop+ «uenpaeu.iuix» rnaronon ÷
÷ 128 nopuautnmx anrnnñcknx
(n. r.u. n naccueuix) onpeðeueuuù,
koropte uu ueu ue xyae
cnon rnna «oe.iù» nnn «rpacuiù»,
n koropte ncë panno ouent nyanm Bam no xnsnn) ?
Hepenecnre ôo´ntmym uacrt «+opa.iuoù npoo.e+i»
uenpaeu.iuix rnaronon n! npocroe sayunnanne
«oono.uume.iuix» (?) (ome.aeo.iuix) anrnnñcknx cnon/
onpeðeueuuù ÷ 3-nx qop+ rnaronon,
ôontmax uacrt koroptx ncë panno, nonropxm,
nyana Bam no ansnn !!!;
3) Tenept yurnre, uro 51 ns ncex +rnx 3-nx qop+ ÷
÷ cuon/onpeoe.euuù –
+ro k romy xe emë n qop+i npoueðueeo epe+euu
51-ro uenpaeu.iuoeo rnarona !!!
A Bt nx yae moxere snart (?!) – cm. $ n.2 – n ne naxno,
n kakoñ «unocmacu» !!!;
2-e n 3-n qop+i +rnx/raknx rnaronon nmemrcx
n cnennantntx «Tao.uµax uenpaeu.iuix e.aeo.oe» (crp. 403).
B 1-u cronônke rakoñ «Tao.uµi» µamrcx rnaront
n cnoeñ 1-n ÷ cuoeapuoù ]opme (ro ecrt, kak n cnonape),
no 2-u cronônke 2-e qop+i (÷ npoueðuee epe+»),
n 3-u cronônke (µoraµannct?!) 3-n qop+i
(÷ naccnnnme onpeoe.euu») –
n ncex nx npxmo orryµa
eomoeeuiru+u n mèn.euiru+u moxno n ôpart!
————————————————————————————————
Y±HBARKmAR HHuOPMAHH×,
Y±HBHTEALHAR APHuMETHKA.
Hnuero crpamnoro!!!
Haunnaem cunrart ro, uro ecrt HA CAMOM ¡EHE !!!
178 uenpaeu.iuix rnaronon;
– 22 rnarona, y koroptx BCE 3 qop+i
oðuuaroem (crp. 403);
– 28 rnaronon, koropte Bam npakrnueckn
ue nyxnt (vcmapeeuue).
————————————————————————————————
Ocramrcx:
51 rnaron, y koroporo 2-n u 3-n qop+i oðuuaroem
(1-x – 2-x ÷ 3-eñ
find – found &÷ found ÷
nañrn namëB ÷ nañµEH/ntñ);
¹ 77 rnaronon, y koroptx nce 3 qop+i pasume
(1-x – 2-x – 3-x
write – wrOte – written ÷
nncart na/nncaB nanncAH/ntñ).
————————————————————————————————
÷ 128 cnon.
353 352
a) Hyxno Bam
anrnnñckoe coomeemcmeue pycckomy ðeenpuuacmum ÷
÷ npnôannxñre '¹ing” K KOHHV nyxnoro Bam rnarona –
– n ncë !!!:
smoke ! smoking ÷ kypnrt ! kypa;
c+ovr c+ovruue
ô) Hyxno Bam cyuecmeumeuouoe co cmtcnom kakoro-ro
rnarona ÷
÷ npnôannxñre K KOHHV +roro rnarona “¹ing¨ n ncë !!!
smoke ! smoking ÷ kypnrt ! kypeuue
walk ! walking ÷ nµrn ! xoµtóa
woor wooruue
ride ! riding ÷ esµnrt ! esða;
paùo paùouue
n) Kpome +roro, npnôannenne '¹ING¨ µaër Bam
emë oµno onpeðeueuue,
no renept yxe onpeoe.euue AK1HBHOE
(ro ecrt «TOT, K1O oe.aem») ÷
÷ “Inaron¹ing¨ n ncë !!!:
smoke ! smoking ÷ kypnrt ! kypaunñ
walk ! walking ÷ nµrn ! nµyunñ, xoµaunñ.
————————————————————————————————
Hnn naoôopor:
oµno n ro xe cnono c orou:auue+ “¹ING¨ (nanpnmep, “smokING”)
moxer coomeemcmeoeami pyccknm/ oimi nepeeeoeuo na pyccknñ:
1) u kak oeenpu:acmue («kypR»);
2) u kak armueuoe onpeoe.euue («kypRHnñ»);
3) u kak cvuecmeume.iuoe («kypEHne»)
nanpnmep, “NO SMOKING” ÷
÷ «HET KYPEHHR».
————————————————————————————————
4) Tak uro na camom-ro µene nocne ntyunnannx
3-nx qop+ uenpaeu.iuix rnaronon ÷
÷ (naccnnntx) onpeðeueuuù ($)
kak oõmunmx onpeoe.euuù
(koropte Bam ncë panno n koneunom nrore snart naµo),
BCR «nceeoonpoo.e+a» uenpaeu.iuix rnaronon
cnoµnrcx k romy, uro
Bam nmenno µonounn1eutno nyxno ntyunrt
makcnmym µo 77 cnon ÷ 2-mx qop+ npoueðueeo epe+euu
or 77 uenpaeu.iuix rnaronon n Bt n µamkax (nnn n oa+ax?)!
H ne mopoutre ôontme ceôe (n nnkomy!) ronony !!!
————————————————————————————————
BHHMAHHE !!!
HEPBOE «oono.ueuue»
k Basonouy «Hpaeuuy µpaeyuruua» X3:
1) K +1on $ qop+e (÷ c '¹(e)D¨) moxno emë npnôannxrt
6-e orou:auue “¹LY” – .u, oôpasontnax npn +rom
nonme cnona (uapeuua), nanpnmep:
hurry ! hurriED ! hurriedLY
xapu xapuo xapuooBH
roponnrtcx roponnnntñ roponnnnO, nroponxx.
————————————————————————————————
Hy nor n HRTOE OKOHUAHHE
(koropoe roxe cpasy xe ooo:eui ynennunr Bam cnonapntñ sanac).
Ceñuac, npnôannn K KOHHV nmôoro rnarona “¹ING” – uue,
Bt sa ¬eðumù epou kynnre ônner n ce»ma» ce»mix
anrnnñckoñ rpammarnkn.
To ecrt: Bt yõtë1e cpasy 3-x sañnen !!!:
355 354
CE±LMOE OKOHUAHHE.
Hpome nekyµa !!!
H ns cvuecmeume.iuix Bt caun moxere µenart
onpeðeueuua, npocro npnôannxx K rouua¬ +rnx cymecrnnrentntx
orou:auue “¹Y” – u:
cloud ! cloudY
r.avo r.avou
oônako ! oônauumù.
————————————————————————————————
B HOMOµI AEHTRRM.
Cnona n anrnnñckom xstke nooôme OuEHI HEIKO
«coeouu»mmc»» µpyr c µpyrom,
µanax npn +rom µonontno nnrepecnte pesyntrart,
npnuëm HEPBOE cnono n +rom couerannn
ncerµa OHPEµEBRE1 nnn OHHCBBAET emopoe,
nanpnmep:
game – eoù+ ÷ nrpa a “GAME hall” ÷ HIPOBOH san,
¹
hall – xoo. ÷ xonn, san, a “HALL game¨ ÷ nrpa µHB 3AHA;
(«3auiua»» nrpa)
border – ooooo ÷ rpannna, a “BORDER state” ÷
¹ ÷ (HO-)IPAHHUHOE rocyµapcrno,
state – cmoùm ÷ rocyµapcrno, a “STATE border” ÷
÷ IOCVµAPCTBEHHAB rpannna;
spring – cnpuue ÷ ncrounnk, knmu, a “SPRING water” ÷
¹ ÷ KHPUEBAB noµa,
water – woomo ÷ noµa, a “WATER spring” ÷
÷ BOµBHOH knmu.
NB-euuue !!!
Homnnre, uro
“-D” ÷ +ro ncerµa PE3VBL1A1 !!!!!,
a
“-ING” ÷ +ro ncerµa HPOHECC !!!!!
————————————————————————————————
BHHMAHHE !!!
EµË ±BA «µOHOBHEHHR» k «Hpannuy X 3»:
! ! ! ! ! ! !
Hmenno +ra ($) rak nastnaemax «INGoea» qop+a» n «oaèm»
emë ±BA (ocranmnxcx) rex camtx «ðonouueuua»
k «Hpaeuuy µpaeyuruua» X3
(÷ «Ha uaeeueuuoe ue uaeeuueaù'''»).
To ecrt +ry «INGoevm qop+v» ¬oxuo nocrannrt emë n:
————————————————————————————————
2) no! ¬uoxecmeeuuoe uncno, npnôannn k neñ '¹S”,
nanpnmep:
Inaron: ! «INGoeoe» cymecrnnr.: ! Ero ¬uox. uncno:
bless blessing blessingS
o.ec o.ecuue o.ecuue3
ônarocnonnxrt ônarocnoneuuE ônarocnoneuuR.
————————————————————————————————
Huu xe:
————————————————————————————————
3) cµenart INGoevm qop+v emë n uapeuue¬,
npnôannn k neñ
(6-e orou:auue ÷) “¹LY” !!!,
nanpnmep:
Inaron: ! «INGoea» qop+a»: ! Hapeuue:
seem seeming seemingLY
cuu+ cnu+uue cnu+uueBH
kasartcx kaxVHnñcx; «raraci» kak ôyµrO,
no-nnµnmomy,
n r. µ.
————————————————————————————————
357 356
Ho nockontky kak Bt camn yôeµnrect
«epe+èu» na camom µene ncë xe rontko 3,
ro n moeñ nonxrnoñ n npospaunoñ repmnnonornn
µnx oôosnauennx «munoe oeùcmeu»»
x ncnontsym anrnnñckoe cnono “Action” – æruiu ÷ «oeùcmeue».
To ecrt x cunram, uro anrnnñcknñ xstk
ntµenxer HE 4 “Groups of Tenses”
(1. “Simple” nnn “Indefinite”, 2. “Continuous” nnn “Progressive”,
3. “Perfect” n 4. “Perfect Continuous”),
a 4 “Types of Actions” ÷ 4 «1una ðeùcmeuù»,
kaxµoe ns koroptx uoae1 nponsoñrn
n umõou ns 3 «epe+èu» –
n ncë cpasy xe cranonnrcx na cnon mecra !!!
«Bpe+èu» ocraërcx 3, a «1unoe µeñcrnnñ» 4!
1un Moë «Hamuucroe»
µeñcrnnx: nasnanne: nasnanne:
1) «Hpocmie» ÷ “One-time Actions” ÷ “Simple” nnn “Indefinite”,
2) «µeùcmeu» ÷ “Prolonged Actions” ÷ “Continuous”
«HPOHECCA» nnn “Progressive”,
3) «µeùcmeu» ÷ “BY-Actions” ÷ “Perfect”,
«K»
4) «Hpoµecc ÷ “Prolonged BY-Actions” ÷ “Perfect Continuous”.
«µO»
$
H xaaµoe µeñcrnne uoae1 cocroxrtcx
n xaaµou ns 3 npemën
(n n “Past¨, n n 'Present¨, n no 'Future”) !!!
Bcë, peôxra, npnexann !!!
To ecrt Bt caun moxere nerko oopasoeieami «uoeie
co:emauu»» nocrannnn oµno cymecrnnrentnoe nepeð µpyrnm
n ncë n nopxµke, nanpnmep:
army ¹ division ÷! army division – aa+u ouenriu
apmnx ¹ µnnnsnx ÷! ap¬eùcraa µnnnsnx.
B «pyccxou napnanre» nopaðor cuoe moxer menxrtcx,
no ncë panno cmorpnre, kak yµoôno!:
house ¹ number ÷! house number – xavc ua+oo
µom ¹ nomep ÷! nomep µoma !
Street name – cmpuum uoù+ ÷ nasnanne ynnnm,
n r.µ.
¡na cnona moryr coeµnnxrtcx n oµno, oôpasyx nonoe
(cocmaeuoe) cnono, nanpnmep:
mail (+où.) ¹ box (oorc) ÷! MAILBOX – ++ù.oorc
noura ¹ xmnk ÷! HOUTOBBH ×µHK.
Cocmaeuie cnona, oôpasonannte c yuacrnem INGoeix qop+,
moryr nncartcx :epes :èpmo:rv, a moryr n npocro pasoe.iuo:
dining-hall – oaùuuue xoo. ÷ crononax
smoking area – c+ovruue +puo ÷ mecro µnx kypennx.
————————————————————————————————
5. «TPHYMm».
(Hxrtñ +ran 35 mnnyr).
«Tpaouµuouua»» rpammarnka ne ntµenxer 4-x munoe µeñcrnnñ –
ona ncë ooìeouu»em n kpañne cnoxnym cncremy
n ncë
(ro ecrt ne rontko caun epe+eua ÷ Past, Present n Future,
no n roucmpvrµuu)
ona nastnaer «Bpe+eua+u» ÷ “Tenses”.
Ho+romy nmecro 4-x xnntx munoe µeñcrnnñ n 3-x epe+euax
y mpaouµuoua.ucmoe ax 12 «epe+èu» –
+ro na kakoñ xe nnanere onn xnnyr ???
359 358
To ecrt:
HPOHEµHEE npemx: ' WAS, WERE;
(2-e qop+i) ' HAD
HAC1ORHEE npemx: ' AM, IS, ARE;
' HAVE, HAS
BVµVHEE npemx: ' WILL BE;
' WILL HAVE
————————————————————————————————
uPE3BIuAHHO BAÆHO !!!
3nañre, uro
BKBME anrnnñckne roucmpvrµuu
npoueðueeo npemenn
Bt ôyµere crponrt c nomomtm
2-mx qop+ rnaronon “be” nnn “have” !!!
(To ecrt npn nomomn cnon 'was”, “were¨ nnn 'had”).
————————————————————————————————
BI 3TO YÆE YMEETE !!!
To ecrt, µaxe HE nonnmax CMMCBA roucmpvrµuù, Bt ncë panno
yxe ¬oxeme nx cmpoumo,
npocro eapiupv» (no npemenam) qop¬m “be¨ nnn 'have”,
n npocro noµcrannxx
naccnnnme nnn ax1nnnme onpeoe.euu» !!!:
Hacm. npemx Hpoueðu. Byðyuee
AM/ IS/ ARE/ WAS/ WERE/ WILL BE COUNTED
¹ u.u
HAVE/ HAS/ HAD/ WILL HAVE COUNTING.
(A nooôme-ro, unrañre mom oôanµennym ôpommpy
«Aueuuùcrue «epe¬eua» u roucmpyruuu» !!!).
Bcx anrnnñckax «epa++amura» – +ro re nnn nnte
co:emauu»
qop¬ rnaronon 'have¨ nnn 'be¨ c oµnoñ cropont
¹ c oµnnu ns µnyx onpeðeueuuù,
oôpasonanntm or c¬mcuoeoeo rnarona:
1) c naccnnnmu (÷ c 3-n qop+où)
u.u 2) c ax1nnnmu (÷ c INGoeoù qop+où) –
– c µpyroñ cropont.
To ecrt:
HAVE
BE WRITTEN ( & +rnmn cocmae.»muu+u
WRITING & nepeµaërcx c¬mcu
n naccueuocmo nnn armueuocmo).
Bosmoxnt kak nnµnre! $ 2 ( 2 ÷ 4 «napnanra c.oreuu»»,
no ns nnx 1outxo 3 napnanra µamr «roucmpvrµuu» – n +ro ncë!
¡nx yµoôcrna pasmecrnm +rn eapuaumi/roucmpyruuu n rakoñ
nor nocneµonarentnocrn:
1) “BE ¹ WRITTEN”;
2) “BE ¹ WRITING”;
3) “HAVE ¹ WRITTEN”.

$
«Hs¬euamuaaca» cocmae.»mua» –
em mt nokastnaem epe¬a.
B3IARHHTE $, neµt BCE 3 napnanra/roucmpvrµuu xnnxmrcx
no cyrn µena, nonropxm,
co:emauu»+u qop¬ rnaronon 'be¨ nnn 'have”
c rem nnn nntm onpeðeueuue¬ !
————————————————————————————————
H sµect roxe (kak n n sa¬euumeuax o.e+eumoe !)
0OPMAMH rnaronon 'be¨ n/nn 'have”
mt (kak ncerµa!) npocro ôyµem nokastnart
BPEMR µeñcrnnx
n BKBOH roucmpvrµuu n ncë !!!
}
{
+
{ }
361 360
ô*) MOMEHTAALHOE PACBHPEHHE.
B +ry naccnnnym roucmpvrµum (n umóo¬ npemenn) moxer
sarecartcx (nnn Bm camn moxere cnokoñno nn o uëm ne µymax!
ncrannxrt) emë n cnoneuko 'being” – ouuue, koropoe cpasy xe
npnµaër +roñ roucmpvrµuu snauenne npouecca (÷ “…ing”!!!),
n koropoe camo moxer nepenoµnrtcx na pyccknñ xstk cnonamn:
«u¬euuo moeða», «(rar pas) e mo epe¬a»,
«rar pas e +mom/mom ¬o¬eum» n r. n.:
Bpe+» " " Hpoµecc
That picture ¹ WAS BEING painted ¹ at that particular time.
ðæm nnrm:o wos ouuue n+ùumuo æmðæm nomnrìm.o maù+
Ty kaprnny ¹ PHCOBABH ¹ kak pas n ro npemx.
÷ Ta kaprnna ¹ PHCOBABACL ¹ ...
«K1O/H1O» «oi.o uanucau/-o» nnn «nuca´.oci» n rak cpasy xe
xcno, rak kak (no ¡parynknny!)
CVB1EK1 n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
ðouxeu oimi eceeða !!!
Bor Bam n «v+euue» roucmpvrµum +ry «cmpoumi»!!!
BAXHEHBHH YHHBEPCAALHLH COBET !!!
Bcnomnnre, uro
“…ING” +ro ncerµa ÷ «HPOHECC».
KOHCTPVKHHB N2.
a) HOHHMAHHE.
B +rom nropom " napnanre/co:emauuu
Bt nmecro naccnnnoro onpeoe.euu»
ncnontsyere onpeoe.euue ax1nnnoe:

"
0op¬a “BE” ¹ WRITING – ouu pa´ùmuue
PA3ÆËBMBAHHE TEMI «KOHC1PVKHHH».
O’kay!
Haunëm c n. «a» ÷ c «nouu+aoe.iuocmu» ÷ «nouu+auu»»
n c n. «ô» ÷ c ymennx «cmpoumo» roucmpvrµum.
KOHCTPVKHHB N1.
a) HOHHMAHHE.
Kro ne noñmër napnanr/co:emauue:
" ÷ Haccnnnoe onpeoe.euue
0op¬a “BE” ¹ WRITTEN – ouu pumu
BLTL ¹ HAHHCAHHIM ÷
÷ HACCHB
(n ue uepes nonroµa «oov:euu»» !!!)?
Hmo ryr nenonxrnoro-ro?
ô) HOCTPOEHHE.
CXEMA:
CVB1EKT
·

¹
3naunr, «KOIµA» rmo-mo nnn :mo-mo
«ómu/o (nnn óyðem) uanucau/ntm» –
ne µymax nn o uëm, nokastnañre 0OPMOH “be”!!!
"
Knnra ¹ BMBA ¹ nanncaua ÷ The book ¹ WAS ¹ written.
÷ Knnry ¹ HAHHCABH.
$
"
"
$
Knnra ¹ BVµE1 ¹ nanncaua ÷ The book ¹ WILL BE ¹ written,
÷ Knnry ¹ HAHHHV1. ðo ovr wn. onu pumu

J.e+eum
$ $
Inaron
n r. µ.;
WAS/ WERE (npoueou.)
AM/ IS/ ARE (uacm.)
WILL BE (ovovu.)
3-x 0OPMA
rnarona
(÷ naccnnnoe
onpeoe.euue)
{
Onpeoe.euue
363 362
" Bpe¬a !!!
We ARE smoking
wn AA c+ovruue
We WERE smoking
wn Wœœ c+ovruue
We WILL BE smoking
wn WHH BHH c+ovruue
÷ Mt KVPHM
(÷ uacmoauee).
÷ Mt KVPHBH
(÷ npoueðuee).
÷ Mt BVµEM KVPHTB
(÷ óyðyuee);
ô) HOCTPOEHHE.
«C1POH1L» +ry roucmpvrµum X 2
nyxno rouno rak xe, kak n HACCHB ÷ roucmpvrµum X1,
rontko sauennn1e naccnnnoe onpeoe.euue ! na ax1nnnoe ÷
÷! 'Inaron¹ING”.
CXEMA:
CVB1EKT ¹ ¹
Hpnuëm (kak nnµnre) 0OPMAMH “be¨ Bt
n sµect (nn o uëm ne µymax!) ôyµere npocro nokastnart
BPEMR nponcxoµauero, ro ecrt,
KOIµA cvoìerm («», Bi, +i, ou, rom, romi» n r.n.)
ECTB, BBH nnn BVµET «...KH/VH/AH/VH-u+» –
ro ecrt «BOT 1AKHM-mo n maru¬-mo» ...
Bpeun oeùcmeu»
"
WAS/ WERE (npou.)
AM/ IS/ ARE (uacm.)
WILL BE (ovovu.)
Inaron¹ING
(÷ Ax1nnnoe
onpeoe.euue).
{
÷ BLTL ¹ HHBVHHM ÷
÷ n umõou cnyuae +ro ÷ AK1HB –
snaunr, n nmôom cnyuae, «rmo-mo :mo-mo ðeuaem»,
a rounee «uaxooumc» e npouecce oe.auua» uero-ro!!!
$ ÷ ¹ing ! $
¡a!
B pycckom xstke nuenno rakoñ roucmpvrµuu ner,
no n nmôom cnyuae ona µnx pycckoro yxa nouu+aoe.iua ...:
Korµa on nomën, x ÷ When he came in I ÷ Korµa on nomën, x
BLAA MOKPOH, ÷ WAS wet, ÷ õmua +orpoù,
CHACTAHBOH = happy ÷ c:acm.ueoù
n HHAUVHEH! ÷ and cryING! ÷ n HAAKAAA!
(3 onpeoe.euu» $) (Toae 3 $ «Hnakingonana»
onpeoe.euu» !!!)
Camtm naxntm sµect xnnxercx ocosnanne Bamn roro ]akra, uro
ram, rµe +i (no-pycckn!) onnctnaem µEHCTBHE
n nontsyemcx µnx +roro IHAIOHOM,
aueuo»si:uie ropasµo uame
onnctnamr COC1ORHHE,
n nontsymrcx µnx +roro OHPEµEBEHHEM !!!
(B rom uncne n ome.aeo.iui+ ÷ «INGoei+»!!!).
Ha pyccknñ +ra $ roucmpvrµu» nepenoµn1cn npocro ruarouou
(uecoeepueuuoeo nnµa) n rom nnn nnom epe+euu –
a n raro¬ epe+euu – 1oae cpasy xe nnµno
no qop¬e rnarona 'be”:
C¬mcu
"
$
365 364
2-n napnanr nepenoµa +roñ roucmpvrµuu:
He ¹ HAS · STOLEN ¹ this car – xu xæs cmov.u ðuc raa
÷ On ¹ V K P A B* ¹ +ry mamnny (n cm. * nnxe).
" ÷ Byðyuee epe+» Byðyuee epe+» ÷ "
He ¹ WILL HAVE STOLEN ¹ this car ÷ On ¹ VKPAµË1 ¹
¹ +ry mamnny.
To ecrt, necmorpx na ro, kak ôt óyreauoumù nepenoµ +roñ
roucmpvrµuu nn «sev:a.» no-pycckn, anrunncxan roucmpvrµu»
ncë panno AKTHBHA –
Bt nocmorpure, K1O n neñ «oeùcmevem»?
(A uro x ronopnn?)
C V B 1 E K 1 !!! To ecrt ncë panno «ror, K1O ...»,
a HE «ror, roeo ...»!!!
Ha pyccknñ +ra roucmpvrµu» oôtuno nepenoµnrcx (kak Bt
camn nnµnre!) rnaronom «coeepueuuoeo euoa»
(«rynHB», «rynBK» n r. n.
no HE «norvna.» n HE «ovov norvnami»!).
* 3auacrym (µaxe ecnn rnaron 'have¨ crour n oµnoñ ns cnonx
qop+ npemenn uacmoaueeo ÷ “have¨ nnn 'has¨) +ra roucmpvrµu»
uoae1 nepenoµnrtcx na pyccknñ
n epe+eue+ uacmoauu¬, n epe+eue+ npoueðuu¬:
He HAS ¹ LIVED ¹
in this house
for 10 years already
1) On ÆHBË1 ¹ n +rom µome yxe 10
ner;
2) On HPOÆHB ¹ n +rom µome yxe ...

÷
Bvrea.iuo: V nero ¹ npoxu1o ¹ (n +rom µome) .;
}
Hmenno mar Bt n ôyµere «nepeeooumi»
name «oeùcmeue»! n! nx «cocmoauue» –
a nmenno +ro n nyxno ..!
————————————————————————————————
H nakonen!
KOHCTPVKHHB N3
(nepeµammax k romy xe emë n «3-n mun µeñcrnnñ»).
a) HOHHMAHHE.
Kmo ne noñmër cneµymmero ?
1-n napnanr nepenoµa:
We HAVE ¹ already prepareD ¹ everything.
wn xæe oo.p+ou npun+oo +epuuue
Y nac ¹ yxe HPHIOTOBHEHO ¹ ncë.
"
÷ Haccnnnoe onpeoe.euue ÷ 3-x q.
I HAVE ¹ WRITTEN ¹ a book – aù xæe pumu ooyr
÷ Y MEH× ¹ HAHHCAHA ¹ knnra ÷ × uanucaB knnry.
H.u.
Haccnnnoe onpeoe.euue
"
÷ 3-n qop+a or “buy” – oaù ÷ «kynnrt»
He HAS ¹ BOUGHT¹ some paper = On rynuB ôymary.
xu xæs ooom ca+ n+ùno
÷ Y HEIO ¹ KYHAEHO ¹ nemnoro ôymarn.
$
÷ Haccnnnoe onpeoe.euue
Ho nnµnre, necmorpx na ro,
uro sµect $ ncnontsyercx naccnnnoe onpeoe.euue,
roucmpvrµu» ncë panno AKTHBHA,
rak kak n anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn µeñcrnyer rontko cyózerm !!!
367 366
I. Haccnnnoe onpeoe.euue ! Haccnnnan roucmpvrµu»:
"
I HAVE/He HAS/HAD BEEN ¹ PAINTED ÷ MEHR/EIO HOkpacnn/n.
ouuu n+ùumuo
I WILL HAVE BEEN ¹ PAINTED ÷ MEHR n r. µ. HApncymr;
————————————————————————————————
II. Ax1nnnoe onpeoe.euue ! Ax1nnnmn npoµecc:
"
I HAVE/ He HAS BEEN ¹ PAINTING ÷ R pncym/ pnconau.
ouuu n+ùumuue
I HAD BEEN ¹ PAINTING ÷ R pnconau.
I WILL HAVE BEEN ¹ PAINTING ÷ R óyðy pnconart
(oo.eo r …).
(H no ncex 3 epe+euax Bt «+ro» ôyµere µenart vre ðoueo n r ..!).
————————————————————————————————
YHOTPEBAEHHE roucmpvrµuù.
C «nouu+aoe.iuocmim», uyncrnym, ncë ôonee-menee n axype!
Tenept µanañre nocmorpnm,
roeða nyxno VHO1PEBBR1L ry nnn nnym
anrnnñckym roucmpvrµum?
B anrnnñckom (kak n nourn no ncex xstkax) ecrt
3 «epe+euu» (÷ npoueðuee, uacmoauee n óyðyuee).
Kpome +roro, anrnnñcknñ eioe.»em n mexuu:ecru oqop+.»em
4 «muna oeùcmeuù»:
1) «pasoeie», 2) «pacm»uvmie» n 3-4) «coeepuèuuie»,
nnn:
1) «npocmie»;
¹ 2)3) oôosnauaemte roucmpvrµu»+u N2 n N3
(o «He1nëp1ou mune µeñcrnnñ» cm. na crp. 374),
npnuëm raxðoe ns µeñcrnnñ moxer cocmo»mic»
n nmôom/ n raxðo¬ ns 3-x «epe+èu».
————————————————————————————————
ô) HOCTPOEHHE.
CXEMA:
CVB1EKT ¹ ¹
0OPMOH rnarona 'have”
Bt n sµect $ cnokoñno nokastnaere
(nnn: no qop¬e rnarona 'have¨ Bt xcno nnµnre)
BPEMR, o koropom nµër peut,
a rounee,
BPEMR, e romopo+ naxoµnrcx
«mo:ra omc:èma» ÷ «+o+eum»,
K romopo¬y «nooeou»emc»»
«uanucauue +roñ knnrn»:
Buepa K 5.00
Y HEIO ¹ BLBA ¹ HAHHCAHA ¹ ra knnra.
He ¹ HAD ¹ WRITTEN ¹ that book.
pumu
3aempa K 5.00
V HEIO ¹ BVµET ¹ HAHHCAHA ¹ ra knnra.
He ¹ WILL HAVE ¹ WRITTEN ¹ that book;
xu wn. xæe pumu ðæm ovr
————————————————————————————————
n) PACmHPEHHE.
HPOCTO BOCHPHMHTE u 3A3YBPHTE.
He yµnnnxñrect, no Bt moxere ncrpernrtcx n c «vo.uuèuui-
+u» napnanramn +roñ roucmpvrµuu, a uyrt nosµnee Bm naµemct
ôyµere cmpoumo nx n ca¬u !!!
4-ñ mun µeñcrnnñ (crp. 374).
Haccnnn. u.u Ax1nnn.
I HAVE/He HAS/HAD/WILL HAVE ¹ BEEN ¹ OHPEµEBEHHE.
ouuu $ ÷ 3-n qop+a “be”
HAD (npou.)
HAVE/ HAS (uacm.)
WILL HAVE (ovo.)
3-n 0OPMA rnarona
(÷ Haccnnnoe
onpeoenenne)
{
369 368
Bcë +ro rakxe moxno nokasart n n nnµe nor rakoñ nor
CXEML nocrpoennx 1pëx «npocmix» epe+èu ":
oôtuno
ceñuac
ncerµa
uacro
peµko
peµko
÷ usually
mvre.u
÷ now
uav
÷ always
oo.woùs
÷ often
oqu
÷ rarely
p+o.u
÷ seldom
c+.oo+
nooôme
ceroµnx
kaxµtñ µent,
exeµnenno
exeµnenno
nnorµa
pas n mecxn
÷ generally
orieuopo.u
÷ today
moo+ù
÷ every day
+epu o+ù
÷ daily
o+ù.u
÷ sometimes
ca+maù+s
÷ once a month
wauc o+au
n nacroxmee npemx ÷ nowadays – uavoooùs
¹ Hmôte co:emauu»/ooosua:euu» epe+euu c yuacrnem cnona
“every ...” – +epu ÷ «xaaµ...» (“every Friday” n r. n.):
We ¹ SAW ¹ this elephant ¹ every morning.
wn coo ðuc +.uqoum +epu +oouuue
Mt ¹ BHµEBH ¹ +roro cnona ¹ raxðoe yrpo.
————————————————————————————————
HOHE3HOE HAHOMHHAHHE.
Ouent uacro +rn «npocmie» epe+euui´ e qop+i ynorpeônxmr-
cx nocne cnon n ntpaxennñ rnna (¹ rakxe nocmorpnre crp. 345):
————————————————————————————————
WILL ¹ ...
"
CVB1EK1 ¹ " LIVE& u.u LIVES
$
$
+(e)D
————————————————————————————————
& Byµymee
(saempa).
& Hac1onmee
(ceeoou»).
& Hpomeµmee
(e:epa).
1-n mun µeñcrnnñ.
PA3OBLE oeùcmeu» (÷ «¡eñcrnnx “Bau!” ÷
÷ “One-Time” Actions»).
Ecnn µeñcrnne nponcxoµnr eceeða, oómuuo, raxðmù oeui
nnn peeyuapuo
(n ne naxno, n kakom epe+euu ro ecrt n umõou ns 3 !),
xnnxercx oouo-/+uoeo-pasoei+, u¬nyuocui+ (Ban ! H ncë!),
n ue cnxsanntm nn c kaknmn µpyrnmn µeñcrnnxmn (ono oôosnauaercx
kak ôt «mouroù» na «.uuuu epe+euu») +ro
«npocmoe oeùcmeue» ÷ «¡eñcrnne 'Bau!”»:
————————————————————————————————
HPOHEµHEE epe+» (÷ 2-e qop+i):
'Inaron¹(e)D”
u.u ro1onan qop+a
ns 2-n kononkn «Tao.uµi uenpaeu.iuix e.aeo.oe»:
Buepa x HOKPACHB/C1EB ro xñno ÷
÷ Yesterday I PAINTED/ATE that egg;
ecmoooù aù n+ùumuo/oùm ðæm oe
————————————————————————————————
HAC1ORHEE epe+»: C rnaronom HHHEIO HE µenaem
nnn “¹(e)S”:
×/on EM/EC1 oµno xñno kaxµtñ µent ÷
÷ I/he EAT/S one egg every day.
aù/xu uum/c wau oe +epu o+ù
× ncerµa HOMHK ncë! ÷ I always REMEMBER everything!
aù oo.woùs pu+++oo +epuuue
————————————————————————————————
BVµVHEE epe+»: “WILL/SHALL ¹ rnaron ns cnonapx”:
× C1EM oµno xñno sanrpa ÷ I WILL EAT one egg tomorrow.
aù wn. uum wau oe mo+opov
————————————————————————————————
371 370
HPOHEµHEE npemx (÷ «2-n qop+a “be” ¹ …ING»):

"
! ! ! ! ! 2-n qop+a ! ! ! !
$ "
Buepa C 5 µO 7 x HHCAB ÷ "
÷ Yesterday from 5 till 7 I WAS WRITING.
ecmoooù qpo+ qaùe mu. coeu aù wos paùmuue
÷ … ómu nnmVHnm;
————————————————————————————————
HAC1ORHEE epe+». ! ! ! ! ! !

"

"
"
B µAHHMH MOMEH1 x
"
HHHV.
AT THIS PARTICULAR MOMENT I AM WRITING.
æm ðuc nomnrìm.o +ov+oum aù æ+ paùmuue
÷ … aeuamco nnmVHnm;
————————————————————————————————
BVµVHEE epe+»: ! ! ! ! ! !

"
"
3anrpa C 5 µO 7 x ¹ BVµV HHCA1L.
Tomorrow from 5 till 7 I ¹ WILL BE WRITING.
÷ … óyðy (oimi) nnmVHnm .
$ $ $
J.e+eum Inaron Onpeoe.euue
————————————————————————————————
uakrnueckn, µeno saknmuaercx n rom, uro aue.o»si:uie
nooôme ouent uacro «vxoo»m» or rnarona, n nmecro nero nontsymrcx
onpeoe.euue+, na cauou µeue onuciea» ceôx,
e¬ecmo roro, uroôt ronopnrt, :mo onn «oe.amm»:
"
& Onpeoe.euu» !
"
Buec1o «cnami»: “be asleep” ÷ «ómmo cnxmnm»,
Buec1o «vcma(ea)mi»: “be tired” ÷ «ómmo ycrantm»,
Buec1o «onosoami»: “be late” ÷ «ómmo onosµanmnm»,
n µecxrkn r.µ.
2-n mun µeñcrnnñ (rakxe cmorpn crp. 361).
'PAC1RHV1ME¨, «µBRHHECR» µeñcrnnx
(÷ «¡eñcrnnx “Hpouecca”» ÷ “Prolonged Actions”).
Ecnn µeñcrnne xnnxercx pacmauymm¬, ðuauu¬ca,
nnn nponcxoµnr/cnyuaercx
HMEHHO n onpeðeuëuumù +o+eum (÷ «poeuo e ...»)
n/nn na nporxxennn onpeðeuëuuoeo nepuooa
(÷ «c ... ðo ...», «ueumù ...», «eeco …»),
ro no-pycckn n +rom cnyuae
Bi onnctnaere oeùcmeue n nontsyerect e.aeo.o+,
NB !!!
a ronopx no-anrnnñckn, Bt n rakom cnyuae
npn nomomn INGoeoeo onpeðeueuua
ðouxum, oóasaum !!!
onncart COC1ORHHE cvoìerma
(ro ecrt ckasart,
raru¬ on n +ror +o+eum nnn n +ror nepuoo aeuaemca),
n nocnontsonartcx, coornercrnenno,
couemauue¬
rnarona “BE¨ c OHPEµEBEHHEM (÷ c INGoei+ !!!) ÷
÷ KOHCTPVKHHEH N2
(÷ «BM1L ...KHu+»),
ro ecrt
couemauue¬ 0OPM “be” c OHPEµEBEHHEM !!!
C armueum¬ !!!
× nastnam +ror $ mun µeñcrnnñ «µeùcmeu»+u npouecca»
(¹ crp. 362), rak kak onn ncerµa npeµcrannxmr coôom
kakoñ-nnôo «npouecc» (÷ pacmauymoe µeñcrnne ÷ “¹ing”)!:
————————————————————————————————
373 372
3-n mun µeñcrnnñ.
COBEPHËHHME µeñcrnnx
(÷ «¡eñcrnnx “K”» ÷ “BY”-Actions”).
3ro µeñcrnnx, koropte nauaunct pauee kakoro-ro «+o+eu-
ma» nnn kakoñ-nnôo «mo:ru omc:èma», n camn +rn µeñcrnnx nnn
«coeepuammc» K» onpeµenënnomy «+o+eumv», nnn oqqerm or
nnx «npooo.raemc» µO» onpeµenënnoro +o+euma no npemenn,
a cau +ror «+o+eum» nnn caua «mo:ra omc:èma»
moxer naxoµnrtcx n umõou ns 3 «epe+èu»!
(B uacmoaue¬, n npoueðue¬ n n óyðyue¬).
have/has had will have
× nastnam +ror mun oeùcmeuù «µeùcmeu»+u “K¨», noromy
uro +1n µeñcrnnx (nnn nx pesyuomam) ncerµa noµronnm1cn
K onpeµenënnoñ «mo:re omc:èma» a caua +ra «mo:ra omc:è-
ma» moxer, nonropxm, naxoµnrtcx n umõou epe+euu.
Mecronaxoxµenne «mo:ru omc:èma» no npeuenn
(ro ecrt «epe¬a, K romopo¬y “noµronxercx” oeùcmeue»)
Bt nn o uëm ne µymax! (yraµañre!)
nokaxere qop¬où rnarona 'have”:
————————————————————————————————
HPOHEµHEE epe+»
(÷ «2-n qop+a ÷ “had” ¹ 3-n qop+a cumcuonoro rnarona»):
' ' ' ' ' ' '
" $"
× " CBAPHB ror cyn euepa K 5 uacam.
I HAD ¹ COOKED that soup yesterday BY 5 o’clock;
aù xæo rvrm ðæm cvvn ecmoooù oaù 5 or.or
Bvrea.iuo:
"
«V menx BMB ¹ CBAPEH ...»; & & &
————————————————————————————————
A uem «INGoeie» onpeoe.euu» xyxe, uem ocrantnte ?
Bor aue.o»si:uie n nekoroptx konkperntx cnryannxx
n onucmeamm ceo» npn nomomn «INGoeix» onpeðeueuuù
nmecro «nepeoa:u oeùcmeuù»
nor n ncë !!!
————————————————————————————————
To ecrt n raknx $ cnyuaxx Bt HE µouanm ronopnrt,
«:mo» kro-ro «ðeuau» ..!
Bt µonxnt onnca1t ceo» nnn +ror cvoìerm n ckasart,
umo x/on «BMB ...KHu+» !!!
3µect n kauecrne «vrasvmuux c.oe» (÷ “Indicating words”)
moryr ntcrynart eipareuu» rnna:
right now – paùm uav ÷ npnuo cenuac
all (day, month u op.) long – oo. (ooù, +au) .oue ÷
÷ nect (µent, mecxn n µp.)
at this (particular) moment – æm ðuc nomnrìm.o +ov+oum ÷
÷ (nmenno) n +1o1 uouen1 ...
from ... till ... – qpo+ ... mu. ...
÷ c ... µo ..., o1 ... µo ...
n µpyrne.
To ecrt, korµa Bt n cnoëm pyccko-anrnnñckom npeµnoxennn
ynorpeônxere (nnn: +oreme ynorpeônrt) oµno ns +rnx $ eipa-
reuuù, ro n roucmpvrµum Bt µouanm ncnontsonart nuenno
+ry (÷ «BE ¹ INGoeoe onpeoe.euue»), rak kak nourn ncerµa npeµ-
noxennx, coµepxamne +rn $ cnona, nepeµamr
«npoueccm»
nnn
«pacmauymme», «ðuauueca» µeñcrnnx !!!
————————————————————————————————
375 374
He µymañre nn o uëm!, n n «roucmpvrµum N 3» npocro
eeeoume 2 oõnsa1eutnmx cnona:
HOC1ORHHOE: a) n kauecrne emopoeo cnona
cnono “BEEN” ÷ 3-m qop+v rnarona “be”,
uroôt oôpasonart roucmpvrµum «µO», «K»,
n 3AMEHREMOE: ô) «INGoevm qop+v»
c¬mcuoeoeo rnarona
(koropoñ Bt renept n ôyµere nepeµanart n «ðuumeuouocmo»,
n c¬mcu roucmpvrµuu –
ro ecrt camo ðeùcmeue).
BPEMR xe roucmpvrµuu (ro ecrt, eoe naxoµnrcx mo:ra,
r koropoñ Bt «nooeou»eme» µeñcrnne)
Bt kak n ncerµa nokastnaere qop¬où “have”:
Hacmoauee
" Ooouent µonro!!!
I HAVE ¹ BEEN WAITING ¹ for this money ¹ all my life!
aù xæe ouuu w+ùmuue qoo ðuc +auu oo. +aù .aùq
× ¹ Æ µ A B ¹ … +rnx µener ncm cnom xnsnt!
÷ × ¹ Æ µ V ¹ … ... ÷ uauau xµart
korµa-ro,
oxnµanne ôtno ðuumeuoum¬
('all my liIe¨),
n xµy x µO uacmoaueeo +o+euma (÷ “have”) !!!
EmË PA3.
0op¬où “have” (have/ has – had – will have) Bt kak ncerµa
nokaxere, IµE no npemenn naxoµnrcx ror «+o+eum» nnn ra «mo:ra
omc:èma», noð koropym «nooeou»emc»» +ro Bame «pacm»uvmoe»,
«o.»ueec»» µeñcrnne (÷ µnnrentnoe «oruoauue») !
(B ðauuo¬ cnyuae +ra $ «mo:ra omc:èma» naxoµnrcx
n «ceùuac» ÷ n uacmoaue¬ npemenn ÷! “... have ...” !!!).
HAC1ORHEE epe+»:
× ÆHBV n +rom µome yxe 10 ner
(uauau xnrt pauoue n xnny ðo cux nop ÷
Hacmoauee npemx ÷ K «ceeoou»uue+v» +o+eumv).

"
I HAVE ¹ LIVED in this house for 10 years already.
aù xæe .ueo uu ðuc xavc qoo mou ùnos oo.p+ou
Bvrea.iuo:
«V menx ¹ HPOÆH1O ...»;
——————————————————————————
BVµVHEE epe+»:
"
× " CBAPK ror cyn K 5 uacam sanrpa.
I WILL HAVE ¹ COOKED that soup BY 5 o’clock tomorrow.
aù wn. xæe rvrm ðæm cvvn oaù 5 or.or mo+opov
Bvrea.iuo:
«V menx BVµE1 ¹ CBAPEH ...».
————————————————————————————————
PACmHPEHHE.
Hemeëpmmù mun µeñcrnnñ.
31o1 mun oeùcmeuù ntpaxaercx no anrnnñckn µonontno-
rakn «epo+osoroù» roucmpvrµueù, no roucmpvrµu» +ra nacrontko
rpacuea, uro paµn neë moxno n :vmor noµnanpxutcx ..!!!
Ecnn µeñcrnne, «nooeou»e+oe» noð onpeµenënntñ +o+eum
no npemenn (÷ Koucmpvrµu» N3 ÷ «¡eñcrnne 'K¨»), xnnxercx/
xnnxnoct/ôyµer xnnxrtcx k romy xe emë n
«Hpouecco¬ “µO”, “PAC1RHV1MM”, “µBRHHMCR”»
(÷ INGoei+ “Prolonged “BY”-Action”) –
– n Bm xornre +ry «ðuumeuouocmo» noµuepknyrt –
ro Bt moxere mexuu:ecru ouent nerko +ro cµenart!
377 376
¡OHOHHHTEHIHIE PEKOMEH±AHHH
HO COO1BE1C1BHK
nanôonee ynorpeônrentntx
AHIHHHCKHX 0OPM n KOHC1PVKHHH PYCCKHM
n HO HX YHOTPEBAEHHK:
1) BHEPA ÷! 2-n 4OPMA (÷ “¹(e)D” nnn ns «Tao.uµi»):
... x nocunran/czen ÷ I counted/ate
÷ 2-n qop+a.
c 5 ðo 7
BHEPA poeuo e 7.34 x cunran/en ÷ I was* ¹
eeco µent ¹ counting/eating.
K 5.00 x nocunran/czen ÷ I had* ¹
¹ counted/eaten.
* “WAS” n “HAD” ÷ 2-e qop+i;
————————————————————————————————
2)
CEIOµHR ÷!
HH:eeo HE µenaem nnn “¹S”,
WAS/WERE/WILL be.
CEHHAC ÷! AM / IS / ARE ¹ “...ing”;
K ... ÷! HAVE / HAS / WILL have ¹ 3-x qop+a:
... x cunram/em ÷ I count/eat ...
npxmo ceñuac x cunram/em ÷ I am ¹
¹ counting/eating.
eeco µent x cunram/em ÷ I am ¹
¹ counting/eating.
CEIOµHR
c 5 ðo 7 x cunrau/eu ÷ I was ¹
¹ counting/eating.
" na +mo npemx x cocunrau ÷ I have ¹
(÷ K +mo¬y momenry) ¹ counted/eaten.
}
A nor sµect " «mo:ra omc:èma» naxoµnrcx n óyðyue¬ !!!
K romy npemenn ¹ x óyðy xµart (÷ nporov) ¹ yxe 5 uacon.
By that time ¹ I will have ¹ been waiting ¹ for 5 hours already.
oaù ðæm maù+ aù wn. xæe ouuu w+ùmuue qoo qaùe avos oo.p+ou
Cmorpnre, kak ncë uoeuuuo:
“… will have ¹ been ¹ waiting …” !
$ $ $
Hokastnaem: Bpe¬a «… K …» Hpouecc
(÷ µ.ume.iuocmi).
————————————————————————————————
AHOmEO3.
A ceñuac mt ykpacnm oôcyxµenne remt «epe+èu» ropo.è+
npu+epoe ]pasoñ, koropym nponsnocnr na uncrom anrnnñckom
Leonardo di Caprio n ]nntme «Ue.oeer e re.esuoù +acre»,
n koropax nknmuaer n ceôx n xopomo µemoncrpnpyer
CPA3Y neumx 3 muna oeùcmeuù:
“I HAVE BEEN in prison for 6 years ÷ «× npoôtB n rmptme 6 ner
aù xæe ouuu uu npusu qoo curc ùnos
(r.e. «or ... n ðo ceroµnxmnero µnx»),
you FREED me ÷ nt ocnoôoµnBn menx
mv qpuuo +uu (oouopasoeoe µeñcrnne n npouuo¬),
and now you ARE ASKING me ÷ a ceùuac nt npocn1E menx
æuo uav mv aa aacruue +uu (nmenno e ðauumù! momenr)
to enter another prison”. = cecrt n µpyrym rmptmy».
mv +umo ouaðo npusu
————————————————————————————————
{
{
{
379 378
HOBLE BO3MOÆHOCTH.
BCE «roucmpvrµuu» n cnoeñ ueus+euèuuoù qop+e
(n nce «muni oeùcmeuù») npekpacno moryr couerartcx
c (umõmun) o.e+euma+u,
ro ecrt c rem, uro µo menx nastnann «+ooa.iui+u e.aeo.a+u» –
xorx, nonropxm, kakne xe +ro rnaront,
ecnn onn nooôme ne nsmenxmrcx
n y nnx ne1 nn oµnoro e.aeo.iuoeo npusuara ???
(Cmorpnre moñ «Hoemù ruaccumù ca¬oyuumeuo»).
COuETAHH× 3BEMEH1OB c «KOHC1PVKHHRMH».
«3 B E M E H 1 ¹ ...»:
————————————————————————————————
… ¹ Haccue:
I ¹ CAN ¹ BE killED.
aù ræu ouu ru.o
× ¹ MOIV ¹ BM1L vou1(-i+) ÷ Menx moxno yônrt.
————————————————————————————————
… ¹ 1-n mun µeñcrnnñ ÷ ¹ «¡eñcrnnx «Bau!»:
I ¹ CAN ¹ READ ¹ any English book.
aù ræu puuo +uu nue.uui ovr
× ¹ MOIV ¹ HPOHEC1L ¹ nmôym anrnnñckym knnry.
————————————————————————————————
… ¹ 2-n mun µeñcrnnñ ÷ ¹ «¡eñcrnnx «Hpouecca»:
You ¹ SHOULD ¹ BE LIVING ¹ here.
mv umo ouu .neuue xno
Teôe ¹ BM CBEµOBABO ¹ ÆH1L ¹ sµect.
————————————————————————————————
K 5.00 x cocunrau/c¡eu ÷ I had ¹
¹ counted/eaten.
CEIOµHR c 5 ðo 7 x óyðy cunrart/ecrt ÷
÷ I will be counting/eating.
K 5.00 x cocunram/czem ÷ I will ¹
¹ have counted/eaten;
————————————————————————————————
3) WILL ¹ rnaron;
3AB1PA ÷! WILL be ¹ ...ing;
WILL have ¹ 3-n qop+a:
... x ôyµy cunrart/ecrt ÷ I will ¹ count/eat.
... x cocunram
c 5 ðo 7
x ôyµy cunrart/ecrt ÷
3AB1PA
poeuo e 7.34
÷ I will be ¹ counting/eating.
eeco µent
K 5.00 x cocunram/c¡em ÷
÷ I will have ¹ counted/eaten.
————————————————————————————————
Bnµnre $, eesðe n n umóo¬ cnyuae
BPEMR mt nokastnaem
2-oñ 0OPMOH camoro´ rnarona (1-ñ mun µeñcrnnñ)
nnn xe 0OPMAMH “be¨ n/nn 'have¨ (n roucmpvrµu»x).
«1HH» xe µeñcrnnx n c¬mcu ero (n roucmpvrµu»x)
mt nokastnaem «3-en» nnn «INGoeoù» 0OPMOH
cmtcnonoro rnarona
(ro ecrt rem nnn nntm onpeðeueuue¬) !!!
————————————————————————————————
}
{
{
{
381 380
HETEOPETHuECKA× HHmOPMAHHR
HO COHETAHHK «BPEMËH» ¡PYI C ¡PYIOM
(¡nx HPAK1HHECKOIO HCHOHB3OBAHHB).
1) Bor IAABHOE µnx Bac n µonontno-rakn npocroe
HPABHAO X1:
Ecnn rnaron euaeuoeo npeµnoxennx ro ecrt nepeoù
uacrn ncero npeµnoxennx cronr n npocmo+ npoueðue¬
epe+euu ÷ no 2-n qop+e, ro n rnaron emopoù uacrn +roro
npeµnoxennx µonxen oõnsa1eutno croxrt 1oae n npoueðue¬
epe+euu (nnôo c o.e+eumo+ “would” – c+ompu oa.ee).
To ecrt:
ecnn no-pycckn uoano ckasart: «× µymaB, uro cxoÆV c yma» –
ro ecrt qop+a uacmoaueeo epe+euu («cxoÆV»)
nny1pn «npoueðueeo» µeñcrnnx («µymaH»),
ro no-anrnnñckn OBA µeñcrnnx µonxnt croxrt
n HPOHEµHEM npemenn.

I THOUGHT (that) I ¹ WAS GETTING MAD.
aù oom ðæm aù wos e+muue +æo
× µyman, uro x cxoxy/cxoµnu c yma ÷
÷ × µymaB, uro x CTAHOBHBC× cymacmeµmnm.
Bor rakne npnmept na +ry remy µanan npo]. B.K. Mmnnep
n epa++amu:ecroù uacrn cnoero nsnecrneñmero cnonapx:
× cnpocnu, kak ero sony1 ÷ I asked what his name was.
aù aacrm wom xus uoù+ wos
× ckasau emy, uro emy uoano (ómuo) cµenart +ro.
I told him (that) he was allowed to do this.
aù mov.o xu+ ðæm xu wos o.avo mv ovv ðuc
————————————————————————————————
————————————————————————————————
… ¹ 3-n mun µeñcrnnñ ÷ ¹ «¡eñcrnnx «K»:
I ¹ COULD ¹ HAVE EATEN ¹ this soup.
aù rvo xæe uumu ðuc cvvn
× ¹ MOI ¹ (yxe) C1EC1L ¹ +ror cyn.
————————————————————————————————
… ¹ 4-n mun µeñcrnnñ ÷ ¹ «Hpoµecc «µO»:
I ¹ MIGHT ¹ HAVE BEEN WAITING ¹ for you all my life.
aù +aùm xæe ouuu w+ùmuue qoo mv oo. +aù .aùq
× ¹ MOI BM ¹ H P O Æ µ A 1 L ¹ reôx ncm cnom xnsnt.
"

«+om»
————————————————————————————————
H yntônnrect, ncnomnnn, kak korµa-ro ôesornercrnenno nenn
nerkomtcnennte «Apaoecru»:
“We ¹ SHOULD ¹ BE THINKING ¹ about some drinking!”.
wn umo ouu nuruue ooavm ca+ opnuruue
B cmtcne: «A ne nopa nn nam noµµart?!».
A n «Moeù nperpacuoù .eou» 3nnsa ¡yynnrn sannnanact:
“ I ¹ COULD ¹ HAVE DANCED ¹ all night,
And ¹ COULD ¹ HAVE BEGGED ¹ for more!”
æuo rvo xæe ooeo qoo +oo
«× ¹ MOIBA BM ¹ 1AHHEBA1L ¹ ncm nout,
H ¹ MOIBA BM ¹ HOHPOCH1L ¹ emë!».
————————————————————————————————
HE 3ABLBAHTE !!!
Moñ E-mail aµpec:
andrapublish¡yandex.ru
383 382
Kak Bt, naµemct, samernnn,
«BVµVHEE» n «HPOHEµHEM»
no ncex ntmenpnneµënntx npnmepax
a nooôme-ro,
BCEI¡A
nµër uepes «... WVµ ...» ÷ “... WOULD ...”,
a HE uepes “will”!
————————————————————————————————
Kpome +roro, emë pas oôpamam Bame nnnmanne na ro, uro
n monx anrunncxnx npnmepax () cnoneuko
“... that ...” – ðæm ÷ «..., uro ...», «..., koroptñ ...»
sauacrym cronr n ckoôkax,
r.k. n anrnnñcknx npeµnoxennxx ono concem ue oôxsarentno!
————————————————————————————————
EmË HPHMEPL ¡H× 3A3YFPHBAHH×:
× suau, uro ona ¹ craxem ¹ emy +ro.
I knew (that) she ¹ WOULD tell ¹ him this.
aù uìmv ðæm uiu wvo mo. xu+ ðuc
H:
× suau, uro ona (emë pantme) ¹ crasaua ¹ emy +ro.
I knew she ¹ HAD TOLD ¹ him this.
aù uìmv uiu xæo mov.o xu+ ðuc
Mt suauu, uro onn ¹ ue saeoeopam ¹ no-anrnnñckn.
We knew they ¹ WOULDN’T speak ¹ English.
wn uìmv ðoù wvoum cnuur nue.uui
Ham crasauu, uro onn ¹ óyðym ¹ ronoµnt.
We were told (that) they ¹ WOULD be ¹ hungry.
wn w+o mov.o ðæm ðoù wvo ouu xauepu
× crasau, uro x ¹ ue noùðy ¹ ryµa.
I said (that) I ¹ WOULDN’T GO ¹ there.
aù coo ðæm aù wvoum eov ð+o
NB!
Ecnn xe rnaron euaeuoeo npeµnoxennx
cronr n oµnom ns uacmoauux nnn óyðyuux «epe+èu»,
ro rnaron emopoeo npeµnoxennx
moxer croxrt npakrnueckn n umóo¬ epe+euu
cooôpasno c neoôxoµnmocrtm ronopxmero:
× snam, uro on +ro ronopnn! ÷ I know (that) he said it!
aù uov ðæm xu coo um
× nnkorµa ne nonepm, uro on rakoe ckasan ÷ I will never believe
(that) he said such a thing.
× cntman, uro on nosnpamaercx.
I have heard (that) he is coming back;
aù xæe xœœo ðæm xu us ra+uue oær
————————————————————————————————
2) Bropoe OHEHL BAÆHOE µnx Bac npannno ÷
÷ «BVµVHEE n HPOHEµHEM»:
× ckasaB emy, uro npuðy ÷ I told him ¹ I would come.
aù moyuð xu+ aù wyð ra¬
× ncerµa µymaB, uro ¹ CTAHY ¹ nërunkom.
I always thoughT (that) ¹ I WOULD become ¹ a pilot.
aù oo.woùs oom (ðæm) aù WVµ óura¬ onaù.om
Tt nnkorµa ne noµospenaBa, uro on ¹ HPE±ACT ¹ reôx.
You never suspecteD (that) he ¹ WOULD betray ¹ you.
mv u+eo cocn+rmuo (ðæm) xu WVµ óump+ù mv
On ne snaB, uro BY±ET aaue1t oô +rom ncm cnom xnsnt.
He didn’t know (that) he WOULD regret about it all his life.
xu ououm uov (ðæm) xu WVµ puep+m ooavm um oo. xus .aùq
(÷ ¹ × BY±Y ¡OHXEH ¹ …)
× ne oxnµaB, uro ¹ mne HPH±ËTCR ¹ yexart.
I didn’t expect (that) ¹ I WOULD HAVE TO ¹ leave.
aù ououm urcn+rm (ðæm) AH WVµ XæB 1V .uue
385 384
HPEOFPA3OBAHHE HPRMOH PEuH
B! KOCBEHHVK.
Hpannna «Coe.acoeauu»/co:emauu» epe+èu» µeñcrnymr
n npn nepeeooe «np»+où» anrnnñckoñ peun n! «roceeuuvm».
Inanntm npannnom n µannom cnyuae xnnxercx oôxsarentnocrt
µnx oôenx uacreñ npeµnoxennx
croxrt e oðuo¬ u mo¬ xe npemenn.
Oµnako ecrt n µononnnrentnte 7 npannn +roro «nepeeooa»,
ne nmemmne npxmoro ornomennx k anrnnñcknm «epe+eua+» n
«roucmpvrµu»+», n koropte moxno nepeuncnnrt nkparne n no´ xoµx,
(uyrt µanee +rn npaeu.a
noµrnepxµamrcx konkperntmn npnmepamn) :
1) Inaron 'say¨ samenxercx! na rnaron 'tell”
(ro ecrt “say ! tell”);
2) 3an»mie, raei:ru n eonpocume.iuie suaru onyckamrcx;
3) Cvoìermuie mecronmennx (÷ cvoìermi)
n npum»rame.iuie +ecmou+euu»
(÷ «oõnsa1eutnme onpeoe.ume.u»)
samenxmrcx coornercrnenno cmtcny;
4) Hponcxoµnr cneµymmax noc1onnnan «sa+eua» cnon:
will ! would
this ! that
these ! those
now ! then
today ! that day
yesterday ! the day before
tomorrow ! the next day
ago ! before
here ! there;
× uaðeauca, uro ¹ emy ue craxym.
I hoped they ¹ WOULDN’T tell him.
aù xovnm ðoù wvoum mo. xu+
————————————————————————————————
H µnx nymeñ yôeµnrentnocrn nor Bam ]pasa ns ¡+nnµa Mop+na
(÷ anropa «Hepeoù rpoeu»):
“Here’s the postcard I THOUGHT I WOULD never SEND”.
xnos ðonovcmraao aù oom aù wvo u+eo couo
«Bor orkptrka, (koropym) x ov+aBa, (uro) nnkorµa ne HOHBK».
————————————————————————————————
NB!
OFHA¡ËXHBARµHH HKAHC
CKOPEE ±AR HHmOPMAHHH, uEM ±AR ±EHCTBHR.
Oµnako, ecnn Bt ronopnre o uëm-ro oóueuseecmuo¬
nnn peeyuapuo noemopamue¬ca,
ro moxno n ne coônmµart «Hpannn coe.acoeauu» epe+èu»:
I read that drinking IS not good for health.
aù poo ðæm opnuruue us uom evo qoo xo.
× uumau, uro ntxncrno ne nonesno µnx sµopontx.
We didn’t know what time the film usually BEGINS.
wn ououm uov wom maù+ ðoqn.+ mvrie.u ouenus
Mt ue snaun no ckontko oôtuno naunnaemcx ]nntm.
————————————————————————————————
Ynaxaemte rocnoµa!
Ocoóeuuo pekomenµym Bam cnom nonym knnry «5 ceucauuù»,
koropax (kpome ncero npouero) ykaxer Bam n npxmoñ nyrt
k sayuueauum anrnnñcknx cuoe!
Takxe ouent conerym npnoôperart mon «BHµEOKVPCM» !!!
387 386
PEKOMEH¡AHH×
HO ±OCTHÆEHHK FICTPOIO PE3YALTATA.
O1BEHAH1E me¬ re, HEM CHPALHBAPT
(nnôo n vmeepoume.iuoù, nnôo n ompuµame.iuoù qop+e):
DO you know him? – YES, I DO! – NO, I DON’T !
DOES she know him? – YES, she DOES! – NO, she DOESN’T !
DID they write this? – YES, they DID! – NO, they DIDN’T !
WILL they come? – YES, they WILL! – NO, they WON’T!
CAN she do this? – YES, she CAN! – NO, she CA
´
NNOT!
HAVE you a friend? – YES, I HAVE! – NO, I HAVEN’T!
HAS she a book? – YES, she HAS! – NO, she HASN’T!
HAD they any money? – YES, they HAD – NO, they HADN’T!
WILL we have a lunch? – YES, we WILL! – NO, we WON’T!
IS our cat there? – YES, it IS! – NO, it ISN’T!
WERE our cats there? – YES, they WERE! – NO, they WEREN’T!
WILL our cats be there? – YES, they WILL! – NO, they WON’T!
HO:
DON`1 you read it? YES, I DO! NO, I DON`1!
ISN`1 she there? YES, she IS! NO, she ISN`1!
WON`1 you come? YES, I WILL! NO, I WON`1!
CAN`1 they play? YES, they CAN! NO, they CAN`1!
n r.µ.
5) Hpn neoôxoµnmocrn «oooae.»mmc»» cnona
“whether” – w+ðo (nnn “if” – uq) ÷ «... uu ...»;
6) B noee.ume.iuo+ uar.oueuuu
rnaron n 1-n (÷ n c.oeapuoù) qop+e
samenxercx! na rnaron c :acmuµeù “to …”;
7) 3anpeuamua» :acmuµa “Don’t …”
samenxercx! na npocroe ompuµauue “not”.
Hocneµnne 2 nynkra moxno cnecrn k npocroñ sa+eue
“Don’t” ! “... not to ...”.
HPHMEPL:
She said to me: ! She told me (that)
“We will leave ! we would leave
tomorrow” ! the next day.
They asked us: ! They asked us ¹ whether (nnn: if)
“Have you ! we had
read the book?” ÷ read the book.
You asked me: ÷ You asked me
“Where ÷ where
do you ! I
go?” ! went.
He said to her: ! He told her
“Come ! to come
to me!” ! to him.
She said to me: ! She told me
“Don’t ! not to
kiss her!” ÷ kiss her.
————————————————————————————————
389 388
Ecnn xe +ror cyózerm/oózerm ncrpeuaercx nam nnepnme,
n mt µo +roro o nëm ne cntxann ro or nero oõnsa1eutno nyxno
na ncxknñ cnyuañ omoo»pumic», oõnsa1eutno nocnontsonanmnct
«HEonpeðeuëuum¬ apmur.e+», n ckasan:
«OµHH ...», «KAKOH-1O ...», «HEKHH ...» ÷ “AN”
nnn “A” – æu/o,
uro pantme npocro snaunno «OµnH»!!!:
1) 'I see A girl”;
2) “I see THE girl” – u ro, u ro
epa++amu:ecru npannutno,
no pasuuµa ecmo, n ona saknmuaercx n rom,
uro n nepnom cnyuae +ra «oeevura» nnmt ooua us ¬uoeux,
no nropom cnyuae u¬euuo ma ca¬aa, rourpemuaa «oeevura» !
Inannoe uroôt
xomo raroù-mo onpeoe.ume.i/apmur.i BMB !!!
A nmõnpa1t +ror onpeoe.ume.i
nyxno npocro cooôpasno sðpaeo¬y c¬mcuy !!!
————————————————————————————————
Hy a pas “AN/A” snaunr «OµHH»,
ro ero (ecmecmeeuuo !!!) HEBL3R cmaeumo
nepeµ cvoìerma+u/ooìerma+u no +uorecmeeuuo+ uncne!!! –
neµt «Oouu cronM» u no-pycckn npxµ nn kro-nnôyµt ckaxer ..!
To ecrt n +mo¬ cnyuae $
«ueonpeoe.èuuoe» cvuecmeume.iuoe
(croxmee no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ uncne!)
¬oxem ôtrt «eo.i+» ÷ óes «onpeoe.ume.»» !!! (Crp. 392).
————————————————————————————————
OBR3ATEALHLE OHPEµEHHTEHH
“AN”, “A” n “THE” (r.n. «apmur.u»).
¡o cnx nop mt crapannct «voeeami» or «apmur.»», renept
xe µanañre sa cuër ncnoutsonannn apmur.» OBOIATHM nam
anrnnñcknñ n cµenaem ero emë ôonee ôorartm n npannntntm !!!
«Bo»mic»» apmur.» ne nyxno, rak kak on na camom-ro µene
ouent yµoôen npocro ornecnrect k nemy kak k cuoey,
kak k oðuo¬y us «oõnsa1eutnmx onpeoe.ume.eù»
n kak k emë oµnomy onpeoe.euum no «onpeoe.euum N1»
(rak kak on ncerµa cronr nepeµ µpyrnmn onpeoe.euu»+u).
Aue.o»si:uie ôontmne ovreoeoi, n onn nmôxr ncë vmo:u»mi
no+romy onn ncerµa
npn nomomn apmur.» (÷ «onpeðeuumeua»)
n oóasameuoueùue¬ nopxµke norasieamm nam (nnn mt ronopx
no-anrnnñckn oôxsarentno µouanm norasieami)
o raro¬ npeµmere nnn nnne (÷ cyózerme/oózerme)
nµër peut ...
Ecnn mt +ror npeµmer nnn, nanpnmep, +roro uenoneka VÆE
snaem nnn o nëm VÆE korµa-ro mna peut (ro ecrt on µnx nac
«onpeðeuëu», «useecmeu») ro mt (ronopx no-anrnnñckn) n µonxnt
oõnsa1eutno nocnontsonartcx «onpeðeuëuum¬ apmur.e+», ro
ecrt oõnsa1eutno ckasart:
«1O1 ...», «1O1 camtñ ...», «1E camte ...» ÷
÷ no-anrnnñckn “THE ...” – ðo.
H crannrcx +ro “THE” nepeµ cyózerma¬u/oózerma¬u
n umõou uncne
(÷ u no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ ÷ the boy/the boys) !!!
391 390
" mo
% Hauomo ôtno senënoe.
…*
Ha nëm ôtnn % oipi.,
…*
samnrte % senëntmn nnrkamn.
" oouu
Mt cenn n % aemoovc.
" Tom
% Aemoóyc ôtn nepenonnen.
The coat was green.
ðorovm wos epuuu
…*
There were % holes on it.
ð+o wœœ xov.s ou nm
…*
mended with % green threads.
++uouo wnð epuuu poos
We took A bus.
wn mvr ooac
THE bus was overcrowded.
ðooac wos oveorpavouo
Kak nnµnre $, npocrtm «rvpcueo+» (ro ecrt uar.ouui+
upuqmo+) ntµenent cnona,
ncrpeuammnecx B HEPBBH PA3, n, coornercrnenno,
EHE nam HE3HAKOMBE.
Onn, ec1ec1nenno, o]opmnent HEOHPEµEHEHHBM apmur.e+
(“an/a” – æu/o).
¡anee 3TH ÆE CAMLE cnona, ntµenennte xupum¬
rvpcueo+, oôosnauamr VÆE 3HAKOMBE rontko uro (nnn
panee) ecmpeuaeuueca nam nonxrnx.
Coornercrnenno (rak kak o nnx VÆE ronopnnoct PAHBLE),
+rn cnona o]opmnxmrcx OHPEµEBËHHMM apmur.e+ (“the” – ðo).
To ecrt, ecnn cnono nonropxercx emopoù pas,
ro ono oõmuno oqop+.»emc» aprnknem 'the¨ !!!
————————————————————————————————
* Cm. crp. 392
uroôt ueeue ôtno npousuocumo, nepeµ cnonamn, koropte
naunnamrcx c e.acuix, nyxno ronopnrt “an ...” – æu,
a nepeµ coe.acui+u nyxno ronopnrt “a ...” +ro n exy xcno:
A boy ÷ mantunk AN apricot ÷ aôpnkoc.
o ooù æu +ùnpurom
Ho ecrt n napa nërknx umaucoe:
1) µeno n rom, uro ôykna “h-” n nauane anrnnñckoro cnona
nnorµa mo.iro nuuemca, no ne nponsnocnrcx
n +rom cnyuae nyxno ncnontsonart “AN”, nanpnmep:
AN hour – æH avo ÷ uac,
no:
A hot dish – 3 xom ouui ÷ ropxuee ônmµo;
2) ôykna “U-” n nauane anrnnñckoro cnona
nnorµa unraercx kak «A-», a nnorµa kak «Ky-».
Coornercrnenno:
AN umbrella – æH A+op+.o ÷ sonr(-nk),
n:
A union – 3 Kvuuou ÷ coms.
————————————————————————————————
A nor Bam 2 mercmura, nosnonxmmne nonxrt qvurµum apmur.eù
n cy1t nx yno1peõuennn
(oôparnre nnnmanne na no»cueuu» nocue rekcron):
" oouoeo
Buepa x ncrpernn % opvea.
" moeo " oouo
Y % ðpyea ôtno % crapoe na.imo.
Yesterday I met A friend.
ecmoooù aù +om oqp+uo
THE friend had AN old coat.
ðoqp+uo xæo ouov.o rovm
393 392
HOPRµKOBMH HOMEP.
uroôt oôosnaunrt HOPRµKOBMH uo¬ep uero-nnôyµt,
Bam nyxno K uucuy (÷ K µuqpe)
npocro npnôannrt BOCLMOE orou:auue “¹th” – ,
nanpnmep:
4 ÷ four – qoo ! uernëprmù ÷ four¹TH – qoo
B rex :uc.ume.iuix,
koropte cocroxr ns uecrouorux cnon – µaxe n ouent µnnnntx
“¹th” npnôannxñre 1outxo r HOCBEµHEMV cnony
(1ouno kak no-pyccxn !!!):
24 ÷ twenty four – me+umu qoo ! µnaµnart uernëprmù ÷
÷ twenty fourTH.
mw+umu qoo
————————————————————————————————
«HE-HPABHBLHME» nop»oroeie uncnnrentnte (7 umyr):
(the) first – qœœcm ÷ nepntñ,
(the) second – c+rouo ÷ nropoñ,
(the) third – œœo ÷ rpernñ,
(the) fifth – quq ÷ nxrtñ,
(the) eighth – où ÷ noctmoñ,
(the) ninth – uaùu ÷ µenxrtñ,
(the) twelfth mwo.q ÷ µnenaµnartñ.
Houemy ('the ...¨) ? Cmorpnre na 10 cm. µanee!
————————————————————————————————
Co nceun oc1autnmun uncnnrentntmn
npoônem, nonropxm, HE1:
uroôt oôpasonart or nnx nopaðroeme uncnnrentnte,
Bam µocrarouno
K rouuy cnona ÷ K :uc.ume.iuo+v
npocro npnõann1t cmauoapmuoe orou:auue “¹th” – .
H emë oµnn rekcr:
AN old man lived (OµHH) cmapur xnn
æuov.o +æu .ueo
in A small house n (OµHOM) manentkom oo+e
uu oc+oo. xavc
near A forest. pxµom c (OµHHM) .eco+.
uno oqopucm
One day THE old man Oµnaxµt (31O1 CAMMH) cmapur
wau ooù ðoov.o +æu
left THE house ymën ns (1OIO CAMOIO) oo+a
.eqm ðoxavc
and went into THE forest n nomën n (1O1 CAMMH) .ec
æuo w+um numv ðoqopucm
" ... * " 0 *
to collect % mushrooms. (utoôt) coônpart % rpnôt.
mv ro.erm +auipvv+s
1HE mushrooms were tasty. (1E) rpnôt ôtnn nkycntmn.
ðo +auipvv+s wœœ m+ùcmu
————————————————————————————————
* Kak nnµnre, nepeµ +rnmn cnonamn no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ :uc.e
HE1 nnkaknx «apmur.eù»/onpeoe.ume.eù!
Hponsomno +ro noromy, uro n o «oipax», n o «uumrax»,
n o «epuoax» n +mux cnyuaxx ynomnnaercx enepeme a snaunr,
«vuueepca.iuoe» “the” crannrt sµect ueuosa n n ro xe npemx
nce +rn 3 cnona croxr no ¬uoxecmeeuuo¬ :uc.e snaunr, o
nnx ueuosa ronopnrt n «oouu» (÷ “an/a”) –
– nor onn n ocrannct «eo.i+u» …
Tak kak onpe.e.ume.» «oouu» n anrnnñckom npocro uem !!!
————————————————————————————————
395 394
– npnuëm “-R” ue nponsnocnrcx, a rontko nuuemca:
ôontmOH ! ôontmE ÷ big ! biggER,
mnnBH ! mnneE ÷ nice ! nicER n r.µ.
Ecnn xe k anrnnñckomy cnony VÆE :mo-nnôyµt roeoa-nnôyµt
ôtno npnôanneno
(n ne naxno, o.uuuoe +ro cnono nnn ropomroe),
ro, ncnomnnn npekpacnoe «Hpaeuuo µpaeyuruua» X3, mt snaem,
uro «Bououe uaeeuueamo vre ueuosa!!!» –
no+romy mt HE yµnnnxem cnono emë oµnnm orou:auue+,
a µenaem u +ro kak no-pycckn, ro ecrt ronopnm:
«BOBEE ...» ÷ “MORE ...” – +oo:
nnn:
BOBEE ycrantñ ÷! MORE tireD – ¬oo maùoo
Vxe npnôannennte orou:auu» ÷ "$
BOBEE nnrepecntñ ÷! MORE interestING.
A uroôt no-anrnnñckn ckasart «CAMMH ...» nnn «HAH...»,
mt na rex xe camtx ycnonnxx µonxnt r rouuy (ueus+euèuuoeo)
cnona npnôannrt orou:auue “¹EST” – ucm,
a nepeµ cnonom oõnsa1eutno nocrannrt emë
n onpeðeuëuumù apmur.i “THE ...” (nnn µpyroñ «oóasam. onpeo.»),
rak kak yx ecnn kro-ro, nanpnmep, «ca¬mù +u.iù»,
ro yx xnno useecmuo, kro ...!
Ecnn xe cnono VÆE oµnn pas ôtno nsmeneno
(÷ «…¹orou:auue»), ro ncnomnnn n sµect «Hpaeuuo µpaeyuruua»
X3 mt oõnsa1eutno µonxnt ynorpeônrt anrnnñckoe cnono
«CAMMH ...» ÷ “(the) MOST ...” – ðo+ovcm
H nonyuaercx:
CAMMH mnnBH ... ÷! THE nicEST ... – ðo uaùcucm
÷ Ca¬mù cnmnarnuntñ
CAMMH nnrepecntñ ÷! THE MOST interestING ...
÷ Ca¬mù nnrepecntñ
H kak x nncan n «Iapaumupoeauuo¬ aueuuùcro¬ sa 3,5 ðua»:
«B oðuoù mepenre moxer ôtrt
TOHIKO OµHH “ðeaðuamo nammù co.oam” –
– snaunr, on xnno 'H3BEC1EH”,
snaunr, oõnsa1eutno vrarume na +ro
'OHPEµEBËHHMM APTHKHEM¨ !!!»:
× nostmy ¹ mpuoµami ceoi+VK ¹ knnry.
I’ll take ¹ THE thirty sevenTH ¹ book.
aù. moùr ð+ œœmu c+eou ovr
To ecrt nopaðroeme :uc.ume.iuie oôtuno o]opmnxmrcx
OHPEµEBH1EBEM '1HE¨ !
CXEMA:
————————————————————————————————
OBR3A1EBLHMH
HOPBµKOBOE

OHPEµEHHTEHB
¹ HHCAHTEALHOE ¹ CAOBO.
(c '¹th¨ nnn oµno & ns 6-mu)
————————————————————————————————
Korµa n 1927 roµy na sanoµe uopµa n Xañn+nµ-Hapke c
konneñepa comna 15-rnmnnnnonnax «Moðeuo «1», n koropoñ exann
cam X+npn uopµ n ero ctn 3µc+nt, na ôopry anromoônnx n ôtno
nanncano:
“THE fifteen millionTH” !!!
————————————————————————————————
CTEHEHH CPABHEHHR.
Cpaeuumi uro-nnôyµt c uem-nnôyµt no-anrnnñckn emë nerue,
uem no-pycckn ...
Mm npnôannxem k ropum cnona “¹E” –
n aue.o»si:uie µenamr rouno rak xe
rontko nnmy1 onn uyrt nnaue: “¹ER”,
n npnôannxmr onn +ro “¹ER” ne k ropum, a npxmo k cnony –
397 396
old
ov.o
craptñ
!
!
elder
+.oo
crapme,
crapee,
nspocnee
the eldest
ðo +.oucm
camtñ crapmnñ,
camtñ nspocntñ,
camtñ craptñ,
crapeñmnñ,
nancrapeñmnñ.
Oµnako y cnona 'old¨ nosmoxnt n qop+i
“older¨ ÷ «crapme» n 'the oldest¨ ÷ «camtñ crapmnñ»,
ov.oo ðo ov.oucm
ecnn peut nµër nuenno n 1outxo o BO3PACTE,
a HE o crapmnncrne.
————————————————————————————————
Hy uro x, rocnoµa n µpystx!
Tenept y Bac ecrt 2 antrepnarnnt:
1) Bt moxere ptctm noôexart na kakne-nnôyµt «rvpci», orµart
neckontko coren ôakcon «npenooaeame.»+» n ner emë +µak 5
nocnxrnrt ei(¬)v:ueauum
ocranmnxcx 20° aue.osnannñ ÷ nekcnkn n nmancon;
2) Bt moxere noñrn n knnxntñ marasnn, sa roneùru kynnrt ram
µpyrne
ruueu Anekcanµpa ±parynxnna
(¹ ero «Buðeorypc»),
n 1axnu oôpasom pemnrt
nourn nce Bamn aue.o»si:uie npoônemt !!!
————————————————————————————————
Hnmnre mne na aµpec
andrapublish¡yandex.ru
¡pyrne knnrn n «BHµEOKVPCM» A. ¡parynknna
moxno rakxe npnoôpecrn, nosnonnn no rene]onam:
8-901-301-27-57 n Cankr-Herepôypre.
(095) 517-00-95 n Mockne.
H:
CAMMH ycrantñ ÷! THE MOST tireD ...
ðo +ovcm maùoo
÷ Ca¬mù ycrantñ.
Ecrt 10 onpeoe.euuù ", c koroptmn +rn $ +auunv.»µuu nponsnoµnrt
neutsn.
Cmeneuu cpaeueuu» or nnx ne oõpasym1cn nnxax –
– rak uro 14 cnon ÷ 14 uenpaeu.iuix cmeneueù cpaeueuu»
or +rnx 10 onpeoe.euuù –
nyxno npocro oµnopasono emsyópumo !!!:
«HE-HPABHHBHBE» C1EHEHH CPABHEHHR:
well, good
w+., evo
xopomo, xopomnñ
bad, evil
oæo, uue.
nnoxoñ, snoñ
many, much
++uu, +am:
mnoro
few, little
qìmv, .um.
mano
far
qaa
µanëknñ,
µaneko
!
!
!
!
!
better
o+mo
nyume
worse
wœœc
xyxe,
snee
more
+oo
ôontme,
ôonee
less
.ec
mentme,
menee
farther
qaaðo
further
qœœðo
µantme,
µanee
!
!
!
!
!
u.u:
!
the best
ðoo+cm
camtñ nyumnñ
nannyumnñ
the worst
ðowœœcm
camtñ nnoxoñ,
nanxyµmnñ
the most
ðo+ovcm
camtñ, nanôonee,
nanôontmee
the least
ðo.nucm
camoe manoe,
nanmentmee,
nanmenee
the farthest
ð+qaaðucm
the furthest
ðoqœœðucm
camtñ µantnnñ,
camtñ µanëknñ
399 398
n) Cymecrnnrentnte, ynorpeônxemte 1outxo n eouucmeeuuo+ uncne
(÷ c rnaronom na “¹(e)S”):
advice
craft
evidence
furniture
information
hair
knowledge
luggage
money
progress
nonsense
ooeaùc
rpaaqm
+euoouc
qœœuum:o
uuqo++ùuiu
x+o
uoo.uori
.aeuori
+auu
npoepoc
uoucouc
÷ coner/-t
÷ cyµ/-no,-a
÷ µokasarentcrn/-o,-a
÷ meôent
÷ nn]opmannx
÷ nonoc/-t
÷ snann/-e,-x
÷ ôarax
÷ µentrn
÷ nporpecc
÷ epynµa, ôeccmtcnnna
————————————————————————————————
Pyccko-Pycckne 0opmynt.
3HAHTE, uro B1OPMM (II) napnanram PPm
coornercrnymr nx óyreauoume anrnnñckne nepenoµt:
I: ÷! II: ÷ Anru.:
× poµnncx ÷! × ómu poxµëu ÷ I was born ooou
Cnntnee menx ÷! Cnntnee, ue¬ menx ÷ Stronger than me.
¡añ emy cµenart +ro ÷! Hoseouo e¬y ¹ cµenart +ro!
÷ Let him ¹ do it
Y menx ecrt ... ÷! × u¬em ... ÷ I have ...
÷! Y menx u¬eemca … ÷ I’ve got …
Y nero ecrt ... ÷! On u¬eem ... ÷ He has ...
÷! Y nero u¬eemca … ÷ He’s got
Tt noðeuaðmeau sa nnmn? – Her, x HE µEBAB +roro ...
No, I DIDN’T DO that ...
Menx nakasaun ÷! × ómu nakasau ÷ I was punished nauuuim
CHPABOHHAR HACTL.
1) HEnpaeuuoume cymecrnnrentnte (27 umvr):
a) Cymecrnnrentnte, nmemmne ue-npaeu.iuvm qop+v
¬uoxecmeeuuoeo uncna:
Eðuucme. uncno: ! Muox. uncno:
child
m:aù.o
foot
qvm
goose
evvc
louse
.avc
mouse
+avc
man
+æu
woman
wy++u
ox
orc
tooth
mvv
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
children
:m.opou
feet
quum
geese
euuc
lice
.aùc
mice
+aùc
men
+ou
women
wn+uu
oxen
orcu
teeth
muu
÷ µerH
÷ crynnH
÷ rycH
÷ nmH
÷ mtmH
÷ myxunnB
÷ xenmnnB
÷ nonB
÷ syôB;
ó) Oðuuaroeaa qop+a cymecrnnrentnoro
n eouucmeeuuo+ n no +uorecmeeuuo+ uncne:
aircraft
deer
grand
quid
salmon
sheep
trout
+orpaaqm
ono
epæuo
rwuo
caa+ou
uiuun
– mpavm
÷ camonër/-t
÷ one/-nt/-nn
÷ mryka (mic»:a)
÷ ]ynr crepnnnron (aue..)
÷ noco/-ct/-cn
÷ onn/-a/-t
÷ ]ope/-nt/-nn;
401 400
CBO¡HA× TAFHHHA ±ECRTH OKOHHAHHH
(µnx npnmepon nostmëm npaeu.iuiù rnaron
“paint” – noùum ÷ «xpacn1t»):
N Bnµ orouuauua: K ue¬y npucoeouu»emc»? Hmo ouo oaèm?
¹S
¹S
’S
¹(e)D – o,
uo,
m
¹ING – uue
1a.
1o.
1e.
2.
3.
k cvuecmeume.iuo+v
n eouucmeeuuo+ :uc.e:
boyS ÷
nocne «On/-a/-o» u «Kro?»
n cvuecmeume.iuix
n eðuucmeeuuo¬ uncne
k e.aeo.v:
paintS ÷
k cvuecmeume.iui+
n k u+eua+
coocmeeuui+:
my mother’S ÷
Michael’S ÷
k npaeuuouo¬y e.aeo.v:
paintED ÷
a) npoueðuee npemx:
ô) naccueuoe onpeµen.:
k nmôomy e.aeo.v:
paintING ÷
a) oeenpu:acmue:
ô) armueuoe onpeµen.:
n) cymecrnnrentnoe:
Muoxecme. :uc.o:
÷ mantunkH;
÷ kpacH1;
«Buaðeuoua»:
÷ moeñ marEP`H,
÷ Mañkn`OB;
÷ (no-)kpacnB;
÷ nokpamEH/ntñ,
÷ okpamnnaEMtñ;
÷ kpacR;
÷ kpacRHnñ,
÷ kpacnBHnñ;
÷ kpamEHHE;
Ero oônµeun ÷! On ómu oônxeu ÷ He was offended oq+uouo
1 2 3
Knaprnpa moeñ marepn ÷! Moeñ marep`n knaprnpa.
÷ My mother’s flat.
× xouy, uroôt menx narpaµnnn ÷! × xouy ¹ ómmo narpaxµëu(-ui+).
÷ I want ¹ to be rewarded.
puwooouo
× óyðy xyµoxnnkom ÷! × ¹ óyðy ómmo ¹ xyµoxnnkom.
÷ I ¹ will be ¹ an artist aamucm
× cmory . ÷! × ôyµy (oimi) e cocmoauuu …
÷ I will be able (to) …
× kynnn … ÷! V ¬eua (ecmi) ¹ kynneu(-uiù) …
÷ I have ¹ bought … ooom
Mne ôt noñrn ÷! × ¹ ðouxeu ómu óm ¹ noñrn.
÷ I ¹ should ¹ go.
Mne óm c¡ecrt xônoko ÷ 1) × ¹ óm xomeu ¹ c¡ecrt xônoko.
÷ I’d like to ¹ eat an apple;
2) × ¹ ðouxeu ómu óm ¹ c¡ecrt xônoko.
I ¹ should ¹ eat an apple.
Mne ckasann ÷! × ómu nsnemëu ÷ I was told … mov.o
Mne xouercx ÷! × xouy ÷ I want (to) ...
Mne npannrcx ... ÷! × cu¬namusupym / oóoxam ...
÷ I like (to) ... .aùr
402
Hape:ue:
÷ ôtcrpO;
÷ no´npemx,
÷ exeµnennO;
Onpeoe.euue.
÷ nerpEHBH;
Hopaðroeme
:uc.ume.iuie.
÷ ceµtmOH;
÷ «óouee ...»:
÷ ymneE
÷ pantmE, paneE;
÷ ca¬mù ymntñ,
uauymneñmnñ;
÷ ca¬mù pannnñ.
N Bnµ orouuauua: K ue¬y npucoeouu»emc»? Hmo ouo oaèm?
————————————————————————————————
BOT H BCË !!!
Fontme n anrnnñckom xstke
HHHEIO co cnonom (n nenxx nsuenennn ero qvurµuu)
cµenart HEBL3R !!!
————————————————————————————————
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
¹LY – .u
¹Y – u
¹TH –
¹ER – o
¹EST – ucm
k onpeoe.euu»+:
quickLY ÷
n k cvuecmeum.:
timeLY ÷
dayLY ÷
k cvuecmeumeume.iui+:
windY ÷
k ro.u:ecmeeuui+
:uc.ume.iui+:
sevenTH ÷
k npu.aeame.iui+:
smartER ÷
n k uape:u»+:
earliER ÷
k npu.aeame.iui+:
the smartEST ÷
n k uape:u»+:
the earliEST ÷
403
HEPBAR «TABHHHA HEHPABHBLHMX IhAIOhOB»
(co nceun rpemx oµnnaxonmun qop+a+u
(22 mryxn),
ro ecrt nx cuoeapuaa qop+a,
nx npoueðuee epe+»
n nx naccueuoe onpeðeueuue
+ro ]axrnuecxn oðuo u mo xe cuono):
bet (bet, bet,) oom ÷ µepxart napn, cnopnrt
burst (burst, burst) oœœcm ÷ nonnyrt
cast (cast, cast) raacm ÷ ôpocart; nnrt (merann)
cost (cost, cost) rocm ÷ cronrt
cut (cut, cut) ram ÷ pesart
hit (hit, hit) xum ÷ yµapxrt
hurt (hurt, hurt) xœœm ÷ µenart ôontno
knit (knit, knit) uum ÷ nxsart
let (let, let) .em ÷ nosnonxrt
put (put, put) nvm ÷ crannrt, xnacrt
quit (quit, quit) rwnm ÷ ocrannrt
rid (rid, rid)* puo ÷ ocnoôoxµart
set (set, set) com ÷ crannrt
shed (shed, shed)* uieo ÷ repxrt
shred (shred, shred)* uipeo ÷ xpomcart
shut (shut, shut) u»m ÷ saxptnart
slit (slit, slit)* c.um ÷ paspesart
split (split, slplit) cn.um ÷ xonort
spread (spread, spread) cnpoo ÷ pacnpocrpanxrt
sweat (sweat, sweat) cw+m ÷ norert
thrust (thrust, thrust)* θpacm ÷ ronxart.
* 3eèsoo:ra+u ormeuent ¬auoynorpeônrentnte cnona.
TAFhHHI «HE-HPABHBLHMX» IhAIOhOB.
405
404
n) 3µect " roxe 2-n n 3-n qop+i oµnnaxonm !
Hs+eueuu» rnaronon n n +1on " noðepvnne
raxxe nerxn µnx sayunnannx,
n cnoµxrcx
x noxnnennm '-t¨ na xonne rnarona,
c oµnonpemenntm «vropa:ueauue+» rnacnoñ
n ero cepeµnne
(n c coornercrnymmnm us+eueuue+ e eë npousuoueuuu !!!):
burn (burnt, burnt) oœœu (oœœum) ÷ ropert
creep (crept, crept) rpuun (rponm) ÷ nonsrn
deal (dealt, dealt) ouu. (oo.m) ÷ nmert µeno c.
µoronapnnartcx
dwell (dwelt, dwelt) ow+. (ow+.m) ÷ npoxnnart, xnrt
feel (Ielt, Ielt) quu. (qo.m) ÷ uyncrnonart
keep (kept, kept) ruun (ronm) ÷ (co)µepxart
kneel (knelt, knelt) uuu. (uo.m) ÷ ncrart na xonenn;
croxrt na xonenxx
mean (meant, meant) +uuu (+oum) ÷ nmert n nnµy
ronopnrt ceptësno
meet (met, met) +uum (+om) ÷ ncrpeuart(-cx)
shoot (shot, shot) umvm (uèm) ÷ crpenxrt
sleep (slept, slept) c.uun (c.onm) ÷ cnart
smell (smelt, smelt) c+o. (c+o.m) ÷ naxnyrt, nmxart
spell (spelt, spelt) cno. (cno.m) ÷ nponsnocnrt
no ôyxnam
spill (spilt, spilt) cnu. (cnu.m) ÷ nponnnart(-cx),
pasôptsrnnart(-cx)
sweep (swept, swept) cwnun (cw+nm) ÷ mecrn´ , noµmerart
weep (wept, wept) wnun (w+nm) ÷ nnaxart.
BTOPAR «TABHHHA
HEHPABHHBHBX IhAIOhOB»
(ouent nërxax µnx sayunnannx)
c oµnnaxonmun 2-n n 3-n qop¬a¬u
(1-x uac1t +roñ epvnni 27 mryx).
NB. Bcnomnnaem, uro
2-n qop+a +ro npoueðuee npemx,
a 3-n qop+a +ro (naccnnnoe) onpeðeueuue,
oôpasonannoe ns +roro xe e.aeo.a.
KAK ux 3AHOMHHATB?
a) Hs+eueuu», nponsomeµmne no 2-x n n 3-x qop+ax
cneµymmnx e.aeo.oe " ouent oðuooópasum.
B µannom cnyuae onn cnennct nnmt
x «vropa:ueauum» rnacnoñ n cepeµnne rnarona:
bleed (bled, bled) o.uuo (o.eo) ÷ xponorounrt
breed (bred, bred) opuuo (opoo) ÷ nopoxµart
feed (Ied, Ied) quuo (qoo) ÷ xopmnrt
lead (led, led) .uuo (.eo) ÷ necrn
speed (sped, sped) cnuuo (cnoo) ÷ cnemnrt, rnart
¹
have (had, had) xæe (xæo) ÷ nmert
(a sµect «npo#na.o» 've-¨ n npnôannnoct «uop+a.iuoe» '¹d¨);
ô) Tyr " nce us+eueuu»
+ro nepexoµ '-d¨ n$ '-t¨ na xonne rnarona:
bend (bent, bent) oouo (ooum) ÷ crnôart
build (built, built) ou.o (ou.m) ÷ crponrt
lend (lent, lent) .ouo (.oum) ÷ oµanxnnart
send (sent, sent) couo (coum) ÷ noctnart
spend (spent, spent) cnouo (cnoum) ÷ rparnrt;
407
406
ô)
3ro " roxe uacrt rpynnt ruarouon
c oµnnaxonmun 2-ñ ÷ npoueðuu¬ epe+eue+
n 3-ñ ÷ naccnnntm onpeðeueuue¬
qop+a+u.
Ho +rn ]opmt snaunrentno ornnuamrcx
or nx ae 1-ñ qop+i.
KAK ux 3AHOMHHATB?
3µect " uyrt-uyrt norpyµnee,
no «Haðo suauum uaðo!».
Bo ncex 2-3-nx qop+ax xonen cnona
npenparnncx n$ '-ought¨ ÷ «-oom»:
bring (brought, brought) opuue (opoom) ÷ npnnocnrt
buy (bought, bought) oaù (ooom) ÷ noxynart
catch (cought, cought) ræm: (room) ÷ xnarart;
nonnrt, noñmart;
seek (sought, sought) cuur (coom) ÷ ncxart
teach (taught, taught) mii: (moom) ÷ oôyuart, yunrt
think (thought, thought) θuur (θoom) ÷ µymart.
------------------------------
NB !
Ouent pexomenµym oôparnrt ocoóoe nnnmanne na mon xnnrn
«5 cencannn»
n
«B uauaue ómuo cuoeo. Pyccroe».
Cnpamnnañre nx n marasnnax Bamero ropoµa
nnn
saxastnañre n moëm nnrepner-marasnne no aµpecy:
www.dragunkin.ru
A. ¡parynxnn.
TPETBR «TABHHHA
HEHPABHHBHBX IhAIOhOB»
c oµnnaxonmun 2-n n 3-n qop¬a¬u
(2-x uac1t +roñ rpynnt 18 ¹ 6 mryx).
KAK ux 3AHOMHHATB?
a) Oôparnre nnnmanne na ro, uro
no 2-x n n 3-x qop+ax +1nx " rnaronon nsmennnact
1outxo e.acua» nny1pn camoro´ cnona,
(uro snaunrentno oôneruaer sanomnnanne):
1-n q.: 2-n q. ÷ 3-n q.:
cling (clung, clung) r.uue (r.aue) ÷ nennxrtcx
dig (dug, dug) oue (oae) ÷ xonart
fight (Iought, Iought) qaùm (qoom) ÷ µpartcx
find (Iound, Iound) qaùuo (qavuo) ÷ naxoµnrt
grind (ground, ground) epaùuo (epavuo) ÷ monort
hold (held, held) xov.o (xo.o) ÷ µepxart
say (said, said) coù (coo) ÷ cxasart
(sµect nsm#ennnoct rontxo uanucauue rnacnoñ: 'y $ i¨)
sell (sold, sold) co. (cov.o) ÷ npoµa(na)rt
(a sµect emë # npnôannnoct «uop+a.iuoe» '¹d¨)
shine (shone, shone) u»ùu (uëvu) ÷ cnernrt
sit (sat, sat) cum (cæm) ÷ cnµert
slide (slid, slid) c.aùo (c.uo) ÷ cxontsnrt
spin (spun, spun) cnuu (cnau) ÷ npxcrt;
xpyrnrt(-cx)
stand (stood, stood) cmæuo (cmvo) ÷ croxrt
stick (stuck, stuck) cmur (cmar) ÷ nnnnyrt
sting (stung, stung) cmuue (cmaue) ÷ xannrt
swing (swung, swung) cwuue (cwaue) ÷ xauart
win (won, won) wnu (wau) ÷ noôexµart
wind (wound, wound) waùuo (wavuo) ÷ namartnart;
nsnnnartcx;
409
408
beat (beat, beaten) ouum (oom, ouumu) ÷ ônrt
begin (began, begun) - ouenu (oueæu, oueau) ÷ naunnart
blow (blew, blown) o.ëv (o.mv, o.ëvu) ÷ µyrt
break (broke, broken) opoùr (opovr, opovru) ÷ nomart
choose (chose, chosen) :vvs (:ovs, :ovsu) ÷ ntô(n)part
do (did, done) ovv (ouo, oau) ÷ µenart
draw (drew, drawn) opoo (opvv, opoou) ÷ ramnrt; pnconart
drive (drove, driven) opaùe (opove, opaùeu) ÷ rnart;
noµnrt (mamnny)
eat (ate, eaten) uum (oùm, uumu) ÷ ecrt, xymart
fall (Iell, Iallen) qoo. (qo., qoo.u) ÷ naµart
fly (Ilew, Ilown) q.aù (q.mv, q.ovu) ÷ nerart
forbear(Iorbore, Iorborne) qoo+o (qoooo, qoooou) ÷ nosµepxnnartcx
forget (Iorgot, Iorgotten) qoe+m (qoeom, qoeomu) ÷ saôt(na)rt
freeze (Iroze, Irozen) qpuus (qpovs, qpovsu) ÷ samepsart
give (gave, given) eue (eoùe, eueu) ÷ µa(na)rt
go* (went*, gone) eov (w+um, eou) ÷ nµrn; yxoµnrt
grow (grew, grown) epov (epvv, epovu) ÷ pacrn
know (knew, known) uov (uìmv, uovu) ÷ snart
l i e (lay, lain) .aù (.où, .oùu) ÷ nexart
ride (rode, ridden) paùo (povo, puou) ÷ exart (eepxo+)
ring (rang, rung) puue (pæue, paue) ÷ snonnrt
rise (rose, risen) paùs (povs, paùsu) ÷ ncra(na)rt
see (saw, seen) cuu (coo, cuuu) ÷ nnµert, cmorpert
shake (shook, shaken) uieùr (umr, uieùru) ÷ rpxcrn
sing (sang, sung) cuue (cæue, caue) ÷ nert
slay (slew, slain) c.où (c.mv, c.oùu) ÷ yôn(na)rt
speak (spoke, spoken) cnuur (cnovr, cnovru) ÷ ronopnrt
spring (sprang, sprung) cnpuue (cnpæue, cnpaue) ÷ nptrnyrt
steal (stole, stolen) cmuu. (cmov., cmov.u) ÷ (y)xpacrt
stink (stank, stunk) cmuur (cmæur, cmaur) ÷ nonxrt
stride (strode, stridden) cmpaùo (cmpovo, cmpuou) ÷ marart
strive (strove, striven) cmpaùe (cmpove, cmpaùeu) ÷ crapartcx
HETBËPTAR «TABHHHA
HEHPABHHBHBX IhAIOhOB»
(c pasntmn 2-n n 3-n qop+a+u ncero 55 mryx):
a)
KAK 3AHOMHHATI +mu 3 cnona?
"
herxo! Horomy uro 3-n qop+a rnaronon +roñ noµrpynnt
connaµae1 co cuoeapuoù:
become (became, become) oura+ (our+ù+, oura+) ÷
÷ cranonnrtcx
come (came, come) ra+ (roù+, ra+) ÷ npnµrn, npnxoµnrt
run (ran, run) pau (pæu, pau) ÷ ôexart, ôerart;
ô)
A 31H " ?
Toxe uerxo, noromy uro
nx 2-e qop+i npaeuuoume nce na '¹D¨,
a 3-n uenpaeu.iuie ÷ nce na '¹N¨:
lade (laded, laden) .oùo (.+ùouo, .oùou) ÷ rpysnrt
mow (mowed, mown) +ov (+ovo, +ovu) ÷ xocnrt (mpaev)
rive (rived, riven) paùe (paùeo, paùeu) ÷ (pas)pyônrt
saw (sawed, sawn) coo (cooo, coou) ÷ nnnnrt
shave (shaved, shaven) uieùe (uieùeo, uieùeu) ÷ ôpnrt
show (showed, shown) uëv (uëvo, uëvu) ÷ noxas(tn)art
sow (sowed, sown) cov (covo, covu) ÷ cexrt
strew (strewed, strewn) cmpvv (cmpvvo, cmpvvu) ÷ ctnart
swell (swelled, swollen) - cw+. (cw+.o, cwoo.u) ÷ pacnyxart;
n)
Hy a sµect naµo oeµ. nanpnutcn!
arise (arose, arisen) opaùs (opovs, opaùsu) ÷ nosnnxart
bear (bore, born) o+o (ooo, ooou) ÷ pox(µ)art
bear (bore, borne) o+o (ooo, ooou) ÷ necrn, nocnrt
411
410
HRTAR «TABHHHA
HEHPABHHBHBX IhAIOhOB»
(c rpemx pasnmun qop+a+u.
H ona xe camax «nècmpa»»! ÷
÷ 29 mryx).
3ro, noxanyñ, cauan 1pyµnan rpynna e.aeo.oe,
nocxontxy nourn nce ns nnx nmemr
no µne 2-tx nnn 3-nx qop+i
no snart-ro nx nce panno naµo!
(Cm. npu+e:auue n xonne +roro cnncxa).
Beµt xpome ncero npouero
+ro emë n oôtunoe ynennuenne Bamero xe cnonapnoro sanaca!
Homnnm, uro no n1opou cronônxe
eomoeme qop+i npoueðueeo npemenn
ôepnre n ronopnre!,
a n mpemoe¬ eomoeme qop+i (naccnnnoro) onpeðeueuua
ôepnre n nontsyñrect!
1-x qop+a 3nauenne: 2-x qop+a 3-x qop+a
(cuoeapuaa): (npou. epe+»): (onpeðeueuue):
awake ÷ npoctnartcx awoke awaked/awoke
ow+ùr owovr ow+ùrm, owovr
bid ÷ nenert; bid/bade bid/bidden
ouo npeµnarart ouo, ooùo ouo, ouou
bind ÷ sanxstnart bound bound/bounden*
oaùuo oavuo oavuo, oavuoou
bite ÷ xycart bit bit /bitten
oaùm oum oum, oumu
cleave ÷ pacxantnart clave/cleft cleft
r.uue r.oùe, r.oqm r.oqm
swear (swore, sworen) cw+o (cwoo, cwoou) ÷ xnxcrtcx
swim (swam, swum) cwn+ (cwo+, cwa+) ÷ nnanart, nntrt
take (took, taken) moùr (mvr, moùru) ÷ ôpart, nsxrt
tear (tore, torn) m+o (moo, moou) ÷ pasptnart
throw (threw, thrown) θpov (θpvv, θpovu) ÷ ôpocart
wear (wore, worn) w+o (woo, woou) ÷ nocnrt (ooerov)
weave (wove, woven) wnue (wove, wyeu) ÷ rxart
write (wrote, written) paùm (povm, pumu) ÷ (na)nncart.
* Oôparnre nnnmanne:
ceroµnxmnxx 2-n qop+a rnarona 'go¨
(÷ 'went¨ w+um ÷ «vuè.»)
«es»ma» anrnnuanamn y concem ðpyeoeo rnarona
y craporo rnarona 'wend¨, xoroptñ cnana Fory!
roxe snaunn «uomu», «vxooumi» (cm. crp. 416)!
Tenept Bt snaere yxe npnmepno 70° nooôme ncex
uenpaeu.iuix rnaronon, n/nn snaunrentno ôontme nononnnt
uenpaeu.iuix rnaronon «nepeoù ueooxoou+ocmu».
------------------------------
NB !
Mox mocxoncxax ]npma «AH±PA-M»
oprannsyer oôyuenne anrnnñcxomy no moeñ meroµnxe
c ntesµom n rënnte crpant nnn n Anrnnm.
Hpenoµam x cam.
Moxno conmecrnrt npu»muoe c no.esui+!
E-mail: andra_m¡pochta.ru
Teu.: (095) 517-00-95
A. ¡parynxnn
413
412
quit ÷ noxnµart quitted/quit quitted/quit
rwum rwnmuo, rwnm rwnmuo, rwnm
rot ÷ rnnrt rotted rotted/rotten`
pom pomuo pomuo, pomu
seethe ÷ xnnert seethed seethed/sodden
cuuð (:vecmea+u) cuuðo cuuðo, coou
sew ÷ mnrt sewed sewed/sewn`
cìmv cìmvo cìmvo, cìmvu
shrink ÷ c¡ëxn(na)rtcx shrank shrunk/shrunken`
uipuur uipæur uipaur, uipauru
sink ÷ onycxart sank sunk/sunken`
cuur cæur caur, cauru
spit ÷ nnenart spit/spat spat
cnum cnum, cnæm cnæm
spoil ÷ noprnrt spoiled/spoilt spoiled/spoilt
cnoù. cnoù.o, cnoù.m cnoù.o, cnoù.m
strike ÷ yµapxrt struck struck/stricken*
cmpaùr cmpar cmpar, cmpuru
thrive ÷ nponnerart thrived/throve thrived/thriven
θpaùe θpaùeo, θpove θpaùeo, θpaùeu
tread ÷ crynart trod trod/trodden
mpuuo mpoo mpoo, mpoou
work ÷ paôorart worked/wrought worked/wrought.
wœœr wœœrm, poom wœœrm, poom
dare ÷ ocmennrtcx dared/durst dared
o+o o+oo, oœœcm o+oo
dream ÷ meurart dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
opuu+ opuu+o, opo+m opuu+o, opo+m
drink ÷ nnrt drank drunk/drunken
opuur opæur opaur, opauru
get ÷ nonyuart got got/gotten*
eom eom eom, eomu
grave ÷ ntcexart graved graved/graven*
epoùe epoùeo epoùeo, epoùeu
hang ÷ nemart hanged/hung hanged/hung
xæue xæueo, xaue xæueo, xaue
hide ÷ npxrart hid hid/hidden*
xaùo xuo xuo, xuou
lean ÷ onnpartcx leaned/leant leaned/leant
.uuu .uuuo, .oum .uuuo, .oum
learn ÷ nsyuart learned learned/learnt`
.œœu .œœuo .œœuo, .œœum
light ÷ ocnemart lighted/lit lighted/lit
.aùm .aùmuo, .um .aùmuo, .um
melt ÷ nnannrt melted melted/molten`
+o.m ++.muo ++.muo, +o.mu
owe ÷ ôtrt µonxntm owed/ought owed
ov ovo, oom ovo
415
414
mECTAR «TABHHHA
HEHPABHHBHBX IhAIOhOB»
(ouent manoynorpeônrentntx):
abide ooaùo ÷ xnrt
(abode, abode) (ooovo)
beget oue+m ÷ poxµart
(begot, begotten) (oueom, oueomu)
behold ouxov.o ÷ nnµert
(beheld, beheld) (oux+.o)
beseech oucnum: ÷ ymonxrt
(besought, besought) (oucoom)
chide :aùo ÷ ôpannrt
(chid, chid/chidden) (:io, :io/:iou)
fling q.uue ÷ xnµart
(Ilung, Ilung) (q.aue)
forsake qoc+ùr ÷ noxnµart,
(Iorsook, Iorsaken) (qocyr, qoc+ùru) ÷ ôpocart
gild eu.o ÷ sonornrt
(gilded, gilded/gilt*) (en.ouo, en.ouo/eu.m)
gird eœœo ÷ onoxc(tn)art
(girded/girt, girt) (eœœouo/eœœm, eœœm)
hew xìmv ÷ pyônrt
(hewed, hewed/hewn*) (xìmvo, xìmvo/xìmvu)
ken** reu ÷ snart
(kent, kent) (reum)
* 4op+i, ormeuennte seèsoo:roù,
ceroµnx yxe
ne yno1peõunm1cn n cocrane roucmpvrµuù,
a 1outxo:
a) xax camocroxrentnte onpeðeueuua,
nanpnmep:
A SUNKEN ship ÷ 3A1OHVBHEE cyµno.
A LEARN1 scholar ÷ HPOCBEHËHHMH yuëntñ.
WROUCH1 iron ÷ KOBAHOE xeneso;
ô) nnn xax uac1t «cocmaeuix» onpeoe.euuù,
nanpnmep:
An horror-S1RICKEN man ÷ uenonex, OXBAHEHHMH yxacom
æuopocmpuru +æu (÷ «vraco-OB1R1MH»).
NB !
unrañre µpyrne nocoônx A. ¡parynxnna:
«Hoemù ruaccumù ca¬oyuumeuo»,
«Houuuu ceoù aueuuùcruù!»,
«Onmu¬usupoeauumù yueóuur aueuuùcroeo»,
«Peauu¬amop Baueeo aueuuùcroeo»,
«Hoemù ómcmpmù aueuuùcruù ðua +uepeuuumx ueumaee»
n r.µ.
416
rend pouo ÷ pnart
(rent, rent) (poum)
shear uino ÷ crpnut
(sheared, sheared/shorn*) (uinoo, uinoo/uëou)
sling c.uue ÷ merart
(slung, slung) (c.aue) (ns npamn)
slink c.uur ÷ xpacrtcx
(slunk, slunk) (c.aur)
smite c+aùm ÷ yµapxrt
(smote, smit/smitten) (c+ovm, c+um/c+umu)
stave cmoùe ÷ nponamtnart
(staved/stove, staved/stove) (cmoùeo, cmove)
string cmpuue ÷ nanns(tn)art
(strung, strung) (cmpaue)
wend** w+uo ÷ yxoµnrt
(went, went) (w+um)
wring puue ÷ xart (x.eo).
(wrung, wrung) (paue)
* 3rn 3-n qop+i ynorpeônxmrcx
1outxo xax onpeðeueuua;
** 3rn rnaront ceroµnx yxe ne ynorpeônxmrcx,
no cnono/qop+a 'went¨
ceñuac xnnxercx emë n 2-on qop+où rnarona 'go¨.
¡o cnnµannx, µoporne µpystx!
¡o ncrpeun n µpyrnx monx xnnrax!!!
A. ¡parynxnn