MINDS ARE LIKE PARACHUTES - THEY ONLY FUNCTION WHEN ARE OPEN. SO, OPEN YOURS.

THOMAS DEWAR

LIBRO GUIA DE NEGOCIO Y CONTABILIDAD “CARTILLA DIDACTICA”

REALIZADO POR LUIE FERNANDO SUAREZ

DOCENTE

LUIS FERNANDO SUAREZ

INSTITUCION EDUCATIVA AMERICA SEDE PEDRO JUSTO BERRIO

PUERTO BERRIO 10 DE ABRIL DEL 2011

INTRODUCTION

This primer is performed as a useful resource to strengthen some necessary fundamentals in terms of the technical vocabulary of the commercial, accounting and business needs a person who studies and works in this area.

READINGS
1. WHO INVENTED THE WORD “PERFECT”, ANYWAY?

Ok, you‟re looking in the “Segunda Mano” for a new job...we all know that feeling of anticipation – what‟s going to be in there for me? – as your eyes skate down the page looking for that one job that suits you, or at least seems interesting enough to spend a stamp on. If nothing looks good under your preferred job heading, you may entertain the idea of looking in other fields – but as you search through, you start to realize that the offers in your field, the strangest offers, the ones you don‟t understand, and those you‟d never admit to even reading, have one thing in common.... “Imprescindible hablar inglés”. And you ever-so-nonchalantly flip over to the “formación” section of the want ads – “Academias de Inglés” From my experience in preparing students for interviews in English, I have basically found that there are two types of interviews. This of course is not the be all and end all of job interviews, but here are some tips for both types I‟ve seen – and some common questions... Interview 1 – The "Guy just want to see if you speak English (even if we can’t)" interview. This tends to be common in jobs such as sales, administration, secretarial jobs, IT, some legal positions, travel and tourism, business, marketing, advertising, well, you name it! And is usually a combination interview – part in Spanish and part in English. Depending on the amount of English that you would actually have to speak if you were to land this job, the interview may be more or less rigorous. I have seen everything from students being interviewed by someone who hardly speaks English at all, to being interviewed by a native. However, this type of interview tends to be less job specific (they usually ask the labor-related questions in the Spanish part of the interview) – and more geared towards how well you “speak English”. From wha t I

have been told and have seen, the English part of this interview tends to last around 15 minutes, and sometimes even less. This interview can be more difficult in the sense that the interviewer‟s only job is to pay attention to how you speak English, or rather, how well you speak English. So, you may feel more under pressure as far as vocabulary and structure. However, it is easier in the sense that the questions asked are usually quite basic and colloquial, and are only intended to get you to speak in different tenses and in a variety of contexts. Some of the common questions in these types of interviews (among others) are: 1. Tell me about yourself. (this is such a fun question to answer!) 2. Where are you from? 3. What is there to see in your town? 4. What do you do in your free time? (answering “I study English in my free time” is a “PELOTA” answer! Don’t insult your interviewer) 5. How did you learn English? 6. How long have you studied English? 7. Have you traveled to any English-speaking countries, spent time abroad? 8. How did you like (country)? 9. How long were you in (country)? 10. Tell me about your experience in (country). (this type of question , “tell me about...”, usually comes up when you are being a “listo” and only giving short answers to avoid speaking and they want to hear you talk more.) 11. What was (country) like? (this is, among other things, to see if you really went to this place, so if you haven’t, and you’re telling “porky pies” (lies) you better get “googling” your chosen pla ce before the interview!!) 12. Did you like the people? (Please, if your interviewer is from the same country you studied in, and you hated the people and/or the food, maybe this isn’t the time to show how honest you are.) 13. What are you doing now to keep up your English skills? (Needless to say, picking up “Guiris” at bars is not a good answer.) 14. How have you had to use English at work in the past? 15. What did you do in your last job? 16. What are your strengths and weaknesses? (even more fun than question #1! Trust me, we all “work too hard” – be creative with your weakness!) Interview 2 – The –"¡Cágate lorito! ¿Por qué no fui a Oxford a estudiar - por mi cara bonita - cuando mis papis me lo ofrecían?" - interview. Yes, the interview of all interviews!!! The, “I‟m going to work for a foreign company” interview. Undoubtedly this can be a more difficult interview to handle. First of all, your interviewer will most likely have impeccable English skills. You need to be comfortable with your English speaking skills – confident. The good thing about these interviews is that the minor mistakes (unless it‟s for a UN translator or something of that sort) usually don‟t count so much against you. I‟m not saying you can get away with murder, however the interviewers aren‟t usually as hung up on grammar as your COU English teacher was. Usually the interviewer is interested in your skills in your field, if you can speak fluently and confidently, and if you understand what they are asking you. Listening comprehension plays a big role in these interviews (in all interviews). One of our worst enemies are our own nerves when we listen to someone speak in another language – we get so nervous about not understanding them, we actually end up getting confused, all on our own. Or, at the

first word we don‟t understand, we lose the next ten, stuck on that one darn word and/or freaking out. What‟s this, you say? AAAAGH! Phrasal Verb!!! Freaking out?

According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary (great resource, by the way): FREAK function: verb intransitive uses: 1: to withdraw from reality especially by taking drugs -- often used with out 2 : to experience nightmarish hallucinations as a result of taking drugs -- often used with out 3 a : to behave irrationally or unconventionally under the influence of drugs -- often used with out b : to react with extreme or irrational distress or discomposure -- often used with out Ok, we‟re talking about 3b here, the modern definition. The other 3 are what my parents wer e probably doing in the late 60‟s. (Just kidding Mom and Dad!) Anyway, and in summary – the important thing is to relax and to not get hung up on that one stupid word! If you find yourself in a situation where you find it really difficult to understand the interviewer, you have to make every effort to go with the flow and get the idea of what they are asking or saying. And move on! The same goes for when you are speaking and can‟t remember a certain expression. Get over it and work around it! By doing this, you are also showing your problem-solving skills in English, demonstrating that you can SURVIVE in these situations. Ok, enough chit chat– Here are some more common questions to prepare for this type, or any type of interview. You then have to add on other questions specific to your field and practice, practice, practice! 2. Tell me about yourself. / How would you describe yourself? (you’ll never escape this question!!!) 2. Why did you leave your last job? 3. What did you like most/least about your last job? 4. What do you see yourself doing five years from now? Ten years from now? 5. What are your long range and short range goals and objectives? 6. Why did you choose this career? 7. Why did you go into (profession)? (this is another way of asking question 6) 8. How well do you work with people? 9. Do you work better alone or in a team? 10. How would you describe your work ethic? 11. How well do you work under pressure? 12. Why should we hire you? /Why should we hire you over the other candidates? 13. What makes you qualified for this position? 14. What qualities do you think make up a good (job title)? 15. What's one of the hardest decisions you've ever had to make? 16. What two or three things are most important to you in your job? 17. What accomplishments have given you the most satisfaction? Why? 18. Describe the most rewarding experience of your career thus far. 19. What do you think it takes to be successful in a company like ours? 20. In what ways do you think you can make a contribution to our company? 21. Why did you decide to seek a position in this company? 22. What can you tell us about our company? 23. What do you know about our competitors? 24. What two or three things are most important to you in your job?

25.Chief Executive Officer – This person is the top executive responsible for a company's operations. In private companies. "Directors" are usually officers who form part of the Board of Directors. What are your strengths and weaknesses? (ha! ha! ha! you’ll never escape this one either!) 2. the Chairman of the Board may also be the CEO (as well as the President). Chairman of the Board – This person is appointed to be the head of the Board of Directors. Two Main Executive Officers The executive officers manage the whole company. This person reports to the board of directors. This person is . They develop global strategies. A GENERIC CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY Board of Directors A board of directors is a group of people who either control or execute (or both) the general business affairs of a corporation. Would you be willing to live in another country? 27. How do you feel about traveling? 26. CEO .

Executive Manager. The existence and titles of these departments depend on the corporations themselves (i. . In some cases the president acts as the “Chief Operating Officer” under the direction of the Chief Executive Officer. Accounting.) Departments: There are usually a variety of departments in companies: Sales. Support. Marketing. Country (i. etc.e. Production. workers with very similar titles can have very different job-descriptions. Sometimes the titles vary in different countries depending on the laws governing corporations there. Other times. the least important) is what you say.). Purchasing. R&D. Director. etc. Executive Director. etc. Executive Vice-President. Finance. their needs and company culture). the second most important is how you talk. There are also a variety of tagsthat accompany these titles: Executive (i. Country Manager). Legal. Projects. Also. the third most important (in fact. The titles that companies give their employees depend on their company‟s origins.e. the hierarchical structures in different companies can be very different. "Vice-Presidents in Charge of Departments ("Vice-President" or another title. It is too easy to concentrate all your efforts on the content of your presentation neglecting the 'performance' aspect of it. the CEO appoints a president.e. (i.e. The title of the departments themselves can serve as part of the employees‟ titles: Sales Director. President – “President” is a title in many corporations. Surveys have shown that to capture and then to keep an audience's attention the most important thing is how you look and how you move your body (body language). Vice President of Sales. Also. Regional.sometimes also the president of the company. Manner and Voice Have you ever been asked to make a presentation in English? Being able to present professionally in English can give your career a boost and propel you up the corporate ladder. their cultures and their particular needs. which can create a need for very different departments 3. PRESENTING IN ENGLISH A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 1 – Looks. etc. Human Resources. Regional Manager). There are a variety of titles for the people who are in charge of the departments in companies: Vice-President. Workers with very similar job-descriptions working in different companies may have completely different titles and salaries. Human Resources Director. etc. Accounting Manager. IT (information technology). Manager.

try to face the audience. don't look at your Powerpoint presentation when you're speaking. the first thing you have to do is to be smart. Stress important words or phrases for emphasis and pause afterwards to ensure the audience understands the significance of the points and have time to absorb them. The actor John Wayne once said: “talk low. Just wait and see and all will become clear. In addition. Don't put your hands in your pockets or look at the floor. you should write a script for the first part of the introduction and the last part of the conclusion beforehand and learn both by heart. Listen to the way that politicians speak. Use repetition and contrast opposing points again for emphasis. The majority of the presentation will be 'ad hoc' (or unscripted) in that you will be using your own words as you follow the pre-prepared plan. How you talk. Don't talk too quickly. The introduction will include a summary of the main part (what you are going to say) and the conclusion will also include a summary of the main part (what you said).So. a main part and a conclusion. that's easy. within reach as you . make eye contact with members of the audience. Chinese and even Spanish! So how will it give you any particular help when you present in English? Well. Ask rhetorical questions. the ones that you know the audience would likely want to ask themselves. You should print a copy of the scripts and the plan and keep them make the presentation. This makes it easy for the audience to follow the presentation and to differentiate the main subject matter from background contextual content. The main part will be divided into sections or topic areas. what about body language? Well. Bear this in mind when you are planning your presentation and you'll be starting off on the right foot. Your presentation will have an introduction. you should derive approximate timings for each part of the presentation as a help in estimating the duration of the talk and as a means of reviewing your progress as you speak. However. Now. you just have to buy a new outfit at El Corte Inglés. This will allow the audience to understand the structure of the presentation and to follow its logical flow. Keep them on their toes. move around. OK. A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 2 – Planning and why all this Preparation is Important. You may have noticed that in Part 1 all the advice could equally apply to giving a presentation in German. Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion. this part will also be applicable to any language but both will be invaluable for non-native English speakers preparing presentations in English. talk slow and don't talk too much”. use your hands. Next thing.

and most importantly..” “To move on to my next point . Don‟t forget it is important to check the progress of the presentation against the schedule.......... By memorising parts of your presentation. reducing the mental effort involved with navigating your way through the various stages of the presentation... This could be a wall clock. We will cover this issue in the next episode... it will give you time and help you conserve your mental energy.. so make sure you have some kind of timer available.. mobile phone or watch but if you use a wrist watch.. use emphasis and pauses to „punctuate‟ your points.. by preparing your introduction beforehand... Furthermore..So. By effective planning you will save on the concentration needed to navigate the talk giving yourself the opportunity to be more relaxed and natural.” . your audience can read. However.. by carefully planning your presentation we have reduced the amount of ´thinking on your feet‟ that you will need to do.... don‟t forget... Similarly.. a pre-rehearsed ending to the presentation will ensure you don't forget to leave the audience with the important points clear in their minds.. it is the professional way to do things and will give you the best chance of giving an effective talk. Keep your hands above your waist and use movement and body language to complement your voice in putting across your message. take it off and put it in front of you. You will need to decide if you you prefer taking questions during the talk or leaving them until the end.. Manner and Voice (Part 1) and Planning (Part 2) important for your English presentation? First of all... So.” “To go back to what I was saying . for nonnative English speakers. why are Looks. This will allow you to concentrate on the content of your talk. Language to help you navigate the talk may include: “To start off then . you will be able to ease your way into the presentation allowing yourself to get over the most nerve-racking part of all. Do not turn your back on the audience when referring to the screen and try not to read verbatim from the displayed text......... talk precisely and clearly. by speaking more slowly and pausing you will give yourself time and you will conserve your energy. Secondly. Keep your notes (with timings) in front of you and refer to them when you need to. the first five minutes. you will save the energy involved in producing 'ad hoc' language and you will ensure that during the most important stages of the presentation (the beginning and the end) you will say what you planned to say. You need more time and energy (perhaps better described as concentration) to convert what you want to say into English words and sentences than you do in your native language. As we mentioned before. A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 3 – The Performance The obvious problem when presenting in a language other than your own is nerves.

.” Language to help you with your visual material may include: “Take a look at this.....“To give you an example of what I mean .......” You may ask......... imagine the person or people you‟re writing about and put yourself in their shoes asking yourself the following questions: Who are my readers? (Prioritise your readers based on your purpose: Key and non-key readers) What background information or knowledge do they have? What are their attitudes to the subject matter of the report? What are they looking to find in the report? . ..... .” “To digress for a moment .. 4. THE "4-STEP" GUIDE TO REPORT WRITING Writing reports in English can be timeconsuming but with practice and a plan you can do it....... I know you know who your readers are.... Here are some practical tips to a simple “4-step guide” to get you started.” “As you can see.. inform. recommend.. but how much information do you know about them? Close your eyes..” “To summarise . “what about questions and interruptions?” Well..... Who are my readers? Yes. motivate action and instruct. persuade.. in the next episode we will look at how to deal with unanticipated events and the language needed to overcome potential problems.” “I'd like to point out.. .” “To sum up then . how will your readers know? Possible purposes include: to educate.. ......... ..... 1) Think Why am I writing? It sounds obvious but if you don‟t know exactly the purpose of your report.. .

Plan While reading all of part (1) jot down any ideas you have and slowly expand them. It has to have a logical flow. It should include. Instead they will skim read using your contents page and executive summary to guide them and they‟ll thank you for doing that. next steps and follow-up. Separate each idea and focus on it entirely.” instead of “It is recommended that …. The Executive Summary is your secret weapon to grabbing the attention of the reader by giving them a taste of the benefits inside your report. conclusions reached and recommendations. who has time to read a 15-20 page report in English? Readers will only read your report if it has something that benefits them. so you can guide the reader and prove to the reader that your ideas have merit. Structuring the report depends on the purpose of your report and the readers. For example “We recommend that …. Write The order in which you present your ideas is critical. Keep it brief. I always assume that most readers are very busy and so will not read all the report. Executive Summary and Recommendations 2. Include it in the executive summary and also put it in the beginning so the reader knows what follows will support your key message and will help the readers reach a conclusion.. Group all your ideas together that require a similar action. Appendices Lets be realistic. What action do I want my readers to take? What outcomes do you want? What do you want your reader to do after reading your report? This is where you deliver your recommendations. Content 4. background information. Be confident in your recommendations and give them importance by using the active instead of the passive voice. you must decide what your key message is. 2. Most business reports follow this typical structure: 1. key issues. to the point and ideally no more than 1 page.” Be clear and to the point. 3. For example: Option 1 will be the best in the short term. Conclusion 5. . Introduction 3.What is my key message? Once you know the purpose of your report. but option 2 offers a better long term solution. your findings. purpose. A mind-map is an excellent visual tool to organise this.

Make main ideas and recommendations stand-out by using bullet points. ask your colleagues if they can recommend a translator with expertise in your industry or sector. MOTIVATING STAFF A woman waits a good while at the counter to pay for her purchase. It's as simple as saying "good job" or "thank you". Do you think this customer will return? Perhaps.Use layout to help the reader skim read and quickly find the information they want. 4. 5. Which day will your team be more efficient? Now. graphics and colour. Now change that situation to a happy start. So here are some quick Be tips to keep up the morale of your team: cheerful and transmit happiness as in the previous example. Make sure everyone knows what's expected from them. but I assure you she won't be doing any word of mouth marketing for you. smiling and pats on the backs. If you can‟t find two proof readers. you either have a very strange team or I'm inclined to think the answer is the second day. This type of attitude doesn't only have negative effects in customer service. . When an employee finally attends her she doesn't receive a smile nor a "thank you". growling at everyone in your team. headings. Find two proof readers you know to read and critique your report. Secondly someone with a high level of English or a native to check and critique the clarity and simplicity of your ideas. Firstly someone who is knowledgeable in the area to check and critique the technical content of your ideas. Use motivational words. but also in other areas of the company: Imagine you arrive to work stressed and grumpy. Revise Only keep the ideas you‟re 100% confident in. bolding. subheadings.

And also. not just as workers. generous profit sharing schemes and stock options created the necessary team spirit that is essential for success. Schedule regular periods where you can dedicate more time to them. He pointed out that they are always in touch with their employees even when they are not at work: maternity leave. Chairman of Southwest Airlines explained to Mark Morrison (Managing Editor at BusinessWeek) the importance that the motivation of his people had played in the success of the company. retired. decrease the number of meetings! I just didn‟t believe the techies. such Establish a good Make employees feel part of the company through as profit sharing. "Do we really need to meet?" Maybe you can solve issues through other communication tools. Talk about their goals and help them develop and achieve these goals. stock options or similar schemes. Managers complained that at least 50% of their time spent in meetings was a complete waste of time. Motivating is a full-time job. MEETINGS Technology was supposed to be the answer to the work-life balance and whisper it.. you can never relax. showing that they value them as individuals. I'm sure you are not too different from your team members. MEETINGS. Be disciplined. 6. Guide them and never forget that a good leader can delegate all except their responsibility. MEETINGS. recent research has said that most managers spend at least 60% of their time in meetings in comparison to 45% in the 1970´s. Well dig deep and honestly ask yourself and colleagues. you say "of course we need to meet". talking over a coffee or by using technology such as instant messenger. Provide leadership. So what can be done? Well it‟s not rocket science. rewarding system. here are tips I compiled from the experts: Do we need to meet? "What a stupid question".Talk to your employees on a regular basis and tell them when they are doing things well. Think about what makes you tick. Herb Kelleher.. Well surprise surprise. Make time for people. sick. . Be fair and consistent in your disciplinary system when they fail to perform.

what should be included and not included. Shoddy work helps nobody.. where attendees agreed to action points and then at the next meeting turned up and gave excuses. Take a deep breath and quickly relive that feeling before you speak during the meeting.. Do what you say We‟ve all been to meetings. forums.. be clear about what you want to as the meeting leader or as an attendee. . action-orientated and get all attendees to agree to what they said. Why why why? Well. people assume it's important.blogs. those people who prepare answers to key issues before going into a meeting.. This person needs to be respected by all attending.. remember past occasions where you‟ve communicated successfully in English and focus on how great you felt afterwards. North Americans and Northern Europeans) use meeting agendas to prevent rambling and irrelevancy.g.". etc. say something like "We should consider. achieve their goals quickly and painlessly.. If you do have a meeting. emails.. Other cultures hate being constrained by such a rigid structure and prefer to have more free flowing meetings.. while also giving you time to think. keep it brief. Make sure you book the meeting room and check it has everything you need. Tongue-tied We‟ve all been in international meetings where we wanted to speak but we couldn‟t and sat in silence. Meeting Minutes It‟s the worst job in the meeting.. just say no and explain why.. like a projector and teleconference facilities.. PAUSE (2 seconds).. Also it makes sure that people do what they say and when! So keep meeting minutes accurate. motivation plummets and nobody takes the meetings seriously. Secondly use pauses and eye contact. but someone has to keep a record of what was said by everybody. to the point and relevant. is the meeting leader or chair.. Pauses focus attention on what you have to say. So think before you agree to an action point and if you‟re over stretched. Trust is broken.. In the summary the meeting leader should gain commitment to action points by meeting attendees. tongue-tied unsure of the correct English expression or phrase to use. Prepare well achieve either Surprise surprise.... those meeting minutes provide clues if you need to meet again and if so. have a strong personality to control the meeting covering all major points/issues and to promote an inclusive atmosphere. When giving invitees background information.. Both methods have their merits. Before you go to meetings. brief.. Leading a meeting Some cultures (e. taking meeting minutes. Only invite those who are essential and relevant to the meeting issues. what is important to both.. because.

Well-known brands like Body Shop.The Boutique Agency . So. founder of Cloud Communications explains in BusinessWeek (Business Week) that there are four types of agencies: . So agree meeting ground rules before starting a meeting and don‟t be afraid to remind people of these during the meeting! 7. GENERATING PUBLICITY According to Al and Linda Ries in their book "Fall of Advertising and the Rise of PR" the importance of PR is changing and they argue that PR has become the most effective way to build a brand.The Big Agency . Lilli Cloud. yet their brand awareness is huge. you can put yourself in hands of professionals and depending on your needs and characteristics choose the type of PR agency that best fits you. Often we become emotional and make issues personal and make personal comments instead of keeping things objective.Respect people Well. This maybe acceptable in some cultures but others find it confrontational and not the best way to facilitate cooperation.The Independent Consultant In this article she explains the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. what can we do to generate publicity? Well. However in the heat of the moment. I‟m not suggesting we‟re rude people or we lack manners. interrupting and shouting at people we don‟t agree with. if you are more adventurous here is a quick seven step guide to start generating publicity for your company or project: . PlayStation and Harry Potter spend very little on advertising.The Small Agency . we often forget our manners. However.

here the importance of step two and developing a good database of contacts. this will increase the chances of it getting itpublished. Make sure the story is news and not just promotion.make a list of all the publications. STEP 5: Send the press release .STEP 1: Determine your target . These seven steps are developed in more detail in Al Lautenslager'sarticle on Entrepreneur. this will increase the likelihood of generating publicity. etc. STEP 6: Other uses for your press release .Study a few press releases on similar topics and write a short story using a similar style.com. STEP 3: Determine the story . STEP 2: Develop a database of contacts . TELEPHONING TIPS .publish it on your Web site. TV channels you want to reach.brainstorm ideas on possible stories and bring this down to around 12 topics which cankeep you going for at least 1 year. place them on handouts and fliers. radio stations. STEP 4: Write the press release . STEP 7: Develop relationships with contacts . mail it to customers and prospects. 8.dedicate time to improve your relationships with those that decide what gets published.Decide in which section the news you will generate best fits in and find outwho's the primary editor or reporter of this section.

a friendly response will calm down even the most beastly of creatures. but I will outline some interesting tipswhich you may use: Smile . Hang up gently . Are you sure you're making the most of that time or could you improve? As always. make an effort to slowdown the conversation. yet few people ever do specific telephone skills training.. I also recommend you pay special attention to the preparation and think through the imaginary phone call to recreate the situation. etc. Now just think of all those important phone calls you have made during the last month and well. . Speak loudly and clearly . there's no need to cause a bad last impression by slamming down the receiver and causing a loud noise at the other end of the line.Don't be in a hurry. Prepare .Have all your resources at hand.Stay calm in all situations. you should get you voice across without confusion and speak into the mouthpiece and do not place the phone under your chin. Slow down . there is no rush.Take notes and never interrupt your caller. Take notes . It is in your interest to set a slow pace to help you understand and not get lost half way through the call.. info.Although you should speak in a low tone to avoid the shrillness of the phone. I'm sure there's room for improvement.If the phone call is difficult or very important prepare it well before calling. by speaking slowly you transmit calmness and confidence. Also. Repeat Agreements . repeat concisely what you have agreed on to avoid confusion. the not so important ones too. but I'm not going to provide a full training course. Don't be provoked .Although people say it's the first impression that counts. If the telephone call is in English.This week's topic is about a very common business tool. and about all those wonderful tips I have found out there on the net. If you think you are speaking a touch too slow. Although the widespread use of email has reduced its use. by smiling you'll project a friendly and interesting voice which is always important. the telephone.Smile when you pick up the phone. giving you that extra time to think and digest the information. Your notes will also be useful here. don't waste time and confuse your caller by looking for pens. Resources at hand . You can do this by first being modest and asking the caller to speak slowly as English isn't your native tongue and during the conversation speak slowly yourself and repeat information as the person speaks.In the end. but never use the keyboard. Think specially about what you want to achieve and the objections that may arise.. Your notes will help you come back to things you want to say and remember the important details once the call has finished. the phone is still a very important tool for business communication. you are probably speaking at just the right speed. it will make them feel you are not with them..

On the other hand the “Brave Researcher” wants to know about the company.9. “Hello I‟m (first name) (last name). Make a Good First Impression Fourth. It‟s a pleasure meeting you”. So. 2. their jargon and the type of people who work there. you‟ll get there faster and it looks incredibly unprofessional to arrive with someone. but there are strategies and techniques that can certainly increase your chances. 2. see: Corporate Hierarchy) This critical information enables them to paint a picture in their minds of the exact culture and candidate profile the company is seeking. how do you prepare? Well most of us adopt the “Chicken Researcher” approach. (For more on this type of vocabulary. A smile. 10 STEPS FOR GETTING THE JOB YOU WANT! There are no sure ways to guarantee that you get the job you want. the culture. Public Relations and Human Resources. Research the Company (Section titles not in MP3) First. This picture is then used as a reference point for all their answers and “pacing”. . Get your support from friends and family before the interview. 4. Arrive late and you‟ll start the interview with an apology and provide the interviewer with evidence that you‟re not time conscious. we usually make judgements about people in the first 2-5 minutes of meeting them. relying on the Internet and asking friends. They call all the departments that communicate information about the company. so you‟ve got the interview. Marketing. Arrive on time Third. go to an interview alone. not too early or too late. 3. if you arrive too early. Also starting with an apology puts you into a subordinate role in the interview as opposed to the role you want as an equal and possible future colleague. Why? Well. you‟llput pressure on the interviewer and they‟ll react badly to this and resent you disturbing their work. Go alone Second. too embarrassed to speak to the company directly. such as Sales. 3. although we all consider ourselves open-minded and fair. how do wemake the right first impression? 1. Direct eye contact for trust. discussed later in point 6. Here are ten steps that trainers recommend: 1. arrive on time.

Lean forward in your seat slightly and try the phrases: “My background fits this position well. Next use “Action Words” when answering. 6.” “innovate.” etc. Be Positive Seventh. Buzz words are popular words the company and its employees use when talking about the company or describing its products or services. either as a problemsolving situation of “the interviewer and me against the problem” or as a confrontational situation of “the interviewer against me”. Flatter the Interviewer Eight. you believe you have the skills and personality this company needs to continue being successful. it‟s the language of achievers. don‟t take a subordinate role. One good technique is. Then try reading the body language of the interviewer and subtlycopying some of it. We all love to receive flattery and compliments as long as it‟s natural and not fake. You decide. 5.” 7. Action words are dynamic and energetic.” “I believe I fit the profile you are looking for.” “persuade. Be like the Interviewer Sixth. Use your research about the company to give compliments about the interviewer and their company. Concentrate! .” “initiate. flattery will get you everywhere. one technique to use is “Pacing. Daniel Goleman. try and sit next to or beside the interviewer as opposed to a confrontational position of directly opposite. you‟re not asking for the job as a favour.” “lead. Finally.” Pacing includes learning and using the company‟s buzz words or jargon.” “effective. 9.4. inappropriate and tarnishes your image. There are two ways of viewing an interview. Be natural and concentrate on the things that the company has done or does that have impressed you. 8. it‟ll enhance your image with the interviewer. but not all of it as it‟ll become obvious. the famous author of “Emotional Intelligence. “People like people who like them” and “People like people who ARE like them”. align yourself with the interviewer.” “What you are offering looks like a long term position. not on the negative. A firm but gentle handshake. So how can we use this in an interview? Well. examples include: “implement. It looks incredibly unprofessional. never ever criticise your previous employers. Remember you‟re talking to a potential colleague and an equal. find an area of agreement and start to lead the interviewer toward the job offer.” talks about the powerful psychological impact of. Focus on past successes. if the interviewer offers you the choice of where to sit.” “I‟m excited about the position. Be Equal Fifth.” “motivate.

titles. .” A firm but gentle handshake. WHAT NEGOTIATION STYLE DO YOU HAVE? Films and media like to show that there is only one negotiation style that matters. buzz words. as the interview reaches its natural end you start to lose your concentration. “It sounds like a great opportunity” or “I'll look forward to hearing from you. identified 5 common negotiation styles and how those styles interacted. etc. 4. and finally. Recent research by Professor G. to use in the second interview or follow-up letter! How? One technique is to drink a coffee before the interview to maintain your concentration for longer. A smile. a competitive style. at the end of the interview you want to make a confident and long lasting impression on your interviewer. Richard Shell from the prestigious Wharton School of Business. 3. The words. 2. “To have formal discussions with someone in order to reach an agreement.Nine.” And a long lasting agreement and commitment comes from cooperation. continue listening for information. but we‟ll discuss that later. names. how do negotiations break down? What are the reasons for people breaking agreements? The Cambridge English dictionary defines a negotiation as. where you win and the other person loses! But if that was always the case. Don‟t! Maintain concentration and be as attentive as possible. 10. Direct eye contact for trust. First let‟s try to understand why it is important to know what mix of negotiation styles you have.University of Pennsylvania. How? 1. Make a Long-Lasting Impression Ten. 10.

you become more aware of the other person‟s negotiation style and also how different negotiation styles interact. . How can you prepare an effective negotiation strategy if you don‟t know how you will react under pressure. Neither can you prepare effective responses to what the other person does in the negotiation without self-awareness. in different situations and conditions? The answer is that you can‟t unless you know your own negotiation style first. Trust comes from being natural and being yourself. then to be an effective negotiator you need to generate trust between yourself and the other person. the negotiation process can be divided into the following stages: preparation. not from trying to be something you‟re not. information exchange. Once you‟re aware of your negotiation style you know what can realistically be improved and what can‟t. Remember. If reaching an agreement in a negotiation is based on cooperation and cooperation is based on trust. Let's concentrate on the negotiation process: firstly preparation. These can all be greatly reduced from increasing your knowledge of the negotiation process and negotiation strategies. a fake. threats and time. Knowing whatoutcomes the interactions of different negotiations styles produces enables you to better choose the most effective negotiation strategy to reach an agreement with them.For most cultures of the world. The greatest fear people have about negotiations is the fear of what they will lose. Other fears include a lack of alternatives. you‟re not that good an actor! If you‟re more aware of your own negotiation style. Trying to be competitive when you hate competition will make you appear fake and you‟ll lose trust. explicit bargaining. and commitment.

Problem Solver: The most imaginative thinkers who think about fair “win/win” solutions and greater solutions that “make the pie bigger. you lose. Avoider (B) Avoider (A) Compromiser (B) Good Bad Good Good Bad Good Accommodator Competitor Problem (B) (B) – Solver (B) Bad Bad Bad Good Good Bad Good Bad Bad Good Good Good Good Good Good Compromiser Bad (A) Accommodator Bad (A) Competitor (A) Bad Problem – Bad Solver (A) His research showed that people who have the same negotiation style quickly understood each other and produced a “Good” outcome. Finally if you don‟t have a problem-solver negotiation style. If the other person is also an accommodator then they return the favour and help solve their problems. What mix of negotiation styles are you? 1. Hence making an agreement with an Avoider very difficult.” Secondly. Compromiser: Their priority is to maintain a productive relationship. We can all learn. A “Problem-Solver” negotiation style produced the best outcomes but is also the hardest to implement due to the complexity of most negotiations. Accommodator: They like to resolve conflict by solving the other person‟s problems. Contrary to popular opinion the “Competitor” produced more “Bad” outcomes than “Good” as most people thought they were difficult. what outcomes (Good or Bad) these negotiation styles produced when two people (A and B) interacted together in a negotiation. If not. 2. giving the other person what they want in order to reach an agreement and preserve the relationship. Firstly. Avoider: Hate conflicts and avoid them at all costs. the other person takes and gives nothing in return. 5.Professor G. 3. there are 5 negotiation styles and most people have a mix of these negotiation styles. So they will make a compromise first. They believe if they win. Effective negotiating is as much about attitude as style. Competitor: They like to win and be in control of the situation. don‟t worry. 4. Richard Shell‟s research identified 2 things. practice and adopt the habits of the most effective negotiators: .

. (This one may be easier: Activity 2.. Is the task going to add value to your work? 3. This will help you keep on the right track: 1. Prioritize.I don't have time to organise!" when we should be thinking ". before I continue with the tips I found. Spend time planning and organising. .. It's the third link at the bottom of the page. so the key is to identify and concentrate on that 20%.) Or simply read the text below and listen to: Now. Goals will give you a sense of direction and will help you plan and prioritize. ask yourself the followingquestions . SAVE TIME Read and listen to this article in this interactive activity: Save Time Activity. Spending five minutes to make a to-do list will help you work through your tasks quicker. Reduce unused time: 1. Is the task you're working on a top priority? 2..A willingness to prepare High expectations The patience to listen A commitment to personal integrity 11. Set goals. 4. If you combine this simple tool with other tips below you can turn it into a powerful time management system.and not just now but frequently at work. 2. which is the next tip. Does your task help achieve your goals? 4. Could someone else be doing it? Just by having these questions in mind your change in attitude will help you make the most of your time. Use Pareto's rule: 20% of the effort will provide 80% of the reward. Use a to-do list.how much time do I lose each day because I'm not organised?" I highly recommend that you read the story Sue McMillin tells in her article to see how important this point is. So here are some tips grouped in the three previously mentioned categories. Do fewer things: 3. Too often we hear ".

Excess reach.so reward yourself for completing tasks. i. try breaking it up into smaller tasks. Consumers are not interested in products. Prime Time. achieving goals orsticking to your to-do list. . nobody will listen to you or even worse. One ad can't tell the whole story. targeted for immediate response. so trying to reach a larger target than your budget allows will decrease effectivity. The quest for instant gratification. This increases its effectivity. your ad will be ignored. Now. you'll probably get rejected. Break up tedious tasks. These ads. Then. This varies from person to person. I believe this is true for any segment. don't forget that when motivated you work faster and better . Repetition is essential to establish retention. Take less time: 7. When you avoid doing something you don't like. your most productive time of the day. Learn to say "NO". Unsustainable claims. .I mean by this that they talk to me in way that I understand and feel comfortable. you should make as many ads as you have points to transmit. Eliminate all trivial tasks and those that don't add value to your work.5. don't create a permanent image of your brand. And to finish. The most important one is the need to think like Hispanics and to talk to them on a Personal level. they are interested in satisfying their desires. 3. The second mistake she points out is the use of stereotypes.e. 2. ADVERTISING ERRORS In her BusinessWeek article at Marketing with an Spanish Accent she points out two major errors. Everyone is attracted by advertising that not only attacks our needs and desires but. 5. Creating Ads instead of campaigns. I reckon that mistakes in advertising are quite common so I decided to look for an article that could point out a few more common errors: 1. 12. 6. If you have done all the above you should be doing the right thing (effectiveness) now you must concentrate on being efficient. 8. Answering the wrong questions. 9. Each ad should make one single point. Otherwise. Reduce urgent tasks. 4. These tasks usually have short-term consequences and you should be concentrating on those with long-term and goal-related implications. This will help you get it out of the way. no-one likes to be classified into a stereotype or do you? Well if you talk to a stereotype. does so in our language. Do the most important tasks in your prime time. Do the right thing right. You must prove what you claim.

. What's better? A clever. Great production without great copy. but I can never remember what they are advertising. Sometimes it's more about saying the right thing because saying the wrong thing to the right people is useless. Overestimating the importance of the qualitative targeting. ingenious advert that leaves people with their mouths open trying to understand what the ad really means or a clear message explaining the reasons why you should buy the product in an informative but persuasive manner.6. I find the last one particularly interesting because there are many adverts on TV which I either don't understand or I spend all day singing their music. Here are just a few things you shouldn't do when advertising:Advertising Mistakes. 7.

What is an executive summary used for in a report? 5. True. Will the woman return to the shop? a. c. Herb says that keeping close contact with employees helps increase motivation. It doesn't say. 3. b. What are the benefits of using two proof readers? Motivating Staff Comprehension Quiz. What are the 4 steps of the “4-step guide”? 2. 2. It's possible. Why do your ideas have to have a logical flow in the flow? 6. b. a. c. False. c. Comprehension Discussion Questions 1.ACTIVITIES. Why do readers skim read? 4. Punishments are bad for motivation? a. Name 3 purposes of writing a report? 3. Yes. It doesn't say. True. False. No. GAMES AND EXCERCISES A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part Comprehension 1. . b.

Meetings Comprehension Quiz Comprehension Discussion Questions 1) What are the alternative communication tools to a meeting? 2) What meeting preparation can you do? 3) What ways can you lead a meeting? 4) Why is important to commit to action points in a meeting? 5) How should meeting minutes be? 6) How can you solve being tongue-tied in meetings? 7) Why have meeting ground rules? .

In your opinion what is the key factor to having a successful interview? 3. Do you think there are more or less than 5 common negotiation styles? 2. In your sector which negotiation style is the most typical? Why? 6. what type of people (negotiation style) do you like to negotiate with? Why? 3. Comprehension Discussion Questions 1. Can you think of other habits of effective negotiators? . How would you change the 10 steps? Why? 2. When have you been most effective in negotiations? 4. When have you been most effective in an interview? What were the reasons for this? Discussion Questions 1. Describe your favourite negotiators? 5. In your opinion.10 Steps Jobs Comprehension Quiz.

A nest 18. Legal 11. Someone who is sharp- 7. price index is a measurement of the changes in the cost of basic goods and life is an exciting way of living in which rich and successful people enjoy is a way of making money quickly. A bank account 15. An 13. A loan is regularly paid by the government to people who do not have a job. The themselves 4. The gravy 6. A trade 17. In the past. A 14. Unemployment 2. The services 3. you are completely without Money 5. easily.SPECIAL EXERCISES 1. A 16. Luncheon 9. and often dishonestly is good at dealing with Money exports is money given by an employer to someone who cannot work because of illness are given by employers to employees to buy meals in some restaurants is the money which can be officially used in a country were gold coins . Sick 8. Services supplied to foreign countries such as banking are called 10. pieces of spiral is when wages and prices take turn to grow in short intervals payment is what a company pays to workers who are no longer needed order is an instruction to a bank to pay some money at regular times to another bank is involved with companies rather than with people is a large gathering at which companies show and sell their products is a sum of money that has been saved or kept for a special purpose charges very large amounts for lending money to someone . If you are stony 12.

4. In hire the buyer pays part of the cost immediately and then makes small regular payments. 5. A person's purchasing A card is a credit card which you can get if you earn a lot of money. An organisation which is profit does not make a profit intentionally (usually charity). 12. Hard is money of a type that has a value in other countries than its own. 8. If you live from hand to to live without suffering. 6. A joint20. it is deserved because lots of rise. A country's national/public is the total amount of money that is owed by its government. company is owned by the group of people who have shares in the company rate is the amount that it charges on money that it lends you $ is the sign. you want more money from your . is their ability to buy goods. . A fundis a person or event which collects money. 17. 13. . 3. 7.19. Free is an economic system in which private businesses compete with each other. A ticket can be used many times within a limited period and is cheaper than paying separately for each use. In an market a country allows companies from other countries to do business there. you have just enough money 10. 14. If you ask for a employer. 2. A bank's 1. Mail is a way of buying goods in which you choose 15. In a economy some industries are controlled privately and some by the government. If something is hardwork was done. 11. 9. A wage is the smallest amount of money that an employer is allowed to pay someone. 16.

A loan is what a bank lends to you until you can get the money from somewhere else.what you want. Under A fair society The civil family. 18. Priceshoppers compare the prices of two similar products and buy the cheaper one. A bottomed investment can be trusted completely because it is certain to succeed. 20. rate is used to decide how much to charge for lending is the amount of gold held by a national money is given by a parent to a child every week or 19. A cheque has been signed but does not yet have the amount of money written on it. A credit called A something. A building buy a house. The money. A is a business that lends you money if you want to means it has too little money to be able to develop. robbery is charging an unreasonably high price for The extra money paid to someone because their job is dangerous is The income is the money which you can spend as you want and not on basic needs. socialist spends money wastefully but claims to support a is for the expenses of the king or queen and royal bank exchanges cheques with other banks. is when it is difficult to borrow money from banks. money is measured by counting money kept by banks and people. month. usually from a catalogue. The gold bank. A down is an amount of money which is only part of the total . money.

The economy of a country is the income of those people . A money. is what you earn by hard physical work. it is the best that is possible or The year is a period of twelve months for which a business plans its management of money. it contains a larger amount of the goods that you are buying for a lower price. account you usually leave money for a long time. The buildings. The on. If an activity is cost- If a business is intensive. of living is the amount of money that you need to live it is good value for the money paid. without a profit being added. A $50 gift value. it needs a lot of money to buy buildings and equipment. A down-andis a person who has no job or home and is unlikely to get either of these. An entrance cinema or theatre. A In a Your daily store is a shop which sells its goods at cheap prices. is what you pay in order to be allowed into a If it is -sized. The price is the price it costs to make.cost. If a service is first available. . Factory for. A officer looks at travellers' bags to make certain they are not taking goods into a country without paying taxes. prices are the prices which a factory sells its goods assets of a business are things of value such as benefit is additional to your pay but is not in the form of can be exchanged in a shop for goods of that Powerful bankers from Switzerland are sometimes called the of Zurich.

the taxes. debt is a loan that is not likely to be paid back. 15. 16. A money. 14. conventions or doctrines generally observed in is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. 2. salary is what a person earns before other sums of A bank is a printed record of the money put into and removed from a bank account. accounting. can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. 3. is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in In Britain and New Zealand. In a An paid. 11. is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. 9. is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are is the government office which collects the main is paid in relation to how much you earn. A A A you give information about what you earn every year. 6. 17. 5. trademark etc. too old or ill to work. are a dozen or so concepts. 1. 13. is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. retailers. In Britain. This ex is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by Your is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. machine (ATM) is a formal expression for cash The price is the amount of money someone wants when they sell something. . is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. A Automated dispenser. 8. 7. 10. is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 12. is the amount of money received before taxes are paid.who do not pay taxes. 4. A bank is an arrangement with a bank where the customer puts in and withdraws money from. time. is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them.

is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. In a tax Gross Excise Cash time. 20. 10. 8. 20. trademark etc. 1. 6. 18. An account paid. conventions or doctrines generally observed in year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. 16.nonstopenglish. 2. is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. 13. 19. is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. A A trade A tax A personal A management you give information about what you earn every year. tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. In Britain and New Zealand. . Value retailers. 3. This exercise is brought to you by www. A ledger accountant is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. A management guru is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. 15. Accounting accounting. 14. . 1. 2. tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. 9. 5. the main taxes. A personnel allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. 12. is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. 17. is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed.18.com assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not are a dozen or so concepts. is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. 19. 11. 7. 3. 4. is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. A A A Your tax is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. national too old or ill to work. Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are Revenue is the government office which collects the In Britain. A ledger is a person who writes accounts in the ledger.

Choose the best word to form compound nouns related to accounting and taxation. 7. 6. 8. 19. Income duty is paid in relation to how much you earn. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Gross income tax is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. In Britain. Direct tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. 15. Your tax credit is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. In Britain and New Zealand.4. 14. 13. 10. Accounting laws are a dozen or so concepts. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty. 20. In a tax statement you give information about what you earn every year. Work Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. . 17. . The Economic year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. the Inland Office is the government office which collects the main taxes. Tangible assets such as copyright. A tax selector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. A trade angel is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. Excise allowance is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Accounts receivable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid. 12. Inheritance duty is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died. 5. Cash Now is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. 16. 18. 9. 11. national welfare is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work.

Excise _____ is tax raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. In Britain.nonstopenglish. accountant booker booking clerk writer 2.com 5. A tax _____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. In a tax _____ you give information about what you earn every year. Gross _____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. In Britain and New Zealand. Cash _____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. surplus return on demand in time flow 8. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. national _____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. income law payables return turnover 10. admittance report return sheet statement 11. accountant advisor guru lawyer trainer 3. A trade _____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them.1. Value _____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. allowance duty obligation tariff tax 9. Accounting _____ are a dozen or so concepts. angel banker capitalist creditor debtor This exercise is brought to you by www. A management _____ is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. British Financial Income Inland Tax 12. Account _____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. the _____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. The _____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. norms policies politics principles rules 7. returner officier inspector clerk captain 4. Taxing Monetary Fiscal Economy Economic 14. health health service insurance mortgage redistribution 13. unpaid taxable receivable payable paid 6. A ledger _____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. .

.nonstopenglish. 5. duty-free income limit tax-free -free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. debts. My employer will pay for it. _____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that companies earn. is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 9. 10. A journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. This exercise is brought to you by www. _____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn.Abstract Added Income Paid Set 15. Corporate Direct Income Indirect Selective 17. 3. Your tax _____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 7.com The bank has lost $703 million as a result of I can put this lunch on my expense False Capital Capital Capital A A deducted. cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. are the buildings and machines owned by a business. accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. 13. Abstract Dream Intangible Tangible Theoratical 16. Your personal _____ is the amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. 6. _____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. trademark etc. 14. Dead Income Inheritance Land Road 18. Excise Income Inheritance Land Value added 19. 8. 11. 2. margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been A margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. . allowance 1. 4. 12. _____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. tax-free no-tax income duty-free allowance 20. are profits made by selling buildings or machines.

accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. 8. 7. is the amount of money a person earns.15. I can put this lunch on my expense pay for it. 11. . 6. 9. (US English) A margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. Capital equipment. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of debts. 18. A line is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. 3. A account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. is money which is spent on buildings and False is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Capital business. is the amount of money a person earns. contains a person's pay. 16. 10. such as income tax. 13. A A A pay A pay counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. 2. A sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. My employer will is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 20. 5. 17. 19. account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. A line is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. A pay A pay contains a person's pay. 4. are the buildings and machines owned by a Capital are profits made by selling buildings or machines. (US English) A direct 1. 12. A counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. . 14.

A A A A A A is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. 9. is the money that a person has to pay to the government. systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 8. is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. 6. is the amount of money a person earns. 16. This exercise is brought to you by www. is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. 19.com is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. 12. cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. 7. 17.15. is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. 18. A journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 4. . such as income tax. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 13. is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. 5. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of I can put this lunch on my A A . 16. 3. 10. 20. are the buildings and machines owned by a business. A is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. My employer will pay for it. 15. is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a . A margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. 2. 1. such as income tax. A direct is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 17. 11. goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax.nonstopenglish. 14. 19. 18.

A (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns little profit and to which you have quick access. 5. 19. A current (US checking ___) is a bank account which usually earns little interest and to which you have quick access. 9. 8. A coin counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. 7. A item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. My employer will pay for it. 3. is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. 12. 10. tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. . 17. is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 6. 14. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad . systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. 1. 2.nonstopenglish. 20. DutyA Credit A sales A profit Petty A A receive. Creative is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it. 11. A pay box is an envelope containing a person's pay. 2.com is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. This exercise is brought to you by www. goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 1.company. 18. packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. Capital Capital Capital A bean A balance is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 16. (US English) 20. packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's pay which they A profit is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. A line cost is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. are the buildings and machines owned by a business. (US English) accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. . such as income tax. 15. (US English) 4. is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. 13. is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. 3. I can put this lunch on my account. A company sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 4.

document graph line paper sheet 2. Credit check systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. . 12. A bean _____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. Selective accounting hides what has really happened. An indirect tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. Duty-less goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. Capital profits are profits made by selling buildings or machines. My employer will pay for it. 15. 13. A salary packet is the amount of money a person earns. 1. A balance _____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. . 14. Petty money is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. I can put this lunch on my expense box. writer setter producer fighter counter . . such as income tax. 7.5. . A profit rate is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted. A profit costs is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it. 8. Wrong accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. 18. Capital goods are the buildings and machines owned by a business. 16. 10. 17. A profit account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. 9. Capital interest is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 6. A sales ledger is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. 11. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of wrong debts. 19. . 20.

A _____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's earnings. I can put this lunch on my _____ account. (US English) queue bad line set row 8. book journal logging note notebook 6. fee pay prize salary wage 10. Duty-_____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. A _____ account (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns low interest and to which you have quick access. bank black credit current profit 7. wage salary purse pay employee 9. booking accounting bookmaking audit auditing 14. Creative _____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it.com 5. costs expense investment return spending 13. A _____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. A profit _____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. My employer will pay for it. A sales _____ is the book which contain a list of all company sales arranged by date. . interest line sum mark margin 4. Capital _____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. A profit _____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. assets expenditures goods shares stakes 12. Credit _____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. fail fiend free friendly less 16.nonstopenglish. Capital _____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. A _____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. wins stakes profits losses gains 11.3. gain loss margin plus tax This exercise is brought to you by www. Capital _____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. check control proof restraint watch 15.

The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad _____. 7. 10. profit loss loans debts customers 19. _____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. _____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. 2. A trade is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. 9. 5.costs expenditure bank expense employer's 17. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. A personal is an amount of money that you can earn before you are subjected to tax. is a person who writes accounts in the A management is a person who advices companies on how to make profit. Accounts are sums of money owed by a company such as invoices received but not paid. Petty _____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. Accounting are a dozen or so concepts. Cash is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. 1. such as income tax. Bad Black False Intuitive Wrong 20. A ledger ledger. In a tax you give information about what you earn . 6. Gross is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. A year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Excise alcoholic drinks. 11. bank note cash coin dollar money 18. 3. 4. 12. is raised on products such as tobacco and 8. A tax is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay.

In Britain and New Zealand. tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. trademark. patent etc. such as copyright. ANSWERSTO THE EXERCISES 1. 16. easily. In Britain. A joint-____ company is owned by the group of people who have shares in the company. 18. 20. A ____ order is an instruction to a bank to pay some money at regular times to another bank account. vouchers 2. 13. 15. tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn.every year. tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. stock or: venture 5. The gravy ____ is a way of making money quickly. . the Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. Your tax is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. This tax can be reclaimed by retailers. assets can only be turned into money with difficulty. 19. Legal ____ is the money which can be officially used in a country. 17. Value Tax is paid to the government on goods and services. and often dishonestly. Luncheon ____ are given by employers to employees to buy meals in some restaurants. standing . tender or: currency 4.: train 3. national is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. 14.

pieces of ____ were gold coins. A nest ____ is a sum of money that has been saved or kept for a special purpose. eight 18. A trade ____ is a large gathering at which companies show and sell their products. Sick ___is money given by an employer to someone who cannot work because of illness. The ____ price index is a measurement of the changes in the cost of basic goods and servic es. Services supplied to foreign countries such as banking are called ____ exports. A ____ payment is what a company pays to workers who are no longer needed. retail or: consumer 8. A ____ bank is involved with companies rather than with people. Invisible 14. Someone who is sharp-____ is good at dealing with money. merchant 12. If you are stony ____. Unemployment ____ is regularly paid by the government to people who do not have a jo benefit or: allowance 1. high 16. The ____ life is an exciting way of living in which rich and successful people enjoy themsel ves. pay 10. shark 7. lending or: interest 13. A loan ____ charges very large amounts for lending money to someone. A bank's ____ rate is the amount that it charges on money that it lends you.6. inflationary 15. An ____ spiral is when wages and prices take turn to grow in short intervals. egg 19. nosed 11. redundancy 9. fair or: show 17. you are completely without money. In the past. broke 20. $ is the ____ sign. dollar .

A person's purchasing ____ is their ability to buy goods. you have just enough money to live without suffering. A ____ card is a credit card which you can get if you earn a lot of money. season 7. If you ask for a ____ rise. non 9. you want more money from your employer. mixed 15. An organisation which is ____-profit does not make a profit intentionally (usually charity). gold 6. If something is hard-____. Hard ____ is money of a type that has a value in other countries than its own currency 11. earned or: won 12. power or: ability 5. In a ___ economy some industries are controlled privately and some by the government. A fund-____ is a person or event which collects money. A country's national/public ____ is the total amount of money that is owed by its governmen t. raiser 4. it is deserved because lots of work was done. If you live from hand to ____. A ____ ticket can be used many times within a limited period and is cheaper than paying sep arately for each use. minimum 8.2. A ____ wage is the smallest amount of money that an employer is allowed to pay someone. Free ____ is an economic system in which private businesses compete with each other. debt 3. pay 13. In an ____ market a country allows companies from other countries to do business thereop . mouth 14. enterprise or: market 10.

reserve 20.: bridging or: bridge 4. Correct: Pocket 1. purchase 17. blank 3. A building ____ is a business that lends you money if you want to buy a house. A ____ loan is what a bank lends to you until you can get the money from somewhere else. A ____ cheque has been signed but does not yet have the amount of money written on it. Mail ____ is a way of buying goods in which you choose what you want. conscious 19. usually from a cat alogue. In hire ____ the buyer pays part of the cost immediately and then makes small regular pay ments. Broad 5. base 2. ____ money is given by a parent to a child every week or month. Price-____ shoppers compare the prices of two similar products and buy the cheaper one. The gold ____ is the amount of gold held by a national bank. A ____ socialist spends money wastefully but claims to support a fair society champagne or: . ____ money is measured by counting money kept by banks and people. Under ____ means it has too little money to be able to develop. order 18. society 6. capitalized or: capitalised 7. The ____ rate is used to decide how much to charge for lending money.en 16.

The civil ____ is for the expenses of the king or queen and royal family.: fringe 19. token or: voucher 20. The ____ income is the money which you can spend as you want and not on basic needsdi sposable 15. A ____ benefit is additional to your pay but is not in the form of money. gate 17.: daylight or: highway 14. The ____ assets of a business are things of value such as buildings.: fixed 18. squeeze or: crunch 12. A down ____ is an amount of money which is only part of the total cost. danger 13. list 9. A $50 gift ____ can be exchanged in a shop for goods of that value.designer 8. Factory ____ prices are the prices which a factory sells its goods for. clearing 10. A ____ robbery is charging an unreasonably high price for something. Powerful bankers from Switzerland are sometimes called the ____ of Zurich.: gnomes . copper 11. A ____ bank exchanges cheques with other banks. The extra money paid to someone because their job is dangerous is called ____ money. payment 16. A ____-bottomed investment can be trusted completely because it is certain to succeed. A credit ____ is when it is difficult to borrow money from banks.

The ____ year is a period of twelve months for which a business plans its management of m oney. black 15. fee 4. The ____ economy of a country is the income of those people who do not pay taxes. out 6. it needs a lot of money to buy buildings and equipment. . financial 3. without a profit being added. economy 5. customs 10. A ____ officer looks at travellers' bags to make certain they are not taking goods into a coun try without paying taxes. 12. it contains a larger amount of the goods that you are buying for a lower price. bread 9. If it is ____sized. effective 13. A ____ salary is what a person earns before other sums of money.: deposit or: savings 8.: capital 14. The ____ price is the price it costs to make. class 2. cost 11. If a business is ____ intensive. it is the best that is possible or available. A down-and-____ is a person who has no job or home and is unlikely to get either of these. Your daily ____ is what you earn by hard physical work. discount 7. The ____ of living is the amount of money that you need to live on. A ____ store is a shop which sells its goods at cheap prices. In a ____ account you usually leave money for a long time. If an activity is cost-____ it is good value for the money paid. If a service is first ____. An entrance ____ is what you pay in order to be allowed into a cinema or theatre.1.

basic 16. A bank ____ is a printed record of the money put into and removed from a bank account. statement 17. A bank ____ is an arrangement with a bank where the customer puts in and withdraws mon ey from. account 18. A ____ debt is a loan that is not likely to be paid back. bad 19. Automated ____ machine (ATM) is a formal expression for cash dispenser. teller 20. The ____ price is the amount of money someone wants when they sell something. asking

1. ____ is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. Value Added Tax 2. A ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. trade creditor 3. In a ____ you give information about what you earn every year.: tax return 4. A ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. tax inspector 5. Your ____ is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. tax allowance 6. A ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. personal allowance 7. In Britain, ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. national insurance 8. A ____ is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. management accountant 9. A ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. ledger clerk

10. ____ can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright, trademark etc. Intangible assets 11. In Britain and New Zealand, the ____ is the government office which collects the main taxes. Inland Revenue 12. ____ is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Inheritance tax 13. ____ is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Indirect tax 14. ____ is paid in relation to how much you earn. Income tax 15. ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. Gross income 16. A ____ is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Fiscal year 17. ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Excise duty 18. ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. Cash flow 19. ____ are a dozen or so concepts, conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Accounting principles 20. An ____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. account payable

1. In a tax ____ you give information about what you earn every year. return 2. Accounting ____ are a dozen or so concepts, conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. principles

3. An account ____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not paid. payable

4. ____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright, trademark etc. Intangible 5. In Britain, national ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. insurance 6. A tax ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. inspector 7. In Britain and New Zealand, the ____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. Inland 8. ____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Inheritance 9. ____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Indirect 10. ____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. Income 11. Gross ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. income 12. Cash ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. flow 13. A ____ year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Fiscal 14. Excise ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. duty 15. A trade ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. creditor

16. A ledger ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. clerk 17. A personal ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. allowance 18. Your tax ____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. allowance

A personnel allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. A management accountant is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. Indirect tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Cash flow is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. Accounting principles are a dozen or so concepts. 8. A tax selector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. Direct tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn. Excise duty is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks.19. Cash Now is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in ti me. 6. . accountant 1. A personal allowance is an amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. A trade creditor is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. or: A tax man is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. 10. A management ____ is a person who advises companies on how to make a profit. Accounts payable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid. Accounts receivable is the sum of money owed by the company such as an invoice received but not paid. 2. 7. A trade angel is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. 3. 4. 5. Value ____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. or: Cash Flow is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in time. A management guru is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. 9. A ledger accountant is a person who writes accounts in the ledger.: A ledger clerk is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. Excise allowance is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. Added 20.A tax inspector is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. conventions or doctrines generally observed i n accounting. Accounting laws are a dozen or so concepts.

16. 1. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty. In Britain and New Zealand. or: The Financial year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Tangible assets such as copyright. accountant . Inheritance tax is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died.11. In a tax statement you give information about what you earn every year. 19. 15. In Britain. The Fiscal year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Inheritance duty is paid from the money you have received from someone who has died. national insurance is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. the Inland Office is the government office which collects the m ain taxes. Your tax allowance is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 18. Value Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. 12. In a tax return you give information about what you earn every year. 14. A management _____ is a person who advises companies on how to make profit. In Britain and New Zealand. 20. trademark can only be turned into money with difficulty . In Britain. accountant 2. A ledger _____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. Income duty is paid in relation to how much you earn. 17. Income tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. Your tax credit is the total amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. 13. Intangible assets such as copyright. Work Added Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. national welfare is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. Gross income tax is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. The Economic year is a period of twelve month arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Gross income is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. the Inland Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes.

national _____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who are too old or ill to work. A tax _____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. In Britain and New Zealand. Gross _____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid.3. Accounting _____ are a dozen or so concepts. unpaid 6. A trade _____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them. In a tax _____ you give information about what you earn every year. surplus 8. conventions or doctrines generally observed in accounting. admittance 11. angel 5. the _____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. allowance 9. income 10. Cash _____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in t ime. health . Excise _____ is tax raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks. norms 7. In Britain. British 12. Account _____ is a sum of money owed by a company such as an invoice received but not p aid. returner 4.

Dead 18. A ____ journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Abstract 16. such as income tax. Corporate 17. Your tax _____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax. Excise 19. _____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. _____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that companies earn . Your personal _____ is the amount of money that you can earn before you are taxed. tax 2. Taxing 14.: sales . Abstract 15. _____ assets can be turned into money only with difficulty such as copyright. trademark et c. Value _____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services and can be reclaimed by retailers. _____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. The _____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. A direct ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. allowance 1.13. tax-free 20.

balance . ____ -free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax.: investment 10. current 13. profit 5. Duty 12. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. gains 11. packet 7. ____ control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. Petty 6. A line ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company.: profit 4. packet 8. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. A ____ margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted.3. A ____ margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends. A ____ account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. Credit 14. Creative 15. A ____ sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. ____ accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. A pay ____ is the amount of money a person earns. A pay ____ contains a person's pay. bean 16. ____ cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. A ____ counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. (US Engli sh) ítem 9.

A line ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a comp any.17. bad 2. bad 18. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ debts. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. False ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. (US English) item . Creative 8. accounting 20. A ____ account earns little profit and to which you have quick access. current 9. My employer will pay for it. My employer will pay for it. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. account 1. ____ accounting is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. investment or: expenditure 7. assets 19. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ debts. assets 5. accounting 11. False ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. account 10. A ____ counter is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. gains 6. I can put this lunch on my expense ____ . bean 4. I can put this lunch on my expense ____. balance 3. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. A ____ sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts.

Capital investment 4.: Duty 1. ____ control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money Credit 19.: profit 17. Petty cash . sales 18. A ____ journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. ____-free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. packet or: check 15. ____ cash is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. profit 13. Creative accounting 5. False accounting 3. A ____ margin is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deduc ted. A direct ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. ____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. tax 20. A pay ____ contains a person's pay. ____ is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. packet 14. ____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent which keeps hidden what has really happened to it. Petty 16. such as income tax . A pay ____ is the amount of money a person earns. ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment.12. Credit control 2. ____ is a small amount of money kept in an office for buying cheap items. A ____ margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends.

____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. My employer will pay for it. (US Engli sh) line item 20. current account . balance sheet 19. profit margin 14. A ____ is a tight fisted accountant who works for a large company. profit margin 12. A ____ (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns little profit and to which you have quick access. A ____ is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. bean counter 18. A ____ is the money that a person has to pay to the government. ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. A ____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives and the amount which it spends.6.: expense account 11. A ____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. A ____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. Capital gains 9. I can put this lunch on my ____ . The bank has lost $703 million as a result of ____ . A ____ is the amount of money a person earns. pay packet 16. A ____ is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. sales journal 15. direct tax 13. ____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. Duty-free 7. Capital assets 8. bad debts 10. such as income tax. A ____ is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive. pay packet 17.

Credit ____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. cash 5. Duty. Petty ____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. A current ____ (US checking ___) is a bank account which usually earns little interest and to which you have quick access. direct 9. Capital ____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment.____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad ____ .1. gains 13. assets 4. Creative ____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really h appened to it. ____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. investment 14. Capital ____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. Capital ____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. control 6. account 2. counter 7. expense 10. debts 8. A bean ____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. I can put this lunch on my ____ account. A ____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. journal 15. My employer will pay for it. A sales ____ is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. False 11.: accounting 3. such as income tax. A ____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. free 12. (US .

A profit margin is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted. A company sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts A balance sheet is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 8. sheet 1. A ____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. A profit costs is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it. A current account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. margin 17. A profit ____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it. . A profit account earns little interest and to which you have quick access. (US English) A line item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a company. A profit rate is the profit that can be made after the costs have been deducted.English) line 16. A profit ____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducted. A salary packet is the amount of money a person earns. margin 18. 6. (US English) 4. A bean counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. A ____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's pay which they receive.: pay 19. 5. A line cost is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a compa ny. A balance ____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. 2. 3. 7. A pay box is an envelope containing a person's pay.: A profit margin is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and has spent on it. A coin counter is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. A pay packet is an envelope containing a person's pay. pay 20. A pay packet is the amount of money a person earns.

9. Petty money is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap ite ms. Capital profits are profits made by selling buildings or machines. Creative accounting hides what has really happened. I can put this lunch on my expense account. Duty-less goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. 11. 17. or: A sales book is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. 10. 13. . The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad debts. Capital investment is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 16. 14. 15. 18. Capital interest is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. A direct tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. Capital goods are the buildings and machines owned by a business. My employer will pay for it. A sales ledger is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Credit control systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. such as income ta x. Duty-free goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. An indirect tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of wrong debts. Selective accounting hides what has really happened. Capital gains are profits made by selling buildings or machines. 20. such as income tax. A sales journal is the book which contains a list of all company sales arranged by date. Credit check systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. 19. I can put this lunch on my expense box. False accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money. Capital assets are the buildings and machines owned by a business.or: A wage packet is the amount of money a person earns. My employer will pay for it. Petty cash is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap items. or: Capital expenditure is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. 12. Wrong accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money.

A sales _____ is the book which contain a list of all company sales arranged by date. A _____ item is a single part of a financial statement giving details of the accounts of a com pany. A profit _____ is the profit that can be made in a business after the costs have been deducte d. Capital _____ are the buildings and machines owned by a business. A balance _____ is a statement that shows the value of a company's assets and its debts. (US English) queue 8. wage 9. A bean _____ is a tight-fisted accountant who works for a large company. Capital _____ are profits made by selling buildings or machines. interest 4. wins 11. A profit _____ is the difference between the amount of money that a company receives for a product and the amount which it has spent on it.1. writer 3. A _____ packet (US ___check) is the amount of money a person earns. document 2. book 6. A _____ packet (US ___ envelope) is an envelope containing a person's earnings. bank 7. gain 5. fee 10. A _____ account (US checking account) is a bank account which usually earns low interest and to which you have quick access. assets .

I can put this lunch on my _____ account. bank note 18. clerk 2. Duty-_____ goods are luxury goods bought in special shops on which you do not pay tax. Capital _____ is money which is spent on buildings and equipment. Petty _____ is a small amount of money kept in the company's office for buying cheap item s. The bank has lost $703 million as a result of bad _____. costs 13. A personal ____ is an amount of money that you can earn before you are subjected to tax. such as income tax. Creative _____ is finding ways of explaining how money has been spent while hiding what has really happened to it. _____ tax is the money that a person has to pay to the government. accountant 3. fail 16. profit 19. A direct 1. My employer will pay for it. . booking 14. check 15. Credit _____ systems make sure that debtors do not owe too much money. Bad 20. A ledger ____ is a person who writes accounts in the ledger. _____ accounting is the crime of changing or destroying records to obtain money.12. A management ____ is a person who advices companies on how to make profit. costs 17.

the ____ Revenue is the government office which collects the main taxes. Accounting ____ are a dozen or so concepts. pa tent etc. trademark. . such as copyright.allowance 4. In a tax ____ you give information about what you earn every year. ____ assets can only be turned into money with difficulty. Excise ____ is raised on products such as tobacco and alcoholic drinks.: Inland 14. duty 11. insurance 15. Gross ____ is the amount of money received before taxes are paid. flow 10. A trade ____ is a person who has supplied goods or services and is owed money for them creditor 6. payable 9. A tax ____ is a person who decides how much tax an individual should pay. income 12. conventions or doctrines generally observed i n accounting. principles 8. fiscal 7. inspector or: man 5.: Added 16. Cash ____ is the amount of money moving in and out of a company at a particular point in ti me. In Britain and New Zealand. This tax can be reclaime d by retailers. return 13. national ____ is a system in which the money collected is given to people who ar e too old or ill to work. In Britain. Value ____ Tax is paid to the government on goods and services. A ____ year is a period of twelve months arbitrarily chosen for tax purposes. Accounts ____ are sums of money owed by a company such as invoices received but not pa id.

____ tax is paid from money you have received from someone who has died. Your tax ____ is the amount of income on which you do not have to pay tax.Intangible 17. ____ tax is paid in relation to how much you earn. allowance . Inheritance 19. Income 20. Indirect 18. ____ tax is charged on goods and services rather than on the money that people earn.

PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS .

Cuál es la tasa de cambio? What is the exchange rate? Cuál es la tasa de inflación? What is the inflation rate? Dónde puedo cambiar dinero? Where can I change my money? Dónde puedo sacar fotocopias? Where can I make photocopies? Dónde está el banco más cercano? Where is the nearest bank? Dónde debo firmar? Where should I sign? Puede reparar esto? Can you repair this? Dónde trabajas? Where do you work? Cómo te ganas la vida? What do you do for a living? Soy maestro I am a teacher Soy estudiante I am a student Soy un autoempleado I am self-employed Trabajo en un restaurante I work in a restaurant Trabajo en un supermercado I work in a super market Trabajo en una tienda I work in a shop Soy médico I am a doctor/a physician .. Can you change this into . I want to change some dollars/euros/pounds.. Puedo probármelo? Can I try it on? Puedo probarlo? Can I try it? Dónde están los vestidores? Where is the fitting room? Está demasiado largo It's too long Está demasiado corto It's too short Está demasiado apretado Puedo pagar en efectivo? Can I pay cash? Puedo pagar con tarjeta? Can I pay by credit card? Acepta?/Aceptas? (formal/informal) Do you accept ....Tiene/Tienes (formal/informal) un catálogo? Do you have a catalog? Tengo una cita con .. Here is my card.... Cuánto cuesta la entrada? How much is the entrance fee? Cuál es el precio por día? How much does it cost by day? Cuál es el precio por hora? How much does it cost by hour? Cuál es el precio por semana? How much does it cost by week? Es gratis? Is it free? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) ayudarme? Can you help me? Puedo ayudarle/ayudarte? (formal/informal) Can I help you? Qué le/te (formal/informal) gustaría? What would you like? Qué está/estás (formal/informal) buscando? What are you looking for? Sólamente estoy viendo I'm just browsing | I'm just looking around Me gusta este I like this one Me gustan estos pantalones I like these trousers/pants Me gusta esta playera I like this t-shirt Me gusta esta chaqueta I like this jacket Me gusta esta blusa I like this blouse Me gusta este traje I like this suit Me gustan estos lentes I like these glasses Me gustan estos zapatos I like these shoes Busco . I'm looking for .? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) darme un costo aproximado? Can you give me an estimate of the cost? Acá tiene/tienes (formal/informal) mi tarjeta.... Cuánto cobra/cobras (formal/informal) de comisión? How much commission do you charge? Quiero cambiar algunos dólares/euros/libras........ I have an appointment with .. ? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) cambiar estos cheques de viajero? Can you change these traveler's checks? Puede/Puedes (formal/informal) cambiar esto a ..

No entiendo estas tallas I don't understand these sizes Tiene uno más grande? Do you have a larger one? Tiene uno más pequeño? Do you have a smaller one? Me gusta el color I like the color No me gusta el color I don't like the color Tiene este en rojo/azul/amarillo/verde/morado/rosado? Do you have this in red/blue/yellow/green/purple/pink? Tiene uno más barato? Do you have a cheaper one? De qué está hecho? What is this made of? Soy psicólogo I am a psychologist Soy programador I am a programmer Soy ingeniero I am an engineer Soy mecánico I am a mechanic Soy escritor I am a writer Soy conductor I am a driver Soy actor / actriz I am an actor/an actress Soy trabajador social I am a social worker Soy político I am a politician Soy empleado I am employed English to e-biz new-media company flop stats WTO investment banker Q&A's Spanish negocios relacionados con internet empresa involucrada en los nuevos medios de comunicación negocio o producto que no ha tenido éxito abrev. estadísticas abrev. preguntas y respuestas Origin / Proposed by BusinessWeek Forbes The Economist The Economist Forbes The Economist Forbes . de "World Trade Organization"... de "questions and answers".It's too tight Está demasiado flojo It's too loose No me queda It doesn't fit Me queda muy bien It fits quite well Qué talla es/eres? (formal/informal) What size are you? Soy talla . de "statistics".. I am size .. Organización Mundial del Comercio banquero especialista en inversiones abrev.

registered 45--certificate.service.proves . entry.where .where .of.etc.-decrease.into.-drop2-slump 3-discharge.institutions.proves .activities-6-certificate .institutions..the discharge-of.that .students..Minds are like parachutes ..entry.Jesus of Nazareth (El reino del cielo está adentro de usted y está fuera de usted.clients.) **** .) **** .new client.new . -etc.. .Garriga etc.-lossMr Xavier 4-form. Sr.the ...employees.active . .rollof.into .bodies-etc.-3form.ofretirement. . una vez expandida por una nueva idea. once stretched by a new idea.is .funcionan solamente cuando están abiertas.activities-5-certificate .footnote. never regains its original dimensions.employees..are registered 4--certificate.the -roll..from.The Kingdom of Heaven is inside you and it is outside you.that .clients.tax-paying .withdrawal..of. inclusion -2.Oliver Wendell Holmes.bulk up portal 1.-bodies-etc.active service. mantener gran cantidad de mercancía en inventarios portal The Economist Mr Agustí Miralles cuenta propia 1 concerning self employment 2 on one's own Ms Claudia Hidalgo baja- 1-fall. comprar en grandes cantidades 2..-retirement.employee.It is felt that a disciplined mind leads to happiness and an undisciplined mind leads to suffering. (Su mente.withdrawalfrom .inscription. Thomas Dewar (Las mentes son como los paracaídas .students..Your mind.they only function when open.tax-paying . and in fact it is said .) **** . nunca recuperá sus dimensiones originales.1 concerning employment by someone else or working for someone else 2 on behalf of someone else Ms Claudia Hidalgo apostilla alta-1 cuenta ajena . annotation 1 admission.

Problems are only opportunities in work clothes. Contexto coloquial: Varios significados: 1) Alguien extraordinario. Una buena traducción que he encontrado para ambas opciones es „ser la leche‟… Lo dejo ahí . He just came and started giving orders. y se ha dicho que traer disciplina a la mente de uno es la esencia de las enseñanzas de Buda.You don't drown by falling in the water. . Déjame que te diga que verdaderamente es un trabajo excelente. Las buenas noticias son que usted no sabe ¡Cuan grande usted puede ser!¡Cuánto usted puede amar! ¡Cuánto usted puede lograr! ¡Y cuál es su potencial!) **** .) **** .) **** . con connotación negativa.) **** .Everyone has inside of him a piece of good news. She‟s a real piece of work. pueden cambiar los aspectos externos de sus vidas. . cambiando las actitudes internas de sus mentes.) THESE ARE A FEW TERMS FROM BUSINESSWEEK. AS WELL AS FOUR WORDS PROPOSED BY COLLABORATORS: I just read your report.Uncertainty can lead to paralysis. y el cultivar un huerto es un símbolo de la trayectoria espiritual. He‟s a piece of work.Dalai Lama (Se nota que una mente disciplinada lleva a la felicidad y una mente indisciplinada lleva al sufrimiento. by changing the inner attitudes of their minds. . He just came and started giving orders. Let me tell you it is truly an excellent piece of work.Henri Kaiser (Los problemas son solamente oportunidades en ropa de trabajo. you drown by staying there. The good news is that: You don't know how great you can be! How much you can love! How much you can accomplish! And what your potential is! Anne Frank (Cada uno tiene adentro de él un pedazo de buenas noticias. no sé si vendrá de ahí. She always gets things done. can change the outer aspects of their lives.) **** . Una buena traducción sería „es la leche‟ (también en significado negativo y con connotación de alguien „complicado”) I do not know how she does it. .) **** .Larry Dossey (El jardín es una metáfora para la vida. Y si usted se vuelve un indeciso. usted se ahoga permaneciendo allí.The greatest discovery of my generation is that human beings. and gardening is a symbol of the spiritual path. Acabo de leer tu informe.that bringing about discipline within one's mind is the essence of the Buddha's teaching. entonces usted estará muerto.. 2) Alguien complicado. A veces decimos en castellano que alguien „es un pieza‟. And if you become indecisive you're dead.Jim Citrin (La incertidumbre puede llevar a la parálisis.Edwin Louis Cole (Usted no se ahoga cayendo en el agua. . FORBES AND THE ECONOMIST.William James (El descubrimiento más grande de mi generación es que los seres humanos.The garden is a metaphor for life. He‟s a piece of work.

pero enviado con fines comerciales. sino también una „visita‟. Un „cold email‟ es un correo no solicitado. Así pues. „Cold-calling‟ significa llamar/visitar a un cliente potencial. Espero que si alguien está buscando trabajo. He recogido una lista de términos comunes sobre ámbito. Esta expresión se usa también para correos electrónicos. sin que éste lo solicite. Las ventas a domicilio de un típico comercial (door-todoor salesman) sería un ejemplo de „cold-calling‟.COLD-CALLING (REALIZAR LLAMADAS/VISITAS COMERCIALES NO SOLICITADAS) He aquí una expresión de difícil traducción y muy usada en el ámbito de los negocios. páginas amarillas. le sirvan: Unemployment rate: Tasa de desempleo Social Security contribution: cotización a la Seguridad Social Company closure: Cierre de empresa Reason for dismissal: Causa de despido Be on the dole: Cobrar el paro Contract for tenure: Contrato indefinido Permanent employment: Empleo fijo Collective redundancy: Despido colectivo Unemployed: Desempleado Termination of contract: Rescisión de contrato End of contract: Extinción del contrato Severance pay: finiquito Reduced day: Jornada reducida Wages. se suele hacer „cold calling‟ tras obtener contactos de bases de datos. Aprovecho la ocasión para recordar que „call‟ no sólo es llamada en inglés. listas comerciales… UNEMPLOYMENT (PARO) Desgraciadamente esta palabra y términos relacionados están muy de moda. payroll: Nómina Association of employers: patronal Trade union: sindicato Staff cutback: Reducción de plantilla Personnel cutback: Reducción de personal Labour reform: Reforma laboral Minimum wage: Salario mínimo Rise in unemployment: subida del paro Fall in unemployment: bajada del paro Black market: Trabajo negro .

por ejemplo. „Rent to own‟ significa. BAILOUT (RESCATE FINANCIERO) A raíz de ciertas noticias recientes. o una dolencia o síntoma de carácter „leve‟. Esta palabra procede del contexto legal („bail‟ es la típica fianza que alguien paga para sacar a una persona de la cárcel). El término con la preposición „out‟ es ahora parte del lenguaje económico-financiero y significa „rescate financiero‟ (o „ayuda financiera‟) y en algunos casos. con la crisis griega. tan de moda en algunos ámbitos. ya que como se observa sería aplicar una traducción más propia de otros ámbitos. Example: A government bailout . querellante.RENT-TO-OWN (ALQUILER CON OPCIÓN A COMPRA) Se trata de un término para referirse al „leasing‟ (arrendamiento) inmobiliario. especialmente el financiero. en función del contexto. quejas de los consumidores. usually by giving or lending them money. se deriva „complainant‟. * Ámbito médico: en este campo. sin intentar traducir palabra por palabra… nuestra tendencia natural. * Ámbito jurídico: en este caso. hace referencia a una „afección‟. que será el denunciante. „alquiler para luego ser el propietario‟. se recomienda no usar „queja‟ en el ámbito médico. Se trata de una de esas expresiones que si queremos traducirlas al inglés habrá que aprenderla tal cual. más recientemente. esta palabra es cada vez más frecuente. AFECCIÓN) He aquí una palabra que puede tener distintos significados según el ámbito donde se aplique: * Ámbito comercial/empresarial: se trata de una „queja‟. Un cliente puede presentar una queja („file a complaint‟) ante el departamento de una empresa. La definición que da el Cambridge es la siguiente: When someone helps a person or organization that is in difficulty. Se hizo „famosa‟ durante el momento de crisis hipotecaria estadounidenses y ahora. ¡por otra parte! COMPLAINT (QUEJA. RECLAMACIÓN. Al traducirse. aunque en español la estructura usada es otra. demandante. „plan de rescate financiero‟. También se habla de „consumer complaints‟. literalmente. De este término. se trata de una „reclamación‟ o „demanda‟ y suele ser de derecho civil (aunque no siempre).

Abogo más por „responsabilización‟ o „corresponsabilización de los pacientes incluso‟. EMPOWERMENT (RESPONSABILIZACIÓN. Me aparece ahora en el contexto de „patient empowerment‟ (pero podría aparecer en el ámbito de negocios también). Significa „dar poder‟. Creo que se emplea más en Reino Unido también.EL CHISTE DE LA SEMANA… HOW ABOUT IF… ? TREND RIGHT (A LA MODA) „Que se ajusta a las tendencias actuales‟ o bien „a la moda‟. Eso es exactamente lo que significa este término. también se emplea con la expresión „to be on trend right‟. . He leído „empoderamiento‟. Otras sugerencias para „empower‟: facultar. marketing y moda. término que chirría en mis oídos pero se usa cada vez más. habilitar. Otra expresión equivalente: „to be on trend‟. Y para su contrario. autorizar. Usado en contexto de negocios. capacitar. „disempower‟: „restar autoridad‟ o „debilitar‟ en algún contexto. CAPACITACIÓN) Se usa esta palabra en muchos contextos.

que los números no salen. La iniciativa cuenta con apoyo generalizado/a todos los niveles. prefiere reservarse „sesión/acto‟ para „proceedings‟ y dejar actas para „minutes‟. es decir. Ejemplo: The initiative has across-the-board support. . sería „to balance the accounts/the books‟. globalmente. Across the board (en su totalidad) Según el diccionario Cambridge. esta expresión significa: „happening or having an effect on people at every level and in every area‟. Un sinfín de posibilidades para expresar lo siguiente: que abarca todo aquello que la palabra que modifica o complementa. sistemáticamente. suele referirse a las actas que se toman en una reunión. en todos los casos/ámbitos. Es decir: en general. en su totalidad. que algo falla o no cuadra: „something doesn‟t add up‟. En sentido figurado. en términos generales. es decir. En contexto empresarial y legal. Otra palabra usada para referirse a las actas es „minutes‟ y a veces para diferenciar ambos términos. Aquí os dejo CUADRAR LAS CUENTAS (BALANCE THE ACCOUNTS/THE BOOKS) ¿Cómo se dice „cuadrar las cuentas‟ en inglés? En sentido literal. „something‟s wrong here‟.BALANCE SHEET (BALANCE DE SITUACIÓN) Y más… Asset: activo Liability: pasivo Gross: Bruto (Gross income/revenue: renta/ingresos brutos) PROCEEDINGS (ACTAS DE UNA REUNIÓN) „Proceedings‟ es una de aquellas palabras con múltiples significados.

ha pasado a emplearse esta frase para referirse en el ámbito de negocios a una empresa que „muere‟. Es bastante claro y mediante el contexto. Es un término muy habitual y va bien conocerlo Otro término relacionado es: „tax withholding allowances‟ (deducciones en las retenciones de impuestos). hay que ver en qué contexto se emplea (me refiero a traducirla correctamente) pero desde luego. cada vez se ve más en prensa.BANKRUPCY (QUIEBRA) Os invito a ver este interesante vídeo sobre la situación de GM. es fácil conocer el significado clave del vocabulario. y como metáfora. pero viéndolo también me gustaría señalar algunas palabras muy útiles en todos los contextos… Funding: financiación Investment: inversión Profitable stores: tiendas rentables Government bailout: ayuda gubernamental (para sacar a alguien de un apuro) Federal loans: préstamos (créditos) federales The stock market: la bolsa Tumble: caer Wipe Out: erradicar Drop: descenso (A drop in revenues) Revenues: Ingresos Lay off: despedir Company performance: rendimiento/desempeño de la compañía Cutbacks: recortes Union: sindicato Staff: personal TAX WITHHOLDING (RETENCIÓN DE IMPUESTOS) „To withhold‟ se usa sobre todo en economía (y en derecho tributario. Algunos términos… Tax avoidance: evasión fiscal Tax concession: beneficio fiscal Tax haven: paraíso fiscal Raise taxes: subir impuestos Tax return: Declaración de la renta File/Prepare your taxes: Preparar/presentar la declaración GO BELLY UP (ESTIRAR LA PATA) He leído que esta expresión viene de cuando un animalillo muere y queda panza arriba (traducción literal de esta expresión). „cierra sus puertas‟ o coloquialmente. claro) en el sentido de „retener‟ (impuestos). „estira la pata‟. Por supuesto. La terminología tributaria es muy amplia pero también muy necesaria de conocer. También puede significar „fracasar‟. A partir de ahí. .

beneficios o ganancias netas) y también un significado general (lo importante de algo. „Bottom Line‟ tiene un significado específico en el ámbito de los negocios (resultados económicos finales. Este término ha gozado de mucha popularidad en la prensa… He aquí un vídeo que explica el concepto. podemos usar esta expresión como equivalente de „Lo importante aquí…/En resumen…/En definitiva…‟ (Traducción libre): The bottom line is I don‟t trust her Lo importante aquí es que no confío en ella En resumen. así como las indicaciones o recomendaciones que hay que seguir. la imagen de la foto no sé si es un pájaro o un avión. pero sí que está „belly up‟ BRIEF O BRIEFING (INSTRUCCIONES) Otro término que a menudo da problemas. en definitiva. crisis de crédito. el resultado final). BOTTOM LINE (BALANCE FINAL) He aquí un término que suele dar problemas al traducir. Otra acepción es la de „reunión informativa‟ que se da en una empresa respecto a un proyecto o producto. „Crunch‟ significa „crujido‟ en inglés. Como opuesto habría: don‟t keep the bottom line red (en números rojos). Se incluyen aquí características del producto o propuesta. Otra expresión de difícil traducción sería: Effective “bottom line” decision making: Toma de decisiones con impacto en los resultados… En sentido general. tener ganancias. „Keep the bottom line black‟ significa mantener los resultados en negro (es decir. no confío en ella CREDIT CRUNCH (CONTRACCIÓN DEL CRÉDITO) Hay muchas formas de traducir esta expresión: contracción del crédito. . „Balance final‟ creo que expresa bastante bien el concepto que quiere dar a entender el inglés. En muchas ocasiones se usa en inglés.Ejemplos: Roubini Says Stocks Will Drop as Banks Go Belly Up So more and more industries are likely to go belly-up… Nota: Por cierto. en cifras positivas). Se trata de la información previa del cliente a la empresa. reducción crediticia.

. se refiere a una deslocalización externa. leyendo un interesante libro y es la primera que me ha venido a la cabeza. término que aparece a menudo en prensa. parece que el „offshoring‟ está de moda. En tiempos de crisis. como sugiere el prefijo off -. También se le llama „outsourcing internacional‟. lo que contrastaría con otro término „Nearshoring‟ (deslocalización pero más próxima.OFFSHORING (DESLOCALIZACIÓN) Vaya palabreja he elegido para empezar este blog… pero la encontré ayer. algo que podríamos traducir como „externalización‟. „Offshoring‟. dentro del mismo huso horario).

paying off: amortización Amount: monto de una deuda Analysis: análisis Anti trust laws: leyes antimonopólicas Article: artículo Assembly: asamblea Assets: activos At sight: a la vista Auction: subasta pública Auditory: auditoría Aunvity: anvalidar .VOCABULARY Acceptance: aceptación Account: cuenta Accountant: contador Accounting: contabilidad Accounts payable: cuentas por pagar Accounts receivable: cuentas por cobrar Accrued assets: activos acumulados Accrued: causado Acquisition costs: costos de adquisición Acquisition: adquisición o compra Actives: activos ADR: American depository receipt Advising bank: banco avisor Amortization.

ACCOUNTING INFORMATION : Información contable. ADVISING BANK : Banco avisador. ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RECEIPT : Acuse de recibo. AFTER DERRICK POST : Poste de carga de popa. capacidad. AFFREIGHTMENT : Fletamento. ALEATORY CONTRACT : Contrato aleatorio. . por avalúo. ADHESION : Adhesión. AD VALOREM : Ad valorem. AIR WAY BILL : (AWB) Guía aérea. AIR MAIL TRANSFER : Transferencia de fondos por correo aéreo. ACTUAL FAULT : Culpa real. AIRCRAFT : Avión. ADVANCED LETTER OF CREDIT : Carta de crédito anticipada. ACTUAL WEIGHT : (A / W) peso real. ACT OF GOD : (acte de Dieu) caso fortuito. AFORO : Arqueo. AIRPORT OF DEPARTURE : Aeropuerto de salida AIRPORT OF DESTINATION : Aeropuerto de destino. AFTER PERPENDICULAR : Perpendicular de popa. ACCIDENT : Accidente. AGENT : Agente. ADVANCED PAYMENT : Pago anticipado. AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE : Carta de transporte aéreo. ADVISE of dispatch : aviso de expedición o despacho. ACCIDENTAL DEATH : Muerte por accidente.Automatic cash: cajero automático Automatic cashing: cobro automatizado Average price: precio promedio AWL: airway lading: conocimiento de embarque aéreo ABOARD : A bordo. ABOVE PAR : Por encima de la par. ACTS OF PUBLIC ENEMIES : Actos de los enemigos públicos. o representante. ACTUAL CASH VALUE : Valor efectivo real. ACTS OF WAR : Actos bélicos. AGAINST DELIVERY : Contra entrega. intermediario. ALTERATION : Agravación material/ alteración. ACCEPTANCE : Aceptación. AGAINST ALL RISKS : Contra todo riesgo. ACCEPTED FOR CARRIAGE : Aceptado para transporte. ADVISE of shipment : aviso de embarque. ALLOWED : Permitido. ALL LINE INSURER : Asegurador autorizado para emitir toda clase de seguros. AGREEMENT : Acuerdo / contrato. ADVISE of arrival : aviso de llegada. La totalidad del saldo pendiente de pagos será exigible cuando cualquiera de los vencimientos deje de ser atendido por el deudor. ALL RISK CONTRACT : Seguro contra todo riesgo. ADVISE : Aviso. ACCELERATION CLAUSE : Cláusula que frecuentemente se usa en los Estados Unidos para los contratos que prevén pagos escalonados. ADDITIONAL PREMIUM : (A/P) prima adicional / suplemento de prima. ADMIRALTY LAW : Derecho marítimo. ALL CHARGES TO GOODS : Todos los gastos a cargo del vendedor.

ASSURER : Asegurador. AUTOMATIC REINSTATEMENT INSURED LIMIT : Cláusula de reposición automática de suma asegurada. Ral : Avería gruesa. AVERAGE ADJUSTER: Liquidador.AMBIGUITY : Ambigüedad. to AMEND : Modificar. AVERAGE . ARSON : Incendio intencional. ASSIGNMENT : Cesión. AMENDMENT : Modificación. premeditado. AUTOMATIC COVERAGE CLAUSE : Cláusula de cobertura automática. ASSURED : Asegurado. ANNUITY RENT : Seguro de renta. B/L: bill of lading: conocimiento de embarque Back to back: crédito documentario Balance of payments: balanza de pagos Balance of payments: balanza de pagos Balance of trade: balanza comercial Balance sheet: balance general Balance: saldo Balanced fore card: cuadro integrado de costo Balloon payment: pago al final Banker's acceptance: aceptacion bancaria Bankruptcy: banca rota Banning: banca . ASSESSMENT : Valuación. to ASSESS THE RISK : Apreciar el riesgo. ASSIGNS : Derechohabientes. AVERAGE . ANNEX : Anexo. APPLICANT : Ordenante. AT SIGHT : A la vista. Particular : Avería particular. AMERICAN LLOYDS : Forma de organización autorizada en algunos estados en la cual sus miembros toman el riesgo como particulares. AMOUNT : Monto. ANTICANCELLATION LAWS : Leyes que restringen el derecho de los aseguradores a cancelar pólizas. AVERAGE : Avería. AUTOMATIC COVERAGE IN CUSTOMS : Cobertura automática en Aduana. AS IS : Tal cual. ANCHOR : Ancla. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF INSURED VALUE : Ajuste de índice variable. ASSIGNABLE CREDIT : Crédito cedible. ARBITRATION CLAUSE : Cláusula de arbitraje. AUTOMATIC PREMIUM LOAN CLAUSE : Cláusula de préstamo automático. ASHORE : En tierra. limitando generalmente su responsabilidad. ARBITRATION AWARD : Laudo arbitral. ARBITRATION : Arbitraje. en el estado en que se encuentra. ASSIGNMENT OF PROCEEDS : Cesión del producto del crédito.

saco. : Recargo por combustible. BANK CHARGES : Gastos bancarios. BANK TO BANK REIMBURSEMENT AGREEMENT : Acuerdo de reembolso entre bancos.Barter: trueque Basis of assessment: base gravable Be in debt: estar en deuda. Confirming bank : banco confirmante. BARREL : Barril. Nominated bank : banco designado. BALE : Fardo o bala (para algodón). BAREBOAT CHARTER : Fletamento a casco desnudo. Drawee bank : banco librado. Claiming bank : banco peticionario. Remitting bank : banco remitente.A. BARTER : Trueque.F. Correspondent Bank : banco corresponsal / banco pagador / banco negociador. tendencia Bid: oferta Bill of change: letra de cambio Bill: cuenta Blue chip company: gran compañía Bond: bono Book keeping: contabilidad Borrowing: préstamo Bottom price: precio mínimo Brand: marca de fabrica Breadwinner: asalariado Break down: análisis Break even point: punto de equilibrio Breakage: rotura Budget: presupuesto Bulk: masa. BARRATRY : Baratería. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS : Balanza de pagos. BANK RATE : Tasa de interés bancario. Transfering bank : banco transferente. Reimbursing bank : banco reembolsador. BAG : Bolsa. . BARGE-CARRYING SHIP : Embarcación de recreo. adeudar Bear market: mercado bursátil en declinación Bench mark: punto de comparación Bench marking: proceso de comparar continuamente una organización con líderes del mundo. BANKER'S ACCEPTANCE : Aceptación bancaria. B. BAILEE: Comodatario. Issuing bank : banco emisor. BANK : Banco. BARGE : Barcaza. Bias: sesgo. volumen Bull market: mercado bursátil en alza Business card: tarjeta de negocios Buyer: comprador Buying power: poder adquisitivo BAD STOWAGE : Arrumaje defectuoso / defectuosa distribución de la carga.

Dirty bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque sucio. Direct bill of lading : conocimiento sin transbordo. BERTH TERMS : Términos de muelle. BOW THRUSTER : Hélice transversal. BREAKAGE : Rotura. Inland bill of lading : documento que cubre todas las formas de transporte terrestre por líneas regulares. BERTH : Muelle. BILL OF EXCHANGE : Letra de cambio. BID : Oferta. First beneficiary : primer beneficiario. oficina de reservas. BOOKING OFFICE : Despacho de pasajes. BOARDING : Abordaje. BINDER : Certificado de Cobertura. BEAM : Manga. Through bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque directo. BLADINGS : Abreviatura de «bill of lading». Common carrier bill of lading : carta de porte de un transportista público. Long bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque largo.D. BOOKING NUMBER : Número de identificación o reserva. BOTTOMRY CONTRACT : Contrato de préstamo a la gruesa.I. adjudicación. BID BOND : Garantía de oferta y cumplimiento. Blank bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque en blanco. Negotiable bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque negociable. BOND.B. BLANK BACK : Dorso en blanco. . On board bill of lading : conocimiento a bordo. in bond : en depósito. BLUE PETER : Bandera de despedida. BRIDGE : Puente de navegación. Short bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque corto. BORROWER : Prestatario. BOW : Proa. BELOW PAR : Por debajo de la par. Clean bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque limpio. BENEFICIARY : Beneficiario. Second beneficiary : segundo beneficiario. BONA FIDE HOLDER : Tenedor de buena fe. BRANCH : Sucursal. BOND OF INDEMNITY : Fianza. Primary beneficiary : beneficiario primario. BILL OF LADING (B/L) : Conocimiento de embarque. (BOTH DATES INCLUDED) : Ambas fechas comprendidas. BLANKET POLICY : Póliza universal o general. caución. BOOM : Pescante de grúa. BOW ANCHOR : Ancla de proa. BELLIGERENT POWER : Potencia beligerante. Stale bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque demorado o vencido. BLOCKAGE : Bloqueo. Non negotiable bill of lading : conocimiento de embarque no negociable. Contingent beneficiary : beneficiario secundario.

productor.BROCHURE : Publicación / folleto. BROKERAGE : Corretaje. BURIAL INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos de sepelio. BUSINESS INTERRUPTION : Pérdida de beneficios. BULK CARGO : Carga a granel. BUY-BACK : Convenio de recompra. C&F: valor incluyendo costo y flete Capital flight: fuga de capital Capital gains: utilidades de capital Capital goods: bienes de capital Capital market: mercado de capital Capital rationing: racionamiento de capital Capital stock: acciones de capital Capital: capital Carnings: ganancias Carrier: transportador marítimo Cash balance: saldo de caja Cash cows: vacas lecheras Cash flow audience: flujo de caja del inversionista Cash flow: flujo de caja Cash on hand: efectivo en caja Cash payment: pago al contado Cash: contado Ceiling price: precio tope CEO: chief executive officer: presidente Change: cambio Check: cheque CIF: valor incluyendo costo. BULK : Masa. seguro y flete Circulating capital: capital circulante Claim: reclamo Clean credit: crédito sin necesidad de garantías Clearing: compensación Client: cliente Coaching: asesoría personal COD: cash on deliver: pago contra entrega COD: Cash on delivery : entrega contra reembolso Collateral: activo dado en prenda Collect: cobro en el destino Comissions: comisiones Commitment fee: comisión de compromiso Commodity: mercadería Company: compañía . BULKHEAD : Escotilla BURGLARY : Robo. volumen. BROKERAGE FEE : Comisión de corretaje. BULBOUS BOW : Proa bulbo. BROKER : Agente. BUYER : Comprador. intermediario.

CAPITAL ASSET : Bien de capital. CARRIER : Transportador. Carriage by air : transporte aéreo. : Recargo por diferencia de cambio.F. CABLE TRANSFER : Transferencia por cable. Carriage by sea : transporte marítimo. CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT : Ley de Transporte Marítimo de Mercaderías. CAN : Bombona. CARTOON : Caja de cartón. CARGO TERMINAL : Terminal de carga. CARRIAGE : Transporte. to CALL AT : Hacer escala. cargamento. porteador. CARGO SHIP : Barco de carga. CARGO : Carga. transportista. CASE : Caja de metal o madera.Competition: competencia Competitiveness: competitividad Compound interest: interés compuesto Concern: compañía Conciliation: conciliación Consolidated debt: deuda consolidada Consultation: consulta Consumer goods: bienes de consumo Consumer price index: índice de precios al consumo Consumer: consumidor Consumption: consumo Contribution founds: aportación de fondos Convertibility: convertibilidad Cost benefit ratio: razón beneficio costo Cost of living adjustment: ajustes por inflación Cost price: precio de costo Cost volume profit analysis: análisis de sensibilidad Cost: costo Counter trade: comercio Counter trade: trueque Coupon: desprendible Credit card: tarjeta de crédito Credit: crédito Creditor: acreedor Currency: circulante Currency: moneda Current account: cuenta corriente Current account: cuenta corriente Custom house: aduana Customer: cliente Customers duty: derechos arancelarios CABLE SHIP : Barco cablero. CAPTURE : Apresamiento.A. C. CARTAGE : Transporte efectuado por medio de camiones. . Carriage by land : transporte terrestre. tocar (puertos).

Constructive total loss clause: cláusula de pérdida total virtual. Minimum charges : gastos mínimos. Cesser clause : cláusula en la que se establece la cesación de responsa bilidad. FREIGHT) : Cláusula CIF (Costo.R.A. CENTER LINE : Línea de crujía. Continuation clause : cláusula de prórroga de cobertura. clause (F.) : libre de apresuramiento. CIVIL COMMOTIONS : Conmociones civiles. CIVIL STRIFE : Contienda civil. C. Salvage charges : gastos de recupero. CIVIL WAR : Guerra civil. Ex-warehouse clause : cláusula ex-fábrica (ver anexo). Both to blame and collision clause : cláusula de colisión por culpa concurrente. etc.C. Consular Charges : gastos consulares. apoderamiento. & C. CHARGES : Gastos. riots and civil commotions (F. CENTER PROPELLER : Hélice central. CHARTERER : Fletador. CASH IN TRANSIT : Dinero en tránsito. Charges at origin : gastos en origen. CLAIM : Denuncia. Free of strikes. Deviation clause : cláusula de cambio de ruta. Discount charges : gastos de descuento.). Additional charges : gastos adicionales. Ex-mill Clause : cláusula de cambio de ruta.) : libre de avería particular (L. tumultos y conmociones civiles.C. Ex-works clause : cláusula ex-fábrica (ver anexo). Export charges : gastos de exportación. CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN : Certificado de origen. CLAUSE : Cláusula. contrato de fletamento. CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE : Certfiicado de cobertura. cargador. CHECK : Cheque.A. custody or control exclusion clause : cláusula que excluye respon sabilidad del asegurador sobre los bienes que se encuentren bajo el cuidado. to CHART : Fletar. CASK : Tonel. Import charges : gastos de importación.S.seizure. INSURANCE. reclamo de indemnización de siniestro. Seguro y Flete) . CHARTER PARTY : Póliza. to CHECK : Revisar.CASH : Efectivo / contado. Contestable clause : cláusula de rescisión. Charges at destination : gastos en destino. .P. General average clause : cláusula de avería gruesa. & S.) clause : libre de huelgas. etc.I.P. CLAUSE (COST. Care. Free of particular average clause (F. CHARTER : Buque que se fleta por un tiempo determinado y se arrenda en su totalidad para el transporte de personas o mercaderías. Weight charge : cargo por peso. Free of capture. Cancellation clause : cláusula de rescisión. CASH IN SAFE : Dinero en caja.F. la custodia o el control del asegurado.

Seaworthiness conditions : condiciones de navegabilidad. CONDITIONS: Condiciones. CLEAN COLLECTION : Cobro simple. COLLISION : Choque. . COMMODITIES : Mercaderías. Unavoidable collision : Abordaje fortuito o casual. COINSURANCE : Coseguro. COMMODITY RESTRICTIONS : Restricciones a las mercaderías. CONFERENCE LINE VESSEL : Buque que pertenece a una Compañía que forma parte de la Conferencia. CONFIRMING BANK : Banco confirmador. CLEAN DOCUMENT : Documento limpio. CLEARING : Compensación. COLLISION DUE NEGLIGENCE : Abordaje culpable. CLEARANCE FOR CUSTOMS : Despacho aduanero. COLLISION TOTAL LOSS : Daños totales por accidente. CLEARANCE : Despacho. COASTER SHIP : Barco de cabotaje. CONFERENCE : Conferencia. COLLISION PARTIAL LOSS : Daños parciales por accidente. CONCEALMENT : Reticencia. CONFERENCE'S TARIFF : Tarifa de la Conferencia. to COLLECT : Cobrar. COMPENSATORY RIGHT : Derecho compensatorio. COMPULSORY INSURANCE : Seguro obligatorio. Seaworthiness Clause : cláusula de navegabilidad. Paramount Clause : cláusula Paramount o cláusula principal. COASTING TRADE : Comercio de cabotaje. destinatario. Coverage conditions : condiciones de cobertura. CLEARANCE FORMS : Formularios de despacho. CLEARING AGREEMENTS : Acuerdos comerciales suscriptos entre dos países por los cuales se compran cantidades específicas de productos por montos determinados por un tiempo establecido. COLLECTION : Cobro. COALER SHIP : Barco carbonero. COMBINED TRANSPORT : Transporte combinado o mixto. Lien Clause : cláusula en la que se establece el derecho de retención sobre las mercaderías. Warehouse to Warehouse Clause : cláusula de depósito a depósito. Unseaworthiness conditions : condiciones de innavegabilidad. abordaje. CONSIGNMENT : Expedición. Reasonable dispatch clause : cláusula de prontitud razonable. COMMERCIAL DOCUMENTS : Documentos comerciales.Institute Cargo clause : cláusula para seguros de carga. CLEAN TRANSPORT DOCUMENT : Documento de transporte limpio. CLIPPER SHIP : Navío rápido. COMPENSATION : Indemnización. CONSIGNEE : Consignatario. CLEAN ON BOARD : Libre a bordo.

CONSULAR INVOICE : Factura Consular. Dry bulk container : cont. CRATE : Embalaje de tablas. cubrir. Cattle container : contenedor para ganado.F. House container : contenedor «house» (llenado por cuenta y responsabilidad del tomador del flete). CONSULTATION : Consulta / conferencia.) : contenedor completo. Country of origin : país de origen o procedencia. Flat rack container : contenedor con plataformas con laterales. Reefer container (R. CONTAINER : Contenedor. Open top container : contenedor descubierto (OT). to CONSOLIDATE : Consolidar. Car container : contenedor para vehículos. CONTAINERISE : Embalar (carga general) en grandes recipientes para facilitar su transbordo. . CRANE : Grúa. COUNTER PURCHASE : Compra compensada. CONSULATE : Consulado. Full container load (F.C. CONVOY : Buque de pasajeros. por conveniencia del armador o buque). COUNTER TRADE : Intercambio compensado / compensación bilateral. COVERAGE : Cobertura. CONTAINER SHIP : Buque portacontenedor. Con-air container : cont. Less than container load (L.C. CONSULAR CHARGES : Gastos consulares. refrigerado.L. 20' tandard container : contenedor clásico de 20 pies.CONSIGNOR : Comitente. granelero. to COVER : Mantener cubierto. COUNTRY : País. CREDIT : Crédito. Reinforced container : contenedor reforzado. CONTRACTUAL LIABILITY : Responsabilidad contractual.) : contenedor refrigerado (RF). Automatic coverage : cobertura automática. CONSORTIUM : Consorcio. CONSTRUCTIVE TOTAL LOSS : Pérdida total virtual. COURIER : Mensajero.) : contenedor de grupaje. CONSOLIDATION : Consolidación. Country of destination : país de destino. COSTS OF RECOVERY : Gastos de recupero. Superventilated container : contenedor superventilado (SPV). CONSOLIDATOR : Consolidador. CONTRACT OF AFFREIGHTMENT : Contrato de fletamento. Pier container : contenedor «pier» (contenedor llenado en zona portuaria con personal de estiba. CRAFT : Embarcación menor.L. Insulated container : contenedor insulado (INS).

CUSTOMS UNIT : Unión Aduanera. Back to back credit : crédito subsidiario. C. Direct credit : crédito directo. Transmissible credit : crédito transmisible. (costo y flete) Data business: comercio electrónico Data cash: banca electrónica Deal: negocio Dealer: vendedor Debt limit: nivel de endeudamiento Debt: débito Decision: decisión Deck load: carga en cubierta Deck: cubierta Default: incumplimiento Deferred payment: pago a plazos Deferred: diferido Deficit: déficit Deflaction: deflación Delivery: entrega Demand: demanda Deposit: deposito Depreciation: depreciación . & F. Currency rate : tipo de cambio. CUSTOMS DEALER / CLEARER : Despachante de Aduana. CREW : Tripulación. CREDITOR : Acreedor. CREDIT DATE : Fecha del crédito. Pre-advised credit : crédito preavisado. CUSTOMS ENTRY FORM : Formulario de Declaración de Aduana. Fractionable credit : crédito fraccionable. CUSTOMS WARRANT : Certificado de Aduana. Foreign currency : divisa. CLAUSE (CLAUSE COST AND FREIGHT) : Cláusula C. Transferable credit : crédito transferible. Divisible credit : crédito divisible. CUSTOMS DUTIES : Derechos de Aduana. CUSTOMER : Cliente. CUSTOMARY RISKS : Riesgos corrientes. CURRENCY : Moneda (de un país). Indirect credit : crédito indirecto. CURRENT ACCOUNT : Cuenta Corriente.& F. Irrevocable credit : crédito irrevocable. Revocable credit : crédito revocable. CUSTOMS : Aduana.Assignable credit : crédito cedible.

DELAY : Demora. DEMURRAGE : Sobreestadía. Deckload : cargamento sobre cubierta.Devaluation: devaluación Devise: divisas Disbursement : desembolso Discount: descuento Dividend: dividendo Down payment: pago inicial Draft: letra de cambio Drawing: giro Duty: arancel DAILY INDEMNITY : Renta diaria. DIRECT LOSS : Pérdida directa. DEPOSIT : Depósito. salida. DEATH : Muerte. DAMAGE : Daño. DELIVERY : Entrega. DEPOT : Depósito / estación de ferrocarril. DAMAGES : Daños y perjuicios. DIMENSION : Dimensión. DISABILITY : Incapacidad. DECLARATION FOR DANGEROUS GOODS : Declaración de mercaderías peligrosas. DEBTOR : Deudor. DATE OF PICK-UP : Fecha de recogida. DEFERRED PAYMENT : Pago diferido o a plazo. siniestro. Delivery against payment : entrega contra pago. DECLARED VALUE FOR CUSTOMS : Valor declarado para la Aduana. DERAILMENT : Descarrilamiento. . DECK : Cubierta. DEPARTURE : Partida. Delivery date : fecha de entrega. DEADWEIGHT : Peso muerto. cambio de ruta. DEPTH : Profundidad. DECLARED VALUE FOR CARRIAGE : Valor declarado para el Transporte. Delivery against acceptance (d/a) : entrega contra aceptación. Under deck : bajo cubierta. Delivery order : orden de entrega. DEVIATION : Desviación. DETAINMENT : Detención. retraso. DEBT : Deuda. DESCRIPTION : Descripción. DEDUCTIBLE : Franquicia. On deck : sobre cubierta. DATE OF POST RECEIPT : Fecha de recepción en correos. DECLARATION : Declaración. DEAD FREIGHT : Falso Flete.

DISCREPANCIES : Discrepancias. librar (documento). DRAWEE : Girado. in DISTRESS : En peligro. DOUBLE BOTTOM : Doble fondo. DRAWER : Librador. DISPONENT OWNER : Armador disponente. DIVIDEND OPTIONS : Opciones para el pago de dividendos que surjan de pólizas de seguro de vida. DOCK : Dique. DOCUMENTARY TRANSFER : Transferencia documentaria. Sight draft : letra a la vista. Total permanent disability : incapacidad total permanente. DISCLAIMER : Exoneración. to DRAW : Girar. DISMEMBERMENT : Pérdida de miembros. desembarque.Partial permanent disability : incapacidad parcial permanente. DO NOT STORE IN A DAMP PLACE : Colocar en lugar seco. to DISCOUNT : Descontar. DOMESTIC ROUTING : Rutas internas o nacionales. DISCOUNT : Descuento. Transport document : documento de transporte. DISCLAIMER ON EFFECTIVENESS OF DOCUMENTS : Exoneración respecto a la validez de los documentos. to Release Discrepancies : Liberar discrepancias. DISCLAIMER ON THE TRANSMISSION OF MESSAGES : Exoneración respecto a la transmisión de los mensajes. DOCUMENT : Documento. DISTRIBUTOR : Distribuidor. DOCKYARD : Astillero. DOUBLE INDEMNITY RIDER : Suplemento de seguro de vida que brinda doble indemnización. DISCLAIMER FOR ACTS OF AN INSTRUCTED PARTY : Exoneración respecto de los actos de terceros intervinientes. DISPATCH MONEY : Prima de celeridad de embarque. DISCHARGE : Descarga. DOCUMENTARY CREDIT : Crédito documentario. DRAMSHOP EXCLUSION : Exclusión de responsabilidad por daños originados por despacho de bebidas alcohólicas. Documentary draft : cobranza documentaria. (verbo) descargar. Temporary disability : incapacidad temporaria. muelle. DISABILITY INCOME INSURANCE : Seguro por incapacidad. . DRAFT : Efecto de comercio / letra de cambio. DISBURSEMENT : Desembolso. desembarcar. DRAW BACK : Devolución de los derechos de importación que gravan los insumos importados que se utilizan en la elaboración de mercaderías que luego se exportan. to DISTRIBUTE : Distribuir.

) : Seguro de responsabilidad profesional.DROPPAGE : Caída. EFFECTS NOT CLEARED : Efectos pendientes de cobro. & O. ENDORSEMENT : Endoso de póliza. riesgo EARNMARKED : Reservado / asignado. ERRORS & OMMISSIONS INSURANCE (E. EXCEPTED PERILS : Riesgos excluidos. DUE AGENT : Debido al agente. DUMPING : Exportación a un precio inferior al valor nominal. E.A. ESTIMATED TIME OF DEPARTURE (E. & 0. ENGINE ROOM: Sala de máquinas. ENDOWMENT INSURANCE : Póliza de seguro total. DAMAGE FOLLOWING : Daños materiales por terremoto. . ENTRY/IMMEDIATE DELIVERY : Declaración de Aduana / Entrega inmediata. DUE CARRIER : Debido al transportista. DRUM : Tambor. tipo de cambio Expenditure: desembolso Expense: desembolso Expenses: gastos Exporter: exportador Exposure: exposición. In duplicate : Por duplicado. Earning report: estado de resultados EBIT Economic profit: valor económico Economic trend: coyuntura económica Economy: economía Efective rate per annuu: tasa efectiva anual Effective rate: tasa efectiva Effective: efectivo Empowerment: empoderamiento Enterprice: empresa Entrepreneur: empresario EPS: ganancias por acción Escision: particion de una sociedad en dos o entregar de parte a otras existentes EVA: economic valúe added Exchange adjustment: ajuste de cambio Exchange rate: tasa de cambio.) : Hora estimada de llegada.D.) : Hora estimada de partida. DRY DOCK : Dique Seco.: Salvo error u omisión. EMBARGO : Embargo. EARTHQUAKE. EMBASSY : Embajada. EXPEDITED DELIVERY SERVICE : Servicio de entrega urgente. E.T. EXPLOSIVE : Explosivo. DUNNAGE : Material utilizado para sujetar la carga. EQUIPMENT INTERCHANGE RECEIPT : Recibo de intercambio. ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL (E. EXEMPTION : Exención. ERASURE : Raspadura.T. FIRE FOLLOWING : Incendio por terremoto. suplemento. DUPLICATE : Duplicado. EARTHQUAKE.

(libre al costado del buque) . . EXTENDED COVERAGE EXTENSION : Prórroga. EXTRALARGE : Recargo por exceso de medida.EXPORT : Exportación. to EXPORT : Exportar.S. Unfriendly fire: fuego hostil.A. EXTENSION FOR SAFE BURGLARY : Suplemento de ampliación de cobertura a horas en caja. FIRE : Incendio. FINANCING : Financiación. Accidental fire: incendio causado en forma accidental. EXPOSURE : Exposición ante un riesgo. EXPORT PACKING : Embalaje de exportación. EXTRA EXPENSE INSURANCE : Seguro para gastos extraordinarios. to FINANCE : Financiar. CLAUSE (Free Alongside SHIP) : Cláusula F. FEE : Derecho / canon / tasa. F. EXPORTER : Exportador.A. floating: cheques girados y no cobrados Floating debt: deuda flotante FOB: franco a bordo Foreign exchange: divisas Forward: cobertura en moneda extranjera Forwarder: despachador Forwards: mecanismo de protección ( en garantía en el exterior) Free cash flow: flujo libre de efectivo Freight: flete Fund transfer: translado de fondos Fund: fondo Future worth: valor futuro FACTORING : Cobro por factores (sistema de cobro mediante el cual el exportador cede a la empresa de factores las cuentas a cobrar de sus clientes extranjeros). Friendly fire: fuego no hostil. EXPORT LICENSE : Licencia de exportación.S. Face value: valor nominal Face value: valor nominal Factory: fabrica Fair price: precio justo FASB: normas contables Fee: comisión inicial Finance evaluation: evaluación financiera Financial backing: apoyo financiero Financial ratios: razones financieras Financing evaluation method: método de evaluación financiera Financing: financiación Firm: compañía Fixed assets: activos fijos Fixed price: precio fijo Float. FACULTATIVE REINSURANCE : Reaseguro facultativo. FAIR PRICES : Precios justos.

C. FIRST LOSS RELATIVE : A primer riesgo relativo.C. FREIGHT : Flete.& S. FREE OF CAPTURE AND SEIZURE (F. Inland freight : Flete terrestre. F.CLAUSE (FREE ON BOARD) : Cláusula libre a bordo . FLASH POINT : Punto de inflamación. FREE PORT : Puerto libre. FIRE INSURANCE : Seguro contra incendio. FLOATING POLICY : Póliza flotante. FOREIGN INSURER : Asegurador extranjero. FULL DETAILS TO FOLLOW : Siguen detalles completos. FORECASTLE : Castillo de proa. FLAT : Plataforma. FORE DERRICK POST : Poste de carga de proa. FIRST LOSS ABSOLUTE : A primer riesgo absoluto. FREE FROM GENERAL AVERAGE (F.FIREBOAT : Barco bomba.) : Riesgo de apresamiento excluido. FRAME : Estructura. FORWARD PERPENDICULAR : Perpendicular de proa. Advanced freight : Flete pagado por adelantado.& S. Freight collect : Flete a cobrar/pagadero en destino. FREIGHT CONFERENCE : Conferencia de Fletes. FLAT RACKS : Plataforma con laterales rebatibles. FREIGHT FORWARDER : Transitario / Agente de embarques / Agente despachador. Ocean freight : Flete marítimo. FREE SHIP : Barco neutral. FLOOD INSURANCE : Seguro contra inundación. FLAMMABLE SOLIDS / SUBSTANCES : Sólidos/sustancias inflamables. to FORFEIT THE PREMIUM : Perder la prima.B. FLEET POLICY : Seguro de flota de vehículos. Freight prepaid : Flete pagadero en origen. FLIGHT : Vuelo.) : Libre de avería particular. FRAGILE : Frágil.O. FORCED CALL : Arribo forzoso. Gambling: apuesta Golden parachute: "paracaídas dorado" indemnización Good will: buena imagen Goods: bienes Gross benefit: beneficio bruto Gross income: ingreso bruto . FRANCHISE : Franquicia. FORWARDER/FORWARDING AGENT : Embarcador / Agente de embarque. FIT FOR CONSUMPTION : Apto para consumo. FLOOD : Inundación. FLIGHT NUMBER : Número de vuelo. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS : Líquidos inflamables. FUNNEL: Chimenea. FREIGHT PLANES : Aviones de carga.

GROUP HOSPITALIZATION INSURANCE : Seguro colectivo de asistencia médica.) : Tonelaje bruto de registro en metros cúbicos. HAZARD : Riesgo. GROUP LIFE INSURANCE : Seguro de vida colectivo. HOSTILE ACT : Acto hostil. GROSS WEIGHT : Peso bruto. HULL : Casco. HOSTILITIES : Hostilidades. HOUSE BILL OF LADING : Conocimiento de embarque marítimo interno (hijo). HEAVY WEATHER : Tempestad. GOODS : Mercaderías. GENERAL AVERAGE : Avería gruesa. HIRE : Renta.T. HINDRANCE : Obstáculo. HARBOUR DUTIES : Derechos portuarios. Dangerous goods : mercaderías peligrosas. HANDLING : Manipuleo de la carga. HEALTH AUTHORITY : Autoridad sanitaria. HANDLE WITH CARE : Manejar con cuidado. HOUSE AIR WAYBILL : Guía aérea interna (hija). GOODS TRAIN : Tren de carga. HANDLING OUT : Manipuleo de salida (del contenedor). GROSS PREMIUM : Prima bruta.GEAR : Guinche. HOMEOWNERS' FORMS : Seguro combinado familiar. . GRACE PERIOD : Período de gracia.R. HATCH : Compuerta / escotilla. Damaged goods : mercaderías averiadas. HOLD : Bodega. GOOSENECK : Sustentante. GROSS REGISTER TONNAGE (G. Unsound goods : mercaderías defectuosas. Lawful goods : mercaderías autorizadas. obstáculo. HOPPER TANK : Tanque alimentador. HEAVY LIFT : Mercadería pesada / recargo por sobrepeso. GOAD : Guinche. GLASS : Vidrio / cristal. HANGER : Soporte colgante / gancho. GROUPAGE : Agrupamiento Hard currency: moneda dura Harvesting strategy: sacar el efectivo producido Hedge: cobertura Hedging: cobertura High income housing: vivienda suntuaria Hire purchase: venta a plazos Hurdle rate: tasa de corte HAIL : Granizo. HANDLING CHARGES : Gastos de manipulación.

INDIRECT LOSS : Pérdida indirecta.N. INLAND FREIGHT : Flete interno.) : Cuenta de Retiro Individual. IMPORT DUTIES : Derechos de Importación IMPORT LICENSE : Licencia de importación. IN TRANSIT : En tránsito. .A. INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNT (I.R. INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT : Transporte fluvial. INSURABLE INTEREST : Interés asegurable. INSTALLMENT : Pago parcial a cuenta / cuota. IMPORTER : Importador. IN BULK : A granel. IMPORT : Importación. INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT : Accidente del Trabajo. IN BOND : En depósito. INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ANNUITY (I.R.A. INCOMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS : Instrucciones incompletas.IBF : international banking facility: transacciones en eurodolares en Estados Unidos Importation: importación In land freight: flete terrestre Income : renta Income policy: política de ingresos Income statement: estado de ganancias y perdidas Income tax: impuesto sobre renta Income yield capacity: rentabilidad Increase: incremento Inflation: inflación Inherited audience: flujo de caja del proyecto futuro Initial investment: inversión inicial Input: insumo Installment: crédito Insurance: seguro Interchange: intercambios Interest rate: tasa de interés Internal rate of return: tasa interna de retorno Inventory: inventarios Investment: cartera Investment: inversión Invoice : factura IOU: I owe you: le debo IRR : international rate of return: tasa internacional de retorno Issuing company: compañía emisora Item: partida ICEBREAKER : Rompehielos. INCUR NO CHARGES : Sin gastos. to IMPORT : Importar. INSOLVENCY : Insolvencia. INLAND MARINE INSURANCE : Seguro de transporte marítimo interno. INDUCEMENT : Recargo que suele aplicarse cuando un buque debe escalar en un puerto no habitual y la carga no devenga un flete considerado suficiente.) : Renta de retiro individual.

INSURANCE SERVICES OFFICE (I. Compulsory insurance : seguro obligatorio. Livestock insurance : seguro de animales / seguro de ganado.) : Oficina de Servicios de Seguro.O. Fire insurance : seguro contra incendio. INSURANCE : Seguro. Life insurance : seguro de vida. Fleet policy insurance : seguro de flota de vehículos.INSURANCE BROKER:Productor de Seguros / intermediario. INTERNATIONAL TRADE : Comercio Internacional. Title insurance : seguro de título. INSURER : Asegurador. . Insurance contract : contrato de seguro. to INSURE : Asegurar. Aeronautic insurance : seguro aeronáutico. Product Liability insurance : seguro de responsabilidad civil de fabricantes. Annuity insurance : seguro de renta. Workers' compensation insurance : seguro de accidentes del trabajo. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF ARBITRATION : Tribunal Internacional de Arbitraje. All risk insurance : seguro contra todo riesgo. Liability insurance : seguro de responsabilidad civil.S. Automobile insurance : seguro del automotor. Deposit insurance : seguro de depósitos bancarios. INTEREST : Interés. Government insurance : seguro nacional para veteranos de guerra. Endowment insurance : seguro dotal Errors & Omissions insurance : seguro de responsabilidad profesional. Hull insurance : seguro de casco. Flood policy insurance : seguro contra inundación. Coprehensive insurance : seguro contra todo riesgo. INSURANCE COMPANY : Compañía de Seguros. Collision insurance : seguro contra daños materiales (al vehículo). Group life insurance : seguro de vida colectivo. INVOICE : Factura. Accident insurance : seguro de accidentes personales. Homeowners' insurance : seguro combinado familiar. Consular invoice : factura consular. INSURANCE POLICY : Póliza. INTENDED VESSEL : Buque previsto. Air Travel insurance : seguro contra accidentes por aeronavegación. INSURED : Asegurado. INSURANCE CONTRACT : Contrato de seguro. INTERLINE AGREEMENT : Acuerdo interlínea. Marine insurance : seguro marítimo. Export credit insurance : seguro de crédito a la exportación. Burglary insurance : seguro contra robo. Hail insurance : seguro contra granizo. Theft insurance : seguro contra robo. Unemployment insurance : seguro de desempleo.INSURABLE RISK : Riesgo asegurable.

KEY EMPLOYEE LIFE INSURANCE : Seguro de vida sobre empleados indispensables.venture: acuerdo de cooperacion entre empresas de dos paises Joint venture: actividad empresarial conjunta entre socios de países diferentes Junk bond: bono basura JETTISON : Echazón. Label : etiqueta Labor: mano de obra Lakeover: adquisición hostil Lend: prestar Letter of credit: carta de crédito Leverage rate: índice de apalancamiento Levy: gravamen Liabilities: pasivo Liquidity ratios: razón de liquidez Liquidity: liquidez Listed securities: acción cotizada en bolsa Load: cargamento Loan: prestamo Long term capital flows: flujo de capital a largo plazo Long term debt: deuda a largo plazo Long term loan: préstamo a largo plazo Loss: perdida Low income housing: vivienda popular Lump sum: pago global LABEL : Etiqueta. (I OWE YOU) : Vale/reconocimiento de deuda en papel sin timbrar. LATENT : Oculto. I.U. LANDING CERTIFICATE : Certificado de descarga. sin cláusula a la orden. ISSUING CARRIER : Transportador emisor. to ISSUE : Emitir.O.Proforma invoice : factura proforma. KEEL : Quilla. . KEGS : Barriles pequeños (generalmente usados para transportar productos químicos). Issuer of documents : Emisor de documentos. JOINT SURVEY : Peritaje. Join. KEEP DRY : Mantener en lugar seco. LABOR DISTURBANCES : Disturbios laborales. KEEP UPRIGHT : No dar vuelta. LATENT DEFECTS : Vicios ocultos. ISSUER : Emisor. ISSUING BANK : Banco emisor. ISSUANCE DATE : Fecha de emisión. KEEP IN COLD PLACE : Mantener en lugar fresco.

. LIEN : Derecho de retención. LENGHT BETWEEN PERPENDICULARS : Eslora entre perpendiculares. Medium term loan : préstamo a mediano plazo. Non-transferable letter of credit : carta de crédito intransferible. Advanced letter of credit : carta de crédito anticipada. LENGHT ON WATERLINE : Eslora en flotación. LOAD LINE DISC: Disco de línea de carga. LIQUIDATION OF THE ENTRY : Liquidación de la declaración de Aduana. Transferable letter of credit : carta de crédito transferible. Standby letter of credit : carta de crédito standby. Non-cumulative letter of credit : carta de crédito no acumulativa.. Divisible letter of credit : carta de crédito divisible. LIFEBOAT : Bote salvavidas.LAY DAYS : Tiempo de estadía. Irrevocable letter of credit : carta de crédito irrevocable. Long term loan : préstamo a largo plazo. LIABILITY : Responsabilidad civil / obligación. LOAN : Préstamo. Green clause letter of credit : carta de crédito con cláusula verde. LINER VESSELS : Buques de línea. Confirmed letter of credit : carta de crédito confirmada. LEADING MARKS : Marcas de identificación. LIGHTERAGE : Lanchaje. LEVY : Embargo. LETTER OF INDEMNITY : Garantía bancaria. Letter of credit payable at . Red clause letter of credit : carta de crédito con cláusula roja.days : carta de crédito pagadera a . LIFT HERE : Levántese aquí. LOAD : Carga. LENDER : Prestamista. LASH BARGE : Barcaza lash. Documentary letter of credit : carta de crédito documentaria. LEAKAGE : Derrame. LLOYD'S agent : agente del Lloyd.. LENGHT : Eslora. cabarraje. Sight letter of credit : carta de crédito a la vista. Revolving letter of credit : carta de crédito rotativa. LETTER OF CREDIT (L/C) : Carta de crédito. LINER TERMS : Términos de línea. to LOAD : Cargar. días.. Deferred letter of credit : carta de crédito diferida. Short term loan : préstamo a corto plazo. LOADING GEAR : Equipo de carga. LIFE ANNUITY : Renta o pensión vitalicia. Subsidiary letter of credit : carta de crédito subsidiaria. Cumulative letter of credit : carta de crédito acumulativa. LIGHTER : Lancha. Indivisible letter of credit : carta de crédito indivisible. Non-confirmed letter of credit : carta de crédito no confirmada. . cargamento.

MARITIME LAW : Derecho marítimo. MALICIOUS DAMAGE : Daños producidos con malicia. Handling mark : marca de manipuleo. MARINE INSURANCE : Seguro marítimo. MAIN MAST : Palo mayor. M&A: mergers and acquisitions: fusiones y adquisiciones Manager: gerente Manufacturer: fabricante Manufactures products: productos manufacturados Market price: precio de mercado Market research: estudio de mercado Market: mercado Matched timing: tiempo apareado Meeting: asamblea Merger: fusión Monetary adjustment monetary correction: corrección monetaria Money growth: crecimiento del dinero Money received: ingresos Money: dinero Monthly payment: mensualidad Mortage: hipoteca Most favored nation treatment: tratamiento de nación mas favorecida Movement: movimientos MACHINARY BREAKDOWN : Rotura de maquinarias. MARITIME CONFERENCE : Conferencia marítima. MANIFEST : Manifiesto. MARITIME COMPANY : Compañía marítima. MARITIME LOAN : Préstamo marítimo. LUMP SUM FREIGHT : Flete proporcional. MARINE RISK : Riesgo marítimo. MADE IN : Fabricado en. LOSS RATIO : Porcentaje de pérdida. LOADING CHARGES : Gastos de carga. LOSS : Pérdida. MARINE CONTRACT : Contrato marítimo. LOT : Lote. LUMP SUM : En cifras redondas. Entry manifest : manifiesto de carga. MARINE ADVENTURE : Travesía marítima. Actual loss : Pérdida real. MARITIME PERIL : Riesgo marítimo.LOCK OUT : Cierre patronal. importe alzado. . MARK : Marca.

NEGLIGENCE : Negligencia. MOORING WINCH : Guinche de amarre. comerciante. NEGOTIABLE : Negociable. MULTIMODAL : Multimodal. MERCHANDISE : Mercadería. MARKING : Marcado. MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT : Transporte multimodal. MASTER : Capitán. MUTINY : Motín. MERCHANT : Negociante. . MARKET : Mercado. MIDDLEMAN : Intermediario. MATURITY : Vencimiento. National income: ingreso nacional Net cash flow: flujos netos de efectivo Net present value: valor presente neto Net price : precio neto Net worth: valor neto ( patrimonio) Net: red NF: no founds: sin fondos Nominal rate: tasa nominal Non profit corporation: empresa no lucrativa NPV: Net present value: valor presente neto Number. MASTER AIR WAYBILL : Guía aérea principal (madre). turnover: cifra NAMED PERIL CONTRACT : Contrato que cubre los riesgos especificados. Standard mark : marca estándar. MATE'S RECEIPT (M.R. MAJOR MEDICAL BENEFITS : Beneficios médicos suplementarios. MATERIAL DAMAGE : Daños materiales. MASTER BILL OF LADING : Conocimiento de embarque principal (madre). MOORING : Amarradero. MATOR (MATERIAL ORDER): Pedido de materiales. METHOD OF PAYMENT : Forma de pago. amarrar. MISTATEMENT OF AGE CLAUSE : Cláusula de ajuste de indemnización en caso de declaraciones falsas. to MOOR : Anclar. MEDICAL-PHARMACEUTICAL ASSISTANCE : Asistencia médico-farmacéutica. MONTHS SIGHT : Meses vista. Foreign market : mercado externo. MILL CERTIFICATE : Certificado de fábrica. NAUTICAL MILE : Milla náutica. MOORING PIPE : Pasacabos. MEANS OF CONVEYANCE : Modalidad de transporte.Informative mark : marca informativa. MISREPRESENTATION : Declaración falsa. MATE : Piloto.) : Recibo provisorio / reci-bo sin observaciones / recibo de a bordo.

NET PROFIT : Beneficio neto. OPTION TO CONSOLIDATE : Cláusula de consolidación. to order of. OWNER : Armador. OVER INSURANCE : Sobre seguro.. NO FUNDS : Sin fondos. ORDER NUMBER : Número de pedido. NON NEGOTIABLE SEA WAYBILL : Documento de embarque marítimo no negociable. OVERDRAFT : Descubierto en cuenta. to OPEN A LETTER OF CREDIT : Abrir una carta de crédito.. . NOT TO BE DROPPED : No volcar. OPEN ACCOUNT : Cuenta corriente.. ON STREAM : Llave en mano. NON DELIVERY : Falta de entrega.. NON OWNERSHIP LIABILITY : Responsabilidad sobre bienes de terceros. NULL AND VOID : Nulo. Order of payment : orden de pago. NOTICE OF READINESS : Carta de alistamiento / notificación de arribo.NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENT : Documento negociable. ORIGINAL : Original. NON NEGOTIABLE : No negociable. OUTSIDER : Buque que realiza un tráfico cuyo itinerario coincide a grandes rasgos con el que sirve la Conferencia sin que éste (o su armador) la integren. NON OWNED AUTOMOBILES : Vehículos de terceros. ON BOARD : A bordo. NON-FORFEITURE OPTIONS : Opciones de pago. OUTFIT : Equipamiento. Offer: oferta Open market: mercado libre Operation costs: costos de operación Operation expenses: gastos de operación Operation: operación Ordinary shares: acciones comunes Output. NOTICE OF DAMAGE : Denuncia de siniestro. NEW JASON CLAUSE : Cláusula restrictiva de responsabilidad del transportista / cobertura de los riesgos resultantes de la cláusula New Jason.: a la orden de . OFFSET : Compensación. NON DOCUMENTARY CONDITIONS : Condiciones no documentarias. NOTICE OF SHIPMENT : Declaración de embarque. OPEN HERE : Abrir aquí. ORDER : Orden. NON FULFILLMENT : Incumplimiento. OTHER CHARGES : Otros cargos. OTHER RISKS : Otros riesgos. production: producción Outstanding shares: acciones en circulación ODD : Impar. to NEGOTIATE : Negociar.

PALLET : Paleta de carga.Pay in cash: pagar en efectivo Payback period: periodo de recuperación Payment advance: avance Payment in arrears: pago atrasado Payment: pago Payroll: nomina Period: período PIB: gross national product Planing: planificación Political economy: economía política Pre investment: pre inversión Preference shares: acciones preferentes Preferential trading system: sistema de comercio preferencial Price control: control de precios Price earning rate: relación precio ganancia Price elasticity: elasticidad del precio Price fall: caída de precios Price freeze: congelación de precios Prive list: tarifas Price: precio Prime rate: tasa preferencial Profit margin: margen de beneficio Profit: beneficio Profit: ganancia Profit: utilidad Project life cycle: ciclo de vida del proyecto Promissory note: pagare Promissory quota: pagare Providers: proveedores Proyect evaluation: evaluación de proyectos Proyection: proyección Purchase: compra Purchasing power: poder adquisitivo PACKAGE : Bulto. Sole base pallet : paleta de base única.D.) : Pagado. Four-entry pallet : paleta de cuatro entradas. PARTIAL DAMAGE : Daño parcial. caja de embalaje. PACKING : Embalaje. PACKING BOX/ CASE : Cajón. paquete. Plain pallet : paleta plana. PALLET-LESS UNIT LOADS : Unidades de carga sin paletas. PACKING LIST : Nota o lista de empaque. PAID (P. Double entry pallet : paleta de doble entrada. PARCEL : Paquete. PARTIAL SHIPMENT : Embarque parcial. PACKET : Paquete o fardo pequeño. . PASSENGER LIABILITY : Responsabilidad civil hacia terceros transportados.

POOL AGREEMENTS : Convenios de explotación en común. PLATE GLASS : Cristales. Deferred payment : pago diferido.PASSENGER SHIP : Barco de pasajeros. VIRGINIA: Fallo de la corte suprema de los E.C. Payment date : fecha de pago. PER CENT (P.U. Voyage policy : póliza por viaje. Intermediate port : puerto intermedio. PERILS: Riesgos. PERSONAL ACCIDENTS : Accidentes personales. POINT OF ORIGIN : Punto de origen. Open covered policy : póliza de cobertura abierta. PERFORMANCE BOND: Garantía de buena ejecución. Payment in installments : pago en cuotas. PILFERAGE : Piratería. Port of arrival / port of discharge / final port : puerto de llegada o destino. . Time policy : póliza temporaria. del año 1868 que estableció que el seguro no constituye un comercio. POOP : Popa. PAUL vs. Floating policy : póliza flotante.U. PLACE OF DESTINATION : Destino. PAYLOAD : Pasaje o carga aérea / carga útil. PILOT : Práctico. PIRACY : Piratería. Endowment policy : póliza de seguro total. Port of distress : puerto de arribada forzosa. POLICY HOLDER : Tenedor. Life insurance policy : póliza de seguro de vida. PLACE OF DEPARTURE : Procedencia.): Por ciento. PIER : Muelle. PORT : Puerto / babor. Port of loading / shipment : puerto de carga. POLICY : Póliza. Sight payment : pago a la vista. tomador. Covered perils : riesgos cubiertos / riesgos asegurados. POISONOUS SUBSTANCES : Sustancias venenosas. PIECE : Bulto. PERISHABLE : Perecedero. PAYMENT : Pago.E. Port of call : puerto de escala. POINT OF DESTINATION : Punto de destino. Excepted perils : riesgos excluídos / riesgos no cubiertos. Maritime perils : riesgos de la navegación / riesgos marítimos. to PAY : Pagar.

Port of refuge : puerto de refugio. to PURCHASE : Comprar. Port dues : derechos portuarios. PRICE : Precio. PURCHASER : Comprador. estipulación. PROFIT SHARING PLAN : Plan de participación en las utilidades. ganancia. QUOTE : Cotización / término utilizado para indicar el comienzo de un texto copiado. PRO RATA : A prorrata. QUOTATION : Cotización. PROHIBITED : Prohibido. Replacement price : precio de reemplazo. PURCHASE : Compra. PRINCIPAL : Capital. Port side : banda de babor. PROMISSORY NOTE (P/N) : Pagaré. QUOTATION REQUEST : Pedido de cotización / pedido de precios. Unit price : precio unitario. PROOF OF LOSS : Prueba del siniestro. PROFIT : Beneficio. PRIVITY : Complicidad. PROVISION : Cláusula. QUALITY CERTIFICATE : Certificado de calidad. PROXIMATE CLAUSE : Causa directa. Gross price : precio bruto. Rate of growth: rata de crecimiento Rate of interest: rata de interés Rate of return: tasa de rentabilidad Rate: índice Raw material: materia prima Real interest: interés real Receipt: recibo .Port of unloading / discharge : puerto de descarga. Index price : precio índice. QUAY : Muelle. PROMPT NOTICE : Aviso inmediato. Total price : precio total. PROBABILITY : Probabilidad. PROPELLER : Hélice. Quota: cupo QUALIFIED RECEIPT : Recibo condicionado / recibo con reservas. PROPOSAL FORM : Propuesta de celebración de un contrato. QUANTITY : Cantidad. QUALITY : Calidad. Net price : precio neto. PURCHASE ORDER : Nota de pedido / orden de compra.

RECOVERABLE : Indemnizable. RENTAL CONTAINER : Alquiler de contenedor. to REJECT : Rechazar. RATE OF EXCHANGE : Tasa de cambio. Temporary rate : tarifa temporaria. RED LABEL : «Etiqueta roja» (mercaderías peligrosas). RAIL TRANSPORT : Transporte ferroviario. RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES : Sustancias radioactivas. RANGE LIGHT : Luz de alcance. Additional reimbursement : reembolso adicional. General reimbursement : reembolso general. REMITTANCE : Remesa. with surcharge : tarifa de clase superior a la normal. Class rate. REEL : Carrete. REIMPORT : Reimportación. . REJECTION : Rechazo. REASONABLE DISPATCH : Prontitud razonable. RAW MATERIAL : Materia prima. RATE : Tarifa. Specific Commodity Rate : tarifa para mercadería específica. REPAYMENT : Reembolso. Direct reimbursement : reembolso directo. REBELLION : Rebelión. Indirect reimbursement : reembolso indirecto. RADAR SCANNER : Antena radar. RANCE agent : agente de seguros. RECEIPT : Recibo. RATE CLASS : Tarifa de Clase. REIMBURSEMENT : Reembolso.Recession: desaceleracion Reciprocal trade: acuerdo comercial Redemption: amortización Repayment: reembolso Refund: reembolso Rentability: rentabilidad Required return: retorno sobre la inversión Return on assets: retorno sobre activos Return on equity: retorno sobre el patrimonio Revolving found: fondo de rotación Roucher: comprobante Runaway inflation: inflación galopante RADAR MAST : Palo de radar. REGULAR MEDICAL INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos médicos extraordinarios. with reduction : tarifa de clase inferior a la normal. RATE OF INTEREST : Tasa de interés. REINSURANCE : Reaseguro. Commodity rate : tarifa especificada. Class rate. REINSTATEMENT : Rehabilitación (de póliza).

ROUTE : Trayecto. REPORTING FORM : Póliza por declaraciones. to RESHIP : Reembarcar. RUDDER : Timón. Sale: venta Security: seguridad Set back: contratiempo Settlement: saldos Share turnover: movimiento accionario Share: acción Shareholder: accionista Shares of stock: acciones Shares outstanding: acción en circulación Short term loan: préstamo a corto plazo Simple interest: interés simple Sinking found: fondo de amortización Speculation: especulación Statement of accounts: estado de cuentas Stock company: compañía anónima . RESHIPMENT : Reembarque. REVOCATION : Revocación. Credit risk : riesgo de crédito. ROAD TRANSPORT : Transporte por carretera o rodoviario. RESTRAINTS OF PRINCES AND RULERS : Restricciones impuestas por la autoridad. alzamiento. Manufacture risk : riesgo de fabricación.REPAYMENT GUARANTEE : Garantía de reembolso. ROYALTY : Canon pagado al creador de un producto por el derecho de utilizarlo en su provecho. REVOLVING CREDIT : Crédito rotativo. endoso. ROUND TRIP : Modalidad del fletamento a tiempo por la cual el armador fletante cede el buque por un período expresamente no determinado. RIGHTS : Derechos. REVOLUTION : Revolución. RETAIL PRICE : Precio minorista. RIDER : Suplemento. RETAIL : Venta minorista. Extraordinary risk : riesgo extraordinario. to RESCIND : Rescindir. RISK : Riesgo. REPLACEMENT COST INSURANCE : Seguro que cubre gastos de reposición. RESTRAINT : Restricción. RIOT : Tumulto. RETAILER : Vendedor minorista. sin dar al fletador la opción de apartarse de dichas zonas sin su previo consentimiento. ROTOR SHIP : Barco de rotores. RIDERS : Cláusulas particulares adicionales. REPLACEMENT COST : Valor de reposición.

SHIPMENT : Expedición / embarque. SAMPLE : Muestra. SCUTTLED SHIP : Buque que se fue a pique. SEAWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE : Certificado de navegabilidad. SET : Juego (de documentos). SHORT DELIVERY : Entrega menor que la cantidad solicitada. SCRAP VOYAGE : Último viaje de un buque. Complete set : juego completo. SEA WAYBILL : Documento de embarque marítimo. SHIPWRECK : Naufragio. SHIP : Buque. expedidor. fletador. SAFETY : Seguridad. SEAWORTHINESS : Navegabilidad. SETTLEMENT OPTIONS: Opciones de pago. SHIPPING agent : agente marítimo. SHIPPING DOCUMENT : Documento de embarque. SALVAGE : Salvamento. SEA WATER : Desgaste natural por el uso del buque. SAID TO WEIGHT : Dice pesar. SEIZURE : Apoderamiento. to SHIP : Embarcar. SHIPOWNER : Armador propietario. Partial shipment : embarque parcial. SAMPLE ORDER : Pedido de muestra. SENDER : Remitente. SHEER : Arrufo. SHIPPING COMPANY : Compañía naviera. SELLER : Vendedor. SHIPPER : Cargador. SHIPPING NOTE : Nota de embarque. . SAID BY SHIPPER TO CONTAIN : Dice contener según el cargador.Stock corporation: compañía anónima Stock exchange: bolsa de valores Stock holder: accionista Stock holders: patrimonio Stock index: indicador bursátil Stock market: bolsa de valores Stock pile: acumulación de inventarios Stock: capital Stockbroker: corredor de bolsa Storing: almacenamiento Sum: suma Supply: oferta Surcharge: recargo Surrender value: valor de salvamento Surtax: sobretasa Swap: cambalache SACK : Saco / saqueo.

ENGLISH TO SPANISH corporate . Tax: impuesto Technical study: estudio técnico To debit: adeudar To go into debt: contraer deuda To owe: adeudar Trade: comercio Trading year: ejercicio económico Transaction: operación Transport: transporte Turn over: rotación Unemployment: desempleo Up turn: alza Valorization: valorización Value added network: red de valor agregado Value engineering: generación de valor Venture capital: capital de riesgo Wholesaler: mayorista Winery: bodega Winset on line: bolsa electrónica Working capital: capital de trabajo SPECIAL VOCABULARY .Consejo de Administración business affairs .de la empresa hierarchy .asuntos de negocios corporation .Vicepresidente (máximo directivo por debajo del Consejero Delegado) sales . SIDE LIGHTS : Luces de costado.ventas human resources .Consejero Delegado develop .departamento de apoyo IT department .finanzas support department .recursos humanos accounting .departamento de compras . corporación Chairman of the Board .contabilidad finance .jerarquia Board of Directors .departamento de informática purchasing department .Presidente del Consejo de Administración CEO .desarrollar Vice-President .SHORT FORM : Abreviado.sociedad anónima.

preguntas retóricas. . la habilidad de hacer algo en el mejor momento. Ensure . .having a clean.memorizar. Afterwards . allow: permitir Furthermore: also to say something in a language other than your own: to say something in adifferent language.dándote la posibilidad.investigación y desarrollo tags .probable or expected . Propel . How you look .to simply remain in expectation. Allow . tidy and stylish appearance . Giving yourself the opportunity .to push or move something somewhere. Be applicable to .tu aparencia.encuesta. .lanzar.estimular.improvisado.at a later time . To get over: to feel better after something or someone has made you unhappy or nervous. valor incalculable.how well or badly something is done .etiquetas Manner . To start off on the the right foot – to begin a project or challenge in an effective way . Survey . Outfit .a very good possibility.forma.la mejor oportunidad. To keep people on their toes – to keep people attentive and prepared . Learn by heart .muy útil.fondo.desatender.elegante. the more senior you are .permit. To think on your feet: to make a quick decision or give an answer quickly. fomentar.the way that something is done or somebody behaves .sincronización.rendimiento.conjunto. .memorize.de antemano.your appearance .Improvised. Performance . Invaluable .affecting or relating to a person or thing.projects .improvised.simplemente espera.the ability to do something at the right time.jerarquía corporativa.permitir. Get down to business .asegurar. appropriate and relevant to.near enough so that you can touch it or pick it up.It is probable that you noticed before now (having the consequence in the present that now you know what the author is speaking about).probable. .when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time . ponerse manos a la obra.hacer que las personas presten atención. earlier.an investigation of opinions done by asking questions .despues. ritmo. To ease your way (in context): to begin an activity in a way that makes it more comfortable or easier. Ad hoc . often with a lot of force .to not pay enough attention to something .a tu alcance. .making it possible for you.in advance of something. Likely . .questions asked to produce an effect and not to get an answer .contacto visual. Within reach . Timing . Unscripted . .start work on. You may have noticed . . Smart . is usable.something that helps something else .improvisado. . . Boost . Background . . Rhetorical questions . Neglect .empezar con buen pie. Eye Contact .extremely useful.the context and circumstances of the presentation .puede que te hayas dado cuenta. Just wait . Corporate Ladder – the hierarchical structure of a company. The higher you are up the ladder. To bear in mind – to remember a piece of information when you are making a decision or thinking about a matter . . aplicable a. .to make sure that something happens .proyectos R&D . The best chance .ten lo presente.set of clothes worn for a particular occasion or activity . interpretación. Beforehand . ir al grano.entrar en materia.

to succeed in dealing with a problem. to go back .To follow a logical order proof readers . subject matter . . a purchase .una compra. .A system by which workers receive part of the profits of a company.Main summary grabbing the attention of . customer service . background information .Imagine the situation from somebody else‟s perspective .to make aware of. superar. perform .a long time. .Write down something skim read .rendir.gruñendo. . to deal with . . pats on the back .malhumorado. put yourself in their shoes . grumpy . time-consuming .Nerve-racking / nerve-wracking: describes something that is difficult to do and causes a lot of worry for the person involved in it. . .sistema de recompensa.Encourages people to do something.just.marketing consisting of people telling each other.irritable.practical advice. .palmaditas en la espalda.consejos. a good while .To get the attention of logical flow . To digress: to move away from the main subject you are writing or talking about and to write or talk about something else.the method the employer uses to motivate his workers.to return.motivando los empleados.Information about the area you‟re writing about that helps the reader. fair .liderazgo.Read quickly searching for main or key information executive summary . to point out . to move on . growling . stock options .opción de compra de acciones profit sharing scheme .the right to buy stocks at a specific price. to rehearse: to practice. .I am sure and you should be also.the thing that motivates you to do something.motivating the workers at a company. . (to pre-rehearse .justo. .servicio al cliente.To arrive at a conclusion deliver your recommendations .People paid to read motivating staff .work that increases the value that buyers receive from their purchases.the general motivated attitude of a group of workers. .moral (en el sentido de alentar). . .to handle.the "bar" where you pay for things.Something that takes a long time to do. word of mouth marketing . Verbatim: using exactly the same words as were originally used. .to practice beforehand) To put across: to express your ideas and opinions clearly so that people understand them easily.the capacity to get people to do things.to do something well. rewarding system . counter .a buy.un buen rato. motivate action . tratar. . .to continue with.alegre. cheerful . To sum up: to describe or express briefly the important facts or characteristics about something or someone.lo que te hace funcionar.happy. tips . programa de reparto de beneficios. leadership .The area or topic you're writing about. I assure you . what makes you tick . morale .te aseguro.making a low threatening sound like an animal (for example: a tiger). reach a conclusion .To communicate your main ideas jot down .a soft friendly open handed hit on the back. . . señalar. to overcome .marketing del boca a boca. .mostrador.

an instrument that helps you do something.a scheme by which a pregnant female worker can stay home with pay.IT (information technology) workers or people good with technology. . Invitees . Issues .a promise to do something. . Keep it brief . . . Talking over a coffee .it is something that is simple and common sense.es algo simple o no muy difícil como lo sería la ciencia de los cohetes. Clue .quejarse. Take the meetings seriously . . Waste of time . levantar actas.making sure you don‟t let stress at work affect your health.lograr. Painlessly .the people who are invited to an event.aparecer o llegar.in contact. cuestiones. Taking meeting minutes .in touch .pérdida de tiempo.consejos prácticos.mantener la exactitud de las actas.asuntos.write the notes of the meeting correctly.in a way that is without pain.de una forma satisfactoria.writing down everything that is said by everybody in the meeting.puntos de actuación.to use time in meetings. At least . .tomar las reuniones en serio.irrelevancia. Dig deep .too much work to do at one time. Commitment .herramientas. . .a person who attends an event.spending time badly .analyse in more detail the answers to your questions.asistente.group leader. .al menos.la motivación cae en picado. maternity leave . .asegurarse.follow-up actions people have agreed to do.to restrain or limit.equilibrio entre la vida y el trabajo. .analizar más profúndamente las respuestas a tus preguntas. Achieve .to do something in a way that doesn't last very long. .to reserve the meeting room.baja por maternidad Work-life balance . Tools .the lack of a relation of something to the matter at hand. Spend time in meetings . .invitados.to talk about something informally in a stress-free place.de forma indolora.evidence that helps solve a mystery. .orden del día.a list of major points/issues to be discussed in the meeting.Motivation drops quickly. Successfully . It's not rocket science . .presidente. Rambling . .badly done work. .to speak in a soft.to establish something without a doubt.to be successful in reaching an objective.to appear or come.que divaga.chapuza.hacerlo breve. información que es esencial para entender una situación o problema. . .pasar tiempo en reuniones.pista. Over stretched .recopilar.helpful practical advice . con éxito. Tips . Meeting agendas . .entusiastas de los ordenadores o informáticos. To the point (stick to the point) .not less than .to say that you are irritated or unhappy because of something . . .information that is essential to understanding a situation or problem. .reservar la sala de reuniones. Turn up . Attendee . Motivation plummets .limitar.not focusing on one point at a time.en contacto. Background information . .to respect the meetings. Whisper . Make sure .mantenerse centrado en la cuestión principal de la conversación. . Chair .hablar informalmente sobre algo en un bar o similar. . sin sufrimiento.problems or worries that somebody has about something. .in a satisfactory way. reunir consejos prácticos. Complain .to gather or bring together different tips. . .abrumado con mucho trabajo. quiet way.susurrar. Constrained . . Keep meeting minutes accurate . . . Shoddy work . Compile tips . Book the meeting room . .to keep talking about the main topic set for a conversation without getting distracted. .compromiso. Action points .not being able to talk because of nerves. . Techies . . Tongue-tied . Irrelevancy .

In the heat of the moment . . Make issues personal .meeting rules that everybody agrees to.reducirlo a aproximadamente keep you going .to feel personally attacked.to help people to remember something.objetivo reach . . argue .el que mejor te encaje adventurous .notoriedad de marca huge .nota de prensa published .clientes prospects .respira hondo.there are better ways to do something.exposición mediática that best fits you . Not the best way . Confrontational .mejorable outline . Take a deep breath .to act and think in a rational way.enterarse bring this down to around .no pierda el tiempo take notes . Keeping things objective .insultar o atacar de forma personal.sonreir objections that may arise .Afterwards .mantener la objetividad de la situación.ser maleducado.alcance news .mejorar likelihood .publicado customers .extendido skills training . . .en la excitación o nerviosismo del momento.un poco demasiado despacio just the right speed . .consejos smile .folletos fliers . .mantenerte press release .formación de habilidades making the most .tranquilidad confidence .enorme publicity . Lack manners .in an intense emotional moment.objeciones que puedan surgir there is no rush .aventurero target .to insult or attack in a personal way.folletos improve .después.polémico.to be argumentative.justo la velocidad correcta don't waste time .confianza a touch too slow .to not behave in a correct and proper way. .mejorar room for improvement .toma notas .marca advertising . .tomárselo de forma personal. describir tips . Make personal comments .recordar algo a alguien.apuntar. Ground rules .after something.publicidad brand awareness .probabilidad widespread .noticia find out .aprovechando improve . Remind people .no hay prisa calmness .las reglas establecidas para la reunión.no es la mejor manera. . .clientes potenciales handouts .argumentar brand . .to breathe one time deeply.

and not very noticable or obvious.False and artificial.Someone who is afraid to meet or speak to people when researching. To resent somebody .Matching or copying the speed at which someone talks.protestando lack .conseguir tus metas in mind .This is a letter that you write after your interview to ask for or about more information about the job.paso lento Guarantee . To put pressure on someone . To get your support . Tarnishes your image . moves.Construct a detailed profile or image of something or someone in your mind. Open-minded and fair .consejos following .gestión de tiempo goals . causing anxiety. Read the body language of somebody .To form opinions about people. Lean forward .metas .aprovechar spend time .inutilizado tips .emplear tiempo highly recommend .To guide someone towards a specific topic or issue in a conversation. help and encouragement (usually from friends and family).colgar con fuerza el auricular slow pace .añade valor achieve your goals .Shaking someone's hand in a positive and soft way.conciso avoid . etc.tareas tool . Subtly .tener en cuenta make the most .A word or phrase saying that you're sorry for something you've done.siguientes top priority .To further improve or increase the quality of something.barbilla slamming down the receiver . Chicken Researcher .herramienta time management . industry or career. A follow-up letter . Jargon or buzz words .To remain angry with somebody about something that happened. Flattery . Fake . To make judgements about people . To lead the interviewer toward something .tono alto mouthpiece . To paint a picture in your mind .lista de tareas pendientes tasks .Frequently used terms and words related to a specific sector.Something that makes your image look bad. complaining . To make the right first impression .To find sympathy.muy recomendado to-do list .This phrase means "never. walks.To give someone compliments. Never ever . Pacing .To strongly persuade someone to do something.A promise or something that insures that something else will happen.Willing to listen to and accept other ideas and treating everyone equally.prioridad máxima add value .To give a good image of yourself when you meet them. Apology .micrófono del teléfono chin .In a way that is indirect and clever. A firm but gentle handshake .To understand what somebody is thinking from their body movements. To enhance . runs.evite shrillness .Move only your upper body closer to something or somebody.concisely .falta unused ." but with extra emphasis.

convincente manner .advertisment .en vez de campaign .recompensa effectiveness .alcanzar un público objetivo cualificado useless .búsqueda brand .agencia de publicidad take advantage .bastante común quest .efectividad efficient .Yo opino quite common .anuncio advertising agency .nobody .ingenioso persuasive .fundador ad .aprovechar mistakes .tedio sticking to your to-do list .consumidor point out .eficiencia tedious .pasar todo el día .rechazado I reckon .reclamos insostenibles prove .texto (de un anuncio) ingenious .advert .forma o manera spend all day .mantenerse al la lista de tareas founder .probar (proporcionar evidencias no testear) instead of .reward .errores consumer .señalar no-one .objetivo unsustainable claims .nadie rejected .alcance target .campaña qualitative targeting .inútil copy .marca reach .

net/negocio-espanol-ingles/p%C3%A9rdidas http://www.wikibooks.html http://www.com/articles/perfect-interview.com/category/ingles-denegocios/page/2/ http://www.org/wiki/Ingl%C3%A9s/Introducci%C3%B3n http://inglesparaprofesionales.es/USERS/amiles/wordlists.com.translated.madridteacher.com/doc/15899653/Cartilla-Ingles-Ciclo-III-6 http://www.com/watch?v=5X5sjDj4e_wFRASES DE ERNST FISCHER http://www.htm#list http://www.youtube.wordpress.la/diccionario/espanol-ingles/libros-de-contabilidad http://www.nonstopenglish.wordpress.ctv.net/ .com/lang/es/allexercises/ http://diccionario.curso-ingles.scribd.com/2009/11/28/proceedings-actas-deuna-reunion/ http://es.frasesypensamientos.html http://es.bab.CIBERGRAPHY http://inglesparaprofesionales.com/business-english/general-management/67emailwriting.ar/autor/ernst-fischer.wikilearning.com/monografia/libro_de_frases_espanol_english_inglesnegocios_business/2818-4 http://es.reverso.htm http://mymemory.

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