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Frequency VC VL VR I0 (KHz) Amplitude Phase Amplitude Phase Amplitude Phase Amplitude Phase (VPP) (Deg.) (VPP) (Deg.

) (VPP) (Deg.) (VPP) (Deg.) 1 1.50 -90 1.51 90 9.5 0 0.0095 0 2 0.72 -105 2.95 80 9.0 -10 0.0090 -10

Q1) As we change the frequency above 1KHz, the VPP of the resistor decreases, and the phase decreases. Conversely, when we reduce it to below 1KHz, the phase increases whilst the VPP reduces as well. But at 1KHz, the maximum value of VPP is seen, VPP of VR = VPP of VS = 10V. The total phase difference at this frequency is 0. The input frequency of 1KHz is the natural frequency of the RLC circuit. At this frequency, resonance occurs because the imaginary components of the impedance of the capacitor equal the imaginary component of the inductor. Hence there is a net phase angle of zero, and total impedance of the circuit = R. This is where current in the circuit is maximum = VR/R and VPP of VR = VPP of VS = 10V. The difference of 0.5V between 10V (VS) and 9.5V(VR) is due to experimental error.

Q2) From the graph it can be seen that by using VS as a reference, VL leads VS by 90 deg (phase difference of 90 deg). VC lags VS by 90 deg (phase difference of -90 deg). But VR is in phase with IS and VS, so the phase difference is 0. This is by the assumption that the positive angle is taken in the anticlockwise direction. This is true because impedance of inductor = impedance of capacitor since 1KHz is the natural frequency, so the imaginary components cancel each other and the net phase difference is 0. This is when resonance occurs, and VPP of VR = VPP of VS = 10V. The small difference of 0.5V is due to experimental error.