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# USER MA UAL FOR : SO OMETER – VERIFICATIO OF LAWS OF

STRETCHED STRI GS EXPERIME T AIM: -To verify the laws of transverse vibrations of stretched strings. APPARATUS: -Sonometer set up, Slotted weights 2 ½ kg, Tuning fork box, Rubber pad, Different types of wires (Brass, Copper and Steel). DESCRIPTIO : -A Sonometer consists of a hollow rectangular box made of teak wood and covered with a thin plank of soft wood. The box is provided with two long fixed knife-edges parallel to its breadth. At one end two or three pegs are provided to which the strings of various material and radii can be firmly attached. These strings may be passed over the fixed knife-edges, carried over tiny smooth pulley at the other end of the box and attached to weight hangers at their ends. The movable knife-edges can adjust the vibrating segments of the string. Resonance takes place when the frequency of the external body (tuning fork) is equal to the natural frequency of the segment of the wire. At resonance energy transfer from the external body (tuning fork) takes place and the segment of wire between A and B vibrates with maximum amplitude. THEORY: -A stretched string when plucked at its middle and released, it vibrates in a single loop, which is the fundamental mode of transverse vibrations and emits a note of frequency ν, depending on the tension (T) the length of the vibrating loop (l) and the mass per unit length (m) of the wire. The relation connecting the above quantities is given by: 1 ν = T/m -------------(1) 2l From above relation, the laws of transverse vibration of stretched strings may be stated as: (i) The frequency (ν) of stretched string is inversely proportional to its length (l), T and m being constant, that is, ν l = constant, K ---------(2) (ii) The frequency (ν) of a stretched string is inversely proportional to the square root of its linear density (m); ‘T’ and ‘l’ being constant. That is, ν²m = constant, K -----------(3) (iii) The frequency (ν) of a stretched string is proportional to the square root of its tension (T); ‘m’ and ‘l’ being constant. That is, ν² = Constant K ------------(4) T It is difficult to verify the second and third law directly. Hence, they are verified indirectly as follows: we have from equation (1). 1 ν = T/m 2l 1 T Or ν ² = ------------(5) 4l ² m From equation (5), it follows that if (T/l²) is shown to be constant, it can be assumed that ν ²m = constant, and the second law is verified. Similarly, from equation (5) if (ml²) is shown to be constant, it can be assumed that (n²/T) is constant, and the third law is verified.

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Therefore, to verify the law of stretched strings, the following relations are to be verified. (i) The product (ν l) is constant, when T and m are constant. (ii) The ratio (T/l ²) is constant, when ν and m are constant. (iii) The product (ml²) is constant, when ν and T are constant. PROCEDURE: 1) Verification of first law: -A load is applied to the wire, in order to produce suitable tension (T) in it. Three different tuning forks of known frequency are chosen and one of them excited. Keeping the tension constant (T), the experiment is repeated with other tuning forks. 2) Verification of second law: - To verify the second law the resonant lengths (l) are determined with different tensions (T) using the same forks and sonometer wire. 3) Verification of third law: - For this three different type of material of the wire is taken and tabulated as table 3.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Knife-edges String Pulley A B

Sonometer box

T

Weight hanger

OBSERVATIO TABLE: - Load applied (M)= gm, Tension (T) = Mg= 1) Sr Frequency ν (Hz) Length of the segment , l (cm) Trial 1 Trial 2 Mean

dyne νl

2) Frequency of the tuning fork ,ν =

Hz, Linear density of the wire ,m=

gm/cm

Sr

Tension T (dyne)

Length of the vibrating segment ,l (cm) Trial 1 Trial 2 Mean

T/l 2

3) Frequency of the tuning fork, ν = Sr

Hz, Tension applied ,T=

dyne ml2

Material density Diameter of the wire of wire,ρ of wire, d (cm) (gm/cm3)

Linear Resonating length, l (cm) density, m Trial 1 Trial2 Mean (gm/cm)

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