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Khanal et al. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:958 Page 5 of 13 http:!!!.bio"e#cent$al.

co"1%&1'2%5813958
(able 1 P$opo$tion )*+ of e,clu-i.e b$ea-tfee#ing in infant- 5 "onth- of age an# un#e$ b/ #e"og$aphic an#
-ocioecono"ic cha$acte$i-tic-, 0epal 2001 )0 2 %82+ an# 2011 )0 2 22&+
3acto$ 2001 2011
(otal 0
4*5 6B3 n 4*5
78
p
.alu
e
(otal 0
4*5 6B3 n 4*5
78
p
.alu
e
9nfant:- age )"onth-+
;0.00
1
;0.00
1
;2%
3
8
0 )&8.8+ 218 )59.3+ 18&
)82.
3+
13%
)&3.5+
5'1
1
0
2 )21.2+ 21
)33.
1+ %0
)1&.
&+ 12
)33.
1+
<ge of Mothe$ )/ea$-+ 0.&30 0.311
;19 && )11.0+ 3& )%&.1+ %8 )21.0+ 28
)18.
9+
20'29
3
2
% )1&.2+ 118 )5%.%+ 139
)11.
0+ 98
)19.
&+
30'3% 53 )11.0+ 2%
)5%.
2+ 25
)10.
9+ 10
)5%.
1+
35 an# abo.e
2
8 )5.8+ 11 )51.9+ 11
)&.
0+ 10 )%&.1+
=e.elop"ent $egion 0.150 0.%%8
6a-te$n
1
1
5 )23.9+ %5
)%5.
1+ %8
)21.
2+ 28
)10.
%+
Cent$al
1
2
5 )25.9+ 51
)%&.
9+ 11
)28.
9+ 2&
)&2.
0+
>e-te$n 89 )18.5+ 52 )12.9+ 50 )22.0+ 2%
)55.
3+
Mi# '>e-te$n 19 )1%.3+ %% )15.0+ 33 )1%.1+ 33
)&0.
&+
3a$'>e-te$n 8% )1&.%+ %8 )58.5+ 30 )13.2+ 3%
)&&.
0+
6cological $egion 0.0&9 0.3&9
Mountain 10 )12.%+ 22 )%1.2+ 15
)1.
8+ 2%
)15.
2+
Hill
1
8
5 )38.%+ 110 )10.9+ &&
)3%.
1+ 55
)59.
&+
(e$ai
2
3
& )%9.2+ 113 )%9.0+ 13%
)59.
1+ 1&
)&0.
2+
Mothe$:- e#ucation 0.009 0.531
0o e#ucation
2
1
2 )5%.%+ 139 )5%.2+ 81 )38.1+ 10 )&1.9+
P$i"a$/ 83 )1&.2+ %& )11.2+ 55
)2%.
%+ 31
)18.
&+
?econ#a$/
1
1
3 )23.%+ 51 )%%.5+ 18 )29.8+ 38
)58.
2+
Highe$
2
% )5.0+ 8 )2&.9+ 18
)&.
&+ 12
)12.
&+
Mothe$:- occupation 0.281 0.805
0ot !o$@ing
1
2
1 )25.1+ 5% )%&.9+ 81 )38.1+ 50 )19.5+
<g$icultu$e
2
9
0 )10.2+ 159 )51.%+ 122
)53.
5+ 8%
)1%.
2+
>o$@ing )pai#+ &1 )1%.&+ 32 )51.%+ 19
)8.
%+ 12
)15.
0+
3athe$:- occupation 0.003 0.&%1
<g$icultu$e
1
&
1 )31.5+ 101 )13.%+ %3
)18.
9+ 31
)1&.
1+
P$ofe--ional, cle$ical, -e$.ice, an#
"anual
1
9
5 )11.2+ 13% )%8.&+ 118
)&3.
9+
105
)15.0+
Athe$- )0ot -pecifie#+
1
1 )2.3+ 5 )32.8+ 1&
)&.
3+ 10
)&1.
%+
6thnicit/ 0.031 0.291
Belati.el/ a#.antage#
1
9
8 )%1.9+ 9& )%8.2+ 93 )%1.2+ 15
)11.
2+
Belati.el/ #i-a#.antage# )CanDati+
1
5
5 )32.8+ 81 )12.%+ &%
)32.
1+ %2
)59.
2+
Belati.el/ #i-a#.antage# )=alit+
1
1
9 )25.2+ 51 )%&.0+ 59
)21.
2+ 39
)&5.
%+
Beligion 0.128
n
2 0.221
Hin#u
%
2
0 )8&.1+ 211)51.2+ 190
)83.
8+
125
)18.2+
Athe$- 12 )12.9+ 3% )15.5+ 3&
)11.
2+ 21
)51.
%+
?e, of chil# 0.0&8 0.081
Male
2
5
0 )51.9+ 13& )5&.2+ 118
)52.
0+ &3
)10.
3+
3e"ale
2
3
2 )%8.1+ 108 )%8.1+ 109
)%8.
0+ &3 )&2.%+
Khanal et al. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:958 Page 1 of 13 http:!!!.bio"e#cent$al.co"1%&1'2%5813958
(able 1 P$opo$tion )*+ of e,clu-i.e b$ea-tfee#ing in infant- 5 "onth- of age an# un#e$ b/ #e"og$aphic an#
-ocioecono"ic cha$acte$i-tic-, 0epal 2001 )0 2 %82+ an# 2011 )0 2 22&+ )Continue#+
>ealth in#e, 0.015 0.310
Poo$e-t 138 )28.1+ 88 )1&.2+ 52 )22.8+ 39
)11.
&+
Poo$ 81
)1&.
8+ %2
)51.
2+ %5
)20.
0+ 31
)15.
5+
Mi##le 9% )19.5+ %% )5%.3+ 58 )25.5+ 31
)&&.
%+
Biche$ 92
)19.
1+ %3
)%1.
8+ %%
)19.
2+ 30
)19.
1+
Biche-t &2
)1%.
1+ 28
)%0.
1+ 28
)12.
5+ 15
)%9.
1+
7
the p$opo$tion $ep$e-ent- the pe$centage afte$ a#Du-ting fo$ -tu#/ #e-ign an# -a"ple !eight. (hi- "a/ not be eEual to -i"ple calculation of p$opo$tion.
8
: the pe$centage in the cell- i- the $o! pe$centage of the each -ub g$oup-.
place of delivery were significantly associated with EBF
when age of infant was excluded from the initial model of
Table 3. The infants whose mothers were from Hills
[a! ".#$%& '() *+ ,-.%'$.//.-0/123 and Terai [a!
3./'#& '() *+ ,/."3#. 0.//#12& attended four or more
45* visits [a! 3.#/%& '() *+ ,/.3#(./%."#-123 and had
vaginal ,normal1 delivery [a! "."%3& '() *+ ,/./03.
/$.(-"12 were more li6ely to be EBF. n the other hand3
the infants whose fathers were from pro.fessional3
clerical3 service3 and manual [a! %.$"-& '() *+ ,%."/-.
/.%%12 and other occupation [a! %.--/& '() *+ ,%.%"'.
%.'#012 were less li6ely to provided EBF. The infants with
wealthier mothers were less li6ely to be provided with
EBF. 7hile there was a significant change in factors
associated with EBF in -%%$3 exclud.ing infant:s age from
-%// data ,Table "1 showed that there was no change in
the factors associated with EBF in -%// ,Table not
shown1.
Change- in the $ate of e,clu-i.e b$ea-tfee#ing acco$#ing
to infant:- age, 0epal 2001 an# 2011
Table $ describes the gradual decline in the rate of EBF
according to infant:s age ,in months1 during the survey.
The rate of EBF at less than one month of age was '%.$)
in -%%$ and 0#.") in -%//. 5ot surprisingly3 the EBF rate
decreased as the age of infant increased and it declined to
33./) in -%%$ and 33./) in -%// at five months. The
-%// EBF rate at age /3 -3 33 "3 and ( months was higher
than that in -%%$& however3 there were no statistically
significant differences in EBF rates between -%%$ and
-%// with the exception at " months [3-.%) *+ ,/'.'.
"0.%1 for -%%$& $(.() *+ ,"#./.0'.$1 for -%//2. +t should
be noted that even when the demo.graphic surveys in
5epal included a large household level sample3 it was not
a large enough sample to ma6e comparisons within age
strata for EBF. The rate of EBF& therefore3 has a wide
'() confidence interval showing variation due to the
small number of observation in par.ticular age strata. For
comparison purpose3 the rates of EBF for each age group
were calculated using the num.ber of infants breastfed
exclusively.
=i-cu--ion
5utrition in early childhood is essential not only for the
immediate health of the child but also for the long term
benefits. EBF confers protection against infectious
diseases such as gastroenteritis and respiratory illness as
well as other chronic diseases in the long term [3/2 while
preventing up to /%) of all child deaths. Therefore3 7H
and 85+*EF recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the
first six months and continued breastfeeding thereafter
[/3-2. To reach the 9illennium :evelopment ;oal targets
for child survival3 5epal needs to reduce infant mortality
from /%# per /%%% live births in /''% to 3" per /%%% live
births by -%/( [3-2. The infant mortality was "$ per /%%%
live births in 5epal in -%// [//2. This reduction from "$
to 3" ,in -%/(1 can in part be achieved through a greater
adoption of the recommended breastfeeding practice.
+n this study3 only $$.3) in -%// and (3.-) in -%%$ of
infants were EBF within %F( months. 7hile it is encour.
aging to note that there was a /3) increase in the rate of
EBF it is still significantly lower than the 7H< 85+*EF
recommended level of '%) [-3/-3/"2. 5everthe.less3 the
EBF rate among G( months infants is higher in 5epal
compared to Bangladesh ,"$)13 +ndia ,"0)1 and =a6istan
,(%)1 [332. 7hen examined for the age specific changes
in the rate of EBF3 the data showed a rapid decline in the
EBF around the age of four months which is similar to the
findings from +ndia [/02 and =a6istan [3"2. 4t the age of
five months3 the rate of EBF in 5epal had dropped to
33./) in -%//. ur findings suggest that achieving the
7H<85+*EF target of EBF for six months is
challenging.
The infant:s age3 ecological region3 father:s occupation3
parity3 and place of delivery significant determinants in
-%%$ for providing EBF& however3 only the infant:s age
was significantly associated with EBF in -%//. 7hen age
of infant was removed from the model3 wealth status3
45* visits3 sex of infant3 iron consumption during preg.
nancy3 and mode of delivery were significant determi.
nants of providing EBF in -%%$.
The increase in the rate of EBF amongst younger
infants ,G" months1 could in part be attributable to the
changes in child health programs implemented in 5epal
Khanal et al. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:958 Page & of 13 http:!!!.bio"e#cent$al.co"1%&1'2%5813958
(able 2 P$opo$tion )*+ of e,clu-i.e b$ea-tfee#ing in infant- 5 "onth- of age an# un#e$ b/ health $elate#
cha$acte$i-tic-, 0epal 2001 )0 2 %82+ an# 2011 )0 2 22&+
3acto$ 2001 2011
(otal 0
4*5 6B3 n 4*5
78
p
.alu
e (otal 0 4*5 6B3 n 4*5
78
p
.alue
Pa$it/ 0.002 0.%22
3i$-t
1
%
1 )30.%+ 58 )%1.3+
8
0 )35.1+ 51
)11.
&+
?econ# o$ thi$#
2
2
% )%1.1+ 123 )5&.2+
1
0
2 )%%.9+ 15 )&0.1+
3ou$th o$ "o$e
1
1
1 )23.1+ 1% )13.2+
%
5 )20.0+ 30 )5&.1+
Bi$th inte$.al b/ "onth 0.001 0.989
0o p$e.iou- bi$th
1
%
& )30.5+ 58 )%0.9+
8
0 )35.1+ 51
)11.
&+
; 2% "onth- 11 )13.&+ 3& )13.1+
%
1 )18.0+ 20 )1&.1+
H 2 2% "onth-
2
1
9 )55.8+ 150 )58.2+
1
0
1 )%1.9+ &5 )15.&+
(/pe- of p$egnanc/ 0.293 0<
?ingle
%
&
2 )9&.9+ 2%1 )53.&+
2
2
5 )99.1+
(!inMultiple
1
0 )2.1+ % )33.0+ 2 )0.9+
(i"ing of p$egnanc/ 0.019 0.31%
>ante#
3
1
2 )1%.&+ 112 )53.0+
1
5
% )1&.9+
103
)19.%+
>ante# late$ 89 )18.5+ 31 )%2.1+
%
1 )18.0+ 25
)18.
0+
0ot !ante# 81 )11.8+ %& )11.1+
3
2 )1%.0+ 18 )%9.2+
<0C )nu"be$ of .i-it-+ 0.108 0.093
0o .i-it
1
0
0 )21.0+ 58 )13.%+
2
8 )12.2+ 1&
)8%.
&+
1'3
2
2
1 )%&.%+ 111 )%&.0+
8
& )38.3+ 52
)11.
8+
% o$ "o$e
1
5
1 )31.&+ &% )5&.1+
1
1
2 )%9.%+ && )11.%+
=e!o$"ing 0.223 0.%%&
0o
3
3
2 )18.9+ 1&8 )55.&+
1
3
1 )59.9+ 90 )13.&+
Ie-
1
5
0 )31.1+ 1& )%8.3+
9
1 )%0.1+ 51
)&0.
2+
9$on tablet o$ -/$up con-u"ption 0.02% 0.995
0o=o not @no!
1
1
1 )33.%+ 95 )12.0+
%
1 )18.0+ 22 )11.3+
Ie-
3
2
1 )11.1+ 150 )%9.1+
1
8
1 )82.0+
12%
)11.3+
Mo#e of #eli.e$/ 0.010 0.030
Jaginal % )9&.1+ 2%2 )5%.1+ 2 )92.2+ 13%
1
8
0
9 )1%.5+
Cae-a$ean
1
% )2.9+ 3 )18.1+ 18 )&.8+ 12
)8&.
1+
Place of #eli.e$/ 0.00% 0.312
Ho"e
3
&
8 )&8.%+ 201)5&.2+
1
2
% )5%.%+ &0)13.3+
Health facilit/
1
0
% )21.1+ %% )39.&+
1
0
3 )%5.1+ &1
)19.
9+
?iKe of the infant )Pe$cei.e# b/ "othe$-+ 0.011 0.283
<.e$age ?iKe
2
8
2 )58.1+ 1%% )50.9+
1
%
8 )15.&+ 91 )11.1+
?"all 88 )18.3+ 51 )%1.3+
%
1 )18.%+ 28
)&3.
1+
La$ge
1
1
1 )23.1+ 50 )1&.5+
3
1 )15.9+ 21
)&5.
0+
Po-t'natal ca$e of the infant 0.383 0.811
0o
%
5
3 )9%.0+ 231 )52.5+
1
0
9 )%8.1+ 1& )15.5+
Ie-
2
9 )1.0+ 1% )12.5+
1
1
8 )51.9+ &9
)1&.
0+
P$elacteal fee#- 0.003 0.&%&
Mi.en -o"ething
1
&
2 )31.2+ &3 )%3.1+
1
5 )28.5+ 33 )1%.3+
Mi.en nothing
3
0
3 )13.8+ 1&0 )10.5+
1
1
2 )&1.5+
113
)1&.1+
7
the p$opo$tion $ep$e-ent- the pe$centage afte$ a#Du-ting fo$ -tu#/ #e-ign an# -a"ple !eight. (hi- "a/ not be eEual to -i"ple calculation of p$opo$tion.
8
:
the pe$centage in the cell- i- the $o! pe$centage of the each -ub g$oup-. (he 0<: not application fo$ chi -Eua$e te-t.
Khanal et al. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:958 Page 8 of 13 http:!!!.bio"e#cent$al.co"1%&1'2%5813958
(able 3 =ete$"inant- of e,clu-i.el/ b$ea-tfee#ing in infant- 5 "onth- of age an# un#e$ ' una#Du-te# an# a#Du-te#
A##- Batio, 0epal 2001
3acto$
(otal 0
4*5
6B3 n
4*5
C$u#e
AB 95* C9
<#Du-te#
AB 95* C9
9nfant:- age )"onth-+
P ;
0.001 P ; 0.001
;2% 380 )&8.8+
218
)59.3+ 2.9%1
1.898'
%.5&3 3.083
1.825
)5.201+
5'1
1
0
2
)21.
2+ 21 )33.1+ 1.00 1.00
6cological $egion
P 2
0.109 P 2 0.009
Mountain 10 )12.%+ 22 )%1.2+ 1.00 1.00
Hill
1
8
5
)38.
%+
110
)10.9+ 2.221
0.992'
%.9%1 3.%21
1.518'
&.%&%
(e$ai 23& )%9.2+
113
)%9.0+ 1.3&0
0.1&0'
2.800 1.8%1
0.9%2'
3.559
3athe$:- occupation
P 2
0.082 P 2 0.018
<g$icultu$e
1
&
1
)31.
5+
101
)13.%+ 1.00 1.00
P$ofe--ional, cle$ical, -e$.ice, an#
"anual
1
9
5
)11.
2+
13%
)%8.&+ 0.5%1
0.388'
0.&19 0.5&8
0.383'
0.8&3
Athe$- )0ot -pecifie#+ 11 )2.3+ 5 )32.8+ 0.281
0.011'
1.1&& 0.281
0.089'
0.919
Pa$it/
P 2
0.001 P 2 0.0%5
3i$-t
1
%
1
)30.
%+ 58 )%1.3+ 1.00 1.00
?econ# o$ thi$# 22% )%1.1+
123
)5&.2+ 1.905
1.2%2'
2.921 1.&81
1.0&1'
2.991
3ou$th o$ "o$e 111 )23.1+ 1% )13.2+ 2.%%2
1.%2&'
%.180 1.918
1.020'
3.&99
Place of #eli.e$/
P 2
0.00% P 2 0.031
Ho"e 3&8 )&8.%+
201)5&.2
+ 2.025
1.211'
3.253 1.881
1.0%%'
3.%0&
Health facilit/
1
0
%
)21.
1+ %% )39.&+ 1.00 1.00
9n#epen#ent .a$iable- inclu#e# in the initial "o#el: age of infant, #e.elop"ent $egion, ecological $egion, "othe$:- e#ucation, fathe$:- occupation,
ethnicit/, $eligion, -e, of chil#, !ealth Euintile, pa$it/, bi$th inte$.al, ti"ing of p$egnanc/, nu"be$ of <0C .i-it-, #e!o$"ing, i$on con-u"ption #u$ing
p$egnanc/, "o#e of #eli.e$/, place of #eli.e$/, -iKe of infant, an# p$elacteal fee#ing. Anl/ -ignificant .a$iable- in bac@!a$# eli"ination p$oce#u$e a$e
p$e-ente# in the table. Jali# ca-e: %81.
(able % =ete$"inant- of e,clu-i.el/ b$ea-tfee#ing in infant- 5 "onth- of age an# un#e$, 0epal 2011
3acto$ (otal 0 4*5 6B3 n 4*5 C$u#e AB 95* C9 <#Du-te# AB
95*
C9
9nfant:- age )"onth-+ P ; 0.001 P ; 0.001
;2% 18& )82.3+ 13% )&3.5+ 5.190'
2.111'
1%.55% 1.11
2.3%9
'15.89&
5'1 %0 )1&.&+ 12
)33.
1+ 1.00 1.00
?e, of chil# P 2 0.088 P 2 0.%&1
Male 118 )52.0+ &3 )10.3+ 1.00 1.00
3e"ale 109 )%8.0+ &3 )&2.%+ 1.&0%
0.923'
3.1%1 1.290
0.1%3'
2.589
Beligion P 2 0.22% P 2 0.229
Hin#u 190 )83.8+ 125 )18.2+ 1.185
0.&31'
3.&10 2.082
0.819'
%.990
Athe$- 3& )11.2+ 21 )51.%+ 1.00
<0C )nu"be$ of .i-it-+ P 2 0.053 P 2 0.119
0o .i-it 28 )12.2+ 1& )8%.&+ 1.00 1.00
1'3 8& )38.3+ 52 )11.8+ 0.312
0.10&'
1.221 0.%35
0.121'
1.50&
% o$ "o$e 112 )%9.%+ && )11.%+ 0.281
0.081'
1.01& 0.3%1
0.091'
1.31&
Mo#e of #eli.e$/ P 2 0.0%2 P 2 0.150
Jaginal 209 )92.2+ 13% )1%.5+ 0.25&
0.019'
0.95% 0.3%9
0.083'
1.%&%
Cae-a$ean 18 )&.8+ 12 )8&.1+ 1.00 1.00
9n#epen#ent .a$iable- ente$e# in the initial "o#el: infant:- age, -e, of infant, $eligion, <0C .i-it-, an# "o#e of #eli.e$/.
Khanal et al. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:958 Page 9 of 13 http:!!!.bio"e#cent$al.co"1%&1'
2%5813958
(able 5 Co"pa$i-on of the #ete$"inant- of e,clu-i.e b$ea-tfee#ing in infant- 5
"onth- of age an# un#e$ bet!een 2001 an# 2011, 0epal
3acto$-
?u$.e/
2001
?u$.e/
2011
Mo#el 1 Mo#el 1
b
Mo#el 2
<#Du-te#
AB 95* C9
<#Du-te#
AB 95* C9
<#Du-te#
AB 95* C9
9nfant:- age )"onth-+ P ; 0.001 p ; 0.001 P ; 0.001
;2% 3.083
1.825
)5.201+ 9.%%9
3.3&5'
21.%59 1.11
2.3%9
'15.89&
5'1 1.00 1.00 1.00
6cological $egion P 2 0.009 p 2 0.1%8 0?
Mountain 1.00 1.00
Hill 3.%21
1.518'
&.%&% 0.512
0.151'
1.&31
(e$ai 1.8%1
0.9%2'
3.559 1.32%
0.393'
%.%59
3athe$:- occupation P 2 0.018 P 2 0.118 0?
<g$icultu$e 1.00 1.00
P$ofe--ional, cle$ical, -e$.ice, an#
"anual 0.5&8
0.383'
0.8&3 0.559
0.213'
1.%&0
Athe$- )0ot -pecifie#+ 0.281
0.089'
0.919 1.%09
0.293'
1.&%5
Pa$it/ P 2 0.0%5 P 2 0.325
3i$-t 1.00 1.00
?econ# o$ thi$# 1.&81
1.0&1'
2.991 1.30%
0.112'
2.&&&
3ou$th o$ "o$e 1.918
1.020'
3.&99 0.581
0.201'
1.&09
Place of #eli.e$/ P 2 0.031 P 2 0.219 0?
Ho"e 1.881
1.0%%'
3.%0& 0.111
0.311'
1.382
Health facilit/ 1.00 1.00
9n#epen#ent .a$iable ente$e# in "o#el 1: age of infant, #e.elop"ent $egion, ecological $egion, "othe$:-
e#ucation, fathe$:- occupation, ethnicit/, $eligion, -e, of chil#, !ealth Euintile, pa$it/, bi$th inte$.al, ti"ing of
p$egnanc/, nu"be$ of <0C .i-it-, #e!o$"ing, i$on con-u"ption #u$ing p$egnanc/, "o#e of #eli.e$/, -iKe of
infant, an# p$elacteal fee#ing. Anl/ -ignificant .a$iable- in bac@!a$# eli"ination p$oce#u$e a$e p$e-ente# in the
table. Jali# ca-e: %81. Mo#el 1
b
: (hi- "o#el inclu#e# the -ignificant .a$iable- of Mo#el 1)2001+ to allo!
co"pa$abilit/. Mo#el 2: 9n#epen#ent .a$iable- ente$e# in the "o#el 2: infant:- age, -e, of infant, $eligion, <0C
.i-it-, an# "o#e of #eli.e$/. 0?: 0ot -ignificant.
since -%%$. *hildhood and newborn
illness management programs such as the
*ommunity Based +ntegrated
9anagement of *hildhood +llness ,*B.
+9*+1 and *om.munity Based 5ewborn
*are =rogram ,*B.5*=1 are two ma>or
programs that focus on breastfeeding
[3(33$2. The *B.+9*+ program was
implemented nationwide in -%%# [3-2.
*B.5*= program started in -%%0 and has
been underway to scale up gradually to
all 0( districts in 5epal [302. These
programs recommend that the health
wor6ers assist mothers by providing
6nowledge and s6ills to breastfeed. ?uch
support from the health wor6ers would
encourage mothers to exclusively
breastfeed their infants for longer.
The association of father:s occupation
with EBF has been inconsistent [/033#2.
This study found similar incon.sistencies3
whereby father:s occupation was associated
with EBF in -%%$ but not in -%//. Fathers
who wor6 in profes.sional3 clerical3 service3
and manual occupations usually go
(able 1 P$opo$tion )95* C9+ of e,clu-i.e b$ea-tfe# infant- b/ age
N
, 0epal 2001 an#
2011
9nfant:-
age 0=H? 2001 0=H? 2011
0
P$e.alence )95*
C9+
7
0
P$e.alence )95*
C9+
7
; one
5
2 90.1 )&9.2'91.1+ 151& &8.% )20.0'98.1+
Ane
1
8 85.3 )&1.0'91.3+ 323% 81.1 )&3.3'93.3+
(!o
&
% 53.% )%1.8'1%.&+ %331 &%.8 )5&.0'8&.0+
(h$ee
8
& 53.5 )%0.&'15.9+ %&50 &0.0 )5&.0'81.2+
3ou$
9
9 32.0 )19.9'%&.0+O 50%9 15.5 )%8.1'&9.1+O
3i.e
1
0
2 33.1 )23.8'%3.9+ %031 33.1 )19.1'50.8+
;-i,
"onth-
%
8
2 53.2 )%&.1'59.3+ 22& 11.3 )51.1'&%.8+
7
the p$opo$tion $ep$e-ent- the pe$centage afte$ a#Du-ting fo$ -tu#/ #e-ign an# -a"ple !eight. (hi- "a/ not be
eEual to -i"ple calculation of p$opo$tion.
N
(he age of the infant $ep$e-ent- the age at the ti"e of -u$.e/.
O?tati-ticall/ -ignificant #iffe$ence at p ; 0.05.

antage# )CanDati+ Belati.031 %3 118 1& )18.128 93 )%1. 2+ )&5.1+ 211)51. 8+ )11. cle$ical.el/ #i-a#. %+ 0.antage# )=alit+ Beligion Hin#u Athe$?e.2+ )2. 1+ 105 )15.0+ 0. -e$.8+ )25.1+ 118 109 )52.occupation <g$icultu$e P$ofe--ional.3+ 101 )13.&%1 )31.2+ &% 59 )32. 10 %+ 0.8+ 0. 0+ )%8.1+ 13& )5&.%+ 0. 0+ &3 )10. of chil# Male 3e"ale &1 )1%.2+ 81 )12.5+ 0. 3+ 31 )1&.0+ )&1.ice.5+ )11. 21 %+ 0. 0+ 0. %+ 12 )15.%+ 13% )%8. an# "anual Athe$.2+ )51.9+ 2 5 0 2 3 2 125 )18.%+ 51 )%&.9+ )%8.&+ 1 & 1 1 9 5 1 1 1 9 8 1 5 5 1 1 9 % 2 0 32 )51.>o$@ing )pai#+ 3athe$:.2+ 9& )%8.antage# Belati.%+ . 1+ )21.9+ )32.el/ a#.&+ 5 )32. 2+ n 2 )83.2+ 108 )%8.081 )51.2+ 3% )15.291 )%1.0&8 190 3& 12 )12. 9+ )&3.)0ot -pecifie#+ 6thnicit/ Belati. 3+ &3 )&2. 2+ )59.el/ #i-a#.003 19 )8. 2+ 15 %2 39 )11.221 )8&. 9+ )&.

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