THE ENGLISH LEXICON OF STANDARD TERMINOLOGY FOR

HELLENISMOS
From <<Θύραθεν>> Φ!"#"Φ$" !%&$" '( )*+,,-, G. R+,,-+,
Translated and Adapted by Mano and Lesley Madytinos
I/0ro1230-o/
When first confronted by this Lexicon of Standard Terminology for Hellenismos in English, the reader will
likely be perplexed by the omission of the more common approach of Comparative Langage !ictionaries
that merely list interchangeable words in both langages and the sage of a more comprehensive method of
importing new Hellenic terms into English accompanied by the translation and stdy of these Hellenic terms
and concepts" To nderstand the necessity for this will re#ire that a pertinent #estion be both asked and
answered" This #estion is the simplified fondation of two distinct ideas that exist in the field of
Lingistics, as the scientific stdy of natral langages and more specifically the topical division of
Semantics $the stdy of meaning%"
Is Language and thus meaning Universal or Culturally-Specific?
The idea of the niversality of langage proposes that the same niversal ideas are expressed by a myriad of
different labels in the mltitde of langages, past and present" This is a far&reaching theory which implies
that ltimately the words and the concepts they represent in any particlar langage are interchangeable with
their e#ivalent words and concepts in another langage withot any change or distortion in meaning to the
concept being expressed" 'any texts have been translated from one langage to another in accordance with
the premise that langage is niversal and words are interchangeable" (nherent within this proposition is the
essential niversality of concepts themselves" (n this theory, niversal hman concepts are thoght to be
)hardwired) into the hman cognitive system from whence the niversality of hman experience is expressed
by interchangeable words in a myriad of different langages" (n one poplar variant *+, of this theory, it is
sggested that the niversality of hman conception and experience is based pon the niversality of the
featres of the hman environment $e"g" sn, stars, fire, water, etc%" -lthogh ideologies deriving from this
theory are widely known, research and case stdies over the past three decades have provided ample
evidence that the matter of hman conception, experience and langage are not as simplistic or niform as
tre niversality wold imply"
There are indeed a small nmber of niversal (deas common to all hmans that exist independently of
langage" These niversal concepts are expressed within the characteristics and #alities of the ob.ective
reality of any )ob.ect) and are perceived within the hman mind by the cognitive system common to all
hmans" However, words themselves do not express the total ob.ective reality of an ob.ect" Words represent
certain characteristics and #alities of an ob.ect that have been selected ot of the totality of characteristics
and #alities of any ob.ect" Which characteristics and #alities are selected is based pon the strctre of
cltrally&specific concepts and vales" These cognitive and conceptal selections vary from one langage to
another to a greater or lesser extent" - good example of this is the words )river) and )stream) in English, where
the distinction between words is based pon size, in comparison to the /rench 'fleuve' and )rivière) where the
distinction is not determined by magnitde bt rather pon whether or not the river flows directly to the sea"
This illstrates that totally different concepts were sed to distingish between words that are spposed to be
the e#ivalent of one another in a direct translation" 0et both the English and /rench words are sed to
denote the same ob.ect bt from entirely divergent perspectives and based on different vale systems and
conceptions of natre"
"A moderate skill in different lanuaes will easily satisfy the truth of this, it bein so obvious to observe the reat store
of words in one lanuae that have not any to answer them in another! "hich plainly shows that those of one country,
by their customs and manner of life, have found occasion to make several comple# ideas and iven names to them,
which others never collected into specific ideas!" 4o5/ Lo367 *1,
Words do not directly represent ob.ective reality bt in trth rather express cltrally&specific collectives of
hman conception of ob.ective reality" Words and their concepts within each langage represent the ni#e
relationship between a specific collective with their environment, natre in general, the 2osmos and the
3niverse"
The Hellenic langage illstrates this perfectly in that the names of many of the 4ods are also the common
names and verbs sed to describe ob.ects and actions within each 4ods sphere of activity" The beliefs of the
Hellenes are totally integrated into the strctre of the langage" This essential animism inherent within the
langage demonstrates the ni#e relationship of the cltrally specific collective of Hellenes with the 4ods,
the 2osmos and all within it" The ni#e cltre has mediated between individal and ob.ect to create a
strctre by which to nderstand the 2osmos" /rom this perspective, when we say ))56789: $Helios% in the
Hellenic langage or )Sn) in English to refer to the same ob.ect, we are not certainly referring to the same
conception of the ob.ect" Hence no translation is trly possible withot explaining the distinct concepts
inherent within one or both of the different names for the same ob.ect" The distinction between words in
different langages exists becase of differences in relationships between sb.ect and ob.ect"
Stdies *;, on the differences in modes of individal expression have illstrated that cltre plays an
enormos role in what and how people commnicate" !ifferent modes of expression are determined by the
social vales and beliefs of a specific cltre" These cltre&specific vales and beliefs act as the framework
for interaction" Hence any form of expression or commnication $oral or written% shold not be removed
from the framework of the cltre from whence it derives if an accrate nderstanding of the information
expressed is to be attained"
"$ulture may be defined as a set of attitudes, beliefs, customs and values
shared by a collective of people and passed down from one eneration to another
via lanuae or some other form of communication" M+,+5-6o M-/+m- *<,
(n fact, langage and cltre are so intimately connected that simply phrased, langage is a commnication
medim that ses words to draw on common concepts and ideas of the people who share the cltre of a
langage" Each langage is ths an expression and embodiment of its cltral reality with the particlar signs
and markings of the langage being the symbols of this reality" This cltral reality in trn develops and
nrtres the world view and methods of socialisation of the hmans within its reality" Lingistic knowledge
is simltaneosly socio&cltral knowledge and it is throgh learning a langage that children and other new
members of a commnity are socialised and gain entry into the specific strctre of meaning for a particlar
collective" Learning a langage is simltaneosly the learning of the lingistic strctre of a specific cltre
and is an essential bilding block to the cltre&specific representational forms of the collective *=,"
/rom this perspective, it is easy to nderstand that in the same manner as words reflect certain of the
characteristics and #alities of an ob.ect so too are selected hman characteristics, ideals and potentials
developed in any specific cltre" Some characteristics, ideals and potentials have a higher priority within
any collective while others will have a lower priority or be discoraged" This is the essential natre and
natral tendency of cltre that develops its people throgh the nrtre of certain characteristics and the
negation of others" Every langage is the cltral medim of the development and interaction of its specific
cltral collective and reality" The words of any particlar langage are specific to the lingistic strctre of
the reality of their own specific cltre" (n other words, every single word in a langage draws from the
many potential meanings possible for the ob.ect and attempts to commnicate the concept it represents and
embody the essential trth and place of the ob.ect within its own cltral reality" Each word is ths loaded
with not only its etymological origins bt also the history of how the word has been sed and the
associations of concepts and ideas it has gained in its sage" Each word is a common collective expression
that evokes a particlar conceptal meaning for an ob.ect or its activities ot of the total potential of
conceptal meanings that may express different cltral realities of the same ob.ect" The specific meaning
for each word of each langage is the ni#e sense of order or strctre placed on natre and the world by a
particlar cltre" -ll the words of a langage in totality are the total cltral strctre placed pon the world
by a specific collective of people" This strctre is not only the reflection of ob.ective and common reality
for the collective of people who participate therein bt its words are also the medim of commnication that
exist between the individals of the collective with each other and the individal>collective with natre, the
world and the niverse itself" Words and the specific concepts they embody are therefore the intellectal
medim between the sb.ective perspective of the individal with the ob.ective reality of their collective"
Words concrrently mediate between the collective and the ob.ective reality of the niverse in a manner that
enables the collective and its individals to nderstand the world from a strctred perspective" This
strctre both liberates and constrains the intellect of the collective and as a conse#ence the individal too
throgh accltration and socialisation" Standards and norms of the significance and meaning of words
create the standards and norms of interaction and interpretation of any collective of individals" The common
modes of interaction and interpretation in trn create the social conventions and vale systems of the
collective" (t is from within this strctre that all the prodcts of any cltre of people arise *?,"
""e dissect nature alon lines laid down by our native lanuaes! The world is presented in a kaleidoscope flu# of
impressions which has to be oranised by our minds % and this means larely by the linuistic systems of our minds! "e
cut nature up, oranise it into concepts and ascribe sinificances as we do, larely because we are parties to an
areement to oranise it in this way % an areement that holds throuhout our speech community and is codified in the
patterns of our lanuae! The areement is of course an implicit and unstated one, but its terms are absolutely
obliatory& we cannot talk at all e#cept by subscribin to the oranisation and classification of data which the
areement decrees!" 87/9+m-/ :5or;
-ccltration and socialisation are therefore the agents of civilisation and the means by which any grop of
people develop conscios awareness or intellect, forge a collective identity and find order within natre, the
2osmos and the 3niverse"
"'o two lanuaes are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representin the same social reality!
The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds,
not merely the same world with different labels attached!" E1<+r1 S+=-r
(t is possible to say that any particlar civilisation is a solidification of the cltre of its collective and when
one considers the intimate association between cltre and langage as its medim of interaction and
interpretation, it becomes possible to begin to nderstand the ancient Hellenic concept of the Logos as well
as the reasons why the ancient Hellenes are correctly referred to as the $ivilisation of the Loos!
@ver thirty years of research and case stdies into the )niversality) of hman conception has yielded very
meagre evidence with only approximately three doAen )niversal) or elementary hman concepts being
identified *B,"
-s a reslt the niversality theory and its proposition that words and the concepts they represent are
interchangeable in the varied mltitde of langages has been proved limited and dogmatic" Langages and
cltre are inextricably interwoven" -ny lexicon of words that has been translated from one langage to
another mst logically also translate the ni#e cltral concept that is represented by the word if it wishes to
accrately represent the conceptal meaning of a word in its langage of origin" There is no longer scholarly
.stification for translations that merely replace a word in one langage for the closest word in another
langage"
"To be sure, a midpoint around which all lanuaes revolve can be souht and really found and this midpoint should
always be kept in mind in the comparative study of lanuaes, both in the rammar and le#icon!
(or in a number of thins which can be determined completely 'a%priori' and which can be separated from the
conditions of a particular lanuae! )n the other hand, there is a far reater number of concepts and rammatical
peculiarities, which are so ine#tricably woven into the individuality of their lanuae that they can neither be kept
suspended between all lanuaes on the mere thread of inner perception nor can they be carried over into another
lanuae without alteration" :-*57*m >o/ H2m'o*10
(n translations between the Hellenic langage and English, a frther factor exists that both helps and hinders
a proper nderstanding of translations between the two langages" There are crrently over ;C CCC Hellenic
words in the English langage" Some of these imported words create the etymological fondation for an
anglicised form of the Hellenic word while others will be combined with other imported words to form an
English concept word" The similarity between the transliterated forms of this type of English word may lead
some to believe that the anglicised word is always interchangeable with its Hellenic derivative"
3nfortnately, cltres change and the concepts represented by words change simltaneosly" The Hellenic
words that were incorporated into English have very often taken on different cltral associations and
concepts to their Hellenic conterparts over time" (n many instances only the most basic meaning of the
Hellenic word was broght across to its anglicised form rendering the English concept of the word limited
and simplistic in comparison to the Hellenic concept from which it derives" There are also contless other
modern English words that have been imported into the langage from both the old and new langages of
other cltral collectives aside from those that have evolved from @ld English $prior to ++=C CE% and 'iddle
English $++=C to +=CC CE%" The concepts represented by many of these words diverge to a greater or lesser
extent, both in origin and modern sage, to what may appear on the srface to be parallel Hellenic concepts"
These factors greatly affect the accracy of direct translations of texts from ancient Hellenic into 'odern
English and especially those where the translator has merely replaced the Hellenic word with its closest
English e#ivalent withot the se of annotated notes to explain the differences in concepts" -lthogh it is
important to note that for the prposes of prely literary entertainment, many of the direct translations
withot notes will sffice" Drecision and accracy of translation of the concepts represented by words in their
original langage is of the tmost importance in the stdy of the Hellenic religion and philosophy" Likewise,
the sage of proper terms with standard definitions that precisely detail the concept in its langage of origin
is of primary importance in any modern text written for the prposes of disseminating information abot the
Hellenic religion and>or philosophy"
(t is for this prpose that the Lexicon of Standard Terminology for Hellenismos in English has been
compiled and translated" Hellenic words and terms that are crrently in common sage by English&speaking
Hellenic Dolytheists have been identified and defined according to the precise concepts referred to by the
ancient Hellenes" There are also many English words and terms that are crrently being sed to represent
Hellenic concepts that do not precisely correspond to the proper Hellenic concept" Efforts to redefine the
English words to sit the Hellenic concepts have had limited sccess as the ma.ority of the pblic as well as
newcomers to the religion will still read the words and form their ideas based on the Standard English
definitions of words as fond in English dictionaries" /or this reason, some of the more misleading English
words and terms have been identified and the proper Hellenic terms and concepts have been imported into
English" The Hellenic words and terms whose comparative conceptal meanings find a satisfactory
e#ivalent in English have been omitted from the lexicon"
(t is or hope that this lexicon will form the basis for the religion to have the same terminology and
conceptal meaning in both Hellenic and English" (t will simltaneosly provide a very sccinct and precise
set of standards that will foster the common bond of meaning and langage between s all" (t is important to
note that this lexicon is by no means complete or comprehensive yet" Eew words will be added to it at
reglar intervals and to this end we re#est that any words or concepts that yo may believe to have been
erroneosly omitted from the Lexicon of Standard Terminology for Hellenismos in English to be forwarded
to s for an evalation of comparative terms and possible addition to the next edition of the lexicon"
R7;7r7/37,?
*+, Swadash, 'F The Langage of the -rchaeological Hastecs
*1, Semantics, Cltre and Cognition, 3niversal Hman Concepts in Cltre&Specific ConfigrationsF -nna WierAbicka Dg +G, +H,
*;, ! Hymes $+HG+, +HG1, +HG=, +HHC%, @chs and Schieffelin $+HG<%, Schiefellin and Eisenberg $+HG<%I - $+HH;%, S 'ichaels
$+HG+, +HH+% and J"D" 4ee $+HG=, +HG?a, +HGHa, +HGHb, +HH+b%" /or frther information seeF $a% J"D"4ee)s )What is LiteracyK
Teaching and Learning 1)I $b% JD 4ee)s )Social Lingistics and Literacies, (deology in !iscorses), essays from the Jornal of
EdcationI $c% J"D"4ee)s )- Lingistic -pproach to Earrative) from the Jornal of Earrative and Life HistoryI $d% JD 4ee)s )'emory
and 'yth, - Derspective on Earrative)I $e% ! Hymes) )/ondations of Sociolingistics) and )Ethnology, Lingistics, Earrative
(ne#alityF Toward an 3nderstanding in Loice)
*< M =, Cltre&specific Langage StylesF 'asahiko 'inami
*?, Langage and CltreF Claire 2ramsch from the @xford (ntrodction to Langage Stdy Series edited by H"4 Widdowson
*B, Semantics, Cltre and Cognition, 3niversal Hman Concepts in Cltre&Specific ConfigrationsF -nna WierAbicka Dg +G, +H,
F2r057r So2r37,
Lingistic Droblems in TranslationF William N Schmalstieg $Dennsylvania State 3niversity% from the Lithanian Oarterly Jornal of
-rts and Sciences $Lolme +=, Eo" ; & /all +H?H%
-n Essay Concerning Hman 3nderstandingF John Locke $pblished in +?HC%
@RONANCIATION BEYS
- gide to the correct pronnciation of each word in the Lexicon has been inclded" This pronnciation
gide makes se of a very specific pronnciation key $*ey +%" This pronnciation key has been also been
inclded in the accompanying gides to prononcing the Hellenic -lphabet $*ey ,% and !iphthongs $*ey -%"
BEY C
ȧ
ê
P
i
kh
ô
Q
$+5% after, father, palm
$75% ever, pet, end
$77% even, tree
-t, g-ve
as in the 4erman ach or Scottish
loch
odd, hot, occpant
$o5% open, so
To denote that the word shold be prononced
with a distinct break, i"e" that the letter shold be
prononced separately and not as a part of a
diphthong with the letter before
R>S
BEY D
Ō ō
PS ps
KH kh
PH ph or F f
Y y or U u or Ē
ē
T t
S s
R r
P p
Ô ô
X x
N n
!
" #
K k
$ %
TH th
Ē ē
& '
( ê
) *
+ ,
- .
/ ȧ
o 0s %n 1so’ 2!3,0 Ω ω
pss Ps% Ψ ψ
ch 0s %n th3 S45tt%sh
1#5ch’
Kh% Χ χ
phi 0s %n 1ph%#5s5phy6 5r f
0s %n 1fr3sh6
Ph% Φ φ
e 0s %n 1e.3n6 Yps%#5n Υ υ
t 0s %n ‘t0sk6 T0f Τ τ
s 0s %n 1sun6 S%,!0 Σ σ
r 0s %n 1r50r6 Rh5 Ρ ρ
p 0s %n 1p%4k6 P% Π π
o 0s %n ‘or*3r6 2!%kr5n Ο ο
xi 0s %n 1t0xi’ X% Ξ ξ
n 0s %n 1n376 N% Ν ν
m 0s %n ‘m0n6 % Μ μ
l 0s %n 1l0k36 "0!th0 Λ λ
k 0s %n 1k%t36 K0pp0 Κ κ
i 0s %n 1it6 85t0 I ì
th 0s %n 1!5th’ Th3t0 O 0
33 9t0 H q
'' &3t0 Z (
3h 9ps%#5n E r
th 0s %n 1th5u,h6 Th3#t0 A ö
,utt3r0# 1,h6 +0!!0 F y
.33 -%t0 B þ
0h :#ph0 A o
Phonetic
Pronunciation
Guide
HeIIenic
AIphabet
Characters
Phonetic
Pronunciation
Lexicon
Pronunciation
Key
BEY E
ou 0s %n 1soup6 ;< => ?2U 5u@
ev 0s %n 1ev3r6 A< BC ?9U 3u@
av 0s %n 1av3rs36 D< EC ?:U 0u@
$ 8 ?i 0s %n 1int3nt6@ ;F => ?28 5%@
Ē ē ?e 0s %n 1e.3n6@ AF B> ?98 3%@
( ê ?e 0s %n 1e#3ph0nt6@ DF E> ?:8 0%@
Pronunciation
Guide
Diphthongs in
HeIIenic and
Latin
THE ENGLISH LEXICON OF STANDARD TERMINOLOGY FOR HELLENISMOS
Please note: .arious ')ther (orms' of each word have been iven to illustrate the different declinations and
con/uations of the assorted words! These forms of the word have not been included for common usae as
many of them 0other than the nouns1 would make no sense in terms of 2nlish rammatical structure!
AESTHESIS F G#ΘH##
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TsthPsis
S-/I2*+r? -esthesis
@*2r+*? -estheses
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Aesthes3osF that which derives from -estheses"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? feeling, sensation, sensory awareness
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ESTHES(S is a primordial phenomenon of the DS0CHE $sol% that reslts from external cases which are
known as ENETH(S'-T- $stimlations%"
-ccording to Spesippos, it is the movement of the E@3S $mind% and the corse of the DS0CHE or
message to the DS0CHE which enters via the sense organs of the body"
Dythagoras held -ESTHES(S to be one of the for spports of the hman DS0CHE" These spports are
-ESTHES(S, E@3S, ED(STE'E $secre knowledge% and !@U- $opinion%"
!emokritos and Epicrs determined -ESTHES(S to be that pon which hman 4E@S(S $knowledge% is
fonded" /rthermore !emokritos stated that the conclsions of L@4(2( $rational thinking% mst be
spported by the witness of the senses althogh the senses alone cannot provide secre 4E@S(S becaseF
a% The properties of matter are nothing more than consensal descriptions of the effects that matter has on
mortals and the environment
b% !ifferent people experience things differently becase of their personal idiosyncrasies"
Ths !emokritos divides 4E@S(S into two categoriesI firstly that which is gained throgh the intellect $pre
4E@S(S% and secondly that which is gained throgh the senses which he refers to as )skoti4) $being that
which is distorted by the natral limitations of the hman senses%"
Correspondingly, Epicrs held everything to be real $regardless of whether the 4E@S(S was derived from
senses or the intellect and saw the distinctions as only differences in expression" *Compare E@ES(S,
AGALMA F GJG!KG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VgWlmW
S-/I2*+r? -galma $neter%
@*2r+*? -galmata $neter%
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AalmatonF $plral% of the -galmata
AalmatosF $singlar% of the -galmata
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? state
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-4-L'- derives from the verb )aalo) meaning to decorate, make decent, to make someone famous, pay
homae, to enlare, ladden as well as the feelins of elation and /oy" The word -4-L'- therefore means
honor, elation, glory, a gift pleasing to the 4ods and an image in the honor of a 4od or 4oddess $inclding
any image created by the spoken word or writing%" (nitially, -L4-'-T- were the varios gifts to the 4ods
for the prpose of worship" Copies of these gifts and the original gifts were considered centres of pleasre
for the 4ods and the most important relics within the temples" The -4-L'-T- always depict the 4ods in
contrast to the -E!N(-E!- $images that depict mortals%"
Dorphyry says that an -4-L'- is every depiction of a 4od, 4oddess or !ivine Dower presenting a
natrally identifiable pictre to the hman sensesF
"5imprintin the invisible creations into the visible, which, /ust like an open book, achieve in describin our
basic knowlede of the 6ods, sub/ect to one's ability to read them! 7t is not then 8uestionable that the
uneducated consider the A6ALMATA to be wood and stone, as the unlettered consider the letters to be only
scratches and consider the unmarked columns to be simply stone, wooden notice boards to be /ust pieces of
wood and books /ust to be bundles of papyrus!"
He frther statesF
"5because the 9ivine is liht%like and radiates perpetually into the ethereal fire and it is invisible to the
senses of those who have their cares e#clusively on the thins of mortal life, the makers of the A6ALMATA
used the appropriate materials such as crystal, marble or ivory to refer to the understandin of fire and old
as the properties of the incorruptible as old is incorruptible! )thers wishin to state the invisible essence of
the 9ivine used a black stone! They imprinted a human form on the 6ods because the 9ivine is L)67*7
0loic1 and they allocated beauty to them because 9ivine :eauty is imperishable! They used different forms
and aes, seats, poses and coverins& some they depicted as male and some as female, some as youn and
virinal and others wedded so as to illustrate the relationships between them! ;o all that is white, they
allocated to the <eavenly 6ods! The sphere and all that is spherical they allocated to the *);M);, the sun
and the Moon and everywhere there is luck and hope! The circle and all circular thins are allocated to
*ronos 0Time1 and to heavenly movements, to belts and cycles contained in the sky, while the parts of the
circle are allocated to the transformations of the moon! =yramids and obelisks to the essence of fire and thus
to the )lympian 6ods! To <elios they ave the cone, to 6> 02arth1 the cylinder, for the seedin and fertility
they instituted the =hallus and for the vaina the trianle!"
*Compare E(!@L@E, E(2@E,
AGA@E F GJGLH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VgWpP
S-/I2*+r? -gape $non%
@*2r+*? -gapes $non%
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Aapan F $non% the action of loving
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? love
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word -4-DE as a non refers to being disposed towards someone in a friendly or erotic manner" The
-4-D-E is contained within the good ethics and deeds of the Dythagoreans"
The academics via Spesippos determined -4-DE to be complete receptivity or total acceptance" -4-DE is
a procedre of the -NTTE $Lirte% known as DH(L@TES $friendship% and as sch a sensitivity of the hman
DS0CHE $Sol%" Ths -4-DE is not one of the -NTTTS $as niversal !ivine Dower manifesting in&
between mortals% bt a plainly positive sensation which lacks an application contrary to the -NTTTS" There
is no ad.ective in the Hellenic langage to describe the ob.ect of -4-DE $i"e" as the lover or beloved is to
Love in English% bt a rather a sense of -4-DE as a state of total receptivity to everyone $either erotic or
friendly% that holds no exact ob.ect of affection" *Compare EN@S,"
AGATHON F GJGΘ"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VgWthXn
S-/I2*+r? -gathon
@*2r+*? -gatha $neter plral%
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Aathos $male%I Aath> $female%I Aatho $neter%I Aathoi $male plral%I Aath3s $female plral%
AathotitaF $non%I denoting that which is -gathon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? beneficence, good
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The -4-TH- denotes the vales that have primary priority in the individal and commnal life"
-4-TH@E is that which is 4ood for -ll as well as that which is sefl and beneficial"
(n -ristotle)s )'etaphysics) mention is made of the ten principles of the Dythagorean school of thoght"
These ten principles were comprised of the ten dalities that ordered the 2osmos" The ninth of these
principles is given as the tension of the opposites between -4-TH@E and 2-2@E $bad% as dal sides of a
single principle" This word as an ordering principle of good has a very specific meaning and is sed within
context to that which is ltimately -4-TH-, beneficial, advantageos and incldes the concept of natral
aptitde, varios talents or innate abilities"
Dlato refers to the following as the first of the excellent -4-TH-F Health, Yeaty and Wealth $DL@3T@S%"
(n -ristotle)s Eicomachean Ethics, Dlato)s definition of the eternal natre of -4-TH@E is discssed as
varied and manifesting within different contextsF
$+% Within the category of sbstance as the T<2)7 06ods1 and the ')?; 0mind1
$1% Within the category of #ality as A@AT2 0.irtue1
$;% Within the category of #antity as Moderation
$<% Within the category of time as the Appropriate Time or )pportunity
$=% Within the category of relation as that which is ?seful
$?% Within the category of place as <abitat
-ccording to the Stoics, the -4-TH- are the behaviors which the philosophers mst systematically
sb.ect themselves to in order to attain S@DH@S $personification of wisdom%"
The -4-TH- are distingished into -NTTTS, Ethical !eeds or -chievements and Sensitivities"
a1 To the A@ATA; belonB L@4(2( $the ability for rational thoght%, S@DH(- $Wisdom%, !(2E@S0EE
$Jstice>Nighteosness%, -E!NE(- $Yravery, Lalor, Corage%, S@DHN@S0EE $Drdence%, !evotion,
Neasonable 4enerosity and Neasonable /riendship"
b1 To the 2thical 9eeds or Achievements belonF all of the actions that conform to the demands of -NTTZ
sch as reasonable deeds, righteos deeds and corageos deeds, etc"
c1 To the ;ensitivities belonF are the -4-THES as the sensible rges or agreeable dispositions sch asI Will
$as the sensible movement of the DS0CHZ>sol towards the -4-TH@E%, Serenity, E3L-YE(- $devotion
with context to being mentally reserved% and Joy as the rational movement of DS0CHZ expanding"
/or the Eeo&Dlatonists, the word -4-TH@E denotes all deeds that lead towards the 3nity or 0DENT-T@E
-4-TH@E $-bsolte or Spreme -4-TH@E%"
-ristotle himself held that things cold be referred to as -4-TH@S in two different manners" /irstly as
those things that are -4-TH@S in their own right and secondly with reference to the means employed to
secre those things that are -4-TH@S in their own right" -ristotle postlated that de to the distinctions
and differences of the characteristics of -4-TH@E within all things, that -4-TH@E is not a common
characteristic corresponding to a single (dea bt rather the TEL@S $perfection>end% of every action or
prsit" -s every action or prsit had more than one end, -ristotle held that the 0DENT-T@E -4-TH@E
was the final TEL@S of man)s actions and prsits" The mortal search for -4-TH@E cold ths be fond
in the most final TEL@S $and perfection% of every action or prsit"
The 0DENT-T@E -4-TH@E differs from one philosophical school to another bt the word generally
refers to that which is !ivine in natre"
AGON F GJNM
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VgQn
S-/I2*+r? -gon
@*2r+*? -gon[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AoniaF a conse#ence of -gon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? strife, strggle, conflict, contest
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-4@E originally denoted )a gathering) and was later extended to mean an athletic contest" -n -4@E
commences and takes place within the context of an )ao) which is a atherin of the T<2)7 $4ods%, people,
ships, etc and developed from the time of Homer to mean a atherin for the purposes of a contest" -4@E
is in contrast to )amilla) which is the participation in a contest for the sake of participation as -4@E refers
to the strggle for victory and incldes the nderstanding of intense adversity, opposition and confrontation"
-4@E gives rise to -4@E(- $anxiety, agony% which is one of the D-THE( *See D-TH@S, and refers to
sorrow, distress and the fear of danger or the nknown"
AIDOS F GON#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? T\Xs
S-/I2*+r? -idos
@*2r+*? Eo plral
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AidousF sed when denoting something that falls within the definition of -idos"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? shame, bashflness
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-(!@S refers to the sensation of shame, the sensation of being honorable $virtos%, the sensation of
having a worthy self&esteem, feeling respectfl and dignity and as sch -(!@S is determined to be an
-NTTE" -s -(!@S is a tendency of the DS0CHE $Sol% and not some fleeting sensation it differs from
simple sensations sch as disgrace and dishonor" -(!@S pholds societies in an ethical order and is the
opposite of -E-(!E(- $impdence%" -(!@S determines the choices of hmans to avoid coming in conflict
with the nwritten ethical laws of their society" -(!@S does not derive from some external complsion bt
is prely an internal ethical conscience" -(!@S is not attained by the complsion of laws that force one to
act ethically bt is rather achieved throgh an nderstanding of one)s social dty" -(!@S is considered the
highest political -NTTE and is connected to !(2E@S0EE $Jstice% as aptly illstrated in the myth related
by Dlato in the Drotagoras"
-ccording to Spesippos, -(!@S is the volntary reservation of boldness in the face of that which is better
or a volntary acceptance of excellence as well as receptivity to good .dgement"
-ristotle states that -(!@S together with E3T-U(- $4ood @rder%, 2@S'(@T(T- $!ecency, @rderliness%
and E3L-YE(- $Nespect in terms of 'ental Neservation% is company to S@DHN@S0EE $Drdence%"
The 4oddess -(!@S was worshipped all over ancient Hellas with a large L@'@S $altar% in -thens and a
famos state that stood at the entrance to the city of Sparta" She stood for the ideas of bashflness, respect,
forgiveness, decency, self&esteem and all that is honorable as well as the moral fear of improprieties" She is
presented as the enemy of -E-7!E(- $impdence% according to Hesiod and sometimes as one of the Horai
with Themis as her mother and Enomia, !ike and Eemesis as her sisters" -(!@S is characteriAed as the
mother of S@DHN@S0EE $Drdence% and conselor to ]es as well as the nrtrer of -thena"
ALETHEIA F G!HΘ%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VlPthPiW
S-/I2*+r? -letheia
@*2r+*? -lethi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AletheiasF $singlar% that which is related to -letheia
Aleth3sF meaning )it is true)
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? trth
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-LETHE(- derives from the verb )letho) meaning )7 do somethin undetected, 7 remain unknown)" The word
implies the prsit of the perpetal dedication to the meaning of E(E-( *see E(E-(, as -LETHE(- is
determined to be the absolte compliance or correspondence of nderstanding reality or the absolte
correspondence of the 3nderstanding of the E(E-(" Therefore it is philosophically accepted that -LETHE(-
is the correspondence of reason with reality"
-ccording to Spesippos, -LETHE(- is ED(STE'E $science>secre knowledge% of trth as well as the
ability to accept or deny" Dlato determines -LETHE(- to be the exploration of the !ivine $-le&Theia% in
search of @'@(@S(S $E#ality%"
Herakleitos determines -LETHE(- to be the essence of the @E $Existence% that reveals itself to hmans
throgh hman DHN@EES(S $common sense% as the characteristics of the identity of the L@4@S of the
S0'D-E $3niverse%"
Dltarch states that -LETHE(- was the 'ETN@E $measre% of the general daily L(@S $biographical life%
of Hellenes de to their insistence on holding a trthfl perspective as well as finding the tre meaning and
vale of things within context to their natral -E-E2E $necessity%" *Compare !@U-, 4E@'Z,
AMARTIA F GKGPQG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VmWrtiW
S-/I2*+r? -martia
@*2r+*? -marti[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AmartiasF $singlar% denoting that which derives from -martia
AmartionB $plral% denoting that which derives from -marti[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? sin
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-'-NT(- refers to failre, mistakes, errors, falts and only metaphorically speaking disrespect or impiety"
-'-NT(- is normally a falt or an n.st deed carried ot de to incorrect evalation of some information,
occrrences or possibilities" The manner in which the ancient Hellenes sed the word -'-NT(- bears no
resemblance to the 'odern 4reek @rthodox sage of -'-NT(- as the transgressions of the laws of 4od
which constitte an irreversible and permanent evil" To the ancient Hellenes, -'-NT(- is the reslt of a
mistake in .dgement and clearly as sch is different to an atrocity or abomination" (t is not a crse which
brdens ftre generations like in the concept of )original sin) or the )sins of the fore&/athers)"
Spesippos determines -'-NT(- to be carelessness, a mistake, an error, or a deed not participating in the
common rationality of the niverse, i"e" natral laws" !emokritos sites the reason for -'-NT(- as being
ignorance of the greater good and Socrates probably meant the same when he saidI 'no one is purposefully
bad'"
ANAIDEIA F GMGO%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Vn[thiW
S-/I2*+r? -naideia
@*2r+*? -naidei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AnaideiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of -naideia
AnaideionF $plral% denoting that which is of -naidei[s
AnaidisF $non% denoting a person who acts with -naideia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? impdence
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-E-(!E(- refers to the forms of boldness that are not considered -NTTZ sch as adacity and behavior
that is contrary to the nwritten ethical order of mortals as well as disrespect towards respected cstoms and
people"
Dlato considers -E-(!E(- to be the greatest 2-2@E $badness% within the personal and pblic L(@S
$biographical life% and as sch, he considers that there mst be enforced laws to deal with those gilty of
-E-(!E(-" *$ompare A79);,
ANANBE F GMGJ$H
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VnWnkP
S-/I2*+r? -nanke
@*2r+*? -nankes
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AnankisF $singlar% denoting that which is of -nanke
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? necessity
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-E-E2E derives from the verb )anaso) meaning to dominate, raise or rule and the non )ai) meaning to
s8ueeze or hu" The word -E-E2E refers to a physical or ethical case which brings an inevitable reslt"
Dhilosophically, -E-E2E is the compelling natreI a force which reglates all that has taken place before
and all that is still to happen"
Empedokles considers -E-E2E to be an ancient sacred instittion or decree of the 4ods" !emokritos traces
-E-E2E to be the case of all events as no event takes place withot reason"
Within Hellenic polytheism, the concept was introdced by the @rphics and -E-E2E is honored as an all&
wise 4oddess who is a personification of the spreme niversal power of absolte order" @ne version of the
theogeny places -E-E2E as the daghter of 2ronos while another states that -E-E2E self&created when
the 2osmos self&created and ever since she has flowed within the corse of the 2@S'@S $World%" The
THE@( $4ods% themselves are sb.ect to the order of -E-E2E" -!N-STE(- $the (nescapable% is the
daghter of -E-E2E althogh sometimes -E-E2E and -!N-STE(- are seen as one"
-ccording to Dlato, the '@(N-( $/ates%, like -!N-STE(- are seen to be daghters of -E-E2E"
ANDREIA F GMOP%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VnthrPiW
S-/I2*+r? -ndreia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? bravery, valor, honor
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-E!NE(- means masclinity, the manly spirit, the manly character and by implication bravery irrespective
of gender"
Socrates determines -E!NE(- to be an ED(STE'E $science>secre knowledge% of the appropriate attitde
one shold have towards that which is fearsome and dangeros while Dlato holds -E!NE(- to be the
ED(STE'E of what one shold or shold not fear" -ccording to -ristotle -E!NE(- is having corage and
daring in the face of danger, withot fear of death and to prefer an honorable death to a live of disgrace and
shame" /rthermore, -E!NE(- is the -NTTE $Lirte% of people who act in a correct and logical manner in
every sitation and who are absoltely free of fear or coercion"
-E!NE(- has no relationship to THN-S0T(T- $rashness>adacity% as it is neither the experience of )no&
fear) nor is it excessive boldness" -E!NE(- ths is the 'ES@TES $mean% between rashness and cowardice"
-ccording to Spesippos, -E!NE(- is the fearlessness of DS0CHE $Sol%, battle&corage, deep 4E@S(S
$2nowledge% of the art of war, self&control of DS0CHE, corageos confrontation of death, the persistent
observation of laws and generally the calmness of DS0CHE in the face of all that cases fear"
The Epicreans determined -E!NE(- to be the -NTTE $Lirte% which helps hmans to stand resolte
against fear of the THE@( $4ods% as well as fears of death and pain that are illstrated to be fondless by
DHN@EES(S $good sense>practical wisdom%"
The Stoics considered -E!NE(- to be one of the for parts of -NTTE $Lirte% and as sch it is defined as
the perseverance in the -4@E $strggle>contest% for the secre 4E@S(S $2nowledge% of the desired, the
ndesired and the indifferent" Some Stoics even saw -E!NE(- as the primary -NTTE which is classified
nder the /ortitdes"
ANOBHE F GM"RH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VnXkhP
S-/I2*+r? -nokhe
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
An3khom3F $verb% ( act with -nokhe
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? tolerance, forbearance
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word -E@2HE refers to that which is restrained or controlled and denotes the tendency of one to
confront painfl and npleasant problems with patience" -E@2HE is also sed to refer to the cessation of
hostility between armies"
ANTHRO@ISMOS F GMΘPNL#K"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VnthrQpismXs
S-/I2*+r? -nthropismos
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AnthropoiF $plral non% the sb.ect of -nthropismos $commonly translated as )people)%
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? hmanitarianism, hmanism
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ETHN@D(S'@S is one of the loftier concepts in Hellenic religion and philosophical thoght" (t refers to
respect towards the hman condition" The concept was already in existence dring Homeric times and is
referred to in both the (liad and the @dyssey in the form of showing respect to UEE@( $strangers%, (2ETES
*see (2ES(-, and the poor in terms of DH(L@UEE(- $hospitality% and benevolence" Later,
-ETHN@D(S'@S was associated with D-(!E(- $edcation% as is illstrated in !iogenes Laertios)
assertion that the nedcated lacked -ETHN@D(S'@S"
A@ARBHE F GLGPRH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VpWrkhP
S-/I2*+r? -parkhe
@*2r+*? -parkhas
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? first frit offering, the commencement of a TH0S(- $sacrifice%
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word derives from the synthesis of )apo) $from% and )archomai) $7 commence% and ths accordingly
-D-N2HE refers to the beginning of a rital TH0S(- $sacrifice>offering%" (t is also sed to denote the first
frits of a harvest which were given as an offering bt also referring to )the first and best) of anything"
A@EIRON F GL%P"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VpPrXn
S-/I2*+r? -peiron
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
ApeirouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the -peiron
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? void, abyss
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The -DE(N@E is that which is infinite, having no bondaries and no beginning or end" -DE(N@E is one of
the oldest and most important of philosophical terms" (t is commonly sed to refer to the #antitative and
#alitative expanse $infinity% that which is withot end or bondary" (t is opposite to DEDEN-S'EE@3
referring to that which is limited, ordained or established and DEN-T@S which is limit, edge and
completeness" The perspective of -DE(N@E, regardless of angle, is that of eternal, timeless and never&aging"
-DE(N@E is an efficient and creative Yeing which has not been created, can never be destroyed and
potentially contains all things" (n terms of #antity it is infinite and in terms of #ality netral bt it prodces
the diverse existences throgh simple #alitative determination and #antitative limitation" -naximandros
considered that everything originates from the -DE(N@E and everything retrns to it with the passing of its
existing form inclding the ncontable worlds which are considered to be 4ods"
"A=27@)' has no beinnin but is the beinnin of every other thin and everythin is contained in it and
it has authority over everythin because it is immortal and imperishable"
Ar-,0o0*7 ;rom S@5(,-6+S
(t is impossible for two )-peirons) to exist simltaneosly as nothing can exist otside it" 'ost philosophers
consider -DE(N@E to be a basic attribte of the niverse, except for -naximandros who perceived it to be a
first case and not a Yeing"
A@RE@EIA F GLP%L%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Vpr[piW
S-/I2*+r? -prepeia
@*2r+*? -prepei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AprepisF $non% denoting one who acts according in the manner of -prepeia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? inappropriate
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-DNEDE(- is one of the six 2-2(@E $See 2-2@E% of the L@4@S $Neason% according to Erodianos, the
-pollonian"
AR!S "# !$% L"&"S 'A'IS "# !$% L"&"S
HELLEE(S'@S $Hellenic% L-NL-N(S'@S $Yarbaric%
S-DHEEE(- $Clarity% -S-DHE(- $-mbigity%
20N(@L@4(- $Drecise Wording% -20N@L@4(- $(naccracy%
S0ET@'(- $To be Concise% '-2N@L@4(- $Long&windedness%
E3S0ETHES(- $4ood Composition% 2-2@S0ETHES(- $Yad Composition%
E3DNEDE(- $!ecency or -ppropriate% -DNEDE(- $(nappropriate>(ndecent%
*See related words L@4@S, HELLEE(S'@S, Y-NY-N(S'@S, S-DHEE(-,
ARTTE F GP%QH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Vr[tP
S-/I2*+r? -r[te
@*2r+*? -r[t[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Ar3tisF $singlar% denoting that which is of -r[te
Ar3tCnF $plral% denoting that which is of -r[t[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? virte
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word -NTTE derives from the root )aro) meaning to match, to /oin, to fit or to stabilise" The word
denotes excellence, perfection, nobility of origin, speriority, advantage and the worth or excellence of
someone or something in its field" Dhilosophically, -NTTE is the steady orientation of the will towards the
-4-TH@E $Yeneficial 4ood% as the most desired state for a hman life" (t is a conscientios and free
)active) wisdom which is distribted in portions or -NTTTS sch as !(2E@S0EE $Jstice%, 4enerosity,
Lalor, etc as opposed to the more sensal -4-DE *See -4-DE,, Envy, 'alice, etc" -NTTE prespposes an
active sb.ect sch as the Jst, the Corageos, the 4eneros, etc, who act according to clear !ivine
principles in absolte contrast to the 'alicios, the Loving, etcI who are dominated and possessed by the
senses" Ths -NTTE is firstly an intellectal condition and only as sch is it necessarily sb.ect to
rationality" -s a reslt of this, none of its fondations may be established on that which is perceived by the
senses"
The early poets and writers sch as Homer e#ate -NTTE with -E!NE(- $Lalor% in battle, 'ight and
4lory and even slightly later in time, -NTTE is still associated with heroic deeds in battle" (t is with Hesiod
that the divergence from his predecessors begins by references to -NTTE as the ability of certain mortals
who are beloved by the 4ods" Larios philosophical schools held different -NTTTS to be the most
important" Uenophanes established the philosophical nderstanding of -NTTE to be the highest S@DH(-
$wisdom% and more important than 'ight and -E!NE(- $Lalor%" Dythagoras determined -NTTE to be the
harmony of DS0CHE $Sol% and according associated -4-TH@E, Health and !ivinity with harmony in
general" The Dythagorean stance is also adhered to by Socrates and Dlato who maintain that -NTTE
constittes a nity made p of diverse branches which concern actions demanding 4E@S(S $knowledge% and
DHN@EES(S $practical wisdom%" -s a reslt of DHN@EES(S, -NTTE may ths be imparted and taght by
the philosophical mind and throgh the absolte nderstanding of the terms E3SEY(- $!evotion%,
!(2E@S0EE $Jstice%, -E!NE(- $Lalor% and E42N-TE(- $Temperance% which determine the branches
of -NTTEI e"g" a Jst or Laloros deed may only exist as a reslt of a properly prepared intellect" Socrates
describes -NTTE as correct sstenanceI i"e" intellectal perfection and cltivation ths introdcing )the
-NTTE of the @b.ect) to describe the -NTTE which refers to all things that the hman genis has a natral
tendency towards when in search of TEL(@T(T- $perfection%" -NTTE according to Dlato is the sole prpose
of D-(!E(- $edcation%"
The Hedonists see -NTTE as being an attempt by lawgivers to harness and restrain hman greed for the
prposes of commnal life" Cicero answers this standpoint by stating that nharnessed desire is the main
case of criminal behavior"
The Cynics saw -NTTE as the prpose of L(@S $biographical life% and maintained thatF "5societies are
destroyed when they can no loner differentiate between those who are ood and those who are bad!"
/rthermore, the Cynics believed that hman happiness was to be fond in freedom from all earthly
attachments and ac#isitions and that throgh the mastery of -NTTE all the wealth necessary cold be
attained"
Spesippos and the -cademics held -NTTE to be the harmonios development of the abilities of the
DS0CHE $Sol% nder the direction of the 4od Eros and ths cold not be taght bt cold only be bestowed
pon mortals by the THE@( $4ods%"
/rthermore, -ristotle perceives -NTTE to be the )mean) between two extremities while the Stoics sb&
divided the -NTTTS into three types which had frther sb&divisions" These -NTTTS were generally seen
as the opposite pole to 2-2E(- $vice% which together with other opposites comprise the 'harmony of the
whole)" -s sch 2-2E(- shold not to be seen evil as opposed to -NTTTS as good bt rather this polarity
shold be perceived as the difference between the irrational animal natre of man and the rational ideal of
the (ntellect"
/inally, the Eeo&Dlatonists determine -NTTE to be a prelde to E2T-S(S $bliss% and ths a vehicle for
attaining mystical nion with THE@S $4od%"
ARBHU F GPRH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VrkhP
S-/I2*+r? -rkhP
@*2r+*? -rkh[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
ArkhisF $singlar% denoting that which is of the -rkhP
ArkhonF $plral% denoting that which is of the -rkh[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? beginning, origin, principle, athority
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-N2HZ derives from the verb )arkho) meaning to bein, to oversee or to make offerin of the first fruits" The
word -N2HZ refers to a /irst Case, beginning, dominion and athority" -s a philosophical term, -N2HZ
sally denotes cosmological first cases commonly fond in pairs of opposites always indicating imminent
/irst Cases in the 2@S'@S" Each philosophical school poses a different set of opposites as being the /irst
Case bt all agree that it is part of the 2@S'@S as for it to exist otside of the 2@S'@S wold render it
nknowable to hmans"
-ccording to -ristotle, the -N2HTS are always seen as !ivine de to their self&generating and self&
sstaining natres by which their derivatives may be known"
ARRETON F GPPHQ"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VrrPtXn
S-/I2*+r? -rreton
@*2r+*? -rreta
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
ArretouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the -rreton
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? ineffable, nspeakable, secret
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-NNET@E refers to that of which it is impossible to speak or describe" (n general that which concerns
eternal things and Yeings are -NNET-" The word also means mystical, secret and nknown"
AATOTHYSIA F GVQ"ΘV#G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? VftXthPsiW
S-/I2*+r? -tothysia
@*2r+*? -tothysi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
AutothysiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of the -tothysia
AutothysionF $plral% denoting that which is of the -tothysi[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? self&sacrifice
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Dlato -3T@TH0S(- is an -NTTE that combines self&sacrifice with the prsit of posthmos
fame ths rendering it, like all other -NTTTS, to be rational bt have no connection whatsoever to the desire
for martyrdom" *-lso see TH0S(-,
DAIMON F OGKNM
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Th[mQn
S-/I2*+r? !aimon
@*2r+*? !aimones
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9aimonosF $singlar% denoting that which is of the !aimon
9aimononF $plral% denoting that which of the !aimones
9aimonionF a neter form denoting a lower !aimon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? demon, spirit
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
!-('@E derives the verb )daio) $to divide or separate, to sever or part% and the non )daDmon) $the
knowledeable, the e#perienced%" @riginally the word !-('@E referred to every immortal Yeing which
extends itself to the world of mortals while in the post Hesiodic era, it came to denote any secondary 4od"
(n the Dythagoro&Dlatonic line, !-('@E was sed to refer to the DS0CHTS $sols% of higher mortals in the
service of a great 4od" -fter the ?th Centry YCE, the !-('@EES became intermediaries between the
THE@( $4ods% and mortals, in a hierarchy of THE@(, !-('@EES, Heroes and 'ortals" /rom the <th
Centry YCE, !-('@EES were seen as personal gardians, protectors, gides and ttelary spirits of
mortals" The Stoics transferred the ttelary fnctions to the !-('@E T)-3T@3" This is the concept that
everyone and everything is connected to the Eternal Whole and the !ivine via an internal and personal
!ivinity known as the !-('@E T)-3T@3" (t is ths that which connect the hman DS0CHE $Sol% with
the DS0CHE T@3 D-E!@S $-ll&Sol%"
DEMIOARGOS F OHK"VPJ"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThPmiorgXs
S-/I2*+r? !emiorgos
@*2r+*? !emiorgoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9emiourouB $singlar% denoting that which is of the !emiorgos
9emiouronB $plral% denoting that which is of the !emiorgoi
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? creator, demirge, skilled or pblic worker
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The !E'(@3N4@S is the practitioner of a beneficial deed for the common good" The word refers to the
Yeing which gave shape and order to the 2@S'@S for the common good of all worldly things" The idea of a
!E'(@3N4@S is aptly described by SenecaF
""e reconize Eeus as the ruler and uardian of the universe, as the =;F$<2 0soul1 and the ='2?MA
0breath1 of the *);M);, principally responsible for its creation and to whom all names are fittin! 7f you
wish to refer to <im as M)7@A, you are not wron! 7t is <e, from whom everythin depends, the cause of
causes! 7f you wish to call <im =@)')7A 0=rovidence1 you are e8ually correct! 7t is <e whose ;)=<7A
0"isdom1 provides for our world! 7f you desire to call <im =<F;7; 0'ature1, aain you are not mistaken! 7t
is <e from whom everythin was born and from whose breath we have Life! 7f you want to call <im
?niverse, aain you are not wron, as <e is all that you see around you, <e who e#ists within everythin of
the mundane, <e who defends <imself and all which is within <im!"
DEMOS F OHK"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThPmXs
S-/I2*+r? !emos
@*2r+*? !emoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9emotikoF (n ancient se referring to that which is part of the !emos $translated as public%" (n modern times,
refers to folk traditions, folk music, etc"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? mnicipality, city, borogh, district, the pblic
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
Homer sed the word !E'@S to refer to the inhabitants of an area and especially to those amongst them
who had wealth, power and who exercised athority" !E'@S derives from the same root as the word
!-('@E, namely the verb )daio) $to divide% and the association between these two words was preserved in
the conception of the !E'@S in ancient Hellas as possessing divine attribtes and being the !-('@E of a
particlar commnity" TH0S(TS $sacrifices% were made to the !-('@E of the !E'@S and festivals were
held where yoths of a certain age were introdced to the !E'@S throgh certain actions which were seen
as initiatory rites to the commnity" @ne sch festival was the -patria" -n even older one was the !amia
which was linked to the !E'@S and fertility as the THT^S $4oddesses% !emetra and Dersephone were
honored as the bringers of civiliAation and prosperity" (n certain cities sch as Epidaros, these festivities
inclded mystery rites that only women were allowed to attend"
DIANEIA F OGM"G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThiWnPW
S-/I2*+r? !ianeia
@*2r+*? !ianei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9ianeiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of the !ianeia
9ianeionF $plral% denoting that which is of the !ianei[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? the intellect, genis
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Dlato, !(-EE(- is the word before it is verbalised" Spesippos states that it is the internal
secret dialoge between the DS0CHE $sol% and itself" The Stoics perceive !(-EE(- to be the same as the
HE4E'@E(2@E of the DS0CHE and in essence the same as its prodct, -NTTE" !(-EE(- is also known
as the E@3S" *Compare E@3S,
DIBEOSYNE F O$G"#VMH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Thik[XsynP
S-/I2*+r? !ikeosyne
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9ikeosynisF $singlar% denoting that which is of !ikeosyne
9ik3osF $mascline% a man who acts in a manner that fall within the parameters of !ikeosyne
9ik3aF $feminine% a woman who acts in a manner that fall within the parameters of !ikeosyne
9ik3oF $neter% referring to an act or deed that falls within the parameters of !ikeosyne
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? .stice, righteosness
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
!(2E@S0EE derives from the verb )deiknymi) meaning to brin to liht, to prove or to reveal" - !(2T@S
or !(2T- is one who acts in accordance with the laws and traditions" !(2E@S0EE is one of the higher
ethical vales of the Hellenic worldview, religion and thoght and is a fondational characteristic of the
ordered 2@S'@S" -s a personification of this principle either the 4oddess !ike $daghter of ]es and
Themis% or the 4oddess -straia $daghter of -straios and (o% are honored" The rational and ethical being is
considered to be natrally opposed to any transgression of !ike $and as sch in opposition to -!(2(- or
(n.stice% not only against one)s self bt is compelled to defend against (n.stice done to any other being,
thing or idea" (t is an obligation in the name of or hmanity to hasten in the defence of those who are being
treated n.stly"
Darmenides says that !(2E@S0EE is the 4oddess which connects and spports the E(E-( $Yeing%"
-ccording to Dlato, !(2E@S0EE is the -NTTE which keeps the implsive and desiros portions of the
DS0CHE $sol% in check" /rthermore, according to the Dlatonic school, !(2E@S0EE is the tendency
towards the harmony of the DS0CHE and the order of the parts of the DS0CHE expressing itself throgh
social e#ity, law&abiding behavior and the granting to each of what they deserve"
The Stoics expand frther by stating that !(2E@S0EE demands first and foremost, retribtion in that the
good mst receive good and the bad mst receive pnishment" To grant good to bad wold constitte an
in.stice to bad"
DIBHONEIA F OR"M"G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThikhXnPW
S-/I2*+r? !ikhoneia
@*2r+*? !ikhonei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9ikhoneiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of the !ikhoneia
9ikhoneionF $plral% denoting that which is of the !ikhonei[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? discord
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
!(2H@EE(- is the opposite of @'@E@(- $-ccord>Concord%" !(2H@EE(- may be nderstood as a
disagreement in perceptions or decisions, dissension from or opposition to an opinion" *Compare @'@E@(-,
DODEBAHEDRON F ONO%$G%OP"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Th_`abcd
e
b`afgh
S-/I2*+r? !odekahedron
@*2r+*? !odekahedra
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9odekahedrouF $singlar% denoting that which belongs to a !odekahedron
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? dodecahedron
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The !@!E2-HE!N@E is one of the Dlatonic Solids and one of the five Dythagorean polyhedrons" @f the
Solids and polyhedrons, it is the largest in mass and srface, consisting of twelve e#al sides in the form of
e#ianglar pentagons and twenty firm and nmoving points"
-ccording to Timeos, the !@!E2-HE!N@E represents the phenomenal world as it describes )-ll) and is a
pictre of )-ll) for it is a shape that is similar in shape to that of the Heavens"
DOXA F O"&G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThXxW
S-/I2*+r? !oxa
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
9o#asF denoting that which is of the !oxa
9o#asiaF referring to when !oxa is offered
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? @pinion, 4lory, /ame, Draise
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
!@U- is the sb.ective awareness and the simple opinion which does not demand to assert itself as
acceptable" -ccording to Darmenides, !@U- refers to awareness based exclsively on what appears to be
$phenomenal%, while Dythagoras places !@U- as one of the for spports of the hman DS0CHE *see
-ESTHES(S," !@U- contains of elements of trth as well as elements of ntrth" *Compare -LETHE(-,
4E@'Z,
Spesippos states that !@U- is an awareness that may be dissaded throgh rationalisation or proved
accrate or inaccrate throgh application of the L@4@S $Neason%"
2elsos ses the word to refer to the impiety of !@U- inherent within the generalised perception of the
THE@( $4ods%"
DROMENA? OPNK%MG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThrXm[nW
S-/I2*+r? !romeno
@*2r+*? !romena
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Traditions to be acted pon
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
!N@'EE- derives from the verb )dro) $to act% and refers to a dramatiAed sacred show, a religios
ceremony, a theatrical performance or a pblic spectacle"
EFTHYTETA F %VΘVQHQG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TfthitPtW
S-/I2*+r? Efthyteta
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2fth>sF $non% someone who acts with Efthyteta
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? directness, frankness, sincere, trthfl
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E/TH0TET- is the practice of being sincere and frank withot hiding ones intentions" (t is also a straight
rote withot diversions"
EGBRATEIA F %J$PGQ%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TgkrWtPiW
S-/I2*+r? Egkrateia
O057r ;orm, o; 057 <or1?
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Temperance
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E42N-TE(- is self&control or internal restraint"
-ccording to Spesippos, E42N-TE(- is the stability of the self when the parts of the DS0CHE $Sol%
manifest tendencies in opposition to the @NTH@S L@4@S $pstanding word%"
Epicrs determines E42N-TE(- to be one of the -NTTTS $Lirtes% which teaches s how not to be
distracted by temptations which prodce dire reslts" E42N-TE(- as an -NTTE is sb.ect to
S@DHN@S0EE $common sense% and if applied with S@DHN@S0EE is not a denial and therefore stands as
the 'ES@TES $mean% between -D@CHE $abstinence% and TN(DHE $indlgence%" Hence E42N-TE(- is
not the concept of self&denial promoted by some monotheistic religions as sch notions of self&denial are
more correctly referred to as -D@CHE $abstinence%" E42N-TE(- refers specifically to the -4-TH@E
$Yeneficial 4ood% to be fond in temperance and is ths an -NTTE"
EIDOLON F %ON!"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ZithQlXn
S-/I2*+r? Eidolon
@*2r+*? Eidola
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2idolouF $singlar% denoting that which belongs to an Eidolon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? idol, image
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word E(!@L@E means a perception, reflection, idea, a meaning, an image or likeness, an illsion as
well as an agreed depiction of the 4ods" -n E(!@L@E refers specifically to an -4-L'- $See -4-L'-%
of a 4od or 4oddess throgh which mortals worship the specific 4od or 4oddess depicted"
Herodots ses the word E(!@L@E to denote the concept of )/orm) while Sophokles ses the word to
indicate the )shades) of the dead"
*Compare -4-L'-, E(2@E,
EIBON F %$NM
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ZikXn
S-/I2*+r? Eikon
@*2r+*? Eikon[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2ikonasF $singlar% denoting the Eikon when referring to something that derives from it or belongs to it, i"e"
the frame of the Eikonas
2ikononF $plral% denoting the Eikon[s when referring to that which derives from them or belongs to them,
i"e" the frames of the Eikon[s
2ikonikosF representing a likeness, virtal
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? state, image, pictre, representation
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-n E(2@E is an -4-L'- $state%, a reflection in a mirror, a likeness and an example" E(2@E derives
from the word 'eika' meaning to make the same" (n Eripides) 'edea $++"?1% reference is made to the
)solless) E(2@E which laghingly stares ot of the mirror at the body" E(2@E- may also be sed as an
adverb translated by the word )as) meaning to the same e#tent or deree as well as the ad.ective )like) meaning
resemblin or similar in appearance" Hence Dlato)s 2ratylos $<CCc% employs the phrase )THES'@T(NE@3
E(2@E-) which means )like a prison)" *Compare S(E'-, S0'L@L-, S0ETHE'-,
-n E(2@E is generally a representation of the real world or the creation of an imaginary one throgh the
medim of words or pictres" *Compare -4-L'-, E(!@L@E,
EINAI F %MG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Zn[
S-/I2*+r? Einai
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? to be, existence, it is
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E(E-( is the most important term of philosophical thoght and is the statement of existence" (t is the
sbstantiated infinitive of the verb )eimi) $7 am%" E(E-( is the term that refers to the general reality of
existence in contrast to '( E(E-( $non&existence%I the stable presence in contrast to 4E4EESTHE
$becoming%I the deeper essence of the beings in contrast to DHEEESTHE $appearance%" E(E-( is identical to
the L@4@S as existence, the Dlatonic (dea and DH0S(S $Eatre% in contrast to 'ETHEE $Aero>no&thing%"
E(E-( is also indistingishable from -LETHE(- $trth% and self&revelation"
Darmenides describes the E(E-( as being sstained withot generation, degeneration, complete, existing
simltaneosly $past, present M ftre%, ni#e, nifying, one and continos" He presents E(E-( as
e#ilibrim which balances itself completely in everything, from its centre otwards" *Compare (D-NU(S,
@E,
EBBLESIA F %$$!H#G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TkklPsiW
S-/I2*+r? Ekklesia
@*2r+*? Ekklesi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2kklesiasF $singlar% that which is of Ekklesia
2kklesionF $plral% that which is of Ekklesi[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? assembly
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E22LES(- derives from the verb )ekkalo) $to call out or call toether%" The word originally referred to the
E22LES(- of the !E'@S and to the gathering of responsible people who performed the fnction of
legislators within a city&state" The word E22LES(- incldes within its concept the nderstanding of people
gathering for a specific prpose" !ring the 2ra .ularis the term was sed by the christian chrch to denote
the collective of all the faithfl with Christ as the head" Today the word has been frther corrpted to refer to
the bilding wherein christians worship"
EBLEBTIBISMOS F %$!%$Q$#K"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Tkl[ktikismXs
S-/I2*+r? Eklektikismos
@*2r+*? Eklektikismoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2klektikismouF $singlar% denoting that which is of Eklektikismos
2klektikismonF $plral% denoting that which of Eklektikismoi
2klektikoiF $plral% they who practice Eklektikismos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Eclecticism
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E2LE2T(2(S'@S began dring the era of the Noman Schools when the limits and bondaries became
vage and gave way to free choice of elements from varios systems de to Noman excesses and the collapse
of social norms" The word E2LE2T(2(S'@S most likely originates from the philosopher Dotamon of
-lexandria who established the )Eclectic School) dring the reign of -gsts in which combinations of
elements of different systems was taght" The general perception of the time was one that allowed for the
freedom to choose any element which is considered sefl or apt from any system in prsit of finding
meaning in the 'Art of Livin'" E2LE2T(2(S'@S gained its greatest form in -lexandria, its place of origin
which was a melting&pot of varios ethnic traditions from throghot the Noman Empire"
E2LE2T(2(S'@S was an nrefined tradition comprised of the decorative sage of borrowed and
disordered elements of the near&extinct pre Hellenic and pre Noman traditions within -lexandria"
Simltaneosly, it was in -lexandria that -brahamic traditions incorporated aspects of the Hellenic
philosophical schools in works sch as the Wisdom of Solomon, varios Scholiastic books of the Dentatech
as well as within Christian texts"
ELEATHERIA F %!%VΘ%PG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Tl[fth[riW
S-/I2*+r? Eletheria
O057r ;orm, o; 057 <or1?
2leutheraF that which is free
2leutheriosG2leutherotisF $mascline singlar% he who brings Eletheria
2leutherotriaF $feminine singlar% she who brings Eletheria
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? freedom, liberty
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
ELE3THEN(- is the state of being in complete control over self&realisation and movement" (t was originally
sed in Homeric times to denote someone who was not a slave and from there the concept developed into a
perfect political nderstanding of -3T@TH(-THES(S $self&determination%, (SS@E@'(- $e#ality before
the law%, E3TH(EE $responsibility%, (SSE4@N(- $freedom of speech% and D-NNES(- $freedom to raise
one)s opinion%"
Uenophon e#ates the vale of ELE3THEN(- to that of all the treasre in the world" Spesippos and Dlato
both determine ELE3THEN(-, as the principality of L(@S $biographical life% to be self&determination and
personal athority over one)s affairs" -ccording to -ristotle, ELE3THEN(- is the TEL@S $ltimate
prpose% of the system of !emocracy in contrast to the TEL@S of @ligarchy as the ac#isition of wealth and
the TEL@S of -ristocracy as the cltivation of D-(!E(- $Edcation% and the respect and obedience to the
Laws and Traditions"
To the Stoics, ELE3THEN(- is the rare intellectal state of S@DH(- $Wisdom% which throgh 4E@S(S
$2nowledge% allows for the peacefl acceptance of changes even when these may be npleasant" Seneca
observes correctly that the THE@( $4ods% possess the ltimate ELE3THEN(- from the moment they
ordered and determined the corse of all things and became sb.ect to that corse" Ths destiny stands
sperior even to the THE@( who are nwilling to change it" Yecase of this, each DS0CHE $Sol% has the
ELE3THEN(- of choice and not the ELE3THEN(- of action" (t is only $onviction which is the tre action
of DS0CHE and it is throgh it that the tre ELE3THEN(- is attained when mortals imitate the THE@(
$4ods% in a total reconciliation to the flow of things" Therefore the person who has -NTTE has
ELE3THEN(- as well even if in bondage as he endres to act only to that which depends on him while
remaining calm and controlled towards things which do not"
ENAGISMA F %MGJ#KG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TnWgismW
S-/I2*+r? Enagisma
@*2r+*? Enagismata
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? prification, cleansing
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
EE-4(S'- derives from the synthesis of )en) $one or unity% and )aos) $respect, miasma, in need of
purification%" EE-4(S'- refers to the water which is changed into the medim for prification by a simple
process dring a TELETE $ceremony% and placed pon the L@'@S $altar%"
E@IST%ME F %L#QHKH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TpistPmP
S-/I2*+r? Episteme
@*2r+*? Epistem[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2pistemisF $singlar% denoting that which is of Episteme
2pistemonF $plral% denoting that which is of Epistem[s" !epending on how the word is sed can also refer
to a person who practices Episteme
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? science, secre knowledge
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
ED(STE'E is one of the for Dythagorean spports of the DS0CHE *See -ESTHES(S," ED(STE'E refers to
the precise, complete, systematic and verifiable and ths secre 4E@S(S $knowledge%"
Spesippos states that ED(STE'E is the awareness of DS0CHE $sol% which is not sb.ect to change by
L@4@S $Neason%"
Dlato made a clear distinction between !@U- $opinion% and indisptable ED(STE'E $secre knowledge%"
He determines ED(STE'E to be that which is explicable throgh rational 4E@S(S $knowledge%" -ristotle
develops this concept by declaring that ED(STE'E is "e#plainable and verifiable 6');7; with reards to
the A@*<A; 0oriins1 and the A7T7H; 0$auses1"" -ristotle frther lists the characteristics of ED(STE'E as
beingI +% National 4E@S(S, 1% the 4E@S(S that is provable and casal beyond discssion, ;% the path of the
intellect $deriving from !(-EE(-% towards the nknown throgh the indirect to the known and recognised
-LETHE(- $trth%, <% the method of Syllogism to !efinition and finally Establishment, =% the 4E@S(S of
the case of each thing, ?% the preoccpation with the immovable and eternal @3S(- $Essence% of things and
finally, B% that which originates from the mltitde of empirical information to the destination of the one
overall common position which is tre for all similarities or similar things"
The term ED(STE'E in HELLEE(S'@S is synonymos with philosophy" However, in the 2ra .ularis
ED(STE'E was separated from philosophy as the latter was banished into the realms of theology,
metaphysics and abstraction"
EROS F %PN#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TrQs
S-/I2*+r? Eros
@*2r+*? Erot[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2rotaF denoting that which is of Eros
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? love
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Dlato and Spesippos, EN@S is the oter inflx of !esire towards Yliss" EN@S is also an
attractive force of the Whole as a desire or a tendency bt also with reference to the need of the Whole to
remain eternally -4-TH@S $beneficial to all%" *Compare -4-DE,
ETAIREIA F %QGP%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Tt[riW
S-/I2*+r? Etaireia
@*2r+*? Etairei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2taireiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of an Etaireia
2taireionF $plral% denoting that which is of the Etairei[s
2tairosF $mascline% male member of an Etaireia
2tairaF $feminine% )<etaira) in common English translation and referring to a female member of an Etaireia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? association, society, company, partnership
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
- general definition of an ET-(NE(- is a nified grop of people with common prpose" The word in
particlar refers to a brotherhood and political association in ancient -thens sometimes known as a
DHN-TN(- or a company nited throgh EN@S"
ETHNIBOI F %ΘM$"
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Tthniki
S-/I2*+r? Ethnikos
@*2r+*? Ethnikoi
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? heathen, gentile, national
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
ETHE(2@S derives from )ethos) meaning )a custom or habit) which generates the word )ethnos) which was
coined by Herodotos to refer to people of common origin, common langage, common religion and common
cltre" Ths from )ethnos) derives ETHE(2@S which refers to a person who is associated with anything to
do with ETHE@S" Yy association the word ETHE(2@( came to be sed by the christian Nomans of
YyAantim to refer to those who remained tre to the religion and cltre of their ancestors as opposed to
those who adopted the new religion and cltre of christianity" (n trn, the early christians sed ETHE(2@S
to refer to someone who, in their opinion, was an idolater"
EALA8EIA F %V!GW%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TvlWvPW
S-/I2*+r? Elabeia
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2ulabeiasF denoting that which is of Elabeia
2ulab>sF denoting someone who has Elabeia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? devotion, devotness, piety, respect
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E3L-YE(- means discernment, attention, predictability and by implication respect towards the THE@(
$4ods%" The word denotes the obligation of mortals to commnicate often with the THE@(" (n opposition to
E3L-YE(- stand the terms THN-S@S $(nsolence% and !E(S(!-('@E(- $Sperstition%" *Compare
E3SEYE(-,
EASE8%IA F %V#%W%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Tvs[vPW
S-/I2*+r? Esebeia
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
2usebeiasF denoting that which is of Esebeia
2useb>sF denoting someone who has Esebeia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? piety
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E3SEYE(- derives from the root word )sevein) meaning '7 worship', '7 honour' or '7 respect'! E3SEYE(- is
the power which leads to the honoring of the THE@( $4ods%" (t also means to have the correct perception
for granting honor to the THE@( as well as acting with !(2E@S0EE $Jstice% towards the THE@( and
having ED(STE'E $secre knowledge% of the honor de to the THE@("
-ccording to the Stoics, E3SEYE(- is one of the -NTTTS $Lirtes% sb.ect to !(2E@S0EE $Jstice% for it
is !(2E@ $Jst% to grant the THE@( the respect they deserve"
- practical formla for E3SEYE(- is given by (eroklesF
"<onour the 7mmortal T<2)7 and respect the )@*); 0oath1, as well as show respect to the briht <eroes
and the *<T<)'7)7 by doin what is proper as ordained by the ancestral law!"
*Compare E3L-YE(-,
EXIS F %&#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Txis
S-/I2*+r? Exis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Hexis
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word EU(S denotes the natral power and wholeness of each thing"
-ccording to Spesippos, EU(S is the tendency of the DS0CHE $Sol% which determines the E(E-( $Yeing%
of each DN@SiD@E $Dersona%"
GNOMU F JMNKH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 4nXmP
S-/I2*+r? 4nomP
@*2r+*? 4nom[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
6nomisF $singlar% denoting that which is of the 4nomP
6nomonF $plral% denoting that which is of the 4nom[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? opinion, trth $intitive%, discernment
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
4E@'Z refers to the tool whereby one becomes aware or recogniAes as well as denoting the (ntellect, the
E@3S $mind% and its varios fnctions, thoght, .dgement, discernment or the intelligence of the DS0CHE
$sol%" Dhilosophically, 4E@'Z is a trth based on practical experience" (t is the power of knowing and by
implication the reslt of the hman striving for 4E@S(S $knowledge%" 4E@'Z is a stronger perception than
EET(D@S(S $impression% bt weaker than -SDH-L@3S 4E@S(S $secre knowledge%" *Compare
-LETHE(-, !@U-,
GNOSIS F JMN##
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 4nXsis
S-/I2*+r? 4nosis
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
6noseonF $plral% derivatives of 4nosis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? knowledge
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
4E@S(S refers to that which is wise, that which is learnt throgh critical examination as well as to that
which is grasped by the intellect" Dhilosophically, 4E@S(S is the nderstanding of that which exists, the
comprehension of things, profndity and the confidence with regards to that which one knows to be real"
4E@S(S is the opposite of )Yelief) or !@U- $as the opinion of appearances%" 4E@S(S is secred throgh
witness, experience, constant stdy and>or secre reasoning" Those who dispte the existence of ob.ective
reality $relativism% dispte the feasibility of 4E@S(S" (n Hesiod, 4E@S(S is a possession of the THE@(
$4ods% which is transmitted to mortals via the 'ses" !ifferent philosophers had variations of the definition
of 4E@S(S depending on whether they were relativists or not" However, they all agreed that 4E@S(S is not
!@U-S(- $opinion of appearances% which they determined to be a belief or the appearance of things"
*Compare !@U-, 4E@'Z,
HEDONY F HO"MH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ZthXnP
S-/I2*+r? Hedony
@*2r+*? Hedon[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
<edonisF $singlar% denoting that which is of Hedony
<edononF $plral% denoting that which is of Hedon[s
<edonistisF $mascline% a Hedonist
<edonistriaF $feminine% a Hedonist
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Hedonism, pleasre
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
HE!@E0 is physical pleasre as opposed to TENDS(S which is the pleasre experienced by the DS0CHE
$Sol%" There were different and opposing schools of thoghts concerning HE!@E0" Some considered it to
be nethical, catastrophic and as sch to be avoided while others saw HE!@E0, in either part or totality, to
be an -NTTE $Lirte% as it participates in natre and>or shold be prsed in the search for -4-TH@E
$Yeneficial 4ood%" Negardless of differences, all agreed that HE!@E0 was always physical and sb.ect to
the senses"
HEGEMONIBON F HJ%K"M$"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Zy[mXnikXn
S-/I2*+r? Hegemonikon
@*2r+*? Hegemonika
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
<eemonikouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the Hegemonikon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Hegemony
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The HE4E'@E(2@E is the part of the DS0CHE $Sol% which rles and gides all the others" The
HE4E'@E(2@E is considered to exist within the heart of all living things bt in hmans it is also known
as the E@3S $'ind% or !(-EE(- $4enis%" The complete matration of the hman HE4E'@E(2@E is
absolte rationality"
HELLENISMOS F %!!HM#K"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TllPnismXs
S-/I2*+r? Hellenismos
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
<ellenismouF denoting that which belongs to Hellenismos, commonly translated as Hellenic in English
<ellen3sF denoting those persons who belong to Hellenismos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Hellenic, 4reek
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
Within a Dre&Christian context, the word HELLEE(S'@S refers to the Hellenic or correct, proper sage,
practice or expression of the L@4@S *Compare -DNED(- M L@4@S," !ring the YyAantine era, the term
HELLEE(S'@S was sed by the Emperor Jlian to refer to the ancient Hellenic cltre and religion" Ths
the words HELLEE(S'@S and HELLEEES became synonymos with )pagan) to the christians to denote
those who had not converted to christianity" The word HELLEEE became a derogatory term and the
HELLEEES who had chosen to keep to their ancestral cltre and religion came to call themselves
ETHE(2@( to distingish them from those who had become christian HELLEEES" These christian
HELLEEES referred to themselves as either the Nomioi $Nomans% or by the Latin word )4rece)" The word
4reek derives from the Latin 4NECE which was the term sed by the Nomans to refer to the HELLEEES"
(n the modern sage of HELLEE(S'@S, the word refers to everyone who is a HELLEEE regardless of
religion" The terms Nomioi and 4rece are still in se and refer to the 4reek @rthodox and YyAantine
christian cltre" The term ETHE(2@( HELLEEES is still sed by HELLEEES who follow the ancestral
religion and cltre of ancient Hellas"
HA8RIS F VWP#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Zvris
S-/I2*+r? Hbris
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
<ubr3osF $singlar% denoting that which is of Hbris
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? hbris, inslt, adacity, shamelessness, disrespect
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
H3YN(S is insolence or impertinence from powerfl exaggerated feelings which reslt from the
transgression of the 'ETN@E $'easre% as a rle in the form of nethical expression de to arrogance,
greed, excess or the blind prsit of wealth and power" H3YN(S is determined to be adacity, shamelessness
and disrespect towards the ethical order of the 2@S'@S" (t is contempt for the THE@( $4ods% or violation
of the laws of DH0S(S $Eatre%" However, the reaction of the THE@( towards H3YN(S is not to seen as
pnishment bt rather the restoration of the balancing measres of the 2@S'@S and is the responsibility of
the 4oddess Eemesis" H3YN(S and its repercssions is the central theme of Hellenic tragedy which
illstrates the conse#ences befalling those who wish to raise themselves above the limitations of a hman"
<ubris is to cause shame to the victim, not in order that anythin may happen to you, nor because anythin
has happened to you, but merely for your own ratification! <ubris is not the re8uital of past in/uries& this is
revene! As for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is thisB men think that by ill%treatin others they make their
own superiority the reater!
Ar-,0o0*7

HYLU F V!H
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ZlP
S-/I2*+r? HylP
@*2r+*? Hyl[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
<ylisF $singlar% denoting that which is of HylP
<ylonF $plral% denoting that which is of Hyl[s
<ylikoG<ylikonF that which is HylP
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? 'atter, material
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
H0LZ is an indestrctible, eternal, spontaneos action with no beginning that comprises the bilding
component of the niverse" H0LZ is the nlimited 3niversal Essence" (t is known, eternal bt always new,
sb.ect to metamorphosis bt remaining permanent and stable despite its inherent state of ):ecomin)"
-ccording to the Stoics, there are two primal components which comprise the first sbstance of the
2@S'@S" The one is #alitative and the other is passive>receptive or H0LZ referring to that which is
always acted pon"
-ristotle states that H0LZ is that which is ssceptible to /orm and 4ens in opposition to EEEN4E(-
$Energy and>or /orce%"
3nder the Eeo&Dlatonists, H0LZ became an absolte 2-2@E $Yad% when devoid of DS0CHE $Sol%"
HYMNOS F VKM"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ZemnXs
S-/I2*+r? Hymnos
@*2r+*? Hymnoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
<ymnouF $singlar% denoting a Hymnos when referring to something deriving there from or belong to it, i"e"
the words of the Hymno
<ymnonF $plral% denoting Hymnoi when referring to something deriving from or belonging to them, i"e" the
msic for the Hymnon
<ymnizoF $verb% meaning )( praise)
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Hymn
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
H0'E@S derives from the verb )he#symno) meaning to praise enthusiastically or euloise" (t is a poem or
song which is chanted in honor of the THE@( $4ods% or Heroes" Dlato in )The Nepblic) $?CBa% makes a
very clear distinction between the H0'E@( sng to the THE@( $4ods% and the praise given to mortals when
he statesI "<FM')7 to the T<2)7 06ods1 and commendations to the ood" while Eripides refers to
honoring the THE@( $4ods% with H0'E@( in Hippolytos $=?%" !e to its common etymological
association with the !ivine name H0'EE-(@S, the word H0'E@S is also sed to refer to a wedding
song" H0'E@S differs from a 'EL@S which is a song deriving from a Tragedy"
IDEA F O%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? jth[W
S-/I2*+r? (dea
@*2r+*? (d[Rs
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
7deasF $singlar% denoting that which is of (dea
7d3onF $plral% denoting that which is (d[Rs
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? (dea
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-n (!E- is an imperishable, niversal movement or energy which is nchanging, self&determined and
independent being neither inflenced nor directed from elsewhere"
(n Dlatonic thoght, (!T^S are the !ivine, eternal, incorporeal, intelligible and invisible Yeings which are
reflected in the physical and perishing world" They are the basis of casation, the laws of strctre and the
bleprint of everything that happens in the world of :ecomin" The mltitde of (!T^S are nified in the
-4-TH@E $Yeneficial 4ood% which is the spreme (!E- and first case, giving essence and allowing the
other (!T^S to exist" The religios needs or perceptions of mortals do not inflence the (!T^S, ths as a
reslt, they remain nchanged and eternal whether there are DS0CHTS $sols% who perceive them or not"
(!T^S may be interpreted throgh Dythagorean mathematical types as they both share the same properties
and attribtes" 'athematical process becomes an intermediary between the world of (!T^S and the physical
world" -LETHES $Trth%, -4-TH@E $Yeneficial 4ood% and @NT@E $Yeaty% are the three aspects of the
Spreme (!E- throgh which all vales and capabilities of awareness are generated and apply a powerfl
attraction to DS0CHE $Sol% throgh EN@S $Love% as they are easily perceived"
IEREIO F %PE"
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? j[r[iX
S-/I2*+r? (ereio
@*2r+*? (ereia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? the sacrifice $specifically the animal which is being sacrificed to the THE@(%
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
(ENE(@ derives from the prefix )iero) which is sed to denote somethin or someone who has a relationship
to the sacred or the divine" The original non )ieros) refers to an association with the T<2)7 $4ods%, reliion
or reliious activities" Hence the (ENE(@ is that which is sacrificed to the THE@( and throgh association
with the divine, it becomes sacred in the same manner as the other derivates of the word (EN@S namely
(ENE3S $mascline% and (ENE(- $feminine% indicate the sacredness of a person throgh their association
with the THE@( and their acts of religion"
IERON F %P"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? j[rXn
S-/I2*+r? (eron
@*2r+*? (era
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? the Sacred, a Sanctary, the Holy
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
(EN@E means )stron) or )powerful) and refers to all things individally or collectively $(EN-% that develop
dynamically and perpetally for the sake of the phenomenon of Life" -ny words, symbols, art, person or
place is an (EN@E when it refers to the mysteries of DH0S(S $Eatre% or the world of the THE@( $4ods%"
IBESIA F $%#G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? jk[siW
S-/I2*+r? (kesia
@*2r+*? (kesi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
7kesiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of (kesia
7kesionF $plral% denoting that which is of (kesi[s
7ketisF $mascline% denoting a man who is exercising (kesia
7ketriaF $feminine% denoting a woman who exercising (kesia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? spplication
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
(2ES(- is a sacred instittion in Hellenismos which falls nder the aspices of the spreme THE@S $4od%
when evoked as ]es (2ES(@S and ]es (2T-(@S" (2ES(- demands realisation in the name of the THE@(
for petitions, dispensation of !(2E@S0EE $Jstice% or protection" -n (2ET(S or (2ETN(- will direct the
(2ES(- either at the altar of a 4od or 4oddess or by falling at the feet of the person to whom the plea is
directed" -n (2ES(- is not an indiscriminate or general appeal for help" (t is a petition or plea to flfill an
immediate need and is aimed directly at one who is in a position to assist the (2ET(S or (2ETN(-" - refsal
to flfill an (2ES(- wold contravene !ivine Law and will lead to -'-NT(- $error% and '(-S'-
$polltion% for the one who receives and ignores the petition" (2ES(- is linked to the Laws of UEE(-
$strangers% and is the philanthropic aspect of DH(L@UEE(- $Hospitality%"
I@ARXIS F VLGP&#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ZpWrxis
S-/I2*+r? (parxis
@*2r+*? (parxeis
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
7par#3osF $singlar% denoting that which is of (parxis
7par#3onF $plral% denoting that which is of (parxis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? existence
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
(D-NU(S is the E(E-( $Yeing% itself" /irstly, it is the fact that things exist independent of individal
4E@S(S $2nowledge%" (D-NU(S is also the awareness of existing throgh experience and finally it is reality
which is experienced in opposition to that which is abstract and theoretical" *See E(E-(,
BAIROS F $GP"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? k[rXs
S-/I2*+r? 2airos
@*2r+*? 2airoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
*airouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the 2airos
*aironF $plral% denoting that which is of the 2airoi
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? time $timely%I weather $modern Hellenic%
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Spesippos, 2-(N@S is the appropriate moment in time to flfill a need or to accomplish that
which been soght for" (t is the moment in time with co&operates with the -4-TH@DN-U(- $4ood !eed%"
2-(N@S refers to the sitable time for something or someone to act or be acted pon" 2-(N@S is generally
the @NTH@ 'ETN@E $Correct 'easre%"
BALON F $G!"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2WlXn
S-/I2*+r? 2alon
@*2r+*? 2ala
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
*alouF $singlar% denoting that which is of 2alon
*alonF $plral% denoting that which is of 2ala
*alosF $mascline% he who acts in the manner of 2alon
*aliF $feminine% she who acts in the manner of 2alon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? good
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
(amblichs records that according to the Dythagoreans, 2-L@E is the order and symmetry which is good
and advantageos"
BABON F $G$"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2WkXn
S-/I2*+r? 2akon
@*2r+*? 2aka
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
*akouF $singlar% denoting that which is of 2akon
*akonF $plral% denoting that which is of 2aka
*akosF $mascline% he who acts in the manner of 2akon
*akiaF $feminine% she who acts in the manner of 2akon
*akei3sF $neter plral% things that are 2aka
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? bad
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to the Dythagoreans, 2-2@E is disorder and asymmetry nder which the physical HE!@E0
$Hedonism% is classified"
The Stoics discerned between three 2-2-F 2-2E(ES $'alice and Lice%, 2-2@3N4(ES $Crimes% and
D-TH@( $Dassions%I To the *A*272; belonsF -bsrdity, (gnorance, (n.stice, 3nfaithflness,
Dossessiveness, 3nreasonable Hostility, Cowardice and Thoghtlessness" To *A*)?@672; belonsF -ll
foolish and n.st deeds" To =AT<)7 belonsF -ll ncontrolled and excessive desires that are considered to
illnesses and defects of the DS0CHE $Sol% and therefore a distrbance to the HE4E'@E(2@E and by
extension to the whole of existence" 2-2@E is the polar opposite of 2-L@E and can not be absent from
the 2@S'@S as it is in attendance to -NTTE>-4-TH@E" -s all things are known and exist only throgh
their opposites, 2-2@E is sefl in maintaining the harmony of the Whole and does not stand alone as an
absolte" (n essence, a 2-2@S or 2-2(- is only self&pnishing as he or she betrays their own natre whilst
degrading their own person to become an illogical and irrational animal" The absolte form of 2-2@E is
denied on the basis that it wold be e#ated with Eon&Existence as a polar opposite to Existence and
therefore not possible"
(n Dlatonic thoght, 2-2@E is associated with the body withot a DS0CHE $Sol% in the dality of S@'-
$Yody% and DS0CHE $Sol%" This is a theoretical state as nothing was actally perceived of to be withot a
DS0CHE $Sol%" (n this theoretical state and throgh the association of 2-2@E with the S@'- $Yody%, the
body is nderstood to be a prison and referred to as a T-DH@S $4rave% or S(E'- $Sign%"
The Eeo&Dlatonists slightly modified the Dlatonic standpoint by stating that 2-2@E is a reslt of the
necessary discrepancies from the navoidable internal conflict between the -4-THTS @ET@T(TES $4ood
Entities% in their attempt to spport -4-TH@T(T- $4oodness%"
BATHARSIS F $GΘGP##
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2WthWrsis
S-/I2*+r? 2atharsis
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
*atharmosF the act of 2atharsis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? catharsis, cleansing, prification
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Dlato and Spesippos, 2-TH-NS(S denotes the cleansing from '(-S'- $polltion% or the
separation of the 2-2@E $Yad% from the 2-L@E $4ood%" 2-TH-NS(S is the religios process of
prification"
BHAXS F RG"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2hWXs
S-/I2*+r? 2haXs
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? chaos, space
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
2H-iS is the permanently existing /irst Case and the timeless, inert and nstrctred )Space) of Hellenic
cosmogony" (t is not a disorder bt an inert state which contains all potential within it" 2H-iS is a state
withot which no existence is possible" -ccording to the Stoics, one of the #alities of 2H-iS is flidity"
BHARIS? RGP#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2hWris
S-/I2*+r? 2haris
@*2r+*? 2harit[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? grace, pardon, charm
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
2H-N(S refers to the grace of the THE@S $4od% ]es as characteriAed by his three daghters -glaia,
Ephrosyne and Thaleia" 2H-N(S is the casal element in making something 2-L@E $4ood%, @N-(@E
$Yeatifl% or pleasant" The 2H-N(TTS simltaneosly refers to the )ifts) of hmans and the granting of
pardon from a higher athority de to )love) of the ob.ect for the sb.ect" When 2H-N(S is received it is
generally an act which prodces a feeling of .oy and well&being"
$HTHONIOS F RΘ"M"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2hthXniXs
S-/I2*+r? 2hthonios
@*2r+*? 2hthonioi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
*hthoniaB $feminine% form of 2hthonios
*hthonioB $neter% something which is 2hthonic
*hthoneB a related epithet of specific 4oddesses
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? 3nderworld, ndergrond, infernal
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
2HTH@E(@S refers to that which is of the earth, nder the srface of the earth or domestic $local%"
Sophokles $@"2"H<G% offers an example of the sage of the word to denote the local athority of the -reos
Dagos $-thenian High Cort%" 2HTH@E(@( is commonly sed to refer to the 4ods of the 3nderworld as
illstrated by Dindar $D"<"1G<% :khthonian manis: $the wrath of the 3nderworld 4ods>infernal wrath%"
BOINONIA F $"MNMG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2inXnia
S-/I2*+r? 2oinonia
@*2r+*? 2oinoni[s
O057r Form, o; 057 <or1?
*oinoniasF $singlar% denoting that which is of 2oinonia
*oino $singlar%>*oina $plral%F that which is common between things or that which is pblic" -lso referring
to a confederation of cities or states with e#al rights and a single central administration" (t is commonly
translated as )federation) in English"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? society, commnity
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
2@(E@E(- derives from the verb )koin) meaning )toether)" 2@(E@E(- is the highest degree of hman co&
habitation which defines the totality of hmans living in a specific place with at least some common interests
and ethos as well as having a clear and definite prpose" (n more general terms, 2@(E@E(- is a type of
hman living which is governed by !(2E@S0EE $Jstice% and DH(L(- $/riendship% that allows for the self&
sfficiency and well&being of the Whole throgh participating in the organisational reglations" The higher
form of 2@(E@E(- is the D@L(TE(- $State% and in Hellenic thinking, the two are one in the same" @nly the
Nomans distingished between societas and civitas ths changing the nderstanding of 2@(E@E(- to
something closer to ET-(NE(- $association%"
BOSMOS F $"#K"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 2XsmXs
S-/I2*+r? 2osmos
@*2r+*? 2osmoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
*osmouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the 2osmos
*osmonF $plral% denoting that which is of the 2osmoi
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Cosmos, the World and its people
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The Hellenic concept of the 2@S'@S is a rational strctre which is incorrptible, nborn $self&generating%
and the architect of its own internal order" The 2@S'@S is synonymos with the 3niverse and was first
sed in sch a manner by Dythagoras" The word S0'D-E $3niverse% consists of 'syn' $to add% and 'pan'
$the all% and refers to the whole of existence inclding H0LZ $'atter%, 2HN@E@S $Time%, the forces, the
spaces in between, etc" The word 2@S'@S refers to the part of the S0'D-E $3niverse% that may act or be
acted pon and ths excldes the spaces in between" *See 'ET-2@S'(-,
LOGIBE F !"J$H
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? LXgikP
S-/I2*+r? Logike
@*2r+*? Logik[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Loik>sF $singlar% denoting that which is of Logike
LoikonF $plral% denoting that which is of Logik[s and also meaning 'loical'
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? logic
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to the Stoics, L@4(2E is the science of correct and proper thoght>reflection based on the for
-N2HTS $Drinciples% of 3nderstandingF
+" The A@*<I 0=rinciple1 of 7dentityF Every concept identifies itself"
1" The A@*<I 0=rinciple1 of Absence of )ppositionF Every concept may not co&exist with its opposite"
;" The A@*<I of 2#clusion of the ThirdF Yetween a concept and its opposite there may not exist a third"
<" The A@*<I of ;ufficient @easonF Each and every thing demands to be explained ade#ately"
LOGOS F !"J"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? LXgXs
S-/I2*+r? Logos
@*2r+*? Logoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
LoouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the Logos
LoonF $plral% denoting that which is of the Logoi
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? reason, word, speech
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
L@4@S is the basic element of Hellenic civilisation which is correctly known as the $ivilisation of the
Loos" The term derives from the verb 'leein' which refers to the ability to speak, utter sound, to reason, to
think, to reflect and to e#ercise L)67*2 $Logic% on a human physioloical level"
-ccording to Spesippos, L@4@S is hman speech and the articlate voice capable of giving a name to
everything that exists" (t is dialectic prose consisting of names and verbs"
The L@4@S for Dlato is the mode of commnication between the (!E-S $(deas% or -N2HTS $Drinciples%
and the intelligible forms of these (!E-S or -N2HTS"
@n a cosmological level, Drocls $in discssion of Dlato)s Timaes% perceives L@4@S to be the sacred sond
and the first vibration in the evoltion of the manifestation of the 2@S'@S"
Herakleitos states that the term L@4@S describes an eternal and permanent cosmic Law" @n the hman
level, the L@4@S is that which leads a person to @NTH@4E@S(- $Correct 2nowledge% and
@NTH@DN-U(- $Correct !eeds%" The L@4@S is an absolte logical order which governs all development
in the flow of things"
(n smmary, the L@4@S denotes simltaneosly a natral law, a rational principle of the 2@S'@S $the
World and its people%, a cosmic symmetry as well as hman speech and thoght"
The meaning of the L@4@S was originally distorted by Dhilo of -lexandria when the L@4@S was demoted
into being the word and son of Jehovah from its original conception of being self&generating and !ivine in
its own right" (n its distorted form, the L@4@S became sb.ect to Jehovah)s athority ths making him the
spreme controller of DH0S(S $Eatre%, 2@S'@S and cosmic order as well as hman speech and thoght"
*-lso see @NTH@S L@4@S, -DNED(-,
MEGALO@SYCHIA F K%JG!"YVRG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? l[gWlXpsPkhiW
S-/I2*+r? 'egalopsychia
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MealopsychisF referring to someone who practices 'egalopsychia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? 'agnanimity
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'E4-L@DS0CH(- is the -NTTE $Lirte% of greatly beneficial and charitable deeds" (t is the generosity of
the DS0CHE $Sol% and the -NTTE of ndertaking great things and proving worthy of them"
-ccording to the Stoics, 'E4-L@DS0CH(- is classified nder the greater -NTTE $Lirte% of -E!NE(-
$Lalor%"
(n the -ristotelian model, 'E4-L@DS0CH(- is the -NTTE $Lirte% which reslts throgh finding the
'ES@TES $'ean% of the opposites of !ebilitation $believing oneself to be capable when incapable% and
/aint&Heartedness $believing oneself to be incapable when capable%"
MAGEIA F KGJ%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 'WgPiW
S-/I2*+r? 'ageia
@*2r+*? 'agei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MaikaF acts of 'agei[s
MaikoF that which is 'ageia $magical%
MaosF masclineI he who performs 'agika
MaeissaF feminineF she who performs 'agika
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? magic>magick
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'-4E(- is any attempt to inflence parts of the cosmic whole throgh the exploitation of the close&link of
its components by the se of sympathy and harmony"
-ccording to Dlotins, the spposed prpose of '-4E(- is the ascent of DS0CHE $Sol% to itself" When
the state of nity is achieved, DS0CHE becomes devoid of any external inflence and ths in a perfect state
of prity" This ascent known as -E@!@S is achieved via two pathsI the EN@T(2Z and the
DH(L@S@DH(2(" The first, EN@T(2Z, re#ires that one trns away from physical beaty and the second,
DH(L@S@DH(2(, re#ires the reinforcement of physical predispositions" The driving force in both paths is
the 4od EN@S" (n contrast to Jdeo&Christian mysticism, -E@!@S is not an act of 'ercy or Spplication
and exalts rather than denies hman 4E@S(S $2nowledge%" Dlotins frther disptes that '-4E(- is an
effective means of achieving -E@!@S" His reason for disptation is that pon the THE-S(S $view% of
herself, DS0CHE $Sol% is in complete nion with herself and devoid of any form of UEE@ $foreign
inflence%" The tre act of -E@!@S is ths an act of DS0CHE trning inwards towards herself that stands
in opposition to '-4E(-, as an act of trning otwards towards other things to inflence parts of the
cosmic whole"

MABARIOTIS F KG$GP"QH#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 'WkWriXtis
S-/I2*+r? 'akariotis
@*2r+*? 'akariotit[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MakarF he or she who is in state of 'akariotis
Makar3sF they who are in states of 'akariotis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? bliss, beatitde
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'-2-N(@T(S is the principle characteristic of the THE@( $4ods%" (t is in direct opposition to the concept
of !ivine Drovidence as '-2-N(@T(S is an inert state" The '-2-NTS and (mmortal Yeings do not solve
problems nor do they experience or case any" They do not anger, nor do they indlge or favor as these are
characteristics of weak beings"
MANTIBIZMANT%IA F KGMQ$HZKGMQ%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 'Wntiki>'WntPiW
S-/I2*+r? 'antiki, 'anteia
@*2r+*? 'antik[s, 'antei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MantikisGManteiasF $singlar% that which is of 'antiki>'anteia
MantisF $mascline% referring to a male practitioner of 'antiki>'anteia
MantithaF $feminine% referring to a female practitioner of 'antiki>'anteia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? oracle>oraclar, soothsaying, 'antic -rt
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'-ETE(- is the ability and art of prediction of the ftre with the Theory of Sympathy as its basis" Dlato
determines '-ETE(- to be imperfect as it does not recognise the passage of linear time while -ristotle
concrs by stating that '-ETE(- is an inconclsive ED(STE'E $science>secre knowledge% as it is
concerned with hopes and expectations of the ftre"
'-ET(2( can be divided into two typesF
+" The directF in which the timeless !ivinity presents the next steps of the .orney to those living nder the
inflence of time"
1" The indirectF This consists mainly of @(@E@S2@D(- $agries%, the art of reading omens" -n omen does
not case the events bt is linked to them as all things are linked to each other in a perpetal system"
-ccording to CiceroF "the omen does not produce anythin, but simply reveals the slow, unravelin of future
events" $as these events do not appear sddenly and withot a reason%" Cicero asserts that there are no wrong
omens bt only wrong interpretations of them by people who are either ignorant or not well&versed in the art"
MESOTES F K%#"QH#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? '[sXtPs
S-/I2*+r? 'esotes
@*2r+*? 'esotites
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? mean, middle
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'ES@TES is the central position between two extremes" (t does not infer any state of mediocrity as -ristotle
determines that -NTTE $Lirte% mst be that which strives for the good and the excellent" -ristotle)s
Eicomachean Ethics expands on this idea and offers many examples"
METABOSMIA F K%QG$"#KG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? '[tWkXsmiW
S-/I2*+r? 'etakosmio
@*2r+*? 'etakosmia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? spaces $between 2@S'@(>Worlds%
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to the Epicreans, 'ET-2@S'(- refers to the $in&between% spaces between the 2@S'@(
$Worlds% that are places of perpetal tran#ility and bliss where the 4ods dwell $@lympos%" These spaces
provide for the continos, inert and nchanging state that the 4ods re#ireI for if they dwelt in the ever&
changing and perishing mortal world, they wold be sb.ect to change" *See 2@S'@S,
METANOIA F K%QGM"G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? '[tWnPW
S-/I2*+r? 'etanoia
@*2r+*? 'etanoi[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? penitence
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word 'ET-E@(- derives from meta $after% and noein $to perceive%" 'ET-E@(- is the opposite of
DN@E@(- $Drdence%" (t denotes an after&thoght, a change of mind, a reconsideration or remorse"
'ET-E@(- is an act which does not befit intelligent beings who have the ability to act with foresight"
'ET-E@(- does not aim for the netraliAation of a mistake for the soothing of the gilty conscience and
ths one shold learn to extract the lessons from mistakes rather than regret them afterwards"
META@HYSIBE F K%QGΦV#$H
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? '[tWphPsikP
S-/I2*+r? 'etaphysike
@*2r+*? 'etaphysik[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1
Metaphysikos *osmosF 'etaphysical World
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? 'etaphysics
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'ET-DH0S(2E is the concept of the stdy of the phenomena which exist beyond the physical world and
incldes the stdy of the -bsoltes which manifest the phenomenal in search of the one tre being that lies
beyond these -bsoltes" There is a misconception that derives from the philosophy of -ristotle wherein
nity is presented with two aspectsI ontology $stdy of reality% and theology $stdy of the !ivine%" This is
however a misinterpretation as the original -ristotelian M2TA TA =<F;7*A deals with the ontology of a
first case for every being and for every (!E- $idea% as well as the philosophical theology of the Eternal and
Spernal and its cosmogonical relationship with the 2@S'@S $World% and the hman DS0CHE $Sol%"
METRON F K%QP"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? '[trXn
S-/I2*+r? 'etron
@*2r+*? 'etra
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1
MetrouF singlarI denoting that which is of the 'etron
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? measre
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The 'ETN@E is a basic term in Hellenic thoght" (t is the essence of S@DHN@S0EE $Wisdom%" The
'ETN@E consists of the logical rle for the evalation, representation, expression and portrayal of
meanings and things as well as the correct ad.stment of collective or individal hman behavior towards
the avoidance of disharmony and distrbance in life" (t is the strong sense of the 'ETN@E which Hellenes
derived from the climate and environment of Hellas, their geographical place of birth and death" Within the
hman life, the 'ETN@E consists of the respect for the limits which exist in principle for every hman
endeavor, sitation or particlarity $attribte% that manifests in volntary self&control in everything and at
all times" The transgression of the 'ETN@E is H3YN(S"
MIASMA F KG#KG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 'iWsmW
S-/I2*+r? 'iasma
@*2r+*? 'iasmata
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MiasmatosF that which is of 'iasma
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? polltion, contamination
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'(-S'- is a contamination of DS0CHE $Sol% in the form of localised vital energy" (t is energetic,
dynamic and is sally a prodct of nnatral behavior" '(-S'- acts discordantly with animalistic and
psychosomatic inflences" '(-S'- is a pollted being which is created throgh abominations, folness or
atrocity from either a shamefl, profane or beastly hman deed" Deople who incr '(-S'- are sally
labeled as )accrsed)" '(-S'- in Hellenic thoght has a material dimension and is nderstood as an
invisible bt material entity" This entity remains in a specified area and absorbs all positive elements while
mltiplying the negative conditions of a specific environment"
MNEME F KMHKH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 'nPmP
S-/I2*+r? 'neme
@*2r+*? 'nem[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MnemisF $singlar% denoting that which is of 'neme
AnamnesisF referring to recollection, revision and sed by Dlato to refer to the learning process whereby the
Dsyche $Sol% recollects 4nosis $2nowledge% that is stored in the 'nPmP"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? memory, remembrance
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'EE'E means remembrance, memory as well as the hman capacity for memory as a cognitive power"
-ccording to Spesippos, it is the psychological tendency which gards the trth existing within the
DS0CHE $Sol%"
MYSTIBISMOS F KV#Q$#K"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 'ystikismXs
S-/I2*+r? 'ystikismos
@*2r+*? 'ystikismoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MystikismouF $singlar% denoting that which is of 'ystikismos
MystikistisF $mascline% he who practices 'ystikismos
MystikistriaF $feminine% she who practices 'ystikismos
Mystikist3sF $plral% they who practice 'ystikismos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? mysticism
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
'0ST(2(S'@S is the irrational and incomprehensible attempt to approach the !ivine and Eternal
-LETHE(- $Trth% throgh varios techni#es of direct contact with something that is spposed to be
simltaneosly comprehensible and inaccessible" '0ST(2(S'@S is irreconcilable with the Hellenic
worldview and appeared only in late Hellenistic times with the Eeo&Dlatonists and then only throgh Eastern
inflence" (t is rendered irreconcilable by the fact that the Hellenic religion is essentially animistic and
therefore there is no transcendent )inaccessible) within the S0'D-E $3niverse% that may be contacted"
Contact with the THE@( $4ods% is not considered '0ST(2(S'@S in the Hellenic religion as the 4ods are
not inaccessible and exist within the S0'D-E $3niverse%" (t is only '0ST(2(S'@S when an attempt is
made to contact a !ivinity which exists otside of the S0'D-E $3niverse%" -s is evident, the concept of
'0ST(2(S'@S within HELLEE(S'@S differs to modern notions of 'ysticism in other religions"
MYTHOS F KVΘ"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 'ythXs
S-/I2*+r? 'ythos
@*2r+*? 'ythoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
MythouF $singlar% denoting that which is of 'ythos $mythological in English%
MythonF $plral% denoting that which is of 'ythoi $mythological in English%
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? myth
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
To comprehend the natre of '0TH@S, it is firstly necessary to nderstand the fact that '0TH@S,
especially in its extremely important aetiological form, consists of the inspired and creative identification of
an exoteric and esoteric recording of events, of representation and abstract thoght and expanded
consciosness and reason as well as literary and philosophical thoght" '0TH@S is neither a simple )cover)
for historical and natral knowledge nor a distortion of scientific or religios trths bt, like philosophy, it is
a reglar @ntology with a basic prespposition to secre a direct trth throgh identifying the )Dhenomenal)
and the )Neal)" '0TH@S stands in opposition to THN(LL@S $Legend% which attempts to establish a whim
into common belief and conse#ently into history" '0TH@S is a transcendental form of niversal and
timeless history which, in antithesis, to conventional history is not bond by reality or proof" 3nder this
definition, '0TH@S may be determined to be a high level folk tale which is part of a cltral tradition that
makes exceeding se of consciosness, common concepts and especially cltral idiosyncrasy for the
prpose of engraving ethics and cosmological or theological trths into the minds of people who, for varios
reasons, are nable to enter into the world of abstract meanings" '0TH@S does not have a common sorce
or common chronological beginning bt the fact that extremely ingenios and attractive creations are
presented is proof that their anonymos originators possessed a deep 4E@S(S $2nowledge%"
NOESIS F M"H##
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? EXRsis
S-/I2*+r? Eoesis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? intellectal awareness
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E@ES(S is awareness throgh the (ntellect, E@3S $'ind%, thoght or perception in contrast to -ESTHES(S
$/eeling>Sensation%"
-ccording to Spesippos, E@ES(S is the sorce of -N2HZ ED(STE'(S $the Sorce of Secre 2nowledge>
Science% while on Uenocrates) scales of the degrees of 2nowledge, E@ES(S is the highest degree of secring
-bsolte -LETHE(- $Trth%"
Darmenides determines E@^S(S to be an especial and general nderstanding identifying itself with the
E(E-( $Yeing as a State of Existence% becase all that exists participates in E@ES(S" *Compare -ESTHES(S,

NOMOS F M"K"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? EXmXs
S-/I2*+r? Eomos
@*2r+*? Eomoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
'omouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the Eomos
'omonF $plral% denoting that which is of the Eomoi"
'omikosF denoting a person or thing that participates in the acts of the Eomos $i"e" lawyer, legal docment,
law&abiding citiAen, etc%
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? law, rle, tradition, cstom
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
(nitially, the E@'@S was both an (nstittion as well as the athority to distribteI thereafter it became every
reglatory social decree" The totality of complsory, ob.ective, specific and general reglatory rles are
enforced within DH0S(S $Eatre% throgh -E-E2E $Eecessity% in the form of eternal, ethical and natral
E@'@(" (n hman societies and states, E@'@S manifests throgh the legislative athority which, as a rle,
is directly or indirectly inflenced by the cltral traditions and is sometimes referred to as the E@'@S
-N2H-(@S"
-ccording to Spesippos, the Ethical E@'@S in hman society is the totality of nwritten rles which
determine the basic ethical behavior of its members" The Ethical E@'@S is adapted by the con.nction of
the information of Eatral E@'@S and Cstoms>Traditions" Ethical E@'@S is generally considered to
reflect the eternal, ethical, natral E@'@S to which the civilised person is obliged to conform with"
NOAMENON F M""VK%M"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? mg
eeee
nopbhgh
S-/I2*+r? Eomenon
@*2r+*? Eomena
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? comprehension, nderstanding $intellectal%
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E@3'EE@E refers to all that may become known throgh the nderstanding of the (ntellect as opposed to
DHEE@'EE@E which is perceived by the senses" The Dlatonic (!TES $(deas% constitte the E@3'EE@E
par excellence" *Compare DHEE@'EE@E,
NOAS F M"V#[ M""#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Eos
S-/I2*+r? Eos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? mind
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
E@3S means nderstanding, thoght, perception and the power to perceive or discern"
-ccording to -naxagoras, the E@3S is the initial power that created the @rder of the 2@S'@S $World% and
is the case of movement in the -DE(N@E $Loid%" The E@3S is the creator of all, which it composes
throgh a mltitde of invisible particles called SDEN'-T- $Sperm>Seeds% or 2HN0'-T- which are
nborn, imperishable and nchangeable"
-ristotle testifies to the belief that the E@3S is the originator of DS0CHE $Sol% in each life form $animal,
vegetable and mineral% and derives from the !ivine E@3S in the same way as a nit may prodce the
mltitde"
-ccording to Dythagoras, the E@3S is one of the for spports of the hman DS0CHE $Sol%" See
-ESTHES(S for an accont of the for spports" *Compare !(-EE(-,
OIBOS? "$"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ZekXs
S-/I2*+r? @ikos
@*2r+*? @ikoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)ikoeniaF referring to the members of the @ikos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? hosehold, home
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@(2@S in its original form denotes simltaneosly the hose $bilding%, the members of the family living
within the @(2@S, the estate, the goods belonging to the estate and is inclsive of extended family, servants
and employees" @(2@S also refers to the particlar dynastical families sch as the @(2@S -gamemnon or
the @(2@S Herakleides, etc"
OMOIOS F "K""#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? imPXs
S-/I2*+r? @moios $mascline%
@*2r+*? @moioi $mascline%
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)moiaF $singlar feminine%
)moi3sF $plral feminine%
)moiosisF refers to the process of becoming @moios or @moia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? e#als, the same
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@'@(@S refers to a person becoming e#al or the same rather than changing and becoming different" (t is
the hman ability to approach the THE@( $4ods% in an attempt to simlate the !ivine characteristics on an
analogos hman level" Ths when one becomes an @'@(@S with anyone else or within the context of a
grop or society, one gains the characteristics which define that individal, grop or society"
OMON"IA F "K"M"G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? imXnPW
S-/I2*+r? @monoia
@*2r+*? @monoi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)monoiasF $singlar% referring to that which is of @monoia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? accord, concord
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@'@E@(- is nity or identity with sensibility and is the opposite of !(2H@EE(- $!iscord%"
-ccording to Spesippos, @'@E@(- is the good commnion between all beings and agreement in
perception and resoltion" @'@E@(- is also the Hellenic 4oddess E(2E" *Compare the opposing
!(2H@EE(-,
OM@HALOS F "KΦG!"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? imphWlXs
S-/I2*+r? @mphalos
@*2r+*? @mphaloi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)mphalouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the @mphalos
)mphalonF $plral% denoting that which is of the @mphaloi
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? navel, centre
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@'DH-L@S has the same root as @'DHZ $The !ivine Loice%" The @'DH-L@S is a point which is
recognised as a centre point of a system or areaI e"g" the @'DH-L@S of a D@L(S $State% is the centre of the
D@L(S and the civic @'DH-L@S refers to the L@'@S $-ltar% as the centre of pblic worship" @n a
cosmological level, the @'DH-L@S is the endring, fixed and indestrctible centre of the 2@S'@S
$World%, ot of which the 2@S'@S radiates and to which it retrns for stability and E3E@'(- $4ood
4overnment, Law and @rder%"
ON F "M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? in
S-/I2*+r? @n
@*2r+*? @nta $prononced indW%
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)ntos )nF $Eon% the )Neal Yeing) and the sorce of all Entities
)ntotitaF $Eon% the characteristics of an Entity
)ntonF $Eon% sed to refer to the @nta when discssing their characteristics>attribtes or something
deriving from them"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? being, entity, creatre
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@E is the sbstantiated participant of the verb )eimi) $meaning '7 am' and deriving from the E(E-( with
reference to existence%" Cosmologically, the word @E denotes that which ob.ectively exists in reality and is
e#ivalent to the totality of the apportioned @ET- $the thing withot its characteristics or attribtes%"
'elissos spports the idea that the @E like the 2@S'@S $World% is nified, eternal, vast, nmoving and
absoltely e#al to itself" @E is eternal becase if it was made before it was created>born it wold have been
nothing and if it was nothing it cold not exist as nothing can be created from nothing"
Herakleitos determines the @E to be )everlasting fire) which perpetally brns and is extingished with the
'ETN@E $'easre% changing into varios forms withot ever losing its identity, simply becoming water,
air and earth which in trn retrns to fire throgh the process of transmtation" Every transmtation
maintains the balance of DH0S(S $Eatre% and the #antities of mass" The opposites are not exclsive and
independent @3S(TS $essences>sbstances% bt simply different manifestations of fire" -s the @E agrees
and disagrees only with itself, the S0'D-E $3niverse% is constrcted throgh the assembly of conterpoint
forces which constitte the D-L(ET@E@S -N'@E(E $Tension of the @pposites%"
The Stoics teach the nity of the @E throgh the )oneness) of the 2@S'@S $World% which consists of two
-N2HTS $Drinciples%I +% Oality *L@4@S and THE@S, which is the active -N2HZ and 1% that which
sffers *H0LZ withot -ttribtes,"
@ET@S @E is the sorce of all the @ET- and 4"4" Dlethon associates it with ]es" *Nelated words E(E-(,
@3S(-,
ONOMA F "M"KG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? inXmW
S-/I2*+r? @noma
@*2r+*? @nomata
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)nomatosF $singlar% denoting that which is of @noma
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? name
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
Dlato determines @E@'- to be a tool which teaches and leads to clear distinction of the essence of things"
-ccording to Spesippos, it is a singlar directive voice which interprets the essence of anything which is
not self&declaring"
ORAI"N F NPG"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? qraiXn
S-/I2*+r? @raion
@*2r+*? @raia
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)raiotitaF $non% attribtes or characteristics of @raion
)reosF $mascline non% he who is @raion
)reaF $feminine non% she who is @raion
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? beaty
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@N-(@E is all that is in accordance with the Horai, i"e" E3E@'(- $4ood @rder%, !(2E $Jstice% and
E(NEEE $Deace%" -s sch @N-(@E is an example for each hman action and creation as well as being a
vehicle for the perfect adaptation of hmanity to the niversal physical and ethical -N'@E(- $Harmony%" (t
is the nderstanding and application of the @N-(@E and the TELE(@E $DerfectionF See TEL@S% which
shaped and made the Hellenic civiliAation ndisptedly special"
-ristotle maintains that @N-(@E may be approached throgh the laws of L@4(2( $Logic% while its
presppositions areI Symmetry, SiAe and T-U(S $order%" Ths each thing which is made p of different parts
is @N-(@E when these parts are arranged in an orderly manner and in relation to their siAe"
ORBOS F "P$"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? irkXs
S-/I2*+r? @rkos
@*2r+*? @rkoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)rkouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the @rkos
)rkonF $plral% denoting that which is of the @rkoi
)rkizomenosF $mascline% he who takes the @rkos
)rkizomeneF $feminine% she who takes the @rkos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? oath, promise, pact
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@N2@S is an appeal to the THE@( $4ods% when making serios promises to which it is deemed expedient to
have the THE@( bear witness" -n @N2@S is always taken in front of a L@'@S $-ltar% pon which the
@N2(]@'EE@S>@N2(]@'EEE lays a hand while swearing the @N2@S" -n @N2@S is always
accompanied by TH0S(- $Sacrifice% and SD@E!-( $Libations%" This TH0S(- $Sacrifice% is not eaten bt
either brnt or cast into the sea>river"
ORTHO@RAXIA F "PΘ"LPG&G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? irthXprWxiW
S-/I2*+r? @rthopraxia
@*2r+*? @rthopraxi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)rthopra#iasF $singlar% denoting that which is of @rthopraxia
)rthopra#ionF $plral% denoting that which is of @rthopraxi[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? orthopraxy, correctitde
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Socrates, good or correct actions are those which serve to the tre benefit of hmans and
prodce E3!-('@E(- $well&being%" These good or correct actions are what are known as
@NTH@DN-U(TS"
ORTHOS LOGOS? "PΘ"# !"J"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? irthXs LXgXs
S-/I2*+r? @rthos Logos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? no corresponding phraseI directly translated as (the upstandin word)
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@NTH@S L@4@S refers to the L@4@S of the S0'D-E $3niverse% as the prototype for the conformation
of all hmans" -ccording to the Stoics, the @NTH@S L@4@S is a )common law) that extends to all things
and is identified with ]es and DH0S(S $Eatre%" *See L@4@S,
OSION F "#"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? isiXn
S-/I2*+r? @sion
@*2r+*? @sia
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)siouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the @sion
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? holy, sacred
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@S(@E means the sacred and the pre" (t refers to all that is sacred or allowed by the 4ods to be sacred and
is also the Eatral E@'@S $Law% as !(2E@S0EE $Jstice%"
-ccording to Spesippos, @S(@E is that which is dear to the 4ods as well as the fitting and acceptable
restittion of honor to the 4ods"
OASIA F "V#G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? @osiW
S-/I2*+r? @sia
@*2r+*? @si[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
)usiasF $singlar% referring to a characteristic>#ality of @sia, i"e" the density of the @sias"
)usionF $plral% referring to a characteristic>#ality of @si[s, i"e" the similarity between @si[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? sbstance, essence, taste, flavor
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
@3S(- is the sb.ect of the verb )eimi) $7 am% and its participation $@E *rs,&YeingI @3S-&/emale YeingI
@E *8s,&'ale Yeing%" @3S(- is the eternal sbstance and essence of @ET@E $Yeings & See @E%" @3S(-
is independent, self&sfficient, vast, ndivided and stable" (t exists otside of the 'self' and is aware of the
'self' withot the need of another @E" -ccording to -naximander, the initial @3S(- is entirely ndetermined
and withot determined attribtes" The mltitde of attribtes and forms become sbstantial only becase the
elements of the @3S(- periodically prodce !(2E@S0EE $Jstice% towards all" *See @E,
OATHEN EX OATHENOS F "VO%M %& "VO%M"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? 8tth[n ex @oth[nXs
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? 'othin comes from nothin"
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The phrase @3THEE EU @3THEE@S is a fondational axiom in the Hellenic worldview which states that
nothing may be prodced ot of the nothing and nothing belongs to the )no&thing)" The 2@S'@S $world%
arose ot of itself withot external case and the only transient and nstable (D-NU(S $existence% within it is
that of the specific things which ndergo varios metamorphoses as they change from one thing to another
$Yecoming%" However, the basic fondational H0LZ $/irst state of 'atter% remains permanent, eternal and
indestrctible regardless of how many times it may change its form"
@AIDEIA F LGO%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? D[thPiW
S-/I2*+r? Daideia
@*2r+*? Daidei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=aideiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of Daideia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? edcation
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The ideal of D-(!E(- is seen as enabling people to be able to give to others the right to reason as well as the
right to nderstand what others are saying" -ccording to Dlato, the prpose of D-(!E(- is the -NTTE of
anything that is in existence $both abstract and material% with the prpose of prodcing a complete and
perfect citiAen throgh knowledge of their craft and of rling and being rled according to the demands of
!(2E@ $a .st act%" -mongst other things, the D@L(TE(- $State% is responsible for the development and
grooming of the people, ths the #ality of D-(!E(- determines whether the D@L(TE(- $State% will have
good or bad citiAens" D-(!E(- is the cltivation of a noble DS0CHE $Sol% and falls nder the aspices of
the 4od -pollon and is his divine gift to mankind"
@ALINTONOS ARMONIE F LG!MQ"M"# GPK"MH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DWlintXnXs VrmXniP
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Tension of the )pposites
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
D-L(ET@E@S -N'@E(E is a phrase that refers to a conterbalancing assembly or harmony that is
stretched e#ally in opposite directions"
-ccording to Herakleitos, the S0'D-E $3niverse% is constrcted of forces in D-L(ET@E@S -N'@E(E
which are not independent @3S(TS $Yeings% bt only varios manifestations of /ire illstrating that the @E
$Yeing% agrees and disagrees only with itself" Even thogh the concept inherent within D-L(ET@E@S
-N'@E(E describes the balance of the contraction and expansion of the @E, the term was never sed by
the philosopher himself bt only by sbse#ent people to explain Herakleitan reasoning"
@ANS@ERMIA F LGM#L%PKG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DWnsp[rmiW
@*2r+* \/o ,-/I2*+r ;orm]? Danspermia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? all&grain, all&seed
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
D-ESDEN'(- derives from )pan) $all% and )sperma) $seed% and is sed to denote the all&grain breads that are
offered to the THE@( $4ods%"
@ARRESIA F LGPPH#G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DWrrPsiW
S-/I2*+r? Darresia
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=arresiasF $singlar% that which is of Darresia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? frankness, otspokenness, honesty, sincerity
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
D-NNES(- is the expression of personal opinion with corage and honesty" Eripides and -ristophanes
sed D-NNES(- to denote freedom of speech while Dlato in 4orgias ses the word to refer to having the
corage to raise an opinion"
@ATHOS F LGΘ"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DWthXs
S-/I2*+r? Dathos
@*2r+*? Dathoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=athousF $singlar% denoting that which is of Dathos
=athonF $plral% denoting that which is of Dathoi
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? pathos, passion
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
Spesippos defines D-TH@S to be a natral and instinctal drive of DS0CHE $Sol%" The Stoics frther
explain that the D-TH@( are ncontrolled and withot measre sperflos needs which may be considered
as illnesses and disabilities of the DS0CHE $Sol%" The D-TH@( distrb the HE4E'@E(2@E $rling part
of DS0CHE% and by extension the whole of existence *See HE4E'@E(2@E M 2-2@E," ]eno, the Stoic,
states that D-TH@( are illogical drives of DS0CHE $Sol% and are in contrast to DH0S(S $Eatre%" When
external inflences tempt the HE4E'@E(2@E, the natral and instinctive needs become D-TH@( which
lead people to nnatral and absrd deeds"
The Stoics list the following D-TH@(F
+" 2=7T<2M7AF Neferring to desires and the irrational appetite which is frther distingished into SD-EZ
$scarcity as the desire for what we cannot have%, '(S@S $hatred as the desire for inflictin *A*)' onto
others%, DH(L@E(2(- $#arrelsomeness as the tendency and insistence towards 8uarrelin%, TH0'@
$anger as the desire for direct and instant retaliation andGor revene%, D@TH@ $specifically the desire for
another person who cauht one's fancy%, 'ZE( $wrath as the desire for lon term revene%, DH(L-N40N(-
$desire and passion for money as the perception that money is of itself a good thing% and 2@T@ $rage as the
surin of aner%"
1" =<):);F Neferring to fear and the anticipation of bad thins happenin and these are frther
distingished into !E('- $terror%, @C2E@ $laAiness as the fear of takin action%, -(S2H0EZ $shame and
disgrace as the fear of humiliation%, E2DLZUZ $srprise as the fear of the une#pected%, TH@N0Y@ $noise%
and -4@E(- $sspense>anxiety as the fear of the unknown%"
;" <29)'FF Neferring to pleasure and the irrational arroance resultin from possession and is
distingished into the followingI !(-U0SZ $diffsion and expansion as bein pleasured by flattery%,
ED(2H-(NE2-2(- $gloating as takin pleasure in the misfortune of others1 and 2ZLZSZ $debachery%"
<" LF=2;F Neferring to sorrow, rief, affliction and defined as the irrational reaction of =;F$<2 $sol% of
which the most common are E(LE@ $misery and wretchedness as un/ust sorrow%, DHTH@E@S $envy as the
sorrow of seein the wealth of others%, ]EL@ $.ealosy%, -2HTH@S $brden as the sorrow when others
take or ac8uire that which we possess from us%, DEETH@S $morning and grief as the paralyzin sorrow%,
-E(- $weariness, tediosness as the sorrow which increases throuh thouht% and @TH(EZ $psychological
pain and grief as the deep sorrow%"
@HANTASIA F ΦGMQG#G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DhWntWsiW
S-/I2*+r? Dhantasia
@*2r+*? Dhantasi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=hantasiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of Dhantasia
=hantasionF $plral% denoting that which is of Dhantasi[s
=hantasmaF a shade of a dead person"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? imagination
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
DH-ET-S(- is the appearance or contenance of each thing and the power throgh which any meaning is
perceived by the E@3S $'ind%" (t is -ESTHES(S as the vehicle of sensory information which prodces a
DH-ET-S(- in the form of a representation, pictre or impression" DH-ET-S(- is sometimes seen as the
same as DHEE@'EE@E"
@HENOMENON F ΦGM"K%M"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Dh[nXm[nXn
S-/I2*+r? Dhenomenon
@*2r+*? Dhenomena
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=henomenouF $singlar% denoting that which is phenomenal
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? phenomenon
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word DHEE@'EE- refers to all that may be sb.ect to -ESTHES(S $as sensory information%" While
sensing is a common characteristic of hmans and animals, perception is a hman trait"
-ccording to Herakleitos, visible indications in the form of DHEE@'EE- reveal 4E@S(S $knowledge% of
the invisible and -LETHE(- $Trth% and as sch are divine S0'Y@L- $symbols%"
-lkmaeon clarifies Herakleitos) statement in his explanation that a collection of indications $cles% is the first
stage of the method of )*nowin) throgh which one reaches conclsions by sing con.ectre ths the
information that is offered by the senses is the first step in the approach towards the invisible" *Compare
E@3'EE@E,
@HILIA F Φ!G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DhiliW
S-/I2*+r? Dhilia
@*2r+*? Dhili[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=hiliasF $singlar% denoting that which is of Dhilia
=hilosF $mascline% he who participates in Dhilia
=hiliF $feminine% she who participates in Dhilia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? friendship
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
DH(L(- is a relationship of friendship, dedication and respect as opposed to E2HTHN@T(T- $enmity%"
DH(L(- is one of the higher -NTTTSI being both a sacred bond and a basic sorce of .oy as its main aim is
mtal benefit" DH(L(- is a relationship between people which personifies all types of nions and
participates in the nderstanding of the -4-TH@E $beneficial good% in all spheres of hman life" DH(L(- is
valable to all those which it manages to .oin and is based in E(L(2N(EE(- $sincerity%, -DH(L@2EN!(-
$nselfishness% and mostly one)s willingness to serve the meaning of DH(L(- throgh -E@TEN@T(T-
$excellence% as the fondation of DH(L(-" DH(L(- is pre and therefore void of any selfishness or egotism"
@HILOSO@HIA F Φ!"#"ΦG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DhilXsXphiW
S-/I2*+r? Dhilosophia
@*2r+*? Dhilosophi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=hilosophosF someone who is practices Dhilosophia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? philosophy
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The term DH(L@S@DH(- was first coined by Dythagoras when he reasoned that the THE@( $4ods% were the
only S@DH@( $wise beings% in existence and therefore a hman cold only become a DH(L@S $friend% of
S@DH(- $Wisdom%" This is the most relevant definition of the word and is considered, in short, to be the first
ED(STE'E $secre knowledge>science% concerned with the 4E@S(S $knowledge% of -LETHE(- $Trth%"
Ths a DH(L@S@DH@S wold be someone who makes an effort to approach the THE@( and achieve
THE-S(S $the view of the THE@(%"
@HILOTUS F Φ!"QH#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DhilXtPs
S-/I2*+r? Dhilotes
@*2r+*? Dhilotites
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? friendship
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
DH(L@TZS is one of the two first moving cases of all mortal beings" (t is the first case of hman
generation, their adaptability and the case of every opposing dality concerned therewith"
Empedokles states that DH(L@TZS is -N'@E(- $Harmony%, 4ETH@S0EE $Joy and !elight% and the
4oddess -phrodite>2ypris" Sophocles declares that DH(L@TZS is inherent in hman natre as hmans
:were not born to hate but to love: $from -ntigone%"
@HRONESIS F ΦP"MH##
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DhrXnPsis
S-/I2*+r? Dhronesis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? sensibility, common sense, practical wisdom
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
DHN@EES(S is intent, prpose, practical wisdom and also refers to the deed that has been thoght ot
$action with foresight%" (t is an -NTTE $Lirte% and a spreme -4-TH@E $Yeneficial 4ood% that is most
important and sacred as throgh it we ensre @NTH@DN-U(- $correct deeds%"
-ccording to -ristotle, the lack of DHN@EES(S negatives the existence of all other -NTTTS $Lirtes%"
Spesippos determines DHN@EES(S to be the 4E@S(S $2nowledge% of what mst or mst not be acted
pon based pon sond 4E@S(S $2nowledge% of 2-L@E $4ood% and 2-2@E $Yad%"
/or !emokritos, the existence of DHN@EES(S re#ires the pre&existence of E3Y@3LE(- $Neason as the
rational and correct examination of the relationship between the self and its external environment or
sitation%" DHN@EES(S is ths an -NTTE $Lirte% of hman logic" /rom DHN@EES(S, whom !emokritos
declares to be the 4oddess -thena called Tritogenia, derive three !ivine giftsI E3 L@4(]ESTH-( $4ood
Thinking>Dre Thoghts%, E3 LE4E(E $Wise Speech% and DN-TE(E - THEu $!oing what is right%"
The Stoics consider DHN@EES(S to be one of the for ingredients of -NTTE $Lirte% that determine the
hman ability to think and act in rational manner ths avoiding D-TH@E $!esires>Dassions% and achieving
4E@S(S $2nowledge% of the self and peace for DS0CHE $Sol%"
@HYSIS F ΦV##
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DhPsis
S-/I2*+r? Dhysis
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=hys3osF that which is of Dhysis
=hysikosF $+% That which is EatralI $1% - Dhysicist
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Eatre
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word DH0S(S derives from the verb )phyo) meaning to develop, to enerate and to produce" DH0S(S
has the doble meaning of both declaring the process of generating as well its being its reslt, i"e" the
properties as well as the constrct itself"
(n accordance with the philosophy of Herakleitos, DH0S(S is the sbstantiation of the E(E-( $Yeing%
throgh $a% the dynamic collective of @ET@E $beings>entities%, $b% the self&nfolding emergent S0'D-E
$3niverse% and $c% the perpetal revealing of the @E $Entity% which follows and is followed by the perpetal
refolding of itself"
DH0S(S is the /irst, Last and @nly reality whose nceasing force is the birth, growth and destrction of the
apportioned and distinct manifestations"
-ccording to Homer, Theognis and Dindar, the associated terms DH0E or DH0- declare external beaty,
noble contenance and imposing statre"
@ISTIS F L#Q#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Distis
S-/I2*+r? Distis
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=ist3osF that which is of Distis
=istosF $mascline singlar% he who acts in the manner of Distis
=ist>F $feminine singlar% she who acts in the manner of Distis
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? faith, trst
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
D(ST(S means trst, faith, and sb.ective certainty" D(ST(S is the belief that everything is as it appears to be"
@NEAMA F LM%VKG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Dn[vmW
S-/I2*+r? Dnema
@*2r+*? Dnemata
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? breath, intellect, ghost, spirit
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word DEE3'- derives from the verb )pneo) meaning '7 breath' or '7 blow'" (n its archaic form,
DEE3'- denotes the breath of a person and Homer ses the word to denote the blowing of the air in terms
of winds" -ristophanes tilises DEE3'- to refer to the demeanor conveyed by a person while Uenophon
speaks of it in a similar manner to denote the fervor imbed within people"
(t was only later in the translation of the biblical texts that the christian translators sed the word DEE3'-
to denote the Holy Spirit as well as the hman spirit in the christian sense of the word"
@OLIS F L"!#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DXlis
S-/I2*+r? Dolis
@*2r+*? Dolitei[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=oliteiaB $singlar% translated as 'the ;tate) and defined as a 2@(E@E(- $Society>Commnity% organised
according to particlar laws aimed at maintaining peace among its members, garanteeing its integrity and
providing for the development of its particlar cltre"
=olitisB $singlar% translated as '$itizen' and referring to a member of a D@L(S who is free to participate in
the Doliteia" -ccording to -ristotle there are five characteristics that determine whether one is a =olitisB +%
participation in the legislation of the D@L(S throgh the democratic procedreI 1% possessing the right to
participate in political and .dicial procedresI ;% possessing the option to hold office in the D@L(SI <%
membership to the broader 2@(E@E(- of the D@L(S and =% possessing the right to rle and be rled"
=olitik>B $singlar% translated as '=olicy' and according to Spesippos refers to the secre 4E@S(S
$2nowledge% of the 2-L@E $4ood% and beneficent as well as the secre 4E@S(S necessary for the
establishment of !(2E@S0EE $Jstice%"
=olitikonB $singlar% translated as '$ivil'" The word was sed by -ristotle to distingish hmans from
animals" He did this by calling hmans )politikon animals) while other animals were referred to as
)koinonikon) $commnal animals%" -s hman co&habitation is sb.ect to organisational principles, rles of
.stice and distinctions between that which is Jst and 3n.st are necessary ths the Dolitikon #ality of
hmans is that which establishes their hmanity" This theoretical division is bridged by the Stoics in their
determination that philosophic thoght and political deeds are different views of the same -NTTE $Lirte%"
=olitismosB $singlar% translated as '$ivilisation' with reference to the totality of traditions, ideas, manners
and all types of hman expression which come from a totality of people having common tribal identity and
common civil behavior" Dolitismos has both an exoteric and esoteric form which aims at D-(!E(-
$Edcation% and E'EN@S(S $Taming% of the people"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? City, Town
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
D@L(S refers to the habitat of many people with common perceptions and a conviction in a common
legislation"
@OLYMERIA F L"!VK%P%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DXlym[riW
S-/I2*+r? Dolymeria
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=olymerisB $singlar% denoting one who acts with Dolymeria
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? mltilateralism, polymeriAation
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
D@L0'EN(- refers to the involvement of all parties in a decision&making process as well as to a
contination of a chain of events, thoghts, actions, etc by the involvement of each part of the process at its
2-(N@S $appropriate time%"
@ROSO@ON F LP"#NL"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DrXsQpXn
S-/I2*+r? Drosopon
@*2r+*? Drosopa
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=rosopouF $singlar% denoting that which is of the Drosopon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? face, person, role
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word DN@S@D@E proposes the concept of the nified 'All%2#istence' which manifests in the
phenomenal world as seeming to have limits, like a skin, ths appearing to divide each individal being into
separate entities" DN@S@D@E refers to every individal mortal being and their distorted and phenomenal
awareness of the 2@S'@S $World% that is a prodct of the properties of mortality and divisiveness
contained within each DN@S@D@E" /rom these properties of mortality and divisiveness arises the illsory
perception of ego, separateness and being sb.ect to the 2@S'@S $World% rather than being a part of it" The
4ods are not DN@S@D- as they are not sb.ect to the same properties of mortality and divisiveness" This
concept gave rise to the genre of ancient Hellenic theatrical Tragedy wherein the DN@S@D@E $mortal% is
characteriAed by smallness and temporality in contrast to the greatness, vastness and eternal natre of the
2@S'@S $world%" The DN@S@D@E is contained within the three&dimensional H0L(2@ $material% level of
the 2@S'@S and simltaneosly the DN@S@D@E contains the 2@S'@S $World% within its
DEE3'-T(2@E $(ntellectal% level"
@SYCHU F YVRH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? DsPkhP
S-/I2*+r? Dsyche
@*2r+*? Dsych[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
=sychisF $singlar% denoting that which is of Dsyche
=sychonF $plral% denoting that which is of Dsyche
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? sol
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
DS0CHE derives from the verb )psycho) meaning 'to breath lihtly'" (t is the invisible /irst Case of the bio&
physiological expressions considered by the ancients to be the breath" The movements of DS0CHE are
spervised by the 4od Doseidon and DS0CHE is considered to be )ndying)" DS0CHE is commonly referred
to as the THE@ D0N $!ivine /ire% or L@4@S *See L@4@S," (t is in this sense that it was considered that
mortals contained a part of the !ivine within them throgh which they participate in the birth&death cycle"
Ths, according to Herakleitos, the THE@S $4od% is resrrected each time a mortal dies and the THE@S
mst die in order for the mortal to live" DS0CHE was viewed differently by the varied philosophical schools,
with some determining DS0CHE to be temporal in natre" Heraclits considered the DS0CHE of hmans
and animals to parts of the kosmic fire to which it retrns after the death of the body and he frthermore
stated while the kosmic fire is trapped in the body, it loses its !ivine #ality"
RI^OMATA F P_NKGQG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? NiAQmWtW
S-/I2*+r? NiAoma
@*2r+*? NiAomata
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
@izomatosF $singlar% denoting that which is of a NiAoma
@izomatonF $plral% denoting that which is of NiAomata
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? root, rhiAome $botanical%
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
N(]@'-T- is the name given by Empedokles to the for categories of the essence>sbstance commonly
misconstred by occltists to be the same as the /or Elements" The N(]@'-T- are for in nmber $/ire,
-ir, Earth and Water% and in their varios permtations, driven by the forces of DH(L@T(T- $friendship%
and 2@T@S>EE(N@S $Strife%, synthesise and deconstrct the forms of the 2@S'@S $World%" There are
for nchangeable and pre N(]@'-T- namely the radiant ]es, the life&giving Hera, -idoneos>-des
$Hades% and Eestis" *-lso see SDH-(N@S, ST@(2HE(@E,
SA@HENEIA F #GΦHM%G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? SWphPniW
S-/I2*+r? Sapheneia
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
;aphiesF referring to someone who speaks with Sapheneia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? clarity, explicitness
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
S-DHEEE(- is clarity and distinctness in commnication as opposed to -S-DHE(- which is obscrity and
vageness" (t is the speech which renders the sb.ect totally knowable and recogniAable" S-DHEEE(- is one
of the six -NTTTS of the L@4@S *See -DNED(-,"
SIEMA F #HKG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? SiPmW
S-/I2*+r? Siema>Siemeion
@*2r+*? Siemata
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
SiematosF $singlar% denoting that which is of a Siema
SiematonF $plral% denoting that which is of Siemata
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? sign, symptom, cle
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
- S(E'- is the sign of an agry, a mark, a grave or graveyard, a sample, an indication, a mark, a
demarcated place, a !ivine mark, a miracle, a flag or coat of arms, a signatre, a border or limit $as in a
fence or an established city bondary%, a mathematical or msical mark, the alphabet, an emblem of any sort
and any sign that reveals something else" - S(E'- is a sign or indication that something is abot to happen,
is happening or has happened" S(E'-T- are signs>marks>omens or agries that reveal something" What
S(E'-T- reveal are more transitory than the (!E-S $(deas% associated with S0'L@L-" (n terms of
!ivine S(E'-T-, the word indicates the presence of a THE@S $4od% or THE- $4oddess% in the past,
present or ftre" Examples of S(E'-T- may be fond in the followingF Sophokles) se of the word in the
sentence, "Fou show ;72M27)' 0sins1 of noble birth"I the 2yrikion $Cadces% of Hermes is the S(E'-
of a messengerI the '-ET(S $Soothsayer% of an army wold look for S(E'-T- to determine the correct
corse of actionI the vine is a S(E'- of !ionysos and a mark on the grond cased by lightening is a
S(E'- of ]es" *Compare E(2@E, S0'L@L-, S0ETHE'-, TE2'@N,
SO@HIA F #"ΦG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? SXphiW
S-/I2*+r? Sophia
@*2r+*? Sophi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
;ophiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of Sophia
;ophosF $singlar% a person who has Sophia
;ophoiF $plral% people who have Sophia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? wisdom
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
Socrates defined S@DH(- to be an ED(STE'E and ths a complete and secre 4E@S(S $2nowledge%"
-ristotle distingishes S@DH(- from DHN@EES(S $Dractical Wisdom% althogh he calls them both
-NTTTS $Lirtes% of the (ntellect, as he states that S@DH(- is linked to Neason and the knowledge of
-LETHE(- $Trth% and as sch it is a theoretical -NTTE $Lirte% while DHN@EES(S $Dractical Wisdom%
is related to the ethical 2-L@E $4oodness% which renders it a practical -NTTE" Spesippos determines
S@DH(- to be the speaking of $-LETHE(-% Trth and acting in accordance with the dictates of DH0S(S
$Eatre%"
SO@HROSYNE F #NΦP"#VMH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? SQphrXsynP
S-/I2*+r? Sophrosyne
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
;ophrosynisF $singlar% denoting that which derives from Sophrosyne
;ophronF a person who acts with Sophrosyne
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? common sense
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
S@DHN@S0EE isF
a% The 'ETN@E $'easre% of DS0CHE $Sol% concerned with the natral desires and pleasresI
b% The harmonising and orderliness of DS0CHE $Sol% with the pleasres and sorrowsI
c% The accordance of DS0CHE $Sol% with the principle of '@ule and be @uled'I
d% Self&determined action as per natreI
e% 4ood condct of DS0CHEI
f% National dialoge of DS0CHE for 2-L@E $4ood% and 2-2@E $Yad%I
g% The state of comfortable>easy selection and discretion of that which is re#ired"
-lthogh S@DHN@S0EE promotes the measred restrain and control over pleasre and desire, it does not
lead to the withdrawal from the .oys and expression of life as is commonly promoted by the christian 'denial
of temptations'" S@DHN@S0EE may also be nderstood as the ability for self&control"
S@HGROS F #ΦGP"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Sph[rXs
S-/I2*+r? Sphairos
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
;phairaF that which has the shape of a SphairosI $a sphere%"
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? spherical
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
SDH-(N@S is the ideal state of the for N(]@'-T- $Noots% when held in perfect balance by DH(L@T(S
$/riendship% while EE(2@S $Strife% holds the perimeter in place ths forming a perfect SDH-(N- $Sphere%"
This state is seen as the personification of the perfect (D-NU(S $Existence%, i"e" THE@S $4od%" -ccording to
Uenophanes and Empedokles, the essence of a THE@S is SDH-(N@S"
S@ONDE F #L"MOH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? SpXnthP
S-/I2*+r? Sponde
@*2r+*? Spondai
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
;pondisF $singlar% that which is of the Sponde
;pondonF $plral% that which is of the Spondai
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? libation
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
SD@E!E derives from the verb )spendo) meaning '7 pour a few drops of li8uid from my cup'" SD@E!E is the
ceremonial act of poring a li#id $sally water, wine, oil or milk% from a container onto the altar or grond
as an offering to a THE@S $4od% or THE- $4oddess%"
STOIBHEION F #Q"R%"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? StikhPXn
S-/I2*+r? Stoikheion
@*2r+*? Stoikheia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? element
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
ST@(2HE(@E derives from the verb )stoikho' meaning 'to proceed in formation', 'coordinated' or
'composed'" The formed or composed parts are all H0L(2@ $material%, i"e" the Empedoklean N(]@'-T-
$Noots%" Ths a ST@(2HE(@E is a part of any compond or composite thing and does not necessarily refer
to the N(]@'-T- $Noots%"
-ccording to Spesippos, ST@(2HE(@E is that which combines and dissolves all composite things"
(t was the Eeo&Dythagoreans who later determined that the ST@(2HE(- of all bodies are /ire, -ir, Water
and Earth ths giving rise to the occlt theory of the /or Elements" *See N(]@'-T-,
SYM)OLON F #VKW"!"M
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? SymvXlXn
S-/I2*+r? Symvolon
@*2r+*? Symvola
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
;ymvbolikoF $singlar% of or pertaining to a Symbolon or expressing a Symbolon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Symbol
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The root of the word S0'L@L- is derived from ;ynvaloI a compond word that in trn derives from an
even more archaic form of the langage" ;ynvalo is comprised of the wordsF )syn' v 'to add' and 'balo' v 'the
process of reasonin' and>or '7 establish a foundation'" The etymology of S0'L@L- is ths also related to
'symvallein' meaning 'to /oin'" The word S0'L@L@E was sed to refer to recognition, proof, garantee,
receipt, identification and the allegorical expressions of Dythagoras" The earliest sage of S0'L@L@E is
that which refers to a concrete token sed in retail or for private se" Hermippos records the retail sage of
the word as a form of private monetary garantee along with -rchippos who refers to a wealthy person as
one being withot a S0'L@L@E which indicated impoverishment" To attest to the private sage of
S0'L@L@E, Sophocles ses the term in @edips as a specific device sed to confirm kinship or the
athenticity of a message" Uenophon too ses the term in the private manner to describe the gifts exchanged
by friends as a seal of friendship" The association between S0'L@L- as the simltaneos seal, recognition
and identification between two people was so common in -thenian life that special clay pla#es were made
and then ct into two irreglar designs so that each half cold only .oin to its original mate" These clay
pla#es became the S0'L@L@E between two people who wished to seal a bond of friendship, kinship or
alliance between them with each person taking possession of one half of the S0'L@L@E as a concrete
token of their special relationship" /rom the significance of these S0'L@L- derived complex philosophical
concepts regarding complementary opposites with each half being incomplete withot the other" This is
illstrated in the statement accredited to -ristophanes in Dlato)s SymposimF
"2ach of us is a mere ;FM:)L)' of a man, the result of bisection, like the flat fish, two out of one, and
each of us is constantly searchin for his correspondin ;FM.)L)'"
-ristotle confirms the philosophical nderstanding of S0'L@L@E with his accont of a statement he
credits to EmpedoklesF "5in the male and in the female, there is, as it miht be, a ;FM.)L)'5"
The philosophical extension of the meaning of S0'L@L@E is echoed in the metaphorical broadening of the
term to inclde inferences to other actions, gestres or token ob.ects that were meaningless and incomplete
withot their corresponding and complementary associated significance" (n -eschyls) -gamemnon, the
watchman awaits a beacon of light as a S0'L@L@E of the retrning fleet from Troy" (n isolation, neither
the beacon of light nor the waiting watchman is complete in its meaning and it is only when the two
complementary pieces of information are combined into a single context that the total significance of the
scene is revealed" /rther illstrations of the philosophical extension may be fond in Herakleitos) statement
that the )lameness) of Hephaistos is S0'L@L(2@ as it indicates the distinction between !ivine /ire and
hman fire and the Stoic 2leanthes, when stating that the HE4E'@E(2@E $rling portion of the DS0CHE%
is sitated in the head, ths describing the '0TH@S $'yth% of the birth of -thena from the head of ]es as
a S0'L@L@E for the location of the HE4E'@E(2@E"
The rhetorician !emetris clarifies the philosophical extensions of the term S0'L@L@E as that which
denotes a particlar type of analogos and allegorical expression" The particlar type of expression referred
to by !emetris is best described by Drocls
"And so the recapitulation of 'The @epublic' which appears before the section on physics addresses itself to a
consideration to the structure of the universe by means of 27*)'7*); 0likenessesGrepresentationsGreflections1& the
story of Atlantis does the same but Jby means ofK ;FM.)L7*)! 7ndeed, it is by means of ;FM.)LA that myths
customarily hint at hiher realities!"
*Compare E(2@E, S(E'-, S0ETHE'-, TE2'@N,
SYNTHEMA F #VMΘHKG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? SynthPmW
S-/I2*+r? Synthema
@*2r+*? Synthemata
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? signal, sign
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word S0ETHE'- derives from the words 'syn' $to add% and 'tiethimi'07 erect, place or establish,
dedicate, create, determine%" 4enerally speaking, S0ETHE'- refers to a sign, signal, representation of
something, recognition, something that is characteristic of, a meaningfl gestre and a sign of agreement or
treaty" S0ETHE'- differs from S0'L@L- $Symbols% and S(E'- $Signs% as S0ETHE'-T- are either
acted pon or re#ire an action"
Sophokles refers to S0ETHE'- as both the markings sed to relay a message and as the sign that broght
disaster" /or Dlato, the words by which one names things are agreed pon S0ETHE'-T-" Clement of
-lexandria ses S0ETHE'- to describe the cryptic statement that fnctioned as a form of recognition and
that was sed by those preparing for initiation into the Elesinian mysteries to accont certain necessary
actions that had been taken"
(n a similar manner, (amblikhos states that S0ETHE'-T- are sacred ces of the presence of the !ivine
that gide DS0CHE $Sol% to recognise the THE@( $4ods%"
-ccording to -ristides, the orator and rhetorician from Smyrna, a S0ETHE'- was sent to him by
-sklepios that offered case for and encoraged him to address the pblic" *Compare E(2@E, S(E'-,
S0'L@L-, TE2'@N,
TAXIS F QG&#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TWksis
S-/I2*+r? Taxis
@*2r+*?
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? order
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
T-U(S is the act throgh which things or DN@S@D- *See DN@S@D@E, are )ordered) and the state within
which they exist arranged and ordered into moving in a methodical manner"
-ccording to -ristotle, T-U(S is one of the Three =re%;uppositions for )@NE@E) $Yeaty%"
Spesippos defines T-U(S to be the similarity of 'work' $as the generic term for any continos application
of energy% between entities, the symmetry of participation or the case of symmetry acknowledged by all
entities )working) together, i"e" coordination"
TEBMOR F Q%$KNPZQ%$KGP
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? T[kmQrr
S-/I2*+r? Tekmor
@*2r+*? TekmPria
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? token, sign, proof
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
TE2'@N derives from the verb )tekmairome) meaning '7 follow sins'" -ccording to -lkman of Sparta,
TE2'@N is the sign of commencement for the nfolding 2@S'@S $World% following the dissoltion of
the primordial !arkness and concrrently the prsed end of the 2@S'@S $World% after its completed
development ntil its next creation"
'osaios speaks of TE2'@N in terms of it being a helpfl sign institted by the THE@( $4ods% so that
mortals may clearly distingish between things that are -4-TH- $Yeneficially 4ood% and those which are
2-2- $Yad%" This type of sign is called TE2'@N EE-N4ES $!istinct Sign%"
TELETE F Q%!%QH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? T[l[tP
S-/I2*+r? Telete
@*2r+*? Telet[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
TeletisF $singlar% that which is of the Telete
TeletonF $plral% that which is of the Telet[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? ceremony, rital
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
TELETE derives from the verb )telo) $7 complete perfectly% and refers to any formal events or expressions
which contain a series of standardised symbolic actions" TELETE denotes specifically a rital throgh which
the worship of a THE@S $4od% or THE- $4oddess% is expressed"
TELOS F Q%!"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? T[lXs
S-/I2*+r? Telos
@*2r+*? TelP
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
TeleioF $singlar% that which has attained Telos" $Derfection in English%
TeleiaF $plral% that which has attained Telos $Derfection in English%
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? prpose[ end, flfillment, close, finish, terminate
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
TEL@S means flfillment and prpose" (t is the prpose of energy or the prpose of all L(@S $Yiographical
Life%" TEL@S denotes the ltimate prpose of hman L(@S $Yiographical Life% which is seen to be the
)Highest -4-TH@E) $Yeneficial 4ood%" Ths for the Stoics, the TEL@S for hman L(@S is to conform to
the L@4@S *See L@4@S, which derives from ]es and retrns to Him as He solely directs the prpose
which governs all"
THEASISF Θ%G##
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? Th[Wsis
S-/I2*+r? Theasis
@*2r+*?
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Theas3osF $singlar% denoting Theasis when referring to that which derives from it or belongs to itI i"e" the
glory of Theas[os
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? view, observation, perspective
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
THE-S(S refers to observation from a vantage point, to srvey a DN@S@D@E $face>person>role% or to view
nfolding events" THE-S(S also denotes to the point of view $perspective% from which a person examines
things and the ability to nderstand and be aware of esoteric and spirital things"
THE-S(S was the prpose of philosophy and is illstrated by Dlato in the SymposimF
"LMNO QR STLUVWX YZ [M\]T^_`ab Sccd Qad _Ye_Y^ W`fgh ig_aT j k[ac\` l`m j QahcMl_YO LMYafO WUNO STLUVWY^Onopqrs tuvwx
"Man can never mi# with the 6ods but only to approach or achieve T<2A;7; of the 9ivine5"
THEOI F Θ%"
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? wab
e
xy
S-/I2*+r? Theos $'ascline%I Thea $/eminine%
@*2r+*? Theoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Theot>taF The abstract meaning of a Theos or Thea as a totality of the attribtes of the Theos or Thea in
#estion" -lso referring to every divine form of male or female gender in its totality"
Theot>t3sF The plral form of TheotPta
TheoF $singlar% that which is divine
TheiaF $plral% that which is divine
Th34sF plral form of Thea
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? the 4ods
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
THE@( is an ad.ective denoting the perfect @ET- $Yeings% who emerge from the )EE) $@ne% throgh simple
mltiplication of itself into a mltitde and ths preserving all its attribtes" The THE@( constitte the
(ntellect$al% Essence of the S0'D-E $3niverse% which is expressed as a mltiplicity of organised,
systematic, niform, self&actating, mlti&faceted, recrring @ET- $Yeings% who conform to natral law"
The THE@( represent the E(E-( $Yeing>Existence%, @rder, Eternity and the '-2-N(@T(S $Ylissflness% of
the Spreme @E *See entry for @E, as imperishable, incorrptible, nalterable, nchanging reflections and
representations of (t" The THE@( permeate nhindered throghot the world of H0LE $material% and act
pon it dynamically" -s initiators of the Holy 'ysteries of life, the THE@( participate in perpetal
regeneration which is the continos composition and decomposition of forms whilst ever maintaining the
integrity of the sphere of activity of each THE@S" The actions of the THE@( are sb.ect to Eatral Law and
serve the Eatral Law withot withdrawing or converging into one and withot being sbstitted, ceasing to
exist or being defeated according to the desires and expectations of disrespectfl mortals or organised
systems of impiety" (t is important to mention that the terms EE $@ne% and '@E-S $Single% within the
Hellenic meaning has only a comparative mathematical sbstance and therefore implies the pre&existence of
the mltitde" EE $@ne% is sometimes sed as a comparison to 'ETHEE $]ero% or Eon&Existence"
'ETHEE is a modern term and is ths not accepted by the -ncient Hellenes as plasible" The THE@(
constitte the first active mltiplication of the @ET@S $See @E% which is incorrectly referred to as THE@S
$4od% hence why the Theology is different to the @ntology and the association of the two is cltivated
prposeflly by monotheists to serve their theology" The THE@( as with @E are nborn, perfect, good,
immortal, .st, withot form, all wise, eternal, immaterial and also of dal sbstance, nchangeable, infinite
and cohesive" The THE@( are not DN@S@D- $people or roles% as that denotes limits of which the THE@(
have none"
"5it is an immortal )' who is rational, perfect, blissful, incapable of any bad and who is prudent for the
*osmos and all that is in it, althouh it is not anthropomorphic, it is nevertheless creator and father of all
and as such e#tends all its parts into everythin, which are labeled with many names in accordance with
natural forces! Thus they name it 9ia because throuh it everythin emered& they name it E>na because it
is the cause of Eeen 0livin1 or because throuh life it becomes distinct! Athena, they call it because it
e#tends its '<eemonikon' into the aither& <era, because it e#tends itself into the Air& <ephaistos because it
e#tends itself into the 'technical' fire& =oseidon because it e#tends into the wet element and 9emetra because
it e#tends into the earth! ;o were others named in accordance with the familiarity of each 'Theot>ta' "
D-oI7/7, L+7r0-o, \`.Ca`]
THEARGIA F Θ%"VPJG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? wab
e
oofz{d
S-/I2*+r? Thergia
@*2r+*? Thergi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
TheuriasF $singlar% denoting that which is of Thergia
TheurosF $singlar% a person who performs Thergia
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? thergy
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
THE3N4(- refers to a divine work as a ceremonial act which aims at direct commnication with the
THE@( $4ods%" 3ntil THE3N4(- was proposed by the Eeo&Dlatonists as an alternative method to gain
4E@S(S $2nowledge% of the THE@( $4ods%, the more common philosophical approach was meditation or
contemplation" THE3N4(- does not mean )complsion) or )maniplation) of the THE@( $4ods% as was
proposed by Hopfner who clearly misinterpreted (amblikhos who did not actally intend THE3N4(- to be
constred as a )maniplation) of the THE@( $4ods%" The key to nderstanding (amblikhos may be fond in
the second part of the word THE3N4@SI namely )uros) deriving from !E'(@3N4@S meaning )he who
produces work for the benefit of common thins' ths rendering the meaning of THE3N4(- to be 'the
production of work for the benefit of 9ivine thins 0i!e! the T<2)71'!
THYSIA F ΘV#G
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThPsiW
S-/I2*+r? Thysia
@*2r+*? Thysi[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
ThysiasF $singlar% denoting that which is of Thysia
ThysionF $plral% denoting that which is of Thysi[s
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? sacrifice
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Spesippos, TH0S(- is an offering of an '72@27)'' $that which is to be sacrificed% to any or
all of the THE@( $4ods%" -n extension of TH0S(- is -3T@TH0S(- $self&sacrifice% as a high point of
hman life within which even hman natre is srpassed and leads logically to self&preservation"
-3T@TH0S(- implies logically that it is TH0S(- only when perishing or dying" (t is then impossible for a
THE@S $4od% to be sacrificed de to the imperishable and immortal natre of the THE@( $4ods%" *See
-3T@TH0S(-, (ENE(@,
THIASOS F ΘG#"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ThiWsXs
S-/I2*+r? Thiasos
@*2r+*? Thiasoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
ThiasouF $singlar% denoting something that is of a Thiasos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? theatrical company, trope of actors, ceremonial grop
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
- TH(-S@S is a religios grop formed to perform ceremonies of a religios natre" The word TH(-S@S is
linked directly to the worship of !ionysos throgh its association with the word TH0NS@S $the Staff of
!ionysos%"
TIMU F QKH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TimP
S-/I2*+r? TimP
@*2r+*? Tim[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Tim>sF $singlar% denoting that which of TimP
TimonF $plral% that which is of Tim[s
Tim>menosF $mascline% he who has TimP or Tim[s bestowed pon him
Tim>men>F $feminine% she who has TimP or Tim[s bestowed pon her
Tim>osF $mascline% he who possesses TimP
Tim>iaF $feminine% she who possesses TimP
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? honor, vale
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
T('Z refers to esteem, respect, rights, recognition of vale and reward for services rendered"
Spesippos determines T('Z to be the granting of goods for acts of -NTTE $Lirte%, worthiness de to
-NTTE $Lirte% and the external recognition of decency and>or worthiness"
TYBHE F QVRH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? TykhP
S-/I2*+r? Tykhe
@*2r+*? Tykh[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
Tykh3rosF $mascline% he who has Tykhe
Tykh3r>F $feminine% she who has Tykhe
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? lck
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
-ccording to Spesippos, T02HE is the movement from the invisible to the invisible ths casing a
spontaneos divine act"
)AR)ARISMOS F WGPWGP#K"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? LWrvWrismXs
S-/I2*+r? Larvarismos
@*2r+*? Larvarismoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
.arvarismouF $singlar% denoting that which is Larbarismos
.arvarismonF $plral% denoting that which is Larvarismoi
.arvarosF a person who acts with Larvarismos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? barbarism
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
L-NL-N(S'@S constittes the se of words which stand in opposition to the Hellenic words de to either
mispronnciation, incorrect sage within context or falty speech" L-NL-N(S'@S is considered as
severely as the erroneos sage of syntax" L-NL-N(S'@S is one of the six 2-2(TS of the L@4@S in
opposition to HELLEE(S'@S"
)IOS F W"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? LiXs
S-/I2*+r? Lios
@*2r+*? Lioi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
.iouF $singlar% denoting a Lios when referring to that which derives from it or belongs to itI i"e" the events
of his Lio
.ionF $plral% denoting Lioi when referring that which derives from them or belongs to themI i"e" there
parallels in their Lion
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? life $bt in proper translation referring specifically to Yiographical Life%
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
L(@S is the hman biographical life inclsive of birth and death" The L(@S of a person is their birth and the
circmstances that srrond itI the events and how these nfold and relate throghot their lifeI the things
and goods that the person ac#ires throghot their life and finally the persons death and the circmstances
srronding it, i"e" the complete biography of a person" L(@S may also refer to an entity which is an
abstraction sch as the political L(@S of a state, the ethical L(@S of a commnity, the pblic L(@S of a
prominent person and even the trblent L(@S of the planet" The word L(@S is distingished from ]@^ $the
biological Life% in pertaining to the way of life, the dration of life and one)s fortne" *See ]@^ for
comparison",
)OMOS F WNK"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? LXmXs
S-/I2*+r? Lomos
@*2r+*? Lomoi
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
.omouF $singlar% denoting a Lomos when referring to that which derives from it or belongs to itI i"e" the
dais of the Lomo
.omonF $plral% denoting Lomoi when referring that which derives from them or belongs to themI i"e" the
marble for constrction of the Lomon
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? altar
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
The word L@'@S derives the root )va) which originally denoted the raised base of the altar and later came
to denote the whole altar" L@'@S is a general term denoting a place, a pit, an abovegrond strctre of
single or mltiple levels which may be constrcted in a s#are, rectanglar or circlar form" There are
specific terms denoting the two specific types of L@'@(" The first is the L@'@S which incldes a side&
grate known as the ES2H-N- and is the raised altar to the @L0'D(@( $@lympian 4ods%" The second was
the L@THN@S or L-22@S that took the form of a pit and was sed for sacrifices to the 2HTH@E(@(
$4ods of the 3nderworld%"
XENIA F &%MG
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? U[niW
S-/I2*+r? Uenia
@*2r+*? Ueni[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
yenosF $mascline% a stranger
yen>F $feminine% a stranger
yenoiF $plral% strangers
=hilo#eniaF The act of hospitality
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? hospitality
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
UEE(- refers to hospitality, kind treatment of strangers, friendly relations between strangers and a friendly
welcome" UEE(- is a sacred and ancient tradition of the Hellenic people directly related to the hmanistic
concept of philanthropy" UEE(- falls nder the aspices of the Spreme of the 4ods when appealed to as
]E3S UEE(@S" The person providing the UEE(- does not have the right to offend or commit an in.stice
to the one receiving the DH(L@UEE(-" (n trn, the receiver is obliged to respect the home which provided
the DH(L@UEE(-" -ccording to Homer, the bond of friendship that reslts from DH(L@UEE(- contines
and is inherited by the descendents"
^ELOS F _H!"#
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ]PlXs
S-/I2*+r? ]elos
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Aeal, ardor, eagerness
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
]EL@S is a form of sorrow which derives from the desire to srpass or to become e#al to others" -ccording
to the Stoics, ]EL@S is one of the D-THE(E $Dassions%"
^Ob F _NH
@ro/2/3-+0-o/? ]QP
S-/I2*+r? ]oR
@*2r+*? ]o[s
O057r Form, o; 057 :or1?
zeenF the act of ]oR
Eo>sF $singlar% that which is of ]oR
Eo{nF $plral% that which is of ]o[s
EoaF forms of ]oR $life forms>animals%
Commo/ E/I*-,5 0r+/,*+0-o/? Life
Tr+/,*+071 17;-/-0-o/ o; 057 <or1?
]@^ is biological life which is characterised by the method of conception, the act of birth, the development
and growth, the method of reprodction and the physical death of organisms" *See L(@S in comparison to note
the distinction between the biological and biographical life,
So2r37,?
+" |}~•€•‚ ƒ76898ƒ7k8 6„…7k8 F Llassis 4 Nassias $Drimary SorceF see Yibliography%
1" )†‚•‡ˆ‰Š‹Œ 6••Š‹Œ ‰Ž• †~••‘•• „‡‡Ž‚Š‹’•) & l•‹“~Št• ”" ”•‡•‹Ž•
;" )The Docket -ristotle) & Edited by Jstin !" 2aplan
<" The Dre&Socratic DhilosophersF 4"S" 2irk and J"E" Naven
=" Eichomachean EthicsF -ristotle, James -lexander 2err Thomson, Hgh Tredennick, Jonathan Yarnes"
?" !oglas 'ac!owellF :<ybris in -thens": 6reece and @ome 1; $+HB?% +<&;+"
B" Nitalised /riendship and the 4reek CityF 4abriel Herman $Dg +B, note +BI Dg ?1%
G" The Literary 'icrocosm, Theories of (nterpretation of the later Eeo&DlatonistsF James -" Colter $Dg ?C, -ppendix @ne%
H" The Dower of 'oney, Coinage and Dolitics in the -thenian EmpireF Thomas J /igera $Dg =C=%
+C" @edips, the 2ingF Sophocles and translated by Nobert Yragg $Dg H%
++" -ncient 'ystery CltsF Walter Yrkert $Dg H<%
+1" Elesis, -rchetypal (mage of 'other and !aghterF 2arl 2erenyi and translated by Nalph 'anheim $Dg ??>?B%
+;" Letters to the Seven Chrches of -siaF William 'itchell Namsey $Chapter 11, Letter to the Chrch of Dergamm%
+<" „t~‰•• k•Š 7•~t–~••‘•• —˜‚ „‡‡’‚˜‚ F Llassis 4 Nassias
+=" 6„…7k8 —59 s„†9 „665s7k59 ™6r99†9 4 Yampiniote $1E! Edition%
+?" !ivry)s Edition )Eew English&4reek and 4reek&English !ictionaryF 42 2onstantopolo
+B" /nk and Wagnalls Standard English !ictionary Lolmes ( M ((
+G" The -thorised Nevised Noget)s Thesars of Words and DhrasesF Deter 'ark Noget
+H" Gth Edition of a 4reek&English Lexicon compiled by Henry 4eorge Liddell, !! and Nobert Scott, !!
E+,( 0o A,7 E/I*-,5 I/17c
!e to the introdction of Hellenic terms into English, it may at first seem like a danting task to remember
all the words and what they mean in English" /or this reason, an English (ndex has been inclded in the
Lexicon to assist people in finding the correct term for an English word" Each entry of the Lexicon incldes a
list of the closest English words of the Hellenic word or phrase" This index lists these English words as well
as the correct Hellenic word and term in each entry in which it appears" Certain English words are fairly
general and will often appear as the closest English translation for more than one concept&specific Hellenic
word or phrase" When the same English word is sed for more than one entry, all entries shold be read in
the manner of a Thesars and the correct Hellenic term shold be chosen according to which concept is
being specifically referred to" -s the Hellenic langage is a concept langage it is more important than the
correct and specific concepts be commnicated than it is to se the closest English word in translation"
English is a langage that makes se of many interchangeable synonyms with often only etymological
differences or slight variations in meaning" /or this reason, only the most commonly sed English words
have been sed in the Lexicon and ths when searching for the Hellenic word for a more specific or obscre
English word, it will be necessary to search for the general synonyms of the word as well"
ššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššššš
E/I*-,5 I/17c
-byssF -DE(N@E
-ccordF @'@E@(-
-ll&grainF D-ESDEN'(-
-ltarF L@'@S
-rdorF ]EL@S
-ssemblyF E22LES(-
-ssociationF ET-(NE(-
-dacityF H3YN(S
-thorityF -N2HZ
-wareness $intellectal%F E@ES(S
-wareness $sensory%F -ESTHES(S
YadF 2-2@E
YarbarismF L-NL-N(S'@S
YashflnessF -(!@S
YeatitdeF '-2-N(@T(S
YeatyF @N-(@E
YeginningF -N2HZ
YeingF @E
YeneficenceF -4-TH@E
YlissF '-2-N(@T(S
YraveryF -E!NE(-
YreathF DEE3'-
CatharsisF 2-TH-NS(S
CentreF @'DH-L@S
Ceremonial 4ropF TH(-S@S
CeremonyF TELETE
ChaosF 2H-iS
CharmF 2H-N(S
CityF !E'@S, D@L(S
ClarityF S-DHEEE(-
CleansingF EE-4(S'-, 2-TH-NS(S
CleF S(E'-
Common SenseF DHN@EES(S, S@DHN@S0EE
CommnityF 2@(E@E(-
CompanyF ET-(NE(-
ConcordF @'@E@(-
ConflictF -4@E
ContaminationF '(-S'-
ContestF -4@E
CorrectitdeF @NTH@DN-U(-
CosmosF 2@S'@S
CorageF -E!NE(-
CreatorF !E'(@3N4@S
CreatreF @E
CstomF !N@'EE-, E@'@S
!emirgeF !E'(@3N4@S
!emonF !-('@E
!evotionF E3L-YE(-
!evotnessF E3L-YE(-
!irectnessF E/TH0TET-
!iscernmentF 4E@'Z
!iscordF !(2H@EE(-
!isrespectF H3YN(S
!istrictF !E'@S
!odecahedronF !@!E2-HE!N@E
EagernessF ]EL@S
EclecticismF E2LE2T(2(S'@S
EdcationF D-(!E(-
ElementF N(]@'-T-, ST@(2HE(@E
EndF TEL@S
EntityF @E
E#alsF @'@(@S
EssenceF @3S(-
ExistenceF (D-NU(S
Existence $to beI it is%F E(E-(
ExplicitnessF S-DHEEE(-
/aceF DN@S@D@E
/aithF D(ST(S
/ameF !@U-
/eelingF -ESTHES(S
/orbearanceF -E@2HE
/ranknessF E/TH0TET-, D-NNES(-
/reedomF ELE3THEN(-
/riendshipF DH(L(-, DH(L@TZS
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HegemonyF HE4E'@E(2@E
HellenicF HELLEE(S'@S
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HoseholdF @(2@S
HbrisF H3YN(S
HmanitarianismF -ETHN@D(S'@S
HmanismF -ETHN@D(S'@S
HymnF H0'E@S
(deaF (!E-
(dolF E(!@L@E
(mageF E(!@L@E, E(2@E
(maginationF DH-ET-S(-
(mpdenceF -E-(!E(-
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JsticeF !(2E@S0EE
2nowledgeF 4E@S(S
2nowledge $Secre%F ED(STE'E
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LibationF SD@E!E
LibertyF ELE3THEN(-
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LogicF L@4(2(
LoveF -4-DE, EN@S
LckF T02HE
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EavelF @'DH-L@S
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SymptomF S(E'-
TemperanceF E42N-TE(-
Theatrical CompanyF TH(-S@S
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TrthF -LETHE(-
Trth $intitive%F 4E@'Z
TrthflF E/TH0TET-, D-NNES(-
TownF D@L(S
3ndergrondF 2HTH@E(@S
3nderworldF 2HTH@E(@S
3nspeakableF -NNET@E
LalorF -E!NE(-, T('Z
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WeatherF 2-(N@S
WisdomF S@DH(-
Wisdom $Dractical%F DHN@EES(S
WordF L@4@S
WorldF 2@S'@S
]ealF ]EL@S

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