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%sVsV %dsV zmsV }ms%sVLiyLi[

c RVLiRsVWLji %dslLi[LiRy`

@y RVLi c 1

%dsV zms g_LRi%sLiRLiT


qx s*RQ\sVs }mssVlgi[ "g_LRi%sLiRRLi' @s[j NRPWy J sQQNTP sVL][ sQQNTPNTP[ NSsVNRP.
sVsLi J sQQNTPNTP[ %sVs @RT sQQNTPR*LiQ\|ms AyLRixmsT soLiVLij. sVsLi FssLji\sy
g_LRi%sLiRRLi sVVRV|msT[ yLjiNTP NRPWy sVs%dsVR }mssV, g_sLRiLi NRPVgRiVyLiVV. g_LRisLi
B mx soRVN][sRLi @s[j sWszqsNRP LiysV |msLi[ sVVsVVR RLRi. A RLRiVy[
}mssW, @FyRVRV sVVRsoyLiVV.
sVs zmss sVsLi g_LRi%sLiRRLi @s[j FsLi][ sVVLi. BNRPR g_LRi%sLiRRLi @Li[
yLji @LRiVRV FR=zLiRRLi, yLjiNUP, yLji @FyRWNRPV %sVs Bs*RLi @s @LRiLi.
zms |msLixmsNRPLi[ g_LRisLi, }mssV mx soyjLS soLi[ y%dsVR zms DsR sQQNTPR*Li
sLjiLiRRVRVLij. @j @ys[Vy, @LiR\sVs s[Vy @s[j %dsV [[ soLij.
%dsVLRiV RRs[[V }ms[ sVsztsQs sVsztsQ FsLiRVNRPV g_LRi%sLiy?..... zmsV RsV
RLiRVNRPV FsLiR %sVs LiVVy*?.... RRLiRVV RsV zmsNTP FsLiR %sVs, g_LRisLi
B*RV? @s[ %sxtsQRWV RLjirysV.
IZNP[ BLi[ soLi[ sNRPV sVR LiyV qx sLjigS [NRPF[ sWszqsNRPmx sLRi\sVs
@yL][gSV, sNRPV, sQQNTP y* mx sRsLi Fs soLiVLi][ NRPWR %ssLjirys V.

@ xqs V zms Li [ Fs s LRiV ?


C xmsaRP %dsVNRPV %sRLigS NRPsRsRV. BLiRV[ %sRLi G%dsV [RV. C xmsaRPNRPV
%dsVLRiV BRVNRPVs[ qx ssWysLi %dsV sVsxqsV[ zmsNRPV FsLi rysLi soLi][
@LRisVsoRVLij.
qx sLiryLRi sXOSQsNTP NSzqss qx sLiys mx nsV N]LiRsVLij R RLiRVNRPV @ssqx sLRi
xmnsLiVV[, sVLjiN]LiRsVLijNTP @sxqsLSsNTP xmsos xmnsV. N]LiRLRiV @sVLSgRi xmnss
xXRRVxmspLRi*NRPLigS VyLRiV. %dsVLRiV G sLSsNTP LijsyLRiLiVVy %dsV zmssV %dsVLRiV
@Li][ LiVVLi][ }mssVgS RWxqsVNRPVLiLRiV. @LiRV[ qx sLi[x Li [RV. RVL][RsVTs NRPWy

RXRLSxtsvRV }mssVgSs[ RWxqsVNRPVyRV NRPy!


%sysNTP, RNRPysNTP FsLiR [RLi soLi][ zms NRPs G][ gSNTP |msLiRysNTP,
ysV DRsV sNRPVVgS dLjijRysNTP sVR @Li[ [RLi soLij.
sLji sVVNRPs[ DyxLRigS dxqsVN][LiT. sRsV dxqsVZNP N]ss LSRV{qssV[,
N]ss LSrys FsyLji[, sVLjiN]sLis g][ysLji dLRiLi[ soLi[ ryLRisLiR\sVs
WsVV[ RLiT. @%s RNRPgS |msLjilgi[ @sNSaSV g][ysLki dLRiLi[s[ FsNRPVs.
%sVsV g][ysLji dLRiLi s zms NRPssVs xmsRLi NSRV y D[aRPLi. [xmsLi
sR[ [Rs xmsRs[V y @FyRVLi. W%sV y ryLRisLiRLigS soy, |msLRiVgRiVRVs
\|msLRiVs, \lLiRV qx sLjigS |msLi FztsQLiRNRPF[ mx sLi qx sLjigS LSRV. @Li[ BNRPR ][xtsQLi NRPxtsQxmsRs
l\ LiRVRssW.
g][ysLki dLRiLi[ |msLjilgi[ xmsLiNTP NRPWy C DxmssWsLi sLjixqsVLij. ZNP[sLi qx sWL`i%dsVR
zms xqsW[ jLizms, sN][ryLji zqsssWN][, ztsQNSLRiVN][, FyLRiVN][ dxqsVNRPVs[ RsV RR
dLjiFLiVVLiRs @sVNRPVs[ RLiRVV B \lLiRVV!
NRPRVxmso sLi}ms mx sLis[ sVsLi BLiR gRiRgS RWxqsVN][szqs sqx sVLij. @Lij sVs
NRPRVxmso xmsLi FsLiR gRiRgS RWxqsVN][ss[j ysVLij RRLiRVV A[LiRszqss
%sxtsQRVLi.
zmsV, y sVsxqsy*V FsxmsVRW INRP[. y |msLjilgi[ xmsLjixqsLSV, ysV
|msLi[ RRLiRVV qx s%sVztsQ qx sxNSLRiLi y %syNRPV, sQQNTPy*NRPV EzmsLjiFryLiVV.
y sVsqx sVV DR sV sVVR V.
sVss[V A sVs ALRiQysLi][ RTzms, RNRP sVWLRiVVgS dLji jy. A
\sxmsoLi, GNSgRiR, JLRiV, ryRs RRLiRVV NRPxtsQxmsT s[LRiVN]s sVVLiRV RsV
sQQNTPy*sV ysVV dLjijRVN]s, RLS*R zms sQQNTPy*sV dLjijy.

%sRLi INRP RVVRLRiLigRiLi

%sRLi[ FLSRLi @s[j sxms sVLiT sVVRLiVVLij. |msR[R


g_LRi%sLiRRs zms sWszqsNRP xqsLixmnsVL<Ri gRiVLjiLi @LRiLi NSyLi[ %dsVLRiV RVVRLRiLigSsNTP
Lijs J yxqss gSRsV RRy.
1944, @N][L`i s[ lLiLi][ xmsxmsLiR RVVRLi LRiVgRiV][Lij. @sVLjiNSNRPV Lijs INRP
\|qssNRP R NRPsWLiRL`iNRPV \sL`iqs y*LS INRP qx ssWyLRiLi @LijLij. A yLRi xmsNSLRiLi
Fys=[s J sgRiLSs y \|qssNRPVV ANRP%sVLiRVNRPVyLRiV. A sgRiLSs Ljigji |mnsLiyLji
ry*ksLi [xqsVNRPVs, ysV JTLiRsVs A @sVLjiNRPs NRPsWLiRL`iNRPV @jNSLRiV sVLi

qx sLi[aSLiyLiVV. |mnsLi` gRiWyyLRiVV FsLi][ NRPxtsQxmsT mx sLizmss s[Vms NRPWy A NRPsWLiRL`iNRPV


Bs*TLij.
A s[Vms[ ZNP[sLi A sgRiLRiLi[s LRixyLRiVV, xqsLjixRVV sWRs[V NSNRP y \|qssNRP
rysLSV, sVztsQs gRisV sVVR\s%s soLi[ xms[aSV y %ssLRiLigS soyLiVV. BLiR
@sqx sLRi\sVs, %sV\ss qx ssWyLRiLi ]LjiNTPsLiRVNRPV, A NRPsWLiRL`i xqsLi][ztsQLiyRV. A sgRiLSs
RsV AksLi[NTP RVN][sRLi FsLi][ @sxqsLRiLi. NSds A xmss y NRPxtsQLi. G sWRLi RxmsV
Ljigjiy A s[VmssV }qsNRPLjiLiyRsNTP xmsTs NRPxtsQsVLiy sLRiLi @LiVVFRVLij. FsLi][sVLij
\|qssNRPVV RsV %syV N][[yLRiV.
sgRiLSs LiVVLiRysNTP RVV[lLi[ sVVLiRV, NRPsWLiRL`i A sWmssV xmsLjibdPLiRsVs
xms INRP \|qssNRPVTs AzmsLiyRV. J gRiLi RLS*R yLjis mx sLkiOTPQLiyRV. \|qssNRPVLiRLRiW
@sWxmnsVLigS @s rysLSW, LRixyLRiVW gRiVLRiV|msVNRPVyLRiV. G][ INRP lLiLiRV s
%sxtsQRW[ Rxms @LiRLRiW @s %sxtsQRWsV gRiVLRiV|msVN][sRLi A NRPsWLiRL`iNRPV y
AaRPLSs NRPgjiLiLij. BLiRVs[ y A sgRiLSs [NRPgS sVVTLi, LiVVLi
|mnsLiyLjiNTP sVd @xmsgjiLiyLRiV.
C xqsLixmnsVs Ljigji sVVxmsLiVV G RLS*R %sVLkiNTP Lijs J xmsLjia][RNRPVRV C
yxqss gSR Rj%s BVsLi[ sVL][ xmsWgRiLi [RWsVNRPVyRV. @[ sWmssV J
FyNRPsVLij WLjiqs NTP xmsLjibdPLiRsVyRV. yNRPV y gRiLi ssj ByRV. A
RLS*R yLjis xmsLkiOTPQLiyRV.
FssLRiW qx sLjigS gRiVLRiVLiRVN][[NRP %sxmnssVRWLRiV. BLiRVNRPV NSLRiLi INRP[. C mx sLkiORPQ[
%sxmns\sV[ A WLjiqsNRPV Ljilgi[ sxtsQLi @LiW G%dsV[RV. NSNRPF[ y @xLi NSxqs
LiVLij. @LiRNRPV%sVLi BLiZNP[ sxtsQLi yNTP LRigRiRV. NSds, \|qssNRPV %sxtsQRVLi @
NSRV. y xqsLjigS gRiVLRiVLiRVN][[NRPF[ y Fy[ FRVVLi[%s.
RsVNRPV FysVVR, %sVs [s ][ ys F~LiRRLi N][xqsLi zmsV FLSRVRW
soLi[, sVs[ ysVLij RRLiRVV y FLSs RWxqsW soLilLi[ Rxms, y
y gRiVLjiLi zqsy xmsLiRVN][LRiV.
\|ms mx sLkiORPQ[ \|qssNRPVV %sxmns\sV[ y N][[[Vj y %sRLi. WLjixqsVV
N][[[Vj N]jFy gRiLRi*Li. @lgi[, C %sR FLSLi[ RRLiRVV }msORPQNRPV RWxqsW
soLi[ y N][[[Vj y zms %sxtsQRVs[. NSds, zmsV N][[[Vj sWRLi
y mx spLji %sRLi.
@xqsV zmsNRPV qx ssVxqsVLiRVs[j N]LiRsVLij RRLiRVV gRizLiRLRiV. yLRiV
@sVN][sRLi xmsNSLRiLi zmsV VjgS RRVsoN]s |msRsV g_LRi%s}qs yV. , RVs*s

RaRP[ INRP sVsztsQ ZNP[sLi VjgS RRVsoNRPVs |msRsV g_LRi%s}qs y! BLiZNP[%dsV


@NRPlLi[y?
B[ xmsaRP s[sV ysVLij RRLiRVNRPV s[aSsV. yLji[ ysVLij ""KsLiU, sW
NSLi[ y sLjigS, @sWRVNRPLigS |msLjigSLi, BxmsVRV zmsNRPVs Bss sxqsRVV,
FsLiVsVLiV sWZNPNRPTsLiT?'' @LiW soLiLRiV. \|msgS ""sVyxLi [ysNTP
lLiLiRV L]sVVNRPV xqsLi[ }msN`P [xqsVNRPVs s[yLi. A %sRLigSs[ \|msN]yLi''
@LiLRiV.
%dsVLjisds [NRPVLiys[ |msLjigRiVLi]RV. NSds, sVLjis r][ %dsV zmss |msLi
%sRLi[ gS \|msNTP dxqsVNRPVLSsRs %dsVlLiLiRVNRPV gRizLiRLRiV?
R RLiRV xms zmsNRPVLiRszqsLij RVLiNSRV. RLiT A{mnsxqsVsVLiT
sxqsVsxmsVRV zmsV ARVN][sRLi sWs[zqs, xmsoxqsNSV dxqsVNRPVs gRij[NTP sFsRLi
RWryLi. A{mnsxqsVsVLi s, RsV zmsV RRsNRPVLiy NRPszms}qs, zmssV g]RVs jsV
[yLjis RWaSsV.
RsV zmsyRV, RsV][ N]LiLi N][gS soLi[ g_LRi%sLiRRLi sWs[ryRs @sVN]s[
ys RW}qs sy*[, Gy*[ dRV. RsV qx ssVxqsV xmsVNRPVLi[, RRLiRVV
RLiyLRis RVxmsyLRiV zmsV.
DyxLRiNTP INRP xqsW[ %dsV zmsyT NSxqsV[s[ %dsV @LiVVNRPy N]LiLi sogS,
FsRVgS soLi[ @LiVV G][ INRP sxmsLi %dsVR %dsV zmsyTs N]RVN][LiT. BLiN] %dsV
zmsyRV %dsV][ C %sRLigS NSxqsV[ N]Rs }ms, sLis[ %dsVLRiV yTs sWryLRiV sRNRPV
dxqsVNRPVssW, A NRPVLRiyT N`Pg_Li` GLi[ xmsLjibdPLiRsW RVNRPVLiy %dsV
@LiVVs RyLRiV.
%dsVNRPV xqsWVNTP s[ JzmsNRP [NRPFsRLi, @sR NRPVLRiyT ssVNRP FssLRiVyLRis[
@LiRLRiRRVLi RxmsVsLiy %dsV zms%dsVR ][zqss[RVysNTP NSLRisRVLij.
BLi s s qx ssVxqss[ %dsVLRiV gRiVLjiLiRNRPF[, BNRP NRPVLRiyRV %dsV][ G %sR\sVs
NRPsVWsZNP[xtsQs GLRiLRiRVN][gRiRV? %dsV zmsyT][ xqsNRPsV\sVs NRPsVWsZNP[xtsQs
GLRiLRiRVN][y. xqsszRLigS sVgS.
RRVso zmsLiRLi, LSxmsp mx sRVN][ssNTP LRiWsV Bs*Li, @Lji [}qs N]RLi
Li%s sWRs[V RRLiRV RR NSRV. zms RLRixmsos xqsLji\Vs sLRiRWV dxqsVN]s,
yLjis INRP sVLi sNTPR*Li gRi FLRiVVgS dLjijRLi RRLiRV NRPLRisLi.
qx ssVxqsV ylLi[ mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRVN][[LS @s %dsVLRiRgRisRV. C sRVxqsV[ %dsVlLi[ %dsV
qx ssVxqsV mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRVN][[LRiV. szmsV y qx ssVxqssV y[ mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRVN][gRiLRis

Fs @sVNRPVLiLRiV?
%dsV s[ %dsV qx ssVxqsV %dsVZNPLiR |msR%sgS NRPsRyW, y s[ yNUP
|msR%sgSs[ soLiLiVV. y sVLigS sVRWL`i @[VsLRiNRPW yLji qx ssVxqssV
xmsLjixtsQLjiLiRLiNRPWy %dsV R[.

szms ZNPLi xqssVxqsVLi]RV?


* xqsW[ @yxmsNRPV][ g]RsV.
* ][ %sVRV RVLRiry Fy=xLi.
* RsV [Fy Fss\lLiy Fs RWzmsLi RsVs BLisL`igS RWxqsVLi[ Rmx sRLi.
* RRLiRVV @LRiLi [xqsVN][[NRPFsRLi.
* RsVNRPy %sVgRiy NRPVLSNTP FsNRPVs sWLRiVV LSsLi.
* RsVs NSqs LRiWsV[ INRP xmnsQpsgS sWxqsLRiV dNRPLjiLi R|msRLi c BLisds
szms qx ssVxqs[.
RRLiRVV RsVs }ms%sVLiRNRPFsRLi @s[j zmsNTP y |msR qx ssVxqs. BNRPR
}ms%sVLiRRLi, }ms%sVLiRNRPFsLi @s[ mx syV s[s V FsLiRVNRPV yysLi[, xms RRLiRVV
RsV zms }ms%sVryLRiV. NSds @j \NTP NRPsRss*LRiV. @ \NTP xmsRLji+}qs, FsNRPR RsV
RgRiLRi zmsNTP RVLi RgjiFRVLi][ @s xqsLi[zryLRiV.
xqsW[ zmss jLi y sVRV%dsVR sVVRV|msVNRPVs, zms [xmsNTP
xmsLixmsoRVs RRLiRVs, %dsV zmsyRV RW}qs c RsNTP[s INRP rLi ][ %sVRVRVNTP
NRPVgRiVRVsLiRVNRPV sWszqsNRPLigS RxmsRyRV. %dsVlLi[sW zmsyRV xqsWVNTP sLi[ sVVRV
|msVN][sLi @LiRxqsVN][, yxRVN][ LigRiLigS %sryLRiV.
NUPxqsVNSLi sVLid C L][sLRiNRPW xmsd RRLiU RsV zmsNTP Bs*gRigjis%s y
%sVgji soyLiVV. NSds Bs*LRiV. kss[ RLRiRW zmsV "xms}qsxtsQs' NTP [ssoRW soLiLRiV.
zmsyRV BLiN][xqsLjiNTP BLi[ FsxmsVRW g]RsW, @LRiVxmsoW, @aSLi,
VN][sLi Li @yLiRdsRV xmsLjizqsRVVLi[, A zmsyRV sWszqsNRPLigS NRPVLigjiFyRV.
sLRiVy=xNRPLRi\sVs yysLRiLi zms %sys, sQQNTPy*s sWlLi[xqsVLij. RRLiRVV
RVLRiyNRPV [\s RsV ygRiVRVN][, [NRP {qsVrysWsV yTs BLisVVLiRV NRPWL][VNRPVs
gRiLi RLRiT sW[ R[ @LiVV[ A zms qx ssVxqsV J mx ss dLRiso.
J NRPVVLiLi[ xmsos INRP NRPVLRiyT }msLRiV LS @sVNRPVLiyLi. LS RRVso[
FsxmsVRW xmnsqs LSLiN`P RVNRPVs[yRV. @Rs RLiT L][ ygji LRis N][yRV. LS
G\y LjiLi[yRV NSs, Rs N]RLi sWRLi @RTNTP s[j NSRV.

s zmsyRVgS sosxmsVRV A %sxtsQRVLi xmsysNTP NSxqs RVxmsy, N]LiLi


|msRRWNRP RLiTNTP \LRiLigS FyRV. RsNRPy syRV Rss skRVLi G%sVs[
N][xmsLi][ LS RLiT L][ G][ sLiNRP][ [yRV. @Rs }qszRVsVVLi[
@ssWsLi[yRV.
Bsds LjiLiR[NRP LS, BLi[ soLiT RRVsoN][sLi sWs[zqs, }qszRV][
LRigRiLi, zqsssWZNPLi, zqsgRilLiV ygRiRLi, G][ zms zms ARLi c BLi
@ysV |msLiF~LijLiRVNRPVyRV.

FsxmsVRW xmnsqs NSqs s[ xqsWLi RRVso[ ssNRPyRV. %dssNUP sVWNSLRiLi


@Rs RLiT @s ysVLij EzLiR[LRiV NRPWy. INRP ryRVLiRLi LS BLiN][xqsLjiNTP
yg]s RLiT, s INRP sVW xms[zqs RLiRW, @]s Rs WRVV
RVRVyRV.
LS, Rs RLiTsVLi RWLRiLi [zqs RLiTs sLRiLiy sLi NTPLiRNTP ][}qsaSRV.
s[%dsVR mx sTs @Rs RLiTNTP @][ |msR uyN`P.
""sVL][ryLji y R%dsVR LiVV s[}qs RLi}msrys V'' @yRV. RLS*R BLiL[ i
\N][aSRV. @xmsVRV LS A[RsV C %sRLigS rygSLiVV.
y RLiT sVLiy[. ygji[s[ C %sRLigS xmssLjiryRV. %sVgRiy qx ssVRVLi[ gSs[
soLiRV. ssV, @sVs }mssVgS RWxqsVN][sLi @Rs RR NSy? @LiR s s
N]sNTP @RsNTP [RV syLiVV?
"s[sLiRNRPy %sVsV gS RWxqsVN][[sV. BxtsQsVVLi[ soLiRLiT. [NRPF[ F~Lij.
@xqsV %dsVNRPV LiT, dsR NRPxqsVsj s[sV. s[lLi[yNRPLi[ s[sV sLiVVlLiV sRVLi. sW
ys BLiRNRPy |mnsWLRiLigS %sVsV, sW @sVsW N][yRV. sVsVLiVV[
LiRLjiNRP][ [yRV' c BLi sWV A RLiT @LiW soLi[ A NRPVLRiyT sVsxqsV=
Fs soLiVLi][ EzLiRLiT.
C xqsLixmnsVs Ljigjis N]LiRNSsNTP LS BLi[Li aSaRP*RLigS sFRWRV.
@RsxmsVRV FsNRPR soy][ FssLjiNUP RVRV.
LS FsRVL]s qx ssVxqsNTP lLiLi[ NSLRiVyLiVV.
1. LS gRiRLi.
2. LS RLiT gRiRLi c C lLiLiRV gRiysVR xqs\lLis yLRij. @sgSxs
[NRPFsLis[ @ LjigjiLij.
C qx ssVRVLi[ LS INRP sVLi %sVRVT qx sxNSLRiLi][ RssV ysV
xqsLixqsLjiLiRVNRPVyRV @s EzyLi.
sVVR \sNRP %sVsLi[ GLi[ LS s[LRiVNRPVyRV.
RssV ysV
g_LRi%sLiRVN][sLi sVVRV |msRV. %syLiRLi RssV FssL][ ARLjiLiy, Rss
}ms%sVLiy @sVN]s LS sVVLiRV RssysV }ms%sVLiRVN][sLi sVVRV|msRV.
RsLi[ G%sV[ INRP @sgSxsN]yRV. Rs }qszRVsV }ms%sVLiRsVV
sVVRV|msRV. LS xqs*sLi[ sWLRiV Fs[ AaRPLRisNRP\sVs sWLRiVNTP yLjidzqsLij.
INRP L][ LS BLiNTP LjigjisyRV. Rs RLiT][ qx ssWsryLiVVgS sWRsVV
sVVRV|msRV.

BNRP]NRP zmsyT NSNRPVLiy, Rs[ RLiT F~xtsQs[NTP s, RLiTs N]RVNRPVs [zqs


RLiT sVsxqsR*Li %dsVR "@R \ \|qsNS' }ms [aSRV.
IZNP[ qx ssVxqsxms lLiLiRV xmsxqsLiRsV c LS c LS RLiT.
****

LS NRPR sVLki @gS soLij. ysVLij ssVNRPFsRV. Bj NRPR NS LRiRLiVVR


EzLi zmsLij NS, LRiNRPLRiNS *xqsV][ INRP @LiR\sVs sVVgjiLixmsoNTP yLjidzqsLij. NSds,
s%sRLi[ NRPWy sVsLi A[LiRVN][szqsLiR, sVsLi LS F~xtsQs[ soysW?
[NRP LS RLiT F~xtsQs[ soysW? @s. INRPs[ sVsLigSs LS RLiT
F~xtsQs[ soLi[, C NRPRNTP Bs *xqsVV @sxqsLRiLi [RV. sVss sVsLi INRPryLji @sgSxs
[xqsVNRPVLi[, LS %sRLi[ Fs[ xqsLisR=LSs BLiNS F~NTPsgS RRWLRiV[zqs
soLi[yLi.
FsLiRL][ zmsV LS @sV%sLis s[RsNRPy FsNRPVs s[Rs @sV%sxqsVyLRiV.
@LiRVNRPs[ yLRiV |msRRWNRP y RVLRiLRi\sVs xmsLjizqs[ RVNRPVRVyLRiV. sRsLi[
gRimx soyj GLRiTs sVsVxtsvLiRLRiW |msRRWNRP G s qx ssVxqs sy RTFsRLi,
s s FysV=ZNP[ %sxmsLkiRLigS <ss xmsRRLiLi sWszqsNRP L][gSs
@sV%sxqsVyRLi[, sxmsVRV @Rs R RLiRV[ NSLRiLi @s[j sLji*yyLiaRPLi.
C xmsoxqsNRPLi LSxqsVs L][[ s[sV ysVLij RRLiRV][ y NSsgS C
%sxtsQRVLi xmsry%sLi[yTs. "%dsV zmsV %dsV xms FsLiRVNRPV slLi[NRPsLi][ soyLRiV' @s
RWyRVgS @LRiLigS s[V @Tlgi[yTs.
ysVLij RRLiRVV zmss G\ZNPNRP qx ssWysLi G%sVLi[ sW zmsV y
AsLiRLigS soyLRiV. yZNP[%dsV qx ssVxqsV [so. @s[yRV RLS*R G TsL`i \sV[[,
FyL`iQ\sV[[ yLji zmssV zms LiVV[ %sxtsQRVLi xmsry%s}qs NTP @Tgji[, A zmsV RsV
RsV RRLiRV xms sos ys sL]xsWLigS }msxqsLjiNTP, y NRPsVVLi[ A
RRLiRVV RLRiFsRLi RWaSsV.
ysVLij RRLiRVNRPV y zms %sxtsQRVLi[ G qx ssVry [NRPFsRV. sVs
BLi[ NRPlLiLi F[Rs zms, N]* N]sVN][NRPVLiy soLiRLi NRPy! @lgi[, zms
qx ssVxqssV NRPWy sVVLi[ EzLiRVNRPVs, ys sWszqsNRPLigS zms}msL`i @LiVV soLiy.
zms gRiVLjiLi, yLji sWszqsNRP zqs gRiVLjiLi VxqsVN][sRLi xms RRLiRV NRPLRisLi.
G\y ssmx sVRV y sWszqsNRP mx sLjizqs @Liy %sZaP[ztsQLiRVN][szqs sqx sVLij. qx ssVxqs
sVVLiRV |msVNRPVs %sZaP[ztsQLiRVN][sRLi sVVRV|msNRPVLiy, sVVLi[ sVs zms gRiVLjiLi sVsLi
@Liy LjiNSLRiV [xqsVNRPVsVgS VxqsVNRPVs soLiRLi y sVLixmsR.

y sVLi NRPVVLisVs, A NRPVVLi xqsVLiRLRiW y g]xmsyLRis, }msLRiV


RVN]syLjis @sVN]s B[ NRPWy zms qx ssVxqsV soLiLiVV.
""G L][ sW zmsV B RV[RV, BxmsVT FsLiRVNRPV RRWLRiRWL][ sWNRPV
@LRiLi NSsRLi [RV'' @s RRLiRVV FsNRP][ G][ s %sxtsQRVLi sVLjiFRVVLiLRiV.
zmsV C L][ C %sRLigS yNRPLRiLigS RRWLRiRWLRiLi[, Li[ Ljigjis xqsLixmnsVs[
[V][ RxmsV LjigjiLiRssW.
sRsLi[ Rs RLiT Rsxms @ssWsNRPLRiLigS xmssLjiLis s qx sLixmnsVss,
mx sj}sV BLRi\s qx sLisR=LS RLS*R NRPWy gRiVLRiV|msVN]s, Azqs mx sLixmsNS qx ssVRVLi[
"sVs*xmsVRV A %sRLigS [aSso NRPy' @s gRiVLRiV[}qs, Fs soLiVLi][ A[LiRLiT.
DyxLRiNTP, %dsVLRiV BLiN]sxmsVRV lLiLiRV {qs*= dxqsVN]yLRis @sVN]LiyLi.
ys zms NTPs*NRPVLiy LRiN]NRP %dsVL]NRP Li[, Rs RLiT dxqsVN]s
{qs*V %sxtsQRVLi N]RVNRPV gRiVLRiV|msVNRPVs, A sVLSRV A d FyZNP RWzqs, RsNRPV LSszqss
A s xNRPVs RdRLiT NRPzqs sWxqsLi [aSLRis[ ysNTP sryRV. C {mnsLig`i J FyNRP
xqsLisR=LS RLS*R NRPWy A @LiVVNTP gRiVLRiVs AaRPLRiFssxqsLRiLi [RV.

sgjis jLiNTPLig`i
rysWsLigS sxmsVRV zmsLiRLRiW Fys jLiNTPLig`i[s[ soLiLRiV. @yV
ARNRPWRRV, LiyV dxqsVN][NRPWRRV. |msRs g_LRi%sLiy. BLi yds yNTP
soLiLiVV. IN]NRPxmsVRV y C yV sWLRiysNTP RRLiRV[ sVVLiRVgS
][xRxmsRVRVLiLRiV.
mx sNTPLi%sR @LiVVRV LRiWFyRVV @xmsVN][qx sLi ssmx sVRV, sW RgRiLRi [ss R,
RLS*R N]RVNRPVs dxqsVZNP @LiVVRVsLiR LRiWFyRV dLRiN]Li[ c C lLiLiRV
xqsLixmnsVsNTP N]RVNRPV sVsxqsV[ LiNRPV GLRiRVRVLij. C %sRLigS zmsyRV |msRsoRVsN]k
NRPLRims @soyRV.
xmssVV s[yLi sVLi RV sVR syrys @ g]xmsgS yNRPLi[
%sZaP[ztsQLiyRV ""C xmsxmsLiRLi[ RV @s[j LRigRiNRPVLiy soLiyLi[ sVLiy RsV
xmssVV RVRLi sWs[RW'' @s.
xms Rd RLiU zmsyTs Fs Rj%sLiy? Fs |msLiy? @s A[rylLi[,
zmsyT qx ssVxqss Fss N][sVLi A[Li]RV. Fss qx ssWyyV LSsRV @s
A[LiRLRiV.

FsRVZNP[xtsQs s[LRiV, LRi{qs s[LRiV, RRVso s[LRiV, %ssLi s[LRiV. LRiR[aRPLi[ ysVLij
RRVsoNRPVs yyLRiV. ysVLij sVV [LRiV. C [ys sVsLi RxmssxqsLjigS
gRiVLjiLiy. BRLSRzmsV xmsos RLS*R, sLis[ sVW][ zmsyTN][xqsLi xmsRVLi[
RRLiRVV INRP ARzms xmsogSs[ y RVxmsTFLiVV sVgRi xqsLiysLi N][xqsLi AlLiQZNP[
xmsRVLi[ RRLiRVV c g]xms RRLiRVV NS[LRiV.
[aSsNTP sVssVLiR ][xLi [xqsVyLi @s NRPdsxqs A[Rs[s RRLiRVV %ds
zmss xqsLji\Vs Lki[ dLjijRVyLRisVN][sRLi sV. ysVLij RRLiRVV zmss
@ORPQLSxqsVVgS RVysNTP xmspsVNRPVLilLi[ Rxms, sVVgS RRWLRiVRVysNTP
xmsRVLiRLRiV.
|msLiVVs sVWRV yVlgi[sLRiNRPV zmssV NRPsNRPWRRV. LSLRi sVR G\y
@sgSxy [xmssVV}qs %syNRPVNTP zmsV @RLiNTP @soyLRiV @s NRPdsxqsxmso A[Rs NRPWy
%ds[ soLiRRV. |ms[qx sVNRPVsxmsVRV %syNRPVV @s qx ssVxqs LSs[sWss NRPWy
%ds EzLiRLRiV.
A %sRLigS zmsyTNTP, zmsyTNTP sVR INRP xqsLisR=LRiLiNRPy RNRPVs gSms soLi[,
@j FsLiR yLRiV\sVs xmsLjizqsNTP yLjidxqsVLi][ NRPWy RRLiRVV EzLiR[LRiV. BLi
RRLiRV |msLixmsNRPLi[ |msLjigjis zmsV %sRLi[ G %sRLigSsW \|msNTP LS[LRiV.
zmsyT %s[s yT sWLRiV][ FRLi sVL]NRP %sRNRPVs RLRi.
DyxLRiNTP %dsV zmsyTNTP NSxqsV[ AL][ LSLiNRPV sLiRsVN][LiT. %dsV xmsNTPLi zmsyTNTP
sVVR LSLiN]Lij.
@LiR sWys A mx sNTPLi zmsRV %dsV zmsyTNRPLi g]xms @s @s[Li. xms
sQQNTP[sW N]s ORPQVLiLiVV. xms sQQNTP xmssV FsxmsVRW INRP ORPQLi][
NRPNRP[Li. @lgi[ xmsLkiORPQ[ s[sWLRiV][ NRPWy NRPNRP[Li.
DyxLRiNTP %dsV zmsyRV Fss%sV][ NSxqsV RRVsoRW LiVVLi[ }mnss Fy\[ yss Lji}msL`i
RVgRiRsVN][LiT. %dsV xmsNTPLi NRPVLRiyTNTP NRPdsxqsLi |mss= NRPVN][sRLi NRPWy
LSRsVN][LiT. yTNTP mx nsqs LSLiN`P s, %dsV yTNTP |qsNRPLi` s}qs Ljilgi[ stx sQs[V%dsV [RV
%dsVLRiV ryzqsN`P= s[xqsVNRPVLi[ %sRLi[ \|msNTP ss yLRiLiRLRiW |qsNRPLi` NSqs xqsWLi[=.
ryVT NRPy][ FsxmsVRW xmsoxqsNSV sVVLiRV|msVN]s, NSxqsV xmnsxqsV sWRs[V
%syaRPRVLigS Rj%ss NRPVLRiyLiRLRiW RLRiV=, F~|mnsxqsL`i= [NRP s[VysoVgS zqsLRixmsylLi[
Rxms RV xqsLiFyRs %sxtsQRVLi[gSs, LSNUPRW[gSs, [NRP xmsLjisLi %sxtsQRVLi[ gSs
\|msNTP LS[Rs[ %sxtsQRVLi gRiVLRiV|msVN][y.

H NRPW
%dsVLRiV FsxmsVRW FyVxmsRszqsLij %dsV zmsyTNTP xmsLkiORPQQ[ sWLRiV FsNRPVsgS
sryRW @s NSRV; %dsV zmsyT HNRPW |msLiRRLi FsgS @s! NRPV, \|qss= sLRi
@y`, RLRiLi Bsds H.NRPW.NTP qx sLiLijs%s. xms sWLRiVV RVN][s sVs[j
H.NRPWs RNRPVs[}qs RLRi. C H.NRPW.[s[ NRPLi NRPWy soLiVLij.
INRP qx ssVxqs ssmx sVRV Fs mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRVN][y[ %dsV zmsy[ %dsVNRPV IN][ryLji
xmssRV. %dsV zmsyT HNRPW %sRLixms @sgSxs, INRP sLjiQxtsQ\sVs yT[ gRisVLis[xmso
[LRiVN][sRLi c Bsds xqsLjigS rygRiVRVyW [][ VxqsVN][yLi[ %dsVLRiV %dsV zmsyTs C
NTPLij N][[ xmsLjibdPLiy= soLiVLij.
* Fss\lLiy G[y [}qs RVVNSRVVNSV A[LiRNRPVLiy, %dsV zmsyRV gRiVTgS
@sVNRPLjixqsVyy?
* %dsV zmsyT }qszRVRV zqsgRilLi ygji[ soLiVLijLS @[ zqsgRilLi ygRiLi
sVgRiRysNTP xsVs zmsy, %dsV zmsyRV sLis[ ysNTP @yV xmsyy?
* %dsV zmsyRV RLRiRW @yRVRVyy?
* %dsV zmsyT[ ry*LRiLi FsNRPVsgS NRPszmsrLiy?
* Rs ][sW, @s][sW xmssLjiLi[xmsVRV C %sR\sVs ry*LRiLi
RWzmsxqsVyy?
* %dsV zmsyRV @sqx sLRi\sVs ysNRPy RNRPVsgS sWRVRW A[Rs[
xmsRVRVyy?
* %dsV zmsyTNTP ARsWsysLi sosVgS NRPsRV][Liy?
* s s %sxtsQRW[ NRPWy gRi sLRiRWV dxqsVN][[NRPFRVyy?
* Rs gRiVLjiLis sLRiRWV NRPWy %dsV %dsVRgSds, ][ }qszRV%dsVR gSs,
|msRyT %dsVR gSds %sT|msRVRVyy?
* %dsV zmsyTNTP qx sW[ FsLi }msLRiVLij? sVLi }msLRiV [y? zmsLjiNTP @LiRL][sW
NRPsRV c }msLRiVyRW?
* RLRiNTP @Rs%dsVR FsLi @FyRVLi soLij? sVLij[y?
* %dsV zmsyTNTP @sqx sLRi\sVs ysNRPy FsNRPVs Fy[ N][xmsLi, LSNRPV soyRW?
FsNRPVsgS L][jqx sVyy?
* xmsVR [NRPFsRLi @s[j %dsV zmsyT[ VNRPVsgS NRPszmsrLiy?
*
G\y INRP %sxtsQRWs ryjLiy= ssxmsVRV ys ryjLiR[NRP,
@NSLRiLigS A sFys FssLji%dsV[y ][}qsxqsVyy?

* FsNRPVsgS Rs }qszRV gRiVLjiLi %dsV RgRiLRi F~gRiVRVRW sWRVRVyy?

|\ ms xmsaRPsNTP qx ssWysLi ""@sosV'' @sQLiVV[, %dsV zmsyTs |msLiRRLi[ %dsVlLi[][


RxmsV [xqsVyLRissW. %dsV zmsyTNTP xqsLji\Vs Lki[ |msLiRszqss RR %dsVj.
BLiRNRPVsVVLi[ zmssV %ssmx sLRi\sVs RRVso s[LRiV, @ORPQLSxqsR s[LRiV. sVs[
ysVLij zmssV @ORPQLSxqsVVgS [xqsVylLi[ Rxms, %sssLiRVVgS
RRWLRiVRVysNTP xmsRVRLi RVRLi [Rs BLiRNRPVsVVLi[ xmsRLi LjigjiLij. \|mss
zmss ORPQds FsNRPVsgS g_LRisLi, }mssV, ARLRi LiRs LiVV[ |msLjigjis zms[s[
NRPszmsryLiVV.
G RRLiRVW sVsxqsWQQLjigS RsV zmsV C LRiNRP\sVs @yLiRdsRV xqsLixmnsVsV
VRVL][ys N][LRiVN][LRiV. RRLiRVNRPV RVNRPVLiys[ LiVVLi[ A xmsLjizqsRVV
@VsVVN]s soLiLiVV.
s[NRPV [sLi @sVLji, xqsWVNTP xmsLizms}qs xmss @LiVVFLiVVLiRs %sLiRRLi
xqsLjiNSRs LiVVLiRNRPVsVVLi[ xmsRLi LjigjiLij @[ %sRLigS xmsNTPLi zms][ F RsV
zmss Fs @RVxmso[ |msRVRVyLRiV? G %sRLigS xmnsxqsV sWLRiVxqsVyLiVV? @s
%sxtsQRVLi gRiVLjiLi Lki|qsLji RVRLi sWs sVs[ [Fys, sVs zms[ [Fys @LiRy
s[qx sVNRPVs qx sLjijRVN][sRLi sVLij.

g_ LRi sLi
C "g_LRisLi' @s[ mx sRsVLi[s[ y g_LRisLi. @xqsV INRP sQQNTPxms G NSLRis
sVsLi g_LRisLi RWFy? C xmsaRPNRPV qx ssWysLi y [NRPgS F~RV. aRPLiNRPLSLRiLi
zqsssW[ aRPLiNRPLRi aSzqsQ s[xtsQLi @RVRLigS s[zqss .%s.rsVRWV sVs gRij[N]}qs, INRP
%sR\sVs g_LRisLi][ [ sRyLi. @j INRP LRiNRPLi g_LRisLi.
@lgi[ INRP [, ry*%dsV[ sVs BLiNTP s}qs INRP sWLRiV [ sRyLi. Bj
INRP LRiNRPLi g_LRisLi. sVs qs sVsLiN]}qs s[lLi[ %sRLigS xmssLjiryLi.
Bs g_LRiysV LRiNRPLRiNSVgS xmsRLji+xqsVs sVsLi sVs zms xms g_LRisLigS
xmssLjiLiRLi. %dsVNRPV AaRPLRiLigS soLi]RV. zms xms g_LRisLi G%sV? ssNTP
qx sLisR=LSsN][, AlLiQN][ s[ J sQQNTPxms sVsLi RW}ms g_LRisLiNRPy, %syLiRLi sVsLi
NRPxqsVLi[ sNRPVxms BLiNS FsNRPVs g_LRisLi RWFy. g_LRisLi @s[j }mssV[ INRP gRiLi
sWRs[V.
DyxLRiNTP, %dsV zmsyRV %dsV RgRiLjiNTPs NTPZNP s[V`NTP ssyRsVN][LiT @xmsVRV
"NTPZNPs[V` GLi!' @sNRPVLiy Ry NTPZNP s[V`NTP FsLiRVNRPV ssVNRPVLiVyRV. Rs
@sWs NTPZNP[ }msRVL`i FssLRiV @s%s VxqsVN][y.
%dsV @LiVV NTPZNP }msRVL`i NSNRPFsRV. NSds, NTPZNPsV xqsWQQLji F~Lij NRP[
VVNRPVs sWLRiVV RVN][sRV. C %sRLigS sVsLi EzLiR[s LiNRPVV zms[
soLiLiVV. A LiNRPVV gRizLi yxms sVxqsVN][sRs[V sVsLi yNTP[ g_LRisLi.
g_LRiysNTP }mssV ][\[ @j aSaRP*RLiRLi @soRVLij.
|msLixmsNRPLi :
BNRP RLiT Rs NRPWRVLRiV LiVV xmsVNRPVs %sxqsVgS gRij[NTP dxqsVZNPRV. gji
Lixms N]RyRV. R @RVgS sxqsVLij. @LiVVy xmsLiRVN][RV. A zmsNTP xmsRsVW[
sRVxqsVLiRs NRPWy sVLjiFyRV. ""sVL][ryLji ds gRij BLiR RLiyLigS soLi[ sV%ds*
LiVVLi[NTP @RVgRiV|msso. yLRiLi L][sVLi RWxqsVysV. yVgRiV gRiLiNTP xqsWV
@LiVVF[, ALRiVgRiLisLRiNRPV BLiNTP LSsRLi [RV. C L][Liy BLi[ NRPWLRiVs ds LRiWsV
qx sRV'' @s sVd N]RyRV. R [V][ xms[RVLij. ""sVs[*Li qx ssVLjiLiRNRPlLi[RV''
@LiW NRPxqsVLRiVNRPVLiRV.
FsLiRVNRPV N]s B[ LiVVLiR NRPhjisR*Li NRPsRVRVLij? sVLjiN]s LiVV[
FsLiRVNRPV aSLigS soLiVLij?
xmsRsVW[ sRVxqsVs Fyxms yVgRiV gRiLiNTP xqsW @LiVVF[ ALRiVgRiLi

sLRiNRPW LSNRPF[ @j sLigS RLiT yNRPVxmsRszqss %sxtsQRVs[V. ysNTP NSLRiLi A zmsNTP


%sVgRiy }qszRVLS][ NRPzqs RRVsoN][y @s N][lLi @RVVLiRRV [y N]RgS
xmsLjiRRV\sVs INRP NRPVLRiyRLiVVy @RVVLi]RV. C lLiLiTLiNTP xzqssV aRPNSLiRLi @LiR
[y soLij.
Rs NRPWRVLRiV RxmsV [xqsVsj. Rss RLiTLiy @s ss][ LRiWsV dsgS [Rs
sLiNRP zms N]ssxqsLRiLi [RV. @[ Rs NRPWRVLRiV FsLiRVNRPV xqsWsVLiT AxqsLigS
sxqsVs][ VxqsVN][gRigji[, @j sVLixmss @LiVV[ qx ssVLjiLiRsRV. [y sVgRizmsyT][
LRigRiRLi Li ssLRi\sVs[ LiVV N]RLi NSNRPVLiy, ssVjgS xmsRLi y*LS[, @j
Rxmss A zmsNTP sVgS BLiN`P RVRLi y*LS[ xqsLjijRsRV.
s[lLi[ sxmsLi %dsVR N]RLi NSNRPVLiy @Li[ A zmss sWszqsNRPLigS RsNRPV RWLRiLi
[xqsVN]s, @sR NRPVLRiyRV dRV sW][ }ms xmssLi \sxmso ANRPL<jiRVLS[VgRi
[RVNRPWRRV. ysVLij RRLiRVV [}qs |mnsWLRi\sVs RzmsR%sV[.
Rs NRPWRVLRiV {qs RVs sRVxqsV[ }mssV[ mx sT[, AsVs RLiTLiRLi y*LS
sxqs=RVVLSgS [zqs, ILiLjiys [zqs, sVLjiLiRgS A NRPVLRiyT\sxmso sVVlgi[ %sRLigS [rylLi[
Rxms RsVNRPVs }mssV, AFyRVR y*LS RsV\sxmso ANRPL<jiRV[V [xqsVN][LRiV.
BLi[ yysLRis[V zms sQQNTPy*sNTP ][LRi[ sVL][ NSLRisRVLij. N]LiRsVLij
\LRixqsVVgS, AaSyRVVgS RRW\lLi[ sVLjiN]LiRsVLij FsLiRVNRPW xmssNTPLSsygS
RRWLRisysNTP NSLRiLi RRLiRV[ @s BLiRNRPVsVVLi[ xmsRLi LjigjiLij.
ryyLRiLigS RRLiRVV %sVgRiy zms][ ssxLjiLi[ %sRLigS RsV zms][
ssxLjiLiRLRiV. INRP }qszRVRV RsV NRPVVLiLi][ [ysNTP s, zmss
dxqsVN]sxmsVRV, A zms RgRiLRi NRPWL]s y WgRi ZOP[QsWV, Fs RRVsoRVyL][
@ds NRPsVNRPVLiLRiV. @[ yzms RgRiLRi N][xqsLjiNTP INRPryLki @ xmssLjiLi soLiRLRiV.
yNRPV mx s[ sRVxqsV[ sW ELjisVLi sW sWsRV syRLi[ sW @LiRLjiNUP
xqsLRiy s[}qsj. sVsV @LiRLjids NRPWL][VNRPVs xmsaRPV s[}qsyRV. G G qx sNRPV=
RRVsoRVysW @Tgji VxqsVNRPVs[yRV.
@xmsVRmx sVRV yNRPV N]LiLi RVLi NRPWy s[}qsj. sWs zqsyLiRsW, gSsV
FnyLRiV[ @RVgRiVyRsVN]s[yLi. NSds @s[%dsV @Tlgi[yRV NSRV. ssNTP A
xqsN`P[%ds @RsNTP RVs[ RVso.
sW RgRiLjiN]xqsVsxmsVR Gs[[ xsVRVV dxqsVN][yRV. sW[ sWZNP[ xmsLkiORPQ
|ms[yRV. sgjis yNTP G |mss=[, [ xmsoxqsNRPsW xsVgS B[yRV. @Rs LSNRP
N][xqsLi s[VsVLiRgS[ FsRVLRiVRW}qsyLi.

sWNSL][ G zqsssW FgSsV soy, NTPZNP sW` soy NSs= [qx sVN]s[yLi.
@Li[ sWNRPV @RLiR AsLiys[ @LRiVRVNRPy sW sWs[V sVsV
ANRPVN]s[yRV.
INRPL][ sW sWsV[V sWNRPV NSgjiRLi, NRPLi B sW[s {sRV
LSRVsVyRV. yNRPV gS gRiVLRiV Bj y R xmsaRPgS s[y L][s %sLiysV. NSds,
LSRVLi sVVRV|msT[ sLis[ @LiRLji }msV sLiTFRWLiVV.
RLS*R, ARVs %dsV[ sVLi gRiV[%sV[ ARVLiT @yRV. s[s V y}qsxmso
A[LiysV. lLiLiRV sVWRV NRPy FsNRPVs ][R[RV. @]NRP sso* xmsxxqssLigS A L][
sWLjiLij.
Bs xqsLisR=LS\y A xqsLixmnsVs @LiR gS gRiVLRiV|msVNRPVysLi[, G sWszqsNRP
aSxqsQs[R RV[s mx sss A L][[ sW sWsRV [aSRV. (ssQ[ ARzms C
sWsRVZNP[ @LiNTPR%sVysV s[sV)
@xqsV sVs {sR[Li? sVs xmsqs FyLiVVLi= GLi? sVs xqs*ss[VLi? sVsNTP
Vry? VxqsVN][sysNTP xmsRVRLi [xqsVysW? sVVLiRV sVss sVsLi @LRiLi[xqsVN]s,
sVs zmss @LRiLi [xqsVN][sysNTP xmsRVLiy.
%dsV zms qx ssVxqsV %ss @LRiLi [xqsVN][sysNTP JzmsNRP NSy. ryyLRiLigS ARzmsV
RLiRV][ RgRiLRigS soLiLRiV. NSds, N]s xqssVxqsV sWRLi RVZNP[ xmsVNRPVLiLRiV.
ysVLij ARzmsV xmsVNRPVs[ qx ssVxqss RVV %sLilLi[ Rxms xqsV Bs*LRiV.
N]s N]s sVLi gRiVV, N]LiRLRiV B[ y yRqx ssVVgS mx sLjisVLi
LiRVRW soLiLiVV. INRP RNTP BV dsgS soLiRVN][ys @s N][lLi soLi]RV NSds,
xmsL][ gRiRLiy RTgRiVR][ RVRsLi, rFny\|ms NRPsLRiV sWLRiVxqsW soLiRLi Li%s
zmsNTP yRqx sLigS NRPsRsRV.

}ms%sVLiRRLi, }mssV xmsNRPLiRRLi :


sVsLi sVs zmss ZNP[sLi }ms%sV}qs qx sLjiFRV. @xmsVRmx sVRV xmsNRPxqsW soLiy.
@xmsVRxmsV[Li, sLRiLiRLRiLi xmsNRPxqsW soLiy! y s s %sRWxms, sVsLi
N]s N]s xmsLjizqsRV[ Dy=xLi NRPWy RWzmsLiRszqs DLiVLij. y sVs][
mx sLiRVN]s[ y mx s, sVs][ }ms %sxtsQRWxms sVsZNPLiR Dy=xLi soLij @s[RB
yNTP @LRiLi @[V sQQNUPNRPLjiLiy.
xqsW[ @zqsFLiVV BLiN]s zmssV R, LRiVsso*][ xmsNRPLjiLi
yN][xqsLi ysV FsRVLRiVRWxqsVyss %sxtsQRVLi }qs RW. @xmsVRV zmsV

y qx sLi][tx sQxmsRyLRiV.
zmsyRV xqsW sVLi s[ \sVNTP R Rs `LRiWsV[ sRFRW[ [NRP BLi
ssVNRP sVs sV|\ ms NRPWLRiVs mx sssVsztsQ][ NRPVLiR V VRW[ soLi[ @j @RT sVsqx sV%dsVR
INRP @xqsLiRXzms ys RxmsNRP NRPVgRi[qx sVLij.
RsV L]s \mns[ zmsyRV INRP gRiLi @s ys RRLiRVV
zmsyTZNPxmsVRW NRPgjiLiRNRPWRRV. ZNP[sLi sVV, sxqsVsoW N]sLiR sWys zmsV
qx sLi][tx sQxmsRLRiV. s s %sxtsQRWV NRPWy g]xms qx sLiRXzmssryLiVV. sWLjisV gkiRVRLi,
xmsoxqsNSNTP @V s[RVRLi c Li s s xmssVV s\sVs RgRiLRiRys NRPVgRi[ryLiVV.
[VN`P[ RL`i gRiV` @s LS}qs zmsyRV y xqsLiLRixmsRVRW s RRLiRV
NS%sxtsQRVLi RWzmsLiysVNRPVLiRV. @[][ y L]s %sxtsQRVLigS "xqslLi[LS' @Li[
zms sVsxqsV soNRPVsVLiVLij. ysVLij RRLiRVV zmsyTs FsNRPVs |msLjigji
RRVsoxms sLRiORPQQLi [ry[sW @s %sxqsVLiLRiV. NSs @j RxmsV. %sRVLiNRPy g]xms
%sRVLi BLiZNP[k [RV.
N]LiRsVLij zmsNTP sVV s[}qs @yV soLiVLij. y s[zqss zms gkiRs
NRPWy gRiLRi*Li][ RN][ RLiTN][ RWzmsryLRiV. @LixmsVRV ys FR=zLiRszqss
RR R RLiRV[. @[ %sRLigS .%ds.[ Rs NTPxtsQ\sVs @R*L`i\sVLi[, NSLRiWs
u[ ssxmsVRV, zmsV RRLiRVsV N] RWRsVLiW .%ds sVVLiRV
NRPWL][RyLRiV.
sVsLi C sRVxqsV[ NRPWy sVs sVLi zqsssW RWzqs, sVLi NRPR Rj%s Fs
xmsxqsLijLiysVs[j sVs }qszRVNRPV VysVsVNRPVLiLi. @Lij INRP s
zmsyRV ysV xqsLijLis %sxtsQRWs RRLiRVNRPV FysVN][sRLi[ RxmsV[RV.

%dsV RRLiRVs %dsVLRiV }ms%sVLiRLiT :


%dsV zms[R %dsVLRiV g_LRi%sLixmsy @sVN]s[sVVLiRV, %dsV RRLiRVs %dsVlLiLiR
g_LRi%sxqsVyLRis[ %sxtsQRVLi A[LiRVN][LiT. %dsV R RLiRV mx s %dsV xmssLRis gRiVLi[,
ys xmssLi %dsV zms%dsVR NRPWy xmsT %sVsV g_LRi%sryLRiV. @s sVR gRiLiy[sW
RRLiRVsV }ms%sVLiRsVs, g_LRi%sLiRsVs RxmsNRPVLiy soLiVLij,
NSyxqsVLi g]xmsNRP%s NRPWy sVVLiRVgS FyLRi*d xmsLRis[VaRP*LRiVs Rs
RRLiRVVgS %sLi xqsVLiyRV. g_LRi%sLiRLi @s[ %sxtsQRWs %dsV zmsV Fs
gRizLiRgRiLRiV?
RWRRLi y*LS, RWzqssyss @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRLi y*LS, RsVNRPLi[ |msRy RsV

RRLiRVsV g_LRi%sxqsVLi[ RWzqs, zmsV NRPWy RsV RRLiRV][ Fs soLiy[


VxqsVNRPVLiLRiV.
DyxLRiNTP, INRP BLi[ yR, RLiT,N]RVNRPV soLi[; RLiTNTP yRNTP @sVORPQLi
xmsRNRPF[, yRs RLiT sLRiORPQQLi [xqsVLi[, N]RVNRPV INRP sRVxqsV s[xqsLjiNTP RLiTs
sWszqsNRPLigS RWLRiLi [xqsVNRPVLiRV. (B[ ksV%dsVR INRP zqsssW NRPWy sLij) %dsV
@sVgSL][, ysgSL][, %sVsV[QQ\y xmsbPLismx sVRV %dsVNRPV LSNRPVs[zqs yNRPV FsRVLRiV
LjigjisV sWRsVN][LiT. C xqsLixmnsVs %dsV zmsV RW}qs yLjiNTP %dsV %dsVR sos g_LRisLi,
%sVs RgjiFyLiVV.
@[ %sRLigS sso*\ZNP, "sVso* sW zmsyT%s NSsoLS! @sNRPLiT. ysVLij
B[ zms "sVso* sWNRPV xmso[RVLS' @[ AxqssVLi ysV[, FssL][ RF[
dxqsVN]ysV[, @NRPRV yWNRPV Rs[ [mx sp [N`P= s[qx sVLiLRiV.
zmsyRV RxmsT sVLiRsVNTP LRiNRPVRW, N]RVRW sWLSLi [}qs, @[][ g]xms
mx nsVsNSLRiLi sVVLjizqsFRW soLiLRiV. NSds, BLi s s [NRPVV ""dsNRPV sW
zmsyTs[V @L>RiR [RV. sW zmsyTs s[VsVV BLiR NRPy g]xmsgS EzLiRVNRPVLisVV''
@s BLi\lLiNRPVgS A zmsyT][ RRLiRVV zmssVgS sLi sxqsVLij.
""dsLi N]RVNRPV soLiRRLi sWZNPLi][ @sxqsLRiLi'' @s BLi\lLiNRPVgS zmsNTP
RV[xqsW soLiy. NSs FsLiRsVLij RRLiRVV B [ryLRiV?
sVLjiN]LiRsVLij RLiRVV B @LiW soLiLRiV. sW Rd RLiU sWN][xqsLi G%dsV
[RV[RV. sVsV aRPR gS |msLiR[RV. y sWNRPV RV NRPWy xqsLjigRi LiVV[yLRiV
NSRV. s[VLi NRPxtsQxmsT RRVsoNRPVyLi. NRPxtsQxmsT \|msN]yLi @s y zms][ VRW
soLiLRiV. %ds @LiRLRiRLigS }ms[LiLi[ "sW RRLiRVV sWNTP[ xqsRVFyRVV
NRPy %dsV ZNPNRPVs qx sRVFyRWV LiVVxqsVyLi' @s.
Bj ZNP[sLi INRP ARsWsy sLisos RLiT Rs N]RVNRPV RgRiLRi @s
RWzmsLiRVN][sRs[V RxmsV, sVlLi[ %sRLigSsW DxmsWgRixms[ %sxtsQRVLi NSRV. kss gRiVLjiLi
%sxmsoLigS s[lLi[ ][ RLjiyLi.
FsxmsV\y zmsy]NRP RxmsV[}qs, yTs RLiTLi[ sVVLiRV @[ sRVxqsV[ %dsVLRiV
[zqss RxmsV, %dsV RRLiRVV RLiTLis %syssVV, ysNTP %dsVlLi xmsxqsLijLiyLRiV @s[j
A[LiRLiT. DyxLRiNTP, %dsV zmsyRV qx sWV[ |mssVFylLi[qx sVN]s syRsVN][LiT.
yTs %dsVLRiV N][yLRiV.
%dsVLRiV @[ sRVxqsV[ |mssV FylLi[xqsVNRPVLi[ xqsWV sVLi BLiNTPsxqsW %dsVlLiLiR
Rmx syL][, A %sxtsQRVLi BLi[ xmsysNTP %dsVZNPLiR RVLi s[zqsLi][, ysxms %dsV RLiT

LjiRWORPQs GLi[ gRiVLRiVRVN][LiT, %dsV RLiT A L][ %sVsV Fs N]NRPVLiy, "Fs[LS,


|mssV FylLiRVRLi @s[j sVso* @sVNRPVs [zqssj NSRV. BLiZNPxmsVRW @ @gRiRg S
soLiRNRPV' @s gRiVLRiV |msVNRPVs sVLRiVxqs L][ %dsV N][xqsLi INRP N]R |mssV dxqsVNRPVs}qs %dsVlLiLiR
AsLiRLigS soLi[yL][ A[LiRLiT.
%dsVLRiV, %dsV RLiT xmssLRis Fs soLi[ gRiVLi[j @s @sVNRPVyL][ %dsV N]RVNRPV NRPWy
%dsV xmssLRis @ soLiys N][LRiVNRPVLiRV.
%dsV RLiTs %dsVLRiV sxmsVRV
xqsLixqsLjiLiR[NRPFRWLRiV.
NSds C sRVxqsV[ RxmsNRPVLiy %dsVLRiV %sVsV
xqsLixqsLjiLiRVN][gRiLRiV.
%sVsV @aRPR [zqss RRLiRVs %dsVNRPV NRPgjis R , @aSLi xmspLjigS
FyLi[, @LiRVZNP[ G\ZNPNRP sWLRiLi %dsV RRLiRVsV g_LRi%sLiRRs[V.
BLiRVNRPV DyxLRigS LSsWRVLi dxqsVN][LiT. G \ZNPZNP[LiVV RsV @RsoFysysNTP
sVWNSLRi\sVLi][ A Z\ NPZNP[LiVVs[ LSsVVRV FsNRPVs g_LRi%sLiyRV. ""s[s V $LSsVRLiRV
NSRLiU, @LiR g]xms gRiVLi yNRPV [RV'' @s %dsVLRiRV.

INRP ORPQLi A[LiRLiT. dsLigS [*ztsQLi, As[aRPxmsT <ssNRPV [sLiVV[ %dsV aSLkiLRiNRP
sWszqsNRP AL][gSV FyRsRs[V Rxms, yss FssLjiNUP G sVW [RV. @ [}qsNRPLi[,
NSxqs xqsxsLi][ RRLiRVsV xmsNRPLjiLiRgRilgi[ %dsVLRiV xqsLi][xtsQLigS soLiRRs[V NSNRP %dsV zms
RXztsQ[ NRPWy %dsV %sVs |msLRiVgRiVRVLij.
ysVLij RsV RRLiRV][ N][xmsLigS sWRNRPFLiVVy NRPFLiVVy c
sLjixmsLigS sVVsLigS xmssLjixqsW RsVVVNRP @xqsLiRXzmss VxmsoRW soLiLRiV. Bj
@sNRPy yLRiV\sVs mx sLjizqs.
sVVxqs sRVxqsV=[ G sQQNTP Hy Rsy Rs][ AFyRVLigS sWys,
RgRiLRigS xqsszRLigS soLiys N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. ys RsV ssLi][ sVVsLi][
R|msRLi NRPryLiVVRsLi NRPy FsNRPVs. %dsVLRiV %dsV RRLiRVV RWLRiLigS s[lLi[ EL][ sos
mx sORPQsVV[ L][ Fns [zqs y][ sWRNRPLRi[RV. sVLSR RVNRPlLi[RV.
yLiNS %sLi soyLRis[ %sxtsQRVLi %dsVNRPV gRiVLRiVsV yNTP, }mssVgS DRLSV
LSRVRLi y*LS ys %dsVLRiV sVLRiF[Rs, }ms%sVxqsVyLRis yNTP VxqsVLij. Blgi[
%dsV zmsyTs NRPWy g_LRi%sLiRRLi y*LS AsLijLixms RVsRV. BLiR s s
%sxtsQRW[ yNTP RXzmss NRPVgRi[ryLiVV.
%dsV zmsyRV xmsj xmssLi[ ys y\[, DyxLRiNTP yT }qszRVsV NRPWy
INRP L][ %dsV BLiNTP zms Li`gSs, TsL`igSs B*RV. FsxmsVRW %dsV }qszRVV [NRP
%dsV LRi }qszRVLSLiRV LiVVN] @LiR LS sLRiNRPW FyLik V [xqsVNRPVLiW soLi[ %dsV
@LiVV ILiLjiRsLi {msn soRW soLiRV.
BLi FyLkiV Rxmssxqs\lLismx sVRV %dsV zmsyT "NRPLi|msds' NRPWy FsLiL`i\s
RVszqss RR%dsVj. @lgi[, %dsV @LiVV y }qszRVLiNTP G\y FyLkiNTP
sysLi[, @[][ TF[V NSLRiLigS %sLi, sRs sLSNRPLjiLiRNRPLiT.
INRP aRPXLigSLRiLi[ Rxms %sVgRiy @s %sxtsQRW[sV %dsV zmss %ds\sLiRsLRiNRPW
NRPVxmsoNRPVLiW soLiRLiT. %dsVLRiLiy NRP}qss[ INRP NRPVVLiLi. A RLS*[
RVysLRiLiVVy.
Ljigji RRLiRV %sxtsQRWsN]}qs, %dsV Li[ %dsVLRiV xqsWsLi LSgSs[ %sVsV
}mssV][ N_gjiLiRVNRPVs %dsV RRLiRVV, %dsVZNP[ @yL][gRisW s}qs %dsV R %dsVNRPV [zqss
}qssV c Li sVLi mx sNSs gRiVLRiV[xqsVN][LiT. %dsV RRLiRVV %dsVZNP[][ RV[Rs[
ys %sT|ms, y %dsVNRPV [zqss xqsRWs gRiVLRiVRVN][LiT.

G sVs{tsQ xmsLjixmspLRiQ\sVs sQQNTP NSRV

@lgi[ RRLiRVV NRPWy.


""R @Li[ aSLiysNTP, xqsxysNTP sVL][ }msLRiV soLiy. R @Li[ @xqsxmsVRW
RxmsV [RVs sQQNTP. R @Li[ N]RVNRPV N][xqsLi Rs gRiVLi\sy N][zqs[ sQQNTP'' c
BLisds sVsLi sxmsVRV mx soxqsNS[ RRVsoNRPVLiLi. NSds, R NRPWy INRP {qsQ[V.
AsVNTP xqsx sWss gRiV\s ry*LRiLi, [*xtsQLi, N][xmsLi, @xqsWRV sVVR\s%s soLiVV.
ys gRiVLjiLiy.
%dsVLRiV %dsV Rs [V][ %sxtsQRVLi xmsbPLiyLRiV. %dsV R %sxqsVNRPVLiW G][ qx ssWysLi
zmsLij. [y xqsWsVLi BLiN][xqsLjiNTP R xmsNTPLi%sR][ NRPLjis[FyNRPV gRiVLjiLi][,
{qsVrysWsyT][ NRPVLRiV VRW[ NRPszmsLiLij. [RV %dsVLRiV G][ xms[RVLi[ gRigS
T[ %dsVLRiV sVsxqsV[s[ RxmsRyLRiV. B sVWRV yVgRiV ryLRiV Ljigji[ %dsV BRLjisVy
RWLRiLi VNRPVssoRVLij. %dsVLRiV xmsoxqsNS[ Rj%ssysNTP, sVsxqsV[ @sVNRPVs ysNTP,
BxmsVRV LRiVgRiVRVsysNTP y [y soLiVLij. @LiVV[ INRP sVsztsQ %sxqsVN][sLi gSds,
NRPVLRiV xmsRLi y*LS LjiNRP=sRLigSs @xqssVLixqsLi NSRV.
R @Li[ zqsssW[ RWzmsxqsVsVgS y KsRLigS soLiVLiRsVN][sRLi
F~LRiFyV. zqsssW[ R s[uyV s[zqss ssVVV RsV B[ BLiRNRPy |mnsWLRiLigS
xmssLjiryLRiV. G [FyV [s mx sLjimx spLRisVLiVVs sQQNTPR*Li NRPgji soLiys[ @FyRVs[V
xqsLji\Vsj NSRV. %dsV[, %dsV LiRVso[, %dsV %sVRV[ soLi[ [Fy[ %dsV RRLiRV[
NRPWy soLiLiVV.
RRLiRV][ [yFyRWVNRPWy @xqsxs[V%dsV NSRV. ZNPLkiL`i %sxtsQRVLi[gSs,
RVV V LRiV|ms @s[ %sxtsQRVLi[ @LiVV[s[%sV, gRijs VLiR @LiRLigS
@LiNRPLjiLiRVN][y @s %sxtsQRVLi[ @LiVV[s[%sV y [yFyRWV sxqsW soLiLiVV.
y slLi[xtsQs s[LRiV. %dsV slLi[xtsQs s[LRiV. y %dsVNRPVs @LRiVRVs, %dsV @ys, %dsV
}qszRVs @LRiLi [xqsVN][[NRPFRVVLiRsRV. %dsVNRPV yNTP sosj RLRiLi [Rs[V Rxms,
y %sVsV @xqszLiRVNRPVsVgSs, %dsV xmsLjizqsRVxms N][xmsLigS sosVgSgSs NSRV.
%ds\ sLiRsLRiNRPW y @LiR Li [qx sVN][s ysNTP %ds[V %sR LigS %ssLjiLi xmsLiT. L][
NRPdsxqsLi xmsj}sV ssVVuyV Fy\y RRLiRV][ sWRRLi @s[j@yV soLiy.
INRP mx sj s%sVuyV %dsVLRiV y][ ARNRPLRiLigS sWT[ A @sVW yNTP
mx sjgRiLiFyV soLiVLij.
"s[sV FsLiR g_LRi%sLiy, FsLiR }ms%sVLiy sW @sVNRPW ysNRPW FsxmsVRW
@xqsLiRX}ms' @s N]LiRLRiLiLRiV. sVLjiN]LiR |msRy\Q[ y zmss y (y

RRLiRVV) @RLiR gSLSLi[zqs FyRV[xqsVyLRiV. zmss I[ NRPWL][VNRPVs


NRPVLRiV VRW gRiLi RLRiT NSZOP[QxmsLi [xqsVyLRiV @s yFRVLiLRiV. sVszqsNRPLigS
ILiLjiRys @sV %sxqsVs sXR VV RsV sWszqsNRP ryLiVV][ zmss xqsLjiFVNRPVs
RgRiLRixmsys xmsRVxqsVLiLRiV. yLRiVsoLRiW IZNP[ ryLiVV[ }qsxLixms qx sLijqx sRW
soLiLRiV. ks sVsLi @LRiLi [xqsVN][y. %dsVLRiV VRVs yRsNRPWy ss[V
@RVVLi]RV. %dsV zmss G %sRLigS |msLiRRVNRPVyLRis[ %sxtsQRWs, %dsV RRLiRVNRPV
@LRiLi @[V Lki[ xmsLiT yV. AxmsLS y %sVsV |msLi |msR[zqssyLRiV.
%dsVNRPV %dsV RRLiRV sVsqx sR *Li gS zqs soLiVLij. @lgi[ %dsV sVsqx sR sLi
yNTPLiNS gS }qs soLiVLij yNTP sRsxmssVV [}qs %dsVLRiV ys
@g_LRimx sLji[LRisVNRPVLiLRiV. DsVT NRPVVLi[ C qx ssVxqs FsNRPVsgS NRPsxqsVLij.
@xqsLi][xtsv\s RRLiRV][ G qx ssVry soLiRRV. ys gRiVTNTP dzqsZNPy,
AxqsNTP dzqsZNPy y xqsLi][xtsQxmsRVRW soLiLRiV. %dsVLRiV AFyRVLigS LS}qs DRLSNTP
NRPLjigjiFyLRiV.
%dsVNRPV G\y qx ssVxqs ssmx sVRV %dsV RRLiRVsV qx sLixmsjLiRLiT.
ysxqs %dsVLRiV FyLiyLS [y @sj s[lLi[ %sxtsQRVLi ZNP[sLi xqsLixmsj}qs yV
y qx sLiLRimx sTFyLRiV.
N]LiRLRiV RRLiRVNTP %dsV zmsNTP y }msLRiV |mss[ N][LjiNRP soLiVLij. yss
%dsV N]s sxtsQs[V%dsV [RV. %dsVLRiV %dsV zmsNTP G }ms\lLi[ |msRVNRPVyL][, ysNTP %dsV
RRLiRV }msLRiV NRPzms ysVNRPLRiLi [zqs LjiNSLRiV[ sWRLi %dsVNRPV BxtsQ\sVs }msLRiV
LSLiVVLiRVN][sRV. Bj DRVy AsWRdsRV\sVsj.
N]LiRLRiV RRLiRVV zmssLi [V%dsV AbPLiRLRiV. zmsV ZOP[QsVLigS soLiT, @ds
sVLi xmssVV [xqsW soLi[ ysVNRPVLiLRiV. sVLjiN]LiRLRiV RRLiRVs G %sxtsQRVsVW
RXzmsxmsLRiRRV. Fss sxqsVsoV N]sy, FssryLRiV RWRNTP xmsLizmsLiy, BLiNS G][
RNRPVQ\ssV %sxqsW NRPVsogS sWRyLRiV. @VsLi ys sWLRiRLi y NRPxtsQLi.
sRsLi[ y F~Lijs @xqsLiRXzmssLiy %dsV %dsVR RWzmsxqsVyLRissW.
@VsLiys sWLRiysNTP INRP[ sWLRiLi. %dsV sQQNTPy*s %dsVLRiV sVNRPVLiW, %dsV
\sxmsosVLiT F~LRiFyV RVNRPVLiy xmssLjixqsW soLiRRLi.
"sW Rd RLiU sW N][xqsLi GLi [aSLRis g_LRi%sLiy? sxmssVLiT INRPry\lLiy
sW RLiT sVsV sVVRVgS RWxqsVNRPVs FyFys F[RV' @s zmss s[sV RWaSsV.
y qx ssVxqsV qx ssVLixqsLigSs[ soLiLiVV. NRPLRiN`PgSs[ soLiLiVV. sVVLigS RRLiRVV
RVN][sLi, yNTP ys[V xmsRQORPQ ryOTPQ @sRLi, %dss LiVW %sRLigS RRLiRV

mx s sLSxqsNRPVsV [ryLiVV. RRLiRVV RVN]s, INRP][ INRP sWRNRPVLiy,


BLis INRP saRP+ RVVRLRigRiLigS [}qs zms%dsVR A xmssLi soLiVLij. @lgi[ Rs NRP
sVVLi[ Rs N]RVRVs RLiTs G zmsyRW xqszLiR[RV. BLisds zms%dsVR y
RV xmsys RWzmsryLiVV. BLi zmsV |msRyLiVVs RLS*R RsV @xqsLiRXzmss
%sR gRiry*sVV%dsVR RWzmsxqsWLiLRiV. sRLi @aSLi][ LSNRPVgS soLiLRiV. RsV[s
@aSLis, s[RssV, Bs{mnsLjiRWLji NSLi|msN`P=sV sVLjiFsysNTP ygRiVRV, }msNS,
lLi[qx sVVLi%s @yV [qx sVNRPVLiLRiV. INRP RLiTgS %dsV RR FsLi][ INRP N]RVNRPVgS %dsV
RLiTxms NRPWy %dsVNRPV @Li[ RR soLij.

NRPuy RVW N][V :


xms RLiU RsV zmsV xqsVLigS soLiyds, yLjiZNP[ NRPxtsQLi LSNRPWRRs N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV.
ysVV mx sxqsVVLi\y qx slLi[, zmsNTP mx sLiR ORPQQ mx sLRisWV |mssVNRPVLiLRiV. BLiNS
RVs RLiRV\[, NSLRi[ xqsWNTP xmsLizmsLi, s[qx s%s[ E mx sLizmsLi @xmsoLRiWxmsLigS
RWxqsVNRPVW soLiLRiV.
B gSLSLigS |msLjigji[ zmsV @xqsV xqssVxqss[%s soLiRVs EzLiR[LRiV.
%sxtsQRV gRiVLjiLi LigSLRiV NRPV NRPLiW soLiLRiV. ][ zms sVR RsV VVNRP
xqsV{mnsLjiRWLji NSLi|msN`P=sV RWzmsxqsWsoLiLRiV. y NRPV NRPVgS sWLjiF[, %sj
sNTPLji}qs \LSs sVsxqsLiVVLSs Fg]VNRPVLiLRiV. N]LiRLRiV zmsV "[N`P' RVN][[NRP,
RV @ysV, RV sxqsysV [xqsVN]s RV }qss AaRPLiVVLi Fs}qszmsxqsVsoyLRiV.
NRPuyV, NRPds, @gjixmsLkiORPQV, %sRLi[ INRP gRiLi. %dss sxmssVLi[
zmsNRPV LRiV RWzmsLiy. @gRis c @NSR][ y |mssVs, \[ xmsj L][V
soLi[V RWRsVs NSRV. NRPdsxqsLi INRP ry\lLiy zqsqs[ xmsRWLiRs NRPVLRiyRV, NSLRiV
Fy\ zqsqs[[, A[[[ sszqss xmsLjizqs ssxmsVRV, A[yT][ Fs
sWy[ RVs xmsLjizqs[ DLi[ c Fs soLiVLi][ EzLiRLiT.
%dsV zmsyTs @LiR xmspLjiR\sVs xmsLjizqs[NTP ][zqsLij %dsVlLi[. sVs zmsNRPV G
NRPxtsQsVW, y NRPgRiNRPWRRs ys @sVORPQLi NSFyRVRW soLi[, sVsLi NRPuy[
sosxmsVRV y sVss G %sRLigSsW ARVN][[LRiV. sVLRiRLi[ xmsLkiOTPQRV NRPR Rjs[
soLiLRiV. Rs N]RV\ZNPs xmsLkiOTPQRVNTP xqsLRigRiLiRLi soLiRs zqs, xqsLRis[ yaRPsLi
RWs xqsLRiRWgRiLi [ryRV. xmsLkiOTPQRVs ILixqsLiLi s[VR[soLi @RTNTP BLRi\s
yVgRiLiW NSxms|ms sVsVxtsvs sRV%sVryRV. Bs gRiRV dxqsVN]s, BNRP RVLi
[RsVN]s sos qx ssVRVLi[ RORPQNRPVRV s NTP%sVgS J mx sLiRV[ RWLji, mx sLkiOTPQRV A mx sLiRV
LiVs qx ssVRVLi[ Fy\sV NSV s[ryRV.

sVs zmssV G NRPxtsQsVW [NRPVLiy RWys FsLiR gRiRgS NSFyTy c G][ INRP
ORPQLi[ LSszqss qx ssVxqs LSNRPVLiy FRV. sVs zmsV qx ssVxqs[ mx sTsmx sVRV sVsLi
RVszqsLi[LiLi[ c ysNTPLiRxmsLRiRNRPVLiy, y [zqss xmss Rxmss sWsWNUP
zmsF~RsNRPVLiy y BLRiVNRPVs qx ssVxqss sVsLi mx sLjitx sQLjiLiR[s sxqs=RVzqs
G\y soLi[ yss xmsRLji+LiRNRPVLiy, yNTP ][RVgS @LiRgS sRRLi. y
sLSaSxmspLjiRLigS A[LiRNRPVLiy, ARxR [xqsVNRPVs[ s sLRiNRPW LSNRPVLiy LiVVgS
sRF[V [RVgRigRiRLi.
RsVN][ qx ssVxqss sLSRNRPLigS, xqsVLigS xmsRLji+LiRVN]s[ %sysLi zmsNRPV
RVNRPF[, y[ RVyRNRP aRPNTP sbPLiFLiVV, sWszqsNRP %sNSxqsLi [NRPVLiy FRVLij.
xmsyVlgi[ NRPVLRiyRV xqsW[ LiVVLiN][ NRPVLRiyT][ y[ @sVN][LiT @sR
NRPVLRiyRV "sVLRiVxqs L][ ds xmss xmsRysVLS' @s jLjiLiyRsVN][LiT. @sR
NRPVLSRV G][ sWsLRixqsNTP A sW @sVLi]RV NSds, %dsV @LiVV LSRLiy sRFRV.
B GRLiVVy @aSLi soLi[ yT][ sWT, gRiVLjiLi, \LRiLi zms sVLRiVxqs L][ %dsV
NRPVLRiyT][ xqsWVNTPs, @sR y][ sWRszqss RR %dsV[. INRP s[ %dsV
@LiVV @aSLis %dsVLRiV gRiVLjiLiRs sVLRiVORPQLi, RRLiRVVgS %dsVLRiV %dsV RRsV
sVLRiFRWLRissW. NRPxtsQLi @Li[ FssLjiNUP BxtsQLi soLiRRV. @LiRLRiW NRPuyNTP RWLRiLigS
soLiys[ @sVNRPVLiLRiV. @ @sVN][sRLi[ RxmsV[RVgSds, @xqsV NRPuy[ LSNRPVLiy
soLiysVN][sRLi, ssxmsoRV ysVLi RWLRiLigS FyLjiFysVN][sRLi,
mx sLiRVN][NRPVLiy soLiRRLi sVLij NSRV. NRPxtsQV, qx ssVxqsV %sRLi[ J gRiLi @s[
%sxtsQRWs sVsLi sVLjiFNRPWRRV. NRPuysV sVsLi G %sRLigS xmsxqsLijxqsVysVs[j
sVVLi.
NRPuys[ %sRLi %sVs VxqsVLiRs[ %sxtsQRWs sVsLi sVs zmsNRPV s[LS.
xmspRlLi[NRPV sVR dzms sosV, NRPuy sVRs[ ss sWRVLRiLi soLiVLij. NRPuys NRPWy
%sRLi[ INRP gRiLigS dxqsVN]s[ ryLiVVNTP sVVLiRV sVsLi FsRgS; sVs zmsV Fsjlgi[
RW. "sgRi sgRi s[sVV RVsVLiT' @sV NRPuyNTP @yVxmsT[ RNRPWy
sVss @LiRgS jLiRRV.

zmsNTP G[y xqssVxqss}qs, RsV RRLiRV[ RsVy NRPuysVLi


\xms[RWsVNRPVLiLRiV. @xmsV[ @RVgRiVV s[RVRLi s[LRiVNRPVs FyFyLiVV F~LRiFyVs
NTPLiRmx sT[, [skrylLi[sWss R\sF RLiT\sF [gS RWxqsVLij. A RWxmso[ @LRiLi s[sV
NTPLiR mx sysV. ssW y Rs gRisVsLi, ssV LRiOTPQLiRV @s.
@xmsVRV %dsV lLiLiRV [RVW sVVLiRVNRPV yxmsRLi y*LS "s[sVysV' @s[ Ry
ys %dsV FyxmsNTP NRPgjiqx sVyLRissW. @[, %dsV Fyxms NTPLiRmx sRgSs[ %dsVlLi[][ mx ss sosV
xmsNRPLRiWsV[NTP sFLiT. FsLiR @xqsxLigS soLiVLi][ A zqsV[VxtsQs.
B[ DyxLRiNTP INRP N]xqs sVLRiVxmso GLiLi[, %dsV Fyxms RsNRPV ysV xmsT, @sxqsLRi\sVs
ysNRPy FsNRPVs GRVxqsW, %dsV RXztsQs Rs\sxmso xmsVN][ysVNRPVsxmsVRV, %dsVLRij
gRisVsLiRNRPVLiy xmsNRPNTP s[, sLigS A FyxmsZNP[%dsV RgRiNRPF[, Rs[ xqs*xqsR
[NRPWLRiVN]s sWsVWVgS A[ xmsTFRVLij.
@ [zqssxmsVRV, @sxqsLRi\sVsxmsV[ y RRLiRVsVLi @<sss dxqsVN][y
Rxms, [sxmsVRV s[s[ y NRPuysVLiT \xmsy @s[ sLi %dsV zms[ NRPVgRiVRVLij!
@LiVV[, FsxmsVRV %dsVLRiV JyLRiV By*, FsxmsVRV Bs*NRPWRRV @s[j %dsV %sRORPQsLi
%dsVR AyLRixmsT soLiVLij.
N]LiRsVLij zmsV sVLki sVVLiTgS soLiLRiV. G s Rgjiy gRiLi, lLiLiRV
gRiLiV GRVxqsVLiLRiV. FsxmsVRW JyLRiVxqsW soLi[ %dsVsVLi FsNRPVs xqssVRWs
AbPryLRiV. Bj sVVR[s[ RVLis[RVRLi sVLij. [NRPF[ 24 gRiLiV zmss xmsVRW,
ATxqsW y[RVxqsVLi[ JyLRiVxqsW soLi[ sso* g]}ms RLiRV[ %dsVLRiW INRP\lLiFyLRiV.
zmsZNP[[y NRPxtsQLi ssxmsVRV |msR xmssLRis Fs soLiVLiRs[j RW}qs IN][ryLji
RLi @szmsxqsVLij. FsLiRsVLij RRLiRVV zmsV R[ sosxmsVRV }mssVgS RgjiLRiNRPV
dxqsVN]s ryLRiV?
DyxLRiNTP J V xqsWVsVLi sxqsW sxqsW R RgRiLRiNRPV LSys xmsLjilgiRVRW
sV%dsVR mx sTFRWRsVN][LiT. @xmsVRV "FssryLRiV Fy dsNRPV @ mx sLjilgiVNRPV
LSsRs' @LiW sVL][ s[}qsy[ FsNRPVs.
F~RVsVLi RWR[Rs[ ]LiRLRi[, AFyRVR][ RgRiLRiNRPV sxqsW A V
GRVxqsVLi[, %dsVLRiV LiVVs*szqsLij JyLRiV Rxms, V xmsLjilgiRLi s V
RgjiRW, sT[ V RgjiRW @s %sZaP[xtsQ NSRV. F~LRiFyVs G BLiN`P [
Lji NTPLiRxmsTF[ [y @RLi xmsT %sLjigjiF[ gRigRi s zmsTs sLi %dsxmso%dsVR lLiLiRV
V s[ryLRiV.
s[%dsVR BLiN`P s mx s[zqs, A BLiN`P s[%dsVR FyLRiVRW soLi[ Fs soLiVLi][

RWysVN][RV NRPy @LiVV LjigjiLij F~LRiFyV sWRs[V. %dsVLRiV xmsszqsLiR BLiN`P


gSs, @RLigSs dzqssxmsoRV VLiR RLigS yys[[ Rxms, NTPLiR xmsTsxmsVRV
RLiTLiRRLi NSRV.
%dsVLRiV FsLixmsVRV RLiTLiyLi[ %dsV FyFyLiVV xmsNRP }qszRV N`P=sVLiT
|mss= ]LigjiLisxmsV][, %dsV xmsLRiV=sVLiT RVV dzqs RV G[y N]sVNRPVsxmsV][
c BLi qx ssVRW[ RLiTLiy.
F~LRiFyV s[LRiV, RxmsV s[LRiV. BLiTRVs {mssN][`[ C %sxtsQRVLi xqsxtsQLigS
LSRVT soLij. Mistake is Excusable. But Fraud is Punishable
@s.
BLiN]LiLi |msRRWNRP %dsV zmsyRV \|qsNTP %dsV][, Wy%dsV][ s sVR ][s[
RWNTP=Li Ljigji A \|qsNTP RNRPLi FyRssW, sLigjiFsRsW Ljigji[, <ss][
RVxmsRVRW LiVVLiNTP LSsRLi Ljigji[ y%dsVR RWNTP=Li Ljigjis ysNRPLi[ FsNRPVsgS
yysLRiLi xqsXztsQ}qs y jLjiFyLRiV.
""sVso* y sLRiORPQQLigS s[so. @LiRVs[ B LjigjiLij'' @s %dsVlLi[ INRP
TgS INRP NSsVLi Fyqs RVRsW, INRP sVLRiL`i qx s*RWs RWzqss ryOTPQgS
%sLRiVRVNRPVxmsRRsW [}qs, %dsV %dsVR yNTP g_LRisLi RgjiFRVLij.
G[y F~LRiFyV LjigjisxmsoRV yVVNRP yRss aSLiRLigS %ssRs[V sVsLi
yNTP[ g]xms g_LRisLi, AFyRVR. y Dy=xLigS @s %sxtsQRWV FyLRiV.
ysV @s %sxtsQRWV xmsss @xmsVRV A %sxtsQRVLi mx s sVs Fsyxqss, sVsLi
FsLiRVNRPV A %sxtsQRVsV RxmssVNRPVLiVysW xmsgRigji[ yTNTP @LRiLi @soRVLij.
F~LRiFyV s[lLi[ sNRPV\[ sVsLi yLjixms rysVW RWzmsryLi. RWzmsLiy.
@[ F~LRiFyV sVs zms\[, yLiRVNRPV F~LRiFy[ sVsLi %ssLjiLi
xmsgRigS. @ @s zms xmsysNTP ys xqsFLRiV RVsVsNSRV. mx sNTPLi
zmsyTs %dsV zmsyRV N]T[, y %dsV %dsVRNRPV N]}qs %dsV yTs qx sFLRiV
RVssxqsLRiLi [RV.
%dsVLRiV RVszqsLiR, %dsV zmsyRV sVVLiRV N]y, @sR zmsyRV sVVLiRV
N]y @s[j sLS LRi RVs[V.
qx ssVxqssVLi \xms[ %sxtsQRVLi[ %dsV zmsyRV [}qs xmsRVRLi[, yTNTP @LRiLi
@[V xtsQ[ FygSds, %dsV RLSsLiy yTsVVLiRV xmsRLji+LiRssxqsLRiLi [RV. %dsV
ysLiy yT%dsVR LRiVRssxqsLRiLi [RV.
@gjiQxmssWRLi Ljigji[ [xmsVs yNTP sVLiRV Fs ALS[ s[LSs

A[LiRNRPWRRV. ys Fs \NTP dxqsVNRPVLSy[ RWy. xqssVxqs[ NRPVNRPVs


zms][ rysVWgS sWT, yNS qx ssVxqs sVLiT FsLiR ]LiRLRigS \xmsy[
xmsLiT.
qx ssVxqsNTP NRPLRi, NRPLRi, NTPRVV %sZaPt[x sQsV [LRiNRPLiT.

zms[ sVs x sV :
sVsLi G\y sqx sVso N]sVN]sxmsVRV, A sqx sVso g][[NRPF[ ys Ljigji
uyxmsoyTNTP B[RVRV. @lgi[ sVs NSLRiV gS sRsNRPF[ sVsLi @s[VxqsVN][sRV.
sVsNTP zmsV [sVVTs INRP xsV. zmss sWRLi sRNRPF[ s=xmnsL`i RV[Li.
Fys[ RLRiRW WNRPLixmsLi sqx sW soLiVLij. sVs [aRPLi[ NRPWy INRPmx sVRV
DRLRiNSbdP [ |msR WNRPLixmsLi sLij. FsLi][ sVLij RsFRWLRiV. %sVgjisy
ZNP[ soyLRiV. INRPryLji WNRPLiFys xmsRQORPQLigS RWzqss sQQNTP A FyLiys aSaRP*RLigS
sj[zqs s[lLi[ ][NTP FyLjiFgRiy? FLiVV RNRPgRiy? [RV. Rsy sV[
RNSsVNRPVs Rs sLRiRWs sWLRiVN]LiRV. sVs zmsV FsLiR RyLiVVy y
sVs zmsV. LRiQ\sy %sT|ms soLiRgRis[VsWgSs, sVsLi sVs zmss %sT
soLiR[sVV.
zmsNRPV NRPuysxmsVRV yNTP s[yLiyV [jLiRNRPLiT. yNTP y [LRiVgS
soLiVLij. @lgi[ zmsNTP INRP qx ssVxqss %ssLjiLiRszqsssmx sVRV %dsV @sVsLi, %dsVLS
sRVxqsV[ A qx ssVxqss FsLiR %s[][ A qx ssVxqss FsRVL]yL][ sVVRgRiV
%sxtsQRWsV zms ERLRig]NRPLiT.
sLigS %dsVNS qx ssVxqs ssmx sVRV GRVxqsW %dsVL][ sVWs mx sRVN]s soLiLRiV. [y
RRLiRV%dsVR LRigRiT soLiLRiV. @Li[gSs %dsV zmsLiR ssVRgS %dsVLRiV qx ssVxqssV
xms[RV.
szmsNTP, %sRLi[ Fs[ qx ssVxqssV \LRiLigS FsRVL]s \|msN]s sNRPV
NRPRV xmsoRW soLiy. @j @V zmsNRPV sVsNRPV NRPWy y xqsWQQLjisxqsVLij.
BLiTRW, FyNTPrys xqsLjixRV FyLiy[ [LRiL`i |qsNRPWLji FnL`i= NRPLi[ FsNRPVs NRPxtsQxmsT
mx ss[}qs ysLRiVLiLRiV? Fss qx ssVxqsVy @sds sVLRiFLiVV y [aRPLi N][xqsLi
FLSRLi [y? %dsNTPLiR \LRiLi Fs sLij?
G [aSsNTP qx sLiLijLis \|qssNRPV\y qx slLi[ yLiR g]xmsgS qx ssVxqs
sRVL]LiVyLRiV? NS [RVW FLiVVyxqslLi[ %saS*rys |msLiRVN]s Fs

%sxqsVyLRiV? Bsds sVs zmsNTP Fy.


|msR gkiRsVVLiRV sgkiR sgSs[ NRPsRVRVLij. sVsLi RVszqsLiR y
qx ssVxqs gkiR sVVLiRV sVLjiLiR |msR gkiRsV RWzmsLiRRs[V. NRPxtsQxmsR yLiRLjids RVW
RWxqsW soLi[ FsLiR LiVVgS RVNRPVRVysVs[ %sxtsQRVLi VxqsVLij. yVgRiV RVxmsoV
sVWzqs LRiV jLi[}qs gRij BLRiV\ZNPFRVLij.
zms sVsxqsVs B BLRiVgS FsxmsVRW RVNRPWRRV. %dsV zmsyRV HqsNUPLi N][xqsLi
GRVxqsW soLi[, mx sNRPzmsyRV gRiLiN][qx sLi GRVxqsVyRs[ %sxtsQRVLi zms RWzmsLiy=s
RR %dsV[.
qx ssVxqsV ZNP[sLi sVs F~LRiFyV s[ sryRVsVN][sRLi F~LRiFyV. sVs gRix FyV
gRiV[NRPFLiVVy sVs xmss[VRVLi [NRPVLiys[ qx ssVxqsV sryLiVV. LSsgSLik @Li[
xmsRsy @Rs yLRiVLigS xR[aSLRiV. @LiVV[ C xy xmsRVRLi[ LSsgSLik
UgSLRiV @LiVVs INRP Fdry{mnsqx sL`i NRPWy sVLRiLiyRV.
@RsNTP C LSNUPRW][, NRPORPQ][, G xqsLiLiRsVW[RV NRPy! RV:sNTP xmsLSNSxtsQ
xmsVN][yLi[ LiVVLiRNRPy |msR DyxLRi GsVVLiVLij. sVLRiLiyNRP LiVV[
@yLRiVs FyLi ssNTP LSRV. y xmsRVyV y sLiVVd sWRLi
%sVgjiFyLiVV.
BLiy %sR RLjiRV zmsNTP FsLi][ xqsWQQLjisryLiVV. INRP @sVsVRV, INRP
RLiRVRV BLiy FsxmsVRW zmsNTP xqsWQQLjisryLiVV. %sRVyLi RVVRLi[
[%s` @s[ \|qssNRPVT yxqss gSR NRPLidsLRiV |msLiLij. A zqsssW VysV.
%sRVRLi RVVR Li LRiVgRiV][Lij. _NSRLi sLRi*zLi[ AQ\ |qsxtsQ FnlLi=qs
sV[ [%s` bPORPQ F~LiRVRVyRV. C sV aRPRV rysLSsV sjNTP yaRPsLi RW=
sqx sVLij. C mx ss y xmssWRLi][ NRPWRVN]sj. bPORPQ F~Lijs [%s` aRPRV rysLS%dsVR
LSs[ yT [RW= sLij.
aRPRVsoV %sVxtsQsgRis=][ [%s`%dsVR, @Rs RLi%dsVR NSVV LjiFyLRiV. [%s` Rs
s VLiT Fnyqx sLRiq s l\ giQQs[` sV dqx sVN]s ys aRPRVso%dsVR %sxqsLSs [ syRV.
%szqslLi[ xmsRVRLi[ @RsV Rs [s ssNTP dxqsVN][gSs[ aRPRVsoV }mss V A gRis[` NRPV
Rgji, @Rs %s xmsNRPs[ }msRLi LjigjiLij.
sj IRVs sos VLRiRds[ mx sTsos [%s`NRPV Rs sVVxLi[s N]LiRgRiLi
spTFsRLi NRPszmsLiLij. @Rs aRPLkiLSsNTP @LiVN]s sos FnyxqsLRiqs \lgiQQs[` xqs*LRiLi
gS[s ANTP=s][ NRPsRLis @Rs VLi, sVVxLi xmspLjigS NSFLiVV [xms[xms[
DTNTPsVgS @RWLiVV.

Rs sVLRiLi y qx s%dsVxmsLi[s[ soLiRs [%s`NTP zqsFLiVVLij. @RsV Rs


ALjiORPQN][qx sLi sLkiOTPQLi[ qx ssVRVLi[ @Rs][ ss \|qssNRPVV @Rs sLis[
%ssWsLi[ spLjiNTP RLRiLiyLRiV. [%s`s zqs[ [LjiLiyLRiV.
[%s`s AxmslLi[tx sQs j[VL`iNTP dxqsVNRPVss qx slLiQsNRPV J |msR qx ssVxqs FsRV\lLiLij. G
\lgiQQs[` xqs*LRiLis sVVxLi NSLi][, A RLSs N][}qsxmsVRV A RLSsNTP @LiVN]s
sos xqs*LRiLi j[VL][ sos ANTP=s][ NRPzqs sVLiRLi sVVRV|msLij.
@ LjigjisxmsVR, ANTP=s zqsLiRL`i FsNRPR }msVRVLi][ @s[ RVLi][ yNPR LiR V,
sLRiV=V Fs[ryLRiV AxmslLi[xtsQs A}mszqs, @Rs @lgi[ sLiLjigS sj[zqs LRiWsV \NTP
sF[VyLRiV.
Fsg][ C AxmslLi[xtsQs xqsZNP=qs @LiVVLij. RVVRLi[ dsLigS gSRVxmsR, NSFLiVVs
\|qssNRPVV soLi[ yLRiV[ [%s`sV soLiyLRiV.
`%dsVR sos [%s`NRPV Rs R gS DsoLiRs VxqsV. Rs sVVxLi FsLi][
%sNSLRiLigS RRW\lLiLiRs VxqsV. INRPmx sVRV @LiRLigS sos RsNRPV C mx sLjizqs INRP
@gjixmsLkiORPQLiRs gRizLis [%s` xhSRVgS RsV ILiLjiy\sVgS RxmsyRV.
@LiR RVLiNRPLRi\sVs LRiWxmsLi][ Rs LRisV Rs ysV Fs RWR[ @RsNTP
@LRiLiNS[RV. FsLiRVNRPW, Fss*LjiNUP mx ssNTPLSs ysV FsLiRVN][qx sLi %sLiys sVRsxmsyRV.
A LRiWsV[ ZNP[sLi [%s` sWRs[V @[RV. sVL][ sQQNTP NRPWy yyxmso @lgi[
gSRVxmsT RW}qsLiRVNRPV RVLiNRPLRiLigS soyRV. @RsN][ NSV, LiVV FRWLiVV. sVVxLi
y sLRiNRPV dFLiVV gSRW][ sLiT soLij. @Rs RWzqssxmsVR [%s`NRPV Rs
LRiWxmsLi NRPWy @lgi[ soLijNRPy @s jgRiVV lLiLixms[Vj.
INRPL][ s[lLi[ |\ qssNRPVT LRi @Rs RW}qsLiRVNRPV sLij. LRiWsV[ @RVgRiV|ms s
AsV INRPryLji LRi \sxmso RWzqs RVxmsTLij. NRPRVxmso[ %sNSLRiLi |mssV NSsRLi][ @Rs
sVL][ryLji RW}qs \LRiLi RV[NRPFLiVVLij.
RsV |msyRV LRi ]Tgjis DLigRiLSs dzqs xmsNRPs[ sos [ %dsVR |ms ""@RWLi
ryLki, B sos %dsV][ NRPzqs s[sV RNRP[sV'' @s zms sFLiVVLij. LRisV RWzqss
AsLiRLi ORPQ[ %suyRLigS sWLRiRLi][ @Rs [sVLiT sWLS[RV.
AsV ss RLS*R NRPV%sV NRPV%sV GyRV. @LiR%s{sLigS RRWLRiLiVVs RssV
RWzqs xmsxmsLiRLi @xqszLiRVNRPVLiVLiRs @RsNTP VxqsV. NSds, FssL][ FsNRP][ RsN][xqsLi
Rxms[ sQQNTP INRPLRiVLiLRis Rs LRiWFys NSNRPVLiy c xXRRWs, xmsLjizqss RWzqs
JylLi[ sQQNTP NSys, A sQQNTP Rs lLi[ NSys @RsV FsLiRgS[ N][LRiVNRPVyRV NSds
LjigjiLij sWRLi s[L]NRP.

@RsNTP sos A INRP AaRP NRPWy FLiVVLij. aRPLkiLSsNTP Rgjis A gSRVLi sVLjiLiR
R|msRLi][ lLiLi][ RLS*R @RsV sVLRiLiyRV.
Bsds RWzqss [%s` y R xmsyRV. %sxtsQRV[ Rs ZNPLi xmsLjizqs
FsRVL_RVLi][ss RVxmsyRV. sVWRV L][ RLS*R [%s` LRi sLij. @RsNTP
RgRiLRigS s sVVxLi%dsVR FsNRPQ\[ Li[ [][ @NRPR sVVRV|msVNRPVLij. ""H s
RVW! BxmsV[ NSRV. FsxmsNUP %sVsV }ms%sVrysV. FsLi mx sLjizqsRVy, FsVsLi
NRPuyy sVsRLRiLi NRPzqs ys FsRVL]LiyLi'' @LiW }mssVgS N_gjiLiRVNRPVs
LRiQ\sxmso [%s` AaRPLRiLigS RWaSRV. Bj NRP! ssW! @s %sxtsQRVLi @RsNTP
@LRiLiNS[RV.
Rs xmsLjizqs[s[ sos sVL][ sQQNTP][ @Rs LRi Fs sWTLi][ xmsRQORPQLigS
RWzqss [%s`NRPV Rs LRi RWzmss }mssV, ARLRi g]xms sWszqsNRP s LiVVyLiVV.
FsLi][ \ s NTP sos LRi RssV @ ARLjiLi[qx sLjiNTP [%s`NRPV %sRLi%dsVR, \ sLi%dsVR
%saS*xqsLi |msLjigjiLij. A RLS*R [%s`gSRWV sVgS sWsRLi sVVRV|msLiVV. Fs[
AxmslLi[xtsQsV, N]s sFyV aSLkiLRiNRP zLixqs @sV%sLis RLS*R [%s` sVgS
N][VNRPVyRV. @RsV Rs RXztsQds, %ssNTPT aRPNTPds N][[[RV.

BLiR R @sV%sLis [%s`sV %ss y*y A [aRP xmsNRPV xmsLjiRRVLi


[aSLRiV. [%s` Rs @RVR\sVs xqsLi[aSs xmsNRPV C %sRLigS xmsRV.
""s[sV %sRVyLiNRPV ss RLS*R y[ aSLkiLRiNRPLigS sWszqsNRPLigS y
sWLRiVyLiVV. INRPmx sNRPLi[ BxmsVRV mx sLjimx spLRiQ\sVs sQQNTPsRWsV. y %sRLi[
yNRPV FsRV\lLis RVLRis, yNRPV NRPgjis s[Rs y*LS gRisLiRVRV yN][ |msR xqsRVLi [aSRV.
C s[Rss[ s[sV sVsVxtsvNRPV RgRiLRiRWsV. y %sRLi[s %suyRLi][ FLSTs s[sV
BRLRiVNRPV xqsWQQLji NRPgjiLi[ @sNSaSs gRisLiRVRV C GNTP=Li y*LS yNRPV
NRPgjiLiyRV''
[%s` sWNRPV xmsV AaRPLRiFRWLRiV. @Rs RWzqs FsLiRgS[ xqsWQQLji
F~LiyLRiV. [%s`NRPV ss NRPxtsQLi RsV zmsNRPV LSNRPWRRs Fss\lLiy @sVNRPVLiLRiV. @LiR
%suyRLi @Rs RVsVVy [soRV @Rs NRPxtsQs y mx nssLiRLigS, FsLi][ %sV\ssjgS
sWLSRV.
..... @k NRPR.
@ds xqsNRPsVLigS LRiVgRiVRW, AsLiRLigS soLi[yNRPV JyLRiV @sxqsLRiLi soLiRRV.
INRP sQQNTP sLSaS sxqsQXx][ FLS[xmsVRV AR%saS*rysNTP RgjisxmsVRV,
ARsWsy sLi s[jLi[xmsVRV, @xmsRWV FsRV\lLismx sVRV sWRs[V JyLRiV,
Fy=xLi @sxqsLRiLi @soyLiVV.
sVVLigS zmsV aSLkiLRiNRPLigS, ALjiNRPLigS, sWszqsNRPLigS RRLiRV %dsVR AyLRixmsT
soLiLRiV. NS y RgRiLRisVLiT Fy=ds, JyLRiVs N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. @LiRVs
sVs zmsNTP G qx ssVxqs sy, ysV JyLji, y NRPxtsQs[V y sVLi sQQNTPy*sNTP
xmsoyj! @s[ %sxtsQRWs VRW, y sLSRNRPLigS A[Li[ [}qs RR
RRLiRV[.
IZNP[ %dsj[ soLi[ BRLRiV zms[ INRPLRiV G.zqs NSLRiV[ sRVLi[ s[L]NRPLRiV FsLiR[
sT sLiRsRV. FsLiR[ sT s[ysV FsLiR @LiRgS R |msRV. @[ G.zqs.
NSLRiV[ s[yTNTP FsLiR[ sRsRsVLi[ RWRsgS @szmsxqsVLij. aRPLkiLRi\sVy, sVs\|qsy
NRPuysNTP @yV xmsRLi Ljigji[ A NRPxtsQLi @LiRgS jLiRRV. sLigS NRPxtsQxmsR sQQNTPNTP
FsRV sQQNTP NRPuys @LiR Li[qx sVN][giR lgi[ aRPNTP soLiVLij.
"ANRP' @Li[ G%sV[ zqssyNRPV sVL][ sQQNTP ANRP @LRisVsoRVLij.
GNTP=Li[ gS V Rgjis sQQNTP, @[ xmsLjizqs BLiN]NRPLjiNTP FsRV\lLi[ A R @LRiLi
[qx sVN][gRiVgRiVyRV. INRP ss LSzqss LRiRLiVVRNRPV sVL][ sQQNTP LRiRs [qx sVLi[ A NRPxtsQLi
FsLi][ @LRiLi [xqsVN][gRiVgRiVyRV.

@[ LSRVNRPVLiy sVgRiVLji][ yVgRiVLS LRiVs[*yNRPV A R, NRPXztsQ Fs @LRiLi


@soyLiVV? @LiRVs Fss\lLi[ NRPxtsQxmsRyL][ yNRPV FsRVy R, RV:Li @LRiLi
@soyLiVV.
NRPxtsQxmsRLi s sVL][ Li soLij. sVs @sVsLi @xLiNSLSs Rgjiqx sVLij.
%ssRWs, ssVRsV |msLiRVRVLij. @LiRVs BRLRiVNRPV xqsRVLi [}qs gRiVLi
@sRVRVLij. sVWRV LRiNS @LigRi\sNRP][ RxmsR |s ZNPL`i ysV xmspLjigS
sxqs=RVVLSss jgRiVVxmsRNRPVLiy, RsgS @LigRi\sNRPLi][ Rxms[yNRPV
}qss[RVRLi @s[j sVs sWssR*LiQ\sxmso, }qsygRiVLi\sxmso, }qsygRiVLi\sxmso sTzms[
@LiRNRPLi[ NSszqss[sVVLij?
sRsLi[s[ NRPxtsQxmsR y[ sWszqsNRP\sVs FsRVgRiVR FsNRPVsgS soLiVLij.
T[, NS[[ sVsLi Rjs[ @ORPQLSNRPy @sVy[ sVsztsQ[ ys NRPgjiryLiVV.
sVLids, RVsW %sZaP[ztsQLiRgRilgi[ gRiVLi, xqsxsLi INRPLji%dsVR AyLRixmsRNRPVLiy Rs xqs*aRPNTP][
RNRPRLi c Bsds NRPxtsQxmsRRLi s[ @sRyLiVV.
sysNTP LiT[s FsLiRL][ RVVsNRPVV FsLi][ NRPxtsQxmsT FyLjiaS%sVNRPs[RV @LiVV[
@LiRV[ AaRPLRisVV [RV. BLiR @sXjNTP NSLRiLi ZNP[sLi NRPxtsQxmsRs[V.
NRPxtsQLi FsRV\lLismx sVRV sVsVxtsv[ HNRPsVRLi |msLRiVgRiVRVLij. g][ysLjiNTP
sLRiRsxmsVRV sVVLixmsosNRPV gRiVLRi[V FyLiy[ sos yLRiV @s [yV, V
sVLRiFLiVV INRPsoyLRiV.
RVV, NRPVV, [*uyV yyNRPLigS\sy sbPryLiVV. AxmsR[ AdRVRV
ARLRiV |msLRiVgRiVyLiVV. |msR ysW %sss zmsV NRPWy RsVNRPV Rgjismx soRV,
*LRiLi ssxmsV][ VjgS, }mssVgS soLiLRiV.
sVsLi J %sxtsQRVLi xmsNRPLi soLiRVN][y. zmsV aSLkiLRiNRP, sWszqsNRP qx ssVxqs][
RxmsRVRVLi[ sVsLi FsLi][ JLRiVgS, s[LRiVgS ssxLjiLiRszqs soLiVLij. qx ssVxqss
zms[ sWszqsNRP %sNSxqsLi Rmx sNRPVLiy sqx sVLij.
NSds, A sWLRiV ORPQ[ sVsNRPV NRPsys sVsLi @sVNRPVLi[ @j F~LRiFyV. INRP
NSRV mx sLiRVgS sWlLi[LiRVNRPV N]LiR ssj dxqsVNRPVsQ[ NRPuysV FsRVL]syLji[ sWszqsNRP
mx sLjimx sNRP*R s[LiRVNRPV N]LiR qx ssVRVLi mx sRVRVLij. A %sxtsQRVLi sVsLi sVLRiFNRPWRRV.
zmsNRPV G %sxtsQRVLi[\sy sVsLi xqs Bs*RRVNRPVLi[ sVVLiRV sVs sVsLi
xqsLjijRVN][y=s @sxqsLRiLi FsLi\y soLij. zmsNRPV Azqs, @LiRxqsV, NSLRiV, sgRiV Bs*gRilgi[
RRLiRVV FsLiRL][ soLiLRiV. NSds, yNRPV sWszqsNRP %sNSrys, sVLi sQQNTPy*s
Bs*gRilgi[ RRLiRVV N]LiRlLi[ soLiLRiV.

zmsV G %sxtsQRVsVV[\sy J%sV FsRVL]sxmsVRV, A %sxtsQRVLi[ yNRPV


JyLRiVsxqsW A J%sVs s\sVs %sRWsNTP rFyssVs[ %sxtsQRWs yNRPV
@LiR sV[V xmsgRigS. J%sVs NRPgjis xmsLSRWs xmsVRgS sWRVN]s[ aRPNTP
sVsLi zmsNTP By*.
ILizmsN`P=[ A[LiRVNRPV, sVs[aPR N][qx sLi sLigS Rmx ss mx s[yRV LS, mx sgRiV
NRPxtsQxmsT Rs AsV FyNUPqs [}qsyT[ sLiVVd NRPszmsxqsVLij. @ NSNRPVLiy xmsVR*Li
LRiV][ %s[aSV RWys, NS}qsxmso yLRi[ Rs }msLRiV %ssys N][LRiVNRPVLiW FyNUPqs
[}qsyT[ RaRPVj GsVVLiVLij? sVsLi ATy, ARNRPFLiVVy sVs RVV sVsNTP
sryLiVV @s[ ksW][ sVs BLiTRVs NTPZNP Li LSLiRNRPVLiy soLij. FyNTPrys
AgS[ @Li sLRiORPQQLiNRPy sLiVVd FsNRPVs NRPszmsxqsVLij.
A[lgi[ %sRLi[ NRPWy lgiVxmsp, J%dsV soLiLiVV. lgisxmsoRV, @sVNRPVs%s
@sVNRPVsV Ljigjismx soRV @LiRLRiW sso*yLRiV. @[ @xmsxqssLigS LjigjisxmsoRV sLSaRPxmsR
y[ FsNRPVs. BLi ysV sVsLi soLi[ mx sLjiqx sLSV sVLjiLiR xms%sRLi [ryLiVV.
G\y xmsLkiORPQ[ |mnsLiVVLiVVs zmsyTs "sVso* y NRPRVxmsos Rxmsoso' @s T[, A
zmsT sLSaRP FsNRPVQ\s AR xR [xqsVNRPVy AaRPLRiLi [RV.
@[ @LRiLi [xqsVN]s RRLiRVV ""sVso* %sRNRPVs yT%s NSso. CryLji sVLjiLiR
NRPxtsQxmsT LS}qs, BLiNS sVLi sWLRiVryLiVV'' @s FR=z}qs c @Rs[ INRP g]xms sQQNTP
@soyRV.

zmss |msLi[ %sy yV c LRiNSV :


INRP sVsztsQ xqsxysNTP DsRryLiVV xmsLkiORPQ GRLiVVy soLiRLi[ @j "zmssV
|msLiRRLi' @RV. Rd, RLiU mx so][y=xLi][ mx sLRisbPLiyNRP, A sVgRiR sVLiT
RVxmsyNRP J |msR xmsaSQLiR NRPLi y sVsxqsV sVVLigji sVxqsVLij. @j "zmss Fs
|msLiy?' @s[ xmsaRP.
C xmsaRP @LiRLRiW s[xqsVN][LRiV. ryyLRiLigS zmsV xmsoRLi @s[j FsLiR L]sgS
LjigjiFRVLi][, y |msLRigRiRLi NRPWy @Li[ L]sgS LjigjiFRVLij. C %sxtsQRVLi[
As[aS FyysR Rxms, A[Rs FyysR soLiRRV.
BLiNTP |msRgS sos RLiT Rs BuycBuyNRPV RgRiV @LiRLRiW xmssLjiLiys
N][LiR VNRPVLiLRiV. Rs @LRiVRVV, @yV y g]xmsss @sVNRPVLiRV, ssVVyRV.
Rs LRiORPQ[ |msLRiVgRiVRVs zmsV Rslgi[ A[Liys A[bPLiyRLi LRiVgRiVRVLij.

BLiRsLRiNRPW gSs[ soLij.


s[ NRP A RLiT @LRiVRVW, @yV A[RsW FsLi%s? @s xmsaRP
RgRilLi[ DRsLi @soRVLij. RLiT ygRiV[\ A xmsLiy[s[ zmss |msLiy @sVNRPVLi[
BV sLRiNRPsRVLij. @ NSNRPVLiy A RLiTNTP DsR\ sVs sQQNTP R *Li soLiT, sVLi
@yV soLi[ A BLi mx sLjizqs sVL][ soLiVLij.
ZNP[sLi RLiT xmssLRis gRiVLi[ y! @sNRPLiT. R xmssLRis, sQQNTPR*Li NRPWy
zms%dsVR FsLi][ xmsys RWzmsxqsVLij. @LiRVZNP[ INRP BLi[ zmsV xqsNRPsVLigS |msLRigSLi[
RRLiRVRLRiW qx ssWs RR szLiy. y mx sLRiqx sLRiLi slLi[NRP RXyLiVV[
zmsV y RxmsRyLRiV.
xms sQQNTP sQQNTPy*sNTP, qx s*ysNTP xsVVVLiLiVV. sVs xmssLRis INRPLji][
IN]%sRLigS soLiVLij. FsRV sQQNTPNTP RgRiV sVs xmssLRis sWLRiVRVLij. IZNP[ sQQNTP Rs\|ms
@jNSLji][ JgRi, ry D][gRixqsV][ INRPgRi, Rs %sVRV][ J %sRLigS,
RRLiRV][sW, LRi][sW sVL][ %sRLigS xmssLjiryRV.
zms %sxtsQRWsNTP s[xqsLjiNTP s[lLi[gS F~LiRs [NRPVLiy xmssLjiLiRsRV. C %sxtsQRVLi
zmsNTP @LRiLi NSRV. NRPsVZNP[ @LiRLji][ gSsoLi[ RsV RLiT, RsV %sxtsQRVLi[s[ NRPLRiaRPLigS
soyRsVNRPVLiLRiV.
xms BLi[sV RRLiRV sQQNTPR*Li mx s yLji xmssLRiss GLRi[ yysLRisVG
zms[s sQQNTPy*sNTP sVWNSLRiLi @soRVLij. BLi[ yysLRiLi[ RVLi, NRPh][LRiR*Li
sLiT soLi[ zmsV @Ry sLi][ NRPVLigjiFyLRiV. N]s LiVV[ ARLi,
}qsxxmspLjiR\sVs yysLRiLi soLiVLij. @VsLi xmsLjixqsLS[ |msLjilgi[ zmsV
\LRixqsVVgS, AaSsoVgS RRWLRisoyLRiV.
RRLiRV xmssLRis[s [FyV @Li[ A xqsV[NTP y sryLiVV. yLRiV mx spLjigS
NRPYLRiV[, LSORPQxqsV[ NSNRPFsRV. NSds, N]s RVLRiyV NRPWy LiVVLi yysLRis
FyRV[ryLiVV. RVLRiyLi[ ZNP[sLi ygRiLi, lLi[xqsV ZNPRLi, }msNSRLi sWRs[V NSRV.
{sRNRPV R\sVs xqs*LRiWxmsLi @LiW soLiRRV.
@yVNRPW, RVLRiyVNRPW sVR [ xqsLjixRV VxmsVRW soLiVLij. A xRV
y[ sVLi NRPWy RVgS sWLRiVRVLij. LiR LSNTP Lik BryLRiV. soLij NRPy
@s ygRiV[RVV NSNRPWRRV NRPy. @lgi[ G\y xqslLi[ [ @yV %sV%dsVLji[ @j
RVLRiyV @soRVLij.
xms sVsztsQ aRPLkiLSsNTP %s%sVsV VLi][ @sxqsLRiLi. @gRis sWyRVNRPV %sVLi sVd
%s%sVs sWRV %sVLigji[ RVs L][gRiLi sVs xms {msTxqsVLij. xmsaSLiRRsV, sRsW

NRPgjiLi[ "NSLiF' sWRV INRP RVV sVVxmsLiVV dxqsVNRPVLi[ sVsztsQ sVd sR[sRV.
G][ xqsLRiygS }msNS ARVNRPVLi[ AsLiyds \ LiFyqsds NRPgjixqsVLij. y[ sRLi
ARLjiLi, BLi[ sxqsVsosW, BLids yNRPV |msT[ N]Lixms sVVsVgRiVRVLij. B V[
%sxtsQRWV [ xRVy[ RVgS xmsLji%sVryLiVV.
@LiVV Fss\lLiy @sWLiVVs RWzqs ""%dsVLRiV y @LiRLigS soyLRis,
rLiRLSsNTP xmsdNRPds, sVsVRLjiR[s sLRiWjsNUP %dsVNRPW gS FNRPVyRVds'' F~gjiT[,
G sWRLi |qss= sos @sWQ\Vy, "G%sV NRPR?' @s sVsqx sV[ @sVN]LiVLij.
"ygji[ ylgi[RV[' @s xmsLiRVN][NRPVLiy sFRVLij. A xRV y LiVV
xmsVN][sRLi Li%s sVVRV|msT[ yLjiLigRiVW, LixmsW VRVL_yLiVV. sVVRVgS
sWRVRVs szms @jNRPxmsxqsLigRiLi [xqsW |msRy NRPVLRiV FyLRisVN][LiT, sVsNRPV
LSNRPVs[qx sVLij. G %sxtsQRWs\ZNPy [ "%sV' soLiVLij.
sVs[s sVLi @y[ aRPV %sVLi[ {sRVgS sWLjiFyLiVV. %dsV A%sR
BLis aRPVLigS soLiRVRVLiRs, %dsVLRiV y xqsLi][ztsQxqsW soLiLRiV. A gRiVLi %dsVNRPV
FsLiRgS[ sRVRVLij. NSds, A aRPVR @gS sWLji INRP sxqssLi BLRi\s yVgRiLiW
LiVVLi aRPVRZNP[ FyysRs}qs gRiVLiRRV.
@lgi[ zmssV "@' aRPVR][ |msLiRVRW FsxmsVRW ZNP[NRPVs[xqsVLi[ %dsV xqsLi][xtsQLi
A%s\lLiFLiVV %sxqsVgRiV, LSNRPV ][V [xqsVNRPVLiLiVV.
%dsVLRiV G xmssLiVVy xmsVRgS [ryLRiV. [ sLRiRVLi dxqsVNRPVLi[ LRiVgRiVLiRsLiR
RXR\sVs sQQNTPR*Li @sVN][LiT. @j sVLi[. NSds C @yV sWyRV FsNRPVsLiVV[
@j sVVLiTRsLi, sVLiNRPVxmsV @soRVLij.
C %sRLigS sVLi ORPQV %sV%dsVLji[ RV ORPQVgS sWLSLiVV.
zmss |msLi[ |msR sVsxqsy*V Fss LRiNS[ sVsLi VxqsVNRPVLi[, G LRiNRPLi
sNRPVV zms][ V ssxLjiryL][, %ds[ G %sysLi sVLi][, FssLji xmssLRis[
[FyVyW, Fs qx ssLjiLiRVN][s[ VxqsVLij. Bs LRiNS xmssLRis[ |msRLiVVs
sVsLi G sLSsNTP Lijs y sW sLiVVdgS xmsbPLiRVNRPVs, VxqsVN]s, A [FysV
qx ssLjiLiRVNRPVLi[s[ xqsRRLi soLiVLij.

@y RVLic2

@ iLi R LRi iLi gRi sV R s iLi

zms @LiRLRiLigRiLi[ GsVVLi][ VxqsVN][sRLi y xqsVLi. NSds sVsLi [}qsR


@ VxqsVN][sysNTP NSszqss xmsRVyV RVNRPFsRs[V ys N]LiLi Li][,

VgjiLi][ [NRPF[ y][ xqsLji\Vs NRPsVWsZNP[xtsQs GLRiLRiVRVNRPV[ N]LiR sWRgRigji[


y RsV sVsxqsV[ yV, |msRyNRPy NTPRVL`igS sLRiVxtsQLigS xmsgRiVgRiVyLRiV.
IN]ryLji y yV %sLiW soLi[ sVsZNP[ AaRPLRiLi NRPVgRiVRVLij.
saRPRVLigS INRP slLi[xtsQs NRPy sVL]NRP slLi[xtsQs[ %s [V, HNRPW @LRiLi
[xqsVNRPVs[ aRPNTP |msLRiVgRiVyLiVV. s\ xqsLisR=LS NTPRLi xms][ RLRigRi Rjs[ NRPVLSTNTP
NRPLi[ NRPWTNRPV, dzqss[RV, gRiLSV, NSsVV c RWLRisVV, sU V, aSyV s\lgiLS
sWRs[V.
NSds BxmsVRV mx s][ RLRigRi y Ad, NRPLixmspLRiV=, g][sV, ryzqsN`P=,
gRiL`iRsV= sLRiNRPW NRPWy RRsszqssrLij. C %sRsVRV qx sLiNTPQxtsQR sVsVxtsv[
|msLjilgi[N]k zmsNTP, |msRNTP "gSms' |msLjigjiF][Lij. "|msRV RsVNRPy \ssy NSRV'
@s[ sLi NRPWy s zms[ gS |msLRiVgRiV][Lij. @sNRPy sVVLigS "|msRV
RsVs @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRLi [RV' @s zmnsLSRV NRPWy y sVLi FsNRPVssoRVLij. ss[V,
|msRyxmsVRW zmss @LRiLi [xqsVN][LRiV.
@ @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRLi RsV g_LRiysNTP LigRiLigS |msRV {mnssoRVLiLRiV. N]s
L][ NTPRLi s[NRP %sVRVT BLiNTP TsL`iNTP sRLi xqsLi %sLiLij.

A %sVRVT NRPWRVLRiV BLiLkiTV RRVso][Lij. sW xqsLiRLRiLi[ s[ds xmsoxqsNRPLi


zms%dsVR yxqsVyss zqs, A Fyxms NRPWy Dy=xLigS RLRi[ FyLij.
A Fyxms Dy=s RWzqs s[sV "sVso* ds |msR gRiVLjiLi GsVs {mnssoRVy[
LSLiVV. @j s[sV y LRixxqsLigS dzqsZNPsV' @s zmssxmsVRV A Fyxms LSzqss
@FyRWs RVyRRLigS xmsRVLjixqsVysV.

"Most Parents like to think that they are always right


and they never admit their mistakes to their children. They
hate learning from their children and always snub the
children with remarks like 'I knew it' you don't have to teach
me' or How dare you correct your father'. The general
attitude of most parents is that the feel it demeaning to learn
from their children when actually they are supposed to teach
them (the children) They think that once children starts
correcting them, they are begining to go out-of-hands and
are not giving due respect to them.
Learning is always two ways. The parents should
realise that be correcting their mistakes and listening to what
their children have to say, they can learn a lot in the process
and widen their horizons.
By snubbing the children too often, after a while
parents are unable to communicate well with them. The
children became reluctent and generally keep everything to
themselves while the communication gap widenzs."

(""ysVLij RRLiRVV ysVV FsxmsVRW \lLi @s RsV RxmsV zms RgjiLRi


IxmsVN][LRiV. zmssVLi GsVy ysVV VxqsVN][y. VxqsVN][gRiLi @s
@FyRWs y @xqsV IxmsVN][LRiV. G\sVy sWT[ "dsZNP[Li dRV', "sVso* yZNP[Li
xmssNRPLRi[RV.' "yZNP[ }msLiR g]xmsys\sFRWy' c BLi y][ zms
[ ZNP[ryLRiV.
INRPryLji FsxmsV\y \LRiLigS RsV RRLiRVV [}qs RxmsVsV zmsV xqsLjijR[[,
"zmsV RsV NRPTsVLi \NTP sFRVyLRiV' @s[ RVLi RRLiRV[ xmss[bPxqsVLij.
s[LRiVN][sRsVs[j lLiLiRVLRiNSVgS soLiVLij. zmsV }msj zms RXztsQ][

A[Li @LiRV[ GRy ssVVLi[sW VxqsVN][sRLi y*LS RRLiRV RXNRPRLi


%saSsRVLij. lLiLi][ N][Li[ zmsV }msys[ sLiRLigS [LRiV NRPRLi s
zmsNUP, R RLiRVNUP sVR @xqsV "xmsryLRiLi' @s[j soLiRRV. @VsLixmsVRV
"LjiNRPLi'gS gSds, "BLisL`i'gS gSds sWlLi[ xmssWRsVVLij.'')
***

INRP BLiLkiTV Rjs[ Fyxms BLiR NTPRVL`igS Rs ys, BLiR xqsxtsQLigS Rs


@FyRWs xmsgRigRiRLi %sZaP[xtsQLi. NSszqsLiR sVsLi ys @LRiLi[xqsVN][sRLi
sWRs[V. B RRLiRV sVLi sWszqsNRPLigS RWLRi\sVs RVLRiRXxtsQsLiRV\s zmsV, G
sWRLi s }mssWsWyV RV ]LjiNTPy @V\sxmso sVVgRiVyLRiV. B[ ARzmsLiVV[
[V NRPVLRiy][ NSxqs LiVV spzmsy @[ }mssVsVN]s, AFyRVRsVN]s xmssWRLi[ mx s[
@sNSaRPLi soLij. C zmsN`Ps sVL][ yxmsL`i[ RLjiyLi.
zmsV RsV sVsxqsV=[ GsVsVNRPVLiVyL][, A ys sVsLiRxmsVgS @LRiLi
[xqsVN][sRsVs[j zms Li sVLi[ FyLRiLisVsoRVLij.
INRP Gyj[xmso Fyxmss gS[NTP FsgRilLi[zqs xmsVN]Li[ A Fyxms RVLi RVLigS RWzqs,
}mssLigS sso*RVLij. A Fyxms LRiVsso*s sVsLi s[lLi[ %sRLigS @LRiLi [xqsVNRPVLiLi. Fyxms
AsLijxqsVsRsVN]s sVd lLiLiRV sVWRVryLRiV gS[NTP FsgRilLi[ryLi.
INRP xmssVV sWszqsNRP aSxqsQs[R, A qx ssVRVLi[ A Fyxms sWszqsNRP zqss C %sRLigS
%sZaPz[ tsQryR V. %dsVNRPy ALRiVlLiV |msR gS sos INRP LSORPQxqsVRV %sVsV gSN[ PT lLiLiRRVgRiVV
\|msZNPgRilLi[zqs sVd xmsVNRPVLi[ %dsVZNPLiR RVLigS soLiVLi][, xqsLisR=LRiLi[xmso Fyxmss
ALRiRVgRiVV FsRVs %dsVLRiV \|msZNPgRilLi[zqs mx sVNRPVLi[ @lgi[ soLiVLij.
Fyxms RWs sVsLi AsLiRLi @s Fs @sVNRPVLiVysW, @[ Fyxms |msRRWNRP
sVsLi [xqsVs xmssNTP FsRVLRiV xms[NRP sVs @xqszLiRVNRPVLiW soLi[, @[ sVs g_LRisLi
@sVN]s sVxmsRVRW soLiLi.
N]LiRsVLij RRLiRVV zmss sVR[ NRPWL][VNRPVs, LiVVRLRiW L][\sxmso
mx sRVN]s @sV sVLiy, ys sVLiyy xmsV @s @RVgRiVRVLiLRiV. A Fyxms FsW
xms[NRP BRLRiV sVLi[ @LiVLij. @NSRV, FsslLiNRPVs sVLi][ xmsV @s sT
[qx sVLiLRiV.
C %sRLigS @RgRiLi s FyxmsNTP INRP %sR\sVs s[LSV ][LRis @yV
[xqsVyLRissW. RsV RRLiRVV LiVVRLRiW @sR sQQNTPNRPy RsV "sVLi'
@szmsLiRVN][ys[ ry*LRiLi][ soyLRis[ %sxtsQRVLi A Fyxms VxqsVNRPVs[ [xqsVyLi.
BRLiy sVsLi sso*gS @sVNRPVy, szms sVsxqsV[ sWRLi y LigS

yVNRPVFRVLij.
N]LiRsVLij RRLiRVV Fyxms sVVLiRV [N`Pys= [RVRLi, Fss\lLiy
LiRVsosxmsVRV sW @LiVV [N`Pys= gS [ryRs xmsRLi, ysVVLiRV
ys= [zqs RWzmsLiRsVs LigS sT [RVRLi, A NRPVLRiyRV RV[NRPF[ xqsRLRiV
LiRVsoV sFLiVVs RLS*R yV |msRLi [ryLRiV.
Bsds zmsyTs sWszqsNRPLigS sT|ms[ xqsLixmnsVsV. zms sVVLiRV RRLiRVV
[NP` ys= [qx sVLi[, @xmsVRV zmsV NRPWy A sRVxqsV DuyLRiV[ AsLijLiRs[sW gSs,
y[ |msRyRWNRP INRPxmsVRV Rs RLiT Rs sVVLiRV [N`P ys= [}qs %syys,
xqsLigRis gRiVLRiVgS soLiRVNRPVs, Rxms gSs, RLiTxmsgSs g_LRiys N][[[V
xmssWRsVVLij.
NS xmsxqsVR xmsLjizqs[ RsV [}qs [N`Pys=s Fs @sLijxqsVyy @s[ysNRPy,
%sxtsQRV[ ks xmsLjisWLi zmsxms Fs soLiVLiRs[j RRLiRVV gRiVLRiVLiRVN][szqs
soLiVLij.
BLiN]LiRsVLij c G }qszRVV BLiN]y zmss ""\lLisV= xmsV, \lLisV= xmsV''
@s sLiRLi [xqsW soLiLRiV. Bj %ss[yNTP FsLiR [LRiVgS soLiVLi][, szmsNTP
NRPWy INRP RWLiNRPy*s @yV [xqsVLij.
"sW zmsV gS @Lji [ryLRiV' @s xmsVN][sRLi NRPWy N]LiRLji FnyxtsQs.
BLiRNRPy yLRiV\sVs %sxtsQRVLi GLiLi[, szmsyRV GLi [zqsy @][ g]xms
%sxtsQRVLigS RVyNTP xmsVN][sRLi ysVLijNTP @yV.
DyxLRiNTP INRP sVW[ NRPVLRiyRV `LRiWsV[ \|msmssVLi yL`i mx sRVRVLi[,
Rs\ZNP ysVgS s NRP[}qs sWyRV y F~RxmsLji, `LRiWsV[ dsxmsRVRVy NRPWy
RsNRPV ys[ s NRP[ryRV. @s @[][ g]xms %sxtsQRVLigRi RVyNTP VRVLiLRiV.
F~gRiR @sxqsLRis[VgSs, @j @ssxqsLRi\sVs F~gRiR H[ zms[ AR%saS*rysNTP RVV
@xLiys NRPVgRi[xqsVLij.
AsV @RgSLji gRiVLjiLi (@Li[ Rs yRVssV gRiVLjiLi)xmss sVsztsQ][ Rs R
RLjiLiRRLi N]RVNRPV %sLi[, RsV sVRsos xqsVsR\sVs Liys xqs*RWy Rs R[
RV xmsoRWsV %sryRV. BLi %sxtsQRWV sVsZNPLi][ s%sgS NRPsTy zms
sVsqx sR*Li RXuy A[}qs @%s |msR mx sLjisWs GLRiLRiVryLiVV.
ysVLij RVV BLi[ sLi [}qsxmsVRV lLi[TW[ FyxqsW soLi[ N]LiRLRiV
g]LiRV gS |Li A Fy][ NRPzms FyRVRVLiLRiV. zmsNTP xqsVyLRisVV BVsLi%s
BxtsQsVVLiRso. Rs R INRP R soLiys N][LRiVNRPVLilLi[ Rxms, _NRPLRiV zqsssW FyV

FyRVNRPVLiW BLiy LRigRiRLi yLjiNTPxtsQsVVLiRRV.


@lgi[ zmsV RsV RRLiT "{csWs'gS EzryLRiV. C zmsV |msR @LiVVs
RLS*R NRPWR @[ "{csWs' rysLi[ RLiT soLiRs AbPryLRiV. yNRPV zqss INRP
DyxLRi[ INRP 22 G @sWLiVV zqsqs[ sRW soLiRgS INRP @LiVV A
@sWLiVV sRVLi%dsVR LiVV s[zqs sgS gjiRV.
A @sWLiVV qs Axmso[zqs Fdqs}qstx sQsNRPV s A @LiVV%dsVR LjiFLjiLij. A
NRPVLRiyTs FdxqsVV BLiLSlgi[ [qx sVs qx ssVRVLi[, A @sWLiVV LiVVLiNTP Fns [zqsLij.
RLiT s A @sWLiVVs @sLijLi dxqsVNRPVsRV.
RWysNTP LiVVj y s %sxtsQRVLilgi[ NRPszmsLiRsRVgSds, ysVLij RLiRVV
C %sRLigS xmssLjiLiRLRiV. ""BRLiy sVsZNPLiRVNRPV..... G][ RW{qs RWRsV F[ qx sLjigRiy....''
@s RsV [RNSsRys qx ssVLjiLiRVNRPVLiLRiV. BVsLi RLiRV, NRPWRV N]RVNRPVW
s\sVs RLiRVVgS gRiVLjiLiR[LRiV.
ysVLij zmsNTP RsV RLiRVV RV%dsVR @sWLiVV{tsQ [xqsVLiRLi NSds,
NRP{ms sVVLi[xqsVNRPV[, sVWNRPV sVVNRPV NRPVxmsoRW \|ms \|ms sLiV [RVRLi gSds
LiVVxtsQsVVLiRRV. ys y "|mns%sV\ssgS' sosV %sryLRiV.
@gRis G mx sds RVNRPVLiy soy, RLiRV ORPQ%sVLiR[LRiV. FsNTPQzqs Lji}msL`i=,
%sLjigjis rysWss @NTPLiRRLi, \|msxmsoV gRiVRVRLi c BLisds RsV RLiRVV
[RVszqss mx ssVVgS %ds gRiVLjiryLRiV.
NRPWRVLRis RLiRVV ssZNP[xqsVNRPVLSsRLi, RVV RLi; @lgi[ RxmsV [zqssxmsVRV
N]RVNRPVs RVV ssZNP[xqsVNRPVLSsRLi, RLiRVV RLi sVLi xmsR. FsxmsV\y
szmsV G\y Rmx sV[zqss yLji mx sOSQs yjLisyLRiV JTFLiVVsVgS RWzms}qs, zmsV
RsVNRPV yRVLi LjigjisVgS %sryLRiV.
@Li[gSs, szms[\y RxmsV[}qs RRLiRVRLRiW "NRPzqs' RLi FyLRiLi}qs
ysVV INRPLRiW INRP\sxmsosV, RRLiRVRLRiW sVL][ \sxmsosV yLRiV @sVN]s[ xmssWRLi
soLij. sVVLi[ zmssV C %sxtsQRWds \|msNTP s%sgSs[ NRPsy zms sVsxqsV%dsVR |msR
xmsys RWzmsryLiVV.
RLi GLiLi[ zmsV RsV RLiRVs {L][gS EzLiRVN][LRiV. {L][ @Li[ y
D[aRPLi LRiLi%s, NRPXxtsQ sLjiNTP ylgi[aRP*LRiLSso c A xmsR[ EzLiRVN][sysNTP
BxtsQxmsRLRiV. INRP xqsLisNRPVsWL`i [NRP aRPLRi`V c @ TgjiQQ\|mns`gS soLiys N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV.
FsxmsV\[ RRLiRVV y zms sVVLiRV N]LiLi [NTPgS xmssLjiLiRRLi FyLRiLiryL][,
@xmsVRV y%dsVR g_LRisLi RgRiRLi FyLRiLisRVLij.

gRigS ss*RLi, RVV mszqsN`P s[xqsVN][sRLi, {qssqs ZNPV s[xqsVN]s LRi[


LRigRiLi c BsdszmsNRPV @LiRgS LRiVLiRso. C %sxtsQRWs yLRiV \NRPV
[xmsNRPFsRVgSs, sVsxqsV[ A {mnsLig`i sWRLi NRPVgRiVRWs[ soLiVLij. @[ %sRLigS INRP
mx ssLi[ N]RVNRPVgSds, NRPWRVLRiVgSds R][ NRPzqs "sWLjiLig`iu'NTP ssmx sVRV RVW
sos RVVsNRPVV R\sxmso RWzqs NSsVLi RVys NRPWy xqszLiR[LRiV.
@LiRVZNP[ INRP sRVr~yNRP zmsV RsV RV][ ILiLjigS \ LRigRiys
BxtsQxmsRLRiV. @[ %sRLigS RsV RLiRV][ NRPzqs ssxmsVRV, RLiT xmsLSLiVV {qsQsLiNRP
AaRPgSgSds, JLRigSgSs, NSLiORPQgS gSs RWRys zmsV gRisVsxqsWs[ soLiLRiV.
Bj yLjiNTP GsWRLi sRs %sxtsQRVLi. RLiT xmsssVsztsQ][ sWRLigSs, xmsNTP
ARy][ NSZOP[QxmsLigS NRPVLRiV xmsRLigSs zmsV gRisVsLiy yLji sVsxqsV
Rmx sRVRW soLiVLij. @LiRVs s %sRLi[ FsLiR [NTPgS xmssLjiLiy, RRLiRVV
NRPdsxqsLi zms sVVLiRV INRP RyRVVR\sVs g_LRisxmsR\sVs sQQNTPgS soLiRRLi RxmssxqsLji.

s[LRiVN][sRLi :
R gRiLRiLi sVLi \xmsRLi zmsyRV sVVsVVRryLji FyV ygRiVyRV. G
gRiVLRiVsp xmss xmsRsV %sR Bj. aS*xqsN][aRPLi LijLixms[zqs [ y*LS gS {msRLi @s[
xmsNTPRV FyV ygRisNTP DxmsWgRixmsRVRVLij. xmsNRPX gRiVLRiV\s [jxqsVLij.
yVNS%dsVR LiRVso FyZNP[ zmsyRV RsRVW sos sVsVxtsvsV RWzqs
lLiLiRV NS%dsVR sRysNTP xmsRVQryRV. RsNTP ANRPL<RiRV\sVs sxqsVso xms
]LiRLRigS xms%sRVRsoyRV. @LiRVZNP[ |msRy FsRVNRPVsxmsoRV [V[ NRPLi dryRV.
@sQFyxqss L][s zmsyRV LigSLRiV sxqsVso xmsVNRPVLi[ sW V N][aRP*LRiV_yRs
xqsLiLRixmsTFyLRiV RRLiRVV. @NRPRVs sxqsVso[ZNP LigSLRiLi F~jgjis LS
sVLRiVxqsW soLiLiVV. NS ysxms ANRPL<jiRVRsRLi[ @xqsxLi G%dsV [RV. %dsV zmsyRV
mx soxqsNRPLi mx sVN]s s[Vy%s @ysVNRPVLi[, ysNTP FsLRi @ s[RVLiT. |msR "gRiWLiy' @LiVV
RLS*R LSNUPRVyRVNRPVRV @sRVNRPVLi[, sV NRPNTP FsLRiLRiLigRiV xmspRVLiT.
sVsLi sVs BxtsQLi ss sWLRiLi[ zmsyT s slLi[bPLiRsRV @s[ysNTP Bj
sVLi DyxLRi. %dsV zmsyRV INRP sVLi \ss %sy*LixqsVRV @y*s %dsVNRPVLi[ lLiLi][
xqsLisR=LRiLi sVLi[ yT RVW A yysLRis NRPLiRLiT. (xmsoxqsNSsNTP FsLRi @
s[RVRLi LiRssW).

{qs RVs sRVxqsV=[, yTRVW, RRLiRV sVR FV, LSNRPVV,


\sRLRisj @sR\sxmso yysLRiLi soLi[ yT [[RFyRVxmso xqsVsR xXRRVLi A
sRVxqsV[s[ LSV[ %sRLi xms ssVNSs Fg]VNRPVLiRV. (NRPNTP FsLRiLRiLigRiV s[RVRLi
@ssW)
2 c 12 G sVR sVRRV xqsxqsaSsV ZOP[QQRLi ryLRisLiRLigS soLiVLij. G
%sRsLi s[}qs @[ sVsXORPQsRVLij. sVLi %sRysV FssVN][szqss RR
RRLiRV[.

sW RRLi :
R RLiRV][ xqs |msRy[%dsV s[LRiNRPFLiVVy zmsV G][ INRP sWRysVs[
yxmsRRVLi[ soLiLRiV. ysVLij |msRy zms][ sW[xmsVRV zmsgS
sWys xmsRVxqsW soLiLRiV. Bj ryxqsRLigS soLiLRiV.
@xmsV[ C xmsxmsLiRLi[NTP ss RNRPWy xqs*szqsRLigS FyV ygRiRLi
s[LRiVNRPVsQ[, N]LiR sRVr~[xqsLjiNTP sWV, ys "FsN`P=|msqs' RVRLi @s[%s
zmsNTP VxqsW soLiLiVV. |msjsVV, yVNRP, xms, VgRiV %dss sVR xqsLi{mnsVsLi
xqs*s zqsRLigSs[ NRPVgRiVRVLij.

INRP sQQNTP RsV sos xms[aRPLi sVLi s[lLi[ LSuysNTP s, s[lLi[ xtsQ sWRszqs
ssmx sVRV FsLiR NRPtx s QxmsRy][, @lgi[ N]Rg S tx sQ s[LiR VN][s ysNTP mx szqszmsyRV NRPWy
@Li[ NRPxtsQxmsRyRV.
ys xqsVRLRiLi RVysNTP RRLiRVV xmsRVxqsW soLiy. zms[
s[LRiVN][ys[ AxqsNTP FsNRPVs sosxmsV[ yNTP A RW %sxtsQRWV s[LRiRLi ysVLij.
N]LiRsVLij RVV, zmsV Fss%sV][ NSxqsV RRVsoRVy y[ ryN`P= ]RgRiRLi, tx sw
sRVRLi Li%s [qx sW soLiLRiV.
C %sRLigS zms RsV %dsVR AyLRixms[ [xqsVN][sRLi y*LS yNRP %sR\sVs
gRiLS*s F~LiRVRW soLiLRiV. zmsyRV RsV %dsVR AyLRixmsRVRVyRV @s[ ys
RRLiRVV FsLiR ]LiRLRigS sRVVNRPVLi[ @LiR ]LiRLRigS zmsV RsV
xqs*RVLixmsxmss AFyjLiRVNRPVLiLRiV.
"s[sV [NRPF[ sWy]NRP xmsds [xqsVN][[RLiU' @s gRiLRi*LigS xmsVN]s[
RVVyLRiV. @Li[ A R BLi\lLiNPR VgS Rs N]RVNRPVs INRP sLki*LRiV gS
RRWLRiV[rLiRssW.
xmsj, xmssLi[ sRVxqsV[ zmss J xmsjL][FyV RWLRiLigS soLiRRLi y*LS
NRPWy RRLiRVV @Rs VVNRP sQQNTPR*Li RV xmsxmsLiRLi[ VxqsVN]s[
RVysNTP ][xRxmsRVRVLij.

WLjiLi :
zms FsLiR ssRVxqsV[ %ds\[ @LiR s sRVxqsV[ LiVVLisVLi FsxqsL<Ris=
LRiW}ms, WL`i= LRiW}ms RVNTP xmsLizmsLiRRsVs[j y AaRPLRiNRPLRi\sVs %sxtsQRVLi.
RRLiRVsVLi RWLRiLigS soLiRLi s yNTP RRLiRV VVNRP %sVs }qs
@sNSaRPLi soLij.
@kNSNRP, N]R xmsLjizqsRV[ N]R sNRPV][ Fs sVgSs[j NRPWy zmsNTP
@ysoRVLij. xms Gyk s[qx s%s aRPso[ zmss yRRV LiVVLiN][, yRVssV
LiVVLiN][ xmsLizmsLiRRLi NSNRPVLiy, G[y RWLRiFyLiyNTP xmsLizmssLiVV[, A FyLiy
qx sLixqsQX, uy, mx sLjizqsRVV @ds @sgRiRsyLiVV.
G[y NRPxtsQsVVsxmsVRV RsV NS%dsVR ysVV sT xqs*LiR sLRiRW y*LS A
NRPuys @jgRi%sVLiRRLi V @s[ %sxtsQRVLi NRPWy VxqsVLij. Bj FsLi][ sVVQ\sVs
%sxtsQRV\sVy ysVLij RRLiRVV ks gRiVLjiLiRLRiV. zmsy sj[ yNRPR
RzmsFy][, [NRPF[ Ljigji LS[sW @s RWV y soLiLiVV.

sVVLiRV RRLiRVV RsV RW @jgRi%sVLiy. s[sV zqsssW[ {qsQs}ms y}qs


L][[ R%sVLi s[LRiVNRPVLiysVs xmsoxqsNSV N]sVNRPVs sVWRV sV NRPxtsQxmsysV. yZNP[%dsV
LS[RV NSds, sVyxqsV[ lLiLiRV sV soLiRszqs ssxmsVRV, @NRPR y xqsx
%sVRV][\s[s[%sV, @NRPRVs sNRPV][ @LiVV[s[%sV RxmssxqsLjigS R%sVLi[
sWRszqss @sxqsLRiLi sLij. A @sxqsLRis[V yNRPV N]jgS R%sVs s[LjiLij.
FsxmsV\y xqslLi[ sVsztsQNTP @sxqsLRiLi NRPy %sVLis gRiVLRiVs[%dsV [RV. y xmsj}[
sRVxqsV[, NSNTPyR zms.AL`i NS[[ RRVsoRW sosxmsVRV s[sV NRPyNRPVsWLji sVLi
NSbdPL`i sLRiNRPW WL`i s[[sV.
INRP |qsxtsQ LiVVs[ ALiRxms[a`PNTP xqsLiLijLis sVWRVsLiR sVLij
%syLRiV][ NRPzqs @ WL`i sRLi y %sRLi[ @j g]xms sVVQ\sVs xqsLixmnsVs. @j
y %dsVR yNRPV ssVNSs |msLiLij. @NRPR sVsNTP \Li @[VxqsLjiNTP [yNTP
FssLRiWzmssLRiV.
sVso* sLis[ rysLi LiVV [NRPF[ dsLiRso @s Fss*LRiW |RLjiLiRLRiV.
[V[ RV[sW y RNRPVsgS soLiLiVV. RVW sos xmsLjizqsRVV sWZNP[sWRLi
qx sLiLiRLi [s%s, @LRiLiNSs%s. BVsLi mx sLjizqsRV[ sW @sqx sLSV s[VsVV mx spLji
[xqsVNRPVLiW, xmsRWLi rygjiLiRRLi y[ INRP yLjiyRNRP\sVs sQQNTPR*xmso sWLRiVNTP
][xRxmsTLij.
BW, xqsWV, sVd BW @s[ NSNRPVLiy C %sRLigS ][ sNRPV][ NRPzqs
xmsRWLi [xqsVLi[ %sVgRiy NRPVLRiy sQQNTPR*Li y ExV, yV @ds VxqsVNRPVs[
@sNSaRPLi NRPWy szmsNTP xqsVLij.
INRP zmsyRV qx sLixmspLRiQ\sVs sQQNTPR*Li qx sLiFyjLiRVN][yLi[ RRLiRVV @Rsxms
RsVNRPVs }mssVs N]LiLi RgjiLiRVN][szqs soLiVLij. @lgi[ @RRV Rs%dsVR
AyLRixmsRys NRPWy RgjiLiRVNRPVs[ [RVszqs soLiVLij.
@LiVV[, sVLjiN]s |msR LiVV[ NRPsVbPORPQ }msLRiV][ A zms gjiLjigkizqs @LiRV[
soLiRVyLRiV. @RsN]NRP xqsxmslLi[ gRij, %sTgS INRP `LRiWLi LiVV @ds %sTgS ZNP[LiVVryLRiV.
ZNP[sLi [sLi [}qs qx ssVRVLi[[, LSxmsp .%ds. RW}qs \sV[[ sWRs[V NRPVVLi
xqsVLiRLRiW NRPVxqsVNRPVLiLRiV. C %sRLigS RVRLi ss @RRV }mssVLSzRLi[NTP
jgRisRV. BLi %sxmsLkiR ][LRi NRPWy @sVxqsLRiRVLi NSRV.

qx sW :
zms ry*RLiRQLi %dsVR xqsLji\Vs @sgSxs [s xqsW RLRiV y yLRiVLigS
xmssLjixqsW soLiRV. dgS {msLji`= sos \Li[ [%dsVR s[Vs[qx sVN]s NRPW][sVsRLi, mx s[
xms[ "\|qss=', "\|qss=' @s @LRisRLi LiVVsds sWszqsNRPLigS zms dzqs ys
"BLisL`iQ='s [ryLiVV.
zmss RLRiRW N]RLi y*LS y[s xqsVsRy*s RLRiV RLi}msxqsW soLiRV.
INRP NRPy, INRP sW y*LS zmss sWLRiRLi y xqsVLi. zms[ [s "NRPVLi'
@s[ ys N]LiRsVLij RlLi[ FsRWxmsRLi a][RdsRVLi. B[ %sRLigS RVs zms
INRPgRi, RV[s zms INRPgRi RWRLi NRPWy sVLij NSRV.
RsV qx sW sVLi FsNRPVssVLij Fyxqsys D[aRPLi][ mx sLkiORPQ[ ys[V xmsoxqsNSV
@LiRRVRLi, NS{msN]y RW{qs c RWRsV ELRiVN][sRLi c Bsds zms[ qx ssWLixms
INRP @g_LRis\sVs sLi LSsysNTP ][LRiRyLiVV. @LiRLRiW RV [qx sVyLRiV, RVgS
soLi[s[ %sRLi[ \|msNTP LSgRiLi @s[ sLi zms sVsxqsV[ LSNRPVLiy RVysNTP RlLi[
y NRPxtsQxmsRszqs soLiVLij.
RVLRiRXxtsQsaSRW sVs qx ssWLi[ qx sW= ZNP[sLi RRVso sWRs[V [jqx sVyLiVV.
}%sRVL`i \|qss=, sVsztsQ xmssLRis, @Rs[ soLi[ {sRV F[V RVLi c
@Li mx ssV[%ds [mx sso.
DyxLRiNTP INRP NRPVLRiyRV %sxmsLkiR\sVs Bs{mnsLjiRWLji NSLi|msN`P=][ RxmsRVRW
soLi[, A Rs Fg]ysNTP G %sRsVLiVVs xmsRVRLi RVLRiV. yLji RR A
xqsLisR=LRiLi zqsqss xmspLjiRVRLi sWRs[V. @LiRVNRPs RRLiRVV zmss ZNP[sLi
xqsWNTP xmsLixmsRLi][s[ RsV RR dLjiFLiVVLiRsVN][NRPVLiy, yLji[ BUNRPXR\sVsos
{sRsV gRiVLjiLi, ys FyLRi][[ xmsRVRLi RW.
sVLi FyhRiNRPVRLiVV[, LRiRLiVVR yNSs, r~gRixqsVs, xmsy gSLRiUs @LRiLi [xqsVN]s
Ary*jLiRgRiRV. LRiRLiVVR }ms ys @LRiLi [xqsVN]s, Rs sVRRV F~LRi[ sOTPQxmsLi
[xqsVN][gRiRV. @lgi[ sVLi FyhRiNRPVRV NSsyRV LRiRLiVVR FsLiR g]xmsgS LSzqss
xmsoxqsNS\sQy xqslLi[ RVyxmsLigSs[ RRVsoyRV.
C \sVFyqsNRPV Rjs[ RRVso sVsqx sVNUP, sVRRVNUP FsNRPRV. INRPs[ sVsqx sVNTP FsNTPy
@j ZNP[sLi LRirysVWs sWRs[V NRPgjixqsVLij. @[ %sRLigS %syLiR VV s sRVxqsV[
xqsWV xmsoxqsNSs ZNP[sLi xmsRLi y*LS G%dsV ryjLiR[RV. ysss xmsWsLi
soLiRRV NRPWy.
sVVLigS NRPV, zmnsN`P= sVVRgRiV xqsN`PQ=[ RNRPVs sWLRiVV s[ yLRiV C

N][sNRPV LiRVyLRiV. yLRiV INRP NRP As=L`i qx sLiFyjLiRysNTP yss G\sxmso sVLiT
FsRVL][y @s A[LiRRLi RV[LRiV. C xmsRLi @s[j s s NSxqsV[
ryRsVsoRVLi[sWgSs, gSRV[VxtsQs ryLiVVN][xqsLjiNTP xqsNRPV= y %sxqsXRLigSs
DLiRLis, @xmsNTP sRVxqsV |msLjigji sVRRV VVNRP rL`i [qx sVNRPVs[ aRPNTP RgjiFsRLi s
y LiVVLiRVNRPV gRiVLRisoyLRiV.
|msR FyhSs, FyhSLiaSs gRiVLRiV|msVN][szqs ssmx sVRV, ys sVVNRPV
sVVNRPVgS [zqs INRP ALRiL`i[ }msLRiVN]s, ZNP[sLi FyLiVVLi= sWRs[V gRiVLRiV |msVN]s mx sLkiORPQ
[ ys %sZaP[ztsQLi LSRVLi @sj @sNRPy DRsV \sVs xmsR . B s s
FyLiVVLiVgS gRiVLRiVLiRVN][sLi s, @j sVs %sRNSLi sVVRLi gRiVLRiVLi[
@sNSaRPsVVLiVLij.
FsxmsV\y xqslLi[ INRP sVsztsQ Rs s%sRLi[ \|msNTP LSyLi[, RLRiLi y @sxqsLRiLi.
C xqsys NRPV, zmnsN`P= [jryLiVV. DyxLRiNTP [ds, y Rj%ss @sWLiVV,
RLS*R LiNRPV[ NSztsQRVL`i @LiVV @N_Li= LSxqsVLij.
18c20 G sVR[ \|qssV= RRVsoNRPVs @sWLiVVds, @LiVVds
xmsLjibdPLisLiVV[ ANRPV {qs*NRPLjixqsW [y NRPxmss N][xqsW .Fs{qs=. xmspLji[ryLRiV. s
%sRLi[ ysVLijNTP @%s G %sRLigSsW DxmsWgRixmsRso.
NRPVNTP, ymsNTP [y RVs gSRV[VW, FsNTPQzqs V Fs NRP[ RVs
%syLjids %syLRiVW xmsjsVLij sVVLiRV sWRszqss}qs RR[ NRPVLRiy sVsNTP
y][ NRPszmsxqsW soLiLRiV. xqsW[ xmss BVsLi %sxtsQRWds RRLiRVZNP[
RRgS s[LS= soLiVLij.
y sVLij RLiRVV @xqsV zmsV GLi RRVsoRVyLRis[j xmsLiRVN][LRiV.
LSxmsV][ xmsj gRiLiNTP BLiN] xmsRVN][sRLi, F~RVs A{mnsxqsVNTP sRLi, sVd
ryRVLiyV NRPNTP sRLi %ds jsRLRi. RVVNRPWy G AL][RLRigRisLRiN][, Fss%sV][
RLRigRi sLRiN][ aRPRgS Rj%sLi, A RLS*R JzmsNRP [NRP %sT |ms[ryLRiV.
xqsLjigS C sRVxqsV[ zmsV, INRPryLji BLixmsLjijsVLi RVxmsT LRigRiRs[V }qs*R
@sVN]s[ sVsqx sR*Li[ soLiLRiV. @xmssVLiT RRVso%dsVR yLjiNTP BLiqs RgjiFRVLij.
zms RRVso RR[ RLiRV[ FsNRPVs aRPR dxqsVN][y. NRPdsxqsLi yVgRiVL][
N]NRPry\lLiy zmss RgjiLRi NRPWL][VNRPVs, A yVgRiV L][V GLi RjyL][ xmsaRPV s[}qs
@RsV INRP %sR\sVs RVLi][ RRVsoxms aRPR RWxmsoyRV.
FsNRPWxtsQs NSLizmsxtsQs=, yxqsLRiRs FV sVVRLiVVs%s zms[ soLi[ @LiRLRiR
RWs Fg]yLiVV. RLRiV zmss BVsLi F[ FssLjiNTP BLiqs @LiVV[ yLRiV

}msLjis*LiT @sNRPVLiy NRPdsxqsLi %sVgRiy zmsNTP s[jNRP %dsVRN] lLiLiRV sVWRV s%sVuyV
sW[ @sNSaRPLi NRPLiy.
szmsNTP gRiWms TxqsxtsQs= GLRiLRiRRLi y*LS NRPWy y[ soLi[ NSLi|msN`P=s
Fg]sRV. ysVLij sNRPV sVsLi gRisVsLisLiVV[, y 30 G gRiTy
NRPWy RsV sVsxqsV[ sos ys sLRiRVLigS @sRyNTP @LRiLi @[V Lki[
xms[LRiV. BLi NSLi|msN`P=V soLiRsNTP NSLRiLi, szmsVgS sosxmsVRV yNTP
DRsV\sVs bPORPQ [NRPFsRs[V.

zms \sxmsosVLi A[LiRLi :


zmsV G\sVy xmsyV gS sWRNRPF[ ys xqsLjijRsRV Rxms, yV
qx sLjigS [NRPF[ ys sLis[ qx sLjijRNRPVLiy yLji\sxmsosVLiT A[Li, @%s NRPlLiN`P @LiVVs[
NS[ sVsLi sLRiLiVVLiRVN][y.
sVsLi FsxmsV\y }msNRP sVVNRP][ zmsRgRiLRi s[VRNRP RWzms}qs A Fyxms RgRiLRiN] A
s[VRsV NRPW %dsV \sxmso RWzqs sso*RVLij. sVd %dsVLRiV s[VR NRPy A Fyxms Ljigji yss
NRPWg]RVRVLij. @Li[ %dsVNRPV s[VRNRPRLi[ sos AsLiRLi A FyxmsNTP ysLi
[RVRLi[ soLij.
C %sRLigS szms[ sVsVVNRP ys ]LiRLRigS {qs*NRPLjiLiRNRPFsRLi @s[
gRiVLi soLiVLij. zms sVsqx sR * aSxqsQs[R V xmsos xmsNSLRiLi, szmsV G mx s\sy
ysVV RVgRiLi @sVNRPVLiLRiV. NSds sRVxqsV |msLjilgi[N]k ysVV VxqsVNRPVsj y
RNRPVs @s VxqsVNRPVLiLRiV. @LiVV[ N]LiRsVLij sRVxqsV |msLjigjiy NRPWy, G xms\sy ysVV
RVgRiLi @s[ (sV) sWszqsNRP ryLiVV[s[ soLiLRiV.
RsV @FyRVLi Rxmss, RsVNRPy zqss yLiLRis[ %sR xqsys
VxqsVN][sysNTP INRP sVsztsQNTP y DsR\sVs sWszqsNRP ryLiVV soLiy. ysVV [zqsLij
y NRPlLiN`P @s sVsVxtsvV @sVN][sysNTP INRP sVLi DyxLRi sW \lLiL`i= sL`iuyms.
sLiR sWs LRiRLiVVR ()[ xqsXyRNRPaRPNTPs |msLiF~LijLi, yTs LRiRLiVVRVgS
dLjijRVysVs s[V sVVNRP sL`iuyms |msLi.
@NRPRN]s ysVLij NRPVLRiy, @sWLiVVV ysVV yzqsLij sWNRPV RWzms}qs
ys s[VsVV sVRVNRPVLi[ qx slLi[qx sLji...... INRPs[ ys s[VsVV jj[..... s[Vs[V][ |msR
F~LRiFyV [aSsVs sW\sxmso gS[, N][xmsLigS[ RWxqsW soLiLRiV. y LSzqsLij
xmsNRP ryLiVV[ [Rs gSs [y y ys FyhRiNRPVV @LRiLi [xqsVN][[LRisgSs s[VLi
}ms y ryLiVVNTP s[VsVV FsRgRi[RsVgS %sryLRiV.

C %sRLigS RsV%dsVR RsVNTP FsNRPVs ssVNRPLi soLiRLi @s[j szms[ y


FsNRPVsgS NRPsRVRVLij. sVsLi A ssVNSsNTP FsVsLi N]NRPVLiy ys xqsLji\Vs
mx sLiy[NTP sWLRiVN][szqs soLiVLij. @ NSNRPVLiy @xqsV %dsVZNP[%dsV [RNSRV. %dsVlLi[%dsV
LSRV[LRiV @s s[VLi @Li[ BNRP A sL`iuymsNTP y LSsLi sWs[ryLRiV. @lgi[
szmsNTP NRPWy dsZNP[Li [RNSRV, sVso* [xqsVsj RxmsV @s RLRiRW @LiW INRP ""Ulgi[
AW`'' s sms [xqsW BLiN`P [}qs, N]LiRNSsNTP y xmspLjigS sVs sW
%ssRLi sWs[RVRsW, y[ y NRPVLiLiRVNRPVFsRsW LRiVgRiVRVLij.
RRLiRVV FsLiR gRiRgS sVLigS dLjijjy xqslLi[, zmsV ys[
sWLRiRLRi+NRPVVgS FssVNRPVLiLRis xmsysNTP %dsV[RV. ryyLRiLigS szmsV RsV
LiVV[, sWsVRV[ sWLRiRLRi+NRPVVgS FssVNRPVLiLRiV. @LiRV[ R}msLi [RV
NRPWy. FsLiRVNRPLi[ RsV NRPy sRVxqsV[ y |msRyLiVVs RRLiRV][
NRPsVWsZNP[xtsQs GLRiLRiRVN][sysNTP, zmsV ryyLRiLigS @LiR Dy=xLi RWzmsLiRLRiV.
zmsV sVVR Fss%sVj, mx sj qx sLisR=LSsLRiNRPW RsV R RLiRVs C
xmsxmsLiRLi[ZNP @RLiR s[VysoVgS, g]xmsygS ygRisVWLRiVVgS %sxqsW soLiLRiV.
NSds, A sRVxqsV ys RLS*R RRLiRVV NRPWy rysWs sVsVxtsv[ss y
@LiRLjilgi[ @yRVRW soLiLRis, RLiRVV LiyV dxqsVNRPVLiW soLiLRis, R
%sVgRiy {qsQlgi[ xmssLjixqsW soLiVLiRs gRiVLjiLiRRLi sVVRV|msRyLRiV.
@LiRVss zms 8 c11 sVR sRVxqsV=[ RRLiRVV y gRiRgS
xmssLjiLiRszqs soLiVLij. zmsNTP 14 G s[xqsLjiNTP xmsxmsLiRLi @Liy gRiVLij, y[s[
G][ T|mnsNRPV soLij @s ss ryLiVV[ soLiLRiV. @xmsVRV y[ INRP sWszqsNRP s
|msLiRysNTP RRLiRVV xmsRVLiy.
xmsj}sV, xmsRlLi[ ys RLS*R zmsNTP xmsxmsLiRLi @Liy gRiV[RV s[NRP[
(s[NRPys[) g]xmsy, y[ y %s[VyLiVV @s[ sLi GLRiRVRVLij.
BVsLi xmsLjizqsRV[ y @sNTP FsVsLi RgRiNRPVLiy ys gRiRgS sVd
yLji[NTP dxqsVNRPV LSys soLiVLij.
sRVxqsV |msLjilgi[N]k zms[ s[ sWLRiVV NRPWy gRisVRVgS soLiLiVV.

xmssLi[ NRPVLRiyRV, xmsRLRiVsVLi BLRi\s[V NRPVLRiy][ NRPzqs LRigRiysNTP


Dy=xxmsRyLRiV. @RRV RsNRPy syLiVVs Fss%sVj, mx sj qx sLisR=LS zms][
ARVN][sysNTPgSs, LRigRiysNTPgSs BxtsQxmsRRV. BLixmsV[ RsNRPy |msRyLiVVs
}qszRVsV gSs, sWsVRVsV [y VsVgSs AaRPLiVVryRV. @[ sVsxqsR*Li
sVVxqsy[ NRPWy NRPszmsxqsVLij.
DyxLRiNTP s\ [V ys sQQNTP FyZNP[ RVVsNRPVT][ NRPzqs NSLi
gRiRmx sysNTP Dy=xLi RWzmsryRV. @LRi\s[V sVVxqsyRV mx sj[xmso NRP][
ARVN][sysNRPV Dy=xLi RWzmsryRV. BgRi sRVxqsV[ s[ sWLRiVV RsV qx sxRLRiV
sRVxqsV= %dsVR y AyLRixmsT soLiLiVV.
RRLiRVV zms[s[ C sWLRiVs gRiVLjiLiRszqssoLiVLij. BVsLi
xmsLjizqsRV[s[ zms }qszRVV FssLRiV @s[ %sxtsQRWs NRPWy RRLiRVV mx sLjigRi[NTP
dxqsVN][szqs soLiVLij.
R NRPLi|msds[ LRiVgRiVRVs N]RVNRPVs sLis[ xqsLjijRVN][szqs soLiVLij.
FsLiRVNRPLi[ C sRVxqsV= INRP sxqsys "j'gS %srylLi[ Rxms, @j %sxtsQRV[ RsVs
FyRV [xqsVLiRs EzLiR[LRiV.
DyxLRiNTP sVgRiVLRiV }qszRV[ INRP NRPVLRiyRV zqsgRilLi ygRiNRPVLiy %sVgRiy
sVVgRiVLRiW zqsgRilLiV, sVRVxmsyLSV dxqsVN]s[ sNRPVQ\[ A NRPVLRiy y y [NRPgS
RVNRPsgS RWryLRiV.
"zqsgRilLi NRPWy ygRi[so BLiZNPLiRVNRPV mx ssN]rysoLS' @LiW RLRiRW zms F~RVxqsW
soLiLRiV. @xmsVRV RRLiRV[ A NRPVLRiyT][ sVLi NRPsVWsZNP[xtsQs GLRiLRiRVN]s
"zqsgRilLi ylgi[yTNRPy, ygRisy[ g]xmsyRV. dsNRPV NSxqsV[ mx nsqx sV sqx sVsj NS ssV
Rg]ysNTP, y[NTP ssV N][sysNTP xmsRVRLi [xqsVyLRiV' @s xmsgRigji[ A
NRPVLRiyRV RxmsNRPVLiy @LRiLi [xqsVNRPVLiRV. xmsRlLi[ NRPVLRiyT sVsxqsV @RLiLij.
FsRVLRiVgS G sxqsVso |msT[ @[ xmsLixqsVLij.
@lgi[ @sWLiVV[ NRPWy, A @sWLiVV RVW sos @sWLiVVLiRLjiNUP
[V|mnsLi`= soLi[, RsNUP INRP [V|mnsLi` [NRPFss[V Rs @sORPQLigS %sVLi[
@sNSaRPLi soLij. @[ %sRLigS }qszRV[ gS RVsyRV, INRP NSLRiVs NSs, xqsWL`i
gSs sVLiVVLi\s [}qs, %dsV NRPVLRiyRV RsNRP%s [NRPFsys Rs RLiT [RNSsRsLigS
%sLi[ xmssWRsVVLij. @LiRVs sLRiLiRLRiLi %dsV zms VVNRP }qsxXLiys %dsVLRiV
gRisVsLiRszqs soLiVLij.

RRVso :

RRVso @Li[ xqsWZNPRLi, FyhSV RRsRLi NSRs sVVLi[ xmsRLi LjigjiLij.


s zms[ H.NRPW. |msLiRysNTP RRLRiLigRiLi INRP sVLi A. @[ %sRLigS sL`iQ= Lig`i,
TORPQsLki RRsRLi c BLi%s NRPWy szms %s[s |msLiRysNTP qx sRVxmsRyLiVV.
F~RVs[ [s RLS*R RsV xmsNRPV dsVgS xqsLji|msVN][sRLi, gRijs aRPVLigS
soLiRVN][sRLi, Rs ds Rs[ RWsV[ |msVN][sRLi, xmsoxqsNSV xqsLiR VN][sRLi c Bsds
NRPWy RRVso[ZNP[ sryLiVV.
RRVso %sysNTP AyLRi\sV[, BLi RRVso RRVsoZNP[ ALRisRVLij. INRP
LRiNRPLigS RW}qs AVNRPVy RRVso[ gRis[V. NUPRV, xqsLigkiRLi, ys=, ysW Bsds
zmsV LjiNRP=sysNTP xqsRVxmsRyLiVV.
%dsVLRiV gRisVsLi RWRLiT. G[y INRP NRPmx s Dy=xLi sos zmsyRV %sVgRiy
zmsygS, L][R NRPWR[ sT sWRRLi, lgi[V xmsVN]s }qszRV][
sWRLi [RVRV. RRV\ss RLS*R Rs NRP[ ssVgRisyRV.
@Li[gSNRP, G\y INRP NRP[ Fy%dsLi sos INRP NRPVLRiyRV, G NRP[sW xmss[aRPLi [s
yNRPLi[ qx sW[ FsNRPVs sWLRiVV qx sLiFyjryRV. NS G\s INRP ALRiV[ %dsV
zmsyTs xmss[aRP# |msT[ yRV RRsysNTP \sVVLiR[sW, @LiRVs sWLRiVV xqsLjigS
LSs[sWss RVLi @ssxqsLRiLi.
G zmsLiVVy Rjs[j, sVsxqsVNTP FsNTPLiRVNRPVs[j ZNP[sLi lLiLiRV sVWRV gRiLiV
sWRs[V. %sVgRiy \sVLiy dgS soLi[NRPy INRP AL`i[ xmss[aRP# |msT[ FsNRPVs xmsWsLi
soLiVLij.
RRVsoNRPV xqsLiLijLis %sxtsQRW[ NSNRPVLiy zmsNTP y FyxmsLiNRP %sxtsQRW[
@sVsWyxqsVLiLiVV. yNTP JLRiVgS qx ssWysLi LiVVs*szqss RR RRLiRV[.
BNRP]NRP gRisVRLiVVs %sxtsQRVLi GLiLi[, zms[\y xmsbPQ}qs, ysNTP qx ssWysLi
RRLiRVNRPV RVNRPF[, sLis[ y @j VxqsVN][szqssLiR FysVVLi
[sRsVgS "ds ZNPLiRVNRPVLS FLiVV RRVsoN][' @[ [y "BLi @ssxqsLRi
%sxtsQRWLiRVNRPVLS' @sgSds ][zqsxmsoRysNTP xmsRVxqsW soLiLRiV.
Bj y yLRiV\sVs %sxtsQRVLi. RsVNTP RVNRPF[ zms][ NRPzqs G xmsoxqsNS[
sNTP RWzqs VxqsVN][sysNTP xmsRVLiy. @Li[NSs, ZNP[sLi RsVNRPV RVNRPFsRLi
s A %sxtsQRWs FysVVR [sjgS ][zqsxms[RVNRPWRRV.
ysVLij zmsV N]s ZNP[gjiLkiqs[NTP sLRiV. gRiLRi*Li gRi y, xqsVsR
xXRRVVW, RsV%dsVR RsVNTP FsNRPVs ssVNRPLi sosy, RsV%dsVR RsVNTP xqsV
ssVNRPLi [sy, xms s %sxtsQRWs |msRjgS RW}qsy, |msR %sxtsQRWs NRPWy

RVLRiRXxtsQNRPLRi\sVs %sxtsQRVLi GLiLi[ ysVLij RRLiRVNTP RsV zmsV G


ZNP[gjiLji[NTP sL][ dRV. VxqsVN][sysNTP xmsRVLiRLRiV NRPWy. @ NSNRPVLiy RsV
zmsxms RsV LjiRWORPQs G %sRLigS soLiy @s[j xmsd RLiU A[LiRVN][szqs soLij.
INRP zmsyRV ysLiy][ VxqsVN]s[ @sNSaRPLi GsWRLi [RVNSds, FsLi][
sRVxqsV=LiT, FsLi][ @sVssVVs RRLiRVV NRPWy RsV zmsLiy, yxms
ysV xmssLjiLiy @sj VxqsVN][NRPFsRLi y yLRiV\sVs xmsLjizqs.
y xqsVsRsVLiVVs NRPVLRiyRVLi[, yRV xqsWsVLi @LRigRiLi AxqsLigS s}qs
NSLRiLi NRPWy VxqsVN][NPR VLiy A zmsyTs RLi[ yRV ARxR [qx sVN]s[ xmssWRLi
NRPWy soLij. A zmsyRV VLiy][ VxqsVN][ys[ RR %dsV[ Rxms,
RVFy=s RR %dsV zmsyTj NSRV.
INRP RQ\sVs zmsyTs LiVVs*RLi y*LS %dsVNRPV [soLi][ xqsRVLi [aSRV.
@Rs xXRRWs LiRLjisV [}qs %dsVLRiRsNTP ][xLi [ryLRiV. C %sxtsQRVLi %dsVLRiV xqsy
gRiVLRiVLiRVN][y.
BLiN]LiRLRiV zmsNTP, RsVNRPV ys[V [jLiRVNRPVs RRVsoN]s[ gRiVLi soLiVLij. Bj
y g]xms ORPQLi. ys RLi}msRVysNTP %dsVLRiV NRPWy xmsRVLiRNRPWRRV. DyxLRiNTP,
INRP \|qss=FyhSs NRPVLRiyRV Rj%s, @LRiLi [xqsVN]s, yss Ljigji Rs\s Lki[ LS}qs c
xmsoxqsNRPLi[ DsRVsVgS VLiRVNRPV LSRV[Rs RLiTLiRNRPWRRV.
C RVLRiVLi RRLiRV[s[ NSNRPVLiy RLRi[ NRPWy NRPsRVRVLij. FsxmsV\y
xqslLi[ INRP NRPVLRiyRV, INRP %sxtsQRWs @LRiLi [xqsVN][sysNTP xmsRVQ}qs @j ""NRPLihRiy |ms
gRiVLRiVLiRVNRPVs[ ysNRPy'' VNRPVs NSLi gRiVLRiVLiVLij.
%dsV zmss %dsVLRiV @xmsVRxmsVRV \LkiNTP dxqsVNRPVsRVLiy. xmsoxqsNRP xmsxmsLiRLi
qx ssVVRsVLiR g]xmsj @s %sxtsQRVLi szms sVsxqsV=[ y[, @j |msRRWNRP yNTP
y xqsRVLi [xqsVLij.
%dsVNRPVs @LRiVRV[NTP %dsV zmsysV dxqsVZNPgRigji[, @Li[ %dsV][FyV \LkiNTP,
gRiVTNTP, FyLRiVNUP, zqsssWNTP dxqsVNRPVs %dsV NSLRiNRPsW[ %dsV zmsy NRPVy gRiry*%sVs
[}qs, %dsV mx s %dsV zmsyRV AFyRVRs |msLiRVNRPVLiRV.
ysVLij RRLiRVV zqsssWNTP ssxmsVRV gSs, [y |mnsLi`= BLiNTP
TsL`iNTP ssxmsVRV gSs zmss RsV @RsWsV RgRiL][, RRLiRV RgRiL][ sj[xqsW
soLiLRiV. B RVRLiss zmsNTP "s[VsL`i=' s[LRiRLi @s[j LRigRiNRPFgS, %dsV sVLi
y s[LRis[ ys y[ NRPVgRi[qx sVyLRissW. %dsVLRiV RVs*sLi[ soLiT, %dsV
zmsV sygS sosxmsVRV, %dsV sVLi s[LRiV @s[ sLi %dsVLki %sRLigS NTP[V[}qs, %dsV

@xmsVRV ZNP[sLi %dsV @y L][gSsNTP %dsV zms[ RV][ xqsLiRXzmsxmsT %dsVLRiV gRiRmx ssj
soLiVLij.

BxmsVRV %dsV zms N][xqsLi Rs[* xmsoyj "}mssV' @LiVV[. %dsV RLS*R %dsV
zmsV %dsVNTP[ sLi "AFyRVR'.
zms[ sos Dy=s xmssgRiVN]s RLi|msRVRLi RRgS N]LiRsVLij %sxqsW
soLiLRiV. FyhRi xmsoxqsNSV NSNRPVLiy %sVgRiy xmsoxqsNSV Rjs[ @yVs zms
"FsLiRVNRPVLS A FyRV mx soxqsNSV RRsRLi' @s @sRLi y*LS y[ Dy=s RLi}msxqsW
soLiLRiV.
sW |mnsLi` NRPWRVLjiNTP H[LiLiVV. s[sV yLSsN][ryLji yLiNTP sLisV.
A Fyxms "@LiNRPV' "@LiNRPV' @LiW y RgRiLRiN]xqsVLij. A sVR RLRiRVgS A Fyxms [[
G][ INRP xmsoxqsNRPLi soLi[j. RRsysNTP ssV | RVsVs @Tlgi[j. BRLRiLi rFny[
NRPWLRiVs Rjs[yLi. @LiRV[ sV][ xqs }msLRiVLi[%s.
RRVsoRW sWRLi s[LRiVN][ysNTP A mx soxqsNRPLi gS DxmsWgRimx s[j. @j BLigkitx sv
RLiRsWsV. sVVR[ A FyxmsNTP ys Fs RRy[, Fs @LRiLi [xqsVN][y[ }qsj
NSRV. s[sV N]jN]jgS zLi= B[yTs.
A Fyxms ssVjgS @LRiLi [xqsVN]s, y AaRPLRiNRPLRiLigS INRP xqsLisR=LRiLi Ljilgi[
xqsLjiNRP A @sWLiVV xqs*LiRLigS A BLigkixtsv RLiRsWsVs RRsRLi s[LRiVNRPVLij.
BRLRiVNTP G\y s[LjiLi[xmsVRV y ryLiVVs sVsLi gRiVLRiV|msVN][y.
sVVLigS zms %sxtsQRVLi[ y G RXztsQ][ A xmsoxqsNSs RRVsoRVyL][ gRizLi, A
RXztsQ][ A xmsoxqsNSs RRVsoRVyL][ gRizLi, A RXztsQs sVLjiLiR %sxqsQXRxmsLji[
RW.
zmsNTP FyhSV }msxmsVRV NRPWy sVs s[ A[Li xmsNRPWRRV.
DyxLRiNTP; INRP Fs[ RRVsoRVs zmsyRV "2x2=4 '@s %sxtsQRWs NRPWy y
|msR %sxtsQRVLigSs[ %sryRV. y RRVsoRVs mx soxqsNRPLi[s %sxtsQRWV, mx syV sVsNRPV
gS zqs soLiRRLi s, @%s y xqsVLigSs[ sosV sVsNTP NRPszmsxqsVLij. NSds, zms
RXztsQ[ sWRLi @j y NRPxtsQ\sVsj.
zmsV xmsoxqsNSV RRVsoRVsxmsVRV N]LiRsVLij \|ms\|mss LRilgi[xqsW soLiLRiV. [RVgS
RRsLRiV. kss gRiVLjiLiRszqss RR NRPWy RRLiRV[.
zmsV rysWsLigS AL][ }ms RRVsoRVsxmsVRV H][ }ms sLRiNRPW Rj%ssj

sVLjiFRVLiLRiV. kss sVsLi |msR %sxtsQRVLigS dxqsVN]s, yNTP xmsNRPaRPNTP [Rs


@sVN][NRPWRRV. Bj y qx sLRi*ryyLRi\sVs %sxtsQRVLi.
zmsV RsV gRij[ NRPWLRiVs ysVV RRVsoN]LiW soLi[, |msRy xmsNRPgRij[
NRPWLRiVs .%ds RWxqsVNRPVLiVy, [msLjiNSLRiL`i |msVN]s NRPVLRiV xmsVNRPVLiVy @xmssLRiNRPV
Rj%ssj zmsV sVLjiFLiVV A xmsNRPgRij%dsV[ y yxqs |msVN][sRLi ryyLRi\sVs
%sxtsQRVLi.
BLi s s F~LRiFyV RVNRPWRRV. @lgi[ y J gRij[
RRVsoNRPVLiVsxmsVRV %sVgjis |msRyLiRLRiW }msNSRVNRPVLiW[, NRPVLRiV xmsVNRPVLiW[
soLi[ "%sVgRiy xmsxmsLiRLi @Liy AsLiRLigS soLij. ysVV sWRLi C RRVso @s[ sLRiNRPLi[
soyLi' @s sLi zmsNTP NRPVgRiVRVLij. BLi ys FsVsLi xmsLjizqsRV[sW
zmsNTP NRPVgRiRVNRPWRRV.
xms sVsztsQ[sW N]s @sLijLixmsRgRi %sxtsQRWV, N]s [FyV soLiLiVV. %dsV
zms[ @sLijLixmsRgRi %sxtsQRWVLi[ ys FsNRPVsgS gRiVLjiLiRLiT. [Fys Fs
RWxmsNRPVLiy %ds\sLiRsLRiNRPW xqsLjijRysNTP xmsRVLiRLiT. sWsWNTP "sVso* FsLiRVNRPW
xmssNTPLSsoLS sRy, dsLi yLiRVNRPV NRPy[' c BLi sW][ ys R|msT[
yss stx sQF[Vj y][ FyV %dsVLRiV NRPWy.

z xmsxqsVW c RRVso :
y sVLij BLiLjiTV Rjs[ NRPVLRiy Tgki RRVsoRVs @sWLiVVV,
N]LiRsVLij RRLiRVW, RRVso%dsVR GNSgRiR |msLRigRiysNTP Rj%ss %sxtsQRVLi xmsNRPLi
soLiRVN][sysNTP zxmsLi gS DxmsWgRimx sRVRVLiRs %sxqsW soLiLRiV.
INRP %sxtsQRVLi gS gRiVLRiVLiyLi[ ys gS RRy. ys gS
gRiVLRiV|msVN]s[ aSRVaRPNRPV xmsRVLiy. @Li[gSs sVWRVsLiR LRiWFyRVV
{mnss*RLi y*LS J yLRiLi L][V "LjiN`P=' "LjiN`P=' @Li[ sRFsRLi y*LS
RRVxqsVLiRs, %sxtsQRWV gRiVLRiV|msVNRPVLisVs @sVNRPVLi[ @j ZNP[sLi sV sWRs[V.
sLigS INRP sVsztsQ xmsNRPaRPNTP |msLRigRiysNTP LiVVLiR s \QsLig`i xqsLjiF[ C FyNTP
xmsxmsLiRLi[ FsLi][sVLij s[VysoV RRW\lLi soLi[yLRiV.
sVWRV sLiR LRiWFyRV J zFyxqsV RgRiLRi xmsNRPaRPNTPs "N]sVN][sysNTP'
sVVLiRV %dsVLRiV A zFyxqsV RgRiLRi sos }ms|tsQLis BLiLRiW*Q RVLiT. %dsVlgi[
xmsNRPaRPNTPs |msLiF~LijLiRVN][sRs[ sV][ ss xqsWLi=[ FsLiRsVLij C %sRLigS
"LjiN`P=' @LiVV RsV xmsNRPaRPNTPs |msLiRVN]s, yNRPLRiV BLidsLRiV @RWL][, ryzqsqs LiVVsVs

A zFyxqsVs @RgRiLiT. %dsVLi Rzms ssLSs %dsLiVVsLiR ]LiRLRigS


sjLiRVN][sysNTP A zxmsxqsV xmsRVQryRV.
zFyLis FsLigRiLiVV sWL][zqsqs Rg]RV. xmsNRPaRPNTP |msLjigjis qx sWRsV [so.
zxmsxqsV N]RVNRPVV, NRPWRVLRiV, }qsV LSLiNRPVV ss yV [so.
INRP sVsztsQ sWszqsNRP {sR %dsVR ARVN][sRLi \ssyT xmss @s %sxtsQRWs
gRiVLjiLiRLiT. @lgi[ %dsV zmsNTP Rzms sy, NRPRVxmsozms sy zxmsxqsV RgRiLjiNTP
dxqsVNRPVsRLi sWs[RVLiT.
BLi zxmsxqsV NRPy, %dsVLRiV %dsLiVVsLiRsLRiNRPW sWszqsNRP aSxqsQs[R RgRiLjiNTP %dsV
zmss @xmsVRxmsVRW dxqsVZNPRW soLiRRLi y sVLij. INRP \|qsNTPRWxqsV RgRiLRi
%dsVLRiW %dsV zmsV xqsLRiygS, @[][ L][gRiLi sRVLi [}qs xmsR[ NSNRPVLiy NRPWL]s
N]LiR}qsxmso NRPVLRiV xmsVNRPVLiW soLi[ %dsV zmsyT \|qsNS {sRV, sWszqsNRP zqs
gRiVLjiLi A \|qsNTPRWxqsV %dsVNRPV %saRPkNRPLjiLi FyRV.
xmsj}s[ sRVxqsV=[ NRPdsxqsLi INRPry\lLiy %dsVLRiV A %sRLigS \|qsNTPRWxqsVs
NRPVxqsVN][sRLi FsxmsVRW sVLij. ZNP[sLi zmsy sWRs[V \|qsNTPRWqx sV RgRiLRiNTP
syLRisVN][sRLi RxmsV.
zmsNRPV N]s %sLiR @yVLiLiVV. @%s @FyRVNRPLRi\sVsV%s NSs xmsORPQLi[ ys
N]srygjiLiRRLi[ G xmssWRsVW [RV. DyxLRiNTP, J zmsyTNTP [msLjiNSLRiL`i %sLiW
xmsoxqsNRPLi RRsRLi @y\[, @RT RRVso G %sRLigSsW A [msLjiNSLRiL`i s LigRiLi
NRPgRiRLi [R s %sxtsQRVLi LRiV\s[ @Rs A @yVs[ N]srygjiLiRss*LiT.
G][ A[xqsW mx soxqsNRPLi Rjs[NRPy, J s[mx so [msLjiNSLRiL`i[ sVLi sVLiR\sVs sVWN`P
sxqsVLiRgS, @RRV FyhRiLi RRsRLi[ gS ds\sV[ @LiRV[ sxtsQLi GsVVLij?
@[ %sRLigS \Li[V xmsNSLRiLi L][ hRiLiRsgS GR[VxqsLjiNTP xmsoxqsNSV
sVVLi[xqsVNRPVs NRPWL][y @s LRiW %dsV zmsyTNTP BxtsQLi [NRPF[, @LiRV[ R}msLi [RV.
INRP lLiLi][V @RsV G%dsV RRsNRPVLiy LjiN`P= @sRVNRPVLi[ RxmsNRPVLiy
@sss*LiT.
@ @s FsxmsV[y LjiZNP[=xtsQ[s[ @RRV AsLiRLi ALRiLi}qs sWRLi, RxmssLjigS
%dsVLS ssLRiLi[ [NRPLi [xqsVN][LiT.

C yxmsL`i[ INRPryLji s[sV zms[ NRPzqs %dsVLRiV %sys Ary*jLiRRLi gRiVLjiLi


xmsRLi LjigjiLij.
zmss INRP zqs*%sVLig`ixmnsQpN][, FyLRiVN][, NRP FyL`iN][ dxqsVNRPVsRLi y*LS
yLji[ sos RVLRiVNRPVRys, %dsVLRiV FsNRPVs[}qs %dsV NRPVgRiVRVLij. zms[ \LRiLi RVLi
LiVVsds LRiNRPLRiNS Fy[ soLiLiVV. %ds][ NRPzqs RV xmsxmsLiRLi[ LRigRiRLi y*LS
%dss %dsVLRiV gRiVLjiLiRgRiVgRiVyLRiV.
xmsxqsVR NSrFys sgRiLS[ sos zms[ Fss\aSRLi sVLij zmsV BLiRsLRiNRPW
NRPdsqx sLi sj%dsVR mx sRs[ ztsQNSLRiV RV[RLi[ %dsVLRiV ssVgRiLS?
ksNTP RR ZNP[sLi RRLiRV[. RsV L]s %sRLi[ NRPdsxqsLi yVgRiVL][V
sLi, RsV NRPVLRiyTNTP sj V soLiVLi][, mx sRs[ xmsRWLi Fs soLiVLi][
xms[NRPF[; zms NRPs A RRLiRVV |msLi |msR[}qs NRPLRiys sWRs[V dxqsVNRPVyLRiV
Rxms, yNTP INRP g]xms @sVW sy*s[ RRs dxqsVN][[RssW.
\LRiLi @s[j INRP |msR xmsyLRiLiNSRV. @j sVsLi [}qs xmssVs[ sVsN]xqsW
soLiVLij. DyxLRiNTP %dsV AlLi[ zmsy zqs*%sVLig`ixmnsQp[ @LiVVyLRiV sFyV CR
s[Lji}qs, yTNTP sRsLi[s[ dsxms RVLi FRVLij. dsxms[ NSRV, %sRLixms
NRPWy ysLRiNRPW RVLi FRVLij. zqs*%sVLig`i @s[j sWszqsNRP aSxqsQs[R jRVLki xmsNSLRiLi
%sys[ FsRVL]s[ |msR RLRiNRPV s FyLRiLiLi.

@y RVLi c 3

LRi NRP LRi NS R RLi RV V

INRP xmsRsVW[ @sWLiVV xqsWsVLi J lLiLiRV gRiLiV AxqsLigS BLiNTP


sLiRsVN][LiT. A AxqsLi xms LRiNRPLRiNS RRLiRV xmsxqsLiRs s[LRiV s[LRiV %syVgS
soLiRsRV.
RLiT sVVLiRV LRiWsV[ dNRPLRiLigS xmsyLRiV [xqsW, NRPWRVLRiV LiVVLi[NTP @RVgRiV |msgSs[
lLiNRPxmsVN]s sVVLiRVNRPV gji ""FsLiRVNSxqsLi @LiVVLi['' @s @RVgRiVyLRiV. A @sWLiVV
yV }ms[gSs[ Lixms%dsVR xmsFysVs ""s dlLi[rysV. FsxmsVRLiVVy B
AxqsLigS s}qs LRiNRPLi NRPrysV. Fs[...... F....... @RVNRPVsV c'' @LiW L_RLigS
@LjiyRV. sVR[ R @RVxmsRNRPF[ ""yds, ssW NTPLRixqsyLiVVV Fzqs RgRiRysV.
yNRPRVLSNRPV. F..... sLiLi[ RgRiRV'' @s LRis gRiRsWLiVVLiRsRV.
sVL][ NRPVVLiLi[...... A Fyxms BLiNTP AxqsLigS ssxmsVRV R sV%dsVR
NRPWLRiVs gRiVRdsLRiV NRPNRPVNRPVLiW Fyxms LSgSs[ syy BLiR AxqsLi @LiVVLi[.

sLiVV[soNTP sVVNRPVNRPVysV.
dsZNP[ ANTP=Li @soRVLi[sWss..... GsVLiU
FyF~Lij'' @LiW BLi[NTP mx sLjilgiT[ A LRi rFny[ NRPWLRiVs }msxmsLRiV RRVsoNRPVLiW
""sLiy..... @ssqx sLRiLigS lLiLiRVgRiLiV BLiy yyRWgki [aSso'' @s }msxmsLRiV xmsNRPs
mx s[zqs @V Ljigji mx sRVN][sRV.
sVL][ NRPVVLiLi[...... Fyxms qx sWsVLi AxqsLigS sxqsVLij. R sLiLi[
NRPWLRiVs mx ss[xqsVNRPVLiW soLiVLij. RLiT LRiWLi[ \|mns= RRVsoNRPVLiW soLiLRiV. FssLji
mx ssV[ yLiLRiV. C Fyxms Rs gRij[ZNP mx soxqsNSV mx s[zqs, |msLRi[NTP s NS
[RVW NRPRVN]s [Li[zqs Rs LRiWLi[NTP sFRVLij.
A Fyxms s FsLiR}qs\|msy @NRPR mx sLiRVNRPVs[ ysLRiW soLiRLRiV. L][ NRPlLiNRPV
\LiNTP s[ Fyxms INRPL][ AxqsLigS s}qs "FsLiRVNSxqsLi @LiVVLij?' @s @Tlgi[y
soLiRNRPFsRLi FsLi][ yNRPLRisVLiVVs %sxtsQRVLi.
FssLRiW @sWLiVV{tsQ RVs }qs*y xmsxmsLiys INRPs[mx so AsLiRLigS
@sV%sxqsVy, sVsqx sV[ G][ INRP sVW "ssV mx sLiRVNRPVs[ ysLRiW [LRiV' @s
RNRPWy A FyxmsNTP soLiVLij.
BLiN][ BLi[ RLiT FsxmsVRW gRiLidLRiLigS soLiRV. AxqsLigS ss FyxmssV R
xmsaRPV s[xqsVLij. C RLiT T @ds %sLiRV Rxms G xmsaS @RgRiRV. RsV G
%sxtsQRVLi[ NRPLiRVNRPVy Rsxms yLjiNTP g_LRisLi FRVLiRs, FsxmsVRW ssLigS,
gRiLidLRiLigS soLiVLiRV. R @Tgjis xmsaRPNTP xqsLiRXzmsNRPLRi\sVs qx ssWyyV LSNRPF[
gRiLidLRiLigS Rs LRiWLi[NTP sFyRV. R A Fyxmss gS RVRVLij.
BLiN]NRP LiVVLi[ y RLigS soLiVLij. RRLiRV xmssLRis, @sWLiVV
AxqsLigS BLiNTP sxqsVLij. R "FsLiRVZNP[ BLiR AxqsLi @LiVVLij' @s A @sWLiVVs
@RgSs[ A @sWLiVV RLiT RVN] "FsNRPTNTP FyV @ds R VRVV' @LiW
Rs LRis sNTPLjiryRV.
AsV sLis[, ys[Li NSRV, BLi[ $LSsVRLiRVRV, RV $NRPXxtsvRV @syLRisV[
%dsVs[. NSNRPF[ ARzmsNTP BVsLi VR Vy[V @s y R @LiVLij. "A [T
%dsVys @LiVVRVs[V NRPsNTP $NRPXxtsvRV LSNRP @xmsLRi $LSsV RLiRV]ryy' @LiW
lLiFyRV.
AsV sLis[ "%dsVNRPV A @LiVVRVs[V Bs*Rs[V RLiRgRi' @LiW sW
zmsN]RVRVLij. lLiFLiVVs @RRV AsVs yVgRiV RVyRV. FsNRPR FyLRiLi# \sVs
xqsLixtsQ, FsV Ljigji, FsNRPR sVVgjizqsLi][ RWzqss A Fyxms NRPLigSLRiV xmsTFRVLij.
INRP xqsLixmnsVsNTP LRiNRPLRiNS B[ LRiNRPLRiNS xmsLjisWV xqsLi%sLiRRLi LjigjiLij.

B INRP xqsLixmnsVsNTP LRiNRPLRiNSVgS xmsxqsLijLi[ RRLiRVs yVgRiV LRiNSVgS


%sRg]sRV.
1. %sVLki sRVLiRV
2. xqsLiLS LSLiVV
3. sVLSR LSsVsV
4. WRRLi RRLiRVV.

%sVLki sRVLiRV :
""s[sV ssV lgiLiRsVsxmsVRV "FsLiRVNRPV?' @s @RgRiNRPV. "FsLiR FsRV?' @s sWRs[V
@RgS'' c Bk %dsLji sVsqx sR*Li!
C LRiNRPLi RRLiRVV FsxmsVRV, G sVW`[ soLiL][ @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRLi NRPxtsQLi.
zms %dsVR ysVV |msVTgS |ms[ RV, qx ssVRVLi sXyNSNRPVLiy, y R*LRigS
xmsxmnsLi LSysN][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. RsV zmsyRV INRP xqsNRPV[ sVLki "%dsN`P' @s zqssxmsVRV
sLis[ BLiRgRiLRi INRP WxtsQs sWryLji |msryLRiV.
|msLis sVLRiVxqs s[ G\y "sVLid qs[' RsV zmsyTNTP @s[ xqsNRPV[
xmsj[xmso sWLRiVV syRVsVN][LiT. A %sxtsQRVLi RVgSs[ ssNS sVVLiRV
A[LiRNRPVLiy ""Fssy WxtsQs sWryLRiV? GLi VRVyRV yRV? zmsyTNTP xmsj
sWLRiVV NRPWR LS[RV. yT d}qsrysV'' @s gRiLiRV[ryRV.
%dsNTP B%dsVTRVgS, "JsL`i\s'[ RsV zmsyRV g]xmsyRV NSys soLiVLij.
@Li[NSs "RsV zmsyRV A qx sNRPV[ FsLiR %dsN`P? @RsV BLixmsps NSyLi[ FsLiR \Li
mx sRVRVLij' BLis[%sd V %ds A[LiRLRiV.
zmsNRPV INRP xmss [ y yss FsRVLRiV xmsaRP s[RVNRPVLiy ORPQ[ [}qsRWs
N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. RsV zmsyTNTP ""|mss= dxqsVNRPVLS'' @s [ y FsLiRVNRPV? G%sV?
@s @RgRiNRPWRRV. s |mss= dxqsVNRPVs}qs @j s[ sVR |ms LRiWNRPLRi][ RVyLRiV.
BVsLi RRLiRVV zms RXztsQ[ sRVLiRVgS %sVgjiFyLRiV. @LiRVNRPV NSLRiLi
%ds @sVxqsLjiLi[ xmsRRV[.
zmssV NRPWy FsLiR sWLi[ @LiRsW ssNSsVVLiRV A[LiRNRPVLiy @s[ryLRiV.
@ sWTsLiRVs A zmsV FsLiR "xL`i' @RWL][ @s[j %dsNTP @ssxqsLRiLi. RsV
%sRLi[ INRPL][ NRPWy zms }mssVgS xmsNRPs NRPWL][VN]s y xqssVxqs gRiVLjiLi
@RgRiLRiV.
@ NRPWL][|msVN]s sWT[ RsV %dsVR yNTP g_LRisLi RgjiFRVLiRs RVLi.
@LiRVZNP[ zmsV |msLjilgi[N]k sWszqsNRPLigS RWLRisVsoyLRiV. RVsVLi GsWRLi

}mssWsVLSgSV FssLji\sxmso sVLi sy @V\sxmso ANRPL<jiLixmsRyLRiV.


C LRiNRPLi RRLiRVNTP zms s sRVxqsV=[ RVxmsy, |msLjilgi[N]k LRigRiRyLRiV.
C zmsV Fsjgjis RLRiVyR A BLi[ sRLi mx sn VL<iR V Rmx sso.
@gRis C LRiNRPLi RRLiRVNTP RsV zms%dsVR }mssV[Rs, %ds Rys
xms[sVV. %dsNRPVs sVLi gRiVLi ORPQ[ sLRiRWV dxqsVN][sRLi, @Li[ s[gRiLigS ys
@sVVxmsLRiRLi mx sNTPLi FyFyLiVVNTP ysVLi FnyNRPVVyRVs, A zmssVVLiRV RsV
FyFyLiVV dzqsNRPVgS soLiRs @szms}qs, ORPQ[ LRiVZNP sVLi V dxqsVNRPVsryRV.
RsV zmsV gRiVLixmso[ g][%sLiy @sVgS soLiRNRPVLiy G NRPLSG[, y[=
s[LRiVNRPVLisVLi[ c ORPQ[ dxqsVZNP @NRPR [LjiryLRiV.
C LRiNRPLi RRLiRVV, RsV zmsV RsVs }ms%sVLiyLi[ yNTP sWszqsNRPLigS RgRiLRi
NSyLi[, N]s @ysV, sQQNTPgRiR [FysV xqsLjijRVN][y. C NTPLij %sxtsQRWsV
@sVxqsLjiLiy.
1. RsV zms @sxqsLRiAV, qx ssVxqs mx s R*LRigS xmsxqsLijLi, yLjiNTP NSszqss%s
qx ssVNRPWlLi[ sVVLiRV ysVVNRP mx sLjisWsV NRPWy sVVLi[ A[Li
soLiRVN][y. sLRiRWsV R*LRiR*LRigS dxqsVN][NRPWRRV.
2. N][xmsLi ssmx soRV, As[aRPLi ssmx soRV G sWLi[ A sW @s[RVNRPVLiy
FsRVyLRiV A sWNRPV FsLiR RxmsRyL][ A[Liy. RsVs ysVV
sgRizLiRVN][s.
3. RsVNTP, RsV zmsNTP sVR @sgSxs |msLiRVN][y. L][ J gRiLiFyV y][
sW[ @yV |msLiRVN][y.
4. RsV NRPVVLiLi mx s RsVNRPVsj }mssWsVLSgS[NSs, ys LRiVso, RRVgS
{msNSsLi [Rs RV[RW. RsV |msRLjiNSs sLSOTPQLigS
@sVV[RVNRPVLiy, AFyRVR][ yLjis ANRPVN][y.
5. G %sxtsQRVLi[\sy RsV sW[ sgSs sVVLiTxmsV xmsNRPVLiy NRPVVLi xqsVV
}ms %sxtsQRWsV NRPWR xmsLjigRis[NTP dxqsVN][y.
C \xmso RRLiRVV xmssLjiLi[ %syysNTP INRP sVLi DyxLRi VysV. lLiLiRV
sVWRV L][[ @RsV BV sWLRiVRVysVs FyRV. LSzmsNTP BV FsLiRVNRPV
sWLRiVRVyL][ @LRiLiNSRV.
Lki dxqsVNRPVs rysWsV FsNTPLi s[lLi[BLiNTP
dxqsVNRPVssxmsVRV @LiR Q\sVLij c FyR BV FssLjiN][ @s[VaSRs, RsV RLiT RVNRPV @LiR
BLij xmsRVRVyRs A zmsNRPV sLjisLRiNRPV RVNRPFsRLi y @RXxtsQLi NSRV
RVLRiRXxtsQLi. C \xmso RRLiRVV sVVLigS RsV xqsV{msLjiRWLjis sRVVN][y. @j

sRVVNRPVLi[ Rxms zms][ ryszRLi |msLRigRiRV.


6. sLiR RWV dxqsVNRPVs[aRPNTP RsVNRPV sWRs[V soLiRs, BLi[ sVlLisLjiNUP A aRPNTP [Rs
@sVN][sRsVV F~LRiFyV. @s %sxtsQRW[sV RsV sLRiRVs[V xqs\lLiLij @sVN][sRLi sV.
A{mnsqx sV[ FsLiR |msR F~xtsQs[ soy, Fss sLRiRWV dxqsVNRPVy, BLi[ sWRLi
RsNRPy sVLi sLRiRWV dxqsVNRPVs[yLRiV NRPdsxqsLi BRLRiVLiLRiV. LRi, N]RVNRPV, NRPWRVLRiV.
DyxLRiNTP BLiNTP rFny|qsV dxqsVNRPVLSsRLi sVLi A[Rs. NSds %dsVNRPV sLij
dxqsVNRPVs}qs RNTPs yLjiNTP A RLRi @LiR xqsLi][xtsQNRPLRiLigS soLiRRV. BLi[ sVgRiVLRiW
NRPWLRiVs g][RNRPVs NRPL`iNTP G NRPL`i rFny|qs sW` @soRVLi][ A[Li dxqsVNRPVs}qs A
RLRi[ RsVNUP gRisVVLiRs BLi[ @LiRLRiW qx sLiRXzmsmx sRyLRiV. y zmssj %dsVNRPV
sRNRPF[, %dsV sLRiRVs[V xqsLji\VsRszms}qs A %sRLigS VVRV NSds zms ARLjiLiRLi
s[LRiV, @xqsV xmsNRPFsRLi s[LRiV.
7. %dsVNRPV ss NRPWLRi[ %dsV LRi RLRiRW sLiRVRVLi[, @j %dsV sRVLiRXy*sNTP
INRP sRLRi+sLi. C mx soxqsNRPLi RRVsoRVs \LiNTP %dsV LRiNTP G[V NRPWLRiV BxtsQsW
RVNRPF[ @j NRPWy sRVLiRXy*sNTP INRP DyxLRi.

qx sLiLS LSLiVV :
%dsVlLixmsV\y LiRV xmsRLRi+saSNTP s[ @NRPR "JL`i' @s[ LiRVso soLiVLij.
@j FsxmsVRW xqsLjigS INRP][ NRPWL][RV. ALjiNTP LiT sRLi, gRiV%dsVR sVLi lgiLiRRLi
Li%s NRPWy INRP [N`PgS dxqsVNRPVs, sRLi xqsLRiygS @LRiVxqsW soLiVLij. [%sRV
RRLiRVV aSxmssaSRV LiRVsoVgS sWLRiLi qx sLi%s}qs C JLRiVgS sWLRiyLRiV.
rysVWzNRP %sRsVLi[ yNTP BxtsQLi. FsxmsVRW yLi[ FyLkiV LRiVgRiVRW
soLiLiVV. sVgRiV\lLiRVgRiVLji][ NRPzqs soLiRNRPF[ yNTP ][RRV. %dsLRiV RsV zms][
y N][gS soLiLRiV. qx sLRiyNRPs.
"L][Liy LiT [NRPFLiVVy xmnslLi[RV NSds gRiLi}qsxmso xqsLRiygS gRiTzms[ yV' @sVNRPVs[
LRiNRPLi %ds. zms][ qx sW %sxtsQRVLi[, zms mx sNRPs A Lid[ FsLiRsVLij
NRPWLRiVLiLRiV? RL`i G LRiNRPLi RxqsV=V s[xqsVN]ryRV? xqsW Li` @sL`i Fss gRiLiNTP?
sVLi ds FsNRPR ygRiVyLRiV? c BLi ysLids NRPWR zms Rgij LRi sVLi @Tgji
VxqsVNRPVLiLRiV. sWRVN][ssNTP %dsNTP FsxmsVRW G][ INRP zmsN`P NSy. @j FsLiR
sLRiLiR NRP\sVs\y xqslLi[.
@LiRLji][ sVLigS soLiRLi %dsLji @yV. @LiVV[ C @y[ %dsNTP @s
qx ssVxqssW |msRVRVLij. %ds [sds ""NSRV'' @s[LRiV. A{mnsqx sV[ @LiVVy,

}qszRVLiVVy, FssLRiV G mx ss zmsy A RR ss s[qx sVNRPVLiW soLiLRiV. Ds


NS}qsxmso zms][ dLjiNRPgS sW[LiRVNRPV qx ssVRVLi FsNRPVs ]LRiNRPRV.
%ds[ sos BLiN]NRP {sR G%sVLi[ @LiRLji[R sVLi @szmsLiRVN][ys
y N][LjiNRPgS soLiVLij. @sRy RsV sxtsQxmsys N][LRiVN][sRLis y FsLiR
xmss zmsy NSRsNRPVLiy, LSRLiy sVNRPVs yxmsgjiLis xmss xmspLji[ryLRiV. @LiRVs
%dsNTP %dszms][ dLjiNRPgS gRiT}ms "\Li' soLiRRV.
DyxLRiNTP LRi "ryRVLiRLi ]LiRLRigS LRiLiT. uyzmsLig`i [RW' @Li[ @[
ryRVLiRLi INRP N]dg`i lLiLiRV s RLRiVyR LRigRi[[V Rs |msNTP V |qsN`P[yLi
LRisVLi[ LRi NTPs sW sVLjiFLiVV, FsxmsV][ LRigRiszqss N]dg`i |msNTP V
RWRsNTP uymsZNPyRV. LRi Rgij LRiy A N]dg`i RgiR LRi "sVLi' @szmsLiRVN][ys
soLiRs[V ksNTP NSLRiLi.

%ds yWNRPV NRPVVLi xqsVxmsVRW RsVNRPV %dssVLi Rgjis FyysR


LiRRLi [Rs yFRW soLiLRiV. @xqsV RsV yNTP Rxms, %sVgRiy yLiRLjiNUP %ds
sVsxqsV[ sVVR rysLi soLiVLij. BVsLi RRLiRVV sWLSLi[ sRVsWV
FyLiy.
1. RsVNRPVs %sVRV Bs VVs=sV, ysVLij][ RsVNRPVs xmsLjiRRWsV RsV
zms DsN][xqsLi yRVNRPVLiW soLiy.
2. RsV zmsV ryj Lis NSLSsV FsNRPVs sVRVNRPVLiW soLiy. RsV
zmsNRPy @sR zmsy FsNRPVs %sRVLi ryjLiy NRPWy yss gRiVLjiLiRs[
NRPsmx sy. FsxmsVRW mx sNRPzmsyT F~gRiRLi Li%s [RVNRPWRRV.
3. RsV zmssVVLi[ xmsNTP zmsy][[, LiRV%sVRV zms][[
@sxqsLRi\sVsysNRPy FsNRPVs RsVsogS soLi[, sVs zms[ CL<SQ, @xqsWRVV
|msLRigRiysNTP AryLRiLi soLij. "ysVLi][, RVy NRPWR @Li[' @s {mnsLig`i zms[
NRPgRiNRPVLiy soLiRsNTP %ds xmsRVLiy.
4. qx ssVRVLi VVNRP %sVs VxqsVN][y. sLjiNTP zms][ [NSLSsWRVLi
sWy= sy qx slLi[ FsLiRsLRiNRPV DxmsWgRimx sRVRVLij @s A[Liy[ Rxms ""xqsW[
Fss gRiLiNRPV Li`? %dsV Lid[ FsLiRsVLij zmsV NRPWLRiVLiLRiV?''Li RsNRPLRiV
zmsN`P=][ qx ssVRVLi sXy [RVNRPWRRV.
5. RsVNTP @sxqsLRiLi [NRPFLiVVy, [RNSNRPFLiVVy @sR y][ A %sxtsQRVLi
LSLiTgS zms, A qx ssVRWs RsV LSzms N][xqsLi %ssWgjiLiRVN][y. B[
{qsQLiVV[ xmsNTPLi y][ NRPVLRiV }ms "\Li' s N]LiR RgjiLiRVNRPVs, RsV zms N][xqsLi
%ssWgjiLiRszqs soLiVLij.
6. ryyLRiLigS BVsLi ys xmsNTPLiy, %dsj[y FsNRPVsgS
sVRVNRPVLiVLiLRiV. NS @V\sxmso ANRPL<jiRV[V xmssWRLi soLij. "sVRVN][sRLi'
@s[j yNTP xqsRVLi [zqssxmsV][ @LiRVs @sRyNTP # s[V Rxms sxtsQLi [RV
NRPsVNRP sVRVNRPVLiWs[ soLiLRiV. yss RsVN][ # s[V%dsV [RV NRPsVNRP A qx ssVRWs
RsV zmsN][xqsLi %ssWgjiLiRVN][ys C RLRi R RLiRVV VxqsVN][y.
7. RsV zmsV RsVs FsLiRgS[ }ms%sVLiys[ D[aRPLi][ xmssLjiLiRNRPWRRV.

sVLSR LSsVsV :
ysVLij RRLiRVV "sVLSR LSsVs'gS sVLigS, RLRiLigS, sLiVVdgS
soLiLRiV. %dsNRPV xqsLRiy @Li[ @xqs=V gjiRV. }qszRV RVW Ljilgi[ @yV

soLiRRV. %dsNRPVLi[ }qsds "gRiLigjig][soFyV gRiLji\y yV' @sVgS soLiLiVV.


%dsLRiV @sxqsLRi\sVs ][NRPy, @ssxqsLRi\sVs ][ FsNRPVs sLiVVdgS ssxLjiryLRiV.
ysVLij %sVRV][ LRigRiRLi NRPy, ZNP[sLi INRPLjiRLRiV %sVRV][ FsNRPVs N][gS
soLiRRLi sVLiRsVNRPVLiLRiV.
%dsLRiV sVLi a][RV. ALjiNTP NRPWLRigSRV y] RsV qx ssVxqsV zmsy, y
GNSgRiRR][ A qx ssVxqss mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRysNTP xmspsVNRPVLiLRiV. NRPVVLi xqsV, %sVRV,
%sVRV LRi qx ssVxqsV %ss rysVW][ xqsLijryLRiV.
sLiVVdgS soLiRLi sVLi ORPQs[V. NSds @sqx sLRi\sVs ysNRPy @gS soLi[
sLiVVd FssLjiNUP LiRRV. %dsLRiV BRLRiV gSRV %ss, ys xmsLjixtsQLjiLiRRLi[ RW}ms
"By**sVLi', r~LiRNRPVVLixqsV mx s soLiRRV. N]RVNRPV s qx ssVxqs xmsVNRPVy,
L][RV%dsVR F[V Hqsxmsp y] qx ssVxqs xmsVNRPVy IZNP[LRiNRPLigS xqsLijLiRRLi s, %dsLji
zmsNTP %dsLji\|ms RgjisLiR }mssWsVLSgSV soLiRso. @kNSNRP %ds ZNP[sLi qx ssVxqs
%sLilLi[Rxms, A qx ssVxqsNTP mx sLjiuyLRi sWLSV xmsLRiV. INRPs[ zmsy @sRyRV
ARLjiLiRysNTP %dsVgS soLiRso.
RVLRiRXxtsQsaSRV sVWLki%sLis sLiVVd][ soLi[ LRiNTP, qx sLRiygS soLi[
gRiry*sVV}qs LiVVNRP yNTP gRiXxLi sLRiNRPFyRVs[V @soRVLij. LRi][ NRPzqs qx sLRiygS G
zqsssWN][, gRiVTN][ sszqss \sVV[ @[ %dsj[ sos INSRVs LRi mx soLiNTP
sFLiVVLiRLi[, A%sRs dqx sVNRPVLSsysNTP ][R V LRisVLi[, |msR sVsztsQgS A
%sxtsQRVLi[ ryRVLi [}qsLiRVNRPV @sR ELjiNTP xmsRWsVsoyRV.
BRLRiV qx ssVxqs mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRRLi[ sos AsLiRLi RsV yNTP AsLiys
mx sLiRRLi[ soLiRRV. C %sxtsQRVLi[ %dsNTP "xqsLiLS LSLiV'NTP NSxqs FNRP soLij.
%ds zms %sxtsQRVLi[ G NRPxtsQsVVy y dsLigS xqsLijryLRiV.
BVsLiy zmsV, @s sxqsRVW @sVLRiLi s xqs*RVLigS G xmsds [xqsVN][[NRP,
@sNUP @sR yLji\|ms AyLRixms[gRi RRWLRisoyLRiV. BLi RRLiRVV zms
gS |msLiyLi[ C NTPLij @yV @sLRiVN][y.
1. FssLji qx ssV\|qs#y JzmsNRPgS %ss[ gRiVLi soLij NS, RsV zmsV, LRi }ms
%sxtsQRWNTP sVLjiLiR FysVVR LiVVs*Li s[LRiVN][y.
2. RsV NRPVVLiLi[s xqsVNTP, %dsj[ yNRPy FsNRPVs FysVVR
LiVVxqsVysVs %sxtsQRVLi RsV NRPVVLi xqsVNTP }qsgRi [RW.
3. RsV %sRLi sVLki RWLiNRPLigS sWLRiNRPVLiy @xmsVRxmsVRV NSxqs sWLRiVNTP
@sNSaRPLi By*.

4. RsV r~LiR RNRPV, RRNRPV, qx ssVxqsNRPV NRPWy FysVVR By*.


5. BRLRiV N][xqsLi NTPsV NSNRPVLiy RsVN][xqsLi ysVV RNS. A BRLRiV
qx ssVxqsV %ssRs[V NSLRiNRPsVLigS |msVN][NRPVLiy, RsV qx ssVxqss NRPWR
LSR][ NRPzqs RLjiLiy.

WRRLi RRLiRVV :
xms s %sxtsQRWs %dsLRiV g][LRiLiRV N]LiRLiRV [ryLRiV. sVsLi xqsLi][xtsQLigS
soysW? sVs NRPVVLiLi xqsLi][xtsQLigS soLiy? BRLRi NRPVVLiV xqsLi][xtsQLigS
soyRW? BLi yV %dsNRPV FsxmsVRW NRPVgRiVRVLiLiVV. %dsLRiV xms s
%sxtsQRWds ssVVRVLiLRiV. xms %sxtsQRWs INRP mx sLjij[ A[xqsVLiLRiV. FsxmsNRPmx sVRV
%dsLRiV RsVNTP, RsV zmsNUP xqsLjixRVV sLjixqsVLiLRiV. DyxLRiNTP xqsW RLRiVyR zmsV
WxtsQs ZNP= soLi[, A WxtsQs xqsWNTP y RWLRisVLiVV[ yxsLi NSy. C
LRiy qx ssVxqss INRP |msR qx ssVxqsgS [zqs, ys gRiVLjiLi yyRWgki [zqs, dsLigS
A[Li xmsLjiuyLSs F~LiRVyLRiV. A xmsLjiuyLRiLi ]LjiZNP[sLRiNRPV y sWsVWVgS
soLiRLRiV, @sRys sWsVWVgS soLiRss*LRiV.
%dsLjiNRPVLi[ xqsVsR\sVs sVsxqsR*Li sVlLisLjiNUP soLiRRV. %dsLRiV xms xmsds NRPsVRLigS
LRigSs @sVNRPVLiLRiV. %ds[ sVd lLiLiRV LRiNSV. sVVRLRiNRPLi y][ |msR
ZNP[%sVLi[ %ds g]xms Fs}qszmsxqsVV. qx ssVxqss FsRVL][sysNTP RVV @xqsV
qx ssV}qs[Rs %sxqsVLiLRiV.
lLiLi][ LRiNRPLi y \|ms }msLS[ zmssVgS s %sxtsQRVLi NRPWR |msRj [ryLRiV.
DyxLRiNTP "C L][ zqs xqsV= xqsLiVVN`P yy' @s zmsV [, zms xqsWNTP Fs
xmsLiFy @s @LRigRiLi A[ryLRiV.
"A[[ mx sLizms[ Fs? Li` L][s A[\|ms LS LRiVso*ylLi[sW? ysVV s
jLizms[ s[ sxtsQs[V%sV?' B INRP @LRigRiLi A[RsV [zqs, sLjiNTP zms A xmsp
qx sWV sWs[RVsVs[ qx s][ A qx ssVxqsNRPV mx sLjiuyLRiLi RWzmsryLRiV.
INRP ALjiN`P RsV gkis FysV RV.R RxmsNRPVLiy INRP Lig`is NRPysNTP Fs
xmsRVQry][, @lgi[ %ds NRPWy ysVV[}qs xmsxmsds xqsNRPsVLigS, NRPsVbPORPQ][, INRP
xmsR[ [RWs N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV.
BLi RRLiRVV C gRiWxmso[NTP sryLRiV. %dsLjiNTP, sRVLiR \xmso RRLiRVNTP
[y G%sVLi[ c sRVLiRV ysVV xmss NRPVLi[VNTP sVW[NSs yj}qs, %ds
ysVxqsV NRPVLi[Vs[ xms[Rs[ sLi][ xmss[RVLi FyLRiLiryLRiV.

%dsVlLixmsVRW "sVsLi qx sLRiygS soysW? sVssVxqsV FsLiV [qx sVysW?' @s[


xmsaRPV s[xqsVN][LRiV. C xmss xqsNRPsVLigS [xqsVysW, [y? @s sWRs[V xmsbPLiNRPVLiLRiV.
DyxLRiNTP %ds INRP N]RLRiNRPLi sLi xmsoxqsNRPLi RWzqs s[LRiVNRPVLi[ @LiRV[ [VLi soLi[
@[ [ryLRiV Rxms N]jgS xqs*LiR %s DxmsWgjiLiRysNTP gSs, N]R xmsWgRiLi
[RVysNTP gSds Dy=xLi RWzmsLiRLRiV.
C \xmso {qsQV gRiLRisRVV @LiVV[ yNRPL`i RgRiLRiNRPV sRLi RgjiLRisVLi G \Li[ G
s[xqsVN][ys[ %sxtsQRVLi sLRiNRPV xqsLjigRi s%sVuyV |qsNRPs][ qx s NRPlLiNRPVgS
@sVVxmsLRiVxqsVLiLRiV. "zms V |msLiy[ GLi Rj%sLiy? NRPsVLiR By*?
@s %sxtsQRWV NRPWy gRiLRisRVVgS sosxmso[ A[ryLRiV.
B xmnsL`i|mnsN`PgS, xmsRgS soLi[ RRLiRV][ zmsNRPV xqssVRVLi NRPsVbPORPQ, y
%sVs Vry[V Rxms c %sRLi[ AsLiRLi soLiRRV. FsNRPT\ZNPy FyLkiNTPgSs, %dsVLig`iNRPV
gSs ssVNRPVLi[ NRPlLiNRPVgS A \LiZNP[ syLRiV. xms aRPsyLRiLi zqsssWNTP ss[
sRVsVLi soLi[ aRPsyLRis[V s Rxms, sVVLiRVL][ RWyszmsLiy RWRsNTP
%ds][ %dsVxmsRRV.
BLi RRLiRV zmsV, INRP %sRLigS @s @sxqsLSV qx ssVRWsNTP
@sVLRiVRVLiRLi LiVVgSs[ soy, A RRLiRVV sWRLi FsLi][ LSs {mnssoRW
soLiLRiV. G sWRLi F~LRiFyV Ljigjiy, ALi][s |msLjigji AL][gRiLi s[ xmsLjizqs
GLRiRVRVLij.
%dsNRPV IN]NRPryLji qx ssVxqs FsNRPVQ\s LS zms%dsVR N][xmsLi sy NRPWy
sys AaRPLiVVryLRiV Rxms N][Fys sgRiNRPLRiV. BLi RRLiRV[ sVLi sWLRiV
dxqsVNRPVLSyLi[ c
1. ysVV sLjiLi[ qx sLjix RVV FsLiRsLRiNRPV qx ssVLixqssW %dslLi[ AR %ssVLRi+
[qx sVN][y.
2. sLiLi[NTP LSNRPWRRV....... mx sgRiV mx sNRP FsNRPNRPWRRV..... BLi zqsNRPV zmss=xmso=s
ryRQ\sVsLiRsLRiNRPV sRVVN][y.
3. %ds zms |msLiRRsVs[ FyhSs NTPLiRL`igSLRis ryLiVVsVLi s[LRiVN][y.
4. RsVs F~gji[y[ }qszRVV, RsVs %ssVLji+Li[y aRPRVsoV @s
ys %sT|ms.
5. %sxmsLkiR\sVs aRPVR][ "BV VxmsVRW dsVgS soLiy' @s ][LRis
sj|ms, "szmsVsxmsVRV N]LiR xqsLiR VV RxmsRV' @s @yV
[qx sVN][y.

6. BRLRiV[ @ds sVLi gRiV[soLiT, INRP[ RgRiVLi soLi[ c A INRP gRiVs[


WRRLi[ RWzqs [*ztsQLiRNRPVLiR, sVLi gRiVV RWzqs }ms%sVLi[ @yV
[qx sVN][y.
7. G\y INRP qx ssVxqs ssmx sVRV, BRLRiV][ %s[jLiy= s}qs @
%s[jLiRRLi %syysNTP yLji dxqsVLiRs, sys AaRPLiVVLiRNRPWRRV. sLjimx sLigS
soLiRRLi sVLiRs @sVN][NRPWRRV.
***

B yVgRiV LRiNS R RLiRV sVsxqsy* sVsLi %sZaP[ztsQLi RWFyLi. xms Rd


c RLiU G][ INRP sLSsNTP Lijsy\lLi soLiLRiV. NSLis[xtsQs= IN]ryLji %sxmsLkiRLigS soLi[
A zmsNTP LiVVNRP sLRiNRPs[V. sVLSR LSsVs RLiT, sRVLiR R LSLRiLiVV[ A
LiVVLi[ R[ zms NRPLi[ [xqsVLij.
xqsLiLS LSLiV RT, WRRLi R LSLRiLiVV[ F~RVs[ RLiT Rj%s
FylLi[zqss }msxmsLRiV dRVRLi sVLi, ryRVLiRLi ARVs NRPLiRLi dRVRLi sLRiNRPV A%sR
xqsVgRiV[ A BLiy xmsR*sxqsVLiLiVV.
RRLiRV[ xmsyLRiW C yVgRiV ZNP[gjiLji[ G][ INRPysNTP LiRVyLRis NRPWy
@sVN][sNRPLRi[RV. INRP ZNP[gjiLji[ N]s gRiVV, sVL]NRP ZNP[gjiLji[ sVLjiN]s gRiVV sos
%sVN`P=` NS*qs sNRPVV NRPWy soLiRsRV.
IN]NRPryLji NSLi gRiT[N]k sVs[ V[ sWLRiV sVs sQQNTPR*Li
sWLRiVRW soLiRsRV. xqsLiLS LSLiV \xmso[ sos RLiT N]LiRNSsNTP sRVLiR
\xmso[NTP sWLRisRV. @[ %sRLigS FsxmsVRW RssW[ sgSsVNRPVs[ RLiT, @yL][gRi
RXuy @LiRLji%dsVR AyLRixms[ yRsRV.
IN]NRPryLji sVs @FyRWs, sVs sQQNTPy*s, sVs sVsqx sy*s mx sNRPs |ms
zmsNRPV xqsRVxmsRszqs soLiVLij. RxmsRVgRiVV s[}qs zmsV BLi[ sosxmsVRV,
yNRPV s NRPgjiLi[ sxqsVsoV yNRPV RWLRiLigS soLiy. sVsLi xmsk NRPsVbPORPQ[,
xmsR[ soLiysVN][sRLi RxmssoRVLij. zmsV Fsjlgi[N]k sVs sQQNTPy*s INRP
ryLiVVsVLi, sVL]NRP ryLiVVNTP |msLiRVN][szqs sqx sVLij.
zmsV ssRVxqsV[ sosxmsVRV xqsLiLS LSLiV soLi[ RLiT zmsV
|msRRWNRP N]LiR sVLSR LSsVs \xmsoNTP sWLRiszqs soLiVLij. zmsV sVLki [RV[Li
LjiFRVyLRis zqssxmsVRV INRP sRVLiR RLiTgS sWLRiszqs soLiVLij.
zmsVVNRP @ry*%sNRP\sVs RLRixms (DyxLRiNTP zms [VN`P=[
}mssV[V NRPszmsLisxmsVRV) WRRLi RRLiRVVgS sWLRiszqs soLiVLij. C yVgRiV

LRiNS RRLiRV[sWBj sVLid, Bj RW @s [RV. IN]NRP xqssVRVLi[ IN]NRP


qx s*ys AFyjLiRVN][szqs soLiVLij.
zmsNTP xmsRlLi[ sRVr~ NS[[NTP @RVgRiV|msRVRVsxmsVRV ""xmsxmsLiRsVLiy
gRiV[RV. sVssVVNRPLRis[V gRiVyLi'' @s[ ][LRi, As[aRPLi, LRiVgRiVV RR*Li[
soLiLRiV. C As[aPR Li, LRiVgRiVV RR*Li sVLki FsNRPVsgS sosxmsVRV sVsLi sRVLiRVgS
ssxLjiLiRNRPVLiy sVLSR LSsVsgS[, xqsLiLS LSLiVgS[ ssxLjiLiRszqs
soLiVLij.
@Liy RsVZNP[ VxqsV, zmsZNP[%dsV RVRV @s ][LRis INRP sRVxqsV[
RRLiRVV sj|msszqs soLiVLij. BxmsVRV slLi[xtsQs sWLjiLij. C sWLRiVRVs
slLi[tx sQs[ sVs zmsV saRPRVLigS sVsNRPy \ssy, NRPtx s Qxms[ y, %sxtsQRVLi
xmsLjissVVsy. @LiRVs sRVLiRXR*Li xmssNTPLSRV.

qx ssVRVR :
%sRLi[ xms %sxtsQRVLi xqssogS rygjiFRVLiRs gSLRiLi G%dsV[RV. IN][ryLji
sVsNRPV RVNRPVLiys[ sVs NRPVVLixqsV xqsLiLiy[ xqsRVR ssRV. B
qx ssVRVR sysNTP sVVLigS lLiLiRV NSLRiVLiLiVV.
1. |msRV zmsNRPV RgjisLiR gRiVLjiLixmso ss*NRPFsRLi.
2. zmsNRPV @sxqsLRi\sVs ysNRPy FsNRPVs }qs*R ss*RLi.
1. gRiVLjiLixmso :
xms sQQNUP Rs DsNTPds, RsV [zqss xmssds BRLRiVV gRiVLjiLiysVNRPVLiRV.
LSsVg][Fy sLRi zqsssW dzqsy, ysVLilgi[xtsQL`i FyFyTy, \sVZNP[ NRP=s .%ds
{qsQs%dsVR NRPsy @j ZNP[sLi RV N][xqss[V NSRV. N][V N][V RV xqsLiFyjLis
y NRPWy NUPyLRiLigRiLi[sV, LSNUPRVLRiLigRiLi[sV, %sVgRiy LRiLigS[sV lLi[LiVVLis
NRPxtsQxmsRsNTP NSLRiLi C gRiVLjiLi}ms.
sVsztsQ[ C gRiVLi RaRP sVLi[ soLiVLij. xms zmsyRV Rs NRPVVLiLi[
R[ sVVQ\sVs, xms[NRP\sVs sQQNTPgS gRiVLjiLixmsoF~Liys RaRPsVLi[ @sVNRPVLiRV.
xms zmsyRV Rs R, Rs RLiT, Rs BV ss][s[ |msLRiVgRiVyRV. C ssNRPV
Rd RLiU xqsNRPsVLigS ][Ry. @xmsVRV zmsV ILiLjiRsLi][ Rxms[ @sxqsLRiLi LSRV.
BLi[ |msRy RsVNRP sQQNTPgS gRiVLjiLiRNRPF[ A zmsV }mssVLSzRLi][
Rmx sRyLRiV. BNRP]NRP DyxLRi VyLRiV.
xqsVR @s[ INRP @sWLiVV RRLiRVV BRLRiW D][gRixqsVV. A @sWLiVV @sRV,
@NRPRV NRPWR RRVso[ mx nsqs sqx sVLiyLRiV. RRVso %sxtsQRVLi[ A @sWLiVV qx sgRiV
%syLjis. NRPVVLiLi[ sVgRiVLRiW NRPzqs A @sWLiVVs AxmsLi[yLRiV. xqsVRsV
@yyaRPsVLi sVLi dxqsVNRPVs |msLiRVNRPVysVs @LiVLi[yLRiV. sVgRiVLRiW NRPzqs
sso*NRPVs[y.
@LiVVy qx sVR RNRP xms[NRP sQQNTPss, RsN]NRP xms[NRP\sVs sQQNTPR*Li soLiRs[
AR%saS*xqsLi][s[ |msLjigjiLij. ysNTP NSLRiLi AsV sV, yRRV[. xqsWsVLi LSgSs[
xqsVR sV yRRV][ xqsW[ Ljigjis %sxtsQRWds }msj. sV RxmsT[
JylLi[j. A @sWLiVV G\y %sRVLi ryj }qs sVRVNRPVs[j .
xqsVR NRPsVLigS DsR\sVs sQQNTPy*s xqsLiRLjiLiRVNRPVLij. yRRV, sVV xqsVRNRPV

y @sW, ys, @sRV, @NRPRV xms sVLi @FyRWs[ NRPgRi[aSLRiV.


yNRPV xqsVRLi[ BxtsQs[Vss, ZNP[sLi @j yLiNRPLigS xmsRLji+LiRRLi BxtsQLi [NRPs[ y
xmssLjixqsVyLRis zms qx sVR[ AR%saS*rys NRPgRi[zqsLij y sV.
qx sVR AdRVR][, AR%saS*xqsLi][ |msLRigRiRLi s \syzNRP %sRLi NRPWy qx sVLigSs[
rygjiLij.
Rs zmsNRPV NRPWy BxmsVysV }mssVds, AFyRVRds BxqsVLij. @xqssLRiW
xmsLiRVN][NRPVLiy, @LiRLji[R sLRiOTPQQLixmsT soLi[ xqsVR xmsLjizqs sVL][ soLi[j. "s[s V, y
BV, y NRPVVLisNTP Lijs yTs' @s @FyRVLi zmsNRPV y sxqsVLij.

2. @sxqsLRi\sVs ysNRPy FsNRPVs }qs*R ss*RLi :


zmsV RRLiRVs }qs*RNRPy FsNRPVs NSy @s N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. BLi
xmsLjizqs[ @sxqsLRi\sVs ysNRPy }qs*RFsNRPV%s}qs zmsV TFssNTP @sNSaRPLi ys
DLij. @xqss*NRPFsRLi zms RR RVNRPVLiy FsRLi, AR%saS*rys N][[sRLi
NRPWy LRiVgRiVRVLij. sxmsVRV xqs\lLis }qs*R[s zmsV, |msRRWNRP xqs\lLis sLRiRW
dxqsVN][[NRP xqsN][xqsLi FsRVLRiVRWryLRiV.
sLiLjigS soLiRsNTP RVxmsRyLRiV. xmssLi[ ys zmsV ILiLjigS
qs[gSs, \lLiQ[gSs RxmssxqsLjigS xmsRWLi [RVszqs ssmx sVRV, @
RV[NRPF[ y RRLiRV |msLixmsNRPLi[ G][ [VLiRssW.
ysVLij RRLiRVV xmsj}s[ ys zms NRPWy ILiLjigS INRP
ELjisVLi s[lLi[ ELjiNTP xmsLixmsysNTP RVxmsRyLRiV. BLiRVs zms[ AR%saS*xqsLi xmspLjigS
LiVLij. FsxmsVRW FsRVy rysVW N][xqsLi RWRLi, y }mssVN][xqsLi
RzmsLiFsRLi [xqsVLiLRiV.
zms[ @sqx sLRi\sVs mx ssxms Buys, mx ss[}qs gRiVs |msR[ NRPLiy. mx ssLi[ c
[RNSs y [}qsj, RVN][xqsLi [}qsj, @sxqsLRi\sVs y sWRs[V [}qsj @s
sLi zms[ NRPgji[ |msRRWNRP NRPWy y rsVLjiFRVVgS RRWLRi[V
@sNSaRPsVVLij.
BNRP]NRP DyxLRi VysV. LSjNRP yLi[ NRPVVLi xqsVLiRLRiW
HNRPsVRLigS soLiyLRiV. NRPzqs .%ds RWryLRiV. NRPzqs [sLi [ryLRiV. BRLRiVNRPV y
HNRPsVys RW}qs sVVRgS soLiVLij. LSjNRPNTP sWRLi Rs BV INRP rygRiWRV
@szmsxqsVLij. ys[Li RsV RVNRPV LS[NRPFRVyss RxmsRVRW soLiVLij.
LSjNRPs RRLiRVV sWRs[V s[lLi[ BLiNTP Fs[yLRiVNSRV. "sVsLi[s[ sVsNTP

Fs[ xmssVVyLiVV. BLiNRP s[lLi[y][ LRigRiysNTP dLjiZNPNRPRVLij' @s ALiORPQV |ms[yLRiV.


AsV FsNRPTZNPy BLi[y][s[ NRPzqs s. }qszRV][ NRPzqs xqsLRiygS FyL`iNTP
NRPWy s[ @sNSaRPLi [RV. LSjNRPNTP NRPsVNRPsVLigS RsV][ zmsLi[ RVLi, LRiVNRPV
GLRiTLij. Rs NRPVVLi xqsV][ Rxms BLiZNPs*Lki][sW soLiR[NRPF[Vj. @lgi[ |msLjigji
|msR\Lij.
LSjNRP D][gRiLi[ [LSNRP FssLji][ Fs sWy[ RVNRP @LiRLji][sV
sVVsLigS soLi[j. LSjNRP gRiLji*ztsQ, "@xLi%s' @s[ \ = @LiRLRiW AsVNTP B[ryLRiV.
lLiLiRV, sVWRV s[s[ AsV D][gSsNTP LSysW [RVszqs sLij.
RsN][ sQQNTPR*Li, xqs*RLiRLi [Rs, Rss RRWLRiV[aSLRis A @sWLiVVNTP
RVRV. sLjiNTP LSjNRPNTP |msLiVVLij. AsV xmspLjigS @s %sxtsQRW[ LRi%dsV[
AyLRixmsRszqs sLij.
ksNTP xmspLjigS slLi[NRP\sVs sVL]NRP DyxLRi VysV.
LRis[VtsQ RRLiRVV %sRLi[ NRPxtsQxmsT \|msN]sy. yNTP "%saSLi' @s
xmsysNTP @LRiLi RVRV. zms][ NRPWR @xqssWsLi [V][ INRP xmss [LiVVxqsW soLi[y.
BxmsVRV LRis[VtsQNTP s\ G sLiyRVsVNRPVLiyLi.
@LiVVy NRPWy Bs[[ RsV y][ }mssVgS sWTs qx sLiRLSV NSs, Rs
ys NSs, y RssV NSs sVRVNRPVs xqsLiRLSV [so. RLiU N]RVNRPV sVR
xqsLiLiRLi ZNP[sLi xmss, RV sWRs[V.
LRis[VtsQ xqsW %sRLi[ INRP xqsLixmnsVs LjigjiLij. LRis[VtsQNRPLi[ {qssRVL`i= N]RLRiV
@Rss Axms Li[qx sLjiNTP, qx sxLigS As[aPR mx sLRiV\s LRis[Vt sQ @LiRV[ INRP N]RV.
yLiRLRiW NRPzqs LRis[VtsQsV gS N] %dsj[ xms[zqs sFRWLRiV. RNRPW, sVVsNUP
gS V Rgjis LRis[VtsQ EzmsLSRNRP L][RVsVR[ NRPWL][s sNTP sNTP GRsLi
sVVRV|msRV.
R xmsNRPNTP zmsRW}qs Rs LiVVLi sLRiLiy[ Rs RLiT sVLi]s Rs\s}ms
RWxqsVLiRRLi NRPsTLij. Bs V s RsV RxmsRVRVLi[, BRLiy RWxqsW NRPWy
RLiT, RsNRPV xqsRVLi [RVNRPFsLi][, RLiT RgjiLRiNRPV s ""sVs*LiRVNRPV yNRPV
xqsRWsNTP LS[RV'' @s @TgSRV.
BLi[NTP ss RLiT @Rs][ ""Bj dsNRPV gRiVFyhRiLigS %sLiRV. ds RsV sVs[*
mx sy. Fss*LRiW dsNRPV qx sRVLi [RVLRiV'' @yRV. RsNRPV qx sLiLijLis @s mx ssV[ Rs[
sLRiRWV xqs*RVLigS [xqsVN][szqs LSsLi][ @RsNTP G xms\sy xqs*LiRLigS [RVgRi aRPNTP
sLij.

NSds lLiLiRss[xmso sVLi INRP RVLRiRXxtsQNRPLRi\sVs xmsLjisVLi LRis[VtsQNTP GLRiTLij.


sxmssVLi @s RsV RNRP[ FsRVL][szqs LSsRLi][ Rs[ }mssVLSzRLi
sVVRLiVVLij. FssLki ss[VyRV NSRV. "}mssV Bs*RLi dxqsVN][yRLi NRPWy INRP sqs'
@s sVsxqsR*Li @Rs[ sms @LiVVs RLRiVyR INRP "BLisL`i 'gS sWLjiFRWRV.
@RXxtsQsaSRV LRi @sVNRPWs @sRLi][ }mssV, AFyRVRV xmsLi Bs*RLi][ @RsNTP
sWssy %sVsV zqs RLiT VVNRP xmssLi sVLi NRPsVNRPsVLigS RVxmsyRV.
INRPs[ @Rs LRi NRPWy @RsgS sVLjiRVqs @RVVLi[ A xqsLiryLRiLi xmspLjigS
yaRPsLi @RVVLi[j.
C lLiLiRV DyxLRi[ INRP @sxqsLRi\sVsysNRPy FsNRPVs AFyRVR ss*RLi,
lLiLiRsj @sxqsLRisVLiVVsLiR AFyRVR ss*NRPFsRLi. C lLiLiRW R}ms.
B[ DyxLRi[ Rs LRi sWsWNUP xmsoLiNTP Fns RVRLi, sWRLi,
LRis[Vt sQNTP %sRLigS @sLi[j . RRLiRV][ zmsV @LiR qx sszRLigS soLiLRids,
@sR yN][xqsLi LiVVsR y @LiRgS RzmsLiFyLRids LRis[VtsQNTP BLRi\s @LiVV[
RLRiVyR sVVsVVRryLji zqsLij.
@RsNTP C }mssV y g]xmsgS NRPszmsLiLij. Rs RLiT |msLixmsNRPLi[ @sTs
sQQNTPR*Li INRPs[mx so, Rs LRi mx sLis }mssV sVL]NRPs[mx so c C lLiLiTLi][ sVVR[
qx ssVRVLi NSNRPFLiVVy, RLRiVyRLRiVyR C %sysNTP @yVxmsT @LiRV[ soLi[
AsLiys Ary*jLiRrygSRV.
BxmsVRV sVL]NRP DyxLRi VysV. OTPQQ, NRPsV BRLRiV }qszRVLS. OTPQQ
sxmssVLi RRLiRV |msLixmsNRPLi[ INRP sQQNTPR*Li sos @sWLiVVgS LRiWxmsojRVNRPVLij.
Rs[Li[, Rs[Li [RW[, LRis Fs xqsV|ms[ A @sWLiVVNTP NRPlLiNRPVgS VxqsV.
gSRV[V @LiVVLij. D][gRiLi[ LiVVsLiVVLij. RRLiRVV RWzmsLis xqsLiLiRLi
[qx sVNRPVLij. sVVgRiVRV ygRiV[R V. |msNTPsVVLi[ @RsNTP INRP Fs\|mnsL`i soLij. @R yLjiLiNTP
ss OTPQQs @RsWsVV zLizqsLiRrygSLRiV.
sVLjiLiR NRPLi sVs
sLiRLi[RVrygSLRiV. sVL]NRPs[xmso LRi @yRLRi. xmspLji sQQNTPR*sVVs OTPQQ A BLi[
BsVR[NRPFLiVVLij. yLji][ T RVN][zqsLij. @xmsZNP[ As[V gRiLRis. sVd
NRPxtsQxmsT D][gRiLi xqsLiFyjLiRVN]s zmsy NRPLij. LRisVLiT %syNRPVV dxqsVNRPVLij.
xmsxqsVRLi ILiLjigS soLij.
AsV }qszRVLS\s NRPsV RRLiRV VVNRP xmspLji LRiORPQ[ gS sQQNTPR*Li
[NRPVLiy |msLjigjiLij; BLiLkiTV |mnsLiVV\Lij. @xmsZNP[ AsVNTP INRPLjiRLRiV [V|mnsLi`=
soyLRiV. RLRiVyR sVW][s RVNTPs }ms%sVLi[ |ms [qx sVNRPVLij.

A LRi AsVsV y @sVLSgRiLigS RWxqsVNRPVRV. @y c sWsVV NRPWy gS


RWxqsVNRPVLiLRiV. AsV LiVVxmsVRV sVVgRiVLRiV zms R. xmsoLiN]y NRPWy LRigRiVLjiLi[
sWRVRVLiVLij. %sRLi xqssogS rygjiF][Lij.
C lLiLiRV DyxLRi[, OTPQQ Rs sQQNTPR*Li][ @xtsQNRPuyV mx sRV, NRPsV G
sQQNTPR*Li [NRPVLiy |msLjigji, LRi dsRs LiVVgS NTPsV NRPsRVRVLij. NSs %dsVLRiV
LiVVLiN]NRP LRiNRPLi FyVs A[Li RWRLiT.
OTPQQNTP NRPsV LRi, NRPsVNTP OTPQQ LRi syLRisVN][LiT. @xmsVRV OTPQQ
LiVVxmsVRVsLiR AsLiRLigSs[ %sRLi gRiRVxmsoRVLi[j. NRPsV sWRLi LRi ygRiV[RLiVV,
@LiRNRPVsVVLi[ INRP Fs\|mnsL`i sosy\; @RsWsVV zLizqsLi[y\lLi[ ARxR [xqsVNRPVs
RsFRVVLi[j.
NS @RXxtsQLi @s[j @sNRPy sLRigS %sRgRisWs slLib[ PLi[j . @j
\sVLij. sVsztsQ Rs sQQNTPR*Li y*LS @RXuys NRPWy yLi [RVgRiRV.
OTPQQ @s NRPuyV sy NRPWy Rs zmsy |msLiRVNRPVLiW, sVL]NRPlLis\lLiy
sVLiyT Rs %sRLi[NTP A*sLiRysNTP FsRVLRiVRWxqsVLij. NRPsV AsLiRLigS soLi[
soLiRsRV. NSds A AsLiRLi[ AsV [zqsLi[%dsV [RV. @Liy [soRV [zqsLij sWRs[V
soLij. [soT%dsVR AyLRixmsT xqsVLigS ZNP[ sVsVxtsv xqsLi L][ L][NUP RgjiFRVLij
NS sVsLi sQQNTPy*s[ ssVVN][y.

@y RVLi c 4

zmsV c %sxtsQRV
L][L][NUP sVsztsQ %sRLi xqsLiNTPQxtsQs][Lij. C RLRiLi zmsV NS[[V RLRixmso
RVVsNRPVVgS sWlLi[ qx ssVRWsNTP sVsztsQ Rs sVsVgRiRN][xqsLi, AsLiRLi N][xqsLi sVLjiLiR
NRPxtsQxmsRszqs sxqsVLij. RLRi |msLRiVgRiVR, LRiLjiLi, xqsLiNRPVR RR*Li sVVR\ssds
L][L][NUP |msLjigjiFRVyLiVV.
C yysLRiLi[ AsLiRLigS RNRPRLi @s xqsLigRi xmsNRPs |msT[, NRPdsxqsLi RNRPRLi
NRPWy NRPxtsQryRsVsoRVLij. @VsLi xmsLjizqsRV[ sVs zmssV C xmsxmsLiRLi%dsVjNTP
sLiRVNRPV, %sVgRiy yLjiNRPy N]LiRLiVVy AsLiRLigS ZNP[ RVRLi
RRLiRVVgS sVs NRPLRisLi.

%sRLi @Li[ }msxmsLRiV%dsVR [\sQy NS{ms [RVRLi NSRV. Fs[ N`P= NSy. NRPLi
soLiy. AR%saS*xqsLi NSy. IN]ryLji sVsNTP Rgjis FsRVLRiV s[ sVs %sRVxmso
rFyyVgS sWLRiVN][y. |msLRi[ INRP V s[}qss[ ysNTP L][ dsLRiVFzqs, gRiVLRiV
s[zqsLiy [y, FsRVgRiV][Liy @s mx sLjibdPryLi. FsLRiVsoVs[ryLi. mx soLRiVgRiV sVLiRV RVyLi.
@VsLij zmss |msLiRszqs ssxmsVRV ys xmsLjixtsQLjiLiRVN][y[, qx ssVxqss G
%sRLigS FsRVL][y[, %sRLi[ AsLiys Fs @sV%sLiy[, RxmsVLiRVNRPV
RVNRPWR][, sVLi[ soLi[ AsLiRLi G%sV[ c Bsds sVsLi sxmsV[ yNTP
RV[RW. zmsV sVVNRPLiy. sVsLi gS FztsQ}qs, gS |msLRiVgRiVyLRiV.
[NRPF[ RVLRi*Qxqsy xmsoLRiVgRiVxms FyRsoyLRiV.

G LiVVRLRiV sVsVxtsvNUP qx ssVxqsV IZNP[ LSso. @lgi[ IZNP[ qx ssVxqsxms LiVVRLRiV


s[lLi[*LRiV sNRPV xmsxqsLiRs C xmsxmsLiRLi[ IZNP[ %sRLigS soLiRRV.
sVsztsQ xmsxmsLiRLi[ Fs[ ryjLiRgRigSRV. ryLiZNP[NRPxmsLRiLigS, \ssNRPxmsLRiLigS NRPWy.
NSds, LiVVs NRPLixmspL`is sWRLi RRWLRiV[RV[NRPFRWRV. ksNTP NSLRiLi G%sVLi[
INRP sVsztsQ xqs*RgS A[LiRgRiRV.
Rs qx ssVxqssV mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRVN][gRiRV. N]RN]R A[RsV [RVgRiRV. FssLRiW
xmsssxqsLRiLi [NRPVLiys[ xqs*RgSs[ %sxtsQRWV VxqsVN][gRiRV. NSds, NRPLixmspL`i
@NSRV. sVsLi GLi }ms @j [qx sVLij. sVsztsQ sVRRVNUP, NRPLixmspL`iNUP sos C [ys
RLiRVV gRizLiy.
zms sVR xqs*RgS A[LiRgRilgi[ NRPLixmspLRi Li%s. N]LiR
xqs*szqsR\sVs A[Rs soy, %sVgRiy sWRLi RRLiRVV Fs slLi[bP}qs A %sRLigS
RRWLRisoRVLij.
DyxLRiNTP, J NRPVLRiyRV \|qsNTP%dsVR s J sVVxqssVsV UN]yRV. A
sVVxqssV NTPLiRmx sT @NRPTNRPNRP[ sXyxmsLi s ss uyN`P][ sVLRiLiLij. @VsLi
xmsLjizqsRV[ A NRPVLRiyRV GLi RWs[j RRLiRV |msLixmsNRPLi%dsVR AyLRixmsT soLiVLij.
@NRPRsVLi FyLjiFy, sLis[ sVVxqss[V RgRiLRiZNP AsV mx sLjizqs gRisVsLiy,
sVgRiVLjis zmsy, RsV NRPWy GRVxqsW NRPW][y, BLiNTP xmsLRiVlgiRVNRPVLiW s
RRLiRVNTP Fy, [NRP @NRP[ \|qsNTPj[zqs xmsLjilgiRVNRPVLiW s G LiVV[ FsNTP
RWLRiFyLiyNRPV FyLjiFy c Bs A[RsV INRP NRPVLRiyT sVsxqsV[ NRPVgRiVyLiVV.
BLiRV[ G sLRiRVLi dxqsVNRPVLiRs[j RxmssxqsLjigS RRLiRV |msLixmsNRPLi %dsVR AyLRixmsT
soLiVLij. INRP qx ssVxqsNTP s[lLi[*LRiV sNRPVV s[lLi[*LRiVgS qx sLijLiRRLi @Li[ B[.
zms[ xqs*szqsRLigS AFyRVR, |msRxms BxtsQLi soLiLiVV. ys [[RV
|msR[ RLi|msRVNRPWRRV. NRPxqsVLRiVN][sRLi, RLi, y RxmsVs RWzmsLi }s
RVRLi, N]RLiLisds zms[ soLi[ AFyRVRsV RLi}msryLiVV.
zms[ |msRxms FsLiR @sVLSgRiLi soLiVLi][ xmsysNTP INRP s NRPR FysV.
LSsVV A L][ y RgS soyRV. FsxmsVRW RgjiLRi NRPWL][VN]s NRPRV }ms
yRRV lLiLi][sVLid @yL][gRiLi][ RxmsRVRVyRV. yRRVNTP DxqsLi.
RV GsWRLi sVV xmsy yRRV ARWxqsLi][ L]xmsVRW, sWR[NRPFyRV.
LSsVV R RLiRVV NRPWy yRRV AL][gRiLixms ALi][sgS soLiLRiV.
@LiRVs A LiVVLiy %suyRLi yLiR%srLij. lLiLi][ sVLi yLSFyRLigS
sL<RiLi NRPVLRiVrLij. ANSaRPLi NRPsRNRPVLiy sVVV RLigS NRP%sV soyLiVV. RgS

sVWzqssos NTPNUP RVxmso xqsLiRV[Li LigS ][xqsVNRPVsrLij. @VsLi xmsLjizqsRV[


yRRVNTP DxqsLi LSNRP GLi [xqsVLij?
yNRPL] yRRVsV xmsLkiOTPQxqsVLi[, LSsVV ssLigS [RVV NRPVNRPV sVyRV.
yNRPL`i \N] LSsVV RLiT][, ""xmsLjizqs %sxtsQsVLigS soLij. RgS [xmsNTP LSss*RV.
LiZNPV NRPxmsLiT'' @s xmsLi LSsVV %syRV.
yNRPL`i sFLiVVs RLS*R Rs R RLiT][ "xqsWLRiVRV NSxqs NRPsxmsTy
gRiVLiRVsLiU, sWsVRVgSLji AL][gRiLi y %sxtsQ%sVLiLij NRPRW' @s xmsRLi NRPWy
%syRV.
A LS LSsVV xmsp gRij[NTP s [soTs sVsryLS FyLjiLiyRV sVLSRV F~RVs
LSsVV [[xqsLjiNTP BLi[ xmspLRi*xmso AsLiRLi ]NTPxqsRV][Lij. LSsVV xmsLRiVlgiRVNRPVLiW
yRRV RgRiLRi N]yRV.
xmspLRi*Li gRi yRRV C \L][ NRPWL]s sso*RW LSsVVs xmsNRPLjiLiyRV. @LiR
xhSRVgS yRRVNTP Fs Rgij FLiVVLi][ LSsVWNTP @LiR Q\sVLij. LSsVW RLiT sWRLi
yNRPLjis sVLiRVs RgjiFLiVVLiRsVNRPVyRV.
LSsVV yRRV xmsRVNRPVs jLiRV NTPLiRsVLi RsV yLiVVLig`i s[zqss NSgjiRLi dzqs
@LiRLjiNUP RWzmsLiyRV. A NSgjiRLi%dsVR INRP qx sWLRiVT sV soLij!...... Bk NRPR.
NS, zmsV RsV xmsLjij[ ysVV |msRNTP G][ RW @sVNRPVLiW soLiRV.
BLi N][lLis ryxmns xmsLji[ RR NRPWy RRLiRV[ dxqsVN][y. DyxLRiNTP,
AL][ RLRigRi RRVsoNRPVs NRPVLRiyTs, ""ds r~LiR RV][ yNRPV G[y INRP xmsLi[xtsQs
N]s dxqsVNRPVLS'' @s INRP RLiT @Tgji[, RLiT d ysVV\y xqslLi[ Rs r~LiR
RV][ A zmsyRV N]s|msT[ A RLiT xqsLi][ztsQLisV NRPsy.
FsLiRVNRPLi[ A zms ryLiVVNTP lLiLiRV LRiWFyRVV xqsLiFyjLiRRLi NRPWy NRPxtsQs[V.
B xqsLiFyjLiRRLi s xqsLiFyRs VVNRP NRPxtsQLi, RVNRPVs %sVs lLiLiRW VryV.
@xmsVRV y RVLS RVLRiV.
mx sRs RLRigRi NSds @LiRNRPy \|msNSqx sV NSds Rjs[ NRPVLRiys\lLiy soLi[, yNRPy
szmsNTP WxtsQs }ms RR @xmsgjiLiy. @ @xmsgjiLiRRLi y*LS ysVV
sVLjiFLiVVs sQNSqx sV FyhSV sVd Rjs[ @sNSaRPLi soLiVLij. @kNSNRP, INRP
lLirys=V ryys RsVNRPV ys[V AFyjLiRVNRPVLiLRiV.
xmsNTPLiy,
F~LRiVgjiLiy B[ WxtsQs {mns NRPWy C zms[ AR%saS*rys NRPgRi[xqsVLij. s[sV
sVLisVLi[ Fss%sVRs NSxqsV Rjs[xmsVRV, yVg][NSqx sV zmsyTNTP ALRiVsV FyhRiLi
zms BLRi\syVgRiV LRiWFyRVV xqsLiFyjLiysV c @s ksWgS VyLRiV.

RRVso c %sxtsQ RV :
s[sxmsVRW xmnsqsNSqs N][xqsLigSds, xmnsqs LSLiN`P N][xqsLigSds y RRVso[ xmsRVLiR[RV.
@lgi[ xmsRsRLRigRi FyxqsLiVVs sW @LiVVNTP HRV sLiR xmssLiRV sWLRiVV
syRVds, }qs LSLiN`P NRPy ZNP[sLi BLRi\s sWLRiV[ RNRPVss s[sV qx sLi][ztsQLiR[RV.
@Rs "RVLi|qs'\sxmso sNRPVLiy NSsVL`i= RRssVysV.
FsLi|qs Rj%s yVlgi[ RRVso xmspLji[zqs INRP BLidsL`igS[, INRP yNRPLRiVgS[
@RsV FsLiR ryys F~LiRVy][, FsLiR RV xqsLiFyjry][ @Li[ ryys, RVs
NSsVLRiV=[ NRPWy F~LiRsRs s[sV @FyRVxmsysV.
yTNTP @LiVVRVsLiR xmssLiRV sWLRiVV LSNRPVLiy, yVgRiVsLiR Fss\[V
s %sVgRiy %sxtsQRWxms @sVLRiNTP, %sxtsQRVxmsLjisLi, Dy=xLi, Fy%dsR soLiT s[sV
RLiTgS sVlLiLi][ xqsLi][ztsQLi soLi[yTs.
xms[ sRVxqsV[s[ yT[R \|sqs sVLi BLji*Lig`i ys sLRiNRPV, ALRiL`i NSxqsVsVLi
mnsLki ALRiL`i sLRiNRPV Rj%sLiysV.
RVLRiRXxtsQsaSRV A[ G Fy%dsR xqsLiFyjLiR[NRPFRWRV. INRP zmsyT VVNRP
g]xmsRssVLiy "@RTZNPs sWLRiVyLiVV' @s %sxtsQRVLi %dsVR AyLRixmsT soLiRRs
s[sV gSRLigS %saRP*zqsrysV.
@LiRLRiW s[VysoVLi[ INRP gRiWxmso[ soLiRRLi NRPy, @RNRPV N]jgS RNRPVs
ryLiVV[ soLi[ gRiWxmso[ soLiRLi s \ss xqsWLiLi sLiL`i ssgS zqsysNTP
FsNRPVs rxmsoLij.
@lgi[ @s LSLiN`PV, xmnsqs NSxqsVV s[ NS[[ RRsLi NRPy, |qsNRP` lgi[`
ryLiVV[ xmsLkiORPQV Fyxqs[V %syLRiVVs NS[[ %dsV NRPVLRiyRVLiT, xmnsqsNSqs RVNRPVLi[,
sWLRiV sW @VLi, @LiRLjiNRPy s[sV g]xmsyTs @s[ AR%saS*xqsLi yT[
|msLRiVgRiVRVLij.
Bj sVVLiRV sVVLiRV %sRLi[sW, A{mnsqx sV[sW y gS mx ss[xqsVLij. @LiRVs
|msR |msR ]s[xtsQsV Li, sVLi xqsW[s[ [LjiLiys[ @FyRWs RRLiRVV
sRVVN][y.
xmnssL`i= \|RLS` xmsN`P xqsW, LRidRV %syss Li @s
qx sW[sW sW @LiVVNTP {qsV sy s[sV sW @LiVVs @NRPR [LjiLi[
xmsRVRs[V%dsV [RV[RV. @lgi[ BLiLkiT[V [LjiLi[xmsVRV NRPWy G |msR
NS[[[ [LjiLiRysNTP s[sV Dy=xLi RWzmsLiR[RV. sVsLi Rjs[ RRVsoNUP, NS[NTP
G qx sLiLiRsVW [Rs s[sV %saRP*zqsrysV.

zmsV c ryLiZNP[NRP xmsLji sLi :


\|mss zmss %sRLigS c zms ZNP[sLi RRVso[s[ xmsLjixmspLRiV [RVysNTP RLiRVV
Dy=xxmsRNRPWRRV. ryLiZNP[NRP mx sLjissVLi[ |msR |msR %sxtsQRW[Li NSRV. gRiTRWLRiLi
FyRLiVV[ gjiLiRRLi, [msLjiNSLRiL`i NS|qs[ [ms gjiF[ Ljigji ys @NTPLiRRLi.....
BLi s s %sxtsQRW RsVLiR ysVV gRiV[xqsVNRPVs[gRi zmsNTP sxmssVLi[
\QsLig`i By*.
@Li \QsLig`i zmsV |msRyRWNRP FsLi qx ssVxqsQ\sy yLjiNRPLigS
A[Li xmsLjixtsQLjiLiRgRilgi[ \sxmsosxqsVLi[ xaS %dsVNRPV AaRPLRiLi NRPgRisRV.
INRPryLji yLiVVLig`i RL`i \|qsNTP sV sRVsVsxmsVRV zmssLRiW A sV xqsLjigS
sRV[NRPFRWLRiV. Rs[V%sVLi[ A NSxqsV[ soLi[ zms[ V aSRLi, L][ \|qsNTP
%dsVR xqsWN]ryLRiV. RRVso][V BRLRi %sxtsQRWsV NRPWy sbPRLigS xmsLjibdPLi[ zmsV
sVsV qx sLjigS s[RVgRigSLRiV.
ZNP[sLi RRVso Rxms BRLRi %sxtsQRWsV xmsLiRVN][s zmsV sVsV xqsLjigS
sRV[NRPFRWLRiV. zms RX}tsQxmsVRW RRVso%dsV[ soLiT %sVgRiy %sxtsQRWds
xmsLiRVN][NRPFsRLi @s[j ZNP[sLi |msR[ RLkiRV[ [xmss[V.
zmsNRPV %ssLi s[LjisLiR sWRs[V xqsLjiFRV. xmssRsLi s[LS. @LiRV[
sVsLi [aRPLi[ G][ INRP yLi[ \sxmsoLi s[LRiRLi y @sxqsLRiLi zqsssW xmsLjiaRPsV[
INRP xqsRV RLRi+NRPVTNRPy, INRP LRiRLiVVR NRPy, INRP V NRPV[ RLki FsNRPVs
xqsLiFyjryRLi[ xaS %dsVNRPV AaRPLRiLi NRPgRisRV.
ysVLij zmsV NRPLi[ RVxmsRyLRiV. FsNSV, gRiVLiyV, yV,
sUV, aSyV yNTP RVLiNRPLRi\sVs LSORPQxqsV NRPsxmsRVRVLiLiVV. ksNTP NSLRiLi yNTP
qx s\lLis @F` [NRPFsRs[V. mx sRspxLi[NTP @sVsVRV ]RVNRPVFLiVVsV qx ssVxqs[NPT
]RVNRPVF[NRP, IRVs sVLi]s RW}qs sVsqx sy*s LiVVVsLi zms[ gRisVsLiRsRV.
N]LiRLRiV zmsNTP gS s[VRxqsV= soLiVLij. NSds NRPLi[ RVsVVLiVLij.
Bj ZNP[sLi y VVNRP @Ryys qx sWxqsVLij. @lgi[ sVLjiN]LiRsVLij
RRLiRVV zms[ xqsxLigS soLi[ xqsXyRNRPRsV RLi}mszqs V xmssVs, xmsoxqsNS[
FssoLi][ @ RRssVs sLiRLi [xqsVLiLRiV. Bj y yLRiV\sVs xmsLjizqs.
zms yxtsQxmsNSLRiLi RRVsoN][sVs ys sj[}qsLiVV[ %sxtsQRV[ y
sNRPsWLRiLi[ xmsRyLRis; G%dsV ryjLiR[LRis RRLiRVV @sVNRPVLiLRiV. @NSNRPVLiy INRP
ryLiVVNTP ss zms y[Li RRVsoyL][, [s%dsVR @LRiVRVLi][ yy*LS
VxqsVNRPVs y }msj sVLki sLRiLiR NRP\sVs N][LiR =LiVV[ c y[ soLi[ suyV yNTP

%sxmsoLigS zms ys xqsNRPsV sWLRiLi[ |msRV. NSds %ds\sLiRsLRiNRPV zmsNTP G xqsNRPV


LiVVxtsQ\sV[ @j Rj%sLiRRs[V sVLij. %dsVLRiV gRisVsLi soLi[ %sRLi[ y \|msN]s
yLiRLRiV ysVV xmsxqsVRLi @sV%sxqsVs %sR %syysNUP, RsV RRVsoNUP qx sLiLiRLi [s
ygSs[ soLiLRiV.
BxmssLRiNRPV s[sV zmsLij NRPVxmsLigS qx s%dsVOTPQrysV.
__ zms[ VxqsVN][ys[ soy=xLi soLiVLij.
__ zmsNTP C xmsxmsLiRsVLiy INRP %sVxqsLkigRi NRPsRVRVLij. A %sVxqsLkis sRVxqsV][ FyV
%sRg]ysNTP xmsRVxqsVLiLRiV.
__ FNTPLji sVsqx sy*s sxmssVLi[ NRPgji soLiLRiV.
__ BRLRiVV[}qs xmsss @sVNRPLjiryLRiV.
__ NRPV=RR*Li @xqsVLiRRV.
__ xqsXyRNRP aRPNTP NRPgji soLiLRiV.
__ sWszqsNRPgS y |mnstsQgS soLiLRiV.
__ y sbPRLigS RVWsos xmsLjixqsLS xmsLjibdPxqsW soLiLRiV.
__ xqs*RgS \LRi gRiVLi NRPgji soLiLRiV.
__ |msR @<sss FsxmsVRW RsV%dsVRNTP sVLRiVN][ys RWxqsWLiLRiV.
zms gS |msLi[ %sysLi C NTPLij yVgRiV xmsaRP %dsVR AyLRixmsT soLiVLij.
@%s :
1. s[ssLji?
2. s[ssLji qx sLi][tx sQ|ms?
3. y ORPQQLi G%sV?
4. y OSQQsV ryjLiRRLi[ s[sNRPR soysV?

1. s[ssLji ?
ysVsL][, FsLiRVNRPV xmsoL][, %sRORPQQLi G%sV[ yLjiNTP RVFy. zms }msLRiV
g]xms%s, ARLRi+sLiR\sVs%s @LiVV[ @%s yLjiNTP FsLiRVNRPV |msTs[ xmsyLi ss N]LiR
Fy=s @LijLi yLji %sVssW, g_LRiys |msLiRsRV. C }msLRiV VVNRP xmssLi
zms[ NRPdsqx sLi mx syVlgi[ sRVxqsV s[sLRiNRPV soLiVLij.
zms }qszRV, zms RVW xmsLjixqsLS |msRV sLRiLiRLRiLi gRisVsxqsW soLiy.
ylLisL][ yLjiNTP RV[RWLi[ zmsNTP ""ylLisLRiV NS]['' RV[RW. zmsV
|msRysoRVs N]k yVVNRP OSQQs, yVVNRP gRisWs yNTP }qs
[RW. DyxLRiNTP RLixmsRVNTP BRLRiV zmsVLi[ ""sXyxmsLi[ RsVsV FztsQLi[

RR zms['' @s BLi\lLiNRPVgS VRW LSy. ysNTP NSs=sLiR AFyRVR,


@sVLSgRiLi sVVLiRVsVLi LiVVy*. sVVRsVLi zmsxms sVsLi sVLjiRVzqsN`PgS
xmssLji}qs sVVLiRV sVVLiRV y NRPWy @lgi[ xmssLjiryLRis BLiRNRPVsVVLiRV @yRVLi[
xmsLi LjigjiLij.
RsVsV ysVV VxqsVN]s[ xmsRVRLi[ zmsNTP ][xRxmsy. zms %dsVR
sLiRLigS sVs @LRiVs LRiVRNRPWRRV. NRP[ DR=xLi sos zmsyTs yNRPLji
[RWs[ sVs @xtsQs sLiRLigS LRiVRNRPWRRV. Bj NRPWy gRiR yxmsL`i[ %sxmsoLigS
RLjiLiRLi LjigjiLij.
zmsV BLiLkiTV Rjs[ sLRiNRPV |msR RXztsQ[ @xqsV RVLRiV, NSLiNRPLRiV,
F~ztsQRVs, |qsNRP[LjiRV[ gRiVsWry, zqsssW F~RWxqsL`i, yFyLRis[R..... BLi
sXRV[ xqsVLRiNTP LSso. @LiVV[ yNRPLRiV, [NRPF[ NRPNRPLRiV, NSNRPF[ BLidsLRiV, [NRPF[
ylLi` @N_LiLi @s[ xmsR[s[ A[ryLRiV. RsV zmsV |msR sXRV[NTP ss[
N][LjiNRP soLiRLi qx ssVLixqss[V.
NSds, %sVgRiy sXRV[%ds yNTP qx sLjiFso @s A[Rs sVLij NSRV. yNRPLRiV,
BLidsLRiV FsLiR xqsLiFyjxqsVyL][, qx ssWLi[ yLjiZNPLiR g_LRisLi soLi][ %sVgRiy
sXRVyLjiNTP NRPWy @Li[ soLij. C %sxtsQRVLi zms[ sxmsV[ G\y NSLi}msN`P=V
RVV[LRiVRVLi[ ys gRiVLjiLiRszqss RR |msR[.

2. s[ssLji xqsLi][xtsQ|ms ?
zmsV xqsLi][xtsQ|msszqsLij |msRsV! Fs xqsLi][xtsQ|ms[ |msR[ zmsNRPV }qs
RW. "|msRsV xqsLi][xtsQ|msRLi y*LS ysVV NRPWy xqsLi][xtsQLigS soLiRsRV' @s
%sxtsQRVLi zmsNRPV sVsxqsV[ yVNRPVs[ [RWLi[, "zmssV xqsLi][xtsQ|msRLi y*LS
ysVV xqsLi][xtsQLigS soLiVysVV' @s %sxtsQRVLi |msRV gRizLiy.
sW \lLiL`i= sL`iuyms[ INRP @zqs|qsLi mx ss%sV[ @sWLiVV c gS FyV
FyRVRVLij. ryRVLiRLi ALRiVsVLi xmsRN]LiTLi sLRiNRPV xmsN`P FgSsV=[ FyV FyT
L][NRPV sVWRVsLiR sVLiT @LiVVRV sLiRyNS xqsLiFyjxqsVLij.
sNTP xmsjs[sLRiNRPV Rs RLiTNTP xmsLizmsxqsW gRiRLi[ Rs RLiT [zqss ORPQLRiWFyRV
@xmsV[ RgjiLRi RgjiLRi LiVV s[ sLRiNRPW dlLi[zqsLij. AsV C %sRLigS NRPxtsQxmsRsNTP
NSszqss qx sWQQLjis "RLiTVVNRP @xmsVV dLRiVxqsVysV' @s qx sLiRXzms F~LiRVRVLij.
%dsVNRPV %dsV zmsNRPV sVR xqsLiLiyV FsLiR \sVs[, RVxtsQryxxqsLi sVLi sRG
sT @LiRNRPLi[ LigSsV, RXRLigSsV soLiVLij. zmsV NRPWy @V\sxmso ]LiRLRigS
ANRPL<jiRVsoyLRiV. %dsVLRiV gRisVsLi RW}qs mx syVlgi[ sRVxqsV=[ }mssV[xmsTs
ARyLiy RRLiRV][ sVLi xqsLiLiyV [sy[ @LiVV soLiLRiV.
3. y ORPQ Li G%sV?
BLi sLRiRWs dxqsVNRPVs[sVVLiRV sWszqsNRP qx sLiVVLSs, aSLkiLRiNRP RXRy*s,
{sR RXztsQ[ |msVN][y. INRP {sLigS sos NRPVLRiyT y RLiT INRP
\|qssNRPVT RWs sVVLiRVsVLi[ Fys sRVNRPWRRV.
yLjiNRPsLi, sVLi %s[V [s zmsyTs ylLi` @N_LiLi[, BLidsL][
RWs[ AaRPs sxmssVLi[ sj[xqsVN][y. [NRPF[ @Rs[ A {sR Fs
LRiWxmsosWFy[ A[LiRVN][y.
s[sV AL][ NSxqsV RRVsoRVsxmsVRV R RLiRVV |msLixmsNRPLi[ NSNRPVLiy RV
|msLixmsNRPLi[ |msLRigRiRLi s NRP[ xmsj sWLRiV[}ms LSsRLi s xmsLkiORPQ FsLi yNRPV
gS gRiVLRiVLij. A RLRiVyR s[sV @sLiRxmspL`i ryLiVV xqsW[ Rj%ssxmsVRV INRP
sVLi sWryLRiV aRPR dxqsVN][sRLi s A xqsLisR=LRiLi sWNTP sWLRiV sWLRiVV LSsRLi
NRPWy yNRPV gRiVLRiVLij.
A RLRiVyR ylLi` @N_Lids=[ NSqs @N_Li=, @N_Li=[ sVLi sWLRiV][
DdLRiR ryjLiRgRigSsV. INRP sVsztsQ INRP {sRsV @jgRi%sVLiRRLi |msR NRPxtsQs[V%dsV NSRV.
@ @jgRi%sVLiR[s xmsORPQLi[ A LRiLigSs sj[zqs s[lLi[ LRiLigSs FssVN][sRLi NRPWy

@ryRs[V%dsV NSRV.

4. y OSQQ s ryjLiRRLi[ s[sNRPR soysV?


xms sVWRV sN][, ALRiVsN][ %dsV zmsyRV Rs gRisWs ryjLiRysNTP FsLiR
RWLRiLi[ soyRV? @s %sxtsQRWs gRisVsxqsW soLiy. sVLid xmsLkiORPQQ[, mnsBRVLki
mx sLkiORPQQ[ sWLRiVV qx sLjigS LSNRPF[ "\|mnss[ sWyRV FyxqsLiVV[ y[. sVLi sWLRiVV
LSNRPFLiVVy xmsn LRiy[RV' @s @FyRVLi GLRiLRiRVN][NPR WRRV.
@lgi[ INRP zmsyRV gRiLiLiVVN][, sVlLi[ sVRVsVLiRVN][ @yVxmsT[ FsLiR
]LiRLRigS gRiz}qs @LiR sVLij. sVVLigS ARzmsVs RRLiRVV RsV zmsV
}mssV[ mx sT[ qx sVLigS xmsVN][gRiLRiV.
@xmssLRiNRPV RVLRiVgS sos @sWLiVV ssLigS soLiRLi, Dy{qssLigS soLiRLi,
G][ A[xqsW soLiRLi, BLisds }mssV[xmsTs ORPQV. RRLiRVV RsV
NRPWRVLRiV }mssV[ mx sTs %sxtsQRWs A @sWLiVV }mssLRiNRPV gRiVLjiLiRNRPF[, @j A
RRLiRVNRPV RsV NRPWRVLji\|ms xqsVsbPR RXztsQ [Rs %sxtsQRWs xqsWxqsVLij.
zmsV RsV OSQQNRPV FsLiR RWLRiLi[ soyLRis %sxtsQRVLi gRiVLjiLiRszqsLij C
%sR LigS RRLiRV[.
qx sLiLiy V :
AzqsFyxqsVV G%dsV [NRPFLiVVy, RRLiRV AxqsVxms[ soLiRysNTP s[NTP c s[V
LRiLiVVy zmsV |msR%s gRiVsos NRPuyV @j%sV|ms, G][ %sRLigS RV xqsLiFyjLi,
RRLiRV AL][gSs NSFyRVN][sRLi N][xqsLi NRPxtsQxmsRLi sVsLi RWxqsWs[ soyLi.
L][L][NTP xmsxmsLiRLi sVLjiRVzqsN`PgS sWLRiV][Lij.
sWss xqsLiLiys ALij NRP xqsLiLiyV G %sR LigS y%sVs[ [ryW y [qs
ss "@LiRLRiVLi'[ NTPRVL`igS LSaSsV. BVsLi xmsLjizqsRVV GLRiRNRPVLiy soLiyLi[
sVsVxtsv sVR (sVVLigS RLiT, zmssVR) sVLi xqsLiLiyV soLiy.
sVLi xqsLiLiyV FyLi[ %syyV yVgRiV.
1. xqsVsRR*Li
2. IxmsLiRLi
3. xmsbPLi[ }qs*R.
4. @sgSxs.

1. xqsVsRR*Li :
"xmsxmsLiRLi[ RRLiRVNRPV @RLiR %sV\ss sj ysVV' @s xms zmsyTNTP
RW. C %sxtsQRVLi zmsV VxqsVN][yLi[ RRLiRVV %dss xqsVsRLigS
LiT RW. "xqsWLiVVFgSs[ BLiNTP s. BLi RgRiLRi Rs R FsRVLRiV
RWxqsVLiVLij' @s ss zms[ NRPgSLi[ A R zmsyT FsLi][ AFyRVR][
|msLiRszqs soLiVLij.
zms RLiTLiRszqss xqsLiRLSV @s[NRPLi LSsRV. ysNTP RgjisVgSs[ RVV,
RLiRVV xmssLjiLiRsRV. sWsVWVgS sos qx ssVVRLi RVFnysV ssmx sVRV AVgS,
FVgS \|msN]y %sVgRiy qx ssVRW[ sWsVWVgS soLiW s[Vmx nsWy*LS sVsVxtsv
LRiOTPQxqsVLij. @lgi[ N][xmsLi ssmx sVRV RLiTLiy, %sVgRiy qx ssVRW[ sNRPRgS }mssV
RWzmsLiRszqss RR RRLiRV[. ksNTP N]s xqsV:
__ %dsVLRiV zms][ RxmsVgS xmssLjiLisV %dsVNRPszms}qs @j %dsV zms RgRiLRi IxmsVN][LiT.
(C mx soxqsNRPLi sVVR[ yzqss INRP Fyxms BLigkitx sv ALjiNRP sVd BLiN]NRPryLji RRsLiT)
__ yLji [s xqsQXbPLiRRLi gSds, ys RgRiLRiNRPV dxqsVN][sRLi gSds @xmsVRxmsVRV
[RVLiT. @j AFyRVRsV xqsWxqsVLij.
__ sVLki gRiLidLRiLigS soLiRLi %dsV sQQNTPy*s RWLiRsRVgSds %dsV zms RgRiLRi
sWRLi gRiLidLRiLigS soLiRLiT. y G %sxtsQRVLi[\sy RxmsT[ %dsVLRiV
R xmsRNRPLiT. rysV W RWxmsLiT.
__ gRiRgS %ssLiT. NRPLiR V Bs*R V.
2. IxmsLiRLi :
G zmsyT\ZNPy RsV RRLiRVV RsVsV }mssV][ LijLiyLRiV @s Ex FsLiR
g]xms xqsLiRXzmssxqsVLij. BLiRNRPVsVVLiRV yxmsL`i[ INRP Fyxms BLiNTP AxqsLigS s}qs s[LRiV
s[LRiV RRLiRVV Fs xmssLjiryL][ LSRVRLi Ljigjisj. A Fyxms BLiNTP AxqsLigS s}qs R
RLiRVV mx sLiRVN][NRPF[ sVVR[ y Rmx sTLij. ORPQLi ORPQLi sVs }mssVsV
sLRiWzmsLiRVN][szqss "AsaRPNRPR' FsLi][ soLij. ksNTP N]s qx sV.
__ xms ryRVLiRLi %dsV zmss A L][ Fs gRiTLi][ @Tgji VxqsVN][LiT.
__ yT NSLRiNRPsW[ FyVxmsLiRVN][LiT.
__ %dsV zmsyT xqsWVZNP yT @sXj G[VLRiLigS[ Fs DLi][ @Tgji
VxqsVN][LiT.

__ xqsW RWssLRi= xmnsLiORPQsNTP, }mslLiLi= [NTP, FgRiqsNSLRiV BsxmsVRV %dsV

LRiNRPys[ xmsLixmsNRPVLiy RxmsNRPVLiy %dsVLRiV gSs [NRP BRLRiW NRPzqsgSs sLiT.


@j sVLi xmsR.
__ %dsV zmsLi[ %dsV ZNPLiRVNRPV gRiLRi*sW yNRPV }qs RVLiT.

3. xmsbPLi[ }qs*R :
zmsNTP |msRsV xmsbPLi[ }qs*R NSy. %dsV zmsV J|mssgS sLiVVdgS
soLiRsNTP FsLiR }qs*RsryL][, @LiRgS s %sVs |msLiRysNTP NRPWR ][LRiRyLRiV.
NRPVVLi xqsV sVR NRPWR "BLiLSORPQs' gS |msLRiVgRiVRVLij.
%dsV zmsV %sVsVTlgi[ xqssVLixqs\sVs xmsaRPNRPV DR\sVs qx ssWyys*LiT.
FsNRPQ\[ zmsNRPV xmsbPLi[ }qs*R [][ @NRPR y {mnsLig`i=s NTP |ms[ryLRiV. A
%sRLigS [RVRLi s A {mnsLig`i= y[ @gjixmsLS*y NRPVR NRPVR DTNTP INRPryLjigS
}msyLiVV. @xmsVRV A {mnsLig`i=s RV sNRPV][ xmsLiRVN][sysNTP BxtsQxmsRyLRiV. %dsVNRPV
sWszqsNRPLigS RWLRisVsoyLRiV.
4. @sgSx s :
sVs%dsVR sVs gRiRLi yWNRPV xmssLi, sVs RVW sos xmsLjixqsLS xmssLi xqsxtsQLigS
sVsNRPV @sgSx\s soLiT. BRLRiV sNRPVV |ms [xqsVNRPVsxmsVRV, lLiLiRV gRiyV NRPzqs INRP
sLRisWsLigS %sLiRRLi FyLRiLiryLiVV. A sLRisWss[V RRLiRVVgS LRiWxmsojRVN]s
zms %sxtsQRVsV dLjijRVRVLij. sVsNTP sVs gRiRLi INRP @sVsLi. sVs zmsNTP sVss[V
INRP @sVsLi. NS gRiRLi[ sVsLi s[LRiVNRPVs FyhS RV}msgRi
xmsRVLiy.
s[sV y sVV\|ms#s xqsLisR=LRiLi[ [sV=T [ , ALiR L`i }%ds ssV Rjs[yTs.
A RLRiVyR AlLi[RV qx sLisR=LSNTP @zqssWs, @LiVVsr sLi \|qsLiqx sV mx soxqsNSV
RRsRLi LjigjiLij. sW @LiVVNTP s[sV xmsj}ss xqsLisR=LRiLi[s[ @zqssWs xmsoxqsNS
yT NRPLRiLiNSs %sxtsQRW xmsRLi y*LS %sV= @Li` Ws,@ [sV= U [ Li
sWsVWV xmsoxqsNS ryLiVVsVLi INRPsVV \|msNTP lgiLiLi sVLi xmsoxqsNS xms @sgSxs
GLRiLRiRgRigSsV.
y sVVxmsLiVV qx sLisR=LS sRVxqsV @sVys s[sV y NRPVsWLRiVTNTP xmsNRPFLiVV
soLi[ yTNTP NRPWy A xmsoxqsNSV RRsysNTP sVL][ xmsj}sV xqsLisR=LSV xms[j. C
%sRLigS xmsj}sV xqsLisR=LS @sVys (xmsoxqsNSNRPV xqsLiLijLi)@RsNTP Bs*gRigSsV.

IZNP[ryLji sVW][ sVV%dsVRNTP ss A zmsyTNTP yVg][ sVV%dsVRNTP, @LiVV][ sVV%dsVRNTP


[LRiysNTP xaS yNRPV xmsss xqsLisR=LSV xmsNRPFsRV.
....... y qx sLiRLS[ sVs gRiRLi sVsNTP s[VV [}qsjgSs[ soLiVLij. sVsZNPRV\lLis
qx ssVxqsV c ys mx sLjitx sQLjiLis %sysLi, sVs @sVyV sVs zmsNTP %ssLjiLi
xmsgRigji[, Bsds %sR rFyyVgS DxmsWgRimx sRyLiVV.

dNRP N][ V :
xmssVsztsQNUP dNRP N][V N]sVLiLiVV. INRP RLiTNTP gSylgi[ @yV
soLiRsRV. INRP RNTP LigSLRiLi xms, dlLixms gS zms soLiRsRV. RsV dNRP
N][ zmsV @LRiLi [xqsVNRPVs[gRi RW.
RsV {sR sVLi RVxmsRsNTP ysVLiR NRPxtsQxmsRVRVyL][, @ xmsR[NRP
NRPVVLisNTP FsLiR sxtsQLi sxqsVLi][ zmsNTP @LiR sV[V [ y[ [*xtsQLi rys[ INRP
%sR\sVs NRPVgRiVRVLij. "ysVgRiW TFRWLi, RsV zmssy sVLi sWLRiLi[
|msRyLi' @s @xmsRVLi xms Rd RLiTNTP C dNRP N][ xms soLiy.
@Li xmsLjizqs[ |msLjigjis zmsV LRiVgRiVV ][LRis |msLiRVN][NRPVLiy rysVW
ys @sLRiVNRPVLiLRiV. dNRP N][V GLRi[ NSLRiV sVWRV %syVgS
%sLiRsRV.
1. @yV.
2. RVLi.
3. xms[ xms[ @[ RxmsV [RVLi
1. @yV :
FyR xmsR RVLi sWLRisNTP \ LRiLi NSy. sWszqsNRP rysVLiR QLi NSy. Rs%dsVR
RsNTP NRPLi[ NSy. NSds ysVLij sVsVxtsvNTP C sVWRW soLiRso. sVVLigS
RLiRVV FsxmsV\[ INRP NRPVVLisNTP @jNS\lLi |msRsLi RLiVVLiRRLi sVVRV|msRy][
@xmsVRV ys A}msyLRiV FssLRiW soLiRLRiV. "C @yVs s[sV AsLiys
F~LiRVRVysV. C AsLiys NSRs[ xNRPV %dsVZNP[sVVLij?' @s[ ][LRis C NRPVVLi
|msRV @yV [xqsVNRPVLiLRiV. @LixmsVRV zmsV N]LiRNSLi @gji sVgji soy
RLRiVyR LRiVgRiVV ][LRis @yV [xqsVNRPVLiLRiV.
2. RVLi :
xms sVsztsQ FsLiRVNRPV RVxmsRyRV @sysNTP y LRiNSVgS y

NSLRiVyLiVV. N]LiRsVLij dNRPs RW}qs RVxmsRyLRiV. sVLjiN]LiRsVLij


yVgRiLiRxqsV s[VR %dsVRsVLi NTPLiRNRPV RW}qs RVxmsRyLRiV. N]LiRsVLij lLi[xmso
sVyxLi ILigRiLi \QsVNTP s=soLi[ C L][ ryRVLiRLi sVLi[ @][LRiNRP\sVs
<ss][ RVxmsRRVLiLRiV. N]LiRsVLij lLi[xmso DLjibPORPQ @y NRPWy C LS y
sLRiLigS DLiRgRiVgRiVyLRiV. RVLi s[LRiV s[LRiV ryLiVV[ sVsVxtsv R|msRVRW
soLiVLij. RsVNTP RVsVy NRPWy zms sVVLiRV RsV NRPVsLi @Ry ss[Vk
[Rs sLRiWzmsxqsW soLiy. Bj y NTPNRPxmsLRi\sVs yNUPRVR @LiVVy NRPWy @
RVRLi RxmsRV.

3.xms[xms[ @[ RxmsV [ RVLi :


"NRPxtsQV yLiR @s[ FyV. RxmsNRPVLiy sVLiL][ @[ sxqsVLij' @sVN]s
FyR xmsRRV N]srygjiLiRRLi y xmsoLSRs\sVs xmsR. CaSsLi \sxmso %s Rs*RLi
y*LSNSs, [NTP LRiORPQlLi[ NRPVN][sRLi y*LSgSs, [xtsQLi zmsLiRVN][sRLi s NSs
sVLiL][V LSso. sVLiL][V sVLi sQQNTPR*Li |msLiRVNRPVLi[ sryLiVV.
sVsLi NRPuy FsRVL]s[ \ LSs |msLiF~LijLiRVNRPVLi[ sryLiVV. sVsLi Fss NRPuy[
soy NRPWy sVs zmsNTP @j RVss*NRPFss[V sVLij. sVLki NRPxtsQV FsNRPVQ\s,
ys zmsV RxmsRVRVLi[ @xmsVRV yLjis NRPWL][ xmsLi ysVLi xmsR.
sVsLi ALij NRP xmsLRi\ sVs BLiRV[ soLiT sVs zmsNTP INRP xmsp @sLi |ms[NRPF[ %ds\sLiR
sLRiNRPV @sLi |msysZNP[ xmsRVLiy.
NSds A %sxtsQRVLi zmsNTP RVss*NRPWRRV. @sLi |msRLi yyxmso RVLRiLi
@LiVVsxmsVRV A zmssV NRPWL][ ysVLiRVNRPV @sLi |ms[NRPFRVysW,
@LiRVNRPsxqsLRi\sVs RVN][xqsLi ysVLiR NRPxtsQxmsRVRVysW, @LiVVyNRPWR A RLiRVNRPV
]LRiNRPLi [][, @LiRVs zmsNRPV @sLi |ms[NRPFRVsLiRVNRPV ysVV FsLiR
RxmsRVRVysW RV[RVLiT.
zmsV NRPWy RLiTNTP G %sRLigS xqsRVLi RW @s A[LiRLi
sVVRV|msRyLRiV. (BNRPR INRP mx sp LiT [NPR FsLi @sj ZNP[s Li INRP DyxLRi
sWRs[V) s s NRPuysV NRPWy mx sLiRVN][sLi y*LS sWszqsNRP qx sLiLiyV
gRiVxmsRyRVs[ C LRiRLiVVR D[aRPLi.

@y RVLi c 5

zms W c xqs* y V

__ %dsV zmsV RsV LRiWsVs LiRLRisLiRLRigS [zqs @ BxtsQsVVsVgS soLiRVNRPVs[


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xNRPVLiRs ryjxqsVyLS?
sLiLi[ @s gjisV FyRV[zqs, ysVV [RV[Rs yjxqsVyLS?
@NRP ][ FRVRW, sVVRLij FsRVy[ss RLiVVxqsVyLS?
%dsVNRPV FsRVLRiV xmsoyLS? BLiNTP [VgS s NRPVLiryNRPVV xmsoyLS?
BLi[ s sqx sVsoV sWRVLi @soRVyRW?
RV ]LigjixqsVyLS? BLiNTP @R\sVs }qszRV sVLSR [RV[Rs
g][|msRVRVyLS?
|msRgS lLi[TWV, {qsLjiWV, |ms %dsVNRPV Rzms NRPgjixqsVyLS?
BLiNTP yg], FyLki @s ryNRPV xmsoyLS?
N][xmsLi s}qs Gj [[ soLi[ @j %szqslLi[zqs, @ds RV N]RVRVyLS?
@LiRLji][ g]RsV |msVN]s, FssLRiW RsVs @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRLi [Rs
NRPV%sVFRVyLS?
xqsW[ RLRi][sW, ][zms][sW g]RsV xmsRVRVyLS?
RLRi][ dNTP sWNTP V LiVyLS?
@sLi[sW RNRPVs sWLRiVV RVNRPVLiVyLS?
@LiVV[ %dsV zmsV RxmsV][ss DsV @LRiLi [xqsVN][y. RgSs[ soy ysNTP
%sLRiVgRiVRV GLi RW[ A[Liy. @LRisRLi, bPOTPQLiRRLi, jLjiLiRRLi s |msR
DxmsWgRiLi DLiRRV.
ysVLij RRLiRVV RsV zmsV [}qs RxmsV IxmsVN][LRiV. @LiR [RV
ss @LigkiNRPLjiLiRysNTP y sVsxqsV= zqsRLigS soLiRRV. DyxLRiNTP sW
BLimx sNRP INRP LiNRPV @{mnsqx sLRiV NRPWRVLRiV soLi[j. LS sLigRiLi sLRiNRPW RRVso
sxmsLi %dsVR y\|ms [Lij , RVVxmsNRP LRiWsVV[ RRVsoNRPVs[ @LiVVNTP |\ qsgRi [}qsj.
INRPL][ @LiVV RLiT @j gRisVsLi N]RVNRPVs NRPT[ |msRV. AsV s[lLi[
@LiVV][ Bj N]srygjiLiLij. ARVs s A{mnsxqsL`iNTP C %sxtsQRWs FyRV.
A{mnsxqsLRiV ARVs][ sWRLi sWss[aSRV. B gRiVxqsVNRPV NRPWL][sRLi s zmsV
ys[VLi [zqsy |msR[ RVs @sVNRPVLiLRiV. BLi qx ssVRW[ sVLid, RW
[jLiRRLi s sVsVgS y[ sWLRiV [ @sNSaRPLi soLij.

__ BLi s s yxqsyV FsRV\lLisxmsVRV, @j zmsNTP xqsLiLijLiy, sVsNTP

qx sLiLijLiy yVgRiV sVV %sxtsQRWV gRiVLRiVLiRVN][y. AVFV Rxmsso.


sVVLigS zms[ sWLRiV [ys sVsLi LigS @sVNRPVLiVsxmsVRV J yVgRiV
lLirys=V Bs*NRPVLiy gRiRxmsy.
1. %sxqsVg] sWLRiVs gRiVLjiLi A[LiRRLi sWs[RVRLi. ""BNRP C zmsyTs
sWLRiRLi y s NSRV. %dsTs %syLiRLi LjiLiRLi y RLRiLi''. @sVN][sRLi
BRLiy sV s[yLiRLi. G][ |ms [xqsVNRPVyLi NS LSxmsRLi RxmsRV @s[
RxmssxqsLji sLRiRVLi FsRV sQQNTP [Fys saRP+LigS LjiLiRRsVLi[ sVs
[RNSsRys IxmsVN][sRsVssW. Bj sVs AysWys @ssWsmx slLi[
%sxtsQRVLi. sVs gRiVLjiLi sVss[V LiVVLiR RNRPVsgS EzxqsVsxmsVRV BNRP FsRVy
sVs sW %sys FsLiRVNRPV AbPLiRRLi! BLiR sLSaRP[Li sVs zms %dsVR sVsNTP
}mssV qx sRsRV. LS xmsy=Lij NRPy @s DN][xtsQxmsRsRV. NS Bj
yRxmsV xmsR.
2. \FsRLi : FsRV y[ sWLRiVLSRs %sxtsQRWs @LigkiNRPLjiLiRRLi
sVVRgSs[ A sQQNTP ysLiR sVLiy][ %sVgRiy NRPVVLi xqsVNTP
ysVNRPVLiRV. Rs [RgSs Rys c Rs ygRiLigS c Rs LRi gRiVLjiLiys
R N][LRiVNRPVLiVLij. ysV [zqss ygSs gRiVLRiV [xqsVLiVLij. kss ssLRiLi
sVLjiLiRgS TzqsN]RVRVLij. (s[sV NS C xqsLiryLRiLi CRVRVysV, C zms[
s[gRiVNRPV sqx sVy, @s[ RVV C N][sNRPV LijsylLi[)
3. xmsdNSLRiLi : Bj J%sVs RVNRPVs[ sVsxqsLiVVRLi [sxmsVRV dxqsVNRPVs[ RLRi. kss
FsVsLi sVW soLiRRV. @Li[NSNRP FsRVysV NRPWy xmsdNSLSsNTP
lLiRg]RyLiVV. (zmsV RxmsV[}qs, V lgi[ N]RLi [y DxmsyxqsLi soLiRLi
y*LS Rss ys[ bPOTPQLiRVN][sLi)
4. ssV RWxmsRLi : FsRVy[ sWLRiVLSRs %sxtsQRVLi qx sxtsQsVsgSs[, BNRP G
%sxtsQRVLi[sV AxqsNTP RWxmsRLi sWs[ryLRiV. N]LiRLRiV }mssV, ZNP[Lij Lig`i @s[%s
sVLjiFyLRiV. IZNP[ BLi[ @xmsLjiRV RVNRPVRW soLiLRiV. kss y
stx sQFy= sqx sVLij.
C yVgRiV xmsRRVd @sLiLiRNRPFsRLi s xqsgRiLi qx ssVxqs RWLRiLi
[xqsVsQ[. I xmsR[ sVLi [xqsVN][sLis xmssVV rysVNRPWxmsRsRV. ksNTP
sVVLiRVgS J Fys zqsR Li [qx sVN][s RLi sVVLi. sVsLi mx sZNP[ %sysLi[, }ms mx sR [
y Fs|mnsNRPV soLiVLij.

LjiZNP*xqsV @sj sgjis NSNRPVLiy xqsWgS FysgS soLiy. "B [RVRV'


@s[NRPLi[ "B [}qs gRiVLiVLi[sW' @Li[ Fs|mnsNRPV g]xmsgS soLiVLij. "%dsVLji [}qs s[sV
y qx sLi][ztsQrys V. %dsVNRPV sWRLi y qx sLi][tx sQLi NRPLi[ Gj sVVLi xmsLiT' @sRLi s
zms sVVLiRLji NSNRPV LiRLi s[RVsRV. y [Fy NSNRPVLiy y g]xmsRys
FsRWxmsRLi s sWLRiV qx sVsVsoRVLij.
B y mx sLiRVN][sRLi s RgRiLjiRsLi NRPWy |msLRiVgRiVRVLij. sVsLi FsLiRVNRPj
AbPxqsVysW, yss FsRVsQQNTPNTP FsLiR @sxqsLRisW RVFy. @Liy %ssLjiLiyNRP,
GLi [}qs FsLi xmnsyVLiW EzLi, LRiNRPLRiNS AlLi[sV A[Li
|msVN][y.
yLji sWszqsNRP zqss, yLji %dsVs , G][ INRP xmsRs @sLiLiy. BRLiy
ssVj %dsVR, JLRiV%dsVR LRigS. xy%sT xmsT[ Li soLiRRV. s s |qsms=[
NSLRiNRPsWs [gS NRPsLi[ [xqsVN][y.
@j [RVysNTP FsRV sQQNTPNTP sLRiLiRLRisVW xqsxNSLSds, Dy=ds, FR=ds
LiVVy*. sVsLi Rss ssVVRVysVs ss NRPgjiLi[ RRsW, AsLiyds FsRV
sVsztsQNTPy*.

s zms[ R[ xqssVxqsV :
C qx ssVxqs gRiVLjiLi xqsWLigS NTPLiR @yRVLi[ RLjiLiyLi. BxmsVRV sVLjiLiR
%ssLRiLigS xmsLjibdPyLi. szms qx ssVxqs gRiVLjiLi VxqsVN][yLi[, sVsLi s
zmsVgS sosxmsVRV FsLiR s qx ssVxqsV sVs jLi[[ sVVLiRV gRiVLRiV[xqsVN][y.
xqsW[ BxtsQ\sVs RL`i sFsRsW, }qszRVV RWLRisVsRsW, RRLiRVV
g]RsxmsLiLi%s zms sVsxqsV=%dsVR ds\sVs xmssLi RWzmsryLiVV. RRLiRVV zms[
RVLRiVNRPV FsLiRVNRPV RgjiFLiVVLiy @s NRPLigSLRiVxmsT yNRPQLRi RVW Ljilgi[RVV, NSLRiV
sRNRPysNTP xmsRVLiy.
N]R xqsWNTP sRLi, N]R sVsVxtsv][ sWy= LSsRLi, xmsLkiORPQ[ RNRPVs
sWLRiVV LSsRLi, |msLixmsoRVNRPVNRP RsFsRLi, }qszRV][ NUPRVRVN][sRLi Lis[
NSLRiV yNTP qx ssVxqsVgS NRPsryLiVV.
A \Li[ y {mnsLig`i=s @LRiLi[xqsVN][sysNTP xmsRVLiy. ssVjgS
sRzms, \LRiLi zmsLiy. [RLi[ N]s s s RWV RLS*RLS*R
""FnRWV''gS sWLRiRV.
xmsdk JzmsgS, %saRPkNRPLjiLi, @LiR sV[V xmsRLi s sVsLi yNTP y

RgRiLRis*RV. |qsN`P= gRiVLjiLi, sVLi, RV gRiVLjiLi y][ RLjiLi yN][


@sgSxs NRPLiy. RLS*R y FsLigRiLiVVgS {mnssoyLRiV. sVVLiRV @Li
qx ssVxqs FsRVL][NRPFsRLi s ys RVN][sRLi NRPxtsQLigS soLiVLij.
@[ |msRyLiVV[ LjigjiLiys gRiVLjiLi xms[ c xms[ RVN][sRLi s A sRsVLi
RVxmsRyLRiV. BLiR A[Rs zmsNRPV soLiRRV. sVsVgS yLRiV ss
@LigkiNRPLjiLiRysNTP xmsRVQryLRiV. BjNRPWy yLjiNTP sVVR[ NRPxtsQLigSs[ soLiVLij.
|msRy }qszRV][sW, LiRVso[sW xqsLixmsjLixmsoV, xqsV [ryLiR V.
NSds, zmsV @ [RV[LRiV. FsNRPVsgS sWRLi, FsNRPVsgS RVN][sRLi
ysV sVLki jgRiVV mx sLRiVxqsVLij. B FsNRPVsNSLi rygji[, y %sxtsQRV[
RVxqsVVgSsW, @xqssVLiR VVgSsW sWlLi[ @sNSaRPsVVLij. @LiRVZNP[ |msR y y
sVLiRN]TRys gRiVLjiLi, xmsLjizqss RNRPjRRLi sVLij.
y ryLiVVNTP jgji y NRPxtsQs[VLi[ V=N][y. yZNP[ xqsV Bs*NRPVLiy,
ys RzmsLiRVN][sysNTP Fss sWLSVyW RV[zqs, sLRiRWV yZNP[
sj[RW. NSds, sVLi sLRiRVLi dxqsVN][sysNTP xqsRVxmsy.
y NRPLiR sV[V xtsQ[ sWy. yLjiy @WsVRV zqs sVLiT RVNTP
[y. %sxtsQRV[ @Li qx ssVxqsy RVNRPVs[ qx sLiVVLRiLi NRPLiy.
zms sWszqsNRP FsRVgRiVRs sVWRV LRiNSVgS %sLiRsRV.

sVVR RaRP :
NTPLiRL`igSlLis, sLRi=LkiNTP s[ sRVxqsV=[ zmsNTP G @sgSxy soLiRRV. Gj
V VLiRVNRPV LRiVgRiVRVLi][ dRV. s RNTP NRPWy RVN][[LRiV. RsVNRPV VV
[zqsy, @j ysVV R yLiVVsLiRVs [ ssVNRPVLiLRiV. y NTPLi yV
LSsysNTP |msRy ysVVNRPV NSLRiLi.
@LiRVZNP[ |msRy zms[ @ds @ssxqsLRi RWV NRPLiRNRPVLiy, y {mnsLig`i=
y \LRiLigS xmsgRilgi[ [RW. kss yNTP |qsNRPLi[ |msLRiVgRiVRVLij.
JzmsgS xmsaRPV @Tgji, y[R qx sLRiLiVVs qx ssWyyV LS y A[Ry aRPNTPNTP
mx sRVsV|ms.
ysNSxqs qx ssVRVLi mx sy, sVsNRPV gS @xqsxsLi NRPgjiLiy, sVsLi JLRiV szLiRNRP
RxmsRV. sVLki szms[ U [}qsxmsVT C yVgRiV %sxtsQRWV gRiVLRiV|msVN][y.
1. szmsV ryyLRiLigS sVVLiTgS, ry*LRiLigS, @xLisLigS soLiLRiV.
xmsxmsLiRsVLiy RsV RVWs[ LRiVgRiVRVLiRs[ k sW[ soLiLRiV. BRLRiV gRiVLjiLi

A[LiRLRiV. @RLiy sWsVW[ y[NRPLi[ yLiLRiV. y xtsQ[ y


sWRVNRPVLiLRiV. BRLRiVNRPV @LRiLi @so][Liy [ys A[LiRLRiV. @ds y
Bxts QxmsNSLRiLi LRigSs, s[lLi[ yNTP yV xmsVN][y=s @sqx sLRiLi [R s @sVNRPVLiLRiV.
G[ s[sLRiNRPW @xqsV RsVNUP, BRLRiVNUP A[Rs[ sos [RLi y gRiVLjiLiRLRiV.
2. |msRygS sVsLi xtsQ %sxtsQRVLi[ y gRiR szLiy. y][
RNRPgS, xuyLRiVgS, @LiR sV[V xtsQ[ AxqsNTPN PR LRiLigS sWRLi s yNTP RgRiLRis*RV.
sVsLi N][mx sLigS sWT[, yNTP sVs N][mx ss[V @LiR sVsoRVLij NSds, ys ssVNRP sos sLi
@LRiLi NSRV. sVsLi "xqsLiLiRLi [RV' @sVNRPVs[ %sxtsQRWV NRPWy yNTP G][ LiNRPV
sosVgS NRPsryLiVV.
DyxLRiNTP RLiT *LRiLi][ A{mnsxqsVsVLiT AxqsLigS syRLi[, A{mnsxqsVsVLiT
AxqsLigS s}qs, *LRiLi sxqsVLi[sWss[ sVxmsRyLRiV. @xmsVRV A{msxqsLi[s[ RVLi
|msLiRVNRPVLiLRiV.
3. sVLki FsNRPVsgS %sxtsQRWV %sxmsodNRPLjiLi xmsRLi s zmsV sVLjiF[V
@sNSaRPLi soLij. @LiRVZNP[ sVsVgS N]s c N]s %sxtsQRW[ yNTP sVssLi [LiVVLi
FsxmsNUP gRiVLRiVLiRVNRPVs[ [RW. y xms %sxtsQRWs NRPWLiNRPxtsQLigS xmsLjibdPLi,
@LRiLi [xqsVNRPVs[ RWy. %sT%sTgS sos sV sVVNRP @NTPLi, sVsV xmspLji
[RVRLi , xms= xmspLji[RVRLi Li A][ yLji xmsLjiyds, A[Ry aRPNTPds
|msLiF~LijLiRsRV.
4. ys[V xmss [zqsy, xmnsysNTP ys[V RVsVs zmsV @sVNRPVLiLRiV. Bj
INRPLiRVNRPV sVLi[ @LiVVy, yLji[ gjid {mnsLig`i |msLRiNRPVLiy RWry. yLRiV FsxmsVRW
ysVV zmsLi[ FsRVyLRiV %sys A[R[ soLiLRiV. Bj sWsVW[ @LiVVy,
%sxtsQRV[ ALiNRPLi NSNRPVLiy RWry. |msRyNTP g_LRisLi LiVVs*RLi, FsNRPTNRPLiVVy
s[ @NRPR sVLSRgS xmssLjiLiRRLi, C RaRP[s[ RVFy. yLji %s[V,
A[RyaRPNTP sVLi %sxtsQRW\|ms ZNP[LikNRPXRsVRWW [][ gRisVsxqsW soLiy.

sWR%sVNRP RaRP :
Bj G[sVLiT xmssLi[ sRVxqsV=sLRiNRPV soLiVLij. Bj sWszqsNRPLigS NSxqs
%sNRPzqsLis zqs. yLiR ygS s s NRPuy sRVL]LiW soLiLRiV. BRLRi
@FyRW, {mnsLig`i=s gRisVsLiRRLi sVVRV|msyLRiV.
y NRPLi|msds ysVVNRPV xqsLRiygS ARLigS soLiVLij. FsNRPVsgS g]Rs
RVNRPVLiy, ssVjgS soLiLRiV. NSs G sWRLi BLij NRPgjiLi[ xqssVxqsQ\ZNPy
RTFyLRiV. sVss[V\y %sxtsQRWs gRiVLjiLi FsNRPVsgS RLji}qs y AxqsNTP
NRPsLRiLRiV.
\|msgS zmsN`P sWLRiysNTP xmsRVQryLRiV. NRPuy, BLiRV RzmsLiRVN][ssNTP
xmsRVQryLRiV. FsxmsVRV ryRVLiRsVsoRVLiRs RWxqsW soLiLRiV. AV, FyV yLjiNTP
%s[ys NRPgjiryLiVV.
y {mnsLig`i=s @xmsVRV sWRs[V RVNRPV NRPsLRiVryLRiV. [ms LjiNSLRiLRiV, FnsV,
sVV, ][VsVV Li%s yLjiNTP A[Ry aRPNTPs, %s[ys NRPWy LiVVryLiVV. NSds,
|msR yLjiNRPLigS A[Li[ sRVxqsV NSRV.
@xmsVRxmsVRW |msRy[Li xmsoyL][ yNTP dRV, @LRiLiNSRV. @LixmsVRV
|msR y [ %sxqsVN][NRPVLiy A sRVxqsV[ y NRPLiR sV[V Fy. (C sRVxqsV[ s[s V
sW @sVsV c yRRV RgRiLRi soLi[yTs. FssLjiLiNRPLiVVy sLSgSs[, ""@NRPR y
@Lji [}qssoLS'' @s[j. sVLRiVxqs ryLji ssmx sVRV, sVLjiLiR NRPVRVLRiVgS NRPWLRiVs
soLi[yTs. @LiVVy, Ljig]yNRP sVd @[sW @s[j. yNTPxmsNUP AsV @FyRVLi
@LRiLiNS[RV. BxmsNUP C %sxtsQRV\sV AsVs A xmsxqsW soLisV)
zms %sxtsQRVLi[ |msRy NSxqs xmsV c %sRVxmsoV RWFy. sVLki RLigS
soLiRRLi s BRLjisVy RWLRiLi |msLRiVgRiVRVLij. sVs A[Rss y%dsVR LRiVRNRPVLiy,
y @FyRW NRPWy V=N][sRLi sVLij.
FsLiRVNRPLi[ @j V=N][sRLi s yZNP sRFy[ [VN][sRV. @xqsd
zms sVsxqsy* gRiVLjiLi sWyLi[, y[xmsaSQLiR NRPLi @s F~RV. y IZNP[
xmsaRPsV yryLRiV @TgSLRis %sxqsVNRPVs[ sVVLiRV, GLi qx ssVr~ @sryLRi
@RVgRiVRVyLS @s A[Liy. y xmsosj @LRiLiNSNRPF[ ssVjgS sVd @Tgji
V=N][y.
ryyLRiLigS G\s qx ssVr~smx sVRV zmsV G][ VsV sLiNRPgS |msVN][sRLi,
BRLRiV %dsVR sLiR[RVRLi, FssLji%dsV][ N][xmsLi RWzmsLiRRLi, [y {mnsLig`i=s yRVN][sRLi
Li%s [ryLRiV. @j sNRPLRiLigS soLiRsLiRsLRiNRPW xmnslLi[RV. NSds FsRVysV

R|ms[ soLij @sVNRPVLi[ sWRLi @j syLjiLiRysNTP xmsRVLiRRLi sVLij.


sWR%sVNRP RaRP[ T|msxtsQs @sj RVLiNRPLRi\sVs V.
Bj y, |msy, Ay, sVgS xms INRPLjiNUP LSsRV. sVVLigS xmszqszms[
RRLiRV xmssLRis ss sqx sVLij. NSds Bj |msRgS RVxmsRRV. @LiRVZNP[ RRLiRVV
RsV zmsNRPV T|msxtsQs soLij @s ss J xmss IxmsVN][LRiV.
T|msxtsQs sos zmsV %suyRLigS, jgRiVVgS, @xqsxsLigS soLiLRiV. y
sW[sW, [R[sW G%dsV xmsNRPFLiVVy, [gS NRPs|msVVRV. [Li[sV AxqsNTPgS
FysLRiV, [s%dsVR BxtsQLi soLiRRV.
C T|msxtsQs xmnsRLigS AL][gRiLi NRPWy RV. R xmsVV, NRPRVxmso
xmsVV, LiT, sR %dsVy Asqx sNTP Li%s LSsRV. @xqsLiRXzmsgS NRPsryLRiV. Gk %dsNRPV
|msR AsLiyss*RV. ]LiRLRigS LSNRPV mx sRyLRiV. ysVLiRVNRPV Rmx sRVRVyL][ yZNP[
RVRV.
BLiN][ %sR\sVs zmsV T|msxtsQsgSsosxmsVRV sVLjiLiRgS @Lji [ryLRiV.
FsRVysV lLiRg] N][xmsLi zmsLi aSLiR mx sRyLRiV. T|msxtsQss NRPslLi[ %sxtsQRVLi[
|msRyZNP[Li dzqsFLiVV, N][xmsLi, LSNRPV FsRVLRiVxmsRLiLi ryLiVW yV xmsNRPryLRiV.
RRLiRV sVR g]RsVsxmsVRV, BLi[ lLi[lgi[ @aSLis zmsV xmsNRP RRxmsRLi,
}qszRV][ FRLi, RRVso[ sVLiRgjiLiRRLi, @aRPWNRPVV xmsRLi, RRLiRVNRPV
RgRiLRiy*s xmsRVLiRRLi Li%s [ryLRiV.
sRVxqsV= |msLjilgi[N]k, yLRiV T|msxtsQs NRPslLi[ %syyV sWLRiVRW soLiLiVV.
T|msxtsQsNTP sVV NSLRiV G%sVLi[, 1. G][ aSLkiLRiNRP [xmsLi soLiRRLi. 2. }mssV N]LRiR
NSsRLi. 3. GLi ryj Liy sVRVN][V [NPR FsRLi. 4. ARVVsL][ RsFsRLi. 5.
RRLiRVV %sTFsRLi, [y xmsLiRVN][NRPFsRLi [y RsV ][VVso%dsVR FsNRPVs
}mssV RWxmsRLi, 6. dRLjiNRPLi. 7. N]R xms[aS[ BsVR[NRPFsRLi, 8. [RVs RxmsVNTP bPORPQ
@sV%sLiy= LSsRLi, 9. @sNRPy sVVLi }mssV %sxmnssVsLi!
T|msxtsQs=s @s[RVRLi s FsLi Li soLiRRV. kss %sxtsQRV[ |msR
BLiRVV VRVL][y= sxqsVLij. @LiRVZNP[ |msRy RsV zms sVsxqsV=[ Gk
yRVN][NRPVLiy sosRVsV }msLiRVNRPV xqsxNRPLjiLiy. yLRiV RxmsRVRWLi[, JylLi[
RVV, ysV yZNP[ sjs[RW. kss BLi qx ssVxqs RsVLiR ysVV
xmsLjixtsQLjiLiRVNRPVs[ zqsNTP ylLiRVgRiVyLRiV.
y[ N]R yxmsNRPsW, N]R A[, N]R dW, N]R xms[aRPLi sRsW Li
y[ RsVNRPV ysVV ssVgRisV[V RWy. kss y RsV RsV N]LiRsLRiNRPV

sVLjiFgRiLRiV. y[ G\y %sRVLi ryjLi[LiRVNRPV xqsxNRPLjiLiRRLi s sVsLi y


RsVLiT mx spLjigS %ssVVNRPV [RVgRiLi. FsLiRVNRPLi[ N]RgS ryjLis %sRVLi y[
AR%saS*rys, D[s NRPVgRi[xqsVLij. BLi[ J N]R sLiNRPLi [RVRLi, [y x[NTP
d|qsRLiLi s s xmss][ NRPWy y[s T|msxtsQss NSxqs RgjiLiRsRV.
zmsV xmsos %sxtsQRWs VVsLi %ssVLRi+W, dLRiVW [NRPVLiy qx sxsLigS,
rysVWgS %sy. yLjiNS \Li[ sVs xqsxNSLRiLi y @sxqsLRiLi. yLS sRVxqsV=[ RsV
qx ssVxqs ys[V mx sLjitx sQLjiLiRgRilgi[ zqsNTP [LRiVN][gRigji[ %sxtsQRV[ FsLiR NTPQxtsQxmsLjizqsRV\y
FsRVL][gRiLRiV. kLi[ |msRy FyR FsLi\y soLij.

sVWRs RaRP :
ks[ "@y|qss=' @s NRPWy @LiLRiV. C RaRP xmsyVlgi[ sVLiT
mx sLi]%sV[ sLRiNRPV soLiVLij. (N]LiRsVLij @LRi\s G sy FRV. @j s[lLi[
xqsLigRi) C sRVxqsV=[ IN]ryLji FsLiR RVLRiVgS soLiL][, @LiR sVLiRN]TgSsW
soLiLRiV. FsLiR s %sxtsQRWs\ZNPy FsLiR |msRgS sso*yL][, @LiR s RZNP[ |msRgS
GRssW gRiLRiV.
%ds sVsxqsR*Li FsxmsVRW %sxmsLkiRLigSs[ soLiVLij. IZNP[ ryLji AsLiRxmso bPLSNTP,
As[Rs @gSy[NTP mx sTFgRiLRiV. @LiRVZNP[ C RaRPsV "\Li Amns |qsqs @Li` ryL`i @Li`
g][`' @LiLRiV. sVVysNTP B][ qx sLiNTPQxtsQ RaRP. BdsLjiRWLji NSLi|msNRPV=V LSsysNTP,
ARsWsy ysNTP B][ xqsLRiLiVVs \Li. sWszqsNRPLigS y xqsVsR\sVs zqs[
soLiLRiV.
C sRVxqsV[ y gRiVLjiLixmsos N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV.
@j ]LRiNRPF[ ARsWsy ys |msLiRVNRPVLiLRiV. xmsxqsVRLi C RLRiLi s[
sVLki %sxmsLkiR\sVs <ss yysLRiLi[ |msLRiVgRiV][Lij. |qsN`P=, sWs=, jgRiLjis \sNRP
%sVsV xmsFRVs yysLRiLi[ |msLRiVgRiVRVs y @WsVRVLi[
N]VNRPVFRVyLRiV.
ksNTP ][RV xmsLiRVN][s RRLiRVV, sVLi, RV s[lLi[ xqsy[s DFyyRVVV,
Rg`i=, sxqss NRPL`i, ygRiVRV, xmssWRNRPLRisVLiVVs |qsN`P= sVLi zms NSFyRVNRPVs[ RR
RRLiRVNRPV NRP%dsVR rysVVLij. C RLRiLi sVVLigS lLi[xms%dsVy, AaRPRW%dsVR
sLSxqsNRPR][ NRPXLigjiFRVyLRiV.
{qsRV RVVgRiLi, RVVyV, sWLRix[sWV, LiVV, NSVuyV, LSNUPRWV,
sLRiV][gSV Li qx ssVxqs RzmsLiRVN][sysNTP ORPQNSsLiyV sRVNRPVLiVyLRiV.

BNRPR gRisVsLiy=s sVV%sxtsQRVs[V%sVLi[ FsxmsV][ %sxtsQRV[ LS[[V qx ssVxqs


sVLi RzmsLiRVN][sysNTP LiVVxmsVRV qx ssVxqsV qx sXztsQLiRVNRPVLiVyLRis.
ksNTP ysV RxmsVxms[ RVV, sVsLi sVVRLi zqsxqssVs[ qx s%dsVOTPQLiy. ysVLij
LiVVLi[ xqsLRiLiVVs yysLRiLi soLiRRV. yVgRiV NSFyV RgS s[ |ms
y RNRPVs. Bj y[ T|msxtsQss NRPgjixqsVLij. @Li[NSRV, C RLRiLiyNTP RsV
mx spLki*NRPV |msR NRPxtsQxmsy=s mx ss[RV.
\sV RLRiT sTs RRVsoNRPVs[ @sxqsLRiLi [RV. @s RVLRiyW @LiRV[
soLiLiVV. sVs mx spLki*NRPVV @ NRPtx s QLi %dsVR ryj Lis ry*RLiRQLi %sVs dRV. sLSaS
sxqsQXx, sV Fs FsRVL][y[ dRV...... @LiRVZNP[ xms s %sxtsQRVsVW
qx ssVxqs NRPszmsxqsVLij. xmsysNTP Bs|qsLi yVV sRVNRPVyLRiV. Rg`i=Li yNTP
@yV xmsRyLRiV.
C s[ sRVxqsV sNTP, mx sLjimx spLRi sQQNTPy*sNTP J yLRijLij. gRiVLjiLixmsoN][xqsLi
FyNRPV BNRPRVLi[ sVVRsoRVLij. %sRLi[ "xmnsy' @sysNTP BNRPRVLi[ NRPXztsQ,
\QsLig`i sVVRsoRVLij. Bsds xqsLjigS Ljigji[ sVLi %sxtsQRV soLiVLij. NSds LiVV%s
qx sjLiRysNTP [}qs NRPXztsQ[s[ LRiNRPLRiNS qx ssVxqsRVLRisoyLiVV. s y sLRiRW
%sxtsQRVLi[ xqs*RLiRLigS xmssLjiLiys RWryLRiV. g]RsV sVVRsoyLiVV.
C RaRP[ C sWsWgRiV %dsVry RVVsNRPVV }qszRV][sW, RsV sRVxqsVyLji][sW
FsNRPVs qx ssVRVLi gRiRmx sysNTP BxtsQxmsRyLRiV. FsRVy qx sW, %ssVLRi+W %ssysNTP
BxtsQxmsRyLRiV. |qs|qsLiL`igS A[LiRRLi sVVRV|msRyLRiV. ssVRgRi }qszRV][
gSRLigS @VNRPVFyLRiV. RsV ss\lLiy xmsLiRVN][NRPFsRLi, gRiVLjiLiRNRPFsRLi,
sVRVN][NRPFsRLi Li%s yLjis RV|msRyLiVV.
RRLiRVV C sWLRiVsds xqsxs[Vss gRiVLjiL i y gRiRg S, RgRiV
%sRLigS xmssLjiLiy. [y yLRiV AR%saS*xqsLi, ARg_LRisLi [s @xqssVLRiVVgS
RRWLRi[V xmssWRLi soLij.
s[ sVVR[...... @Li[ mx sRsVW[ sVLi mx sRlLi[ NSLi sLRiNRPV T|msxtsQs NSxqs
s[LRiVgS soLiVLij. %ssVLRi+NRPV yLRiV dsLigS xqsLijryLRiV. Fss*Lji gRiVLjiLi ARVR
RWRLRiV, RxmsRLRiV. A[LiRRLi NRPLi[ y[RLiVVy [RVRLixms AxqsNTP RWxmsoyLRiV.
T|msxtsQss G][ %sRLigS RVNRPV NRPsxmsLSs xmsRVQryLRiV.
FsLiR %saSLi dxqsVNRPVy sLis[ @zqsFyLRiV. G %sxtsQRVLi[sW GNSgRiR
RWxms[NRPFsRLi, C ORPQV G sWyRV[ NRPsLiy, @j T|msxtsQsZNP[ xqsLiZNP[RLi.
[L`igS, lLiqsqsgS NRPsryLRiV. G\y sVLi yxmsNRPLi[ ysV [RVRLi s

T|msxtsQss ysLRiNRPV Fg]sRV.


FsLiRVNRPLi[ y sVsqx sVV y [R%s. Fsd, A yxmsNSV NRPWy yNRPV
[L`i N]NRPVLiy RWry. N]LiRsVLij ILiLjiRssVLi[ %sxmsLkiRLigS RVxmsRVRW
soLiLRiV. RsVN][qx sLi qx ssVRVLi, JLRiV sLi[ yLi[ sVVgRiV RWxmsoyLRiV. yLi[s[
y qx ssVRVLi sXy [zqs, RRVso, AV, @ORPQQLi [zqs FsW NSNRPVLiy FyLRiV.
sVLjiN]LiR sVLij mx spLji ILiLjiRys N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. ysVV [RVgRi G mx ss %dsV\y
FsNRPVsgS Dy=xLi, %s[V RWzms sVLi %sRWV ryjryLRiV.
N]LiRsVLij s[L`i= FsxmsVRW FssLji[ qx sRV qx sxNSLS N][xqsLi
FsRVLRiVRWxqsVLiLRiV. @%s ]LRiNRPsxmsVRV N][xmsLi, LSNRPV xmsRLji+LiRRLi, FyLjiFsRLi,
]LigjiLiRRLi Li %sxmsLkiR\sVs, xqsLixmnsV%s][x RLRiV [xqsVLiLRiV.
BLi%s [RVRLi s G][ ryjLiysVs {mnsLig`i B[ xqsLiRXzms][ %dsLRiV RsV
qx ssVxqs sVLjiFsysNTP xmsRVQryLRiV. ksNTP sVRVN][V }qs sVLjiLiRgS
lLiFyLRiV. FsxmsV][ INRPryLji |msR LiLRiV.
xmsRlLi[sVLiT, xmsLi]%sV[sLRiNRPV soLi[ zmsV RsV T|msxtsQss s[LRiVgS
xmsRLji+ryLRiV. Rg`i=NTP @yVxmsRRLi, |qsN`P= N][xqsLi FyNRPVRLi, ARxy xmsRVyV
[RVRLi, ILiLjiRsLi][ gRiRxmsRLi, @LiRLjiNUP RWLRiLigS sVxqsRLi Li%s [ryLRiV. G][
xmsxmsLiR sVLiy RsV %dsVR NRPORPQNRPsV, RsVsLRiLi [xqsVNRPVs[yLRiW, }ms%sVLi[yLRiW,
ARLjiLi[yLRiW FssLRiW [sV RsV%dsVR ys[V |msLiRVNRPVs, @j @RV|msVNRPVs BLi
RLRiNRPV xmspsVNRPVLiLRiV. C zqs[s[ @sR |qsN`P= sVLi LjiNRPgjixtsQs LSgSs[ @j }mssV
@s sLi][, INRP "sVR VLRi\ sVs' R [ xmsTFyLRiV. BRLiy ry*szqsR s[V. @LiVV[ C
}mssV[Li }msLRi F~Liy[ Rxms T|msqs @sNRPWRRV @s gRizLiy. (kss gRiVLjiLi
%ssLRiLigS "[Uqs xqs' @s ss[ yaSsV.)

@y|qsLi=s @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRLi :


Bj @sLi\ZNPy NRPxtsQ\sVs mx ss. C RaRP[ sos |qsqs, |qsLiVVs sVlLi[ RaRP[sW
@LiRgS NRPsLiRso. RVWssLji= NSLixmsqs[sW, x{ms[sW, zqs[zmnssRW V][
Rxms[y[sW Bj NRPsLiFRW soLiVLij.
xqsLixmnsVLi[s NRPVNRPV FsxmsVRW lLiRVqsgS F[y @y|qsLi[=
@RVVLiLRiV. yLji xtsQ, xmssLjis FsLiR [ygS DLiVLiRLi[ @xqsV y ZNP[j s[lLi[
xmsxmsLiRLis[sW @s[ ss sVsNRPV NRPVgRiVRVLij. RRLiRVV, y][ sVlgi[ BRLRi
|msRy, ysV xqsLjigS @LRiLi [xqsVN][[NRP RNTPLiRV\FRW soLiLRiV.

%dsLjiNTP, |msRyNTP sVRsos [ys[ "slLi[tx sQs gSms' @LiLRiV. slLi[tx sQs gSms
@sj FsLiRVNRPV sqx sVLi][ FsLi mx sLjizqsRV C @y|qsLi= FsRVL]LiL][
V=N][sRLi y @sxqsLRiLi. C @y|qsLi= FsRVL]s[ qx ssVxqs V=NRPVs[ sVVLiRV,
yLjiNS RaRP[ Gs[V%sV LRiVgRiVRW soLiVLi][ V=N][y.
@y|qsLi= @Li[ @RNTP sNTP sVR soLi[ RaRP. C RaRP
sVVR[VsVVLiRV, szms sVsxqsR*Li soLiVLij. @LiRsV[V xqsLjiNTP
|msRyLiVVFyLRiV. C RaRP[s[ @sVVQ\sVs aSLkiLRiNRP, sWszqsNRP sWLRiVV
NRPVgRiVyLiVV. Bsds NRPWy yLji FysV=NTP NSLRisoyLiVV.
|msR y, sVVLigS RRLiRVW, RLiR V yLji sVsqx s y*V A[R y %sysLi,
%dsLji @aSLiNTP ][LRiRyLiVV. |msRy %dsLji N][ ryLji szmsgSsW, sVL]N][ryLji
|msRy RyRVVRLigSsW xmssLjiLiys N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. Bj @y|qsLi=s
@WsVRVLi[ xms[xqsW soLiVLij. RsV szmsy][, |msRy][ A NRPVLSTNTP @LRiLiNSRV.
RVWsos }qsxXLiRLi NRPWy %dsLjis, %dsLji RRLiRVNTP sVR g]RsV
DRssVsysNTP ][LRiRyLRiV. ysVV sVLjiLiR xqs*RLiRLigS, }qs*RgS RNRPgRigSs
%dsLRiV N][LRiVNRPVLiLRiV. BLi[ yNRPLi[ }qszRV %dsVR FsNRPVs AxqsNTPs RWzmsryLRiV.
sVVLigS @F |qsN`P=Q\sxmso sVVgRiVyLRiV.
BLi[ NRPLi[ RV qx ssVRVLi gRiT}msRVysNTP FsNRPVs BxtsQxmsRyLRiV. Bj
RRLiRVNRPV ALi][s NRPgjixqsVLij. zmsyRV [LiVV y FRVyRs yLji R.
RVWsos qx ssVxqsW, ryLizmnsVNRP mx sLjizqs %dsLji FysV=NTP ][xRmx s[ sVL][ NSLRiLi.

NSLi][ FyV sWlLi[ ss %syyV, %sVsV, A[Ry qx sLRi %dsLjis @WsVRVLi[


soLiRVRVLij. |qsN`P=s gRiVLjiLi RLjiLiRRLi BxmsVRV sVLki |msR RxmsVgS
xmsLjigRiLiRRLi[RV.
%sVs NRPLi[ AsLiRLigS %sLiRgRigRiRLi %dsVR FsNRPVs AxqsNTP NRPVgRiV][Lij.
RVVyV, sVR NRPV, |msLRiVgRiVRWs @LSRNRPR*Li sVs sWLRi=s mx spLjigS
sWlLi[xqsVyLiVV. Bsds (ryLizmnsVNRP sWLRiVV) sVs @y|qsLi= FsRVL][szqss
FysV[ J gRiLi.

@y|qss=[ FsRVLRi [V aSLkiLRiNRP, sWszqsNRP sWLRiVV :


|msLRiVgRiVR, @sXj @sj %syLiRLi soLi[ Fy|qsqsV. @LiVV[ @y|qss=[
C |msLRiVgRiVR sVLjiLiR s[gRiLigS, RVLRiVgS NRPsxqsVLij. F~RVgRiV |msLRigRiRLi, LRiVso |msLRigRiRLi
C sRVxqsV=[ sVLki FsNRPVs. C sWLRiV IN]NRPLji[ IN][ RaRP[ soLiRgS sqx sVLij.
sVLki R*LRigS, [y sVLki AxqsLigS C sWLRiVNTP gRiV\lLis y @LiRLji[NTP s[LRiVgS
NRPsryLRiV. %dsLRiV RsV gRiVLjiLi ys[V RNRPVsgS ([y FsNRPVsgS) {mnssRLi
sVVRV|msRyLRiV. BNRPT sVLi %dsLji FysV= sVVRsoyLiVV.
@LiVV[ C @y|qsds=[ FsRVLRi[V sWszqsNRP\sVs sWLRiVNRPV, aSLkiLRiNRP
sWLRiVNRPy FsNRPVs FysVVR soLiVLij. C sRVxqsV=[ %dsVNRPV |qsNRPV=sgS sVRWL`i
@soyLRiV. @LiVVV xmsoLRiVxtsvVgSsV, @sWLiVVV {qsQVgSsW xmsLjigRiLixmsRyLRiV.
mx soLRiVxtsv\[ gRiyW, %dsVryV, g]LiRV[ sWLRiVW sryLiVV.
{qsQ[ sO][Q |msLRiVgRiVR, sVVs sVVsVV, sRVsVV xqssRLi Li
sWLRiVV sryLiVV. @sWLiVV\y, @LiVV\y RsV[ NRPlgi[ sWLRiVsV gRiVLjiLi
V=N][sRLi sVVRV|msRyLRiV. @LiRLigS NRPsLiRysNTP, ANRPL<RiRVLigS RNUPgSsW
soLiRsNTP yxmsRRVxmsRyLRiV. AF |qsN`P=yLjis ANRPL<jiLiRysNTP, yLjis
sVzmsLiRysNTP ALSxmsRVRW soLiLRiV. @LiVV[ qx s*xms qx syV, @sWLiVV[
xqsVkLRi LiRsW sVVRsoyLiVV.
|qsN`P= N][Lij NRPV NRPgRiRLi NRPWy NRPR V. @LiVV[ yLji N][Lij NRPV dlLi[s WLSV sWRLi
soLiRso. mx soxqsNS[ s W, }msxmsLiR [s W, zqsssW[ s W, @R*L`i\ sVLi[s W zLRiLigRiLigS
NRPsLi[ |qsN`P= AxqsNTPs lLi[ZNPxqsVLij. }qszRV][ ks gRiVLjiLi RLjiLiRRLi, WRV
[NRPVV xmsVN][sRLi qx ssWsQ\sVFRVLij. G%dsV [RV[s zqs[ yLi xmssNTP
mx spsVNRPVLiLRiV.
|qsN`P= N][Lij NRPV dLRiVN][s RsVLi[, |msy*LSs[ @s xqsLixmsyRWsNTP sVs [aRPLi[

LiVVLiNS %sVsoLij. |ms [ryLi[, J sQQNTP Rss ys[ NSNRPVLiy Rs LSR


NRPWR FztsQLiRVN][gRilgi[ zqs[ soLiy. J s[L`i so][gRiLi xqsLigRiRVLi, BLiNS RRVs[
xmspLjiNSs zqs[ |ms gRiVLjiLi[Li A[LiRgRiRV?
@LiVV[ N]LiRsVLij NRPVLS RsVN][LjiNRPsV @RVxmso[ soLiRVN][[NRP,
|ms[}qsxqsVs, D][gRiLi, xqsLiFyRy [NRP RRLiRV%dsVR AyLRixmsT, ARg_LRisLi
[NPR VLiy ZNP[qx sVyLRiV. C %sxtsQRVLi RgiR LRi ysVLij @y|qsLi= NSLizms N`P Q=NTP
[ssoyLRiV. BLi sLRiRWNTP NRPL`i NRPWy y ][LRiRVRVLij.
NRPVLRiyRV Li[ DsLiRsLRiNRPW, RRLiRVV @Rs NRPLi[[
soLiRgRiVgRiVyLRiV. yLjiNTPs*szqss }qs*R yLjiNTPy, yLjis NRPLi[[ soLiRgRisVs
ksW RRLiRV[ soLiVLij. @LiVV[ s[[ Bj ryRxmsRRV.
C RaRP[ yLRiV RsV[ gRilgi[ aSLkiLRiNRP sWLRiV %sRLigS gRisVsxqsW soLiLRiV.
RsVNRPlgi[ @sVsWyd, ALi][sd RRLiRV RgRiLRi sV qx ssWyyV
VxqsVN][ysVNRPVLiLRiV. @LiVV[ ylLi[}qs xmsaRPNTP qx ssWyyV xmsysNTP RRLiRVV
xqsVsVVR RWxmsLRiV. \|msgS, [LRiV sVWLiVVryLRiV.
|qsN`P= gRiVLjiLis @sVsWyV sVsxmsVRV C BLij RxmssxqsLji.
RRLiRVV RsV sVLi G][ N]R %sxtsQRVLi yxqsVyLRis %sxtsQRVLi yLjiNTP @LiR sVsoRVLij.
yLi][ A qx ssWyy[[ ys[V qx s*RVLigS V=N][ys sLRiLiVVLiRVNRPVLiLRiV.
@[ qx ssVRVLi[ RsV ][zmsV NRPWy BLi zqs[s[ soyLRis @LRiLi
[xqsVNRPVLiLRiV. kLi][ yLji sVR A %sxtsQRWsV gRiVLjiLi RLRiV, @FyRWV
GLRiLRiVN][sRLiLi%s LRiVgRiVyLiVV. @LiRLRiV zmsNUP C RaRP[ RRLiRVV RsVVLi
G][ y[qx sVyLRis DN][xtsQLis NRPlgi[ NRPzqs RxmsNRPVLiy soLiVLij.
@LiRVZNP[ y NRPWy RsV A[Rsds, @sVsWyd, BLiRVd RsV[s[
yRVN][sRLi sVVRV|msRyLRiV. C sRVxqsV[ %syLiR VNTP y }qsL`i \ sV soLiVLij.
LRiV A{mnsxqsVNTP ss RLRiVyR LiVV[ dgS soLi[ "ALi'][ xxqsV
sVVRV|msRyLRiV. N]R %sxtsQRWV VxqsVN][ys C NRPVLRiy Rxmsss "ALi'V
N]LiRLRiV lLiRg]RyLRiV.
IN]NRP {qsQs "lgisLi' IN]NRP %sRVLigS %sLi[ sVsxqsR*Li C sRVxqsV[s[
|msLRigRiRLi FyLRiLisVsoRVLij.
|msRNTP RWLRiLigS RsVNRPLiW J N]R xmsxmsLiys xqsXztsQLiRVN][sRLi
sVVRV|msRyLRiV. RRLiRVV zmsV RsVNTP RWLRiLi @LiVVFRVyLRis %sxtsQRVLi

NRPsVNRPsVLigS V=NRPVLiLRiV. NSds, gSmss Fs xmspLRi[RW[ ds zqs[


%sVgjiFyLRiV
C s[[ zmsV RsV }qszRV][ NSLi sVRysNTP FsNRPVs BxtsQxmsRyLRiV.
FsLiRVNRPLi[ @LiRLRiW IZNP[ xmsRs[ xmsRWLi [xqsVs yLRiV NS . B y
}qszRV][ Ljigji xqssVRVLi sXy[xqsW soLi[, yLRiV RRVso sLRiORPQQLi [qx sVylLi[sWss[
RVLi][ RRLiRVV yLjis sVLiRLi][, [ yLji[ |mssVNRPVLiLRiV. Bj zms
sVLjiLiR lLiRg]RVRVLij. ysVV y FsjgjiFLiVVsV RsV NRPds RRV V=sV
NSds, RRLiRVV RsVs zms [aSLRis %dsLji @WgRiLi.
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NS{mns ygRiRLi, sWqs}msxmsLRiV RRsRLi Li%s DyxLRiV. B%s [xqsVsxmsVRV sVsLi %ds
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sVLi @ys [xqsVN][sRLi s sVs %syV sVLjiLiR gRiVLiRVs %dsLji ss.
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@LiR AsLiRLi BxqsVLij.
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sWLRiVN][[NRPF[ xmssWRLi @s }qs, sWLRiVN][sW[NRP, @gRis soLiRsW[NRP
qx sRsVRsVLiVVFyRV.
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RXzmss, xqsVds NRPgjiLiRsRV. @Rs sWLSsVNRPVs[yNTP @j @ryRsVszmsxqsVLij.
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Ljigji A xmss [RVRV.

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zmsV RRLiRVV EzLisLiR @sWRVNRPLigS GLi soLiRLRiV. yLji[ gRisVsLixmso
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zms sVLki @sWRVNRPVVgS @LiRy s[R VNRPVLiy, yLji FsRVLRiVgS\sy NRPzqsNRPVgS
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FyLiRNRPF[, [yFyRWV R[ xmssWRLi soLij. BNRP qx sW[ dRL`i zms
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sVLjiFszqss[.

zms @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRsV?


C %sxtsQRWsNTP sVVR[ |msR FyysR B[yLRiVNSRV. FsLiRVNRPLi[ @xmsVRs
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soLi[yLRiV. RLRiVyR A Fy sRVxqsV=[ R Rs xmss ysV [xqsVNRPVLiW zms J
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ryRVxms[yLRiV. ssRVxqsV[s[ |ms [xqsVNRPVs AsLiRLigS NSxmsoLSV [xqsVNRPVs[yLRiV.
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@LiRLRiLi RWLRisVRWLi. sVsNRPW, sVs zmsNRPW NRPWy %sys NTPQxtsQRLRiLi [ryLi. zms

|msLixmsNRPLi %sxtsQRVLi[ @s[NRP\sVs RWLi][sNRPV gRiVLji @soRVyLi. zmsNTP LiT


@LRigRiNRPFLiVVy NRPLigSLRiVxmsRyLi. zmsV R*LRigS sRNRP s[LRiVN][NRPFLiVVy, V s[LRiVNRPVy
gRiR mx sTFyLi.
sVW][ GRV LSgSs[ ys qx sW[ FylLi[zqs BLiNS @ORPQLSV jRRLi
s[LRiVN][s[[Li @s jgRiVVxmsRyLi. sRVxqsV= |msLjilgi[N]k, zms RRVso, sWLRiVV,
H.NRPW. gRiVLjiLi jgRiVV RWzmsryLi. Bsds NRP= y s VLRi FsLiR @sqx sNRPV gRiVLji
[ryW gRiVLjiLiRLi. Bsds ys @WsVRVLi[ mx s[zqs, y @sXjNTP sL][RNSV
@soRVys[VsW @sNRPWy A[LiRLi. B%ds, sVs R RLiRVNRPVLi[ RV.
RLiT sVLi zqs[ soLiTsLiVV[, zms %sxtsQRVs gRiVLjiLi |msRgS
LiLiy=s @sxqsLRiLi [RV. yLRiV RLiT sXs[ [xmsRyLRiV. %dsLjiNTP ZNPLjiRVL`i %sxtsQRVLi[
|msRgS yLiVVqs soLiRRV.
sxmsVRV @sVN]LigRiV xmsVNRPV Ljigji, RLS*R BLRiVgRiV F~LRiVgRiV y][ [Lji
AT, RLS*R J sRVr~yNRP RLiTNTP xmss[ ryRVxmsRVRW, RLiT BNRP xmss [RV[s
zqs[ @Rs Lji\L`i [zqs, A ryys Lki [RVRLi, |ms, zmsV @ds R*LRiR*LRigS
LjigjiFLiVV, |msR g]RsV [NRPVLiy ry{mnsgS qx sLiryLSV [qx sVNRPVLiLRiV. %dsLjiNTP G zms
sVsxqsR* aSxqsQs[R @sxqsLRiLi FsRVLRis*RV.
RWLiNRP ssLi sVVR\sxmssVLi, xqsLixmnsVLi[ RNRPRLi sVLki NTPQxtsQRLRi\sVFLiVVLij.
LRiNRPLRiNS D][gSV, LRiNRPLRiNS RRVsoW saSLiVV. RRVso @LiRLjiNUP Q\sVFRWLij.
sVW, N_sWLRisVW NRPWy xqsW[s[ gRiTFRWLij. RLS*R GLi RW
@sj @LiRLki s[j Li[ xmsaRP.
zms |msLixmsNS gRiVLjiLi N]RgS sVsTs @R\sVs jRVLkiV, FsslLi |msLi[
GLi LRiVgRiVRVLi][ss LRiNRPLRiNSVgS zms, Gk @LRiLiNSNRPVLiy R RLiRV
@WsVRVLi[ mx s[ryLiVV.
RRVsoNRPVs RRLiRVNTP C FysV= sVLki FsNRPVs. C GLigRiLiVV FsNRPVs[VN]k
qx ssVxqsV sVLjiLiR LigS NRPsryLiVV. yLi][ zmssVLi FsNRPVs AbPryLRiV. ksNRPLi[
@xqsV zms FysV= G%sRLigS soLiyW V=N][sRLi s[VV.
zms @LRiLi [xqsVN][sRLi [ZNP[, Fsd yLjis NRPLi[ [RVRs[V sVLki NRPxtsQLi.
RRLiRVV RsVs ysVV sVVLiRV @RVxmso[ soLiRVN][gRigji[, C RR xqsgRiLi sjs[.
yLjiNTPNRP RsV [FyV, RzmsyV RsVZNP[ @LiR Q\sV, zms bPORPQ[ |ms[ qx ssVRVLi[ ys
qx sLjijRVNRPVs xmssLji}qs, FsLi][ ryjLis[. @xqs\s g]xms %sRVLi GLiLi[, zms
NRPsVbPORPQ[ |msRVRW NRPWy BLi[ ARNRPLRi\sVs AsLiRNRPLRi\sVs yysLRis

sN]gRigRiRLi.

D xms xqs iLi LRi iLi

qx sW][ sVLi gRiVV :


RRLiRVV zmsNTP FsxmsVRW ZNP[sLi }mssV, RR LiVV, sQQNTPR* %sNSrysNTP
NSs=s sV[\LRiLi, qx sFL`iQ= LiVVs*NRPVLiR, "dsNRPV s[VsVVyLi' @LiW..... FsxmsNRPmx sVRV
y @sqx sLS dLRiVxqsW soLi[, qx s*aRPNTP%dsVR yNRPV ssVNRPLi NRPgRiRV.
NSNRPsV NRPR[ ZNP[sLi yNRPV sVLi gRiVLjiLi, ry*NRPR gRiVLjiLi sWRs[V
xmsNRPVLiy xmsxmsLiRLi[ LRiNRPLRiNS sVsVxtsv[ Fs U [RW[ s[LS. zmssV
@sWRVNRPVVgS, sLki*LRiLigS, FsxmsVRW FssLji%dsV][ AyLRixms[ FyLRi\|qs NSNRP,
xqs*RLiRLigS, NRPLi{msLigS RRWLRiV[RW.
@sWRVNRPVsV [so[ NSFyRVyRVLi zms zms ssVNS, yNTP
NRPgjiLiRRLi s y %sgS xqs*RLiRLigS A[LiRLi NRPWy R}mssW @s "xqsW]['
sVLi gRiVV @sLRiVNRPVLiLRiV. "xqsW][' @Li[ c sV.
xmsxmsLiRLi %dsVR ssVNRPsVVLiRVN][sRLi sVLi[ NSds, ssVjgS @yRWd,
sWryd gRiVLjiLi NRPWy V=N][sRLi sVLij. sRVxqsV=NTP Rgjis sQQNTPR*Li
@sLRiVN][sRLi FsLi\y @sxqsLRiLi. sVsLi NRPxtsQxmsT xmss[RVRLi s sVsNRPV ysVLi
LRiVgRiVRVLij. sVssV @LiRLRiW g_LRi%sryLRiV', "@LiRLRiW INRPgS NRP= soLiRRLi ss
NRPuyV NRP= xmsLiRVN][sRV,' Li dsNRPRV xmsRLi ss |msRgS xmssWRs[VLi soLiRRV.
FsLiRVNRPLi[, ys[ @Li][ BLi][ ssVVLij NRPsVNRP, A zqsyLiRLi ssVRLi[ R}msLi[RV
NRPsVNRP.
%sxtsQRV[ NRPuysNTP RgRi xmnsRLi sLigS LiRNRPFLiVVy, @xmsNTP Rgjis
sVRWLji soLiT soLiRRLi s sWszqsNRPLigS @LiR @ms|qs @[V @sNSaRPLi [RV. zms
E[NS[sW, NRP[sW %sxLjiLixms[}qs NRPRV c %sRLi[ xhSRVgS FsRVLRi[V
GNTP=LiNRPW, %sxmsRVNRPW RVNRPVs[ sVsxqsLiVVLSs NRPgjiLiRso. LSNUPRVLigS,
rysWNRPLigS Ljilgi[ sWLRiVs, [aRPLisVLiT [aRPLi sxqs s= LSy= ssxmsV][,
RVVRqx ssVRW[ Fyd][ gRiRFy= ssxmsV][, @sWRVNRPR*Li sVLi sLiRLigS
RVxmsy= LSsRV. ks xmnsRLi yLRiVLigS soLiVLij.
ds\s RLiRsWsV NRPRV xmsxqsVR qx ssWLi[ ssVs ssVLi s NRPlgi[ sWszqsNRP
qx ssVxqsNRPW, %sxmsRVNRPW @LiRLiR |msR NSLRi[ @sqx sLRiLi [RV. B[ @
ryyLRiLigS sVsNRPV FsRVLRi[V zFNRP{qsNRPWy NSLRiLi NSsRV. |msRy zmsNRPV

ys[VLi FyL][ sVLjiFLiVV, @s[ Rmx sVV y RVRLi s, zmsV J LRiNRP\sVs


@WsVRVLi[ xmsTFyLRiV.
Gj ssW[, Gj ssVNRPWR][, ss[V][, @Rs[V][ ds zqs[
@RysLi, @xmsssVNRPsVW |msLiRVNRPVLiLRiV. zmsV |msRV [}qs RxmsV Fs RWzms[,
xmsLjizqsRVV sVLjiLiR yLRiVLigS soLiLiVV. @[}qs yLRiV ryyLRiLigS RLiRsNRPV
gRiVLRisoRW soLiLRiV.
yLi][ @xmssLRiNRPW FsLi][ ssVNRPLi |msLiRVNRPVs, FsLi][ sbPLiRgS sos yLji [R
sVsxqsV[NTP sWxqsLi @s[j, @ys[%s soLiRVs sLi yVNRPVFRVLij. @LiRVZNP[
@ xmssVV [zqssxmsVRV, ysNTP xqs\lLis NSLRiLi zmsNRPV RWzmsLiy=s RR
RRLiRV[. B INRP lLiLiRVryLRiV F~LRiFyV LRigRiRLi s yLRiV A @WsVRVzqs[
gRiRxmso dRV xmsNS[NTP sFLiVV ZNP[RVRLi sVVRV|msyLRiV.
sVVLiRV sVVLiRV RsV yds sosRVsVgS xmsRLi sVLjiFLiVV,
FsslLi[sVLiL][ss[ RVLi][ A[Li gRiRgS, }qsmns @s}qss[ sWRLi sVVRV|msyLRiV.
Ljiqs sos xmssVV y[RVLi @NRPRVLi sVVRsoRVLij. C zqs[ @xqs\s,
xqs*RQ\sVs @sWRVNRPR*Li FLiVV, zFNRP{qs sVVRsoRVLij. ks[ xqsW][ c B[|qss=
@LiLRiV. C RaRP[ yLRiV RsV g]xmsRys gRiVLRiVLiRVN][LRiV.

@Liy %sj %sxqssVs, G\y sVs sVLiZNP[ qx sWNRPV][, sVs[yLiRLi[ gRiT}msxqsW


soLiLRiV. J %sRLigS Bj yNRPV TFyLiVVLi sVLiNRPW, sxqsQXxNRPW RVNRPVs[
(xqsW][) aRPNTPsxqsW soLiVLij. B sV[ RNRPRLi s yyNRPLigS sVsaS+Li
Liy sVVysNTP qx s\lLis mx sR NSRV.
sWszqsNRPLigS sQQNTPy*s |msLiRVN]sRLi s, xqs*LiRLigS sLRiRWV dxqsVs,
\LRiLigS y xmnsyNRPV RVNRPVs[ xqsLiVVLRiLi @sLRiVN][sRLi sVLi sWLRiLi. NSds, A [R
sVsqx sV=[ BLiR %sZaPt[x sQ aRPNTP (@LiRV[sW FssLRiW \lgi` [RVs zqs[ sosxmsVRV)
xmsRLji+LiRRLi @ryRsVs xmssRV.
Bj Blgi[ N]srygRiLi s zmsV sWL][N`PgS RRWLRi[V xmssWRLi soLij. C
xqsW][ c B[|qss=[ RVNRPVRVs sQQNTP Rs @xqssVLRiRsV @sWRVNRPR*sVs xmsVNRPVs,
@sWRVNRPVs [so[ NSFyRVyRs[ sV[ soLiRV.
%dsLji[ sRsmx so yRVV Fso. FsysNTP yxtsQxmsRLRiV NRPWy. sRssVLi[
BNRPR zms[ soLi[ xqs*RR, ryLis, RVLRiVNRPVRssVs NSRV; FsxmsVRW FssL][ INRPLRiV
RsV RR drys TsWLi` [}qs sVVLiTRsLi. B RsV NRPsVNRPWLigS xmssLjiLi[
xmsRs [ ksNTP "xqsW][' @s }msL]Lij.
sVs g]xmsRsLi xmsxmsLiRLi gRiVLjiLiR[Rs, G][ INRPL][ {L][LiVVN`PgS xmssLjiLi,
RVsLiy ]gjiLi[zqs, RVxtsQbPORPQ [zqsFylLi[zqs @LiRLji[R gRiVLjiLixmsRysVs,
NUPLjiLixmsRysVs NRPV NRPsLi sVVRRyLi. C xqsW][ sVsxqsR*Li sLigSs[
yNRPLRi\sVsj.
NSds, ks IxmsVN][NRP, @[ ssVs @sWRVNRPR*sVs sVVLiTgS yjLi[y,
GLigRiLiVV, T|msxtsQs Li yNTP [ssoRW soLiLRiV. @Li[NSNRP, NRPuys[%s @LiRLjiNUP
sWsVW[ @LiVVy, ys[V][ xms[NRPsVds, NS RsVLi yNTP @%s LSNRPWRRs
g]Li N][LjiNRPV N][LRiVRW DLiLRiV. sVV [NRPVLiy RNRPRLi %dsLjiNTP y NRPxtsQLigS
][xqsVLij.
BRLRi y][ F RW}qs, xmszqsRsxmso yRVW, AyLRixms[ sVsxqsR*Li xmsORPVW,
LiRVsoNRPy "sVsVxtsv[ s[' kLiR NSLi NRPsxqsVLij.
sRVxqsV= |msLRiVgRiVRVsN]k , RVWsos Ljiqs @LiR sVsRLi s RsVsV NRPXLigRik}qs
xmsLjizqsRV %dsVR @yxqsNRPR NRPgji, "@ssVW, G%dsV RVsRss[V' }qsmns @sVNRPVs[
zqs N]ryLRiV. Bj }qs{msn @sVN][sRLi FsLiR @R xmso y\sQy, yLjiNRPj gS
][R RVRVLij. zms[ @Li @sWRVNRPR*Li g]xms NRPLixmnsLiR V BxqsVLij.

"xqsWLRiVLiRVNRPV DRLiVVryRV?' @s[ xmsaRPNTP "DRLiVVLiy NS' [y, "s[sV


F~RVs[ [y=s qx ssVRVLi RVysNTP' @s xqssWyyV [LiR qx sLiRXzms NRPryLiVV.
"xqsWLRiVRV FsLiRVNRPV @xqs%sVryR V?' @s xmsaRPNTP, "@=FyRV NS ' @[ "s[s V
sRFy NRPy sVLji' @s[ qx ssWyyV sVsLi FsRVLRiV RWRsRV.
zqsLizmszqsW [y, xmsxmsLiRLi[ G\y "RsV @sVNRPWLi N][xqss[V' @s[ ss yLjiNTP
gS sRVRVLij. "yy yy LSssW, ssV RTzms FssW' @s xmsNRPXs NRPsWLi`
[RVRLi[ sos AsLiRLi BLiR |msR xmsxmsLiRLi[ J s zms{msNRPLi sVsztsQ @s mx ssLi
LjiRV\ [RVRLi[ LSRV. NSds C xqsW][ c @sWRVNRPR*Li[ soLiRRLis sVs xmssL`i
sVsNRPV }qs @sNSaRPLi [RV.
sV @LiR sV[VN]k , INRP LRiNRP\ sVs @LiVVxtsQR |msLRiVgRiVRW soLiVLij. sVsLi
xmsLiRVN][NRPVLiy @sWRVNRPLigS soLiysVNRPVs[N]k A @LiVVxtsQR |msLRiVgRiVRW soLiVLij.
@LiRVZNP[ sVs sQQNTPy*s |msLiF~LijLiRVN][y. }qs*RgS, xqs*RLiRLigS RNRPRLi[ sos
AsLiys TxqssL`i [RW. @ [RVgRigSLi[, sVsLi sVs @sWRVNRPR*Li
sVVxqsVgRiVsVLi RVxmsy. Bj sVsNRPV y xqsLiNTPQxtsQ\sVs ssLRiLi NRPsLiRsRV.
xmsLjizqsRV sVLjiLiR %sxtsQsVLi NSNRPVLiy NSFyRVN][gRigRiRLi[ sVs NRPLi, sVs
%s[V RVxmsRyLiVV. BRLiy NRPxtsQs[V @LiVVy, R zqsyLiy ssVLi s
NRPlgi[ sxqsQXx, O][Q @LiR yNRPLRiLi sWRLi NSRV.
N]LiR xqsW][ c B[|qss=][ N]LiRsVLij |msR s[yLiRV, @ds RLis
sVxL<RiV Fn[xqsW soLiLRiV. B NRPsLiRysNTP y %sRLi[ @ s s
AsLiyNRPV NRPWy RWLRisVy*=xqsVLij. ysNTP zqsRLigS [s xmsORPQLi[ sVLjiLiR
@qx sVFy[V xmssWRLi soLij.
sVsLi [}qs xms xmss ssVNRP NSLRiV sRVN][sRLi y @sxqsLRiLi.
sVsLi [}qs xmssVsNUP sVWRV }qsV soLiLiVV.
sVVR }qs[ c sVsZNP[][ NSy[, G][ [R[ @szmsxqsW soLiVLij. A @xqsLiRXzms
@xqsxtsQLigS VxqsW soLiVLij. INRP xmss RWszmsxqsVLij. @j RVNRPF[ BLijgS
soLiVLij.
BNRP lLiLi][ }qs[ c G][ %sR LigS sVs @sqx sLSs RXzms mx sLRiVRVN][yszmsxqsVLij.
xmsRVRLi [RVLi sVVRsoRVLij.
sVW][j c RXzms }qs. xmss[RVLis NRPlgi[ xqsLiRXzms Bj.
C xmsxmsLiRLi[ ysVLij sVVR }qs[ AgjiFyLRiV. BLiNS ysVLij lLiLi][
}qs[ AgjiFLiVV RxmsRyLRiV. N]jsVLi[ sVW][}qs xmspLji [ryLRiV.

@LiRVZNP[ "ALRiLiLixmsLRiV dsR sWssoV' @yRV LRiQXxLji.


(@LiVVFLiVVLij)