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The Dot The Line Shape Direction Tone Color Texture Dimension Movement

The Dot- In nature, roundness is the most common formulationWhen any liquid material is dropped on a surface, it assumes a rounded form, even if it does not simulate a perfect dot (40) When seen, dots connect and therefore are capable of leading the eye (41)

Dots come together to form a line. Line isa tool for notation systems like writing, map-making, electric symbols, and musicBut in art, line is the essential element of the drawing, which is a notation system that does not stand for something else, symbolically, but does capsulize visual information (43)

Line describes shapeThere are three basic shapes, the square, circle, and equilateral triangle. Each of the basic shapes has its own unique character and characteristics and to each is attached a great deal of meaning (44) The Square: dullness, honesty, straightness, and workmanlike meaning (Dondis 44) The triangle: Action, conflict, tension (Dondis 44) The Circle: endlessness, warmth, protection (Dondis 44)

Every basic shape expresses three basic and meaningful visual directions: the horizontal and verticaldiagonalthe circle, or curve. The horizontal-vertical has to do with stability in all visual matters and is a form of balance (46) Diagonal is the most unstable directional force and consequently the most provoking visual formulation (46) Curves are associated with encompassment, repetition, and warmth (46-47)

Tone is one of the visualizer's best tools for indicating and expressing that dimension. Perspective is the method for plotting many of the special visual effects in our natural surroundings, to represent the threedimensional way we see in two-dimensional graphic form (48).

Three dimensions of color: Hue, saturation, and brightness Colors have different cultural meaning depending on place

Texture is the visual element that frequently serves as a stand-in for the qualities of another sense, touching. But, in fact, we can appreciate and recognize texture either by touch or sight individually, or by a combination of bothlike the lines of type on a printed page, or polka dots on material (55)

Scale can be established not only through the relative size of visual clues, but also through relationships to the field or the environment (56)

Representation of dimension in twodimensional visual formats is also dependent on illusion (59) In art, the illusion is reinforced in many ways, but the prime device for simulating dimension is the technical convention of perspective. The effects produced by perspective can be reinforced by tonal manipulationthe dramatic emphasis of light and shade (60)

Movement in the visual realm often involves illusion. The illusion of texture or dimension appears real through the use of intense expression of detail, as in the case of texture, and the use of perspective and intensified light and shade as in the case of dimension (64)

*All info from A Primer of Visual Literacy by Donis A. Dondis

Close shot: A shot in which the camera is near the subject Close-up: A shot whose field of view is very narrow; in terms of the human figure, a face or hand might fill the frame Extreme close-up: Like the close-up but more like a mouth or eye fill the frame Extreme long shot: A shot with a very broad field of view; the camera appears to be extremely far from the subject. Far shot: Unlike the close shot, a shot in which the camera is or appears to be distant from the subject Full shot: A medium long shot that offers a relatively complete view of the set and shows the human figure from head to foot. High-angle shot: A shot in which the camera looks downward toward the subject Long shot: A shot that gives a wide, expansive view of the visual field; the camera appears to be far from the subject. Low-angle shot: A shot in which the camera looks upward toward the subject Medium shot: A shot whose field of view is midway between those of the close shot and the far shot. POV shot: Point-of-view shot in which the camera adopts the vantage point of a characters physical eye or literal gaze, showing what the character sees. *Taken from A Short History of the Movies by Gerald Mast & Bruce F. Kawin