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Industrial Polymers
Industrial Polymers

Polymers are large molecules that are formed from

relatively small molecular fragments known as monomers that are bonded together repetitively.

Wool, cotton, silk, wood and leather are examples of natural polymers that have been known and used since ancient times. This group includes biopolymers such as proteins and carbohydrates that are constituents of all living organisms.

Synthetic polymers, which includes the large group known

as plastics, came into prominence in the early twentieth

century.

polymers , which includes the large group known as plastics, came into prominence in the early

POLYMERIZATION REACTION

POLYMERIZATION REACTION  Converts monomers into macromolecule. May involve catalysts.  (i) Step growth or

Converts monomers into macromolecule. May

involve catalysts.

(i) Step growth or Condensation and (ii) Addition or Chain reactions are the two main types of

polymerization reactions.

Condensation reaction

or Chain reactions are the two main types of polymerization reactions.  Condensation reaction • Addition

Addition reaction

or Chain reactions are the two main types of polymerization reactions.  Condensation reaction • Addition
or Chain reactions are the two main types of polymerization reactions.  Condensation reaction • Addition
ADDITION POLYMERS
ADDITION POLYMERS
Step growth polymerization requires that the monomers possess two or more kinds of functional groups
Step growth polymerization requires that the monomers
possess two or more kinds of functional groups that are
able to react with each other in such a way that parts of
these groups combine to form a small molecule (often
H2O) which is eliminated from the two pieces. The now-
empty bonding positions on the two monomers can then
join together .

Making plastics from polymer

A plastic contains a polymerized organic substance of large molecular weight as an essential ingredient, is solid in its finished state, and in its processing into finished articles

can be shaped by flow. Plasticizers, fillers etc., are also

added to alter the properties of the plastic products.

Thermosetting plastics are processed by heat curing to produce an infusible or insoluble product.

Thermoplastics are processed by heating to soften them and cooling to harden them. Process may be repeated.

Commercial step growth polymers
Commercial step growth polymers

Raw Materials

Raw Materials  Monomers : vinyl chloride, ethylene, propylene and similar simple hydrocarbons  Chemical

Monomers: vinyl chloride, ethylene, propylene and

similar simple hydrocarbons

Chemical intermediates : phenol, formaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, phthalic anhydride, methyl acrylate and methacrylate

Other raw materials: plasticizers, fillers, and reinforcements are also added to alter the properties of the plastic products.