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MATERI AIK PERTEMUAN KE-2 DASAR-DASAR DINUL ISLAM

DISUSUN OLEH NYIMAS IRINA SILVANI 702010038

FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PALEMBANG


Jalan Jenderal Ah ad Yan! Talan" Ban#en Ka $%& B '( Ul% Tel$) *+''-++,*+,,

PALEMBANG

a) P-.-. Baha&an/ Da&ar-Da&ar D!n%l I&la 0) S%0 P-.-. Baha&an/ ') M!&! dan T%1%an I&la 2Rah a#an L!l 3aala !!n4

Islam merupakan sa u!sau n"a a#ama "an# $enar!$enar men%un%un# &n##& kese%a' eraan manus&a (& (un&a &n&) se*ara k'usus uma Islam sen(&r& (an uma $era#ama "an# la&n pa(a umumn"a+ Hal &n& su(a' (& e#askan ,le' S"ar&- ./em$ua Hukum0 "an# a#un# (an Rasul!N"a Mu'amma( SA1 $a'2a Islam se$a#a& Ra'ma an L&l 3Alam&n) "an# mem$er& kese%a' eraan $a#& seluru' manus&a "an# $ernaun# (& (alamn"a+ Se*ara '&s ,r&s pun su(a' %elas er$uk & a kala 4'&la5a' Islam&"a' men#uasa& 'amp&r seper &#a (un&a) semua mak'lu6 "an# $ernaun# (& (alam kekuasaan &slam "an# a(&l senan &asa merasakan kese%a' eraan+ 7&(ak 'an"a uma Islam) uma n,n Islam pun er%am&n 'ak!'akn"a+ In&la' 'ak&ka Islam se$a#a& Ra'ma an L&l 3Alam&n+ D& (alam Islam er(apa 'ukum "an# su(a' (& e apkan ,le' Alla' S17+ Yan# mana sasaran (an u%uan se$enarn"a a(ala' un uk kese%a' eraan (an kemasla'a an manus&a) k'ususn"a uma Islam sen(&r&+ 8er&ku pen%elasan se*ara r&n#kasn"a+ Me5%1%d.an Ke a&laha#an Ha 0a Dah%l% dan Se.aran" Sesun##u'n"a) u%uan u ama Islam a(ala' un uk me2u%u(kan kemasla'a an) (an men#'&n(arkan kerusakan (an $a'a"a (ar& se,ran# 'am$a $a&k (a'ulu) sekaran#) (an "an# akan (a an#+ Se'&n##a akan er*apa&la' ke$a'a#&aan mereka "an# 'ak&k& (&manapun $era(a+ Imam al!3I99 $&n A$(ussalam $erka a) :Sesun##u'n"a seluru' s"ar&-a "an# a(a merupakan kemasla'a an+ $a&k (en#an men#&n(arkan (ar& kerusakan) a aupun men(a an#kan ke$a&kan;+S"a&k'ul Islam I$nu 7a&m&"a' %u#a $erka a) :Sesun##u'n"a S"ar&-a Islam (a an# un uk men*apa& kemasla'a an (an men"empurnakann"a) ser a men#'&lan#kan kerusakan (an men#&k&sn"a;+ Imam I$nu <,"&m Al!=au9&"a' "an# merupakan mur&( (ar& I$nu 7a&m&"a' %u#a men#a akan) :S"ar&-a er$an#un (&(asar& (an (&p,n(as& (en#an 'ukum "an# merupakan kemasla'a an $a#& 'am$a (& (un&a (an ak'&ra + Dan seluru' 'ukum & u merupakan sua u kea(&lan (an ra'ma + Dan seluru' 'ukum & u merupakan '&kma';+ Imam As!S"a &$& %u#a mene#askan (alam k& a$n"a Al!Mu2a5a6, > :Sesun##u'n"a S"ar&-a Islam (&a(akan a(ala' un uk kemasla'a an 'am$a;+

4en"a aann"a) apa "an# ela' (&se$u kan ,le' para Imam (& a as en an# u%uan) sasaran) (an s&5a "an# se$enarn"a (ar& Islam merupakan sua u ke$enaran+ San#a $an"ak (al&l!(al&l en an# 'al & u) $a&k (alam Al! <ur-an maupun Al!Ha(& s+ Sala' sa un"a) (an "an# *ukup luas *akupann"a a(ala' 5&rman Alla'> 7 89 6 :; 7 <= 7> ?; @A B9 7C ?D 7 E FG :H 7 <I 7> ?J 7 D ?K 7 <L 7M 7 :Dan &a(ala' 4am& men#u us kamu) mela&nkan un uk .men%a(&0 ra'ma $a#& semes a alam; 2NS) Al-An0!OaP/ '*+4 A"a (& a as su(a' san#a %elas menun%ukkan $a'2a Islam merupakan ra'ma $a#& semes a alam) karena Islam pa(a (asarn"a menerapkan kemasla'a an $a#& 'am$a) (& (un&a (an ak'&ra ) ser a men#'&n(arkan (ar& kerusakan (an $a'a"a+ MaQa - aQa Ma&laha# Masla'a "an# s&5a n"a p,k,k) (an 'arus a(a+ Dalam masla'a &n&) peranan Islam a(a (alam l&ma aspek ke'&(upan) "a& u> 1+ /en%a#aan er'a(ap D&en .a#ama0+ ?,n ,'> Men%au'kan (ar& mur a( (en#an memeran#& ,ran# ka5&r+ 2+ /en%a#aan er'a(ap (&r&+ ?,n ,'> S"ar&-a <&s'as+ 3+ /en%a#aan ke urunan+ ?,n ,'> Men%au'kan (ar& 9&na+ @+ /en%a#aan 'ar a+ ?,n ,'> A(an"a 'ukuman $a#& pen*ur&+ A+ /en%a#aan akal+ ?,n ,'> /en#'araman k'amar+ B+ Masla'a "an# s&5a n"a se$a#a& ke$u u'an+ Dalam masla'a &n& a(a sua u $en uk keluasan (an men#'&lan#kan 'al!'al "an# sul& + ?,n ,'> 4er&n#anan $a#& ,ran# "an# sa5ar a au sak& un uk $er$uka pa(a $ulan Rama('an+ 7+ Masla'a "an# s&5a n"a se$a#a& pemer&n(a'+ Hal &n& men*akup masala' kemul&aan Ak'la6+ ?,n ,'> /er&n a' un uk $er'&as %&ka per#& ke mas%&() (ll+

U.%ran Ma&laha# dan Madhara# Se$a#a& &m$an#an mana "an# merupakan masla'a .ke$a&kan0 (an mana "an# ma('ara .ke$urukan0) &(ak $&sa (& en ukan (en#an akal p&k&ran manus&a+ Akan e ap& "an# $&sa men%a(& &m$an#an ke(uan"a a(ala' Islam+ =&ka "an# (&an##ap &slam & u $a&k) maka (apa (&ka e#,r&kan
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se$a#a& masla'a + Se$al&kn"a) %&ka menuru ukuran Islam 'al & u merupakan ke$urukan) maka 'arus (&ka e#,r&kan se$a#a& ma('ara + Hal &n& (&karenakan Islam a(ala' a#ama Alla') se'&n##a semuan"a (ar& Alla'+ Se$a#a& manus&a) k& a san#a lema' (alam men#e a'u& mana (&an ara sesua u & u "an# merupakan masla'a a au ma('ara + Maka 'al "an# (apa mempermu(a' k& a men#e a'u& 'ak&ka masla'a (an ma('ara a(ala' men#&ku & apa!apa "an# ela' (& urunkan Alla' S17 (an (& a%arkan ,le' Rasululla' SA1+ Alla' $er5&rman> : 8S R : TJ 7 6TTU 7 V 7> FW : 8 XY 7 Z[ 7\ 7; ?] ^ :S :_ F` 7E 7M 7 a @b 7; ? <c :d : <I F ;] 6 78 ?c 7 ef XC ? <Y 7: gD ?h ?7 ] iY :A Bj 7 8> :k 7 H 7 <I 7> ?= 7l 7 <m FG :n X MM X ]n 7 <o 7 : <q p 7 b :; ?] r 7[ ?o 7 ][q Xm 7 <9 7c :s t os :u 7 p t ]v 7U 7 e ?\ X; 7w : ]R F : 8S :J 7 6U 7 x 7 [> yW : o 76 7 ov :; F] x FG :w : ] F :Ha& Dau() sesun##u'n"a 4am& men%a(&kan kamu k'al&5a' .pen#uasa0 (& muka $um&) maka $er&la' kepu usan .perkara0 (& an ara manus&a (en#an a(&l (an %an#anla' kamu men#&ku & 'a2a na5su) karena &a akan men"esa kan kamu (ar& %alan Alla'+ Sesun##u'n"a ,ran#!,ran# "an# sesa (ar&n %alan Alla' akan men(apa a9a$ "an# $era ) karena mereka melupakan 'ar& per'& un#an+; 2NS) Shaad/ 2z4 Ma&laha# D%n!a 0er"an#%n" den"an A.h!ra#nOa Imam As!S"a &$& $erka a> :Masla'a a(ala' 'al "an# (&maksu(kan (alam s"ar&-a ) (an Ma('ara a(ala' 'al "an# (&'&n(arkan (alam s"ar&-a + Den#an per &m$an#an) ke$a&kan "an# a(a (& (un&a $erman5aa $a#& ke$a'a#&aan (& ak'&ra + 8ukan 'a2a na5su "an# men%a(& per &m$an#an akan masla'a a au ma('ara seper & ke$&asaann"a+; /ema'aman (ar& perka aan (& a as a(ala') $a'2a se#ala s"ar&-a "an# (& erapkan ,le' Islam se%a &n"a merupakan se$a#a& sarana un uk men*apa& ke$a'a#&aan (& ak'&ra + 4arena) pa(a 'ak&ka n"a masla'a (un&a $ukan men%a(& en(ens& u ama) akan e ap& &(ak le$&' se$a#a& sarana sa%a+ Maka) apapun "an# $er en an#an (en#an u%uan asl&) "a& u ke$a'a#&aan (& ak'&ra ) maka 'arus (& &n##alkan+ Dun&a &(ak $,le' le$&' (&pr&,r& askan (ar& pa(a ak'&ra + Alla' S17 $er5&rman> 7 Tj { ?I F ;] |TT\ 7m 7M 7 } : Tc @D 7 r 7 <TT~ 7L 7 7 <TTk 7 6 ?L 7 <L FK 7M 7 ZM 7 ?9 7; ?] i 7 : e 7 8b : 7; ?] x F :Y 7 <8 7m ?s y ;] 7 <8 7b 7; ?] 7 7 M 7 | 7 7 6L 7 <L F 7Y 7 ZM 7 ?9 7; ?] i 7 : A 7I F 7; ?] x F :Y 7 Z[ 7\ 7; ?] 6 :U 7 :A(apun ,ran# "an# melampau& $a as) (an le$&' men#u amakan ke'&(upan (un&a) maka sesun##u'n"a nerakala' empa &n##al.n"a0+ Dan a(apun ,ran#!,ran# "an# aku kepa(a ke$esaran 7u'ann"a (an mena'an (&r& (ar& ke&n#&nan 'a2a na5sun"a) maka sesun##u'n"a s"ur#ala' empa &n##al.n"a0+; 2NS) An-Na!Pa#/ (+-'4
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Men#ena& a"a (& a as) Imam As!S"a &$& $erka a> :Su(a' men%a(& kesepaka an $a'2a asla'a (an ma('ara (& ak'&ra le$&' (&pr&,r& askan (ar& (un&a (alam per &m$an#ann"a+ =&ka sua u "an# (&se$u masla'a &(ak sesua& (en#an ke'en(ak Alla') maka 'al & u merupakan ke$a &lan+; Maka) mempr&,r& askan (un&a (ar& ak'&ra a(ala' 'al erlaran#) akan e ap& men##unakan (un&a se$a#a& sarana un uk men*apa& ak'&ra a(ala' sua u ke$u u'an+ <8 7m ?s y ;] 6 7L : V 7S 7 8 : m 7{ 7 I` 7E 7M 7 7 7k : ? ]D 7 ]s F ;] w X ]H F 7 <` 7 <9 7 8Y : :_ 7c ? ]M 7 :Dan *ar&la' pa(a apa "an# ela' (&anu#era'kan Alla' kepa(amu .ke$a'a#&aan0 ne#er& ak'&ra ) (an %an#anla' kamu melupakan $a'a#&anmu (ar& .ken&-ma an0 (un&a2&+; 2NS) Al-Na&ha&/ ++4 Dun&a a(ala' la(an#) (an 'as&ln"a se$a#a& 2as&la' menu%u ak'&ra + Maka sese,ran# &(ak $,le' erper,s,k ke(alamn"a+ Se$al&kn"a) sese,ran# %u#a &(ak pan as un uk lar& (ar& (un&a (en#an u%uan "an# &(ak $a&k+ 4arena (un&a &n& (&a(akan se$a#a& la(an# $a#& manus&a un uk senan &asa $er$ua ke$a&kan) (an mem$ekal& (&r& (en#an amal s',le' (an ke a62aan+ 7e ap&) "an# perlu (& &n#a a(ala' u%uan u ama 'an"a ak'&ra + Alla' men%a(&kan (un&a 'an"ala' se$a#a& 2as&la' sa%a+ Ke%#a aan A.h!ra# D!0and!n".an Den"an D%n!a 7&(ak (&ra#ukan la#&) $a'2a ak'&ra mu la6 le$&' u ama (&$an(&n#an (en#an (un&a "an# &(ak a(a apa!apan"a+ Hal &n& (&an aran"a (apa (&l&'a (ar& (ua se#&) "a& u> Se#& ken&kma an+ Su(a' &(ak (&ra#ukan la#& $a'2a ken&kma an) kele9a an semu "an# a(a (& (un&a &n& &(ak se$an(&n# (en#an ken&kma an "an# a(a (& ak'&ra + 4arena ken&kma an (& ak'&ra a(ala' ken&kma an asl&) "an# saa &n& &(ak $&sa (&#am$arkan (en#an pan*a &n(era apapun+ D& (alamn"a a(a n&kma "an# pal&n# $esar) "a& u (&perl&'a kan 1a%a' Alla' Yan# Ma'a Mul&a+ Se#& 2ak u+ N&kma (un&a *epa a au lam$a akan $erak'&r) (an pas & $erak'&r (en#an a(an"a Har& 4&ama + 8er#an & (en#an ak'&ra "an# n&kma n"a &(ak er$a as (en#an 2ak u kapanpun+ Alla' S17 ela' men%a%&kan n&kma "an# kekal (& ak'&ra + Dar& pen%elasan s&n#ka (& a as) su(a' sela"akn"a k& a le$&' "a6&n la#&) $a'2a u%uan Islam a(ala' se$a#a& Ra'ma an L&l 3Alam&n+ Yan# akan men(a an#kan masla'a (an ke$a&kan) ser a men#&lan#kan ma('ara (an kerusakan $a#& 'am$a "an# $ernaun# (& (alamn"a+ Dan kemasla'a an
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"an# se$enarn"a a(ala' $era(a (& ak'&ra ) maka su(a' mu la6 (an 'arus (&pr&,r& askan ak'&ra (ar& pa(a (un&a+

') Al-N%rPan ')') Pen"er#!an SeQara Baha&a 2E#! -l-"!4 Merupakan mas'(ar .ka a $en(a0 (ar& ka a ker%a <,r,!-a .CDE0 "an# $ermakna 7alaa .FG0 Hke(uan"a $erar &> mem$a*aI) a au $ermakna =ama-a .men#umpulkan) men#,leks&0+ An(a (apa menu urkan) <,r,!-a <,r-an 1a <ur-aanan .JKKLMDEN OPDKKE CDKKE0 sama seper & an(a menu urkan) Q',5ar, Q'a5ran 1a <'u5r,,nan .JKLODRSN ODKRS DRS0+ 8er(asarkan makna per ama .Yakn&> 7alaa0 maka &a a(ala' mas'(ar .ka a $en(a0 "an# semakna (en#an Ism Ma5-uul) ar &n"a Ma lu2 ."an# (&$a*a0+ Se(an#kan $er(asarkan makna ke(ua .Yakn&> =ama-a0 maka &a a(ala' mas'(ar (ar& Ism Taa-&l) ar &n"a =aam&- ./en#umpul) /en#,leks&0 karena &a men#umpulkan a au men#,leks& $er& a!$er& a (an 'ukum!'ukum+ SeQara SOar!Pa# 2Ter !n-l-"!4 A(ala' 4alam Alla' a-ala "an# (& urunkan kepa(a Rasul (an penu up para Na$&!N"a) Mu'amma( s'allallaa'u 3ala&'& 2asallam) (&a2al& (en#an sura al!Ta &'a' (an (&ak'&r& (en#an sura an!Naas+ FUV WX YG Z[ Z MD Y\ ]^ YO _ Z` Ya Zb Z JX Z^ YV cL Zd ]e YL Z JL cf W Alla' a-ala $er5&rman) :Sesun##u'n"a 4am& ela' menurunkan al!<ur-an kepa(amu .'a& Mu'amma(0 (en#an $eran#sur!an#sur+; .al!Insaan>230 Z ga [ ]\ Wh YG Zi Yj ]a ch Z^ Z J` kl WD Zb Z JL m MD YE ]n ] JX Z^ YV ZL YC Z JL cf W Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Sesun##u'n"a 4am& menurunkann"a $erupa al!<ur-an (en#an $er$a'asa Ara$) a#ar kamu mema'am&n"a+; .Yusu5>20 Alla' a-ala ela' men%a#a al!<ur-an "an# a#un# &n& (ar& upa"a meru$a') menam$a') men#uran#& a au pun men##an &kann"a+ D&a a-ala ela' men%am&n akan men%a#an"a se$a#a&mana (alam 5&rman!N"a) Z go [ ]p W Je Z^ Zq ]^ Z JL cf WN Z D Zr Ys t ^O JX Z^ YV cL Zd ]e YL Z JL cf W

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:Sesun##u'n"a 4am&!la' "an# menunkan al!<ur-an (an sesun##u'n"a 4am& $enr!$enar memel&'aran"a+; .al!H&%r>u0 Ole' karena & u) selama $era$a(!a$a( ela' $erlan#sun# namun &(ak sa u pun musu'!musu' Alla' "an# $erupa"a un uk meru$a' &s&n"a) menam$a') men#uran#& a au pun men##an &n"a+ Alla' S17 pas & men#'an*urkan a$&rn"a (an mem$uka ke(,kn"a+ Alla' a-ala men"e$u al!<ur-an (en#an se$u an "an# $an"ak sekal&) "an# menun%ukkan kea#un#an) ke$erka'an) pen#aru'n"a (an un&versal& asn"a ser a menun%ukkan $a'2a &a a(ala' pemu us $a#& k& a$! k& a$ er(a'ulu se$elumn"a+ Z `o i Wh Z^ YO [ Z MD Y\ ]^ Y ON Z wL W Jx Zy Z^ YO d Zz W Jh m{ Y| Z } Z JX Z` YG ZM ~ Y\ Z^ ZN Z Alla' a-ala $er5&rman) :Dan sesun#u'n"a 4am& ela' $er&kan kepa(amu u%u' a"a "an# (&$a*a $erulan#!ulan# (an al!<ur-an "an# a#un#+; .al! H&%r>870 W ` ~ Wy Z^ YO [ W MD Y\ ]^ Y ON Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :<aa5) Dem& al!<uran "an# san#a mul&a+; .<aa5>10 W J{ Z^ Y O g^ ]NC ]D Zr cs Z Z` Z^ WN Z q WG W JU Z M OND ]l c~ c` Z^ W} Z J{ Zz ] _ Z` Y^ Zf Wn ] JX Z^ YV ZL YC Z J Zr W Dan 5&rman!N"a) :In& a(ala' se$ua' k& a$ "an# 4am& urunkan kepa(amu penu' (en#an $erka' supa"a mereka memper'a &kan a"a !a"a n"a (an supa"a men(apa pela%aran ,ran#!,ran# "an# mempun"a& p&k&ran+; .S'aa(>2u0 Z gy [ ] ZD YG ]i Yj ]a ch Z^ Z Og\ ]G c ON Z n ] gh ]{ WG c Jp Z} Z J{ Zz ] n ] JX Z^ YV ZL YC Z J Zr W Os Z ZN Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Dan al!<ur-an & u a(ala' k& a$ "an# 4am& urunkan "an# (&$erka &) maka &k u&la' (&a (an $er ak2ala' a#ar kamu (&$er& ra'ma +; .al!An-am>1AA0 UD i Wr Z [ MD Y\ ]^ Zq ]L cf W Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Sesun##u'n"a al!<ur-an &n& a(ala' $a*aan "an# san#a mul&a+; .al!1a6&-a'>770 OD m `{ Wr Z OD m YC Zi Y ]^ Z[ cC Z W Je Z^ WJ c ^O [ Z ga ]y Zh YU Zd Z Us W^ cO d Z `X Wz W Yy ]^ YO D ] t{ ZU ]N Z ]g ZE YC Zw Z W w Wa c^ W ~ W YU Z[ Z MD Y\ ]^ Y O Os Z Z [ cf W

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Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Sesun##u'n"a al!<ur-an &n& mem$er&kan pe un%uk kepa(a .%alan 0 "an# le$&' lurus (an mem$er& k'a$ar #em$&ra kepa(a ,ran#!,ran# Mu-m&n "an# men%a%akan amal sale' $a'2a $a#& mereka a(a pa'ala "an# $enar+; .al!Isra->u0 W JKKX c a^ W J Zl ]D W K Y L Z ] JKKx Zz Y O _ Z Ka YG WN Z K W O c W` Z Y Z d Yz W Jb m~ t Z Zz ] Jh m W J Z q ] ZU YC ZD Z^ Z { Z Z a Zb Z [ Z MD Y\ ]^ Y O Os Z Z JX Z^ YV ZL YC Zg Y^ Z Z ND [ ]j cR Z ZU Zi Y ]a ch Z^ Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :4alau sek&ran"a kam& menurunkan al!<ur-an &n& kepa(a se$ua' #unun#) pas & kamu akan mel&'a n"a un(uk erpe*a' $ela' (&se$a$kan aku kepa(a Alla'+ Dan perumpamaan!perumpamaan & u 4am& $ua un uk manus&a supa"a mereka $er5&k&r+; .al!Has"r>210 Y K i ]N Z JKL m Jy Z Uf Wi Y K ]G Y Z OV Zp Z OgKX ]z ZM d Z Us W K^ cO JKz c Zp Z JKL m Jy Z Uf Wn Ws W K Z q ] KG Y Z O Z i Y Kj ]U C Z ] g\ ]U Zd Yz Z i Y ]X Yy Wp Z Z g| ] Y ^ ZV WL YC ] Jz Z OZ f WN Z Z ND [ ]p W Jr Z i Y ]N Z OgG ] Jz ZN Z i Y W W Y W ^ Zf W J m Y W i Y ]G Y Z OV Zp Z D Zz Z i Y Wl W ga ]E ] wp Wd Z Us W^ cO Jz cC ZN Z![ Z ND ] W{ Y Z YU Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Dan apa$&la (& urunkan sua u sura ) maka (& an ara mereka .,ran#!,ran# muna5&k0 a(a "an# $erka a) 3S&apaka' (& an ara kamu "an# $er am$a' &mann"a (en#an . urunn"a0 sura &n&+3 A(apun ,ran#! ,ran# "an# $er&mana) maka sura &n& menam$a' &mann"a se(an# mereka merasa #em$&ra Dan a(apun ,ran#!,ran# "an# (& (alam 'a & mereka a(a pen"ak& ) maka (en#an sura &n& $er am$a' keka5&ran mereka) (& samp&n# keka5&rann"a ."an# ela' a(a0 (an mereka ma & (alam kea(aan ka5&r+; .a ! 7au$a'>12@!12A0 Yj i ]X c WC Z Za Zl Zd Yz ZN Z q Wl Wi Yr ] Zs WL Y [ ] MD Y\ ]^ Y O Os Z Z w c^ Zf Ww Z W NC ]N Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Dan al!<ur-an &n& (&2a'"ukan kepa(aku supa"a (en#ann"a aku mem$er& per&n#a an kepa(amu (an kepa(a ,ran#!,ran# "an# sampa& al!<ur-an .kepa(an"a0; .al!An-am>1u0 OD m `{ Wr Z O m J Z W q Wl Wi Y ]~ Y W J ZN Z d Z UD Wp W Jj Z^ YO W WG ] Fp Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Maka %an#anla' kamu men#&ku & ,ran#!,ran# ka5&r) (an $er%&'a(la' er'a(ap mereka (en#an al!<ur-an (en#an %&'a( "an# $enar+; .al!Tur6an>A20 Z `y d Wa W Yy ]a Y^ W D Z Yl ]N Z my Z Y ZN Z ~ m ]N Z P w Y Z tj ]^ W JL m J` Z{ YG W Z J Zj W^ YO _ Z` Ya Zb Z JX Z^ YV cL ZN Z

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Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Dan 4am& urunkan kepa(amu al!4& a$ .al!<ur-an0 un uk men%elaskan se#ala sesua u (an pe un%uk ser a ra'ma (an ka$ar #em$&ra $a#& ,ran#!,ran# "an# $ersera' (&r&+; .an!Na'l>8u0 ] O c ZV ZL YC Z Jy Zl Wi Y ]X Z` Yl Zi Yj ] Y Jp Zq W` Ya Zb Z JX my W` Y Zz ]N Z W J Zj W^ YO d Zz W q WU Y~ ZU Zd Z` Yl Z Jy Z^ W JE m~ t Z z ] te Z^ Y Jl W Z J Zj W^ YO _ Z` Y^ Zf W JX Z^ YV ZL YC ZN Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Dan 4am& ela' urunkan kepa(amu al!<ur-an (en#an mem$a2a ke$enaran) mem$enarkan apa "an# se$elumn"a) "a& u k& a$! k& a$ ."an# (& urunkan se$elumn"a0 (an $a u u%&an er'a(ap k& a$!k& a$ "an# la&n & u maka pu uskanla' perkara mereka menuru apa "an# Alla' urunkan; .al!Maa-&(a'>@80 Al!<ur-an al!4ar&m merupakan sum$er s"ar&-a Islam "an# karenan"a Mu'amma( s'allallaa'u 3ala&'& 2asallam (&u us kepa(a seluru' uma manus&a+ Alla' a-ala $er5&rman) OD m Us WL Zd Z `y W^ ZJh Za Y^ W[ Z gj ]` Z^ Wn W~ W{ Yb Z a Zb Z [ Z JE ZD YR ]^ YO ZV cL Z s W^ cO } Z Z J{ ZG Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Ma'a su*& Alla' "an# ela' menurunkan al!Tur6aan .al! <ur-an0 kepa(a 'am$a!N"a) a#ar (&a men%a(& pem$er& per&n#a an kepa(a seluru' alam .%&n (an manus&a0+; .al!Tur6aan>10 Se(an#kan Sunna' Na$& s'allallaa'u 3ala&'& 2asallam %u#a merupakan sum$er 7as"r&- .le#&slas& 'ukum Islam0 se$a#a&mana "an# (&kuku'kan ,le' al!<ur-an+ Alla' a-ala $er5&rman) Jo m `R W Z i Y W` Ya Zb Z } Z JX Za Y| Z YC Z Jy Zp Z ^ cg ZG Zd Yz ZN Z Z Oc Z J ZC Z~ Y\ Zp Z Z g| ]D c ^O W WU ]d Yz Z :8aran#s&apa "an# men a-a & Rasul & u) sesun##u'n"a &a ela' men a-a & Alla'+ Dan $aran#s&apa "an# $erpal&n# .(ar& ke a-a an & u0) maka 4am& &(ak men#u usmu un uk men%a(& pemel&'ara $a#& mereka+; .an!N&sa->800 JX m `{ Wz ] F Z c Z ~ Y\ Zp Zq ]^ Zg| ] ZN Z Z O c W h YU Zd Yz ZN Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Dan $aran#s&apa "an# men(ur'aka& Alla' (an Rasul! N"a) maka sun##u'la' (&a ela' sesa ) sesa "an# n"a a+; .al!A'9a$>3B0 Og ] ZL Y Jp Zq ]X Yb Z i Yr ] J ZL Z Jz ZN Z n ] Ns ] ]p Z ] g| ]D c ^O i ]r ] JG Z M Jz ZN Z Dan 5&rman!N"a) :Apa "an# (&$er&kan Rasul kepa(amu) maka er&mala' (&a+ Dan apa "an# (&laran#n"a $a#&mu) maka &n##alkanla'; .al! Has"r>70
15

` i W Z gR ]S Z ] ON c Z i Yj ]l Z gL ]] i Yj ]^ ZD YR W YU ZN Z ] Oi c ]j ]{ Y{ We YU ] wL W gh ]{ WG c Jp Z Z O[ c Z g{ e WG ]i Y ]X Yr ] [ Yf W YE ] Dan 5&rman!N"a) :4a akanla') 3=&ka kamu .$enar!$enar0 men*&n a& Alla') &ku &la' aku) n&s*a"a Alla' men#as&'& (an men#ampun& (,sa!(,samu+Alla' Ma'a /en#ampun la#& Ma'a /en"a"an#+; .Al& 3Imran>310 ')2) Na a-Na a La!n Dalam Al!<uran sen(&r& er(apa $e$erapa a"a "an# men"er akan nama la&n "an# (&#unakan un uk meru%uk kepa(a Al!<uran & u sen(&r&+ 8er&ku a(ala' nama!nama erse$u (an a"a "an# men*an umkann"a> Al!4& a$) <S.2>20)<S .@@>20 Al!Tur6an .pem$e(a $enar sala'0> <S.2A>10

A(9!D9&kr .pem$er& per&n#a an0> <S.1A>u0 Al!Mau&('a' .pela%arannase'a 0> <S.10>A70 Al!Hukm .pera uran'ukum0> <S.13>370 Al!H&kma' .ke$&%aksanaan0> <S.17>3u0 As"!S"&5a .,$a pen"em$u'0> <S.10>A70) <S.17>820 Al!Hu(a .pe un%uk0> <S.72>130) <S.u>330 A !7an9&l ."an# (& urunkan0> <S.2B>1u20 Ar!Ra'ma .karun&a0> <S.27>770 Ar!Ru' .ru'0> <S.@2>A20 Al!8a"an .peneran#0> <S.3>1380 Al!4alam .u*apan5&rman0> <S.u>B0 Al!8us"ra .ka$ar #em$&ra0> <S.1B>1020 An!Nur .*a'a"a0> <S.@>17@0 Al!8as'a&r .pe(,man0> <S.@A>200 Al!8ala#' .pen"ampa&anka$ar0 <S.1@>A20 Al!<aul .perka aanu*apan0 <S.28>A10

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Se1arah
16

Al!<uran mem$er&kan (,r,n#an "an# $esar un uk mempela%ar& se%ara' (en#an se*ara a(&l) ,$%ek &5 (an &(ak mem&'akH2I+ Den#an (em&k&an ra(&s& sa&ns Islam sepenu'n"a men#am$&l &nsp&ras& (ar& Al!<uran) se'&n##a uma Musl&m mampu mem$ua s&s ema &ka penul&san se%ara' "an# le$&' men(eka & lan(asan penan##alan as r,n,m&s+ Pen%r%nan Al-N%ran Al!<uran &(ak urun sekal&#us+ Al!<uran urun se*ara $eran#sur! an#sur selama 22 a'un 2 $ulan 22 'ar&+ Ole' para ulama mem$a#& masa urun &n& (&$a#& men%a(& 2 per&,(e) "a& u per&,(e Mekka' (an per&,(e Ma(&na'+ /er&,(e Mekka' $erlan#sun# selama 12 a'un masa kena$&an Rasululla' SA1 (an sura !sura "an# urun pa(a 2ak u &n& er#,l,n# sura Makk&""a'+ Se(an#kan per&,(e Ma(&na' "an# (&mula& se%ak per&s &2a '&%ra' $erlan#sun# selama 10 a'un (an sura "an# urun pa(a kurun 2ak u &n& (&se$u sura Ma(an&"a'+ Pen%l!&an Al-N%ran dan $er.e 0an"annOa /enul&san .pen*a a an (alam $en uk eks0 Al!<uran su(a' (&mula& se%ak 9aman Na$& Mu'amma( SA1+ 4emu(&an rans5,rmas&n"a men%a(& eks "an# (&%umpa& saa &n& selesa& (&lakukan pa(a 9aman k'al&5a' U sman $&n A55an+ Pen"% $%lan Al-N%ran d! a&a Ra&%ll%lah SA /a(a masa ke &ka Na$& Mu'amma( SA1 mas&' '&(up) er(apa $e$erapa ,ran# "an# (& un%uk un uk menul&skan Al <uran "akn& a&( $&n 7sa$& ) Al& $&n A$& 7al&$) Mua2&"a' $&n A$u Su5"an (an U$a" $&n 4aa$+ Sa'a$a "an# la&n %u#a kerap menul&skan 2a'"u erse$u 2alau &(ak (&per&n a'kan+ Me(&a penul&san "an# (&#unakan saa & u $erupa pelepa' kurma) lempen#an $a u) (aun l,n ar) kul& a au (aun ka"u) pelana) p, ,n#an ulan# $elulan# $&na an#+ D& samp&n# & u $an"ak %u#a sa'a$a ! sa'a$a lan#sun# men#'a5alkan a"a !a"a Al!<uran se ela' 2a'"u (& urunkan+ Pen"% $%lan Al-N%ran d! a&a Kh%laa%r Ra&O!d!n Pada a&a $e er!n#ahan A0% Ba.ar /a(a masa kek'al&5a'an A$u 8akar) er%a(& $e$erapa per empuran .(alam peran# "an# (&kenal (en#an nama peran# R&((a0 "an# men#ak&$a kan e2asn"a $e$erapa pen#'a5al Al!<uran (alam %umla' "an# s&#n&5&kan+ Umar $&n 4'a a$ "an# saa & u merasa san#a k'a2a &r akan kea(aan erse$u lan as mem&n a kepa(a A$u 8akar un uk
17

men#umpulkan seluru' ul&san Al!<uran "an# saa & u erse$ar (& an ara para sa'a$a + A$u 8akar lan as memer&n a'kan a&( $&n 7sa$& se$a#a& k,,r(&na ,r pelaksaan u#as erse$u + Se ela' peker%aan erse$u selesa& (an Al!<uran ersusun se*ara rap& (alam sa u mus'a5) 'as&ln"a (&sera'kan kepa(a A$u 8akar+ A$u 8akar men"&mpan mus'a5 erse$u '&n##a 2a5a n"a kemu(&an mus'a5 erse$u $erp&n(a' kepa(a Umar se$a#a& k'al&5a' penerusn"a) selan%u n"a mus'a5 (&pe#an# ,le' anakn"a "akn& Ha5sa' "an# %u#a &s r& Na$& Mu'amma( SA1+ Pada a&a $e er!n#ahan U#& an 0!n Aan /a(a masa pemer&n a'an k'al&5a' ke!3 "akn& U sman $&n A55an) er(apa kera#aman (alam *ara pem$a*aan Al!<uran .6&raa 0 "an# (&se$a$kan ,le' a(an"a per$e(aan (&alek .la'%a'0 an ar suku "an# $erasal (ar& (aera' $er$e(a!$e(a+ Hal &n& men&m$ulkan kek'a2a &ran U sman se'&n##a &a men#am$&l ke$&%akan un uk mem$ua se$ua' mus'a5 s an(ar .men"al&n mus'a5 "an# (&pe#an# Ha5sa'0 "an# (& ul&s (en#an se$ua' %en&s penul&san "an# $aku+ S an(ar erse$u ) "an# kemu(&an (&kenal (en#an &s &la' *ara penul&san .rasam0 U sman& "an# (&#unakan '&n##a saa &n&+ 8ersamaan (en#an s an(ar&sas& &n&) seluru' mus'a5 "an# $er$e(a (en#an s an(ar "an# (&'as&lkan (&per&n a'kan un uk (&musna'kan .(&$akar0+ Den#an pr,ses &n& U sman $er'as&l men*e#a' $a'a"a la en er%a(&n"a persel&s&'an (& an ara uma Islam (& masa (epan (alam penul&san (an pem$a*aan Al!<uran+ Men#u &p 'a(&s r&2a"a I$nu A$& Da2u( (alam Al!Mas'a'&5) (en#an sana( "an# s'a'&'> Su2a&( $&n Q'a5la' $erka a) Al& men#a akan> 4a akanla' se#ala "an# $a&k en an# U sman+ Dem& Alla') apa "an# ela' (&lakukann"a men#ena& mus'a5!mus'a5 Al <uran su(a' a as perse u%uan kam&+ U sman $erka a) 8a#a&mana pen(apa mu en an# &su 6&raa &n& Sa"a men(apa $er& a $a'2a se$a#&an mereka men#a akan $a'2a 6&raa n"a le$&' $a&k (ar& 6&raa ,ran# la&n+ In& 'amp&r men%a(& sua u keku5uran+ 4am& $erka a) 8a#a&mana pen(apa mu Ia men%a2a$) Aku $erpen(apa a#ar uma $ersa u pa(a sa u mus'a5) se'&n##a &(ak er%a(& la#& perpe*a'an (an persel&s&'an+ 4am& $erka a) /en(apa mu san#a $a&k+ Menuru S"a&k' Manna Al!<a ' 'an (alam Ma'a$& s 5& Ulum Al <uran) ke eran#an &n& menun%ukkan $a'2a apa "an# (&lakukan U sman ela' (&sepaka & ,le' para sa'a$a + Dem&k&anla' selan%u n"a U sman men#&r&m u usan kepa(a Ha5sa' un uk mem&n%am mus'a5 A$u 8akar "an# a(a pa(an"a+ Lalu U sman meman##&l a&( $&n 7sa$& Al!Ans'ar& (an &#a ,ran# <ura&s') "a& u A$(ulla' $&n A9!u$a&r) Sa&( $&n Al!As' (an A$(urra'man $&n Al!Har& s $&n H&s"am+ Ia memer&n a'kan mereka a#ar
18

men"al&n (an memper$an"ak mus'a5) (an %&ka a(a per$e(aan an ara a&( (en#an ke &#a ,ran# <ura&s' erse$u ) 'en(akla' (& ul&s (alam $a'asa <ura&s' karena Al <uran urun (alam (&alek $a'asa mereka+ Se ela' men#em$al&kan lem$aran!lem$aran asl& kepa(a Ha5sa') &a men#&r&mkan u%u' $ua' mus'a5) "a& u ke Mekka') S"am) Yaman) 8a'ra&n) 8as'ra') 4u5a') (an se$ua' (& a'an (& Ma(&na' .mus'a5 al!Imam0+ ')) F%n"&! Al!<uran a(ala' 2a'"u Alla' . 7>2 0 "an# $er5un#s& se$a#a& mu%&9a $a#& Rasululla' Mu'amma( sa2 . 17>88 10>38 0 se$a#a& pe(,man '&(up $a#& se &ap Musl&m . @>10A A>@u)A0 @A>20 0 (an se$a#a& k,rek ,r (an pen"empurna er'a(ap k& a$!k& a$ Alla' "an# se$elumn"a . A>@8)1A 1B>B@ 0) (an $ern&la& a$a(&+ Se$a#a& mu%&9a ) Al!<uran ela' men%a(& sala' sa u se$a$ pen &n# $a#& masukn"a ,ran#!,ran# Ara$ (& 9aman Rasululla' ke (alam a#ama Islam) (an men%a(& se$a$ pen &n# pula $a#& masukn"a ,ran#!,ran# sekaran#) (an . &ns"a Alla'0 pa(a masa!masa "an# akan (a an#+ A"a ! a"a "an# $er'u$un#an (en#an &lmu pen#e a'uan (apa me"ak&nkan k& a $a'2a Al!<uran a(ala' 5&rman!5&rman Alla') &(ak mun#k&n *&p aan manus&a apala#& *&p aan Na$& Mu'amma( sa2 "an# umm& .7>1A80 "an# '&(up pa(a a2al a$a( ke enam Mase'& .A71 ! B32 M0+ D&an ara a"a !a"a erse$u umpaman"a > 3u>B B>12A 23>12)13)1@ A1>@u @1>11!@1 21>30! 33 A1>7)@u (an la&n!la&n+ Dem&k&an %u#a a"a !a"a "an# $er'u$un#an (en#an se%ara' seper & en an# kekuasaan (& Mes&r) Ne#er& Sa$a+ 7samu() A() Yusu5) Sula&man) Da2u() A(am) Musa (an la&n!la&n (apa mem$er&kan ke"ak&nan kepa(a k& a $a'2a Al!<uran a(ala' 2a'"u Alla' $ukan *&p aan manus&a+ A"a !a"a "an# $er'u$un#an (en#an ramalan!ramalan k'usus "an# kemu(&an (&$uk &kan ,le' se%ara' seper & en an# $an#sa R,ma2&) $erpe*a'!$ela'n"a 4r&s en (an la&n!la&n %u#a men%a(& $uk & la#& kepa(a k& a $a'2a Al!<uran a(ala' 2a'"u Alla' S17+ .30>2)3)@A>1@0+ 8a'asa Al!6uran a(ala' mu%&9a $esar sepan%an# masa) ke&n(a'an $a'asa (an kerap&'an susunan ka an"a &(ak (apa (& emukan pa(a $uku! $uku $a'asa Ara$ la&nn"a+ Qa"a $a'asa "an# lu'ur ap& mu(a' (&men#er & a(ala' merupakan *&r& (ar& #a"a $a'asa Al!<uran+ 4arena #a"a $a'asa "an# (em&k&an & ula' Umar $&n 4'a a$ masuk Islam se ela' men(en#ar Al!<uran a2al sura 7'a'a "an# (&$a*a ,le' a(&kn"a Ta '&ma'+ A$ul 1al&() (&pl,ma <ura&s" 2ak u & u) erpaksa *epa !*epa pulan# $e#& u men(en#ar $e$erapa a"a (ar& sura Tus's'&la "an#

19

(&kemukakan Rasululla' se$a#a& %a2a$an a as usa'a!usa'a $u%ukan (an (&pl,mas&n"a+ 8a'kan A$u =a'al musu' $esar Rasululla') sampa& &(ak %a(& mem$unu' Na$& karena men(en#ar sura a('!D'u'a "an# (&$a*a Na$&+ 7epa apa "an# (&n"a akan Al!<uran) $a'2a se$a$ se,ran# &(ak mener&ma ke$enaran Al!<uran se$a#a& 2a'"u Ila'& a(ala' sala' sa u (&an ara (ua se$a$) "a& u > a) T!da. 0er$!.!r den"an 1%1%r dan &%n""%h-&%n""%h) 0) T!da. &e $a# enden"ar dan en"e#ah%! Al-N%ran &eQara 0a!. .B7>10) @>820+ Ole' Al!<uran (&se$u Al!Ma#'('u$ . (&murka& Alla' 0 karena a'u ke$enaran e ap& &(ak mau mener&ma ke$enaran & u) (an (&se$u a('!(',ll&n . ,ran# sesa 0 karena &(ak menemukan ke$enaran & u+ Se$a#a& %am&nan $a'2a Al! <uran & u 2a'"u Alla') maka Al!<uran sen(&r& menan an# se &ap manus&a un uk mem$ua sa u sura sa%a "an# sen&la& (en#an Al! <uran .2>23) 2@) 17>880+ Se$a#a& pe(,man '&(up) Al!<uran $an"ak men#emukakan p,k,k!p,k,k ser a pr&ns&p!pr&ns&p umum pen#a uran '&(up (alam 'u$un#an an ara manus&a (en#an Alla' (an ma'lu6 la&nn"a+ D&(alamn"a er(apa pera uran!pera uran seper & > $er&$a(a' lan#sun# kepa(a Alla' .2>@3)183)18@)1uB)1u7 11>11@0) $erkeluar#a .@>3) @)1A)1u)20)2A 2>221 2@>32 B0>10)110) $ermas"araka . @>A8 @u>10)13 23>A2 8>@B 2>1@30) $er(a#an# .2>27A)27B)280 @>2u0) u an#!p&u an# .2>2820) ke2ar&san .2>180 @>7!12)17B A>10B0) pen(&(&kan (an pen#a%aran .3>1Au @>u)B3 31>13!1u 2B>3u)@00) p&(ana .2>178 @>u2)u3 A>38 10>27 17>33 2B>@00) (an aspek!aspek ke'&(upan la&nn"a "an# ,le' Alla' (&%am&n (apa $erlaku (an (apa sesua& pa(a se &ap empa (an se &ap 2ak u .7>1A8 3@>28 21>1070+ Se &ap Musl&m (&per&n a'kan un uk melakukan seluru' a a n&la& erse$u (alam ke'&(upann"a .2>208 B>1A3 u>A10+ Dan s&kap mem&l&' se$a#&an (an men,lak se$a#&an a a n&la& & u (&pan(an# Al!<uran se$a#a& $en uk pelan##aran (an (,sa .33>3B0+ Melaksanakann"a (&n&la& &$a(a' .@>Bu 2@>A2 33>710) memper%uan#kann"a (&n&la& se$a#a& per%uan#an su*& .B1>10!13 u>@10) ma & karenan"a (&n&la& se$a#a& ma & s"a'&( .3>1A7) 1Bu0) '&%ra' karena memper%uan#kann"a (&n&la& se$a#a& pen#a$(&an "an# &n##& .@>100) 3>1uA0) (an &(ak mau melaksanakann"a (&n&la& se$a#a& 9'al&m) 5as&6) (an ka5&r .A>@@)@A)@70+

20

Se$a#a& k,rek ,r Al!<uran $an"ak men#un#kapkan pers,alan! pers,alan "an# (&$a'as ,le' k& a$!k& a$ 7aura ) In%&l) (an la&n!la&n "an# (&n&la& Al!<uran se$a#a& &(ak sesua& (en#an a%aran Alla' "an# se$enarn"a+ 8a&k men"an#ku se#& se%ara' ,ran#!,ran# er en u) 'ukum! 'ukum)pr&ns&p!pr&ns&p ke u'anan (an la&n se$a#a&n"a+ Se$a#a& *,n ,' k,reks&!k,reks& "an# (&kemukakan Al!<uran erse$u an ara la&n se$a#a& $er&ku > a) Ten#an" a1aran Tr!n!#a& 2/+(4) 0) Ten#an" I&a 2(/ /+2 +4) Q) Ten#an" $enOal!0an Na0! I&a 2/'+',4) d) Ten#an" Na0! L%#h 22/2,-(* +/,*-,4 $erha#!.an 2Gene&!& / '/((-(z4) e) Ten#an" Har%n 22*/*-4 $erha#!.an 2.el%aran / (+/2-4) ) Ten#an" S%la! an 22/'*2 2+/'-4 $erha#!.an 2Ra1a-ra1a 2'/-4 dan la!n-la!n)

'))

Kand%n"an Al-N%rPan Al!<uran a(ala' k& a$ su*& a#ama &slam un uk seluru' uma musl&m (& seluru' (un&a (ar& a2al (& urunkan '&n##a 2ak u pen#'a$&san spes&es manus&a (& (un&a $a&k (& $um& maupun (& luar an#kasa ak&$a k&ama $esar+ D& (alam sura !sura (an a"a !a"a al6uran erkan(un# kan(un#an "an# se*ara #ar&s $esar (apa k& a $a#& men%a(& $e$erapa 'al p,k,k a au 'al u ama $eser a pen#er &an a au ar & (e5&n&s& (ar& mas&n#!mas&n# kan(un#an &n & sar&n"a) "a& u se$a#a&mana $er&ku &n& > 1+ A6&(a' Ak&(a' A6&(a' a(ala' &lmu "an# men#a%arkan manus&a men#ena& keper*a"aan "an# pas & 2a%&$ (&m&l&k& ,le' se &ap ,ran# (& (un&a+ Al6uran men#a%arkan ak&(a' au'&( kepa(a k& a "a& u menanamkan ke"ak&nan er'a(ap Alla' S17 "an# sa u "an# &(ak perna' &(ur (an &(ak $eranak!p&nak+ /er*a"a kepa(a Alla' S17 a(ala' sala' sa u $u &r rukun &man "an# per ama+ Oran# "an# &(ak per*a"a er'a(ap rukun &man (&se$u se$a#a& ,ran#!,ran# ka5&r+ 2+ I$a(a' I$a(a' a(ala' aa ) un(uk) &ku a au nuru (ar& se#& $a'asa+ Dar& pen#er &an 5u6a'a &$a(a' a(ala' se#ala $en uk ke aa an "an# (&%alankan a au (ker%akan un uk men(apa kan r&(', (ar&
21

3+

@+

A+

B+

7+

Alla' S17+ 8en uk &$a(a' (asar (alam a%aran a#ama &slam "akn& seper & "an# er*an um (alam l&ma $u &r rukum &slam+ Men#u*apkan (ua kal&ma' s"a'a(a ) s',la l&ma 2ak u) mem$a"ar 9aka ) puasa (& $ulan su*& rama('an (an $er&$a(a' per#& 'a%& $a#& "an# ela' mampu men%alankann"a+ Ak'la6 Ak'lak Ak'lak a(ala' per&laku "an# (&m&l&k& ,le' manus&a) $a&k ak'lak "an# erpu%& a au ak'lakul kar&ma' maupun "an# er*ela a au ak'lakul ma(9muma'+ Alla' S17 men#u us Na$& Mu'amm( SA1 &(ak la&n (an &(ak $ukan a(ala' un uk memper$a&k& ak'la6+ Se &ap manus&a 'arus men#&ku & apa "an# (&per&n a'kanN"a (an men%au'& laran#anN"a+ Hukum!Hukum Hukum "an# a(a (& Al!6uran a(ala' mem$er& suru'an a au per&n a' kepa(a ,ran# "an# $er&man un uk men#a(&l& (an mem$er&kan pen%a u'an 'ukuman 'ukum pa(a sesama manus&a "an# er$uk & $ersala'+ Hukum (alam &slam $er(asarkan Al6uran a(a $e$erapa %en&s a au ma*am seper & %&na"a ) muamala ) munaka'a ) 5ara&(' (an %&'a(+ /er&n#a an 7a(9k&r 7a(9k&r a au per&n#a an a(ala' sesua u "an# mem$er& per&n#a an kepa(a manus&a akan an*aman Alla' S17 $erupa s&ksa neraka a au 2aa&(+ 7a(9k&r %u#a $&sa $erupa ka$ar #em$&ra $a#& ,ran#!,ran# "an# $er&man kepa(aN"a (en#an $alasan $erupa n&kma sur#a %anna' a au 2aaa(+ D& samp&n# & u a(a pula #am$aran "an# men"enan#kan (& (alam al6uran a au (&se$u %u#a ar#'&$ (an ke$al&kann"a #am$aran# "an# menaku kan (en#an &s &la' la&nn"a ar'&$+ Se%ara'!Se%ara' a au 4&sa'!4&sa' Se%ara' a au k&sa' a(ala' *er& a men#ena& ,ran#!,ran# "an# er(a'ulu $a&k "an# men(apa kan ke%a"aan ak&$a aa kepa(a Alla' S17 ser a a(a %u#a "an# men#alam& ke$&nasaan ak&$a &(ak aa a au &n#kar er'a(ap Alla' S17+ Dalam men%alankan ke'&(upan se'ar&!'ar& se$a&kn"a k& a men#am$&l pela%aran "an# $a&k!$a&k (ar& se%ara' masa lalu a au (en#an &s &la' la&n &k&$ar+ D,r,n#an Un uk 8erp&k&r D& (alam al!6uran $an"ak a"a !a"a "an# men#ulas sua u $a'asan "an# memerlukan pem&k&ran menus&a un uk men(apa kan man5aa (an %u#a mem$uk &kan ke$enarann"a) eru ama men#ena& alam semes a+
22

/,k,k A%aran Dalam Is& 4an(un#an Al<uran 1+ 7au'&( ! 4e&manan er'a(ap Alla' S17 2+ I$a(a' ! /en#a$(&an er'a(ap Alla' S17 3+ Ak'lak ! S&kap per&laku er'a(ap Alla' S17) sesama manus&a (an mak'luk la&n @+ Hukum ! Men#a ur manus&a A+ Hu$un#an Mas"araka ! Men#a ur a a *ara ke'&(upan manus&a B+ =an%& Dan An*aman ! Re2ar( (an pun&s'men $a#& manus&a 7+ Se%ara' ! 7ele(an (ar& ke%a(&an (& masa lampau

2) A&-S%nnah Had!&# Na0! 2)') Pen"er#!an Se*ara e &m,l,#&s 'a(& s $&sa $erar & > 8aru) seper & kal&ma > Alla' <a(&m mus a'&l Ha(& s;+ Deka ) seper &> Ha(& sul a'l& $&l Islam+ 4'a$ar) seper &> Tal"a u $& 'a(& s&n m& sl&'&+ Dalam ra(&s& 'ukum Islam) 'a(& s $erar &> Se#ala /er$ua an) /erka aan) (an 4e&9&nan Na$& Mu'amma( sa2+ .A5 al) A62al (an 7a6r&r0+ /en#er &an 'a(& s se$a#a&mana erse$u (&a as a(ala' &(en &k (en#an Sunna') "an# se*ara e &m,l,#&s $erar & %alan a au ra(&s&) se$a#a&mana (alam Al!<uran > Sunna a man 6a( arsalna . al!Isra >77 0+ =u#a (apa $erar & > Un(an#!un(an# a au pera uran "an# e ap $erlaku ?ara "an# (&a(akan =alan "an# ela' (&%alan& A(a "an# $erpen(apa an ara Sunna' (en#an Ha(& s erse$u a(ala' $er$e(a!$e(a+ Akan e ap& (alam ke$&asaan 'ukum Islam an ara Ha(& s (an Sunna' erse$u 'an"ala' $er$e(a (alam se#& pen##unaann"a sa%a) &(ak (alam u%uann"a+ Sunna' a(ala' sum$er Hukum Islam . /e(,man H&(up 4aum Musl&m&n 0 "an# ke(ua se ela' Al!<uran+ 8a#& mereka "an# ela'

23

$er&man kepa(a Al!<uran se$a#a& sum$er 'ukum) maka se*ara , ,ma &s 'arus per*a"a $a'2a Sunna' se$a#a& sum$er Islam %u#a+ A"a !a"a Al!<uran *ukup $an"ak un uk (&%a(&kan alasan "an# pas & en an# 'al &n&) seper & > Se &ap mum&n 'arus aa kepa(a Alla' (an Rasul!n"a . al!An5al >20) Mu'amma( >33) an!N&sa >Au) Al&!Imran >32) al! Mu%a(ala' > 13) an!Nur > A@)al!Ma&(a' > u2 0+ 4epa u'an kepa(a Rasul $erar & pa u' (an *&n a kepa(a Alla' . an!N&sa >80) Al&!Imran >31 0+ Oran# "an# men"ala'& Sunna' akan men(apa kan s&ksa . an!An5al >13) Al! Mu%a(ala' >A) an!N&sa >11A 0+ 8er'ukum er'a(ap Sunna' a(ala' an(a ,ran# "an# $er&man+ . an!N&sa>BA 0+ 4emu(&an per'a &kan a"a !a"a > an! Nur > A2 al!Has"r > @ al!Mu%a(ala' > 20 an!N&sa> B@ (an Bu al!A'9a$> 3B (an 71 al!Hu%ura >1 al!Has"r > 7 (an se$a#a&n"a+ Apa$&la Sunna' &(ak $er5un#s& se$a#a& sum$er 'ukum) maka kaum Musl&m&n akan men#'a(ap& kesul& an!kesul& an (alam 'al > *ara s'ala ) ka(ar (an ke en uan 9aka ) *ara 'a%& (an la&n se$a#a&n"a+ Se$a$ a"a !a"a Al!<uran (alam 'al erse$u 'an"a $er$&*ara se*ara #l,$al (an umum) (an "an# men%elaskan se*ara erper&n*& %us ru Sunna' Rasullulla'+ Sela&n & u %u#a akan men(apa kan kesukaran!kesukaran (alam 'al mena5s&rkan a"a !a"a "an# mus" arak) mu' amal (an se$a#a&n"a "an# mau &(ak mau memerlukan Sunna' un uk men%elaskann"a+ Dan apa$&la pena5s&ran!pena5s&ran erse$u 'an"a (&(asarkan kepa(a per &m$an#an ras&, su(a' $aran# en u akan mela'&rkan a5s&ran! a5s&ran "an# san#a su$%ek &5 (an &(ak (apa (&per an##un#%a2a$kan+ 2)2) La#ar Bela.an" /ara ulama mem$a#& perkem$an#an 'a(& s & u kepa(a 7 per&,(e "a& u > a. Masa 2a'"u (an pem$en ukan 'ukum . pa(a aman Rasul > 13 SH ! 11 SH 0+ b. Masa pem$a asan r&2a"a . masa k'ula5aur!ras"&(&n > 12!@0 H 0+
c.

Masa pen*ar&an 'a(& s . pa(a masa #eneras& a$&&n (an sa'a$a ! sa'a$a mu(a > @1 H ! ak'&r a$a( 1 H 0+ Masa pem$ukuan 'a(& s . permulaan a$a( II H 0+ Masa pen"ar&n#an (an seleks& ke a . a2al a$a( III H 0 sampa& selesa&+ Masa pen"usunan k& a$!k& a$ k,leks& . a2al a$a( IV H sampa& %a u'n"a 8a#'(a( pa(a a'un BAB H 0+

d. e. f.

24

g.

Masa pem$ua an k& a$ s"ara' 'a(& s) k& a$!k& a$ a'r&% (an pen"usunan k& a$!k& a$ k,leks& "an# le$&' umum . BAB H (an se erusn"a 0+

/a(a 9aman Rasululla' al!Ha(& s $elum perna' (& ul&skan se$a$ > a. Na$& sen(&r& perna' melaran#n"a) ke*ual& $a#& sa'a$a !sa'a$a er en u "an# (&&9&nkan $el&au se$a#a& *a a an pr&$a(&+ b. Rasululla' $era(a (& en#a'! en#a' umma Islam se'&n##a (&rasa &(ak san#a perlu un uk (& ul&skan pa(a 2ak u & u+
c. d. e.

4emampuan ul&s $a*a (& kalan#an sa'a$a san#a er$a as+ Umma Islam se(an# (&k,nsen ras&kan kepa(a Al!<uran+ 4es&$ukan!kes&$ukan umma Islam "an# luar men#'a(ap& per%uan#an (a2a' "an# san#a pen &n#+ $&asa (alam

/a(a 9aman!9aman $er&ku n"a pun ern"a a al!Ha(& s $elum sempa (&$ukukan karena se$a$!se$a$ er en u+ 8aru pa(a 9aman Umar $&n A$(ul A9&s) k'al&5a' ke!8 (ar& (&nas & 8an& Uma""a' . uu!101 H 0 &m$ul &n&s&a &5 se*ara resm& un uk menul&s (an mem$ukukan 'a(& s & u+ Se$elumn"a 'a(& s!'a(& s & u 'an"a (&sampa&kan melalu& 'a5alan!'a5alan para sa'a$a "an# ke$e ulan '&(up lama se ela' Na$& 2a5a (an pa(a saa #eneras& a$&&n men*ar& 'a(& s!'a(& s & u+ D!an#ara &aha0a#-&aha0a# !#% !alah / A$u Hura&ra') mer&2a"a kan 'a(& s sek& ar A37@ $ua'+ A$(ulla' $&n Umar $&n 4'a a$) mer&2a"a kan sek& ar 2B30 $ua'+ Anas $&n Mal&k) mer&2a"a kan se$an"ak 228B $ua'+ A$(ulla' $&n A$$as) mer&2a"a kan se$an"ak 11B0 $ua'+ A&s"a' Ummul Mum&n&n) mer&2a"a kan se$an"ak 2210 $ua'+ =a$&r $&n A$(&lla' mer&2a"a kan se$an"ak 1A@0 $ua'+ A$u Sa&( al!Hu(r& mer&2a"a kan 1170 $ua'+ Kena$a .e %d!an Had!#& D!.-d!!.a&!) K-d!!.a&! Had!#& !#% 1%&#r% d!la#ar 0ela.an"! -leh adanOa %&aha-%&aha %n#%. e 0%a# dan enOe0arl%a&.an had!#&-had!#& $al&% d!.alan"an % a# I&la ) $a&k "an# (&$ua ,le' umma Islam sen(&r& karena maksu(!maksu( er en u) maupun ,le' ,ran#!,ran# luar "an# sen#a%a un uk men#'an*urkan Islam (ar& (alam+ Dan sampa& saa &n& ern"a a mas&' $an"ak 'a(& s!'a(& s palsu & u $er e$aran (alam $e$erapa l& era ur kaum Musl&m&n+ D& samp&n# & u &(ak se(&k& pula
25

kesala'an!kesala'an "an# $erkem$an# (&kalan#an mas"araka Islam) $erupa an##apan er'a(ap pepa a'!pepa a' (alam $a'asa Ara$ "an# (&n&la& mereka se$a#a& 'a(& s+ ala%$%n d!#!n1a% dar! &e"! !&! a#er!nOa #!da. 0er#en#an"an den"an $r!n&!$-$r!n&!$ $-.-. a1aran I&la e ap& k& a e ap &(ak $,le' men#a akan $a'2a sesua u u*apan & u se$a#a& u*apan Rasululla' kalau meman# $ukan sa$(a Rasul+ Se$a$ Sa$(a Rasululla' > 8aran#s&apa $er(us a a as namaku maka s&ap!s&ap sa%a empa n"a (&neraka + Alha d%l!llah 0er.a# 1a&a-1a&a dar! %la a-%la a Oan" &aleh ) 'a(& s!'a(& s & u kemu(&an sempa (&$ukukan (alam $er$a#a& ma*am $uku) ser a (&a(akan seleks&!seleks& ke a ,le' mereka sampa& mela'&rkan sa u (&s&pl&n &lmu ersen(&r& "an# (&se$u Ilmu Mus 'ala' Ha(& s+ 1alaupun usa'a mereka $elum (apa mem$en(un# seluru' usa'a!usa'a pen"e$aran 'a(& s!'a(& s palsu (an lema') namun mereka ela' mela'&rkan n,rma!n,rma (an pe(,man!pe(,man k'usus un uk men#a(akan seleks& se$a&k!$a&kn"a "an# (& uan#kan (alam &lmu mus 'ala' 'a(& s erse$u + Seh!n""a den"an $ed- an !#% % a# I&la &e.aran" $%n da$a# en"ada.an &ele.&!-&ele.&! &e$erl%nOa+ Nama!nama Is'ak $&n Ra'a2&') Imam 8uk'ar&) Imam Musl&m) ar!Rama a !7urmu(9&) al! Ma(&n&) I$nu S'ala' (an $an"ak la#& ulama!ulama sale' la&nn"a a(ala' ren e an nama!nama "an# $esar %asan"a (alam usa'a pen"elama an 'a(& s!'a(& s (ar& kepalsuan!kepalsuan se'&n##a la'&rla' &lmu erse$u + Un uk mem$er&kan #am$aran perkem$an#an 'a(& s (apa k& a per'a &kan perkem$an#an kela'&ran k& a$!k& a$ 'a(& s (an &lmu!&lmu 'a(& s+

2)() MaQa -MaQa Sunna' se$a#a& sum$er 'ukum Islam (an (al&l 'ukum Islam ke(ua) (&$e(akan a as 3 . &#a0 ma*am> ') S%nnah F!Pl!OOah A(ala' per$ua an "# (&lakukan Na$& SA1 "# (&l&'a ) (&ke a'u& (an (&sampa&kan para sa'a$a kepa(a ,ran# la&n+ M&sal> a a *ara s'ala "# (& un%ukkan Rasululla' SA1 4emu(&an (&sampa&kan sa'a$a "# mel&'a a au men#e a'u&n"a kepa(a ,ran# la&n+ 2) S%nnah Na%l!OOah

26

A(ala' u*apan Na$& Sa2+ "# (&(en#ar ,le' (an (&sampa&kan sese,ran# a au $e$erapa sa'a$a kepa(a ,ran# la&n+ M&sal) sa$(a rasululla' "# (&r&2a"a kan A$u Hura&ra'> 7&(ak sa' s'ala sese,ran# "an# &(ak mem$a*a sura al!Ta &'a'+ .HR+ 8uk'ar&!Musl&m0 () S%nnah Tar!r!OOah A(ala' per$ua an a au u*apan sa'a$a "# (&lakukan (&'a(apan a au sepen#e a'uan Na$& Sa2+ 7e ap& Na$& 'an"a (&am (an &(ak men*e#a'n"a+ S&kap (&am (an &(ak men*e#a' (ar& Na$& Sa2 menun%ukkan perse u%uan . a6r&r&0 Na$& Sa2 er'a(ap per$ua an sa'a$a erse$u + 2)) Sanad Sua u persam$un#an 'a(& s (apa (&n&la& se#ala $a&k) apa$&la an ara pem$a2a (an pener&ma 'a(& s $enar!$enar $er emu $a'kan (alam $a as! $a as er en u $er#uru+ 7&(ak $,le' a(a ,ran# la&n "an# $erperanan (alam mem$a2akan 'a(& s ap& &(ak nampak (alam susunan pem$a2a 'a(& s & u+ Apa$&la a(a sa u ka& an "an# (&ra#ukan an ara pem$a2a (an pener&ma 'a(& s) maka 'a(& s & u &(ak (apa (&masukkan (alam kr& er&a 'a(& s "an# ma6$ul+ 2)) Ra5! Sese,ran# "an# (apa (& er&ma 'a(& sn"a &ala' "an# memenu'& s"ara ! s"ara > 1+ Ad!l Oa!#% -ran" I&la Oan" 0al!"h dan 1%1%r ) &(ak perna' $er(us a (an mem$&asakan (,sa+ 2+ Ha!h Oa!#% .%a# haalannOa a au mempun"a& *a a an pr&$a(& "an# (apa (&per an##un#%a2a$kan+ 8er(asarkan kr& er&a!kr& er&a seleks& erse$u ) maka %um'ur . ma",r& as 0 ulama $erpen(&r&an $a'2a k& a$ as'!S'a'&' 8uk'ar& (an k& a$ as'!S'a'&' Imam Musl&m (apa (&%am&n kes'a'&'ann"a (& &n%au (ar& se#& sana( (an ra2&+ Se(an# (ar& se#& ma an k& a (apa mem$er&kan seleks&n"a (en#an pe(,man!pe(,man (&a as+ 8e$erapa lan#ka' prak &s (alam usa'a seleks& 'a(& s) apaka' sesua u 'a(& s & u ma6$ul a au &(ak a(ala' > 1+ /er'a &kan ma er&n"a sesua& (en#an n,rma (&a as+

27

2+ /er'a &kan k& a$ pen#am$&lann"a . r,2a'u (&r&2a"a kan a au a'ra%a'u (&keluarkan 0+ Apa$&la ma ann"a $a&k (&r&2a"a kan ,le' 8uk'ar& a au Musl&m) maka (apa (&n&la& 'a(& s & u s'a'&' a au pal&n# ren(a' 'asan+ 3+ Apa$&la sesua u 'a(& s su(a' $a&k ma er&n"a e ap& &(ak ermasuk (alam pers"ara an pun 2 (&a as maka 'en(akn"a (&per'a &kan k,men ar!k,men ar ulama er'a(ap 'a(& s & u seper & > K- en#ar 0a!. / Had!#& %5a# had!#& &hah!hhad!#& 1aOO!d had!#& 0a!. had!#& $!l!han dan &e0a"a!nOa) K- en#ar 1ele. / Had!#& $%#%& had!#& le ah had!#& ada !lla#nOa a%% a#h% %dalla& %n.ar %na#h! %alla. dan la!n &e0a"a!nOa) Dalam 'al &n& k& a akan menemukan sesua u 'a(& s "an# men(apa kan pen&la&an $er$e(a $er en an#an an ara se,ran# ulama (an la&nn"a+ Maka lan#ka' k& a a(ala' > (a'ulukan "an# men*ela se$elum "an# memu%& . Al! %ar'u Mu6a((amun ala a(&l 0+ Hal &n& apa$&la (&n&la& ,le' sama!sama a'l& 'a(& s+ Hal la&n "an# perlu (&per'a &kan &ala' $a'2a &(ak semua k,men ar ulama erse$u (apa (&per an##un#%a2a$kan+ Ar &n"a sesua u 'a(& s "an# (&ka akan ,le' para ulama s'a'&') ka(an#! ka(an# se ela' (& el& & kem$al& ern"a a &(ak (em&k&an+ ?,n ,'n"a (alam 'a(& s k& a akan menemukan ka a!ka a (an (&s'a'&'kan ,le' Imam Hak&m) ,le' I$nu Hu9a&ma' (an la&n!la&n) e ap& ern"a a 'a(& s erse$u &(ak s'a'&' . $elum en u s'a'&' 0+ @+ Apa$&la lan#ka'!lan#ka' (&a as &(ak mun#k&n (& empu' a au $elum mem$er&kan kepas &an en an# kes'a'&'an sesua u 'a(& s) maka 'en(akn"a (&#unakan n,rma!n,rma umum seleks&) seper & "an# (& eran#kan (&a as) "a& u men"el&(&k& lan#sun# en an# se%ara' para ra2& (an la&n! la&n) (an un uk &n& ela' (&susun ,le' para ulama er(a'ulu se%umla' $uku!$uku "an# mem$a'as en an# se%ara' (an kea(aan para pem$a2a 'a(& s) seper & "an# perna' (&lakukan ,le' al!8uk'ar& (alam $ukun"a a(!D'ua5a .kumpulan ,ran#!,ran# "an# lema' 'a(& sn"a0+ 2)z) Ma#an
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Sua u ma er& 'a(& s (apa (&n&la& $a&k apa$&la ma er& 'a(& s & u &(ak $er en an#an (en#an al!<uran a au 'a(& s la&n "an# le$&' kua ) &(ak $er en an#an (en#an real& a) &(ak $er en an#an (en#an 5ak a se%ara') &(ak $er en an#an (en#an pr&ns&p!pr&ns&p p,k,k a%aran Islam+ Un uk seke(ar *,n ,' (apa k& a per'a &kan 'a(& s!'a(& s "an# (&n&la& $a&k) ap& $er en an#an &s& ma er&n"a (en#an al!<uran > 1. Ha(& s "an# men#a akan $a'2a Se,ran# ma"a akan (&s&ksa ,le' 7u'an karena ra apan a'l& 2ar&sn"a ) a(ala' $er en an#an (en#an 5&rman Alla' > 1ala a9&ru 2a9&ra un 2&9ra uk'ra "an# ar &n"a Dan sese,ran# &(ak akan mem&kul (,sa ,ran# la&n . al!Anan > 1B@ 0+ 2. Ha(& s "an# men#a akan > 8aran#s&apa "an# men&n##al (un&a (alam kea(aan pun"a 'u an# puasa) maka 'en(akla' (&puasakan ,le' 2al&n"a ) a(ala' $er en an#an (en#an 5&rman Alla' > 1a alla&sa l&l &nsan& &lla ma!saa ) "an# ar &n"a > Dan sese,ran# &(ak akan men(apa kan pa'ala apa!apa ke*ual& (ar& apa "an# (&a ker%akan sen(&r& + . an!Na%m > 3u 0+ A(a sa u n,rma "an# (&sepaka & ,le' ma",r& as ulama) "a& u > Apa$&la <uran (an 'a(& s $er en an#an) maka am$&lla' <uran + 2)+) F%n"&! dan Ked%d%.an 7ela' sepaka ulama A'lu Sunna' 2al =amaa' $a'2a As!Sunna' merupa!kan sala' sa u sum$er s"ar&-a Islam) (an (&an ara ke(u(ukan (an 5un#s& As!Sunna' a(ala'> 1. Se$a#a& pen%ela& dar! !&! Al-N%rPan Allah 0er!r an / :Dan 4am& urunkan kepa(amu Al <ur-an) a#ar kamu meneran#kan kepa(a umma manus&a apa "an# ela' (& urunkan kepa(a mereka (an supa"a mereka mem&!k&rkan; .<S+ An Na'l >@@0 2. Men#&ku & Na$& r .As!Sunna'0 $erar & aa kepada Allah I 2AlN%rPan4 Allah 0er!r an / :8aran#s&apa "an# men a-a & Rasul & u) sesun##u'n"a &a ela' men a-a & Alla'+ Dan $aran#s&apa "an# $erpal&n# .(ar& ke a-a an & u0) maka kam& &(ak men#u usmu un uk men%a(& pemel&'ara $a#& mereka; .<S+ An N&saa- >800 3. Men%a(&kan As!Sunna' se$a#a& sum$er 'ukum a(ala' s"ara mu #la. .e! anan &e&e-ran" Allah 0er!r an / :Maka (em& 7u'anmu) mereka .pa(a 'akeka n"a0 &(ak $er&man '&n##a mereka men%a(&kan kamu 'ak&m (alam perkara "an# mereka persel&s&'kan+ 4emu(&an mereka &(ak merasa ke$era an (alam 'a &
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mereka er'a(ap pu usan "an# kamu $er&kan) (an mereka mener&ma (en#an sepenu'n"a; .<S+ An N&saa- >BA0 4. Men#&ku & sunna' merupakan *ara un uk me ra!h .eQ!n#aan Allah U Allah 0er!r an / :4a akanla' >;=&ka kamu .$enar!$enar0 men*&n a& Alla') &ku &la' aku n&s*a"a Alla' men#as&'& (an men#ampun& (,sa!(,samu; Alla' Ma'a /en#ampun la#& Ma'a /en"a"an#; .<S+ Al& Imran>310+ 5. 1a%&$ a as se &ap musl&m un uk mener&ma se#ala ap a Oan" d!0a5a -leh Ra&%l%llah 2a&-&%nnah4 dan hara 0a"!nOa en-la.nOa) Allah 0er!r an Oan" ar#!nOa / :Dan &(akla' pan u $a#& lak&!lak& "an# mu-m&n (an &(ak .pula0 $a#& perempuan "an# mu-m&na') apa$&la Alla' (an Rasul!N"a ela' mene apkan sua u ke e apan) akan a(a $a#& mereka p&l&'an ."an# la&n0 en an# urusan mereka+ Dan $aran#s&apa men(ur'aka& Alla' (an Rasul!N"a maka sun##u'la' (&a ela' sesa ) sesa "an# n"a a;.<S+ Al A'9a$ >3B 0 6. Oran# "an# men"el&s&'& sunna' Rasululla' r eran*am 5& na' (an a9a$ "an# pe(&'+ Alla' S17 $er5&rman > :Maka 'en(akla' ,ran#!,ran# "an# men"ala'& per&n a' Rasul aku akan (& &mpa *,$aan a au (& &mpa a9a$ "an# pe(&';.<S+ An Nuur >B30 () I1#!had ()') Pen"er#!an Menuru $a'asa) &% &'a( $erar & pen#era'an se#ala kemampuan un uk men#er%akan sesua u "an# sul& + A as (asar &n& maka &(ak epa apa$&la ka a &% &'a( (&per#unakan un uk melakukan sesua u "an# mu(a'r&n#an+ /en#er &an &% &'a( menuru $a'asa &n& a(a relevans&n"a (en#an pen#er &an &% &'a( menuru &s &la') (&mana un uk melakukann"a (&perlukan $e$erapa pers"ara an "an# karenan"a &(ak mun#k&n peker%aan & u .&% &'a(0 (&lakukan sem$aran# ,ran#+ Dan (& s&s& la&n a(a pen#er &an &% 'a( "an# ela' (&#unakan para sa'a$a Na$&+ Mereka mem$er&kan $a asan $a'2a &% &'a( a(ala' penel& &an (an pem&k&ran un uk men(apa kan sesua u "an# er(eka pa(a 4& a$!u l!La' (an Sunna' Rasul) $a&k "an# er(eka & u (&per,le' (ar& nas' !"an# erkenal (en#an 6&"as .ma6ul nas'0) a au "an# er(eka & u (&per,le' (ar& maksu( (an u%uan umum (ar& '&kma' s"ar&a'! "an# erkenal (en#an mas'la'a + Dalam ka& an pen#er an &% &'a( menuru &s &la') a(a (ua kel,mp,k a'l& us'ul 5l6' .us'ul&""&n0 !kel,mp,k ma",r& as (an kel,mp,k m&n,r& as!
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"an# men#emukakan rumusan (e5&n&s&+ Dalam ul&san &n& 'an"a akan (&un#kapkan pen#er &an &% &'a( menuru rumusan us'ul&""&n (ar& kel,mp,k ma",r& as+ Menuru mereka) &% &'a( a(ala' pen#era'an se#enap kesan##upan (ar& se,ran# a'l& 56&' a au mu% a'&( un uk memper,le' pen#er &an &n#ka ('ann er'a(ap sesua u 'ukum s"ara .'ukum Islam0+ Dar& (e5&n&s& erse$u (apa (& ar&k $e$erapa kes&mpulan se$a#a& $er&ku > 1+ /elaku u &'a( a(ala' se,ran# a'l& 5&6&''ukum Islam .5a6&'0) $ukan "an# la&n+ 2+ Yan# &n#&n (&*apa& ,le' &% &'a( a(ala' 'ukum s"ar&) "a& u 'ukum Islam "an# $er'u$un#an (en#an &n#ka' laku (an per$ua an ,ran#!,ran# (e2asa) $ukan 'ukum & &6a(& a au 'ukum k'ulu6&+ 3+ S a us 'ukum s"ar& "an# (&'as&lkan ,le' &% &'a( a(ala' ('ann&+ =a(& apa$&la k& a k,ns&s en (en#an (e5&n&s& &% &'a( (&a as maka (apa k& a e#askan $a'2a &% &'a( sepan%an# pen#er &an &s &la' 'an"ala' m,n,p,l& (un&a 'ukum+ Dalam 'u$un#an &n& k,men a ,r =amu l!=a2am& .=alalu((&n al!Ma'all"0 mene#askan) "an# (&maksu( &% &'a( a(ala' $&la (&mu lakkan maka &% &'a( & u $&(an# 'ukum 5&6&''ukum 5uru+ .=amul! =a2am&) =u9 II) 'al+ 37u0+ A as (asar & u a(a kekel&ruan pen(apa semen ara p&'ak "an# men#a akan $a'2a &% &'a( %u#a $erlaku (& $&(an# a6&(a'+ /en(apa "an# n"elene' a au s"a(9 &n& (&pel,p,r& al!=a'&(') sala' se,ran# ,k,' mu a9&la'+ D&a men#a akan $a'2a &% &'a( %u#a $erlaku (& $&(an# a6&(a'+ /en(apa &n& $ukan sa%a menun%ukkan &nk,ns&s ens& er'a(ap sua u (&s&pl&n &lmu .us'ul 5&6'0) e ap& %u#a akan mem$a2a k,nsekuens& pem$enaran er'a(ap a6&(a' n,n Islam "an# (lalal+ Lan aran & ula' =um'ur ulama ela' $ersepaka $a'2a &% &'a( 'an"a $erlaku (& $&(an# 'ukum .'ukum Islam0 (en#an ke en uan!ke en uan er en u+ ()2) La#ar Bela.an" I1#!had Dalam a#ama Islam) &% &'a( merupakan sala' sa u ema pen &n# (an mem&l&k& la ar $elakan# '&s ,r&s+ I$nu S&na (alam k& a$ S"&5a mene#askan $a'2a :/el$a#a& ke$u u'an "an# (&perlukan ,le' uma manus&a &(ak er$a as+ Asas Islam .$a*a> us'ulu((&n0 $ers&5a e ap (an &(ak $eru$a'+ Dan &(ak 'an"a &(ak $eru$a' namun &a merupakan real& as!real& as "an# 'arus men%a(& (asar (an asas $a#& ke'&(upan uma manus&a+ Namun "an# $er al&an (en#an *a$an# .5uru-u((&n0) &(ak (em&k&an+ Hal!'al "an# $erkenaan (en#an masala' *a$an# a#ama &(ak $eru%un#+ Menuru I$nu S&na) a as alasan &n&la' &% &'a( merupakan se$ua' perkara "an# mes & (an
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'arus a(a (& se &ap 9aman+ I% &'a() men"& &r I6$al) a(ala' kekua an pen##erak Islam+ Den#an &% &'a( r,(a ken(araan Islam akan senan &asa $er#ul&r+ /ers,alan!pers,alan kek&n&an "an# (&'a(ap& ,le' uma manus&a (apa (& elusur& %a2a$ann"a (ar& pr,(uk!pr,(uk &% &'a( "an# (&'as&lkan ,le' para %ur&s+ Den#an $erm,(alkan al!<ur-an) Sunna') I%ma (an Akal) para mu% a'&( senan &asa $erupa"a un uk meme*a'kan pel$a#a& pers,alan "an# (&'a(ap& uma manus&a pa(a se &ap masan"a+ /a(a masa Rasululla' Sa2) ,ran#!,ran# mem&l&k& %alur (an akses kepa(a Rasululla' (an men"elesa&kan pers,alan mereka+ Dem&k&an %u#a pa(a masa para Imam Maksum As+ /a(a masa '&(up para Imam Maksum) se$a#&an ,ran# "an# mem&l&k& p, ens& (an kapas& as &n elek ual "an# mema(a&) men&m$a pen#e a'uan (an ka&(a'!ka&(a' umum se(em&k&an se'&n##a m&saln"a Imam S'a(&6 As $ersa$(a) 3ala&na &l6u al!us'l 2a 3ala&kum al! a5r&.7u#as kam& men#a%arkan ka&(a'!ka&(a' p,k,k (an $a#& kal&an men*a$an#kann"a0+ 8eran#ka (ar& sa$(a Imam S'a(&6 As) para sa'a$a (an mur&(! mur&( &mam meram&5&kas& pel$a#a& ka&(a' umum "an# mereka #al& (ar& ma(rasa' Imam S'a(&6 As un uk men%a2a$ pers,alan!pers,lan uma (& masan"a+ Dem&k&an se erusn"a) '&n##a masa k&2ar& sekaran# &n&+ Ra usan ka&(a' ras&,nal us'ul (an 5&k&' ela' la'&r (an men#alam& ram&5&kas& $er & &k ,lak (ar& sa$(a Imam S'a(&6 As &n&+ 8ukan empa n"a (& s&n& un uk mem$&*arakan ka&(a' apa sa%a "an# ela' la'&r erse$u + S ress&n# ul&san &n& pa(a la ar se%ara' &% &'a( se*ara sel&n asan "an# mem$en an# semen%ak masa Rasululla' '&n##a masa para Imam Maksum As+ A(apun pers,alan &% &'a( pas*a Imam Maksum As) k'ususn"a pa(a masa #'a&$a ku$ra '&n##a er$en ukn"a se*ara &ns & us&,nal mar%a akl&() &ns"a Alla') men"usul se#era+ I1#!had $ada Ma&a Na0! Sa5 Dalam perspek &5 S"&a') &% &'a( mula& $erkem$an# pa(a masa para Imam Maksum As (& kalan#an para sa'a$a mereka+ Seman#a (an prak &k &% &'a( erse$u ela' memun*ulkan $an"ak peru$a'an (an kema%uan (alam S"&a'+ S"&a' mener&ma &% &'a( "an# $ermakna &n5erens& .&s &n$a '0 'ukum!'ukum s"ar&a (ar& nas'!nas') la'&r&"a' al!<ur-an (an Sunna'+ =en&s &% &'a( sema*am &n& ela' men"e$ar semen%ak masa Imam Maksum As (& kalan#an para sa'a$a para &mam+ 8a'kan pa(a masa Rasululla' Sa2 sen(&r& &% &&'a( ela' (&prak &kan ,le' se$a#&an sa'a$a Rasululla' Sa2+ M&saln"a Rasululla' Sa2 men#u us se$a#&an sa'a$a seper & Mus'-a$ $&n Uma&r (an Mua(9 $&n =a$al un uk per#& ke (aera'!(aera'
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sek& ar melakukan (ak2a' (an men#a%arkan 'ukum!'ukum a#ama+ Rasululla' Sa2 $ersa$(a) :H&n(ar&la' men#eluarkan 5a 2a anpa &lmu "an# (apa men#un(an# lakna para mala&ka .ke a as kal&an0+; =u#a er(apa se$ua' 'a(&s "an# p,pular (&r&2a"a kan (& kalan#an A'lusuna' "an# (&r&2a"a kan (ar& Mua(9 $&n =a$al+ Ha(&s &n& erka(an# (&%a(&kan san(aran %us &5&kas& pene apan 'ukum (en#an men##unakan pen(apa sen(&r& .&% &'a( $& al!ra-"0+ Ha(&s &n& (&r&2a"a kan (alam k& a$ Musna( A'ma( $&n Han$al (an Sunan al Dar&m&+ Re(aks& 'a(&s erse$u a(ala' se$a#a& $er&ku ) Sesun##u'n"a Rasululla' Sa2 men#u us Mua(9 ke Yaman) $el&au $ersa$(a) 8a#a&mana An(a nan & mem$er&kan kepu usan Aku mem$er& kepu usan (en#an k& a$ulla'+; 8a#a&mana kalau &(ak a(a (alam k& a$ulla' Maka (en#an sunna' Rasululla' Sa2 8a#a&mana kalau &(ak a(a (alam sunna' Rasululla' Sa2 Aku $erusa'a (en#an pen(apa ku (an aku &(ak akan men"era'+ Lalu Rasululla' Sa2 menepuk (a(an"a (an $ersa$(a) Se#ala pu%& $a#& Alla' "an# ela' mem$&m$&n# u usan Rasululla'+ Se%ara2an (an a'l& 'a(&s S"&a') menuk&l (ar& I$nu Ha9m) meman(an# 'a(&s (& a as se$a#a& 'a(&s ma%'ul+ D& s&n& k& a &(ak akan mem$a'asn"a se*ara %eluk+ S ress&n#n"a pa(a se%ara' &% &'a( "an# (&lakukan se$a#&an sa'a$a pa(a masa Rasululla' Sa2+ I1#!had $ada Ma&a Para I a Ma.&% Sekaran# &$a #&l&rann"a la ar se%ara' &% &'a( pa(a masa para Imam Maksum As+ Sa"a &(ak 'a$&s p&k&r a as (asar apa) penul&s Dar& L& era ur S"&a' ke Mar%a&""a') menul&s $a'2a &% &'a( ela' usa& pas*a masa Imam S'a(&6 As+ Semen ara ka&(a' un&versal "an# (&a%arkan ,le'n"a e ap (&lan%u kan ,le' mur&(!mur&(n"a (an (&ka2al ,le' para &mam pas*a Imam S'a(&6 As+ Se$a#a&mana "an# (&$e$erkan (& a as men#&n(&kas&kan $a'2a mem$er&kan 5a 2a (ar& mu5 & (an %ur&s .5ak&'0 (an k,nsekuens&n"a akl&( (an men#&ku & 5a 2a erse$u (ar& s&s& mas"araka %u#a ela' men#emuka pa(a masa Rasululla' Sa2+ Meru%uk kepa(a 5ak&' pas*a 2a5a n"a Rasululla' Sa2 erus $erlan%u se$a#a&mana se$elumn"a '&n##a men*apa& 9aman keemasann"a (an $ersem& pa(a masa Imam 8a6&r As (an Imam S'a(&6 As+ 7&(ak er$&lan# %ur&s "an# (&#em$len# (an (&(&(&k pa(a ma(rasa' (ua &mam $esar &n&+ Mereka men"e$ar (& k, a!k, a (en#an maksu( men#'&(upkan (an men#%arkan 'ukum!'ukum a#ama+ 8an"ak mas"araka
33

"an# (a'a#a akan pen#e a'uan!pen#e a'uan (an 'ukum!'ukum Ila'& "an# $ermuk&m (& empa "an# %au' (ar& para Imam Maksum men(a an#& mur&(!mur&( (ua &mam $esar & u (an $er an"a en an# masala'!masala' "an# (&'a(ap& kepa(a mereka+ Den#an peran ara mur&(!mur&( &n& mas"araka melepaskan (a'a#an"a (ar& samu(era &lmu para Imam Maksum As "an# &(ak er$a as+ In&la' "an# (&se$u sea$#a& akl&( (an (&lakukan ,le' mas"araka ke &ka & u+ 8er&ku &n& $e$erapa *,n ,' (ar& prak &k akl&( (an &% &'a( "an# (&lakukan mas"araka pa(a masa para Imam Maksum As> 1+ Imam 8a6&r As $ersa$(a kepa(a A$an $&n 7a#'la$> :Du(ukla' (& mas%&( Ma(&na' (an $er&kanla' 5a 2a un uk mas"araka + 4arena aku suka ,ran#!,ran# seper &mu (& kalan#an S"&a'ku+; 2+ Mua(9 $&n Musl&m) sala' se,ran# sa'a$a Imam S'a(&6 As) anpa men(apa kan &9&n (ar& &mam mem$er&kan 5a 2a (& mas%&( =am&-+ 7a kala $er& a &n& sampa& kepa(a Imam S'a(&6 As) $el&au mem, &vas& (an men",k,n#n"a+ 3+ S"u-a&$ 3A6r6au6& $erka a) :Sa"a $erka a kepa(a Imam S'a(&6 As> :7erka(an# kam& &n#&n $er an"a (an meme*a'kan masala' a#ama "an# kam& 'a(ap& .(an kam& &(ak mem&l&k& akses kepa(a An(a karena ke%au'an a au HAn(aI $era(a (alam k,n(&s& a6&""a'++0 4a akanla' kepa(a s&apa kam& 'arus meru%uk (an mener&ma u*apann"a Imam S'a(&6 As men%a2a$) :-Ala&kum $&l Asa(& "a-n& A$a 8as'&r; .En#kau (apa meru%uk kepa(a A$u 8as'&r0+ @+ Hasan $&n Al& Ya6 &n $erka a) :Aku $erka a kepa(a Imam R&('a As) :Sa"a &(ak (apa $er an"a kepa(a An(a .se*ara lan#sun#0 ke &ka $er'a(apan (en#an se &ap pers,alan a#ama "an# sa"a 'a(ap&+ Apaka' Yunus $&n A$(urra'man & u ,ran# s&6a' .(apa (&per*a"a0 (an %u%ur (an sa"a (apa mener&ma %a2a$an er'a(ap masala'!masala' a#ama "an# sa"a 'a(ap& Imam R&('a As $ersa$(a) :I"a+; A+ Imam Ma'(& A%5 (alam au6&-!n"a .sura "an# (& an(a an#&0 "an# erkenal & u menul&s kepa(a Is'a6 $&n Ya-6u$) se$a#a& se$ua' ka&(a' umum) seper & &n&> :Dalam pel$a#a& per&s &2a "an# er%a(& maka meru%ukla' kepa(a para pera2& 'a(&s kam& .para %ur&s0 mereka a(ala' 'u%%a'ku $a#& kal&an (an aku a(ala' 'u%%a' 7u'an $a#& mereka+; I1#!had dan Ta.l!d 8er(asarkan au6&- Imam Ma'(& &n& (an $e$erapa r&2a"a la&nn"a men#ua kan masala' meru%uk kepa(a %ur&s .5ak&'0 pa(a masa #'a&$a ku$ra (an memun*ulkan (ua erma :&% &'a(; (an : akl&(+; I'2al (ua erma ekn&s &n& se*ara r&n#kas (apa (&se$u kan $a'2a "an# (&maksu( (en#an
34

&% &'a( a(ala' usa'a "an# sun##u'!sun#u' "an# (&lakukan para %ur&s un uk men#&n5erens& 'ukum!'ukum s"ar&a (ar& sum$er!sum$ern"a+ A(apun akl&( se*ara ekn&s) mem&n%am (e5&n&s& Imam 4',me&n& (alam 7a'r&r 1as&la') $a$ akl&() $ermakna $eramal men#&ku 5a 2a mu% a'&( .mar%a0+; Se$a#a&mana se%ara' &% &'a( $ermula & u se%ara' akl&( %u#a sama nas&$n"a+ Ar &n"a ke &ka a(a &% &'a( maka k,nsekuens& l,#&sn"a a(a ,ran# "an# mem$u u'kan pr,(uk &% &'a( erse$u "an# (alam $a'asa ekn&s 5&k&'n"a (&se$u se$a#a& akl&(+ Mun#k&n pa(a la&n kesempa an k& a akan men#ul& & (ua makna ekn&s &n& $er&ku se%ara' mar%a&""a' (an &ns & us& mar%a&""a' (alam S"&a'+ /ara %ur&s (an mu% a'&( %m&- al!s"ar& .mem&l&k& pel$a#a& pers"ara an0 mem&kul an##un# %a2a$ un uk men%a2a$ (an men#eluarkan 5a 2a $a#& se &ap pers,alan kek&n&an "an# (&'a(ap& mas"araka (an men#&s& kek,s,n#an ser a mem$er&kan s,lus& a as pers,alan &a(an"a akses lan#sun# mas"araka kepa(a para Imam Maksum As+ /ers,alan &n& '&n##a k&n& erus $erlan%u (an (em&k&an se erusn"a+ Se$a#a&mana S"a&k' 7'us& $erka a) :Aku men(apa kan S"&a' Imam&"a' semen%ak masa Imam Al& As '&n##a k&n& .a$a( kel&ma H&%r&a'0 senan &asa men(a an#& para %ur&s mereka (an $er an"a en an# 'ukum!'ukum (an &$a(a' kepa(a mereka+ /ara 5uka'a erse$u mem$er&kan %a2a$an a as per an"aan erse$u (an (en#an 5a 2a para 5uka'a menun%ukkan %alan kepa(a mereka+; Dem&k&anla') &% &'a( mem&l&k& $en an#an se%ara' "an# pan%an# semen%ak (ulu pa(a masa Imam Maksum As '&n##a k&n& (& pel$a#a& Hau9a' Ilm&a' S"&a'+ Se$elum & u) mas"araka $er an"a lan#sun# kepa(a para Imam Maksum As erka& (en#an pel$a#a& pers,alan "an# mereka 'a(ap&+ /ara Imam Maksum As (alam men%elaskan 'ukum!'ukum s"ar&a kepa(a mas"araka men%elankan 5un#s&n"a se$a#a& &mam+ Dem&k&an %u#a men%elaskan ka&(a'!ka&(a' umum (an men%a2a$ per an"aan!per an"aan para sa'a$a (an men#a%arkan &'2al $a#a&mana melakukan &s &n$a ' 'ukum!'ukum k'usus (ar& ka&(a' umum kepa(a mereka+

Ta.l!d .e$ada Para Ma.&% Mun#k&n erl,n ar per an"aan $a'2a mu% a'&( se$elum men*apa& (era%a mu% a'&( mereka $er akl&( kepa(a s&apa =a2a$n"a a(ala' $a'2a para mu% a'&( se$elum men##,n(,l (era%a &% &'a( mereka $er akl&( kepa(a para Imam Maksum As+ /a(a masa!masa se ela' & u) ,ran#!,ran# "an# ela' $ela%ar (an mem&l&k& p, ens& & u mem$er&kan %a2a$an kepa(a mas"araka a as masala'!masala' s"ar&a (en#an meman5aa kan u*apan! u*apan (an r&2a"a !r&2a"a para Imam Maksum As+
35

Dem&k&anla' m,(el permulaan &% &'a( "an# kemu(&an men#alam& perkem$an#an (an kema%uan+ Dan pa(a se$ua' &n#ka an pa(a masa #'a&$a ) ulama (en#an meman5aa kan r&2a"a "an# mel&mpa' (an menerapkan ka&(a'!ka&(a' "an# mereka pela%ar& (ar& para Imam Maksum (alam $er'a(apan (en#an 'ukum!'ukum s"ar&a + 4arena seluru' masala' "an# (&$u u'kan ela' erre5leks& (alam r&2a"a !r&2a"a para maksum+ /a(a &n#ka an selan%u n"a) se&r&n# (en#an kema%uan &lmu (an luasn"a ke$u u'an!ke$u u'an "an# $elum (&%elaskan (alam r&2a"a (an para mu% a'&( mem$er(a"akan masala'!masal' erse$u (ar& 'al!'al umum (an $ers&5a mu lak (ar& a"a !a"a (an r&2a"a !r&2a"a + Se*ara perla'an perkem$an#an &% &'a( 'ar&!(em&!'ar& semak&n pel&k+ De2asa &n& ruan# l&n#kup &% &'a( san#a luas (an men%un a& se(em&k&an se'&n##a menun u ke*apakan (an &lmu "an# le$&' luas para %ur&s un uk mem$er&kan %a2a$an a as se &ap pers,alan kek&n&an "an# (&'a(ap& mas"araka + ()() R%an" L!n".%$ I1#!had D& a as ela' (& e#askan $a'2a &% &'a( 'an"a $erlaku (& $&(an# 'ukum+ Lalu) 'ukum Islam "an# mana sa%a "an# mun#k&n un uk (&!&% &'a(! & A(aka' 'al & u $erlaku (& (un&a 'ukum .'ukum Islam0 se*ara mu lak Ulama ela' $ersepaka $a'2a &% &'a( (&$enarkan) ser a per$e(aan "an# er%a(& se$a#a& ak&$a &% &'a( (& ,ler&r) (an akan mem$a2a ra'ma manakala &% &'a( (&lakukan ,le' "an# memenu'& pers"ara an (an (&lakukan (& me(ann"a .ma%alul &% &'a(0+ Lapan#an a au me(an (&mana &% &'a( (apa mema&nkan peranann"a a(ala'> 1+ Masala'!masala' $aru "an# 'ukumn"a $elum (& e#askan ,le' nas' al!<uran a au Sunna' se*ara %elas+ 2+ Masala'!masala' $aru "an# 'ukumn"a $elum (&&%ma& ,le' ulama a au a&mama u l!mu% a'&(&n+ 3+ Nas'!nas' D'ann" (an (al&l!(al&l 'ukum "an# (&persel&s&'kan+ @+ Hukum Islam "an# ma6ulu l!mana aa66ul" .kausal& as 'ukumn"a&lla !n"a (apa (&ke a'u& mu% a'&(0+ =a(&) kalau k& a akan melakukan reak ual&sas& 'ukum Islam) (&s&n&la' se'arusn"a k& a melakukan er,$,san! er,$,san $aru+ Apa$&la &n& "an# k& a lakukan (an k& a meman# ela' memenu'& pers"ara ann"a maka pan asla' k& a (&an##ap se$a#a& mu% a'&( (& a$a( m,(ern &n& "an# akan (&(ukun# semua p&'ak+ Se$al&kn"a ulama ela' $ersepaka $a'2a &% &'a( &(ak $erlaku a au &(ak (&$enarkan pa(a> 1+ Hukum Islam "an# ela' (& e#askan nas' al!<uran a au Sunna' "an# s a usn"a 6a '&" .a'kamun mans'us'a'0) "an#

36

(alam &s &la' us'ul 5&6&' (&kenal (en#an s"ar&a' a au maul&ma m&n al!(&n $& al!(larura'+ A as (asar & u maka mun*ulla' ke en uan) 7&(ak $erlaku &% &'a( pa(a masala'!masala' 'ukum "an# (& en ukan $er(asarkan nas' "an# s a us (alala'!n"a 6a '& (an e#as+8&la k& a elaa') ka&(a' & ula' "an# men#'am$a asp&ras& semen ara kalan#an "an# 'en(ak mer,m$ak 'ukum!'ukum Islam 6a '& seper & 'ukum ke2ar&san al!<uran+ 2+ Hukum Islam "an# ela' (&&%ma& ulama+ 3+ Hukum Islam "an# $ers&5a aa$$u("#'a&ru ma6ul& lmana ."an# kausal& as 'ukumn"a&lla !n"a &(ak (apa (&*erna (an (&ke a'u& mu% a'&(0+ D&samp&n# &% &'a( &(ak $erlaku a au &(ak mun#k&n (&lakukan pa(a ke &#a ma*am 'ukum Islam (& a as) (em&k&an %u#a &% &'a( akan #u#ur (en#an sen(&r&n"a apa$&la 'as&l &% &'a( & u $erla2anan (en#an nas'+ Hal &n& se%alan (en#an ka&(a') 7&(ak a(a &% &'a( (alam mela2an nas'+ )) Ked%d%.an I1#!had

8er$e(a (en#an al!<uran (an as!Sunna') &% &'a( er&ka (en#an ke en uan!ke en uan se$a#& $er&ku > a. /a(a (asarn"a "an# (& e apkan ,le' &% &'a( &(ak (apa mela'&rkan kepu usan "an# mu lak a$s,lu + Se$a$ &% &'a( merupakan ak &5& as akal p&k&ran manus&a "an# rela &5+ Se$a#a& pr,(uk p&k&ran manus&a "an# rela &5 maka kepu usan (ar&pa(a sua u &% &'a( pun a(ala' rela &5+ b. Sesua u kepu usan "an# (& e apkan ,le' &% &'a() mun#k&n $erlaku $a#& sese,ran# ap& &(ak $erlaku $a#& ,ran# la&n+ 8erlaku un uk sa u masa empa ap& &(ak $erlaku pa(a masa empa "an# la&n+
c.

I% &'a( &(ak $erlaku (alam urusan penam$a'an &$a(a' ma'('a'+ Se$a$ urusan &$a(a' ma'('a' 'an"a (&a ur ,le' Alla' (an Rasululla'+ 4epu usan &% &'a( &(ak $,le' $er en an#an (en#an al!<uran (an as! Sunna'+ Dalam pr,ses $er&% &'a( 'en(akn"a (&per &m$an#kan 5ak ,r!5ak ,r m, &5as&) ak&$a ) kemasla'a an umum) keman5aa an $ersama (an n&la&!n&la& "an# men%a(& *&r& (an %&2a (ar&pa(a a%aran Islam+

d.

e.

))

Me#-de I1#!had
37

Dalam melaksanakan &% &'a() para ulama ela' mem$ua me ',(e! me ',(e an ara la&n se$a#a& $er&ku > a. N!Oa& rea&-n!n" 0O anal-"O+ Ya& u mene apkan sesua u 'ukum er'a(ap sesua u 'al "an# $elum (& eran#kan ,le' al!<uran (an as! Sunna') (en#an (&anal,#&kan kepa(a 'ukum sesua u "an# su(a' (& eran#kan 'ukumn"a ,le' al!<uran as!Sunna') karena a(a se$a$ "an# sama+ ?,n ,' > Menuru al!<uran sura al!=uma' u sese,ran# (&laran# %ual $el& pa(a saa men(en#ar a(9an =uma + 8a#a&mana 'ukumn"a per$ua an!per$ua an la&n . sela&n %ual $el& 0 "an# (&lakukan pa(a saa men(en#ar a(9an =uma Dalam al!<uran maupun al! Ha(& s &(ak (&%elaskan+ Maka 'en(akn"a k& a $er&% &'a( (en#an %alan anal,#&+ Ya& u > kalau %ual $el& karena (apa men##an##u s'ala =uma (&laran#) maka (em&k&an pula 'aln"a per$ua an!per$ua an la&n) "an# (apa men##an##u s'ala =uma ) %u#a (&laran#+ ?,n ,' la&n > Menuru sura al!Isra 23 sese,ran# &(ak $,le' $erka a u5 . *&s 0 kepa(a ,ran# ua+ Maka 'ukum memukul) men"ak& & (an la&n!la&n er'a(ap ,ran# ua %u#a (&laran#) a as (asar anal,#& er'a(ap 'ukum *&s a(&+ 4arena sama!sama men"ak& & ,ran# ua+ /a(a 9aman Rasululla' sa2 perna' (&$er&kan *,n ,' (alam menen ukan 'ukum (en#an (asar <&"as erse$u + Ya& u ke &ka Umar $&n 4'a 'a$$ $erka a kepa(a Rasululla' sa2 > Har& &n& sa"a ela' melakukan sua u pelan##aran) sa"a ela' men*&um &s r&) pa(a'al sa"a se(an# (alam kea(aan $erpuasa+ 7an"a Rasul > 8a#a&mana kalau kamu $erkumur pa(a 2ak u se(an# $erpuasa =a2a$ Umar > &(ak apa!apa+ Sa$(a Rasul > 4alau $e#& u eruskanla' puasamu+ b. I1 a .-n&en&%& !1#!had .-le.#!) Ya& u persepaka an ulama! ulama Islam (alam menen ukan sesua u masala' &% &'a(&"a'+ 4e &ka Al& $&n A$& 7'al&$ men#emukakan kepa(a Rasululla' en an# kemun#k&nan a(an"a sesua u masala' "an# &(ak (&$&*arakan ,le' al! <uran (an as!Sunna') maka Rasululla' men#a akan > 4umpulkan ,ran#!,ran# "an# $er&lmu kemu(&an %a(&kan pers,alan & u se$a#a& $a'an mus"a2ara' + Yan# men%a(& pers,alan un uk saa sekaran# &n& a(ala' en an# kemun#k&nan (apa (&*apa& a au &(akn"a &%ma erse$u ) karena umma Islam su(a' $e#& u $esar (an $era(a (&seluru' pel,s,k $um& ermasuk para ulaman"a+
c.

I&#!h&an $reerenQe) Ya& u mene apkan sesua u 'ukum er'a(ap sesua u pers,alan &% &'a(&"a' a as (asar pr&ns&p!pr&ns&p umum a%aran Islam seper & kea(&lan) kas&' sa"an# (an la&n!la&n+ Ole' para ulama &s &'san (&se$u se$a#a& <&"as 4',5& . anal,#& samar!samar 0 a au (&se$u se$a#a& pen#al&'an 'ukum "an# (&per,le' (en#an <&"as
38

kepa(a 'ukum la&n a as per &m$an#an kemasla'a an umum+ Apa$&la k& a (&'a(apkan (en#an ke'arusan mem&l&' sala' sa u (&an ara (ua pers,alan "an# sama!sama %elek maka k& a 'arus men#am$&l "an# le$&' r&n#an ke%elekann"a+ Dasar &s &'san an ara la&n sura a9!Sumar 18+
d.

Ma&hal!h%l M%r&alah %#!l!#O) "a& u mene apkan 'ukum er'a(ap sesua u pers,alan &% &'a(&"a' a as per &m$an#an ke#unaan (an keman5aa an "an# sesua& (en#an u%uan s"ar&a + /er$e(aan an ara &s &'san (an mas'al&'ul mursala' &ala' > &s &'san memper &m$an#kan (asar kemasla'an . ke$a&kan 0 & u (en#an (&ser a& (al&l al!<uran al! Ha(& s "an# umum) se(an# mas'al&'ul mursala' memper &m$an#kan (asar kepen &n#an (an ke#unaan (en#an anpa a(an"a (al&l "an# se*ara er ul&s espl&s& (alam al!<uran al!Ha(& s+

)z)

-n#-h--n#-h I1#!had ?,n ,'!*,n ,' (&(alam 'al &n& ama la' $an"ak) seper & > &% &'a(n"a $el&au sa2 (&(alam permasala'an a2anan 8a(ar (an pen#am$&lan e$usan (ar& mereka R&n#kasn"a $a'2a Na$& sa2 $er&% &'a( (&(alam 'ukum!'ukum s"ar-&"a' "an# &(ak er(apa nas' (&(alamn"a+ Apa$&la $el&au ela' mene apkan &% &'a(n"a maka 2a%&$ un uk (&&ku & (an &(ak $,le' (&lan##ar $a#a&mana pun kea(aaann"a+ 4arena & u se &ap "an# (& e apkan $erasal (ar& Na$& sa2 maka &a a(ala' $enar (an &(ak a(a kera#uan (&(alamn"a maka &a a(ala' 2a'"u (ar& Alla' s2 + (an $aran#s&apa "an# mem&sa'kan an ara 'al &n& (en#an 2a'"u+ .Ta a2a as Sa$aka' al Islam&"a' %u9 II 'al 12A10 Be0era$a Q-n#-h !1#!had Ra&%l%llah &a5 / 7er(apa r&2a"a $a'2a Na$& sa2 perna' men##unakan 6&"as .anal,#0 (&(alam &% &'a(n"a+ D&(alam s'a'&' 8uk',r& (&se$u kan $a'2a se,ran# 2an& a (ar& =u'a&na' $erka a kepa(a $el&au sa2);Sesun##u'n"a &$uku ela' $erna(9ar un uk $er'a%& akan e ap& (&a $elum $er'a%& '&n##a men&n##aln"a+ Apaka' aku $er'a%& $a#&n"a- 8el&au sa2 men%a2a$);8er'a%&la' $a#&n"a+ 8ukanka' sean(a&n"a &$umu mem&l&k& u an# maka en#kau 'arus mema$"arkann"a 7una&kanla' sesun##u'n"a u an# er'a(ap Alla' le$&' u ama un uk (& una&kan+; D&(alam r&2a"a Musl&m $a'2a se,ran# lak&!lak& (a an# (ar& (aera' =a&s"an&(& Yamanlalu $er an"a kepa(a Rasululla' sa2 en an# m&numan "an# mereka m&num (& ne#er& mereka "an# $erasal (ar& %a#un#
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"an# mereka namakan (en#an :al M&9r;+ 8el&au sa2 $er an"a kepa(a ,an# & u);Apaka' m&numan & u mema$ukkan; ,ran# & u men%a2a$);Ya+; Dan Na$& sa2 $ersa$(a);Se &ap "an# mema$ukkan a(ala' 'aram+;

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