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M V S Birinchi, CORE International, Inc. and TNEB course material (Compiled and edited b !radeep ". Sri#asta#a, CORE International, Inc.$ Earthing Practices At Substations
Earthing practices adopted at Generating Stations, Substations, Distribution structures and lines are of great importance. It is however observed that this item is most often neglected. The codes of practice, Technical Reference boo s, !andboo s contain a chapter on this sub"ect but the# are often s ipped considering them as too elementar# or even as unimportant. $an# reference boo s on this sub"ect are referred to and such of those points which are most important are compiled in the following paragraphs. These are of importance of ever# practicing Engineer in charge of Substations. OBJECTIVE OF EARTHING %rime &b"ective of Earthing is to provide a 'ero potential surface in and around and under the area where the electrical e(uipment is installed or erected. To achieve this ob"ective the non)current carr#ing parts of the electrical e(uipment is connected to the general mass of the earth which prevents the appearance of dangerous voltage on the enclosures and helps to provide safet# to wor ing staff and public. I !ortance o" Earthing # Practices • The earthing is provided for a* Safet# of %ersonnel b* %revent or atleast minimise damage to e(uipment as a result of flow of heav# fault currents. c* Improve reliabilit# of %ower suppl# The earthing is broadl# divided as a* S#stem earthing +,onnection between part of plant in an operating s#stem li e L- neutral of a %ower Transformer winding and earth*. b* E(uipment earthing +Safet# grouding* ,onnecting frames of e(uipment +li e motor bod#, Transformer tan , Switch gear bo., &perating rods of /ir brea switches, etc* to earth.
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Power Finance Corporation Ltd.
(A Govt. of India Undertaking)
Stations D.6 &hms 7. 3hat was formerl# a suitable low earth resistance can become obsolete standard. d* These factors emphasi4e the importance of a continuous. b* $ore number of metallic pipes.6 &hms 06. area end up with dr# earth of high resistance. it creates different routes in the electrode.7 &hms 0. S!eci"ication o" Earthing Depending on soil resistivit#. The earth resistance shall be as low as possible and shall not e. Touch Potentia$ Touch %otential is the difference in voltage between the ob"ect touched and the ground point "ust below the person touching the ob"ect when ground currents are flowing. which were buried underground become less and less dependable as effective low resistance ground connection. the water table graduall# falling.6 &hms • • Ste! Potentia$ Step %otential is the difference in the voltage between two points which are one metre apart along the earth when ground currents flowing.6 &hms :. /fter weighing the merits and demerits in each case. 2actors that change the re(uirement of earth electrode a* If an electrical facilit# can e. of India Undertaking) : . (A Govt. the common practice of common and solid +direct* grounding s#stem designed for effective earthing and safe potential gradients is being adopted. In a #ear or two. c* $ost of the location. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. 1ut separating the two earthing s#stems have disadvantages li e higher short circuit current.ceed the following limits5 %ower Stations E!T Substations 889.t Structures Tower foot resistance ) ) ) ) ) 6. low current flows through rela#s and long distance to be covered to separate the two earths. the earth conductor +flats* shall be buried at the following depths.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. periodic program of earth resistance testing.pand in s#stem. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program • The s#stem earthing and safet# earthing are interconnected and therefore fault current flowing through s#stem ground raises the potential of the safet# ground and also causes steep potential gradient in and around the Substation.
7 0. are to be earthed. there should be direct connection from the tan to the earth side of the lightning arresters. @mm The complete specifications for providing earth mats at E!T > 889. -ightning arresters * The bases of the L. P$ate Earths • Ta ing all parameters into consideration. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Soil Resistivit# in ohms. ii* The transformer trac rail should be earthed separatel#. In addition. The earth side of the L. @mm 066 . /ll bolted cover plates of the bushing are also to be connected the earth grid. of India Undertaking) +( . iii* The neutral bushing is earthed b# a separate connection to the earth grid.6 0.Substations. are to be connected directl# frolC0 the e(uipment to be protected. which are in turn connected to earth grid.( Space for Institution Logo 8 . Distribution transformers > . /ll non)current carr#ing parts at the Substation shall be connected to this grid so as to ensure that under fault conditions.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform.onsumers premises are reproduced below. should have individual earth rods. none of these part are at a higher potential than the grounding grid.7 To eep the earth resistance as low as possible in order to achieve safe step and touch voltages. (A Govt. the si4e of plate earths are decided as %ower Stations > E!T Station Small Stations • ) ) $ain ) /u./s. Potentia$ and current trans"or ers * The bases of the .iliar# ) A7 . an earth mat shall be buried at the above depths below ground and the mat shall be provided with grounding rods at suitable points.Ts and %ts. Each L. S!eci"ication "or Earthing S%ste I& EHT Substation Earthing of e(uipmentBs in the sub)stations is ta en of as discussed below5 '( Po)er trans"or ers* i./. Power Finance Corporation Ltd. 0?mm 76 . The transformer bod# or tan is directl# connected to earth grid.metre 0* :* 8* 76 < 066 066 < =66 =66 < 0666 Economical depth of 1urial in metres 6. are to be earthed with conductors as short and straight as %ossible +for reducing impedance*./s.
tan s. 1ending shall not cause an# fatigue in the material at bends.able glands etc.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. (A Govt. and metallic frames of switches and isolators are to be earthed separatel#. The cable wires passing under Dmetallic fence are to be buried below at a depth (f :B? or are to bc enclosed in a insulating pipe +%. all ground wires coming to the stations shall be bro en EIt an insulated on the fir7t tower e. -. 8. 0?mm peripheral earth conductor.pansion of the steel flats b# giving smooth circular bends. If not. The earth mat shall e.. steel structures. conduits cable sheaths shall be properl# welded. or asbestos cement* for a distance of not less than 7 feet on each side of the fence. The earth mat shall be as per the approved la#out. Ground )ires * The ground wires over the station arc connected to the station earth. In order that the station earth potentials during fault condition7 arc not applied to transmission line ground wires and towers. . 7. chambers.tend over the entire switch#ard as per the la#out. /fter the completion of Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. %rovisions shall be made for thermal e. If the distance is within feet. are to be connected to earth. The earth mat shall be formed b# welding 76.T. /ll the "unctions of the steel flats while forming the earth mat and ta ing risers from the earth mat for giving earth connections to e(uipment. .T. The earth mat shall be formed with the steel flats buried in the ground at a depth of A76mm on edge.. %. Other e1ui! ent2s* /ll e(uipmentBs. The gates and support pans ma# be earthed through an earth rod. 0( 3( 4( The followings are the important features in earthing5 0. The grounding grid shall be spaced about 7 meters i.( Circuit brea/ers* The supporting structures. /ll "oints shall be provided with suitable angle pieces for proper contact between flats. structures.. the metallic fences are earthed b# means of earth rods spaced at not more than :66 feet.ternal to station b# means of strain disc.e in longitude and about 7 meters in the transverse directions.@ mm steel flat to the 066 . insulators. an inter) connection made to the station earth. of India Undertaking) = . Fences* %roviding separate earth or connecting to the station earth depends upon the distance of the fence the station earth. :. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program . =.
. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program earth mat. c* 2illing of earth pit e. 0. F. of India Undertaking) 7 . 76 . 00. @mm ground conductor shall be run in cable routes and shall be connected to the ground mat at an interval of 06 metres. 0. These earth pits in turn shall be connected to the earth mat.5V Substations 0. In case the earth resistance is more than one ohm the earth mat shall be e. the earth resistance shall be measured.:ft . The plates shall be atleast 07 metres apart. Fft in all t#pe of soils. 0:.tra electrodes.ture atleast : metre awa# from an# building or structure foundation.cavated with 1entonite with 1lac cotton soil +05?* in alternate la#ers. Grounding electrodes of 8:mm dia 8mtr. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd.cavation of earth pits of si4e :0. A. . Lightening arrestors shall be provided with earth pits near them for earthing. II& Earthing at . 06.I earth pipe should be at the surface level of the ground. The grounding rods shall be driven into the ground and their tops shall be welded to clamp and the clamp together with the grounding rods shall be welded to the ground mat. 3here it is not possible to go to a depth of :. :0.ture of 1entonite compound with 1lac cotton soil a ratio of 05? is to be filled 866 mm dia and the pipe for the entire depth.A7 metres long and F. (A Govt. %roviding of earth pit and earth matting include the following connected wor s5 a* E.8 $$S plates.7mm thic shall be buried verticall# in the pits and a mi.I pipe of 8 inch diameter Fft length with flange.I pipe shall be with GI bolts and nuts. ?. d* %roviding of cement collar of si4e :ft diameter :ft height 0 inch below the ground level.8 . b* %roviding of . long $S rods shall be provided at the peripheral corners of the earth mat. @.tended b# installing e. The risers ta en along the main switch#ard structures and e(uipment structures +upto their top* shall be clamped to the structures at an interval of not more than one metre.S rods of 8 metre length near the posts and connected to the main grounding mat.:ft . /ll paint enamel and scale shall be removed from surface of contact on metal surface before ma ing ground connection.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. :7mm thic shall be buried verticall# in pits of : metres depth and surrounded b# 1entonite mi.A7 metres. /ll connections to . so that the earth resistance is less than one ohm.ast iron pipes 0:7mm dia and :. /ll fence corner posts and gate posts shall be connected to the ground b# providing 8:mm dia $. e* The top of the .
%roviding of earth matting with $S flat A7 . of India Undertaking) ? . @mm in the e. III& Earthing at Consu er2s !re ises The earthing at .cavated trench. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program :.S flat A7 . (A Govt.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. d* 1ac filling of earth completel#. b* La#ing of $. @mm including the following connected wor s5 a* E. Each Electrode shall be H/B grade GI pipe of : inch thic and @ft long and buried verticall# so as to leave about = inch pipe length above ground level to fi. a HIB shaped clamp. c* Inter connecting all earth pits and welding properl# at "ointing location and "unctions. so that ade(uate earth buffer is available. Note* Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. width.onsumerBs premises shall be as per s etch below using a ?mm thic plate IV& Earthing at 67P Structure Three electrodes forming an e(uilateral triangle with minimum distance of ?766 mm.cavation of trench in all t#pes of soils of si4e :G ft depth and 0 ft.
of the tower and grounding rods are provided at that point and tied to the tower base b# a single buried wire. the# shall be bra4ed.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform.* Joints • • There shall be minimum "oints preferabl# no "oints enroute to earth electrodes 3here Coints are unavoidable. +. where the procedure is repeated.Electrodes should be as follows. ii.onductor and Earth . &ne separate connection from the Earthing Terminal of poles.1 switch +Two separate bod# earths to tan * iii. To one of the earth electrodes on either side of double pole structure +J or K* i. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program 0.onnectors. (A Govt. If counterpoise wires cannot be terminated within half span from the tower the wire is carried through a continuous counterpoise to the ne. art! Mat or "rid Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. of India Undertaking) A . +1* To each of the remaining two earth electrodes. &ne direct connection from three 009. :* If low resistance is not obtained with :66ft. an electrode is located within a distance of :66 ft. Earth Electrode. i. To)er -ine Grounding 0* Ground rods are driven at the base of the tower. rivetted or welded +and painted with red lead and alluminium paints one after the other and finel# coated with bitumen* =mm G.t tower. 3here it is not feasible.Lightening /rrestors. /nother direct connection from the LT lightening /rrestors if provided. crowfoot counterpoise with = wires is installed.I wire should be used for earth leads. &ne separate connection from the Transformer bod# and the handle of the 009/. +/* The connections to the three earth conn. Each of these wires is terminated at a rod at the nearest point where low resistance is obtained. The counterpoise conductors shall be ? S3G galvanised steel wires ta en awa# from the tower at mutuall# right angles and ept at least 76ft apart. Earth 8at 6esign Earthing S#stem in a Sub Station comprises of Earth $at or Grid. &ne separate connection from neutral +on the medium voltage side* of the Transformer +Two wires* ii. Earthing .
the Earth $at should be design properl# b# considering the safe limit of Step %otential. g. c. The inter lin is made thro flat or rod conductor which is called as Earth $at or Grid. T!e factors $!ic! inf#uence t!e art! Mat design are% a. iv. f. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program %rimar# re(uirement of Earthing is to have a low earth resistance. $agnitude of 2ault . (A Govt. !ence the value of the earth resistance in the inter lin ed state which is called combined earth value which will be much lower than the individual value. 1ut if these individual electrodes are inter lin ed inside the soil. b. e. Step Potentia# It is the potential difference available between the legs while standing on the ground. It eeps the surface of substation e(uipment as nearl# as absolute earth potential as possible. of India Undertaking) @ . Si4e of Earth Grid . it increases the area in contact with soil and creates number of parallel paths. v.urrent Duration of 2ault Soil Resistivit# Resistiviti# of Surface $aterial Shoc Duration $aterial of Earth $at . To achieve the primar# re(uirement of Earthing s#stem. d.onductor Safe Step and Touch %otential $esh %otential +Emesh* Grid configuration for Safe &peration Lumber of Electrodes re(uired 8easure ent o" Earth Resistance Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. ii. which will have fairl# high resistance. Substation involves man# Earthings throB individual Electrodes. iii. Touc! Potentia# It is the potential difference between the leg and the hand touching the e(uipment in operation.onductor Earthing $at Geometr# T!e design parameters for t!e fo##o$ing can be $or&ed out as gi'en in t!e anne(ure ) i. Touch %otential and Transfer %otential.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform.
(A Govt. of India Undertaking) F . or testers are used for this purpose. If the electrodes areB corroded immediate steps for replacement are to be ta en. /s discussed earlier. 2or achieving )low earth values. Regular chec ing or "oints and bro en connections. Termina# Meter Current Terminal C1. The two outer spi es are connected to current terminals of earth meggar and the two inner spi es to potential terminals of the meggar till a stead# value is obtained. The earth resistance is to be measured periodicall#. "oints are also to be chec ed. low earth resistance %ath is a must for clearing the fault current instantaneousl#. Three Ter ina$5 Two temporar# electrodes or spi es are driven one for current and the other voltage at a distance of 076 feet and A7 feet from the earth electrode under test and ohmic values of earth electrode is read in the meggar. The condition of the electrodes. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. The megger. Mar&ing +i* *or + Termina# Meter Current Terminal – C or H Potential Terminal – P or U Earth Terminal – E (ii) *or . Four Ter ina$5 2our spi es are driven into the ground at e(ual intervals. P2 8aintenance o" Earthing S%ste -!ec&ing and Testing The Earthing s#stems are to be inspected regularl#. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program The measurement of earth resistance is done using three terminal earth meggars or four terminal earth meggars. if an# and rectif#ing the same will prove to be of immense help in maintenance of earth grid and e(uipmentBs.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. C2 Potential Terminal P1. the following wa#s are followed5 i* / number of electrodes are connected in parallel thereb# providing a low resistance.
of India Undertaking) 06 . 8.. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program ii) The ground surrounding the electrodes is treated with common salt which reduces the resistance b# @6M. This is possible if the connections are made to a common clamp which is in turn is fi. In general practice. But no) the bentonite is used. :. )tem 3atering of Earth %its $easurement of earth resistance of individual earth pits $easurement of combined earth resistance at all the pits .ed round the pipe. (A Govt. .alcium chloride and magnesium sulphate ma# also be used./o 0. =.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. The# can include rods. .hec ing of inter connections between earth pits and tightness of bolts and nuts Periodicity Dail# !alf #earl# N !alf #earl#...ombined earth resistance shall be the same at ever# earth pit unless it gets disconnected from the earth mat 6e"initions o" Genera$ Earthing Ter s Soi$ Resisti9it%5 This is the resistivit# of a t#pical sample of soil Earth Sur"ace Vo$tage* The voltage between a specified point on the ground around the rod and reference earth. Earth E$ectrode These are conductors. steel reinforcing bars. tape. The following $aintenance schedule in mandator# at each of the Substations S. . 6e"initions o" Ter s associated )ith Po)er S%ste s Neutra$ Point Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. Ouarterl# N Earth resistance of individual earth pits can be measured b# disconnecting the earth connections to the electrode.. which are in direct contact with the soil and provide the conductive part in electrical contact with earth.
The %ower transformer bod# is to be connected two sides to the earth mat. /ll the e. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program The common point of a star connected pol# phase s#stem or the earthed mid)point of a single phase s#stem. The Earth mat should be laid minimum ?66$$. E:!osed Conducti9e Part . F. %rovide fle. ? $S flat +a* 1rea er bod# +b* Rela# %anel +c* . one Earth flat of si4e A7 . Line Isolators are to be connected directl# to the earth mat. which is dropping down from the brea ers. The internal vertical and hori4ontal sections ma# be A7 . (A Govt. Inde!endent Earth E$ectrode /n earth electrode located at such a distance from other electrodes that its electrical potential is not significantl# affected b# electric currents between Earth and other electrodes. Points o" Earthing 0. @ $S flat should be laid as outer of the switch#ard compulsoril# and see that the pole structures are enclosed in the outer mat. 8. @ or 76 .Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. Twin neutral earthing should be done to %ower Transformer as shown in the fig. :. below the ground level under the Earth mat and 1entonite powder is to be laid upto :7mm and over the earth mat. ? $S flat. 06. A. $a e vertical and hori4ontal sections for the outer mat as shown in the fig. Lightening arrestor is to be connected one end directl# to the earth mat and the other end is to the nearer earth pit or to the earth mat.onductive part of e(uipment and which is not normall# live. but which can become live when basic insulation fails. of India Undertaking) 00 . =. See that each and ever# pole structure is earthed with 76 .S flat is directl# connected to the earth pit and the earth pit is again connected to the Earth mat.posed earth flat. The same 1entonite compound with 1lac cotton soil a mi. 0:.TBs structures should be applied with bituminous paint. /ll /1 switches operating rods are to be provided with coil earths and the /1 switch support is to be earthed to the earth mat. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. @. @mm $. Earth mat of A7 .ible "umpers thoroughl# bra4ed as shown in figure 00. ?. ? $S flat to the Earth $at. 2or ever# brea er there will be fine earth connections to the earth mat with 76 .TBs of the 1rea er +d* and two sides of the brea er structure. 7. .ture of 05? ratio is to be placed upto 066 mm and the remaining earth trench is to be bac filled with the soil. The second neutral is directl# connected to the earth mat.
@ $S flat is to be laid around the control room from main earth and the panels of the brea ers. If proper Earthing is not done. The cable +00 . (A Govt. The neutral of the station transformer is to be connected to the Earth mat directl# with :7 . 07. /ll the welding "oints should be painted with bituminous paint. 8 GI strip to the Earth mat.SION The various practices and standards are to be followed in respect of providing Earthing in our s#stems.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. 0A. midpoint of the 1atter# and 1atter# stand structures are to be earthed to the earth flat and ma e a section in front of the control room. 8 GI strip. of India Undertaking) 0: . The distance between an# two earth electrodes should be twice the length of the Electrode. V( CONC-. 889-* sheaths are to be earthed with :7 . Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program 08. The bod# of the Station transformer two sides to be connected to the earth mat with :7 . 0=. 8 GI strip. there is ever# li elihood of e(uipmentB I getting damaged and also have to be personnel )public and staff. !ence due attention is to be given in providing and maintaining of earth grid properl# and in good condition. 0?. A7 .
I( Soil Resistivit# Resistivit# of .onductor /rea /P I Simplified formula for Steel Grid . Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Anne:ure I .-ATION OF SI<E OF EARTH GRI6 CON6.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform.rushed Roc . of India Undertaking) S Tcap . CA-C.rushed Roc Surface La#er Thic ness Switch Kard overall Dimensions Earth 2ault Level Duration consider for earth fault. (A Govt. 9 factor P @6 for steel. %v 08 . f.CTOR .onductor /rea / P I . I P short circuit current in 9/. c. ln 9o Q Tm 9o Q Ta tc < α r .pie Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. e. b. 06 <= . √t 9 3here / P area of earth conductor in mm:. d.alculation of design parameters for the earthing is given below5 6ata Needed a. t P duration of short circuit current in seconds. If mat is made of 2lat then / P /rea of 2lat Give allowance of 87 M for corrosion If it is a conductor / P pie Rr: r P √/.
%s * 6. of India Undertaking) 0= . ? 86 . %s * 6. /t hs P T and 9 P T . ? iv* v* vi* =6 .00? √t Similarl# E Touch P + 0666 Q ? s where . ? 76 .rushed Roc To plot the value of s = Refer the graph fig. 06 ROD =6 mm $ild Steel Rod II( 6eter ination o" 8a:i u E step P + 0666 Q ? s Per issib$e Ste! and Touch Potentia$ . 9P => ? Q s s R =is the Soil resistivit# s =is the resistivit# of . @ of page =0 of I EEE @6.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform.alculate s = Then calculate E step P + 0666 Q ? s . (A Govt. %s * 6. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program STAN6AR6 F-ATS i* ii* iii* 06 .00? St where %s P Resistivit# of .00? √t Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd.rushed Roc s P Reduction factor for derating the value of surface la#er is a function of reflection factor H9B of crushed roc . @ vii* viii* i. ? ?7 . ? :6 . ? 76 . 06 A7 .* ?6 .
ln =l d ohm Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. Then onl# the design is considered as safe.orrection factor for Grid IG P $a. of India Undertaking) 07 . Ca$cu$ation o" Nu ber o" E$ectrode R P 066 .imum earth fault current in amps. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program R .ho h P depth of buried conductor ho P reference depth D P Spacing between the Grid d P diameter of earth conductor n P no. L where 9m P Geometrical 2actor 9i P .alculation of $esh %otential Em P 9m 9 i % IG.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform. (A Govt.urrent Diversion 2actor which is ?6M full load current So Em = P $ Km $ K i $ I % L &olt The $esh %otential alwa#s less than the permissible touch > step potential.onductor in metres.?7? Q 60A: n IG P . of parallel conductor .alculate 9m P T 9i P correction factor for grid geometer 9i P 6. L P Total Length of . The value of 9m can be calculated from the formula Km = 1 2Π Ln D2 1! h" + (D + 2ho) 2 D" - h #" + Kij ln Kn Π (2n-1) 3here 3here 9n P √ 0 Q h.
I. ii* In case of G . thic . ?6cm G. cm. or steelpipes.= mm thic G. 0:6 cm and 0:.7. of parallel electrodes needed P -alue of R Earth Electrodes Stations a* Larger %ower Stations and $a"or sub)stations 0:. P$ate E$ectrodes G.I.Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Distribution Reform.opper* b* 1ranch connections 5 . b* Small sub)stations ?6 .ross section not less than ?=. (A Govt. %ipes of 07:mm dia . %lates of 0:6 . plates of F. Space for Institution Logo Power Finance Corporation Ltd. 8.67@mts. long.E. not smaller than 8@mm internal diameter. cmUV..ross Section not less than 0?0s(. Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program $inimum Lo. of India Undertaking) 0? .I.7 mm thic Pi!e e$ectrodes i*G.@ min internal diameter and 8. long and not less than Earth conductors a* $ain and subsidiar# connection 5 .7 s(.6=@mts. pipes of 76.I.
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