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Grammar Development Course
for Teachers of English
©2000, 2005, 2009 by Jeff Mohamed
A Grammar Development Course
for Teachers of English
This course is designed to help teachers of ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) to improve their formal knowledge of English grammar. It is not intended to be, or to replace, a comprehensive grammar reference. All of the material in this course has been used over several years with more than fifteen hundred teachers of ESOL. Some of these were already experienced ESOL teachers, while others had no teaching experience whatsoever. In all cases, they felt that the course gave them a solid foundation in formal grammar and showed them how to approach analyzing grammatical items for teaching purposes. It therefore made them much more confident and improved their ability to deal with grammar lessons. How to Approach the Course As the study units build on each other, it is important to complete the units in the order in which they appear in the course. Each unit contains a range of explanations, exercises, answer keys and commentaries. If you want to derive the maximum benefit from the material, you need to complete every exercise in writing. Reading the units will certainly help you to understand the key concepts and terms, but you will only be able to recall these later if you invest effort in writing down your answers to the exercises. It is also important that you allow enough time to absorb the material from one unit before starting the following unit. So you should take a significant break after each unit. Then, when you return to the course, begin by re-reading the last unit you studied. This will consolidate what you have already learned and will prepare you for the new unit. Jeff Mohamed
List of Contents
Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15 Unit 16 Unit 17 ► What Is Grammar? ► What Is Correct? ► Describing Words: Parts of Speech ► Describing Sentences and Verbs ► Basic characteristics of English grammar ► Sentences and Utterances ► Compound Sentences and Clauses ► Verbs Tenses and Aspects ► Two Present “Tenses” ► Talking about the Past ► The Passive ► Tense, Time and Function ► Conditionals ► Reported Speech ► Phrasal and Multi-word Verbs ► Some Other Grammatical Structures ► The Grammar of Words
Unit 1: About Grammar
In this unit, we will lay the foundations for the rest of the course by answering two key questions about grammar: 1. What is grammar? 2. What is grammaticality?
What Is Grammar?
Different dictionaries and grammar references define the word grammar differently. Most of them make it sound complex by using terms such as inflection and syntax. ► Think for a few minutes about what you understand by the word grammar. ► Then complete the exercise below.
► Identify the errors in the sentences below. 1. They want to negotiation it. 2. He think it is expensive. 3. The childs are noisy today. 4. I a new car bought. 5. She should to go. ► When you have completed the exercise, read the commentary on the next page.
1. They want to negotiation it. 2. He think it is expensive. 3. The childs are noisy today. 4. I a new car bought. 5. She should to go.
Negotiation is a noun. The sentence needs the verb negotiate. We need to add s to the verb think. We say I think but he/she thinks. We need the plural form children. The word order is wrong. It should be I bought a new car. We need to remove to. When we use should, it is followed by an infinitive verb without to.
What Grammar Is
The five mistakes above highlight the four components of grammar.
1. Word classes (see sentence #1 above) You can‟t use a verb or an adjective if the sentence requires a noun. 2. Word endings (see sentences #2 and #3 above) You need to use the appropriate plural forms for nouns, the appropriate endings for verbs in different tenses, etc. 3. Word order (see sentence #4 above) English has developed conventions for the order in which words can and cannot appear in sentences. 4. Word relations (see sentence #5 above) Some words determine which words can or cannot follow them: for example, we always say or write insist on not insist at.
What Is Grammaticality?
English is spoken as a native language by millions of people in countries as far apart as Canada and India. As we will see, there is a lot of variation in the forms of English used in the different English-speaking countries. However, there are some very basic grammatical patterns which are used by virtually all native speakers of English. Sentences which confirm to these basic patterns are said to be grammatical, while sentences which do not conform are said to be ungrammatical. Native speakers of English start acquiring knowledge of grammaticality at a very early age, picking it up unconsciously from the language they hear around them. This enables even young children to construct sentences which are grammatical.
► Which of the sentences below are ungrammatical? ► Identify what makes each of these sentences ungrammatical. ► Why do you think foreign learners of English produce sentences like these?
1. Those shoes are expensives. 2. They not understand. 3. That lamp, how much is she? 4. Is hot, isn‟t it? 5. He musts work harder. 6. It‟s a house large.
As you will have realized, all of the sentences are ungrammatical. The problem features are explained below. 1. Those shoes are expensives. 2. They not understand. English adjectives don‟t have plural forms. We can‟t make a verb negative by just putting not in front of it. In English, inanimate objects don‟t usually have gender. An English verb must have a separate subject. Modal auxiliaries such as must and should never change their form. English adjectives precede the nouns which they qualify; they do not follow the nouns.
3. That lamp, how much is she? 4. Is hot, isn‟t it?
5. He musts work harder. 6. It‟s a house large.
Students usually make these kinds of mistakes because they construct English sentences using patterns which are acceptable in their own languages. This process is known as L1 interference. (Here L1 means first language.)
More about Grammaticality
■ The fact that a sentence is ungrammatical does not necessarily obscure its meaning. For example, while It‟s a house large is ungrammatical, all English speakers would understand it without difficulty. ■ Conversely, the fact that a sentence is grammatical does not imply that it necessarily has or conveys meaning: Red oceans smell green skies is grammatical but meaningless. ■ Similarly, there is no direct link between grammaticality and truth: Cats speak English well is perfectly grammatical but it is certainly not true.
■ The distinction between grammatical and ungrammatical is a useful one. However, as you will see in the next unit, it is not always as clear as you might think. This is because some groups of native speakers of English consistently produce sentences which other groups of native speakers of English would regard as being ungrammatical.
we will look at how English is used by different groups of native speakers and will examine the concept of “Standard English”. amn‟t I? 5. For the moment. read the commentary on the next page. This stew has beans in. 6. 3. 4. we saw that you can identify some grammatical features that are used by virtually all native speakers of English. This applies to teachers. it applies to students. ______________________________________________ A Basic Concept In Unit 1. ► Think for a few minutes about whether you believe in a “Standard English”. I am here since three o‟clock.Unit 2: What Is Correct? In this unit. many people believe in the existence of a “Standard English”. do not worry about the degree of politeness or formality of the sentences. 1. _____________________________________________ Exercise ► Underline each sentence which you think is ungrammatical. as well. ► Then complete the exercise below. this suggests that we can draw up a finite list of grammatical rules for English speech and writing. This house wants painting. Did you do it yet? 2. ► When you have completed the exercise. In other words. To many people. I‟m next. _____________________________________________ .
Scottish/Irish English 5. British English 3. _____________________________________________ . for example. They believe. etc. British English 4. Indian English 6. Canadian English _____________________________________________ Varieties and Dialects English is the native language of many countries around the world. in that they might well be produced by an educated native speaker in one or other English-speaking country. that West Indian English is inferior to British English. Canadian English. US English 2. This attitude stems from a basic lack of understanding of the nature of language.Commentary In fact. all varieties of English are equally valid. American English. In each of these countries. educated native speakers of English use some grammatical features and patterns which would not be used (and might not even be understood) in other Englishspeaking countries. Each variety is used in a specific country or area and has evolved its own specific features. Some people think that the English of certain countries is inferior to that of other countries. The exercise on the next page will help to increase your awareness of how much the varieties of English differ from each other. From a linguistic standpoint. 1. all of the sentences are grammatical. The reality is that English exists in a number of varieties: British English.
They‟ve putten it in the wrong place. He‟s very nice. depending upon where they were said. They are all examples of dialects: types of language varieties used in specific geographical locations or by specific social groups. be is used in place of am. 3. and even by educated ones. isn‟t it? 3.Exercise ► Underline any of the following sentences which you think are incorrect. 1. In parts of southern England. _____________________________________________ Commentary All of the sentences might well be produced by native English speakers. 5. 4. 5. 1. In Welsh English. ► Now read the commentary below. 2. 2. 4. _____________________________________________ . In southern states in the USA it is not unusual to use two modal auxiliaries together. is and are. She may can come. Speakers of Black American English often omit present forms of the verb be. isn‟t it? is often used as an unchanging question tag. Putten is the normal past participle of put in areas of northern England. We at lunch now. He be coming tomorrow.
each variety of English has one standard form and one or more dialects. It tends to ignore realities such as the fact that languages are constantly evolving. So linguists point out that labels such as Standard American English are political and social labels rather than linguistic ones. This view is not accepted by modern linguists. In many countries. All dialects are equally complex. The so-called standard form is the one that is generally used by educated people within the country concerned. They point out that terms such as Standard American English represent vague abstract concepts which cannot be clearly defined. thoughts and concepts. and it is normally the form that is taught in schools. people may even be fined for not obeying these rules. In reality. the so-called standard forms are themselves merely dialects. logical and consistent. feelings. based on theoretical principles. are acceptable and which are not. there are official academies which decide which words etc. who see in it a misunderstanding of the very nature of language. . Older grammar books are usually prescriptive: They tell you what their authors believe you should be saying. Modern linguists totally reject this view of the relationship between dialects and standard forms of English. no dialect is superior to any other. Linguistically. In some countries. The only significant difference between a standard form and other dialects is that the former is the dialect used by the people who have achieved a position of social eminence within a country. It is widely believed to be superior to the various dialects. So a prescriptive view is one which tells people which words and grammar they should be using. All of them allow us to produce an unlimited set of sentences and to express a full range of facts.Dialects and Standard English In many people‟s minds. which are considered to be substandard. _____________________________________________ Two Views of Language Many people have what is called a prescriptive view of language: they have a vision of an ideal standard and believe that everyone should conform to this.
Contractions should be used only in very informal speech: e. or why not? 1. May I go? Is more correct than Can I go? ► Which of the sentences below do you believe are incorrect? Why? 5. it cannot be regarded as wrong or incorrect. including the writers of most modern grammar books. 9. I‟m leaving now.g. When asking for permission.. Someone was at the door but they have gone now. Which store are you going to? 3. The exercise below will help you to see the differences between.g. A descriptive approach informs us about what language is actually being used by most people in a specific country or area. I am hearing what you are saying. normally take a descriptive approach: If something is said by most people.. Brian. I wish I would have known that! 8. It‟s me. _____________________________________________ . You should not split infinitives: e.g. 6. 7. and the implications of. to quickly go. 2. Sentences should not end with prepositions: e.Current linguists. prescriptive and descriptive views of language. If I was a doctor. 4.. _____________________________________________ Exercise ► Do you agree with the following statements about English? Why. I‟d be earning a lot more money.
” Contractions are perfectly normal in both formal and informal speech. 7. Winston Churchill mocked this view when he said something along the lines of. Of course. 8. the sentence should be I wish I had known that. In fact. 4. There is nothing at all grammatically wrong with using Can I as a way of asking for permission. The use of they to refer to a singular or unknown subject is now generally acceptable. Traditionally. However. since the verb needs to be in the subjunctive. The only reason to avoid ending sentences with prepositions is that this was not done in Latin. Theoretically. you will rarely hear or see this “correct” form in the USA. 5. Why? Because it is impossible to split infinitives in Latin and English should reflect the rules of Latin! The descriptive view is that there is no reason on earth why English should obey the rules of Latin. However. This should be It‟s I. to many people. The verb can has several meanings or uses and this is one of them. 9. _____________________________________________ . and it is also becoming fairly rare in Britain. 3. The prescriptive view is that you should never split an infinitive. However. and that usage should be determined by what is clear and effective. 2. contractions are not appropriate in formal written English.Commentary 1. verbs such as hear or understand cannot be used in progressive forms. 6. forms such as I am hearing you and I‟m understanding you are now acceptable in US usage. It‟s I would sound very pompous and unnatural. Strictly speaking. “This is something up with which I will not put. it should be If I were …. May I is simply a different and more polite way of asking for permission. speaking without using contractions would make the speaker sound very unnatural.
a form which may be regarded as inappropriate at one point in time may well become acceptable at a later date. However. this certainly does not mean that everything is acceptable. rather than in terms of general correctness.So Is Everything Correct? ■ In this and the previous unit. ■ Modern linguists now believe that it is preferable to judge examples of language in terms of whether they are appropriate in specific contexts. ■ We should also recognize that one of the strengths of English is that it is constantly evolving. we have suggested that terms such as grammatical. _____________________________________________ . As a result. correct and standard are by no means as well-defined or useful as some people think.
Unit 3: Parts of Speech
The aim of this unit is to remind you of the names and functions of some basic parts of speech. You need to be familiar with this terminology in order to be able to analyze examples of language.
► Beside each part of speech listed below, write a brief definition and an example. Definition Noun Pronoun Article Adjective Verb Adverb Preposition Conjunction Possessive adjective Possessive pronoun Demonstrative adjective Demonstrative pronoun Determiner Example
Noun Word for a thing, person or place. Names of specific people, places, etc. are called proper nouns and are capitalized. Other nouns are called common nouns. Word standing in place of a noun. It can be the subject or object of a verb. Word defining a noun. There are two indefinite articles: a, an. There is one definite article: the. Word adding information about a noun. Word indicating an action or state. Word giving information on time, place, etc. about a verb, adjective or adverb. Word or words used before a noun or pronoun to give information about time, place, etc. Word joining words, phrases, etc. Word going in front of a noun to show who something belongs to. Word standing in place of a noun and possessive adjective and showing who something belongs to. tree, idea, Anne
I, he, it, they
a, an, the
Adjective Verb Adverb
big, happy go, be, live, work slowly, very
in, out of, from
Conjunction Possessive adjective Possessive pronoun
and, although my, her, our
mine, hers, ours
Demonstrative adjective Demonstrative pronoun Determiner
Adjective which specifies which noun is being this, that, these referred to: e.g., those in I want those books. When a demonstrative adjective replaces a noun: e.g., those in I want those. Word which limits or specifies a noun. Determiners include articles and possessive and demonstrative adjectives. this, that, these
a, the, your, this
b. He was a very tall man. I want one of those. So fast is an adjective in It‟s a fast car but an adverb in He drives fast. Possessive adjective 7. It was her book. g. She saw the man arrive. Possessive pronoun 11. e. ______________________________________________ . Preposition 5.Note: The same word may act as different parts of speech in different sentences. It was hot. After he slept. 1. Are you sure it‟s yours? j. Article (definite) 3. l. Adjective a. i. He sat on the floor. She drove carefully. Article (indefinite) 8. c. Noun (common) 2. It was a large brown dog. he went out. f. d. Conjunction 12. k. Demonstrative pronoun 6. Verb 4. Where did you see it? h. Pronoun 9. It all happened very quickly. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Match each part of speech with the appropriate underlined word in one of the sentences. Adverb 10.
l a j k 5. h i e f ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Name the part of speech represented by each underlined word in the following text. 7. Mary decided to walk. 12. It sounded like a Bug. and stepped into the street. 11.) She hesitated and then turned onto a side-street. Although it was getting dark. It was moving slowly. unfortunately. 2. in fact. She heard a car coming up behind her. 3.Commentary 1. (Hers was parked safely at home tonight. She left the bar. 4. 10. ______________________________________________ . 6. exactly like her own Bug. b c d g 9. as if very reluctant to pass her. 8. with its bright lights.
Commentary Although = conjunction decided = verb She = pronoun bar = noun (common) its = possessive adjective bright = adjective into = preposition the = article (definite) a = article (indefinite) behind = preposition slowly = adverb very = adverb pass = verb Bug = noun (proper) her = possessive adjective Hers = possessive pronoun at = preposition then = adverb ______________________________________________ .
Bill bought a car.g. The direct object is the person or thing on which the action is performed: e.Unit 4: Sentences & Verbs The aim of this unit is to remind you of some terms that we use when describing or analyzing sentences and verb structures. a drink in He took a coffee.g. 3. 7. The first one has been done for you. He told us a joke. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► In each sentence below. Where did you get it? 4. They gave the book to me. Subject 1. He in He took. 6... . I‟ll see them tomorrow. They offered him a drink. They Direct Object the book Indirect Obj. The indirect object is another person or thing to which the action relates: e. 2. identify the subject and the direct and/or indirect object. 5.g.. me ______________________________________________ Commentary The subject is the person or thing which performs an action: e. her in He took her a coffee.
The direct object is a drink. 3. 4. The indirect object is us. The subject is I. The subject is They. 2. The indirect object is him. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► For each of the following terms.1. The subject is He. The direct object is them. The direct object is a car. The subject is you. There is no indirect object. The direct object is it. There is no indirect object. 5. write a definition and give an example. The subject is Bill. The direct object is a joke. There is no indirect object. Definition Example a) Transitive verb b) Intransitive verb c) Main verb d) Auxiliary verb e) Modal auxiliary verb f) Infinitive g) Present participle h) Past participle i) Regular verb j) Irregular verb ______________________________________________ .
They were bored. broken. Note: Some verbs can function as both auxiliary and main verbs: So has is an auxiliary verb is She has not left but a main verb in She has two brothers.g. He hadn‟t seen it. The present participle form of a verb is created by adding ing to the base form. as in to eat. see / saw / seen. The following sentences contain five of the main modal auxiliary verbs in English: It may rain tomorrow. The infinitive without „to‟ is often called the base or basic form of the verb. An auxiliary or helping verb is used with a main verb. Irregular verbs have Past Simple and past participle forms made up in other ways. When it appears with the word to. started. For example: go / went / gone. Do you smoke? She has not left.Commentary a) A transitive verb is one that can have a direct object. It might be sunny later. it describes an action that can be done to someone or something: He loves her. moved. desirability or necessity. An intransitive verb cannot have an object: She appeared. A main verb is a verb which can operate in a sentence independently of an auxiliary verb: Henry knows. The past participle of a verb is a form used in some tenses and sometimes as an adjective: She has visited Paris. it is often called the infinitive with „to‟. etc. Irregular verbs have a variety of forms: gone. tear / tore / torn. eat or drive. etc. He can swim. They shivered. You speak French well. The bird ate the bread. So walk is a regular verb because the Past Simple is walked and the past participle is walked. The past participle of regular verbs ends in ed: talked. That‟s very interesting. A regular verb has both its Past Simple and past participle forms made up of the base verb + ed. e) A modal auxiliary is one of a group of auxiliary verbs which express possibility. Could you pass the salt? I should rest now. Present participles are used in some verb tenses and as adjectives: They‟re working. to indicate a time reference or to form questions and negatives: He is working. The infinitive is the basic form of a verb: e. b) c) d) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) ______________________________________________ . seen..
2. She likes fruit. It looks fresh. 6.Exercise ► In each sentence. Smell the flowers! 7. She drives a Maserati. 3. ______________________________________________ . It looks fresh. She likes fruit. 2. 8. He broke his collarbone. That place smells. transitive intransitive transitive intransitive transitive transitive transitive Transitive Note: Some verbs. That place smells. 5. They studied Russian 8. He broke his collarbone. 4. Smell the flowers! 7. She drives a Maserati. 3. 6. He tells lies. ______________________________________________ Commentary 1. He tells lies. 4. are transitive in some sentences but intransitive in others. 5. They studied Russian. such as smell. underline the verb and say if it is transitive or intransitive. 1.
2. ► With each main verb. We can tell her.Exercise ► In the sentences below. He has gone. 2. She will have finished soon. say which form is being used: base form. You should not do that. 3. He has seen it. 1. Where did you go? 5. He is arriving soon. has can is did has should will have auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary auxiliary auxiliaries* seen tell arriving go gone do finished main verb main verb main verb main verb main verb main verb main verb (past participle) (base form) (present participle) (base form) (past participle) (base form) (past participle) * A main verb can sometimes be accompanied by two auxiliaries. 4. 7. 3. 7. 4. 5. 6. 6. present participle or past participle. ______________________________________________ . say whether each underlined word is a main verb or an auxiliary verb. ______________________________________________ Commentary 1.
It wasn‟t hers book. the normal adverb form is hard. They speak Italian real well. The writer assumed that hardly is the adverb form of the adjective hard. He saw both her and I. 6.Exercise ► Using the terminology covered in Units 1 and 2. 6. The possessive pronoun hers has been used instead of the possessive adjective her. 1. go is an irregular verb and its Past Simple form is went. They wanted to seen it. ______________________________________________ Commentary 1. In fact. However. 7. The writer assumed that go is a regular verb and that its Past Simple is formed by adding ed. 4. The subject pronoun I needs to be replaced by the object pronoun me. He‟s tired because he‟s been working hardly. 5. The sentence requires the base form see rather than the past participle seen. 2.) 4. The verb depend is followed by the preposition on (or upon) and not by the preposition of. (Hardly is a different adverb with a different meaning. 7. 3. The adjective real has been used instead of the adverb really. identify and explain the underlined error in each sentence below. 2. 5. ______________________________________________ . 3. I‟m depending of you. Bill goed there yesterday.
the normal order is SOV (Subject/ Object/Verb).Unit 5: Basic Characteristics of English Grammar This unit will highlight some major grammatical characteristics of English and will give you more practice with the terms and concepts covered in Units 3 and 4. It will also remind you how much languages differ from each other and how students’ mistakes may be caused by differences between their native languages and English. Subject and Verb In Spanish. 2. Then write a description of the English feature on the right. ► With each feature. You the man saw. subject pronouns are usually omitted. Literal: I you told. He spoke = Habla 3. Examples are given either in the language or as literal translations. 1. Question Forms In spoken Arabic. Basic Word Order Pattern In statement sentences in Turkish. ______________________________________________ Exercise On the left below are brief descriptions of some features of other languages. questions are formed by simply adding a question word or by using rising intonation. think about how that aspect of language operates in English. Literal: When he went? You like it? .
All French nouns are either masculine or feminine. 7. This translates into English as isn‟t it. 9. there is one fixed question tag. Nouns and Gender All German nouns are either neuter. Moon is bright. modal auxiliaries operate like other verbs. 10. most nouns have singular and plural forms but some nouns have only a singular form. Literal: They‟re nice. She musts stay. Nouns and Number (1) In Farsi. Literal: I saw three car. n‟est-ce pas. Modal Auxiliaries In Spanish. isn‟t it? 5. 6. Literal: He my friend. in that they have different forms for different persons. . Literal: He cans go. Present Tense of Be Like many languages. Question Tags In French. isn‟t it? Literal: It was raining. Articles Russian and Thai have neither definite nor indefinite articles. Literal: It‟s book. Arabic does not have a present form of the verb be. masculine or feminine. nouns do not have plural forms. 8.4. She Libyan. Nouns and Number (2) In German.
which conjugate according to regular patterns in different tenses. Adjective Agreement In Romance languages. 13. Two men are intelligents but two women are intelligentes. Literal: I live in that house big. 15. an adjective Used with a noun usually follows the noun. Literal: See that man? It is English. Verbs which do not follow these patterns are said to be irregular. So in French a boy is intelligent but a girl is intelligente. Adjective Order In Portuguese and Vietnamese. Adjectives and Adverbs In some Scandinavian languages. Literal: She sang good. Vous is the formal singular pronoun. Pronouns and Gender In Farsi. ______________________________________________ . 12. vous is always used. Tu is familiar and singular. adjectives change form to reflect the number or gender of the nouns or pronouns to which they refer. 17. pronouns have no gender: a man or woman or animal or object or place are all referred to as it. You Pronoun Forms French has two you pronouns. When addressing more than one person. Regular and Irregular Verbs Most Spanish verbs are called regular because they fall into three main groups.11. 14. adverbs usually have the same form as the adjectives from which they derive.
She bought a car and She bought it. as in Is he here? Are you listening? Has he done it? Should I stay? When will they arrive? In the Present and Past Simple. 3. These do not have an infinitive form with to: you cannot say to must or to may. as in Do you know? Does she agree? Did they stay? When Who is used as a subject. may and must. did they? They didn‟t go. In the Present Simple. isn‟t it? Some people also confer feminine gender on objects such as cars and boats. Subject and Verb English verbs always require a separate subject pronoun. Of course. is she? She‟s French. the modals do not add s in the third person singular: We say She goes but She should go not She shoulds go. In sentences containing the verb be or auxiliary verbs or modal auxiliary verbs. did they? 5. which express degrees of possibility and desirability. does or did has to be added. including present forms: I‟m Canadian. In sentences with both direct and indirect objects. So we say. the normal subject verb order is usually inverted. Question Tags These are complex in English. and these vary according to the main or auxiliary verb to which they relate. . 7. etc. Present Tense of Be The verb be has a full range of forms. the auxiliary forms of do are not used: Who knows? 4. when common or proper nouns referring to individual people are replaced by pronouns. Modal Auxiliaries English modal auxiliaries. the auxiliary do. could. 2. the two most common patterns are shown in I gave him the letter and I gave the letter to him. Animals are sometimes accorded gender and sometimes not: That cat‟s really old. Nouns and Gender English nouns do not have grammatical gender. Basic Word Order Pattern English statement sentences which contain a direct object usually follow a SVO (Subject-Verb-Object) pattern. 6. irrespective of whether the object is a noun or a pronoun. as in She spoke and They went.Commentary 1. include: can. We have both positive and negative question tags. Some examples are: She‟s French. we use the pronouns he/him and she/her depending upon the actual gender of the people concerned. isn‟t she? or That cat‟s really old. isn‟t she? They went. Question Forms English questions forms are complicated.
knife knives. A singular female is referred to with the subject and object pronouns she and her. 13. ______________________________________________ . Articles English has both definite and indefinite articles: the. Pronouns and Gender Inanimate objects have no gender in English and so they are referred to as it in the singular and they or them in the plural. as in She likes fast cars. etc. A singular male is referred to with the pronouns he and him. most adverbs are formed by adding ly to the adjective: slow slowly. 14. Nouns and Number (2) We have many mass or abstract nouns which do not usually have a plural form: chaos.8. However. they can sometimes take an article. 15. Nouns and Number (1) Most English nouns have a plural form formed by adding s or es or ies to the noun. as in: cars. and territories. The Past Simple and past participle forms of regular verbs are identical and they end in ed. as in The milk you bought is good. such as well good. Milk is good for you. a. watches. Abstract or mass nouns do not usually take an article. it precedes it. Irregular verbs have a range of Past Simple and past participle forms: go went gone. Adjectives and Adverbs Some adjectives and adverbs have the same form. Regular and Irregular Verbs English verbs are called regular or irregular according to their Past Simple and past participle forms. 17. sheep sheep. The only exception is blond: A man is blond but a woman is blonde. cut cut cut. Adjective Agreement English adjectives have only one form and they do not change to reflect number or gender. etc. examples are fast and hard. see saw seen. Some nouns have irregular plurals: child children. Adjective Order When an adjective accompanies a noun. 11. information. 9. both females and males are referred to as they and them. which is used for singular and plural and in both formal and informal contexts. In the plural. However. quick quickly. These are called noncount or uncountable nouns. You Pronoun Forms Most varieties and dialects of English have only one you form. so we say. The rules for their use are complex. There are also some highly irregular adverbs. an. 12. 10.
Help! and Why? are all utterances. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► In the dialogue below. etc. Alex: Liz: Alex: Liz: Alex: Liz: Alex: Okay. It draws a distinction between sentences and other utterances. By this definition. ______________________________________________ ____________________________________ What Is a Sentence? It is possible to define the word sentence in several ways. ______________________________________________ . So what‟s next? What? What do we do next? Oh. in TESOL it is more useful to define the word sentence more narrowly: a group of words which can stand independently and which contains at least one subject and one main verb. circle those utterances which can be regarded as sentences according to the definition provided in the first paragraph above. It‟s hot. question. Why the kitchen? Why not? No reason. By this definition. He‟s the one who took it. So It‟s hot. and between simple and compound sentences. The kitchen. a sentence is a unit of one or more words typically expressing an independent statement.Unit 6: Sentences & Utterances This unit looks at sentences and how we form them. He‟s the one who took it. According to the broadest definition. Help! and Why? are all sentences. It is convenient to use the word utterance as a broad label for any word or group of words which functions as an independent unit of speech or writing. exclamation. It‟s hot and He‟s the one who took it are sentences but Help! and Why? are not. However.
However. b) He was hungry because he missed lunch. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Underline those utterances below which are sentences. f) Where have you been? ______________________________________________ . So I bought the shoes and I saw them yesterday are both simple sentences.Commentary The only utterances which contain at least a subject and a main verb are So what‟s next? and What do we do next? So these are the only sentences in the dialogue. A simple sentence contains a single main verb. In grammatical terms. I bought the shoes from that new store next to the post office on Market Street is also a simple sentence: it is long but it contains only one main verb. e) That‟s the book I was telling you about. a) They‟re arriving soon. ► Then circle the ones which are compound sentences. c) What a day! d) She speaks both French and Italian fluently. because both bought and saw are main verbs. ______________________________________________ Different Sentences It is useful to be able to distinguish between sentences which express only one main idea and those which express two or more ideas. we do this by distinguishing between simple sentences and compound sentences. I bought the shoes that I saw yesterday is a compound sentence.
The simplest sentences have only two parts. Oi or C. ______________________________________________ More about Simple Sentences There are many ways of analyzing and diagramming sentences. Here we are going to look at some of the basic elements into which sentences can be divided. for example. the word hot and the phrase a nice day are complements. Od. underline each word/phrase and label it S. In this sentence. Utterances a). Some sentences also include words or phrases which give us more information about other parts of the sentence. while He and I is the subject in He and I agree. because each has only one main verb. this book is the direct object (Od). Other simple sentences may include an object (O): the person or thing affected by the verb. a) John and Helen arrived. this book is the object in I bought this book. a sentence may also include an indirect object (Oi): In I bought her this book. a subject (S) and a verb (V). the direct object is this book while her is the indirect object. In the sentences It‟s hot and It‟s a nice day. for example. These words or phrases are known as complements (C) because they complement or add to other elements. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► In the sentences below.Commentary All of the utterances are sentences except c). V. However. d) and f) are simple sentences. The subject is the person or thing which is the topic of the sentence and/or the agent of the verb. each contains two main verbs. . She is the subject in She left. Utterances b) and e) are compound sentences.
manner. S V Od C e) I don‟t know anything about it. place. the adverbial (A). The word later and the phrase over there are adverbials in I‟ll see you later and It‟s over there. g) Who told them that? ______________________________________________ Commentary S a) John and Helen S V Od b) I lost it. ______________________________________________ . c) They gave us directions. e) I don‟t know anything about it.b) I lost it. d) It was great. This is a word or phrase giving information about time. S V C d) It was great. S V Oi Od c) They gave us directions. S V Oi Od g) Who told them that? V arrived. S V C f) That was the problem. ______________________________________________ Another Element There is one more element that may be found in simple sentences. etc. f) That was the problem.
it is preceded by a preposition and is regarded as being an adverbial. e) People were there earlier. ______________________________________________ . b) She left her purse at home. a) They paid by check. A A e) People were there earlier. A A c) Then I walked back. Od A f) He gave the change to me. Od A b) She left her purse at home. Adverbial of manner Adverbial of place Then: Adverbial of time back: Adverbial of place hard: Adverbial of manner in Alaska: Adverbial of place there: Adverbial of place earlier: Adverbial of time When an Oi follows an Od.Exercise ► Label the objects (Od/Oi). complements (C) and adverbials (A) in the sentences below. g) That‟s very true. C g) That‟s very true. f) He gave the change to me. A A d) He worked hard in Alaska. ______________________________________________ Commentary A a) They paid by check. d) He worked hard in Alaska. c) Then I walked back.
e) He told his wife. It also examines some of the different types of clauses that may appear in compound sentences. You can leave.Unit 7: Compound Sentences and Clauses This unit looks at how to form and analyze compound sentences. ______________________________________________ Forming Compound Sentences As we saw in the previous unit. a) I watched TV. f) You can wait. ______________________________________________ . using the format shown in parentheses. ( … but …) (… which …) (… who …) (… or …) d) That‟s the place. The following exercise shows different ways of forming compound sentences. She can‟t. for example. I told you about it. (When …) c) She‟d like to go. the compound sentence He was hungry because he missed lunch could be expressed as two simple sentences: He was hungry and He missed lunch. She was thrilled. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Turn each pair of simple sentences into one compound sentence. compound sentences are formed by joining together two or more utterances which could each stand alone as a simple sentence. I drank a soda. So. He took a shower. (… and …) b) He got home.
When he got home. who was thrilled. ______________________________________________ Clauses with Conjunctions The most common way of joining clauses or sentences together to form a compound sentence is by means of a conjunction: and. That‟s the place which I told you about.) before or since some like by unless too although as so whether until with since as soon as ______________________________________________ . (Sections of sentences which do not contain a main verb are referred to as phrases. while compound sentences have two or more. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Underline those five of the following words or phrases which cannot be used as conjunctions. (It may help if you think about which of them cannot be placed immediately in front of a clause such as they went out.Commentary a) b) c) d) e) f) I watched TV and (I) drank a soda. ■ Each of the compound sentences above is made up of two clauses. when. after. he took a shower. A clause is a section of a sentence which contains a main verb. You can wait or (you can) leave.) Simple sentences have only one clause. etc. but. He told his wife. She‟d like to go but she can‟t.
Commentary before or since by some like unless too although as so as soon as whether until with since ______________________________________________ \ Exercise ► Match the corresponding clauses on the right and left below to form compound sentences. b) it was an accident. because I was late for work. ► Underline the conjunction which joins the two parts of each compound sentence. d) before they left. h) but I bought it. e) I was watching TV. 8) When you phoned. g) as soon as I can. 1) It was expensive 2) They called me 3) If you study hard. 7) As I told you yesterday. c) it‟s delicious. 5) My boss was angry 6) Once I‟d explained. 4) He was hungry. f) you should pass the exam. ______________________________________________ . 10) I‟ll finish it a) everything was fine. i) j) so he had a burger. 9) However you cook it.
while which and that refer to things. such as who. 7) As I told you yesterday. 9) However you cook it. ______________________________________________ Relative Clauses (1) Another way to make two clauses into one compound sentence is by using relative pronouns. whom. they and it. So a pair of simple sentences such as I have a brother and He lives in England can be transformed into the compound sentence I have a brother who lives in England. These can replace pronouns such as he. 8) When you phoned. because I was late for work. ______________________________________________ . particularly in informal speech or writing: She has a friend that works on Wall Street. which and that. b) it was an accident. she. Our kitchen has a toaster and It doesn‟t work can become Our kitchen has a toaster which (or that) doesn‟t work. The relative pronoun who is normally used to refer to people. f) i) j) you should pass the exam. we can also use that to refer to people. c) it‟s delicious. so he had a burger. Similarly. e) I was watching TV. However. Note that conjunctions can appear at the beginning of a sentence or at the beginning of the second clause. d) before they left. a) everything was fine. 5) My boss was angry 6) Once I‟d explained. g) as soon as I can. 4) He was hungry.Commentary 1) It was expensive 2) They called me 3) If you study hard. 10) I‟ll finish it h) but I bought it.
You have to meet them. She won the lottery. 2) She has a piano which/that cost $10. 3) That‟s the woman. which or that. 6) They‟re young people. 5) That‟s a view. 4) Where‟s the teacher whom/who/that I had before? 5) That‟s a view which/that I don‟t share. I don‟t share it. them) rather than subject pronouns. He keeps horses. 4) Where‟s the teacher? I had him before.000. the pronouns which were replaced were object pronouns (him. 1) I know a man. So the relative pronoun whom can. 2) She has a piano. be used instead of who. ______________________________________________ Commentary 1) I know a man who/that keeps horses. ■ When can also omit the relative pronoun altogether when it is the object in a clause. It cost $10. and some would say should.000. So we could express 4) and 6) as Where‟s the teacher I had before? and That‟s a view I don‟t share. ■ In sentences 4) and 6). 6) They‟re young people whom/who/that you have to meet. 3) That‟s the woman who/that won the lottery.Exercise ► Join the sentences below using who. ______________________________________________ .
6) and 7)? ______________________________________________ . 3) I bought it for my wife. ► What do you notice about the punctuation in 3). 6) Their house. it just tells you how he drank it. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Say whether each underlined clause is a defining or nondefining relative clause 1) She doesn‟t like movies that have a lot of violence. ■ I gave John some wine. 7) This is Alan. So this is a defining relative clause. who has just returned from India. These do not act to identify the person or thing being discussed. which has green shutters.Relative Clauses (2) All of the sentences which you produced in the previous exercise included what are called defining (or restrictive) relative clauses. So this is a nondefining clause. which I detest. which he drank slowly. It is also possible for sentences to include nondefining (or nonrestrictive) relative clauses. 4) They live in Los Angeles. 5) I can‟t find the book that I was reading. The second clause does not tell you which wine I gave him. 4). who loves jewelry. is really beautiful. ■ I gave John some wine which I bought in Italy. A defining relative clause is one which defines or identifies the particular person or thing being discussed. they merely add information about this person or thing. 2) He hates people who chew gum. The second clause tells you precisely which wine I gave John.
Explanation: This is Alan.Commentary 1) She doesn‟t like movies that have a lot of violence. 3) I bought it for my wife. Explanation: I have only one wife. 2) He hates people who chew gum. In other words. 6) Their house. is really beautiful. he has just returned from India. I happen to detest it. This separation shows that the clauses are not essential to the main clause and could be omitted. She happens to like jewelry. who has just returned from India. ______________________________________________ . Nondefining ■ In 3). 4) They live in Los Angeles. 7) This is Alan. Nondefining Defining Nondefining Nondefining Defining Defining Explanation: Their house is really beautiful. Note: If you are still having problems understanding the difference between defining and nondefining relative clauses. Explanation: She likes some movies but not violent ones. 4). the exercise on the next page should help you. 6) and 7). 5) I can‟t find the book that I was reading. Explanation: The specific book I‟m looking for is the one I was reading. which has green shutters. who loves jewelry. It happens to have green shutters. which I detest. Explanation: He doesn‟t hate all people but only those who chew gum. By the way. Explanation: There is only one Los Angeles. we use commas to mark nondefining clauses. the relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.
identifies/defines which of their two houses is being discussed. 1a) The son who is at Yale is twenty. is huge.000. 1b) The son. cost $1. is twenty. Defining Nondefining Defining Nondefining Nondefining Defining ______________________________________________ . plays basketball. 4b) The apartment. identifies/defines which of their two boats they prefer.000. 2b) The daughter who is really tall plays basketball. is about their only daughter. which they prefer.000. 5a) The plane which is a jet cost $1. 3a) The house which is in Boston is huge. is a yacht. They also have a plane and two boats. tells us that their only plane happens to be a jet. ► Say which sentence in each pair below makes more sense. 4a) The apartment which is in New York is small. 3b) The house. which is in Boston. 6a) The boat which they prefer is a yacht. and Mrs. ______________________________________________ Commentary 1a) 2a) 3a) 4b) 5b) 6a) identifies/defines which of the three sons is being referred to.Exercise Mr. Brown have three sons and one daughter. tells us something about their only apartment. They have two houses and an apartment. is small. who is really tall. which is in New York. They are rich. who is at Yale. 2a) The daughter. and whether it contains a defining or a nondefining clause. 5b) The plane. which is a jet.000. 6b) The boat.
Verb forms that are created by the addition of auxiliary verbs are actually aspects rather than tenses. This is a logical approach. we will examine how the verb tense system operates in English. Here is a list of the twelve “tenses” which we will examine. She will work. She is working. She has been working She worked. She had worked. We will return later to the distinction between tenses and aspects. She has worked. She was working. This is because. since most ESOL teachers. Present Perfect Simple. in linguistic terms. English has only two tenses: Present Simple and Past Simple. She had been working. strictly speaking. but for now we will treat aspects as though they were truly tenses. etc. She will have worked. a tense involves only changes to the base form of a verb.Unit 8: Verb Tenses & Aspects In this unit. She will be working. So the Present Progressive and the Present Perfect Simple are aspects. In fact. She will have been working. coursebooks and grammar references discuss verb grammar in terms of twelve tenses. Present Progressive. _____________________________________________ _ Tenses and Aspects Most people believe that English has twelve verb tenses: Present Simple. “Tense” Present Simple Present Progressive Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Past Simple Past Progressive Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Progressive Future Simple Future Progressive Future Perfect Simple Future Perfect Progressive Example She works. _____________________________________________ .
About the “Tenses”
We will mention some major points about tenses here and will then clarify and expand on these in the rest of this unit. ■ The name of each tense includes a time label: Present, Past or Future. However, as we shall see later, the relationship between tense and real time is not as straightforward as it may appear from these labels. ■ Six tenses are called Simple and six are called Progressive (or Continuous). We use Simple tenses when we view an event as a complete whole: e.g., I live in Houston. (Houston is my home.) We use Progressive tenses when we view an event as being in process or incomplete: e.g., I‟m living in Houston. (At the moment when I‟m writing this, my home is in Houston.) Each Progressive tense is formed by using part of the verb be (is, was, will be, has been, etc.) and adding ing to the main verb (working, eating, etc.). ■ Six tenses are called Perfect. These are used when we look back on events: When we look back on events from a present perspective, we use Present Perfect Simple or Progressive: I‟ve lived here for seven years or I‟ve been living here for seven years. When we look back from a point in the past, we use Past Perfect Simple or Progressive: In 2000 I‟d lived in California for ten years or In 2000 I‟d been living in California for ten years. When we look back from a point in the future, we use Future Perfect Simple or Progressive: Next year I‟ll have lived here for eight years or Next year I‟ll have been living here for eight years. Each Perfect tense is formed by using part of the verb have (has, had, will have, etc.) and the past or present participle of the main verb (He has gone, She has been studying, etc.).
Table of Tenses
SIMPLE Present NONPERFECT FORMS Future Future Simple She will walk Present Perfect Simple She has walked PERFECT Past FORMS Past Perfect Simple She had walked Future Perfect Simple She will have walked Past Present Simple She walks Past Simple She walked
PROGRESSIVE Present Progressive She is walking Past Progressive She was walking Future Progressive She will be walking Pres. Perfect Progressive She has been walking Past Perfect Progressive She had been walking Future Perfect Progressive She will have been walking
■ Some of these tenses are used much less often than others. The Future Perfect Progressive, for example, is comparatively rarely used in any variety of English. ■ The two Past Perfect tenses are used in British English but have largely disappeared from American English. So where a British speaker might say I left after I‟d seen him, an American would normally use the Past Simple and say I left after I saw him. ■ American speakers increasingly prefer to use the Past Simple where British speakers use the Present Perfect Simple. So an American would usually say I already saw it, while a British person would say I‟ve already seen it.
► In the table below, write in the missing tense labels and example sentences. Two Useful Tips: ■ If a sentence contains a form of have (has, had, etc.), the tense has to be Perfect. ■ If a sentence contains a present participle (verb + ing), the tense has to be Progressive. SIMPLE Present NONPERFECT FORMS Future _______________ She will walk ________________ She has walked PERFECT Past FORMS Past Perfect Simple ________________ ________________ She will have walked Future Progressive ________________ Pres. Perfect Progressive
PROGRESSIVE ________________ She is walking Past Progressive She was walking
Present Simple ________________ ________________ She walked
________________ She had been walking Future Perfect Progressive She will have been walking
► When you have completed the table, check your answers against the full table on the previous page.
► Identify the verb tense used in each of the sentences below.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
She went there yesterday. I‟ll be seeing them soon. He‟s working really hard. He‟d lived there for forty years. She had been listening for hours. They know a lot of people. It was raining. He will have finished by now. They‟ve been keeping quiet lately.
10) We‟ll have been walking for hours by then. 11) You‟ll get there. 12) You‟ve done a great job.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) She went there yesterday. I‟ll be seeing them soon. He‟s working really hard. He‟d lived there for forty years. She had been listening for hours. They know a lot of people. It was raining. He will have finished by now. They‟ve been keeping quiet lately. We‟ll have been walking for hours by then. You‟ll get there. You‟ve done a great job. Past Simple Future Progressive Present Progressive Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Progressive Present Simple Past Progressive Future Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive Future Simple Present Perfect Simple
1) Present Simple 2) Present Perfect Progressive 3) Future Progressive 4) Past Progressive 5) Future Simple 6) Present Perfect Simple 7) Present Progressive 8) Past Simple 9) Past Perfect Simple a) They saw him yesterday. i) It‟ll be closing at 6:00.Exercise ► Without looking at the previous page. complete this list of the twelve tenses. _____________________________________________ . _____________________________________________ Exercise ► Match each verb tense on the left with the appropriate example on the right. g) The cat was sleeping. b) You are doing well. c) I‟ve seen him. f) She‟s been waiting for hours. h) He‟ll leave tomorrow. 1) Present 2) Present 3) Present 4) Present 5) Past 6) Past 7) Past 8) Past 9) Future 10) Future 11) Future 12) Future ► Check your answers by looking at the previous page. d) He works overseas. e) We‟d finished the test by 3:00.
It‟ll be closing at 6:00. 7) Aren‟t you staying there? _____________________________________________ . b) You are doing well. h) He‟ll leave tomorrow. _____________________________________________ Exercise ► Name the tense used in each of the questions and negative statements below.Commentary 1) Present Simple 2) Present Perfect Progressive 3) Future Progressive 4) Past Progressive 5) Future Simple 6) Present Perfect Simple 7) Present Progressive 8) Past Simple 9) Past Perfect Simple d) He works overseas. 3) Who is playing? 4) She won‟t agree. g) The cat was sleeping. 5) Where do they work? 6) They weren‟t working then. e) We‟d finished the test by 3:00. c) I‟ve seen him. 1) When did she go? 2) He hasn‟t done it yet. a) They saw him yesterday. f) i) She‟s been waiting for hours.
the time reference is future but the tense is Present Simple. . 7) Aren‟t you staying there? Past Simple Present Perfect Simple Present Progressive Future Simple Present Simple * Past Progressive Present Progressive * In 5. 5) Does it start tomorrow? 6) They weren‟t working then.Commentary 1) When did she go? 2) He hasn‟t done it yet. 3) Who is playing? 4) She won‟t agree. _____________________________________________ ■ You will get more practice with identifying and labeling verb tenses when we look at the passive voice in a later unit.
This will show you how to approach the analysis of other verb tenses. you put does not / doesn‟t before the verb: He doesn‟t walk She does not stay It doesn‟t go John doesn‟t hurry Question In most persons. Negative Statement and Question. verbs end in s: He walks She stays It goes John hurries Negative In most persons. the Present Simple and Present Progressive.Unit 9: Two Present Tenses This unit will examine and contrast two of the major verb tenses. Positive In most persons. ______________________________________________ Present Simple: Form Each verb tense has three major forms: Positive Statement. It will look at how these tenses are formed and at how they are used. you put do not / don‟t in front of the base form: I don‟t walk You do not stay We don‟t go They do not hurry In the Third Person Singular. it normally starts the sentence: When do they leave? How do I start? Why does she smoke? ______________________________________________ . These three forms of the Present Simple are outlined below. the positive statement form is the same as the base form: I walk You stay We go They hurry In the Third Person Singular. the question follows this pattern: Do + subject + base form verb: Do I walk? Do you stay? Do we go? Do they hurry? In the Third Person Singular. the question follows this pattern: Does + subject + base form verb: Does he walk? Does she stay? Does it go? Does John hurry? When there is a question word.
Instead. 1. 3. Who eats a lot? 4. ______________________________________________ Commentary Negative 1. When do they walk home? Why do they walk home? She doesn‟t/does not shop there. 4. 2. Who drives to work? 3. 3. 2.Exercise ► Change each sentence below into a) the negative and b) questions with when and why. Who shops there? ■ As you can see from the second part of the exercise. They walk home. When does she shop Why does she shop there? 2. He eats a lot. She shops there. When does he eat a lot? Why does he eat a lot? They don‟t/do not walk home. there? 1. Questions When do I drive to work? Why do I drive to work? He doesn‟t/does not eat a lot. I drive to work. 4. He eats a lot. 2. the subject question Who does not operate in the same way as the other question words. 4. it is followed by the Third Person Singular form but with a question mark added: Who goes there? Who knows? ______________________________________________ . I drive to work. Who walks home? I don‟t/do not drive to work. Negative Questions 1. ► Change each sentence above into a question beginning with Who. 3. She shops there. They walk home.
Can you see any rules for when we add s. es or ies to the base form of verbs in Third Person Singular positive statements? 3. What problems do you think ESOL students may have with Third Person Singular questions and negative statements? ______________________________________________ .Exercise ► Look back over the form of the Present Simple and then answer these questions: 1. What problems do you think ESOL students have with the positive statement forms? 2.
2. might. Two common uses of the Present Simple are to express: ■ repeated actions which are repeated: He works hard every day. ss: goes. The basic rules are: ■ add s to the base form of most verbs: walks. So they produce sentences such as He drive there and She drink soda. as you will see in the following exercise. ■ constant states: I live near Houston. es or ies. buys 3. es or ies to the base form of the verb. empties ■ add s to verbs ending with y after a vowel: prays. However. etc. particularly in the case of modal auxiliaries (will. the Present Simple has several other important meanings or uses. misses ■ add ies to verbs ending with y after a consonant: hurries. producing sentences such as He doesn‟t goes or When does she eats? Note: There are some important exceptions to the form rules we have outlined for the Present Simple. sees. washes. Students forget to change the Third Person Singular to end with s. we need to look at what it means and how it is used. Students often add s. ______________________________________________ Present Simple: Meaning and Use Now that we have examined the form of the Present Simple. sh. tries. She likes oranges. cracks. makes ■ add es to verbs ending in o. ch. You no doubt already realize that one verb tense can have more than one meaning or use.Commentary 1.). watches. jumps. They often eat fish. ______________________________________________ . may. says.
I work in a bank. These express universal truths and generalizations. He usually goes to bed late. The sun sets in the west.Exercise ► Identify the meaning or use of the Present Simple in each of the following sets of sentences. You pour oil into the pan. I‟ll be glad if it rains. It includes tax. He comes from Canada. She gets up early. long-term or permanent states. 1. Then you add the onions. New Yorkers joke a lot. often and rarely. 3. So it is logical that we use the Present Simple when discussing schedules: The movie starts at 6:00 and The flight leaves at 8:00. These express repeated or habitual actions. She gets up early. I understand what you mean. She lives in Phoenix. Here the Present Simple is used to describe a process or to give instructions. Water boils at 212 degrees. The sun sets in the west. New Yorkers joke a lot. 7. 2. By extension. What will you do when it happens? 6. He goes into a bar. it starts at 7:30. She lives in Phoenix. I work in a bank. we also use it when discussing one-off events if these are scheduled: It‟s only showing tonight. Such cases often contain adverbs of frequency such as always. 2. He comes from Canada. These express constant. 5. He thinks so. Water boils at 212 degrees. 4. He sits down and he says to the bartender … ______________________________________________ Commentary 1. He usually goes to bed late. You pour oil into the pan. . 4. Then you add the onions. 3.
6.like. I understand what you mean. stories and anecdotes. He thinks so. In these contexts. They produce sentences such as I‟m hearing what you‟re saying and I‟m understanding you. He sits down and he says to the bartender … We often use the Present Simple to refer to the past when we tell jokes. So ESOL students often produce English sentences such as I‟ll see him if/when he will get here. ______________________________________________ Present Progressive: Form ► Write down at least two examples of positive statement.hear. I‟ll be glad if it rains. mean. Some English verbs normally have only one present tense. see (except when used to mean meet). Some examples are: . the Present Simple conveys a sense of immediacy. appear (when it means seem). look like. the Future Simple is used in these cases.5. contain. These verbs do not exist in the Present Progressive in all or some of their meanings. hate. the Present Simple.seem. taste . negative statements and questions in the Present Progressive tense. suppose . He goes into a bar. remember. In the USA. resemble. want. possess. 7. know.believe. include. before and as soon as. It includes tax. belong to. ______________________________________________ . many people now ignore this distinction with some of these verbs. involve . In many languages.own. love. prefer . What will you do when it happens? We use the Present Simple to talk about the future after if and after conjunctions such as when.
(Question word) + present of be + subject + present participle of verb: Am I walking? What is she eating? Why are they going? etc. ______________________________________________ Present Progressive: Meaning and Use Exercise ► Write down 8 sentences in the Present Progressive. Positive Negative Question Subject + present tense of be + present participle of verb: I am/‟m walking. She is not/‟s not/isn‟t walking. etc. Then see how many different meanings or uses of the tense are represented in your sentences. Subject + present tense of be + not + present participle of verb: I am/‟m not walking. She/He/It is/‟s walking. the use is not.Present Progressive: Form The form of the Present Progressive (or Present Continuous) is very straightforward. You/We/They are/‟re walking. This is because the tense has several meanings or uses. and because many languages do not have an equivalent tense. ______________________________________________ . if the form is easy. The Who subject question form is different: Who is eating? However.
Setting the scene in stories and jokes that are being narrated in the Present Simple: This guy is sitting in a bar when he sees a monkey walk in. Describing (usually temporary) events or states taking place at the moment of speaking or writing: He‟s working (now). a. 1. He‟s always helping the homeless. So I‟m standing there and the bus arrives. e. d. ______________________________________________ . He‟s starting work next week 3. Can‟t you see that I‟m working? c. f. b. She‟s living in Miami (at present).Commentary The main meanings or uses of the Present Progressive are outlined below. Talking about irritating or endearing habits: They‟re always making a noise. She hates being disturbed when she‟s reading. We‟re British but we‟re living in San Francisco. Talking about future events or states which have already been decided on or arranged at the moment of speaking or writing: I‟m seeing her tomorrow. 4. 5. 2. He‟s arriving at 9:00. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Identify the use of the Present Progressive in each sentence below. They‟re always complaining about something. Talking about something that may be in process at any specified time: He likes to smoke when he‟s drinking.
She hates being disturbed when she‟s reading.Commentary a. They‟re always complaining about something. He‟s arriving at 9:00. Can‟t you see that I‟m working? c. We‟re British but we‟re living in San Francisco. f. Scheduled future event Present action Action in process Irritating Habit Scene-setting Present (temporary) action ______________________________________________ . b. d. So I‟m standing there and the bus arrives. e.
He had been waiting for hours. Note that two “tenses” are each represented by two sample sentences. 5. 4. Where has he been? 8. It was making a noise. Did they tell you that? ______________________________________________ . She has left. They went there in May. a. 7. Present Perfect Simple d.Unit 10: Talking about the Past This unit will give you practice in identifying the various verb tenses which we can use to talk or write about past events and states. Past Perfect Simple f. Past Simple b. Present Perfect Progressive e. Past Perfect Progressive 1. 3. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Match each tense name on the left with the appropriate sentence on the right. 2. We had seen them before. I have been working hard. It will also help you to see how and why we choose between the various tenses when we relate past events or describe past situations. Past Progressive c. 6.
8. Past Perfect Simple f. 5. Did they tell you that? 4. Present Perfect Progressive e. It wasn‟t raining earlier. 1. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Identify the tense represented in each sentence below. He had been waiting for hours. They went there in May. Where had she been? 2. Past Perfect Progressive 3. Where has he been? 6. She has left. Haven‟t you seen it? 6. When did he tell you that? ______________________________________________ .Commentary a. 3. 5. 8. Past Simple b. 2. Have you been working? 4. 7. It was making a noise. Past Progressive c. He‟d never seen it before. I have been working hard. We had seen them before. 1. They hadn‟t been living there long. I didn‟t realize that. Present Perfect Simple d. 7.
■ Most speakers of American English rarely use the Past Perfect Simple. 8. 5. I didn‟t realize that. ■ Speakers of American English use the Present Perfect Simple and Progressive much less often than do speakers of British English.Commentary 1. 3. The following points about usage are worth bearing in mind. ■ The Past Simple and the Past Progressive are probably the past tenses most commonly used in all varieties of English. Haven‟t you seen it? 6. some of the past tenses are used much more frequently than others. They hadn‟t been living there long. Where had she been? 2. However. 7. this tense still appears in writing. Have you been working? 4. He‟d never seen it before. ______________________________________________ . It wasn‟t raining earlier. When did he tell you that? Past Perfect Simple Past Simple Present Perfect Progressive Past Progressive Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Simple Past Simple ______________________________________________ About Past Tenses As we mentioned in Unit 8. and particularly in formal writing. ■ Few speakers of English make frequent use of the Past Perfect Progressive.
“Not long. In each case.Exercise ► Identify the past tenses represented by the underlined sections of the text below. “How long have you been sitting out there?” From the tone of her voice he realized that she had been worrying about him. He heard the door slide open behind him and he knew that Ellen had arrived. He was sitting on the patio. Tense was sitting had been was feeling heard knew had arrived have (you) been sitting realized had been worrying replied asked Reason for Use ______________________________________________ . “How are you feeling?” she asked. It had been a hard day and he was feeling tired. say why that particular tense was chosen by the writer.” he replied.
Simple This is the next “event” in the narrative. The Past Perfect is used to refer to or states that took place at an earlier point in time than the past events or Past Progressive was sitting had been events Past Perf. heard events Past Simple We use the Past Simple to describe in a narrative. this tense sets the scene: The was already feeling tired when the scene opened.. This is another “event”. ______________________________________________ . Commentary Tense Reason for Use The Past Progressive sets the scene. have (you) been sitting began Pres. It describes what was already happening when the reader entered the scene. This tense clarifies that the woman‟s took place before the moment when the man learned about it. realized had been worrying man Past Simple Past Perf. Perf. knew had arrived arrival Past Simple Past Perf. The woman began worrying before the became aware of it. Prog. This is another “event”. This is used for actions or states that in the past but were continuing at the moment of speaking. replied asked Past Simple Past Simple This is another “event”. Simple scene which the writer is currently describing. was feeling man Past Progressive Again. Prog.
the person is asking about a time frame (when you were in Asia) that ended before the time of speaking. 5.Exercise Look at the following pairs of sentences. ► Explain what you think is wrong with the other sentence. Using the Past Simple for both verbs would indicate that they happened at the same time: She left when we arrived. When he went out. he realized it was snowing. When he went out. Did you visit Laos when you were in Asia? The other sentence is incorrect because the Present Perfect relates to actions or states that occur in a time frame that extends to the time of speaking. 2. I left as soon as I had eaten. She had been reading the papers before the meeting. He was jogging when he was hit by a car. ______________________________________________ Commentary 1. Did you visit Laos when you were in Asia? Have you been to Laos when you were in Asia? 2. 4. 3. He jogged when he was hit by a car. he realized it had snowed. underline the sentence which you feel is more correct or appropriate. ► In each pair. I left as soon as I ate. 6. She already left when we arrived. We use the Past Perfect Simple to show that one action preceded the other. . In our second sentence. She already left when we arrived. She had read the papers before the meeting. 1. The use of already indicates that her leaving preceded our arrival. She had already left when we arrived.
3. When he went out. I left as soon as I ate. the first sentence is more correct. he realized it was snowing. he realized it had snowed. The second sentence implies that the man started to jog after the car hit him. In the first sentence. From the second sentence. we know that she started reading the papers before the meeting but there is no indication of whether she read all or just part of them. In theory. 6. This is unlikely. She had been reading the papers before the meeting. I left as soon as I had eaten. 4. snow had fallen earlier but it was not still snowing when he went out. 5. most people would accept both sentences. such as writing. Both are possible but the meanings are different. snow was still falling when the man went out. The first sentence implies that the woman finished reading the papers before the meeting. ______________________________________________ . Both sentences are possible but they describe different scenes. When he went out. In the second sentence. and it might be more appropriate in formal contexts. However. She had read the papers before the meeting. He was jogging when he was hit by a car.
Shakespeare wrote “Hamlet”. This was composed in 1887. They‟ll finish it tomorrow. “A Starry Night” was painted by Van “Hamlet” was written by Shakespeare. we have looked at verbs only in their active voice. They built Stonehenge in England. “Word” is produced by Microsoft. Microsoft produces “Word”. They composed this in 1887. This will be finished tomorrow. ► B. Gogh. What is the relationship between the object in each sentence on the left and the subject in each sentence on the right? ► C. What happens to the subject in an active voice sentence when you change that sentence into the passive? ______________________________________________ . What is the grammatical difference between the sentences on the left and on the right below? Van Gogh painted “A Starry Night”. Completing this unit will also give you practice in recalling the names of verb tenses. This unit looks at the form and use of verbs in the passive voice. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► A. Stonehenge was built in England.Unit 11: The Passive Voice So far.
5. there is nothing which could function as the subject in a passive sentence. 8. He has cooked the meat. So you can say. Tense 1. 6. He blushed but not He was blushed. 3. D. C. Those on the right are in the passive voice. I‟ll be writing a letter. The direct object of the verb in an active voice sentence becomes the subject of the verb if the sentence is changed into the passive. She had been reading that book. If the subject of an active voice sentence is retained in the passive voice version. They make Hondas in Japan. B. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Identify the tense in each sentence below. it becomes the agent and is preceded by the word by.Commentary A. All the sentences on the left are in the active voice. ■ Intransitive verbs do not have a passive form: Since they do not have a direct object. They‟re selling their house. He‟ll fix the problem. They‟ve been eating pizza. 7. 4. Passive Version ______________________________________________ . They were making coffee. 2. Mozart composed that music. Then turn the sentence into the passive. 9.
They‟ve been eating pizza. Passive Version The house is being sold. 5.Commentary Tense 1. I‟ll be writing a letter. Mozart composed that music. They make Hondas in Japan. Past Perf. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Which of the sentences above seem clumsy or unnatural to you? ► What does this suggest to you about how often and how the passive is used? ______________________________________________ . 6. Perf. Perf. 8. (by them). Hondas are made (by them) in Japan. A letter will be being written (by me). Pizza has been being eaten (by them). 7. That music was composed by Mozart. The problem will be fixed (by him). He‟ll fix the problem. Prog. He has cooked the meat. Prog. Simple Pres. 4. Progressive Present Simple Future Simple Fut. Progressive Past Simple Past Progressive Pres. 2. That book had been being read (by her). She had been reading that book. The meat has been cooked (by him). They were making coffee. 3. Coffee was being made (by them). 9. Pres. They‟re selling their house.
3. “Hamlet” wasn‟t written in 1608.” 4. Most of us would certainly avoid producing sentences like these three. ■ The passive voice is comparatively uncommon in both speech and writing. You probably also decided that we use the passive much less often than the active. Some of the sentences are just too long. ■ The passive is fairly common in some types of legal. ______________________________________________ . This also the case with sentences 1. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Why do you think the writer/speaker used the passive in each sentence below? 1. if only because we would feel uncomfortable using more than one form of the verb be in a sentence. Beyonce is being sued.Commentary You probably thought that most of the sentences seem unnatural. the passive version would seem more natural if the agent were omitted: Hondas are made in Japan seems much less stilted than Hondas are made by them in Japan. This is the case with 4. 2. The victim had been shot in the head. it was written in 1598. In some examples. 3 and 7. “Mistakes were made. His latest movie hasn‟t been well received. 8 and 9. 5. academic and technical writing.
3. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► List the passive forms that you think are so common that we should teach them to students? ► For each of these forms. 4. The focus is on the play and when it was written rather than on who wrote it. The speaker/writer doesn‟t know or doesn‟t care who is bringing the suit. We mainly use the passive when: ■ we do not know who performs a particular action ■ we don‟t care who performs a particular action ■ we don‟t want to say who performs a particular action ■ we want to focus on an action rather than on who does it. 2. The identity of the shooter probably isn‟t known. ______________________________________________ . President Reagan did not want to say that he and his team made the mistakes.Commentary 1. The speaker/writer doesn‟t know or doesn‟t want to say who doesn‟t like the movie. write down the grammar pattern and an example sentence. 5.
Perf. Simple Passive: + ______________________________________________ . Some teachers feel that students at higher levels should also learn the Present Progressive and Present Perfect Simple forms. Present Simple Passive: Subject They Subject They Subject They Subject They + is/are are + was/were were + is/are being are being + has/have been have been + past participle made … + past participle written … past participle replaced … past participle arrested … Past Simple Passive: Present Prog.Commentary Many teachers feel that the most important forms for students to learn are the Present Simple and Past Simple ones. Passive: + Pres.
f) “Crash Kills Six” (newspaper headline) g) They are always doing things like that. name the tense of the underlined verb. Present or Future. Time & Function This unit looks at the relationship between verb tenses and time. Time Frame ______________________________________________ .Unit 12: Tense. as you will already have realized and as the exercise below shows. c) What are you doing tomorrow? d) So he walks into a bar … e) I didn‟t know you were Canadian. However. It also examines how the various tenses are used to express communicative functions. Then say whether the time referred to in the sentence is the present. From this it would seem that each tense has a relationship to a specific time frame. the relationship between tenses and time is not at all straightforward. Tense a) I wish I had more money. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► In each sentence. b) When he arrives. ____________________________________ Verb Tenses and Time Each verb tense carries a time label: Past. I‟ll see him. the past or the future.
The tense is Present Progressive. f) “Crash Kills Six” (newspaper headline) As in sentence d). However. Time is an element of our expression of reality. in order to give past events a more immediate impact. I‟ll see him. The tense is Present Simple but it refers to a future event. the person is saying. c) What are you doing tomorrow? The tense is Present Progressive but the time reference is future. the Present Simple is used here to describe a past action or event. d) So he walks into a bar … The tense is Present Simple but it refers to an action in the past. In effect. This is another example of Past Simple referring to present time. Tense is a purely grammatical idea. People often use the Present Simple in storytelling. and for the same reason. b) When he arrives. the speaker is talking about behavior which has occurred often in the past. I‟ll see him. the person is saying. We often use the Present Progressive to talk about planned future actions or events. _____________________________________________ Time is not the same thing as tense. We often use always with the Present Progressive in this way to criticize someone‟s habits. When he will arrive. In effect.Commentary a) I wish I had more money. The tense is Past Simple but it refers to present time. I wish that I had more money now. g) They are always doing things like that. (Michael Lewis in The English Verb) ______________________________________________ . still occurs and will presumably continue to occur in the future. The importance of this distinction cannot be overestimated. e) I didn‟t know you were Canadian.
► Next to each of your sentences. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Think of different verb tenses you can use to refer to a future event. The exercise below looks at several ways in which we can talk about a single time frame. or perhaps even usually. An additional complication is that one time frame can be expressed through different verb tenses. One verb tense may be used to refer to different times. For each one. write the name of the verb tense. ______________________________________________ .Tense and Time It should be clear from the previous exercise that each verb tense is not invariably. write a simple sentence incorporating the words He / start / soon. linked to a particular time frame.
etc. usually a verb tense: Present Progressive. etc. ______________________________________________ .Commentary You have probably produced some or all of the sentences below. This structural approach is based on the assumption that grammatical form is the main organization principle underlying language selection and use. each lesson (or book unit) normally focuses on a grammatical structure. He‟ll be starting soon. However. although the form used in the final example is much less common than those used in the other sentences. He starts soon. He‟s going to start soon. Present Progressive Present Simple Future Simple Future Progressive Present Progressive of going to + base verb Present Simple of be + to + base verb All of the verb forms in these sentences can be used to refer to future time. He may start soon. feelings. He‟s starting soon. every sentence also conveys other information. Past Simple. You may also have produced sentences using modal auxiliaries: for example. facts. ESOL teachers normally dealt with verb tenses mainly in terms of their form or structure. This is known as a structural approach to teaching grammar. In such an approach. He‟ll start soon. we have looked at tenses in relation to time. time is only one part of the meaning which sentences convey. He might start soon. Until recently. ______________________________________________ Structural Grammar So far. He is to start soon.
You should go home and rest. 3. How did you select these sentences for use? Did you really think. Hi. A functional approach assumes that communicative function is the most important organizational principle underlying language selection and use. Imagine that you arrive late for a meeting because you were held up in traffic. Do you mind if I leave now? ______________________________________________ . This way of looking at and teaching language is known as a functional approach. 2. Let me do that for you. you would probably say something like. So instead of focusing on grammatical forms. I wish it had never happened. giving advice. and that a functional approach relates more closely to normal language use than does a structural approach. each lesson tends to focus on different ways of expressing communicative functions. A simplistic example illustrates why many ESOL teachers now adopt a functional approach. 4. in terms of which grammatical structures to use: I‟ll use a present tense then a past one? Or did you think in terms of the functions you needed to express: I‟d better apologize and then give a reason for my lateness? ______________________________________________ Exercise ► What function is being expressed in each sentence below? 1. they analyze utterances in terms of communicative function. such as asking for and responding to advice. Function here means a speaker‟s or writer‟s purpose in producing an utterance: asking for help. consciously or subconsciously. In a functional ESOL course. how are you? 5. etc. I got held up in traffic. When you go into the meeting. I‟m sorry I‟m late.Functional Grammar Many people have moved away from a structural approach.
4. Could I open the window? 4. I wish it had never happened.Commentary Function 1. Hi. So it was hard. Could you help me with this? 3. how are you? 5. You should go home and rest. Could you meet me at 6:00? ► What does this exercise suggest about the relationship between form and function? ______________________________________________ . 2. 3. Do you mind if I leave now? Giving advice Offering assistance Expressing regret Greeting Asking for permission ______________________________________________ Exercise ► What does could mean in each underlined sentence below? ► What function is being expressed in each underlined sentence? 1. was it? But could you do it? 2. Let me do that for you. It‟s hot in here.
we can ask for assistance by saying Help or Could you help me? or I wonder if you could help me? Each of these alternative ways of expressing a function is called a functional exponent. However. So it was hard. It‟s hot in here. So Help is an exponent of the function of asking for assistance. they can vary in terms of their appropriateness: Give me a hand may be appropriate when speaking with a friend but Would you mind helping me? would certainly be more appropriate in a more formal context.Commentary 1. The various exponents of one function basically mean the same thing. Could you meet me at 6:00? Meaning: Is it possible for you to meet me at 6:00? Function: Asking for information Function: Asking for assistance Function: Asking for permission Function: Making arrangements ■ This exercise shows there is not a one-on-one relationship between verb forms and communicative functions: One verb form may express different functions. Learners of English need to become familiar with a range of functional exponents and they need to know which exponent is the most appropriate in any given context. It is also true that one function may be expressed through a variety of different verb forms. Could I open the window? Meaning: Is it okay with you if I open the window? 4. was it? But could you do it? Meaning: Were you able to do it? 2. ______________________________________________ . For example. ______________________________________________ Functional Exponents The previous exercise showed that one verb form may express a range of different functions. Could you help me with this? Meaning: Are you willing to help me? 3.
Exercise Imagine that you are going to a concert and have decided to invite a friend to go with you. ______________________________________________ Commentary Here are a few of the possible exponents of inviting: Do you want to …? Would you like to …? Why don‟t you …? How about …? I was wondering if you‟d like to … I don‟t suppose you‟d like to … ______________________________________________ . ► Write down as many exponents as you can think of to express the function of inviting.
If you heat water. I would tell you. imaginary. why didn‟t you tell me? If you don‟t like martial arts. impossible or highly unlikely? ______________________________________________ . I‟ll stay home. If it rains. one clause depends on the other: In the example above. ► Before looking at the Commentary. If she had seen you. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Look at the form of the verb in the second clause in each sentence below. look at the first clause in each sentence above. it boils. What difference is there between the forms of these verbs in Group 1 and in Group 2? Group 1 If it rains. Group 2 If I knew. I would forget it. whether or not the speaker stays home depends on whether or not it rains. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ What Is a Conditional? A conditional sentence is a sentence which contains a clause expressing a condition. she‟ll stay home. and which group refers to situations which are unreal. she would have spoken to you.Unit 13: Conditionals This unit looks at ways of analyzing and categorizing conditional sentences. If I were you. I would never work again. A typical example is. Which group of sentences refers to situations that are real or possible. If you knew. usually introduced by the word if. In conditionals. you won‟t like this movie. If I won the lottery.
the USA would be different now. they‟ll be sorry. you‟ll have to study harder.Commentary In Group 1. b) If I had the money. e) If you go there. ■ The distinction between real and unreal situations is the key to understanding most conditional sentences. imaginary. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Looking at the first clause in each sentence below. the verb in each second clause is in a normal tense: Future Simple. The sentences in Group 1 refer to real or possible situations. impossible or highly unlikely. every second clause contains the auxiliary verb would. g) If McCain had been elected in 2008. Real or Unreal a) If he had gone. In Group 2. he would have been killed. Present Simple. it turns into ice. you‟ll probably see her. The Group 2 sentences concern situations which are unreal. decide whether it involves a real or an unreal situation. d) If there were an earthquake tomorrow. this bridge would fall. h) If you want to be a doctor. f) If you freeze water. Remember that unreal situations include ones which are possible but highly unlikely. c) If they do it. I‟d go. ______________________________________________ . such as winning the lottery. etc.
So when we say. or on our perception. What rules can you infer in respect of clause order and punctuation in conditionals? 1. ______________________________________________ .Commentary Sentences c). We‟ll drive if the weather is good. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► Look at the sentences below. 2. In a) and g). the odds of an earthquake happening the following day are (assumed by the speaker to be) very slight. e). d) and g) refer to unreal situations: The events described either cannot happen or are highly unlikely to happen. 5. we are assuming that the person may indeed work harder in future. If pigs had wings. If he works harder. the events are impossible because we cannot change the past. If you go. f) and h) refer to real situations: The situation described may actually happen. In b). They would do it if they could. the person does not have the money at the moment of speaking. 5. we are assuming that the person is not going to work harder. I‟ll be surprised if you win. Sentences a). If he worked harder. b). 3. you‟ll enjoy it. as in a) above. 4. he will pass. ■ The distinction between real and unreal situations may be based on fact. he would pass. they‟d fly. If she knew. as in d). In d). she would say something. When we say.
Commentary The if clause can be either the first or the second clause in a conditional. The Second Conditional The If clause refers to an unlikely or impossible situation. If I see it. in the Present Simple. 2. this clause has to be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. The verb in the If clause is him. a comma is not required. The First Conditional This expresses possible or likely situations. I‟ll buy it. the verb in the other clause is often in the Future Simple. If she had gone. I would do it. 1. ______________________________________________ Exercise Conditionals are normally divided into four main types. ______________________________________________ . 4. she‟d have seen 3. When the if clause comes second. If you heat glass enough. The word If can be replaced with When or Whenever. it melts. The Zero Conditional This expresses constant or universal truths. When the first clause contains If. The Third Conditional This refers to events which already happened. ► Match each sentence on the right with the relevant conditional type on the left. The verb in the If clause has a past form. If I were president. Both form and meaning are past.
If I were president. I would do it. As we will see below. (If I‟d worked harder. he‟ll be in trouble. If she had gone. If he won the game. If + Past Perfect. I‟ll buy it. Present Simple If you heat water. the Future Simple in the second clause may be replaced by other tenses or forms. If + Present Simple. you get burned. he would tell you.) 4. you‟ll miss the start. Third Conditional Form: ■ Remember that you can usually invert the order of the two clauses without affecting the meaning of the sentence. If you heat glass enough. If they had known. would + base verb we‟d all be surprised. she‟d have seen him. it melts. If I see it. (If he turns up. Future Simple If you arrive late.) 2. it boils. would have + past participle they would have left. (If he knew the answer. First Conditional Form: Second Conditional Form: If + Past Simple.) ______________________________________________ Conditional Forms Zero Conditional Form: If + Present Simple. ______________________________________________ . (If you touch fire. I‟d have made more money. Zero Conditional First Conditional Second Conditional Third Conditional 3.) 1.Commentary A second example of each type has been added in parentheses.
I may do some gardening. ► The four sentences below are examples of the same conditional type. k) If it‟s nice tomorrow. she‟ll succeed. they probably wouldn‟t have gotten sick. I‟m going to drive out of town. we‟ll get there by 6:00. Conditional Type a) If we leave now. b) I won‟t be happy if that happens. c) I would be amazed if he got the job. ______________________________________________ . f) If that were true. h) If they‟d taken vitamins.Exercise ► Decide which of the four main conditional types is represented by each sentence below. call me. l) If it‟s nice tomorrow. we aren‟t staying home. it sinks. Which type? ► What do you notice about the form of the second clause in these four examples? i) If it‟s nice tomorrow. j) If it‟s nice tomorrow. e) He wouldn‟t have done it if he hadn‟t been drunk. d) If you put a stone in water. we‟d all be in trouble. g) If she tries again.
j) If it‟s nice tomorrow. the modal auxiliary may in j). If he arrives late. I leave. If I‟d worked harder then. l) If it‟s nice tomorrow. I‟m going to drive out of town. First First Second Zero Third Second First Third First First First First The second clause in sentences j)-l) does not contain a Future Simple verb. she‟ll succeed. 4. I‟ll have finished dinner. call me. i) If it‟s nice tomorrow. I‟d be richer now. c) I would be amazed if he got the job. e) He wouldn‟t have done it if he hadn‟t been drunk. h) If they‟d taken vitamins. Instead. k) If it‟s nice tomorrow. we‟ll get there by 6:00. If I were president.Commentary Conditional Type a) If we leave now. 3. b) I won‟t be happy if that happens. we aren‟t staying home. g) If she tries again. our troops would have left Iraq by now. it sinks. f) If that were true. I may do some gardening. 2. the imperative in k) and the Present Progressive in l). ______________________________________________ . it contains other forms that express the future: going to in i). If they show. d) If you put a stone in water. ______________________________________________ Exercise ► What do you notice about the verbs in the second clauses below? 1. they probably wouldn‟t have gotten sick. we‟d all be in trouble.
They are all examples of what are called mixed conditionals. but the second verb is Future Perfect Simple. We also use if when reporting questions: for example. but the second verb is in the Present Simple rather than in a future form. but the second clause does not have a past form or refer to the past. there is sometimes a slight change of meaning. This starts as a Second Conditional. ■ Not all conditionals contain if. 3. This starts as a Third Conditional. but the second verb refers to the past. If I would have known … rather than If I‟d known … or If I had known … ■ Not all sentences containing if are conditionals. you pay for it. So I‟ll go if it doesn‟t rain can be changed to I‟ll go unless it rains. ■ It is important to remember that there are many mixed conditionals in addition to the four main conditional types. However. This starts as a First Conditional. This starts as a First Conditional. He asked if he could help. for example. ______________________________________________ . if … not can be replaced by unless. 4. 1.Commentary The forms in these sentences do not fit the patterns that we outlined above for the four main conditionals. ______________________________________________ Some Final Points ■ Even educated native speakers tend to make mistakes with the form of the Third Conditional. We sometimes drop the if in informal speech: You want it. ■ In some negative conditional sentences. They typically say. 2.
“Can I go?” 3. I asked.Unit 14: Reported Speech In this unit. “Get out!” _____________________________________________ . They said they had been waiting for hours. we look at some important features of reported or indirect speech. 5. He said he was tired. for example. we usually enclose the direct speech words in speech marks to show that they were the actual words used. we do not use speech marks. _____________________________________________ Exercise ► Say whether each sentence below is an example of direct or reported speech. She told him to leave. When a section of dialogue is reported. She said. the speech marks may be omitted. She said. we have two options.” In writing. 1. 2. ■ We can use reported or indirect speech and incorporate what was said or written into a sentence of our own. ______________________________________________ Two Possibilities When we want to report what someone else has said or written. When we use reported speech. ■ We can use direct speech and give the words that the person actually said or wrote. She said that she agreed or She told me that she agreed. for example. “I agree. 4.
4. They said they had been waiting for hours. “Get out!” Reported Speech Direct Speech Reported Speech Reported Speech Direct Speech _____________________________________________ About Reporting Verbs The exercise above used three reporting verbs: said. 5. ► Change the dialogue into reported speech using said and told. argued. He said he was tired. When we report writing. I asked. Ann: Bill: Ann: Bill: I‟m not going to stay here. _____________________________________________ Exercise Ann and Bill have just checked into a motel. She told him to leave. “Can I go?” 3. scribbled or jotted down. Ann said Bill said Ann told Bill said _____________________________________________ . Other possibilities are: replied.Commentary 1. told and asked. She said. It‟ll be fine for one night. ordered. 2. We can find a better place tomorrow. we can use verbs such as wrote. suggested and shouted. It isn‟t so bad. Here is a part of their conversation. we can use a wide range of reporting verbs to introduce direct and reported speech. I want to leave right now. As you will know.
_____________________________________________ Exercise ► Using the reported dialogue at the top of this page. The differences. Bill said (that) it would be fine for one night and (that) they could find a better place the next day. ■ The lines which you produced in the exercise above are different in several ways from the original dialogue.Commentary You probably produced something like this: Ann said (that) she was not going to stay there. are necessary because what was said by someone in one place at one time is being reported by a third person in a different place and at a different time. what can you deduce about the changes that take place when we transfer direct speech into reported speech? Pronouns Verb Tenses Time/Place Indicators The conjunction that _____________________________________________ . Bill said (that) it wasn‟t so bad. Ann told him (that) she wanted to leave right then. which are mainly grammatical.
now. We talk about ourselves using I. we do not change the verbs in the original speech: I‟m in a hurry He says (that) he‟s in a hurry. those and the next/following day. _____________________________________________ . The conjunction that We often omit the conjunction that in speech and when we use common reporting verbs such as said and told. _____________________________________________ Reporting Questions So far. it is logical and necessary to change words such as here. the tense should really change to the Past Perfect: He said. ■ When we report what someone says almost immediately after they say it. It will rain It would rain.Commentary Pronouns It is obvious that pronouns have to change when you report someone‟s words in reported or indirect speech. I did it He said ( that) he had done it. we look at how to report questions. Verb Tenses Verbs used in direct speech normally move one stage further back into the past when they are reported: It isn‟t bad It wasn‟t bad. ■ When a Past Simple sentence is reported. You and We but other people report what we said using He. I agree She/He agreed. However. I did it He said ( that) he did it . we often use reporting verbs in a present tense: He says … or She‟s asking … In such cases. these and tomorrow to there. Time/Place Indicators When reporting. then. In the next exercise. at least in speech. many or most native speakers now avoid using the Past Perfect. we have looked at the reporting of statements. So We don‟t agree becomes He/She/They said that they didn‟t agree. and so they usually leave the original tense unchanged: He said. She or They.
1. She said (to him).Exercise ► Change the sentences below into reported speech. “Do you have a light?” 3. using asked. “Can I help you?” 7. “Can you help?” I asked if the bank was open. She said (to him). “Did you see them?” 4. “Do you have a light?” 3. He said. She asked if it would be expensive. “How do you know?” 9. “Will it be expensive?” 5. He said (to her). He said (to me). I said. “Can you help?” 6. She said (to him). “Is the bank open?” 2. I said (to her). “How did you know?” _____________________________________________ Commentary 1. He said (to her). “Is the bank open?” 2. “When do the banks open?” 8. “Did you see them?” 4. He said (to me). She said (to him). She asked (him) if he had a light. She said. She said. “Will it be expensive?” 5. I said. He asked (me) if I had seen them or He asked if I saw them. . He asked (her) if she could help.
offers. _____________________________________________ Other Forms So far. She asked him how he knew. She asked (him) how he had known or She asked (him) how he knew. The words following if are in statement form and so there is no question mark or inversion of the subject and verb. the man‟s question is almost certainly a request for help rather than a question about the woman‟s ability to help him. ■ The questions in 6-9 cannot be answered with Yes or No and so the reported version includes the appropriate question word (when. etc. requests and commands or orders. 7.) ■ In 6. there is no question mark and the subject and verb are not inverted. I said (to her). (We will examine how we usually report requests on the next page. She said (to him). He said. In the exercise on the next page. “When do the banks open?” 8. “How did you know?” He asked when the banks opened. we look at how we report promises. So we may report it as He asked her to help him. ■ All these six sentences are inverted questions asking for a Yes or No answer. we have looked at the reporting of positive and negative statement and questions. So we could report it as I offered to help her. ____________________________________________ . (We will look at how to deal with reporting offers on the next page. We report such inverted questions by using if. the person is clearly offering to help the woman. “Can I help you?” I asked (her) if I could help her.6. ■ In 5. She said (to him). “How do you know?” 9. As the reported speech version is in statement form.) rather than if. how.
The policemen said to him. I promised to do it later. ■ We normally report commands. by using the infinitive + to form of the verb: They asked me to go. 5. “Let me help. He offered to help.” 3. what grammatical rules can you infer? _____________________________________________ Commentary 1. ■ When the original sentence contains a negative. They said to me. “Don‟t move!” 5. They asked me to go. “I‟ll do it later. The policeman ordered him not to move.” 4.Exercise ► Transform each sentence on the left into reported speech. starting your sentences with the phrases given on the right. “Get out!” 2. “Please go. 1. the reported version places not before the infinitive: The policeman ordered him not to move. 4. He said. offers etc. 3. I said. He told her to get out. _____________________________________________ .” He told her They asked me He offered The policeman ordered him I promised ► From the sentences that you have formed. 2. He said to her.
3. They flew over the city. ______________________________________________ Exercise Look at the underlined words in the sentences below. ______________________________________________ . In some cases. Shut up! 4. He sat down. ■ In some cases. the verb may have both an adverb and a preposition attached to it. known as multi-word verbs or phrasal verbs. as in 4. the meaning of the combined verb and particle cannot be deciphered from the separate meanings of the verbs and particles. the verbs and particles in 3 and 4 are not used in their literal sense. So. 2.Unit 15: Multi-word Verbs The aim of this unit is to make you aware of a special class of verbs. ► What do you think we mean when we say a verb is a multi-word or phrasal verb? ► What do you notice about the meaning of the verbs in 3 and 4? 1. and to familiarize you with some of their characteristics. I won‟t put up with it? ______________________________________________ Commentary ■ A multi-word or phrasal verb is a main verb which has a particle (a preposition or adverb) attached to it.
He made up some excuse. 8. 5. They lifted up the table. 9. However.Exercise Some multi-word verbs are easy for students to understand. He put out his cigarette. ______________________________________________ . They took over another company. as you will appreciate. It also does not help that the particles used in multi-word verbs vary greatly from one variety of English to another. because the verb and particle are used in a literal sense. this is the case. This would certainly be the case with I won‟t put up with it. Meaning 1. They put out the cat at nights. with He sat down and The plane flew over the city. students can become very confused by the way that the verbs and particles which form multi-word verbs often do not carry their normal literal meaning. 2. ► Decide whether each underlined multi-word verb below has a literal or a special meaning. 7. She has given up her job. for example. 3. I think he‟s putting on that accent. Why don‟t you put on a hat? 6. 4. I looked it up on the internet. Students‟ problems in dealing with multi-word verbs is exacerbated by the fact that English native speakers use a multitude of such verbs in everyday speech.
I looked it up on the internet. 2. They took over another company. ______________________________________________ . 8. He put out his cigarette. Why don‟t you put on a hat? I think he‟s putting on that accent. He made up some excuse. 3. They had to call off the party. ______________________________________________ Exercise You can often replace a multi-word verb with an equivalent single-word verb: You can change He gave up smoking to He stopped smoking. However. 5. 2. He‟s going to drop out. Up and down often denote some kind of increase or decrease. Special Literal Special Special Literal Special Literal Special Special There is no pattern to the range of meanings of the various particles. as in Sales picked up and Turn down the stereo. there is no increase or decrease in You should look him up or Write it down. 3. She has given up her job. He put out his cigarette. Don‟t put off the meeting again. 4. 6. They lifted up the table. 9. many of the equivalent verbs come from Latin and are much more formal than the multi-word verbs. 4. replace the multi-word verb with a single-word verb.Commentary Meaning 1. 5. He takes after his father. They put out the cat at nights. 1. However. ► In each sentence below. 7.
► In each sentence. He made up that story. 5.Commentary 1. He takes after his father. He put out his cigarette. 3. Yes. Can you turn on the lights? 8. ______________________________________________ . They got away with the robbery. They tried to put out the fire. multi-word verbs are also difficult in terms of their grammatical operation. say whether the underlined object can be moved in front of the particle without changing the meaning of the sentence. Don‟t put off the meeting again. You cannot say. 7. 4. extinguished cancel resembles postpone withdraw ______________________________________________ Exercise Unfortunately. 5. She took her coat off. They flew over the city. 6. No. 3. 4. You should look after your things. They had to call off the party. They flew the city over. We have given two examples. She took off her coat. 2. 2. Can be changed? 1. We have to put off the meeting. He‟s going to drop out.
the object has to follow the particle. this rule does not really simplify matters because many particles can function as either adverbs or prepositions. In practice. 7. He made up that story. No. ______________________________________________ A Final Comment ■ Some people argue that the rules governing the operation of multi-word verbs are simple and depend solely upon whether the relevant particle is an adverb or a preposition. No. you can say He takes after his father but not He takes his father after. 5. They got away with the robbery. Yes. When the particle is a preposition. ■ Explaining the rule mentioned above may reassure students that English is not totally illogical. depending on the context: The particle over is a preposition in They flew over the city but an adverb in They took over the company. it will not really help them to use multi-word verbs accurately and appropriately. Since after is a preposition. ______________________________________________ . Can you turn on the lights? 8. You should look after your things. They tried to put out the fire. He made that story up. Can you turn the lights on. 6. 4. Yes. However. We have to put the meeting off. We have to put off the meeting. Yes. They tried to put the fire out.Commentary Can be changed? 3. Yes. However. students have to learn each multi-word verb as a separate vocabulary item with its own distinct meaning and specific word-order rule.
3-syllable adjectives are preceded by more. 2 He‟s the youngest son. We also looked at passives. and the verb tense system. 1 He‟s taller than John. including basic grammatical characteristics. as you may remember from Unit 5. reported speech. ► In each section. 3 It‟s a big red plastic box. than follows the adjective. We have completed the first section for you. Wasn‟t that more expensive than the other? This chair is more comfortable. or which contrast two or more related structures or patterns. He got a black leather wallet. Comparative Adjectives 1-syllable adjectives add er or r. In this unit we will look at a range of grammar structures or features. identify the relevant grammar and briefly outline the main rule or pattern revealed by the examples.Unit 16 Some Other Grammatical Structures In previous units we looked at some of the most important aspects of English grammar. That‟s the most beautiful view! It‟s the most expensive car ever made. Isn‟t it a small blue bird? I like the little metal one. ______________________________________________ Exercise Each section below contains a set of sentences which exemplify a grammatical structure or pattern. Green would be nicer. how sentences are formed. Any good grammar reference will describe these and other structures in more depth. all of which need to be taught to ESOL learners. . It‟s the longest river in the world. there are numerous other grammatical structures in English. When both objects or people compared appear. conditionals and multi-word verbs. However.
I don‟t have any energy. He was so impolite. 6 We have some eggs and some bacon. The children‟s room is cold. The desserts were really good. The book was boring. Where‟s the bus station? Do you have a grammar book? ______________________________________________ . 9 It may rain tomorrow. The service was really terrible. 10 It‟s a war movie. Your parents‟ house is huge. Do we have any tomatoes? They don‟t have any children. It‟s an exciting movie. The wine was very expensive. She was totally bored. 8 The meal was very good. There‟s a nice rose garden. Can you lend me some eggs? 7 She‟s an interesting person. My mother‟s car is green. 5 Bill‟s door was locked. I prefer milk chocolate. It was a really wonderful evening. She‟s such a kind person. It might be foggy. It‟s such a great day. It could snow. He‟s interested in wildlife.4 It was so big I couldn‟t lift it. I don‟t think it will be sunny. It won‟t be humid.
4 It was so big I couldn‟t lift it. parents‟ Some and Any Some is used in positive statements. color. material. The children‟s room is cold. She was totally bored. so + adjective (with no noun) such (+ a/an) + adjective + noun The Genitive For the genitive (or possessive) of people. Do we have any tomatoes? They don‟t have any children. For more details and for exceptions. Isn‟t it a small blue bird? I like the little metal one. such as: size. It‟s such a great day. It‟s the longest river in the world. look in a grammar reference. we attach „s to a singular noun or name and „ to a plural: Ed‟s. He‟s interested in wildlife. Your parents‟ house is huge. 6 We have some eggs and some bacon. My mother‟s car is green. 3 It‟s a big red plastic box. I don‟t have any energy. Any is used in questions and negative statements. So a boring book makes the reader bored. they usually follow a specific order. It‟s an exciting movie. . Superlative Adjectives Short adjectives are preceded by the and have est or iest attached.Commentary We have given only a very brief outline of each structure and have limited this to elements specifically illustrated in the examples. The ed adjectives describe the thing or person affected. He was so impolite. but they operate differently. 5 Bill‟s door was locked. 2 He‟s the youngest son. Adjective Order If two or more adjectives precede a noun. Adjectives Ending in ing and ed The ing adjectives describe the thing or person that cause a feeling. Longer adjectives are preceded by the most. So/Such with Adjectives So and such mean the same when used to modify adjectives. 7 She‟s an interesting person. He got a black leather wallet. She‟s such a kind person. The book was boring. That‟s the most beautiful view! It‟s the most expensive car ever made.
Extreme adjectives cannot be modified this way. Nouns Modifying Nouns Nouns are usually modified by adding adjectives. Modifying Adjectives You can modify most adjectives by using very or extremely. I am used to working hard. we sometimes modify them by using other nouns. modal auxiliary can also be used to express other functions. It could snow. They‟re used to walking. It was a really wonderful evening. 10 It‟s a war movie. Are you used to riding the bus? 2 . The service was really terrible. There‟s a nice rose garden.8 The meal was very good. 9 It may rain tomorrow. The desserts were really good. identify the relevant grammar structure or structures. I prefer milk chocolate. I don‟t think it will be sunny. 1 I used to like living here. Did you use to eat a lot? He didn‟t use to be rich. It won‟t be humid. (Of course. The wine was very expensive. He used to speak French. It might be foggy. In the second sentence. So It‟s a movie about war becomes It‟s a war movie. instead we use modifiers such as really or absolutely. and briefly outline the main rule or pattern revealed by the examples. war is still a noun but it is functioning like an adjective.) Modal Auxiliary Verbs We can use these to express what we think is the likelihood of future events. However. Where‟s the bus station? Do you have a grammar book? ______________________________________________ Exercise ► In each section. (We can use really to modify both normal and extreme adjectives. He‟s used to Houston now.
I always buy food there. states. They were always arguing. The form is: Subject + used to + base form of verb To be used to This is a less formal version of to be accustomed to and operates in the same way: Subject + a form of be + noun or gerund 2 I am used to working hard. which were habitual or long-lasting in the past but no longer occur. I already did the dishes. She always eats out. He‟s lived here since July. He‟s used to Houston now.3 She often walks to work. Did you see him yet? I haven‟t eaten yet. He used to speak French. They always helped me. Are you used to riding the bus? . Did you use to eat a lot? He didn‟t use to be rich. 4 5 6 ______________________________________________ Commentary We have given only a very brief outline of each structure and have limited this to elements specifically illustrated in the examples. They‟re used to walking. look in a grammar reference. For more details and for exceptions. He lived there for ten years. He‟s finished it already. etc. He‟s always doing that. They‟ll be staying for months. She hasn‟t worked since 2008. He always walks home. Used to for Past Habits We use used to to refer to actions. They never arrive on time. I haven‟t seen it for weeks. He rarely visited his parents. She‟s always complaining. 1 I used to like living here.
we can use only for.3 She often walks to work. However. She‟s always complaining. sometimes. we normally use yet. we can use always with a Progressive tense to talk about actions which we disapprove of or want to criticize. we use either for or since depending on whether we want to relate an action to a period or point in time. it then has a slightly different meaning than yet. For and Since with Time Expressions We use for to talk about periods of time and since to talk about points in time. Already and Yet We generally use already in positive statements and yet in negative ones. In questions. always. They always helped me. He‟s finished it already. She hasn‟t worked since 2008. He lived there for ten years. Did you see him yet? I haven‟t eaten yet. They‟ll be staying for months. With non-perfect tenses. etc.) immediately before the main verb in a sentence. However. He‟s lived here since July. He rarely visited his parents. With perfect tenses. already can be used in some questions. He‟s always doing that. 6 He always walks home. ______________________________________________ . Position of Frequency Adverbs We usually put frequency adverbs (often. Always with Progressive Tenses We normally use Simple not Progressive tenses to talk about repeated actions. They were always arguing. She always eats out. They never arrive on time. I always buy food there. 4 5 I already did the dishes. I haven‟t seen it for weeks.
She buyed new clothes. This unit will also recycle and practice some of the terms which were covered in Units 3-5. Even simple vocabulary items have a grammatical dimension. and we need to take this into account when analyzing or teaching such items. ► Identify and explain the error in each sentence.Unit 17: The Grammar of Words The aim of this unit is to remind you that there is not a hard-and-fast division between grammar and vocabulary. Could you give me an advice? In my country there are many sheeps. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 He‟s going to wife that woman. _____________________________________________ . I want to buy a give for you. It was a very slowly car. ______________________________________________ Exercise The sentences below were produced by ESOL students. He has went to the store.
4 Could you give me an advice? 5 In my country there are many sheeps. The student thought advice was a countable noun. and give was a noun. but it is non-count. The student assumed buy was a regular verb rather than an irregular verb. In sentences 1-3. what can you deduce about what we should include in all vocabulary lessons? _____________________________________________ . In fact. the students mistook the part of speech of words. They thought wife was a verb. 7 He has went to the store. It was a very slowly car. I want to buy a give for you. The student assumed sheep had a regular plural form.Commentary 1 2 3 He‟s going to wife that woman. slowly was an adjective. it is the Past Simple form. The student thought that went was the past participle of go. 6 She buyed new clothes. _____________________________________________ Exercise ► From the answers to the exercise above.
_____________________________________________ Exercise ► Identify and explain the error in each of the sentences below. In sentence 5. She insisted in leaving. _____________________________________________ Commentary In sentences 1 and 2. In sentence 3. the student knew which preposition to use but did not realize that insist on is followed by the gerund (ing) form of a verb. he/she had not learned which preposition or structure has to follow each verb.Commentary Students cannot be expected to use new vocabulary items effectively if the teacher does not point out their key grammatical attributes. In each case above. the students did not know which prepositions follow the verbs depend and insist. However. the student used the correct verb and formed it correctly. . and the past simple and past participle forms of irregular verbs. I insist on her leave. 1 2 3 4 5 He depends of them for somewhere to live. They persuaded him stay. whether nouns are countable or non-count. the plural form of irregular nouns. In sentence 4. such as: part of speech. the student assumed that persuade is followed by the base form of a verb rather than by the infinitive with to. the student made the opposite assumption about the verb that follows make. They made her to eat.
Teaching It‟s a book (rather than just Book) immediately shows students that book is a countable noun.■ Many of the errors shown in this unit would probably not have occurred if the teacher had used a model sentence when teaching each verb. _____________________________________________ . Teaching He makes her cook (rather than just He makes) shows students that this use of make is followed by an object plus the base form of another verb.
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