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TURBOSHAFT

ENGINE
Training manual
December 2000
Ref.: X 292 87 960 2
0.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
FOREWORD
This document provides, in a teaching form, all the informa-
tion required for the operation and the maintenance of the
ARRIEL 1 Turboshaft engine for training purposes only.
It will not be updated, and if required, modifications will be
included in a new issue.
TURBOMECA Training Centre
This document is the property of TURBOMECA and it may not be copied without the express authority of TURBOMECA.
FOREWORD
0.2
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
SUMMARY
0 - Foreword
1 - Introduction
2 - Power plant
3 - Engine
4 - Oil system
5 - Air system
6 - Fuel system
7 - Control system
8 - Control and indication
9 - Starting
10 - Electrical system
11 - Engine installation
12 - Operating limitations and
procedures
13 - Various aspects of maintenance
14 - Maintenance procedures
15 - Fault analysis and trouble
shooting
16 - Checking of knowledge
SUMMARY
0.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0 - FOREWORD
- Summary ............................................ 0.2
- Table of contents ................................ 0.3
- List of abbreviations .......................... 0.7
- Conversion table ................................ 0.10
1 - INTRODUCTION
- General information ........................... 1.2
- Training method ................................. 1.4
- Training aids ...................................... 1.6
- Training programme ......................... 1.8 to 1.12
2 - POWER PLANT
- General presentation ......................... 2.2
- General description ........................... 2.4
- General operation .............................. 2.8
- Principle of adaptation to helicopter .. 2.12
- Main characteristics ........................... 2.14
- Design and development ................... 2.22 to 2.27
3 - ENGINE
- Engine ................................................ 3.2
- Axial compressor ............................... 3.8
- Gas generator HP section ................... 3.14
Centrifugal compressor ................... 3.16
Combustion chamber....................... 3.22
Gas generator turbine ...................... 3.28
- Power turbine ..................................... 3.34
- Exhaust pipe....................................... 3.40
- Reduction gearbox ............................. 3.42
- Transmission shaft
and accessory gearbox ....................... 3.48
Transmission shaft - twin-engine
version ............................................. 3.50
Transmission shaft - single engine
version ............................................. 3.52
Accessory box ................................. 3.54 to 3.61
4 - OIL SYSTEM
- Oil system ......................................... 4.2
- Lubrication ........................................ 4.8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTINUED)
4 - OIL SYSTEM (CONTINUED)
- Oil tank ............................................. 4.12
- Oil pumps ........................................... 4.14
- Electrical magnetic plugs ................... 4.20
- Oil filter.............................................. 4.24
- Filter pre-blockage indicator .............. 4.30
- Oil cooler ........................................... 4.34
- Centrifugal breather ........................... 4.36
- Magnetic plugs ................................... 4.40
- Strainers ............................................. 4.42
- Indicating devices .............................. 4.44
- Oil pipes and ducts ............................. 4.50 to 4.51
5 - AIR SYSTEM
- Air system ......................................... 5.2
- Internal air system ............................. 5.4
- Air tappings........................................ 5.8
- Compressor bleed valve ..................... 5.10
- Air tapping unions ............................. 5.18
- Air pipes ............................................. 5.20 to 5.21
6 - FUEL SYSTEM
- Fuel system ....................................... 6.2
- Fuel Control Unit ............................... 6.12
Fuel pump........................................ 6.14
Fuel filter ......................................... 6.18
Manual control ................................ 6.24
Metering unit ................................... 6.28
- Overspeed and drain valve ................ 6.30
- Start injector electro-valve ................. 6.36
- Main injection system........................ 6.42
- Start injectors ..................................... 6.46
- Combustion chamber drain valve ...... 6.50
- Fuel pipes ........................................... 6.54 to 6.55
7 - CONTROL SYSTEM
- Control system................................... 7.2
General ............................................ 7.2
Description ...................................... 7.4
Operation ......................................... 7.6 to 7.33
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTINUED)
8 - CONTROL AND INDICATION
- Manual control system....................... 8.2
- Indicating system ............................... 8.6
- Speed indication................................. 8.8
- Tachometer transmitters ..................... 8.10
- Speed probes (1E, 1K, 1S versions) .. 8.14
- Gas temperature indication ................ 8.16
- Thermocouple probes ........................ 8.18
- Thermocouple junction box
(1S version) ........................................ 8.20
- Torque indication ............................... 8.22
- Torquemeter ....................................... 8.24
- Torque transmitter .............................. 8.26
- Miscellaneous indications .................. 8.28 to 8.35
9 - STARTING
- Starting system................................... 9.2
- Starter ................................................. 9.10
- Ignition system................................... 9.16
- Ignition units ...................................... 9.18
- Igniter plugs ....................................... 9.22
- Ignition cables .................................... 9.26 to 9.27
10 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
- Electrical system................................ 10.2
- Electrical accessories ......................... 10.4
- Power turbine overspeed safety
system ................................................ 10.6
- Power turbine overspeed sensor ........ 10.10
- Tachometer box.................................. 10.14
- Super contingency power system ...... 10.24
- Electrical harnesses ............................ 10.28 to 10.29
11 - ENGINE INSTALLATION
- Engine compartment .......................... 11.2
- Engine mounting ................................ 11.4
- Power drive ........................................ 11.8
- Air intake ........................................... 11.10
- Exhaust system .................................. 11.12
- Engine system interfaces ................... 11.14
Oil system........................................ 11.14
Aircraft LP fuel system ................... 11.16
Manual controls ............................... 11.18
Air system ....................................... 11.20
- Drain system ...................................... 11.22
- Fire protection.................................... 11.24 to 11.25
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0.6
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
(CONTINUED)
12 - OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND
PROCEDURES
- Operating limitations ......................... 12.2
- Operating procedures ........................ 12.6 to 12.9
13 - VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
- Maintenance concept ......................... 13.2
- TBOs and life limits ........................... 13.4
- Preventive maintenance ..................... 13.6
- "On-condition" monitoring ................ 13.8
- Corrective maintenance ..................... 13.10
- Lubricants - Fuels - Materials ............ 13.12
- Tooling ............................................... 13.14
- Technical publications ....................... 13.16
- Product support .................................. 13.22 to 13.23
14 - MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
- General ............................................... 14.2
- Inspection and check procedures ....... 14.4
- Removal and installation procedures . 14.52
- Deep maintenance .............................. 14.62
- Repair and overhaul ........................... 14.64 to 14.65
15 - FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE
SHOOTING
- Fault analysis ..................................... 15.2
- Trouble shooting ................................ 15.32 to 15.47
16 - CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
- Introduction........................................ 16.2
- Questionnaire 1 ................................. 16.3
- Questionnaire 2 ................................. 16.6
- Questionnaire 3 ................................. 16.12
- Questionnaire 4 .................................. 16.15 to 16.30
OBSERVATIONS ................................... Last page
This training manual is established to meet training
requirements and takes into consideration, to a certain extent,
ATA 104 specifications.
This document has 562 pages. It was produced using a
desktop publishing system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
0.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
FAA .............. Federal Aviation Administration
FCU .............. Fuel Control Unit
FMU ............. Fuel Metering Unit
FOD .............. Foreign Object Damage
ft .................... Feet
FWD ............. Forward
G ................... Mass air flow
g .................... Gram
HE................. High Energy
HP ................. Horse Power
HP ................. High Pressure
HUMS........... Health and Usage Monitoring System
Hz ................. Hertz
ICP ................ Intermediate Contingency Power
ID.................. Identification
IFDS ............. Integrated Flight Display System
ILS ................ Integrated Logistic Support
ISA................ International Standard Atmosphere
ISV................ Servo-valve intensity
A/C ............... Aircraft
AC................. Alternating Current
ACMS........... Automatic Control Monitoring System
ACW............. Anti-clockwise
AEO.............. All Engines Operating
ATA.............. Air Transport Association
BITE ............. Built In Test Equipment
Tq (C) ........... Torque
cc/h ............... Cubic centimetres per hour
FCV .............. Frequency/Voltage Converter
CH................. Hourly Fuel consumption
cSt ................. Centistoke
CW................ Clockwise
daN ............... DecaNewton
dB ................. Decibel
DC................. Direct Current
DGAC........... Direction Gnrale de l'Aviation Civile
Ec .................. Kinetic energy
EGT .............. Exhaust Gas Temperature
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
The abbreviations / symbols shown below may be used during training :
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(CONTINUED)
kHz ............... Kilohertz
kPa ................ Kilopascal
kW ................ Kilowatt
l/h .................. Litre per hour
lb ................... Pound
lb/HP.hr ........ Pounds per Horse Power per hour
lb/hr ............... Pounds per hour
lb/sec. ............ Pounds per second
LRU .............. Line Replaceable Unit
LTT............... Learning Through Teaching
LVDT ........... Linear Voltage Differential Transducer
m................... Metre
mA ................ Milliampere
MAX............. Maximum
MCP.............. Max Continuous Power
MCQ............. Multi Choice Questionnaire
MGB ............. Main gearbox
MHz .............. Mega Hertz
MIN .............. Minimum
mm................ Millimetre
mP................. Micro-processor
MTBF ........... Mean Time Between Failure
MTBUR........ Mean Time Between Unscheduled Removal
MTCP ........... Maintenance Test Control Panel
MTTR ........... Mean Time to Repair
mV ................ Millivolt
N ................... Rotation speed
N1 ................. Gas generator rotation speed
N2 ................. Power turbine rotation speed
NMD............. Navigation and Mission Display
NOVRAM .... Non Volatile Random Access Memory
NR................. Rotor rotation speed
................... Angular Velocity
O/S ................ Overspeed
OEI ............... One Engine Inoperative
P .................... Pressure
P2 .................. Compressor outlet pressure
POS............... Position
PPM.............. Parts per million
PSI ................ Pounds per Square Inch
PSIA ............. Pounds per Square Inch Absolute
PSID ............. Pounds per Square Inch Differential
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
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For training purposes only
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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(CONTINUED)
PSIG ............. Pounds per Square Inch Gauge
PT ................. Power Turbine
Q ................... Fuel flow
RAM............. Random Access Memory
ROM............. Read Only Memory
RPM.............. Revolutions Per Minute
RTD .............. Resistive Temperature Device
SCP ............... Super Contingency power
SFC ............... Specific Fuel Consumption
Shp ................ Shaft horse power
SI ................... International System
SRU .............. Shop replaceable unit
t ..................... Time
T/O................ Take-Off
TBO .............. Time Between Overhauls
TET............... Turbine Entry Temperature
TM................ Turbomeca
t ................... Temperature
t4 ................... Gas temperature
US G ............. US Gallon
VAC.............. Volt, Alternating Current
VDC.............. Volt, Direct Current
W .................. Power
XTL .............. Throttle position signal
XCP .............. Collective Pitch Signal
Z.................... Altitude
Zp.................. Pressure altitude
C.................. Degrees Celsius
F .................. Degrees Fahrenheit
K.................. Degrees Kelvin
.................... Plus or Minus
................... Ohm
.................... Difference (delta)
P ................. Pressure difference
%................... Percent
< .................... Is lower than
> .................... Is higher than
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
0.10
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
1 mm = 0.039 inch
1 m = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yard
1 dm
3
= 1 litre = 0.26 US gallon
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
1 kW = 1.34 HP
C = (F-32). 5/9
K = [(F-32)5/9] + 273
1 kPa = 0.01 bar = 0.145 PSI
1 kg/s = 2.2 lbs/sec.
1 g/kW.h = 0.00164 lb/HP.hr
Length
Volume
Mass
Power
Temperature
Pressure
Flow (air, oil, fuel)
Specific Fuel Consumption
CONVERSION TABLE
UNIT
International System British or American Systems
CONVERSION TABLE
1.1
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 INTRODUCTION
1- INTRODUCTION
- General information...................................................... 1.2
- Training method ............................................................ 1.4
- Training aids .................................................................. 1.6
- Training programme .................................................... 1.8 to 1.12
1.2
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL INFORMATION
The power of knowledge
Adequate training is essential for obvious safety reasons,
but also to reduce additional maintenance costs incurred
by unjustified removals and excessive downtime.
"Greater knowledge leads to greater efficiency".
Objectives of training
The main objective is the acquisition of the knowledge
required for the tasks to be achieved (know and know
how).
Further information is also communicated to widen the
skill and the experience of the trainee.
Training approach
- Performance based training according to task
analysis, with classroom sessions, student involvement,
practical work and troubleshooting techniques
- Advanced training aids : training manual, Computer
Aided Presentation (or overhead projection), multimedia
courseware and demonstration mock-ups
- Experienced and formally trained instructors
- Courses are taught in English and French and, in
special circumstances, in German and Spanish.
Training Centre
The Training Centre is located in one of the buildings of
TURBOMECA's TARNOS factory.
TARNOS .... 5 kms north of the BAYONNE -
ANGLET - BIARRITZ district - Access
by train (BAYONNE station), by plane
(BIARRITZ-PARME airport), by road
(A63 highway, TARNOS exit).
Address ...... TURBOMECA - 40220 TARNOS
FRANCE
Telex ........... 570 042
Telephone .. (33) 5 59 74 40 07 or 05 59 74 40 07
Fax .............. (33) 5 59 74 45 15 or 05 59 74 45 15
E-mail ......... centre.instruction@turbomeca.fr
The training centre is organized in order to answer to
training demands (administration, training aids,
instructors).
Training sites
Training courses are also conducted in subsidiaries, in
approved training centres and on site :
- by a TURBOMECA qualified instructor, in certain
subsidiaries and approved training centres
- or by an instructor detached from TURBOMECA France,
in our subsidiaries and in the clients' premises.
1.3
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GENERAL INFORMATION
PARIS
TARNOS
BORDES
SPAIN
FRANCE
BAYONNE
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
TRAINING
OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
TRAINING APPROACH
The power of knowledge
Adequate training is essential for obvious safety
reasons, but also to reduce additional
maintenance costs incurred by unjustified
removals and excessive downtime.
"Greater knowledge leads to greater efficiency".
TRAINING SITES
Training courses are also
conducted in subsidiaries, in
approved training centres and on site.
TRAINING CENTRE,
TURBOMECA Tarnos
(FRANCE)
1.4
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
INTRODUCTION
TRAINING METHOD
Knowledge transmission process
The required knowledge is transmitted in such a manner
that the student may use it efficiently in various
circumstances.
The training is conducted in accordance with a process
which considers :
- A phase of explanation for understanding
- A phase of assimilation leading to the complete acqui-
sition and long-term retention of the knowledge.
Continuous checking of knowledge helps to ensure the
information is assimilated. It is more a method of work
than a testing in the traditional sense (refer to chapter 16).
Training method
The training method is a carefully balanced combination
of :
- Lecture
- Discussions
- Exercises
- Practical work.
1.5
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TRAINING METHOD
1
4
3
2
KNOWLEDGE
TRANSMISSION PROCESS
TRAINING METHOD
1 - LECTURE
2 - EXERCISES
3 - DISCUSSIONS
4 - PRACTICAL WORK
INSTRUCTOR
MEDIA
STUDENT
EXPLANATION ASSIMILATION
KNOWLEDGE TRANSMISSION,
PHASES :
- Explanation
- Assimilation
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE :
- Continuous checking, treated in
chapter 16
1.6
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
INTRODUCTION
TRAINING AIDS
Training manual
The training manual is the basic source of information.
It contains, in a teaching form, all required information
and explanations, following a layout derived from the
ATA 104 standard. Thus each subject is treated following
a plan which allows the material to be adapted to different
levels of training.
Typical plan :
- General (function, position, main characteristics, main
components)
- Description (general and detailed)
- Operation (phases, synthesis).
Other technical publications are also used during a course.
Computer Aided Presentation or overhead
projection
Computer Aided Presentation or overhead projection is
used to display the illustrations contained in the training
manual (the instructor's explanations follow the manual).
Multimedia courseware
Interactive courseware is used to transmit information
during a course.
This multimedia system uses text, photos, illustrations,
animation and video.
Certain courses are available for sale on CD-ROM.
This system with quick and easy access can be very
efficient for maintaining knowledge levels in the workplace.
However, only a course delivered by a TURBOMECA
instructor or TURBOMECA qualified instructor would
allow the issue of an engine maintenance authorisation
card.
Demonstration mock-ups
Demonstration mock-ups are also used for component
identification and maintenance procedures.
Note : The information contained in the Training Aids
must be considered for training purposes only.
1.7
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 INTRODUCTION
TRAINING AIDS
MULTIMEDIA
COURSEWARE
DEMONSTRATION
MOCK-UPS
COMPUTER AIDED PRESENTATION
OR OVERHEAD PROJECTION
TRAINING MANUAL
Note : The
information contained in
the Training Aids must be
considered for training
purposes only.
1.8
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
INTRODUCTION
TRAINING PROGRAMME
The course programme follows the manual. However, it
should be noted that the "classroom sessions" alternate
with periods devoted to demonstrations and practical
work.
According to the contents, each session is mainly devoted
to description and operation.
The engine maintenance aspect is mainly covered by the
last part of the manual, which also deals with various
elements related to maintenance (standard practices,
technical publications, logistics and mainly fault analysis
and fault finding).
Examples of programme :
The following pages provide examples of training
programme :
- Familiarization course
- 1
st
line maintenance (O level) : preventive and corrective
maintenance
- 2
nd
line maintenance (I level) : modules, SRU
- 3
rd
line maintenance (H level) : deep maintenance
- 4
th
line maintenance (D level) : repair or overhaul.
1.9
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FAMILIARIZATION COURSE
Objective : At the end of this course, the student will be able to describe the engine, to explain its principle of operation
and to identify the main components of the engine and systems.
Programme :
- Engine systems (continued)
- Main aspects of maintenance
- Revision - Checking of knowledge
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
- Introduction
- General presentation of the engine
- Engine description
- Engine systems
1.10
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
INTRODUCTION
1
st
LINE MAINTENANCE COURSE (O LEVEL) : PREVENTIVE AND CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
Objective : At the end of this course, the student will be able to identify the engine components, to describe and to
explain the operation of the engine and its systems, to carry out 1
st
line maintenance procedures and to
diagnose operating failures.
Programme :
FIRST DAY
- Introduction - General
- Engine presentation - Engine description - Oil system
THIRD DAY
FOURTH DAY
SECOND DAY
FIFTH DAY
- Air system - Fuel system - Control system
- Measurement and indicating systems - Starting
- Electrical system - Engine installation
- Operating limitations and procedures - Various aspects of maintenance
- Maintenance procedures - Trouble shooting
- Visits - Revision
- Examination - Miscellaneous questions
1.11
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2
nd
LINE MAINTENANCE COURSE (I LEVEL) : MODULES, SRU
Objective : At the end of this course, the student will be able to identify the engine components, to carry out all the
2
nd
line maintenance procedures (mainly the removal/installation of modules and shop replaceable unit).
Programme : The programme mainly includes practical work. This programme can be carried out after the 1
st
line
maintenance programme.
- Introduction
- Revision (if this course is not conducted directly after the 1
st
line
course)
- Removal of modules
FIRST DAY
SECOND DAY
THIRD DAY
- Removal of modules
- Inspection and check of modules
- Installation of modules
- Inspection and checks after installation
1.12
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
INTRODUCTION
3
rd
LINE MAINTENANCE COURSE (H LEVEL) : DEEP MAINTENANCE
Objective : At the end of the course, the trainee will be able to carry out the 3rd line maintenance procedures (deep
maintenance).
Programme :
4
th
LINE MAINTENANCE COURSE (D LEVEL) : REPAIR OR OVERHAUL
Objective : At the end of the course, the trainee will be able to carry out the specific tasks regarding the engine and
related to his skills (eg : control system, assembly, machining procedures...).
Programme :
- Introduction
- Definition of procedures
- Practical work
FROM 3 DAYS TO 3 WEEKS
- Introduction
- Definition of procedures
- Practical work
SEVERAL WEEKS
2.1
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2- POWER PLANT
- General presentation .................................................... 2.2
- General description ...................................................... 2.4
- General operation ........................................................ 2.8
- Principle of adaptation to helicopter ........................... 2.12
- Main characteristics ..................................................... 2.14
- Design and development .............................................. 2.22 to 2.27
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POWER PLANT
2.2
GENERAL PRESENTATION
Function
The power plant provides power by transforming the
energy contained in the air and fuel into shaft power.
Main characteristics
- Type : free turbine turboshaft engine, front power drive,
external power transmission shaft
- Concept : modular
- Output shaft speed: 6000 RPM (at 100 %) (except the
1S1)
- Mass 126 kg (277 lbs). The mass may vary according
to the engine versions.
2.3
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GENERAL PRESENTATION
POWER
AIR
GAS
FUEL
6000 RPM at 100 %
(except 1S1)
POWER PLANT
- Free turbine type
- Modular
- Mass 126 kg (277 lbs)
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POWER PLANT
2.4
ENGINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This description considers the main functional components
of the engine.
Gas generator
- Single stage axial compressor
- Centrifugal compressor
- Annular combustion chamber with centrifugal fuel
injection
- Two stage axial turbine.
Power turbine
- Single stage axial turbine.
Exhaust pipe
- Elliptical, axial exhaust pipe.
Reduction gearbox
- Reduction gearbox comprising three helical toothed
gears.
Transmission shaft
- External shaft located in a protecting tube which connects
the reduction gearbox to the accessory gearbox.
Accessory gearbox
- Gearbox containing the accessory drive train and the
main power drive.
2.5
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ENGINE GENERAL DESCRIPTION
ACCESSORY
GEARBOX
GAS GENERATOR
Axial
compressor
Centrifugal
compressor
Combustion
chamber
Turbine
POWER TURBINE EXHAUST PIPE
REDUCTION GEARBOX TRANSMISSION SHAFT MAIN POWER DRIVE
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.6
ENGINE SYSTEMS - GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This part deals with the systems and functions of the
engine.
Oil system
The oil system lubricates and cools the engine components.
Dry sump system, synthetic oil, tank and cooling unit
installed on the aircraft. Pressure, temperature and magnetic
particles indications.
Air system
Internal system to pressurise and cool engine internal
parts. Accessory air supply system (ventilation of start
injectors, engine control). Compressor bleed valve. Air
supply to the aircraft.
Fuel system
Fuel supply through a gear type pump. Delivery through a
metering unit and a valve. Start injection through 2 simple
injectors. Main injection by a centrifugal wheel.
Control system
Constant power turbine rotation speed. Acceleration
control. Miscellaneous protection systems.
Hydro-mechanical control system (with a mechanical
back-up manual control) using fuel as hydraulic fluid.
Engine handling procedure
Entirely automatic. Control lever to start, stop and for
emergency control.
Engine indicating
Rotation speeds. Gas temperature. Engine torque. Oil
temperature and pressure. Miscellaneous indications.
Starting
Cranking by an electric starter. Ignition by High Energy.
Manual control.
Electrical system
Starting system. Indicating system. Overspeed system.
Harness with two or three connectors according to version.
Engine installation
- Interfaces designed for quick removal and installation
of engine
- Front and rear supports. Lifting rings
- Miscellaneous equipment (air intake, exhaust, firewalls,
transmission shaft, air bleeds, drains, fire protection).
2.7
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ENGINE SYSTEMS - GENERAL DESCRIPTION
OIL SYSTEM
AIR SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM
ENGINE
HANDLING PROCEDURE
ENGINE INDICATING
STARTING
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ENGINE INSTALLATION
FWD
CONTROL SYSTEM
Edition : December 2000
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.8
GENERAL OPERATION
This part deals with the basic operation of the engine.
Gas generator
- Compression of the air in the axial and centrifugal
compressors
- Combustion of the fuel/air mixture in the annular
combustion chamber
- Gas expansion in the gas generator turbine which drives
the compressors and engine accessories.
Power turbine
- Expansion of the gas in the single stage turbine which
drives the output shaft through the reduction gearbox.
Exhaust
- Discharge overboard of the gas.
Reduction gearbox
- Drive, at reduced speed, to the transmission shaft.
Transmission shaft
- Transmission of the power from the reduction gearbox
to the output shaft.
Accessory gearbox
- Power take-off to drive the helicopter main gearbox
- Drive of the accessories by the gas generator through a
bevel gear, a vertical drive shaft and a gear train.
2.9
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GENERAL OPERATION
GAS GENERATOR
COMPRESSION COMBUSTION EXPANSION
POWER TURBINE
GAS EXHAUST
REDUCTION GEARBOX TRANSMISSION SHAFT
ACCESSORY GEARBOX
EXPANSION
DRIVE SPEED REDUCTION
AIR
INLET
ACCESSORY
DRIVE
POWER
DRIVE
FORWARD POWER TRANSMISSION
FUEL
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.10
OPERATION - ADAPTATION
This part deals with the parameters and the adaptation of
the gas generator and power turbine.
Component adaptation
For the engine operation, two functional assemblies can be
considered :
- The gas generator which provides kinetic energy
- The power turbine which transforms the kinetic energy
into mechanical power on a shaft.
The two assemblies have different rotation speeds.
Gas generator
The gas generator operation is defined by :
- The air mass flow G (air flow which enters the engine)
- The air pressure P2 and air temperature t2 at the
centrifugal compressor outlet
- The fuel flow Q injected into the combustion chamber
- The gas temperature TET at the turbine entry
- The rotation speed N1 of the gas generator
- The kinetic energy Ec supplied to the turbine.
Power turbine
The power turbine operation is defined by the balance
between the power received from the gas generator and the
torque applied on the shaft, that is the torque C and the
rotation speed N2.
Operation
The operation is represented by the diagram which shows
the power W, the rotation speeds N1 and N2 and the max
torque limit C imposed by the mechanical transmission :
- The torque C is a function of the N2 rotation speed
- The power W is equal to the torque C multiplied by the
angular velocity
- At constant N2 speed, the power is only a function of the
torque
- The engine parameters can be represented as a function
of a reference parameter ; N1 for example.
2.11
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COMPONENT ADAPTATION
OPERATION - ADAPTATION
G
(air mass flow)
N1
(rotation speed)
N2 rotation speed
(constant)
C
(shaft torque)
Q
(fuel flow)
TET
(turbine entry temperature)
P2, t2
(compressor outlet
pressure and temperature)
Ec
(kinetic
energy)
W
(shaft power)
GAS GENERATOR POWER TURBINE
W
N2
M
a
x

t
o
r
q
u
e
Isospeeds
N1
C
N2
ENGINE
PARAMETERS
N1
G
P
2
/
P
0
W
C
H
T
E
T
SFC
Power W and speeds N1, N2
P2/P0: Compression ratio
CH : Hourly fuel consumption
SFC : Specific fuel consumption
Torque as a function of N2
W = C .
=
2 N
60
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.12
PRINCIPLE OF ADAPTATION TO HELICOPTER
Power transmission
The mechanical power supplied by the engine, is used to
drive the helicopter rotors through a mechanical
transmission.
This power drives :
- The main rotor (approximately 82 %)
- The tail rotor (approximately 10 %)
- The main gearbox (approximately 8 %).
Twin engine configuration
In a twin engine configuration, the engines are installed at
the rear of the main gearbox.
The power turbines of the two engines are mechanically
connected to the main gearbox which drives the rotors
(main and tail rotors).
Installation requirements
The main functional requirements of the installation are :
- Constant rotor rotation speed NR in all operating
conditions
- Max torque limit C (usually imposed by the aircraft
transmission)
- Complete engine protection (N1 and N2 speeds, TET
temperature, compressor surge Q/t)
- Good load sharing (in the case of a multi-engine
configuration).
Adaptation to requirements
To have a constant rotation speed of the power turbine N2,
the power supplied by the engine is automatically adapted
to the demand. This adaptation is ensured by the control
system which meters the fuel flow injected into the
combustion chamber so as to deliver the required power
(variation of the gas generator N1 rotation speed) while
keeping the engine within its operational limits.
2.13
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PRINCIPLE OF ADAPTATION TO HELICOPTER
POWER TRANSMISSION TWIN ENGINE CONFIGURATION
N2
N2
N2
t
W
N1, N2, TET, Q/ t
ADAPTATION TO REQUIREMENTS
MAIN GEARBOX 8%
MAIN ROTOR
82%
ENGINE
100%
MAIN GEARBOX
MAIN ROTOR
TAIL
ROTOR
ENGINE 2
ENGINE 1
time
W - Power
INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
Max torque C
NR
(constant)
TAIL ROTOR
10%
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.14
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (1)
Mass, dimensions and identification
Mass (dry)
- Engine with specific equipment and without fluid :
126 kg (277 lbs) it may vary according to the engine
version.
Dimensions
- Engine :
Length : 1166 mm (45.5 inches)
Width : 465.5 mm (18.2 inches)
Height : 609 mm (23.8 inches)
Identification
- Each module has an identification plate.
- The identification plate of the complete engine is located
on the module 1 protection tube.
2.15
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MASS, DIMENSIONS AND IDENTIFICATION
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (1)
465,5 mm
(18.2 inches)
6
0
9

m
m
(
2
3
.
8

i
n
c
h
e
s
)
1166 mm
(45.5 inches)
TURBOMECA
Module rfrence
ARRIEL
64320 BORDES - FRANCE
Brevets SZYDLOWSKI
TURBOMECA
64320 BORDES - FRANCE
Brevets SZYDLOWSKI
ARRIEL
Contrles
Certificat
Date
P kW
(dry and with specific equipment)
126 kg (277 lbs)
POWER PLANT MASS
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.16
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (2)
Operational ratings
The operational ratings correspond to given conditions of
helicopter operation. The ratings are generally defined
under determined speed and temperature conditions.
The following operational ratings are considered :
- AEO ratings (All Engines Operating) :
Max take-off power (T/O) : max rating which can be
used during take-off. This rating has a limited duration
(5 minutes continuous)
Max continuous power (MCP) : rating which can be
used without time limitation (this does not imply that
it is used permanently)
- OEI ratings (One Engine Inoperative) :
Max contingency power (MCP) : rating which can be
used in the case of one engine failure during take-off
or landing. This rating is usually limited to a period
of continuous operation : 2 minutes 30 seconds.
Intermediate contingency power (ICP) : rating which
can be used in the case of one engine failure in flight.
This rating is usually limited to 30 minutes or
unlimited
Super contingency power (SCP or 1 min) : extreme
rating used in place of max. contingency on some
versions. Its limited use requires particular
maintenance practices.
2.17
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OPERATIONAL RATINGS
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (2)
W
O.E.I. RATINGS A.E.O. RATINGS
T/O
5
minutes
unlimited
MAX
CONTINUOUS
POWER (MCP)
MAX
CONTINGENCY
POWER (MCP)
INTER
CONTINGENCY
POWER (ICP)
2
minutes
30
seconds
SCP
1
minute
Edition : December 2000
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.18
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (3)
Factors which affect performance
The engine performance is affected by flight and
atmospheric conditions. The effects of these conditions
are usually indicated by graphs which show the evolution
of performance as a function of parameters likely to
modify it (example : atmospheric temperature t0 and
pressure altitude Z).
Power evolution (W)
The power delivered by the engine decreases when the
altitude (Z) and the temperature (t0) increase (this is due to
the air mass flow decrease through the engine).
The conditions of the engine installation on the aircraft
should also be noted (miscellaneous losses due to
installation) as well as the flight conditions (essentially the
aircraft speed).
Evolution of fuel consumption (CH)
The fuel consumption decreases at a given rating, when the
altitude (Z) and the temperature (t0) increase.
Evolution of specific fuel consumption (SFC)
The specific fuel consumption varies with the operating
conditions.
The specific fuel consumption decreases, when the power
(W) increases (better thermal efficiency).
For this type of installation, the specific fuel consumption
which is mostly considered is that at the cruise rating.
2.19
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FACTORS WHICH AFFECT PERFORMANCE
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (3)
15 C
(59 F)
W
(kW)
t0
Z

=

0

m

(
0

f
t
)
Z

=

6
0
0
0

m

(
1
9
6
8
0

f
t
)
- +
EVOLUTION OF POWER (W)
CH
Z

=

0

m

(
0

f
t
)
Z

=

6
0
0
0

m

(
1
9
6
8
0

f
t
)
EVOLUTION OF
FUEL CONSUMPTION (CH)
t0
SFC
(g/kW.h)
W (kW)
EVOLUTION OF SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (SFC)
A
A = Cruise condition
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.20
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (4)
Engine operating envelope
The engine is designed to operate within a given climatic
envelope.
The envelope is defined by :
- The atmospheric temperature t0
- The pressure altitude Zp
- And lines of standard atmosphere.
Flight envelope
The flight envelope is illustrated by the t0/Zp diagram and
the lines of standard atmosphere, with the max tropical
zone and the min arctic zone.
Engine starting envelope
The starting and relight envelope is defined in the same
way, but it is also affected by the specifications of oil and
fuel used, and sometimes by particular procedures.
Limitations
The engine operates within various limitations : rotation
speeds, temperatures, pressures
Refer to corresponding chapters and official publications.
2.21
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ENGINE OPERATING ENVELOPE
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS (4)
0 -500 Zp
t0
M
a
x
IS
A
M
in
+15
-50
+50
C
t0
Zp
M
a
x
IS
A
M
in
*
-50
+50
C
*
FLIGHT ENVELOPE STARTING ENVELOPE
Depending on oil and fuel
specifications. Can also require
special operating procedures.
ISA
Max
Min
-
-
-
International standard
atmosphere
Tropical zone
Arctic zone
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POWER PLANT
2.22
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (1)
Principles of design
The engine is designed to meet the aircraft propulsion
requirements and particularly for the new generation of
helicopters.
The engine design is based on :
- An optimised thermodynamic cycle which gives high
performance
- Simple and reliable components giving a good
supportability, and a good maintainability to reduce the
costs.
Engine development
The ARRIEL engine is based on research and experience
of other engines :
- First generation engines : ASTAZOU, ARTOUSTE and
TURMO
Development steps
- Certification in 1977 by the French Authorities.
- The first production engine was delivered in January
1978.
- ARRIEL engines will be in service far beyond 2000.
Engine designation
- Example : ARRIEL 1A2.
ARRIEL - According to TURBOMECA tradition : name
of a Pyrenean lake.
- 1 : Type
- A : Variant
- 2 : Version.
2.23
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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (1)
1978
ENGINE DESIGNATION
ARRIEL lake
Example : ARRIEL 1A2
ARRIEL : Name of a Pyrenean lake
for the turboshaft engines
1 : Type
A : Variant
2 : Version
ASTAZOU
500 - 1000 Shp
TURMO
1500 - 1600 Shp
ARTOUSTE
400 - 850 Shp
ENGINE DEVELOPMENT
ARRIEL 1
650 - 700 Shp
Engine design
Optimised
thermodynamic cycle
Simple and reliable
components
Supportability
Maintainability
Cost
reduction
High
performance
STEPS
TIME
In service
far beyond
2000
First
production
1977
Certification
DEVELOPMENT STEPS
PRINCIPLES OF DISIGN
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.24
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (2)
Application
The ARRIEL 1 is presently destined for the following
helicopters : Squirrel and Dolphin (EUROCOPTER),
A 109 K2 (Agusta), S 76 (Sikorsky), BK 117 (MBB).
Maintenance concept
The ARRIEL is designed to provide a high availability rate
with reduced maintenance costs.
The main aspects of the maintenance concept are the
following :
- Full modularity
- Good accessibility
- Reduced removal and installation times
- "On condition" monitoring
- High initial TBO
- Low cost of ownership :
Low production costs
Durability (TBO, defined and proven life limits)
High reliability
Low fuel consumption.
Engine fleet status
At the beginning of ..., we can note :
- Number of ARRIEL 1 engines produced : ................
- Number of ARRIEL 1 engines in operation : ...........
- Operating hours : .......................................................
2.25
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DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (2)
-
-
-
-
-
-
CONOCO
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
Actual modularity
Good accessibility
Reduced time of removal and installation
Condition monitoring
High initial TBO
Low cost of ownership
FLEET STATUS
- Arriel 1 engines produced
- Arriel 1 engines in service
- Operating hours
SQUIRREL
(EUROCOPTER)
PT-HALB
BK 117
(MBB)
A 109 K2
(AGUSTA)
REGA
I-RAIE
DOLPHIN
(EUROCOPTER)
G-BKXD
SA 365 N
Management Aviation
S 76
(SIKORSKY)
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
POWER PLANT
2.26
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (3)
ARRIEL family
The great diversity of ARRIEL 1 operation is represented
in the table below including :
- Certification year
- Version
- Helicopter type
- Engine power
- Differences
2.27
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Free wheel, long exhaust pipe
DOLPHIN 365 C
SQUIRREL AS 350 B
1977
ARRIEL 1A
ARRIEL 1B
ARRIEL FAMILY
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT (3)
1979
1980
1982
1983
1985
1986
1988
1991
ARRIEL 1A1
ARRIEL 1A2
ARRIEL 1C
ARRIEL 1C1
ARRIEL 1M
ARRIEL 1K
ARRIEL 1D
ARRIEL 1S
ARRIEL 1 MN
ARRIEL 1 D1
ARRIEL 1 M1
ARRIEL 1 C2
ARRIEL 1E
DOLPHIN 365 C1
DOLPHIN 365 C2
DOLPHIN 365 N
DOLPHIN 365 C3
DOLPHIN 365 N1
DOLPHIN 365 F
AGUSTA A 109 K
SQUIRREL AS 350 B1/L1
SIKORSKY S 76 A
DOLPHIN 365 F
SQUIRREL AS 350 B2/L2
PANTHER 365 K
DOLPHIN 365 N2
BK 117
651 shp (2' 30")
640 shp (5')
667 shp (2' 30")
670 shp (2' 30")
723 shp (2' 30")
777 shp (2' 30")
723 shp (2' 30")
683 shp (5')
777 shp (2' 30")
760 shp (2' 30")
772 shp (2' 30")
700 shp (2' 30")
Adaptation to Agusta aircraft
Max fuel flow limit
Free wheel, power turbine support
and exhaust pipe of the 1B
1 minute rating
Turbine materials, power turbine bearing
modified
Gas generator turbine with fir-tree mounted
blades, new combustion chamber, increased N2
max N1, W and flight envelope increased
New centrifugal compressor
1S standard. Adaptation to the BK 117
Sealed turbine blades
Adaptation to Sikorsky aircraft
(support, transmission, systems...).
3.1
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3- ENGINE
- Engine ............................................................................. 3.2
- Axial compressor ........................................................... 3.8
- Gas generator HP section.............................................. 3.14
Centrifugal compressor ............................................................. 3.16
Combustion chamber ................................................................. 3.22
Gas generator turbine ................................................................ 3.28
- Power turbine................................................................. 3.34
- Exhaust pipe................................................................... 3.40
- Reduction gearbox......................................................... 3.42
- Transmission shaft and accessory gearbox ................. 3.48
Twin-engine transmission shaft................................................. 3.50
Single engine transmission shaft ............................................... 3.52
Accessory gearbox ...................................................................... 3.54 to 3.61
3.2
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
ENGINE - GENERAL
Function
The engine transforms the energy in the air and fuel into
mechanical power on a shaft.
Main characteristics
- Type : Free turbine with forward drive via an external
shaft
- Power class : from 480 to 560 kW (650 to 760 Shp)
according to version
- Specific fuel consumption : according to version (see
maintenance manual)
- Gas generator speed (N1) : approximately 52000 RPM
at 100 %
Direction of rotation : anti-clockwise
- Power turbine speed (N2) : 41586 RPM at 100 %
Direction of rotation : clockwise
- Output shaft speed : 6000 RPM at 100 % (except
the 1S1)
Direction of rotation : clockwise
Note : Direction of rotation given viewed from the rear.
Main components
- Gas generator
Axial compressor (module M02)
HP section (module M03)
- Centrifugal compressor
- Annular combustion chamber
- Two stage turbine
- Single stage power turbine (module M04)
- Exhaust pipe
- Reduction gearbox (module M05)
- Transmission shaft and accessory gearbox (module
M01).
3.3
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ENGINE - GENERAL
AXIAL
COMPRESSOR
CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
TURBINE POWER
TURBINE
EXHAUST
PIPE
REDUCTION
GEARBOX
TRANSMISSION SHAFT AND
ACCESSORY GEARBOX
Type :
Free turbine
Power class :
From 480 to 560 kW
(650 to 760 Shp)
Specific fuel consumption :
According to version
Gas generator speed (N1) :
Approximately 52000 RPM
at 100% (ACW)
Power turbine (N2) :
41586 RPM at 100% (CW)
Output shaft :
6000 RPM at 100%
(CW) except 1S1
3.4
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
ENGINE - DESCRIPTION
Main components
- Gas generator
Axial compressor
Centrifugal compressor
Combustion chamber
Two stage turbine
- Single stage power turbine
- Exhaust pipe
- Reduction gearbox
- Transmission shaft
- Accessory gearbox.
Note : Some accessories are provided with each module.
In this manual, those components are dealt with in
the chapters corresponding to the main systems.
Modular layout
The engine comprises 5 modules :
- Module M01 : Transmission shaft and accessory gearbox
- Module M02 : Axial compressor
- Module M03 : Gas generator HP section
- Module M04 : Power turbine
- Module M05 : Reduction gearbox.
Note : A module is a sub-assembly which can be replaced
on-site (2nd line maintenance) without complex
tooling or adaptation work.
Each module has an identification plate. The engine
identification plate is fitted on the right hand side
of the M01 protection tube.
3.5
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ENGINE - DESCRIPTION
MODULE M02
AXIAL COMPRESSOR
MODULE M03
GAS GENERATOR
HIGH PRESSURE SECTION
MODULE M04
POWER TURBINE
MODULE M05
REDUCTION GEARBOX
MODULE M01
TRANSMISSION SHAFT
AND ACCESSORY GEARBOX
3.6
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
ENGINE - OPERATION
The engine provides power by transforming the energy in
the air and fuel into mechanical energy on a shaft.
The process comprises compression, combustion,
expansion and the transmission of the power.
Compression
The ambient air is compressed by an axial supercharging
compressor and a centrifugal compressor.
This phase is essentially characterised by the air flow
(approx. 2.5 kg/s ; 5.5 lbs/sec.) and the compression ratio
(approx. 8.2).
Combustion
The compressed air is admitted into the combustion
chamber, mixed with the fuel and burnt in a continuous
process.
The air is divided into two flows :
- A primary flow for combustion
- A secondary flow for cooling the gas.
This phase is essentially characterised by the temperature
rise, flame temperature approx. 2500 C and turbine entry
temperature of approx. 1100 C, and a pressure drop of
about 4 %.
Expansion
- The gas expands in the gas generator turbine which
extracts the energy required to drive the compressor and
accessories (N1 rotation : 52000 RPM ACW)
During this phase the pressure and temperature of the
gas drop, whilst the velocity increases.
- There is a further expansion in the power turbine which
extracts most of the remaining energy to drive the output
shaft (N2 rotation : 41586 RPM CW)
After the power turbine the gas is discharged overboard
via the exhaust pipe, giving a slight residual thrust.
Power transmission
The power is transmitted forward by a reduction gearbox
and an external transmission shaft.
Note : The engine reference stations are :
0 - Air intake
1 - Axial compressor inlet
1' - Axial compressor outlet
2 - Centrifugal compressor outlet
3 - Turbine inlet
4 - Gas generator turbine outlet
5 - Power turbine outlet.
3.7
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ENGINE - OPERATION
P kPa
(PSI)
t C
(F)
V
160
(23.2)
65
(149)
820
(118.9)
320
(608)
1125
(2057)
880
(1616)
300
(43.5)
600
(1080)
2500
(4532)
108
(15.7)
800
(116)
101,3
(14.7)
15
(59)
0 1 2 1' 4 5 3
EXHAUST
AIR
INLET
COMPRESSOR
EXPANSION
POWER TRANSMISSION
(power transmitted forward by
a reduction gearbox and an
external shaft)
Values given
for information at a
given reference rating
Primary air
Gas
Secondary air
AIR FLOW
2.5 kg/s
(5.5 lbs/s)
Residual thrust
15 daN (33 lbs)
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
TURBINES
COMBUSTION
COMPRESSION
3.8
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
AXIAL COMPRESSOR - GENERAL
Function
The axial compressor ensures a first stage of compression
to supercharge the centrifugal compressor.
Position
- At the front of the engine (the axial compressor assembly
forms the module M02).
Main characteristics
- Type : axial transonic supercharging compressor
- Air flow : 2.5 kg/sec (5.5 lbs/sec.)
- Outlet pressure : 160 kPa (23.2 PSI)
- Outlet temperature : 65 C (149 F)
Main components
- Rotating components
Air inlet cone
Axial wheel, shaft, bearing and accessory drive
shaft
- Stationary components
Diffuser
Casing.
3.9
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AXIAL COMPRESSOR - GENERAL
WHEEL DIFFUSER SHAFT
BEARING CASING
AIR INLET
CONE
Type :
Axial transonic
supercharging compressor
Air flow :
2.5 kg/s (5.5 lbs/sec.)
Outlet pressure :
160 kPa (23.2 PSI)
Outlet temperature :
65 C (149 F)
ACCESSORY
DRIVE SHAFT
3.10
Edition : December 2000
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
AXIAL COMPRESSOR - DESCRIPTION
The axial compressor module (module M02) includes
rotating and stationary components.
Rotating components
The rotating assembly comprises the shaft, the inlet cone,
the axial wheel and the accessory drive gear.
The inlet cone, made of light alloy, is screwed into the front
of the shaft.
The compressor wheel is fitted to the shaft. It is a disc made
of titanium alloy with blades cut from the solid.
The shaft connects the centrifugal compressor to the axial
compressor. The shaft is secured by a nut onto the tie-bolt.
This assembly is supported by two bearings : a ball bearing
at the rear of the axial compressor and a ball bearing in a
flexible cage at the front of the centrifugal compressor.
The accessory drive consists of a bevel gear on the shaft
which drives a vertical drive shaft.
Stationary components
The stationary assembly includes the diffuser and the
casing.
The diffuser (diffuser-straightener) welded inside the casing
has two rows of steel stator vanes which form a divergent
passage for the air.
The casing, made of steel, houses all the compressor
components. It has a front flange for the mounting of the
air inlet duct and a rear flange for the attachment to the
module M03. The inner hub of the casing provides the
location for the bearings.
The casing has a boss for the mounting of the compressor
bleed valve.
The module identification plate is located at the front of the
casing.
3.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
AXIAL COMPRESSOR - DESCRIPTION
INLET CONE
SHAFT
DIFFUSER
CASING
INLET CONE
SHAFT
WHEEL BEARING DIFFUSER NUT
TIE-BOLT
CASING
ACCESSORY
DRIVE GEAR
WHEEL
IDENTIFICATION
PLATE
3.12
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
AXIAL COMPRESSOR - OPERATION
The axial compressor ensures a first stage of compression
in order to supercharge the centrifugal compressor.
Compressor air flow
The ambient air, admitted through the air intake duct and
guided by the inlet cone, flows between the blades of the
axial compressor. The air is discharged rearwards with an
increased axial velocity.
The air then flows through the vanes of the diffuser. Due
to the divergent passage, the air velocity is reduced and the
pressure increased.
The flow is straightened by the stator vanes before being
admitted, through an annular duct, to the centrifugal
compressor.
Operating parameters
In standard conditions, the air flow is 2.5 kg/s (5.5 lbs/
sec.), the outlet pressure 160 kPa (23.2 PSI) and the outlet
temperature 65 C (149 F).
The rotation speed of the axial compressor wheel is
obviously the gas generator speed.
In order to avoid compressor surge, a valve discharges
overboard a certain amount of air in certain operating
conditions (refer to "AIR SYSTEM" chapter for further
details on the compressor bleed valve).
3.13
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
AXIAL COMPRESSOR - OPERATION
ADMISSION
OF AMBIENT AIR
(2.5 kg/s / 5.5 lbs/sec.)
ACCELERATION
OF THE AIR
COMPRESSION AND
STRAIGHTENING OF THE AIR
P1' : AIR DISCHARGED
THROUGH THE COMPRESSOR
BLEED VALVE
SUPERCHARGING OF THE
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
(160 kPa / 23.2 PSI ; 6 C / 149 F)
3.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR HP SECTION
Function
The HP section of the gas generator ensures the phases of
compression (second stage), combustion and expansion
(first stage).
It provides the energy necessary to drive the power turbine.
Position
- It forms the module M03 and is mounted between the
module M02 (axial compressor) and the module M04
(power turbine).
Main characteristics
- Identification plate on the turbine casing.
For further information, refer to following pages.
Main components
- Centrifugal compressor
- Combustion chamber
- Turbine.
Note : The power turbine nozzle guide vane belongs to
the module M03.
3.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR HP SECTION
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
TURBINE
CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR
IDENTIFICATION
PLATE
3.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - GENERAL
Function
The compressor supplies the compressed air required for
combustion.
Supercharged by the axial compressor, it ensures the
second stage of compression.
Position
- At the front of the module M03.
Main characteristics
- Type : centrifugal, high efficiency
- Air flow : 2.5 kg/s (5.5 lbs/sec.)
- Compression ratio : 5.4/1 (global : 8.2/1)
- Outlet temperature : 320 C (608 F)
Main components
- Rotating components (wheel, shaft, bearing)
- Stationary components (diffusers, casings).
3.17
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For training purposes only
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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - GENERAL
DIFFUSERS
CENTRIFUGAL
WHEEL
CASINGS
BEARING
TIE-BOLT
Type :
Centrifugal, high efficiency
Air flow :
2.5 kg/s (5.5 lbs/sec.)
Compression ratio :
5.4 / 1 (global : 8.2 / 1)
Outlet temperature :
320 C (608 F)
3.18
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR -
DESCRIPTION
The centrifugal compressor assembly includes rotating
and stationary components.
Rotating components
The main rotating component is the centrifugal wheel. The
wheel has blades which are cut from the solid in a disc of
titanium alloy and has a labyrinth seal on the rear shaft.
The front part of the wheel connects to the axial compressor
shaft.
The rear part has a curvic-coupling for the mounting of the
centrifugal fuel injection wheel. The rotating components
are secured by a tie-bolt.
Stationary components
The stationary assembly includes the diffusers and the
casings.
The compressor front cover is mounted inside the external
casing by means of a ring of bolts which also secure the
axial compressor casing, the front cover and the diffuser
assembly.
The external casing of the centrifugal compressor is bolted
to the turbine casing. It is provided with several bosses for
air bleeds.
The diffuser assembly comprises the first stage diffuser
(radial stator vanes) and the second stage diffuser (axial
stator vanes). The diffuser back-plate forms a partition
between the compressor and the combustion chamber.
The fuel injection system is mounted on its inner hub.
3.19
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - DESCRIPTION
WHEEL
BEARING
1
st
STAGE
DIFFUSER
2
nd
STAGE
DIFFUSER
EXTERNAL
CASING
COMPRESSOR
FRONT COVER
CURVIC
COUPLING
FUEL
INJECTION
SYSTEM
LABYRINTH
SEAL
TIE-BOLT
DIFFUSER
ASSEMBLY
COMPRESSOR
FRONT COVER
WHEEL
EXTERNAL CASING
3.20
Edition : December 2000
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR -
OPERATION
The centrifugal compressor ensures the main stage of
compression.
Compressor air flow
The air supplied by the axial compressor flows between
the blades of the centrifugal compressor. The air pressure
increases due to the divergent passage between the blades
and the air velocity increases due to the centrifugal flow.
The air leaves the tips of the blades at very high velocity
and then flows through the first stage diffuser vanes where
the velocity is decreased and the pressure is increased.
The air then passes through an elbow and the flow becomes
axial. In the second stage diffuser, the velocity is again
decreased and the pressure increased. The air is then
admitted into the combustion chamber.
Operating parameters
In standard conditions, the air flow is 2.5 kg/s (5.5 lbs/
sec.), the compression ratio 5.4 (total 8.2), the outlet
pressure 820 kPa (118.9 PSI) and the outlet temperature
320 C (608 F).
The compressor wheel rotation speed is obviously the gas
generator speed.
3.21
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR - OPERATION
AIR ADMITTED INTO
THE COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
(820 kPa / 118.9 PSI ;
320 C / 608 F)
ACCELERATION AND
COMPRESSION OF THE AIR
SUPERCHARGING BY
THE AXIAL COMPRESSOR
(2.5 kg/s / 5.5 lbs/sec. ;
160 kPa / 23.2 PSI)
COMPRESSION OF THE AIR
IN THE DIFFUSERS
3.22
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - GENERAL
Function
The combustion chamber forms an enclosure in which the
air-fuel mixture is burnt.
Position
- Central section of the gas generator.
Main characteristics
- Type : annular with centrifugal fuel injection
- Overall fuel-air ratio : 1/45
- Turbine inlet temperature : 1125 C (2057 F).
Main components
- Outer part (front swirl plate and mixer unit)
- Inner part (rear swirl plate and shroud)
- Fuel injection system
- Turbine casing.
3.23
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - GENERAL
Type :
Annular with centrifugal
fuel injection
Overall fuel-air ratio :
1/45
Turbine inlet temperature :
1125 C (2057 F)
OUTER PART
Front swirl
plate
Mixer unit
INNER PART
Rear swirl
plate
Shroud
FUEL INJECTION
SYSTEM
TURBINE
CASING
3.24
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - DESCRIPTION
The combustion chamber assembly includes the outer
part, the inner part, the turbine casing and the fuel injection
system.
Outer part
The outer part includes the front swirl plate and the mixer
unit. The front swirl plate is provided with calibrated
orifices for the passage of primary air ; it is secured to the
mixer unit with special rivets.
The mixer unit is provided with calibrated orifices for the
passage of dilution air ; it is bolted to the rear flange of the
turbine casing. It includes the dilution tubes.
Inner part
The inner part includes the rear swirl plate and the shroud.
The rear swirl plate is provided with calibrated orifices for
the passage of primary air.
The shroud, integral with the rear swirl plate surrounds the
shaft ; it is bolted to the turbine nozzle guide vane.
Note : The two parts are made of special alloy. The
calibrated orifices are drilled using the electron
beam process.
Turbine casing
The casing houses the combustion chamber and the turbine.
It has various bosses and, particularly the boss for the
combustion chamber drain valve at the bottom of the
casing.
Fuel injection system
The main fuel injection system includes : the fuel inlet
union, the inner fuel tube, the fuel distributor and the
centrifugal injection wheel.
The injection wheel is mounted by means of curvic
couplings between the compressor and the turbine shaft
(refer to "FUEL SYSTEM" chapter for further details on
the fuel injection system).
3.25
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
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COMBUSTION CHAMBER - DESCRIPTION
FRONT SWIRL
PLATE
DILUTION TUBE
MIXER UNIT
TURBINE CASING
SHROUD
MIXER UNIT
INJECTION WHEEL
REAR SWIRL
PLATE
Drain valve
FUEL INJECTION
SYSTEM
TURBINE CASING
FRONT SWIRL
PLATE
REAR SWIRL
PLATE
SHROUD
Curvic-coupling
3.26
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - OPERATION
The combustion chamber forms an enclosure in which the
fuel - air mixture is burnt.
Combustion chamber flow
In the combustion chamber, the compressed air is divided
into two flows : a primary air flow mixed with the fuel for
combustion and a secondary air flow (or dilution air flow)
for cooling of the burnt gases.
Primary air
One part flows through the orifices of the front swirl plate.
A second part flows through the hollow vanes of the
turbine nozzle guide vane (cooling of the vanes) and
through the orifices of the rear swirl plate.
The primary air is mixed with the fuel sprayed by the
injection wheel. The combustion occurs between the two
swirl plates. The flame temperature reaches approximately
2500 C (4532 F).
Secondary air
The secondary air (or dilution air) flows through the
orifices of the mixer unit and the dilution tubes. It is
calibrated to obtain flame stability, cooling of the burnt
gases, and distribution of temperature on the turbine.
Gas
The gas produced by the combustion is directed into the
turbine nozzle guide vane.
Operating parameters
The fuel-air ratio for combustion is approximately 1/15 ;
the total ratio is approximately 1/45.
The pressure drop in the combustion chamber is
approximately 4 %.
The turbine inlet temperature (at design point) is
approximately 1125 C (2057 F).
3.27
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
COMBUSTION CHAMBER - OPERATION
FUEL INJECTION COMBUSTION
(2500 C / 4532 F)
(pressure loss : 4 %)
GAS FLOW TO THE
TURBINE
(1125 C / 2057 F)
Primary air (combustion)
Secondary air (cooling of burnt gases)
Burnt gases
COMPRESSED AIR
(820 kPa / 118.9 PSI ; 320 C / 608 F)
3.28
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - GENERAL
Function
The turbine extracts sufficient energy from the gas flow to
drive the compressors and the accessories.
Position
- At the rear of the gas generator.
Main characteristics
- Type : two stage axial
- Turbine inlet temperature : 1125 C (2057 F)
- Turbine outlet temperature : 880 C (1616 F)
- N1 speed 52000 RPM (100 %) ACW
Main components
- Rotating components (wheels, shafts, bearing)
- Stationary components (nozzle guide vanes, containment
shield, casing).
3.29
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - GENERAL
Type :
Two stage axial
Turbine inlet temperature :
1125 C (2057 F)
Turbine outlet temperature :
880 C (1616 F)
N1 speed
52000 RPM (100%) ACW
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANES
WHEELS
BEARING
CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
SHAFTS CASING
3.30
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE -
DESCRIPTION
The gas generator turbine assembly includes rotating
components and stationary components.
Rotating components
The main rotating components are the turbine wheels.
The wheels consist of either a disc and fir-tree mounted
blades or blades cut from the solid.
The front wheel is coupled by curvic-couplings to the
turbine shaft and to the second stage wheel. The rear wheel
is coupled to a stub shaft by a curvic-coupling.
The stub shaft is supported by a roller bearing. Rotating
labyrinths provide sealing.
A tie-bolt secures the rotating assembly.
Stationary components
The stationary components are the turbine nozzle guide
vanes, the containment shield, the turbine casing and the
diffuser casing.
The first stage nozzle guide vane includes a row of hollow
vanes. It is mounted on the combustion chamber.
The second stage nozzle guide vane includes a row of
vanes mounted in a ring.
The containment shield provides containment in case of
blade failure.
The turbine casing forms the housing of turbines and
combustion chamber.
The diffuser casing connects the gas generator and the
power turbine and its hub contains the housing for the gas
generator rear bearing. At the rear it houses the power
turbine nozzle guide vane.
3.31
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - DESCRIPTION
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANES
TURBINE
SHROUD
TURBINE
WHEELS
BEARING
(roller)
TIE-BOLT
REAR
SHAFT
Curvic-coupling CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
TURBINE
CASING
FRONT
SHAFT
DIFFUSER
CASING
TURBINE
SHROUD
TURBINE
CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
FRONT
SHAFT
DIFFUSER
CASING
1
st
STAGE
TURBINE
WHEEL
2
nd
STAGE
TURBINE
WHEEL
1
st
STAGE
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANE
2
nd
STAGE
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANE
3.32
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - OPERATION
The gas generator turbine transforms the gas energy into
mechanical power to drive the compressors and various
accessories.
The operation is characterized by the first phase of
expansion.
Turbine gas flow
The burnt gases first flow through the nozzle guide vanes.
The gas velocity increases due to the convergent passage.
The flow on the blades results in aerodynamic forces
whose resultant causes the rotation of the wheel.
The gases, still containing energy, are directed to the
power turbine.
Operating parameters
The operation is characterised by the following parameters :
- Turbine inlet temperature : 1125 C (2057 F)
- Turbine outlet temperature : 880 C (1616 F)
3.33
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
GAS GENERATOR TURBINE - OPERATION
GAS TO THE
POWER TURBINE
(880 C / 1616 F)
ROTATION
COMPRESSOR DRIVE
(52000 RPM ; ACW
800 kW ; 1072 Shp)
GAS FROM THE COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
(1125 C / 2057 F)
GAS EXPANSION IN THE NOZZLE GUIDE VANE
(convergent passage)
Nozzle
guide vane
Turbine
wheel
Rotation
3.34
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
POWER TURBINE - GENERAL
Function
The turbine extracts the energy from the gas to drive the
power shaft through the reduction gearbox.
Position
- Between the gas generator and the reduction gearbox.
It forms the module M04.
Main characteristics
- Type : axial, single-stage
- Turbine inlet temperature : 880 C (1616 F)
- Turbine outlet temperature : 600 C (1080 F)
- N2 speed at 100 % 41586 RPM, CW
Main components
- Rotating components (wheel, shaft, bearings)
- Stationary components (nozzle guide vane, containment
shield, casing).
3.35
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
POWER TURBINE - GENERAL
NOZZLE GUIDE VANE WHEEL
BEARINGS
SHAFT POWER TURBINE
CASING
CONTAINMENT SHIELD
Type :
Axial, single stage
Turbine inlet temperature :
880 C (1616 F)
Turbine outlet temperature :
600 C (1080 F)
N2 speed at 100% 41586 RPM (CW)
3.36
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
POWER TURBINE - DESCRIPTION
The power turbine assembly forms the module M04. It
includes rotating components and stationary components.
Rotating components
The main rotating component is the power turbine with its
shaft.
The wheel includes a disc (integral with the shaft) and fir-
tree mounted blades.
The shaft is supported by two bearings : a front roller
bearing and two rear ball bearings. It is fitted with two
phonic wheels
The front bearing sealing is ensured by a pressurised
labyrinth seal (pressurisation with compressor air directed
to the power turbine through an external pipe and inner
ducts).
The power is transmitted to the reduction gear by a muff
coupling.
Stationary components
The main stationary components are the turbine nozzle
guide vane, the power turbine casing and the bearing
housing.
The nozzle guide vane includes a row of hollow vanes. It is
part of the module M03.
The power turbine casing engages over the gas generator
outlet diffuser and is bolted to the module M03. It comprises
an outer casing and an inner hub supported by three struts.
The bearing housing is installed in the inner hub of the
casing. Its rear part engages in the reduction gearbox.
The identification plate is located on the power turbine
casing.
A containment shield is fitted around the rear of the casing.
3.37
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
POWER TURBINE - DESCRIPTION
FRONT
BEARING
REAR
BEARING
SHAFT
Muff coupling
BEARING
HOUSING
PHONIC
WHEELS
WHEEL CONTAINMENT
SHIELD
NOZZLE GUIDE
VANE
POWER TURBINE
CASING
PRESSURISED
LABYRINTH
SEAL
Identification plate
BEARING
HOUSING
PHONIC WHEELS
WHEEL
LABYRINTH
POWER TURBINE
CASING
3.38
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
POWER TURBINE - OPERATION
The power turbine transforms the gas energy into
mechanical power to drive the reduction gearbox.
The operation is characterised by the second phase of
expansion.
Turbine flow
The gas supplied by the gas generator flows through the
nozzle guide vane. In the nozzle guide vane, the gas
velocity increases due to the convergent passage.
The gases are directed onto the turbine wheel and the
resultant of the aerodynamic forces on the blades causes
the wheel to rotate. The gases are then expelled overboard
through the exhaust pipe.
Operating parameters
The operation is characterised by the following parameters :
- Rotation : CW
- Turbine inlet temperature : 880 C (1616 F)
- Power extracted : depending on the version
3.39
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
POWER TURBINE - OPERATION
GAS FROM THE
GAS GENERATOR
TURBINE
(880 C / 1616 F)
Nozzle
guide vane
Turbine
wheel
GAS EXHAUST
REDUCTION GEARBOX
DRIVE (CW)
ROTATION OF THE
POWER TURBINE
EXPANSION IN THE
NOZZLE GUIDE VANE
Rotation
3.40
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
EXHAUST PIPE
Function
The exhaust pipe continues the expansion phase and
expels the gas overboard.
Position
- Behind the power turbine, around the reduction gear.
Main characteristics
- Type : Elliptical
- Non-modular part
- Gas temperature : 600 C (1080 F)
- Residual thrust : 15 daN (33 lbs).
Main components
- Exhaust pipe
- Heat shield.
Note : The exhaust pipe is considered to be an SRU.
Description
The exhaust pipe, which has an elliptical outlet, is made
from stainless steel. It is bolted to the rear flange of the
power turbine casing with the containment shield.
A heat shield is fitted between the exhaust pipe and the
reduction gearbox to protect the gearbox from the exhaust
heat.
The exhaust pipe has a drain at the bottom.
Operation
Functionally it should be noted that the exhaust gas still
contains a certain amount of energy which produces a
small residual thrust of about 15 daN (33 lbs).
3.41
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
EXHAUST PIPE
GAS FROM
POWER TURBINE
RESIDUAL THRUST
(15 daN / 33 lbs)
EXHAUST PIPE
HEAT SHIELD
DESCRIPTION OPERATION
GAS EXHAUST
(600 C ; 1080 F)
DRAIN
REDUCTION
GEARBOX
3.42
Edition : December 2000
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
REDUCTION GEARBOX - GENERAL
Function
The reduction gearbox provides a reduced speed output
and transmits the drive forwards.
Position
- At the rear of the engine
- It forms the module M05.
Main characteristics
- Type : 3 stages, helical gears
- Output gear speed : 6000 RPM at 100 %.
Main components
- Drive gear
- Intermediate gear
- Output gear
- Casings
- Hydraulic torquemeter.
3.43
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
REDUCTION GEARBOX - GENERAL
Type :
3 stages, helical gears
Output gear speed :
6000 RPM at 100%
OUTPUT
GEAR
DRIVE
GEAR
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
CASINGS
HYDRAULIC
TORQUEMETER
MUFF
COUPLING
3.44
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
REDUCTION GEARBOX - DESCRIPTION
The reduction gearbox module mainly includes three
gears contained in two half casings.
Drive gear
The drive gear is linked to the power turbine by a muff
coupling. It is supported by two roller bearings.
Intermediate gear
It is a double helical type gear : one gear meshes with the
drive gear, the other one with the output gear. The
torquemeter piston is fitted in its hub. The intermediate
gear is supported by two roller bearings.
Output gear
It is supported by a ball bearing at the front and a roller
bearing at the rear.
The hub is internally splined to receive the transmission
shaft.
Reduction gearbox casing
The gears are housed in a light alloy gearbox formed by
two half casings. A fork shaped steel plate is mounted on
the front face of the casing to prevent rearward movement
of the power turbine in the event of overspeed.
The module identification plate is located at the bottom of
the casing.
3.45
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
REDUCTION GEARBOX - DESCRIPTION
DRIVE GEAR
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
FRONT
CASING
IDENTIFICATION
PLATE
FORK SHAPED
PLATE
OUTPUT
GEAR
REAR
CASING
INTERMEDIATE GEAR DRIVE GEAR
OUTPUT
GEAR
Muff coupling
TORQUEMETER
PISTON
3.46
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
REDUCTION GEARBOX - OPERATION
The reduction gear provides a forward output drive at a
reduced speed.
Operation of the reduction gear
The drive gear is directly driven by the power turbine shaft
(muff coupling drive). It transmits the movement to the
intermediate gear which contains the hydraulic torquemeter.
The intermediate gear drives the output gear which provides
the power drive at a speed of approximately 6000 RPM,
clockwise.
3.47
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
REDUCTION GEARBOX - OPERATION
TORQUEMETER
PISTON
DRIVE GEAR
DRIVEN BY
THE POWER TURBINE
DOUBLE
INTERMEDIATE GEAR
OUTPUT
GEAR
TRANSMISSION
SHAFT
3.48
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
TRANSMISSION SHAFT AND ACCESSORY
GEARBOX
Function
The shaft transmits the power to the helicopter via the
power off-take at the front of the engine.
The accessory gearbox provides the drive for the engine
accessories.
Position
- Shaft beneath the engine
- Accessory gearbox at the front of the engine
- This assembly forms the module M01.
3.49
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
TRANSMISSION SHAFT AND ACCESSORY GEARBOX
ACCESSORY DRIVE
SHAFT
TRANSMISSION
SHAFT
CASINGS
POWER OFF-TAKE
3.50
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
POWER TRANSMISSION SHAFT -
TWIN-ENGINE CONFIGURATION -
GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
Function
The shaft transmits the power to the front power off-take.
Position :
- Lower part of the engine.
Main characteristics
Hollow steel shaft.
Main components
- Transmission shaft
- Protection tube
- Accessory drive gear
- Power off-take.
Description
The shaft transmits the power to the power off-take and
accessory gearbox. The shaft is located in a protection tube
bolted to the reduction gearbox at the rear and to the
accessory gearbox at the front.
The front of the shaft is supported by a ball bearing in the
accessory gearbox front casing. The triangular flange
which forms the power off-take is splined onto the front of
the transmission shaft and is secured by a nut. Sealing of
the oil which lubricates the bearing is ensured by a carbon
seal.
Three oil tubes are located between the shaft and the
protection tube.
The rear of the shaft is splined into the hub of the output
gear of the reduction gear.
3.51
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
POWER TRANSMISSION SHAFT - TWIN-ENGINE CONFIGURATION
GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
OUTPUT
GEAR
SHAFT
ACCESSORY
DRIVE GEAR
OIL TUBE
POWER OFF-TAKE
(triangular flange)
BEARING
CARBON
SEAL
PROTECTION
TUBE
BEARING
3.52
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
POWER TRANSMISSION SHAFT -
SINGLE ENGINE CONFIGURATION -
GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
Function
The shaft transmits the power to the front and to the rear of
the engine.
Position :
- Lower part of the engine.
Main characteristics
- Hollow steel shaft with coaxial drive shaft.
Main components
- Transmission shaft
- Protection tube
- Accessory drive gear
- Drive shaft
- Free wheel.
Description
The shaft transmits the power to the power drive shaft. The
transmission shaft is located in a protection tube bolted to
the reduction gearbox at the rear and to the accessory
gearbox at the front.
The front of the transmission shaft is supported by a ball
bearing in the accessory gearbox front casing. A triangular
flange is splined onto the front of the transmission shaft.
Sealing of the oil which lubricates the bearing is ensured
by a carbon seal.
Three oil pipes are located within the protection tube.
A free wheel is mounted on the triangular flange to drive
the power drive shaft which drives the main gearbox and
the tail rotor.
Lubrication of the free wheel and its bearing is by the oil
contained in the free wheel housing, or by the oil system
of the engine, according to the version.
The rear of the transmission shaft is splined into the hub of
the output gear of the reduction gear.
The rear of the tail rotor drive shaft is supported by a ball
bearing in the hub of the output gear. A carbon seal is fitted
in the rear cover of the gearbox.
3.53
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
POWER TRANSMISSION SHAFT - SINGLE ENGINE CONFIGURATION
GENERAL - DESCRIPTION
TAIL ROTOR
DRIVE
BEARING BEARING SEAL TRIANGULAR FLANGE
POWER DRIVE
SHAFT
FREE WHEEL
SHAFT
CARBON
SEAL
FRONT PART REAR PART
ACCESSORY
DRIVE GEAR
CARBON SEAL OIL TUBE
3.54
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
ACCESSORY GEARBOX - GENERAL
Function
To provide the drive for the engine accessories.
Position
- At the front of the engine.
Main characteristics
- Type of gears :
spur gear
bevel gear.
Main components
- Accessory drive shaft
- Accessory drive train
- Casings.
3.55
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE
ACCESSORY GEARBOX - GENERAL
Type of gears :
Spur gear
Bevel gear
ACCESSORY
DRIVE SHAFT
(N1)
ACCESSORY
DRIVE TRAIN
FRONT
CASING
REAR
CASING
ACCESSORY
DRIVE GEAR
(N2)
3.56
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
ACCESSORY GEARBOX -
DESCRIPTION (1)
The accessory gearbox has four drives on the front face :
starter generator
fuel control unit N1
fuel control unit N2
main power shaft.
and four mounting bolts on the upper part for attachment
of the M02.
It has 3 power drives on the rear face :
oil pump
N1 tachometer generator
N2 tachometer generator.
and the protection tube mounting flange, and the accessory
drive shaft passage on the upper part.
3.57
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ACCESSORY GEARBOX - DESCRIPTION (1)
REAR VIEW
FRONT VIEW
ACCESSORY
DRIVE SHAFT
PASSAGE (N1)
OIL
PUMP
N2
TACHOMETER
GENERATOR
N1
TACHOMETER
GENERATOR
PROTECTION
TUBE MOUNTING
FLANGE
STARTER
GENERATOR
DRIVE
POWER
DRIVE
FUEL CONTROL
UNIT N2 DRIVE
FUEL CONTROL
UNIT N1 DRIVE
MOUNTING
BOLTS (4)
3.58
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
ACCESSORY GEARBOX -
DESCRIPTION (2)
The transmission shaft and the accessory box assembly
constitutes the module M01 located at the engine lower
part.
The accessory gearbox includes a train of gears housed in
a gearbox formed by two half casings made of light alloy.
The gearbox is installed at the bottom of the axial
compressor by means of four bolts.
The starter-generator gear forms the engine breather.
The fuel control unit N1 gear drives the oil pump at the
rear.
The fuel control unit N2 gear is driven by the gear on the
transmission shaft.
The engine front support casing is bolted onto the front
face of the accessory gearbox.
The module identification plate is fitted on the front face
of the gearbox.
3.59
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ACCESSORY GEARBOX - DESCRIPTION (2)
BREATHER GEAR
TRANSMISSION
SHAFT GEAR
(N2)
FRONT CASING
STARTER
GENERATOR DRIVE
Identification
plate
FRONT SUPPORT
CASING
N2 FUEL
CONTROL UNIT
N1 FUEL CONTROL UNIT
AND OIL PUMP DRIVE
REAR CASING
DRIVE SHAFT
(N1)
3.60
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE
ACCESSORY GEARBOX - OPERATION
The operation is considered during engine starting and in
normal running.
Operation during engine starting
During starting, the starter motor drives the accessory
gearbox and thus the gas generator rotating assembly.
The compressors supply air to the combustion chamber
and the starting sequence continues.
At self-sustaining speed (approximately 45 % N1) the
electrical supply to the starter motor is cut. The starter
motor is then mechanically driven by the engine and
operates as a generator to provide DC current to the aircraft
electrical system.
Operation in normal running
The gas generator drives the accessory gear train through
the bevel gear located on the axial compressor shaft.
The following accessories are driven :
- Starter-generator
- FCU : N1 and N2
- Oil pumps
- Tachometer generator : N1 and N2.
3.61
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ACCESSORY GEARBOX - OPERATION
OPERATION DURING
ENGINE STARTING
OPERATION IN NORMAL
RUNNING (N1 50 %)
STARTER
MOTOR
FWD FWD
DRIVE
SHAFT
DIRECT CURRENT
GENERATOR
DRIVE
SHAFT
4.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
4- OIL SYSTEM
- Oil system ...................................................................... 4.2
- Lubrication .................................................................... 4.8
- Oil tank .......................................................................... 4.12
- Oil pumps ...................................................................... 4.14
- Electrical magnetic plugs .............................................. 4.20
- Oil filter ......................................................................... 4.24
- Filter pre-blockage indicator........................................ 4.30
- Oil cooler ....................................................................... 4.34
- Centrifugal breather ..................................................... 4.36
- Magnetic plugs ............................................................... 4.40
- Strainers ........................................................................ 4.42
- Indicating devices .......................................................... 4.44
- Oil pipes and ducts ........................................................ 4.50 to 4.51
4.2
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The oil system ensures lubrication and cooling of the
engine.
Position
All the components are fitted on the engine except the tank
and cooler.
Main characteristics
- System type : variable pressure, full flow, dry sump,
synthetic oil
- Max oil temperature : 115 C (239 F)
- Min oil pressure : 90 or 130 kPa (13 or 18.85 PSIG)
according to version
- Max oil pressure : 800 kPa (116 PSIG)
- Oil pressure : 300 kPa (43.5 PSIG)
- Max oil consumption : 0.3 l/h or 0.15 l/h according to
version.
Lubrication requirements
Lubrication is required for the following components :
- Gas generator front bearings
Axial compressor bearing
Centrifugal compressor bearing
Accessory drive bearing
- Gas generator rear bearing
- Power turbine bearings
- Reduction gearbox
- Accessory drive gearbox.
4.3
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL SYSTEM - GENERAL
REDUCTION GEARBOX
Type :
Variable pressure, full flow,
dry sump, synthetic oil
Max temperature :
115 C (239 F)
Min pressure :
90 or 130 kPa
(13 or 18.85 PSIG)
according to version
Max pressure :
800 kPa (116 PSIG)
Max consumption :
0.3 l/h or 0.15 l/h
according to version
Engine lubrication
and cooling
FRONT
BEARINGS
REAR
BEARING
REAR
BEARINGS
FRONT
BEARING
POWER TURBINE GAS GENERATOR
BEARINGS GEARS
ACCESSORY DRIVE GEARBOX
BEARINGS GEARS
OIL SYSTEM
4.4
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
The system contains all the components necessary for
engine lubrication : tank, pumps, filter, strainers, cooler,
breather and indicating devices.
Oil tank
The tank contains the volume of oil required to lubricate
the engine. It is supplied by the aircraft manufacturer.
Oil pumps
The pump pack contains one pressure pump and three
scavenge pumps. The gear type pumps are driven by the
accessory gearbox. The pressure pump is equipped with a
pressure relief valve and in some versions a check valve.
Oil filter
The filter retains any particles which may be present in the
oil. It is provided with a by-pass valve and a pre-blockage
indicator.
Strainers
The strainers protect the scavenge pumps from debris in
the system.
Cooler
The oil cooler cools the oil. It is supplied by the aircraft
manufacturer.
Breather
The centrifugal breather separates the oil from the air/oil
mist and vents the system.
Indicating devices
- Oil temperature probe (aircraft manufacturer supply)
- Pre-blockage indicator
- Low oil pressure switch
- Pressure transmitter
- Magnetic plugs
- Electrical magnetic plugs.
4.5
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
OIL PUMPS
Scavenge
pumps
Pressure
pump
Electrical
magnetic plug
Pre-blockage
indicator
CENTRIFUGAL
BREATHER
COOLER
Check
valve
Oil
temperature
probe
FILTER
TANK
By-pass
valve
Pressure
Relief
valve
Check valve
(some versions)
Electrical
magnetic plug
ENGINE AIRFRAME
Magnetic
plug
STRAINERS
Low oil
pressure switch
Pressure
transmitter
Magnetic
plug
4.6
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION
The main functions of the oil system are : supply, scavenge,
breathing and indicating.
Supply
The pressure pump draws the oil from the tank and
supplies the system. A pressure relief valve limits maximum
pressure by returning oil to the pump inlet.
The oil is then delivered through a check valve, the oil
filter and a calibrated orifice to the engine sections which
require lubrication :
- Gas generator front bearings
- Gas generator rear bearing
- Power turbine bearings
- Reduction gearbox
- Accessory gearbox and torquemeter (supply upstream
of the calibrated orifice).
The oil is sprayed by jets onto the parts to be lubricated.
Scavenge
After lubrication, the oil falls by gravity to the bottom of
the sumps. The oil is then immediately drawn away by the
scavenge pumps and returned to the tank through the oil
cooler (dry sump system).
The strainers protect the scavenge pumps against any
particles which may be held in the oil.
Breathing
The oil mist which results from lubrication is returned to
the accessory gearbox, where the oil is separated from the
air by a centrifugal breather which vents overboard.
The gas generator rear bearing has a direct air vent.
Indicating
The system ensures the following indications : pressure,
temperature, low pressure, electrical magnetic plug and
filter pre-blockage.
4.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION
PRESSURE
PUMP
CENTRIFUGAL
BREATHER
ENGINE AIRFRAME
Temperature
probe FILTER
Low oil
pressure switch
Pressure
transmitter
SCAVENGE
PUMPS
COOLER
Electrical
magnetic plug
Electrical
magnetic plug
TANK
Calibrated
orifice
Check
valve
Check
valve
Magnetic
plug
Magnetic
plug
SUPPLY SCAVENGE BREATHING AIR VENT
STRAINERS
4.8
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
LUBRICATION (1)
This section describes the lubrication of the engine parts :
gas generator, power turbine, reduction gear and accessory
drive train.
Gas generator front bearings
Supply. The oil is taken by external pipe to the upper part
of the axial compressor casing. It is supplied to a jet which
sprays the oil onto the two compressor bearings and the
accessory drive bevel gear.
The bearing housing is sealed by labyrinth seals.
Scavenge. The oil falls by gravity into the accessory
gearbox from where it is drawn by a scavenge pump and
returned to the tank.
Breathing. The air/oil mist which results from lubrication
passes into the accessory gearbox and is vented through
the centrifugal breather.
Gas generator rear bearing
Supply. The oil, taken by external pipe, passes through a
restrictor and a tube screwed into the bearing housing and
is sprayed onto the bearing.
The bearing housing is sealed by pressurised labyrinth
seals.
Scavenge. The oil falls by gravity to the bottom of the
housing, through a tube in the bottom of the housing and
is returned to the tank by a scavenge pump.
Breathing. The air/oil mist which results from lubrication
passes out through a tube screwed into the top of the
housing and is vented overboard.
Accessory gearbox
Supply. The oil is supplied by an internal duct. It passes
through ducts and jets to the accessory gearbox gears and
bearings.
Scavenge. The oil falls by gravity to the bottom of the
gearbox casing. It is immediately drawn by the scavenge
pump and returned to the tank via the oil cooler.
Breathing. The oil/air vapours resulting from the
lubrication pass to the centrifugal breather. Then, the de-
oiled vapours are vented overboard.
Torquemeter pressure
Supply. The torque indicating system receives a supply of
oil from the pump outlet via a restrictor and through a tube
in the protection tube. This system is described in chapter 8.
4.9
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
LUBRICATION (1)
AXIAL COMPRESSOR
BEARING
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
BEARING
DIRECT
AIR VENT
GAS GENERATOR
REAR BEARING
TORQUEMETER
PRESSURE
SCAVENGE
ACCESSORY
GEARBOX
AIR VENT
Supply Torquemeter pressure Scavenge Air vent
4.10
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
LUBRICATION (2)
Power turbine bearings and reduction gearbox
Supply. The oil is supplied via a tube located inside the
transmission shaft protection tube. The bearings and gears
are lubricated by jets via internal drillings in the casings.
A labyrinth seal is fitted in front of the power turbine front
bearing to seal the housing.
Scavenge. The oil which has lubricated the power turbine
bearings is returned to the reduction gearbox. The oil in the
reduction gearbox falls to the bottom of the casing and is
drawn by a scavenge pump, through a tube in the
transmission shaft protection tube, and is returned to the
tank.
Breathing. The air/oil mist resulting from lubrication passes
through the protection tube, into the accessory gearbox
where it passes through the centrifugal breather.
Torquemeter
A tube in the protecting tube, connects the torque transmitter
to the torquemeter piston in the intermediate gear of the
reduction gearbox.
4.11
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
LUBRICATION (2)
POWER TURBINE
BEARINGS
LUBRICATION OF
THE REDUCTION GEARBOX
(gears and bearings)
TORQUEMETER
SUPPLY
BREATHING
SCAVENGE
Supply
Breathing
Torquemeter pressure
Scavenge
4.12
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL TANK
Function
The tank contains the oil required for engine lubrication.
Position
- On the aircraft : it is installed with the oil cooler above
the plenum chamber, between the main gearbox and the
front firewall.
Main characteristics
- Aircraft manufacturer supply
- Max capacity : 6 litres (1.56 US G)
Main components
- Filler cap
- Level indicator
- Drain plug (with magnetic plug)
- Temperature probe
- Unions (supply, return and vent).
Note : Refer to the aircraft manual for the description
and operation.
4.13
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL TANK
Air vent
LEVEL INDICATOR
Engine oil supply
TEMPERATURE PROBE
Tank drain
Oil return
(from engine)
FILLER CAP
(provided with a dip stick)
OIL COOLER
Aircraft supply
Max capacity :
6 litres (1.56 US G)
DRAIN PLUG
(with magnetic plug)
4.14
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL PUMPS - GENERAL
Function
The pumps ensure oil circulation.
Position
- On the engine : the pump pack is mounted on the rear
face of the accessory gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Gear type
- Pressure pump outlet pressure : 300 kPa (43.5 PSI)
(variable pressure system)
- Pressure relief valve setting : 800 kPa (116 PSI)
- Check valve : according to version.
Main components
- Drive shaft
- Pump body (with one pressure pump, three scavenge
pumps and valves).
4.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL PUMPS - GENERAL
Type :
Gear
Pressure pump
outlet pressure :
300 kPa (43.5 PSI)
(variable pressure system)
Pressure relief valve setting :
800 kPa (116 PSI)
Check valve :
According to version
DRIVE SHAFT PUMP BODY
PACK OF PUMPS
- Gas generator rear bearing scavenge pump
- Reduction gearbox scavenge pump
- Accessory gearbox scavenge pump
- Pressure pump
4.16
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL PUMPS - DESCRIPTION
The oil pump pack is mounted on the rear left face of the
accessory gearbox and is driven at a speed proportional to
N1.
It consists of :
- 4 gear type pumps :
Pressure pump
Gas generator rear bearing scavenge pump
Reduction gearbox scavenge pump
Accessory gearbox scavenge pump
- The pump casing provided with inlet and outlet orifices
- The pressure relief valve
- The check valve (according to version).
4.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL PUMPS - DESCRIPTION
PUMP BODY
PUMP BODY
PRESSURE
PUMP
ACCESSORY GEARBOX
SCAVENGE PUMP
CHECK
VALVE
DRIVE SHAFT
REDUCTION GEARBOX
SCAVENGE PUMP
GAS GENERATOR REAR
BEARING SCAVENGE PUMP
PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE
4.18
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL PUMPS - OPERATION
General
The pressure pump draws the oil from the tank and pumps
it to the filter.
The scavenge pumps draw the oil from the casings and
pump it to the cooler.
Pressure relief valve operation
If the oil pressure exceeds the valve setting the valve opens
and allows the oil to return to the pump inlet.
In normal operation the valve is closed and only opens in
exceptional circumstances, e.g. starting with very low
temperature.
Pressure pump outlet check valve operation
When the oil pressure is very low, e.g. engine stopped or
at the beginning of start, the valve is closed in order to
prevent flow between the pump and system.
4.19
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL PUMPS - OPERATION
Suction - Overpressure
Scavenge
Pressure
OPERATION OF THE CHECK VALVE
OPERATION OF THE PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
Normal
running condition
(valve closed)
Overpressure
(valve open)
Normal
running condition
(valve open)
Engine stopped
and initial phase
of starting
(valve closed)
PRESSURE
PUMP
ACCESSORY GEARBOX
SCAVENGE PUMP
REDUCTION GEARBOX
SCAVENGE PUMP
GAS GENERATOR REAR
BEARING SCAVENGE PUMP
PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE
4.20
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL MAGNETIC PLUGS -
GENERAL
Function
The electrical magnetic plugs provide a cockpit indication
of metal particles in the oil system.
Position
- In the system :
one downstream of the scavenge pumps
one upstream of the rear bearing scavenge pump
- On the engine :
one near the pump assembly (scavenge pumps)
one on the left side of the accessory gearbox (rear
bearing).
Main characteristics
- Type :
Magnetic with electrical indication
Self-sealing housing.
Main components
- Magnetic plug body
- Electrical connector
- Housing (strainer).
Note : The oil system also has two mechanical magnetic
plugs located on the lower part of the accessory
gearbox and on the lower part of the reduction
gearbox.
4.21
Edition : December 2000
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ELECTRICAL MAGNETIC PLUGS - GENERAL
Type :
Electrical
magnetic plug
HOUSING
MAGNETIC PLUG
BODY
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
Housing :
Self-sealing
4.22
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL MAGNETIC PLUGS -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The electrical magnetic plugs comprise a magnetic probe
which has two parts which are electrically insulated from
one another and have a small gap between them.
A resistor is connected across the gap. The plugs are
connected, via the engine electrical harness, to the aircraft
instrument panel with an optional test system.
The plugs are fitted into a housing which is provided with
a self-sealing valve.
The scavenge oil flows across the magnetic probe.
Operation
The magnetic probe attracts magnetic particles present in
the oil.
If it attracts sufficient particles to form a bridge across the
gap, this will complete the electrical circuit between the
two magnetic parts and thus illuminate an indicator on the
instrument panel.
The resistor is fitted to allow the installation of a test
circuit.
Note : Refer to aircraft documents for further details.
4.23
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL MAGNETIC PLUGS - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
1
3
2
26
44
P003
6
0

K

+
1
3
2
26
44
P003
6
0

K

+
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
PLUG BODY
O'RING
SEAL
HOUSING
GAP
Gap
SELF SEALING
VALVE
DESCRIPTION OPERATION
ENGINE AIRCRAFT
MAGNETIC
PLUG
Resistor
LIGHT "ON"
BRIDGE OF
PARTICLES
Firewall
4.24
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL FILTER - GENERAL
Function
The filter retains particles that may be in the oil.
Position
- In the system : downstream of the pressure pump
- On the engine : on the left rear face of the accessory
gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type : metal cartridge
- Filtering ability : 30 microns
- Mechanical pre-blockage indicator : P 150 kPa
(21.7 PSID)
- By-pass valve :
Setting : P 200 kPa (29 PSID).
Main components
- Filter base
- Pre-blockage indicator
- Cover
- By-pass valve.
4.25
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL FILTER - GENERAL
COVER
BY-PASS
VALVE PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
FILTER
BASE
Type :
Metal cartridge
Filtering ability :
30 microns
Mechanical pre-blockage
indicator :
P 150 kPa (21.7 PSID)
By-pass valve :
P 200 kPa (29 PSID)
4.26
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
Description
The main components of the filtering unit are the following :
- Filter base
- Filter cover
- Metal cartridge (filtering element)
- By-pass valve (fitted inside the filter base)
- Drain valve.
The filter base incorporates mounting points for the
following :
- Pre-blockage indicator
- Low oil pressure switch
- Oil pressure transmitter.
4.27
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OIL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
FILTER
COVER
FILTERING
ELEMENT
BY-PASS
VALVE
DRAIN
VALVE
FILTER
BASE
PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
LOW OIL
PRESSURE SWITCH
OIL PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
4.28
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL FILTER - OPERATION
Operation
Filtering (normal condition)
The oil supplied by the pressure pump passes through the
filter from outside to inside. The filtered oil then passes to
the engine for lubrication.
Pre-blockage
If the filter begins to become blocked the pressure difference
across the filter increases. At a given difference
(150 kPa 21.7 PSID) a red mechanical indicator pops
out. The oil continues to flow through the filter.
Blockage
If the pressure difference exceeds 200 kPa (29 PSID), the
by-pass valve opens and unfiltered oil passes to the system.
4.29
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OIL FILTER - OPERATION
NORMAL CONDITION
FILTERING
(30 microns)
PRE-BLOCKAGE OIL FILTER ASSEMBLY
OPERATION OF
THE MECHANICAL
PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
(P 150 kPa / 21.7 PSID)
BLOCKAGE
OPERATION OF THE
BY-PASS VALVE
(P 200 kPa / 29 PSID)
4.30
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
FILTER PRE-BLOCKAGE INDICATOR -
GENERAL
Function
The indicator indicates the onset of filter blockage.
Position
On the left face of the filter housing.
Main characteristics
- Type : differential
- Setting : P 150 kPa (21.7 PSID)
- Indication : red indicator
- Manual rearming.
Main components
- Indicator body
- Indicator
- O'ring seals.
4.31
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FILTER PRE-BLOCKAGE INDICATOR - GENERAL
Type :
Differential
Setting :
P 150 kPa (21.7 PSID)
Indication :
Red indicator
Manual rearming
INDICATOR
INDICATOR
BODY
O'RING SEALS
4.32
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
FILTER PRE-BLOCKAGE INDICATOR -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The pre-blockage indicator comprises the following parts :
- Indicator body including :
Filter upstream pressure inlet
Filter downstream pressure inlet
- Red indicator piston
- P piston
- Transparent cover
- Thermal lock
- O'ring seals ensure the filter pre-blockage indicator
sealing.
Operation
Normal position
Filter downstream pressure plus spring pressure is greater
than upstream pressure. The two pistons are held together
by magnetic force. The indicator is not visible.
Pre-blockage
Filter upstream pressure exceeds downstream plus spring
pressure and the P piston displaces.
This breaks the magnetic hold and the indicator piston is
pushed out by its spring. The indicator is visible.
The bi-metallic thermal lock ensures that the indicator
doesn't operate when a large P is caused by low
temperature (locked below 50 C (122 F)).
It is rearmed by removing the cover and pushing in the
indicator.
4.33
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FILTER PRE-BLOCKAGE INDICATOR - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
FILTER
UPSTREAM
PRESSURE
FILTER
DOWNSTREAM
PRESSURE
THERMAL
LOCK
RED
INDICATOR
TRANSPARENT
COVER
INDICATOR
BODY
Downstream
pressure
Downstream
pressure
Upstream
pressure
Upstream
pressure
NORMAL CONDITION
PRE-BLOCKAGE CONDITION
OPERATION
Red indicator
"out"
O RING SEALS
P PISTON
DESCRIPTION
< 50C (122F)
> 50C (122F)
P > 150 kPa (21.7 PSID)
4.34
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL COOLER
Function
The oil cooler cools the oil after it has passed through the
engine.
Position
- In the system : between the scavenge pumps and the tank
- On the aircraft : it is installed on the oil tank above the
plenum chamber between the main gearbox and the
front firewall.
Main characteristics
- Type : air-oil cooler
- By-pass thermostatic valve : 276 kPa (40 PSI) :
Full open when t < 57 C (135 F)
Full closed when t > 67 C (153 F)
- Supplied by aircraft manufacturer.
Main components
- Oil cooler
- By-pass thermostatic valve
- Unions (oil inlet and outlet).
4.35
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OIL COOLER
Aircraft component
Type :
Air/oil cooler
By-pass
Thermostatic valve :
276 kPa (40 PSI)
- Full open when : t < 57 C (135 F)
- Full closed when : t > 67 C (153 F)
OIL COOLER
Ambient air
BY-PASS
THERMOSTATIC
VALVE
FAN
OIL TANK
Oil inlet
(from scavenge pumps)
4.36
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER - GENERAL
Function
The centrifugal breather separates the oil from the air/oil
mist created by the oil system.
Position
It is formed by the starter/generator drive gear in the
accessory gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type : centrifugal
- De-oiled air : through the rear of the hollow shaft.
Main components
- Gear wheel with air passage holes
- Splines for the starter generator drive.
4.37
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CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER - GENERAL
Type :
Centrifugal
De-oiled air :
Through the rear
of the hollow shaft
GEAR PROVIDED
WITH BREATHER HOLES
SPLINES FOR THE
STARTER GENERATOR DRIVE
DE-OILED
AIR
OIL MIST
4.38
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER - DESCRIPTION -
OPERATION
Description
The centrifugal breather is formed by the starter generator
drive gear. This gear is formed in one piece with a hollow
shaft and has holes which provide a passage between the
gearbox and the air vent.
The gear is supported by two ball bearings and has a
magnetic carbon seal at each end.
The breather air outlet is at the rear end of the shaft, where
the air passes into the gearbox outlet.
Operation
The centrifugal breather is driven by the intermediate gear
of the accessory drive.
When the engine is running, the air/oil mist passes through
the breather :
- Centrifugal force throws the oil droplets out into the
gearbox where they fall to the bottom of the casing
- The de-oiled air passes out through the shaft, via a
gearbox passage, into an external pipe which discharges
into the exhaust.
4.39
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CENTRIFUGAL BREATHER - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
MAGNETIC
CARBON SEAL
MAGNETIC
CARBON SEAL
AIR VENT
DE-OILED AIR
BEARING
OIL DROPLETS
OIL MIST
- from accessory gearbox
- from gas generator bearings
- from power turbine bearings
- from reduction gearbox
STARTER
GENERATOR
DRIVE
BEARING
4.40
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
MAGNETIC PLUGS
Function
The magnetic plugs retain magnetic particles contained in
the oil to provide a rapid and frequent check of the internal
condition of the engine.
Position
In the system :
- One on the reduction gearbox scavenge return
- One on the accessory gearbox scavenge return.
On the engine :
- One at the bottom of the reduction gearbox
- One at the bottom of the accessory gearbox.
They are mounted on the left or the right side according to
the position of the engine in the helicopter.
Main characteristics
- Type : single magnetic pole. Self-sealing housing.
Main components
- Self sealing housing :
Housing
O'ring seal
Valve
Spring
- Magnetic plug :
Magnet
O'ring seals
Locating pins.
4.41
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MAGNETIC PLUGS
LOCATING PINS
Type :
Single magnetic pole
Self-sealing housing
REMOVED POSITION
NORMAL POSITION
VALVE O'RING
SEAL
HOUSING
SPRING
MAGNET
O'RING
SEALS
O'RING SEALS
LOCATING PIN
MAGNETIC
PLUG
MAGNET
4.42
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
STRAINERS
Function
The strainers protect the scavenge pumps against large
particles which might be in the oil.
Position
- In the system : they are fitted in each scavenge line
upstream of the scavenge pump
- On the engine :
Two strainers are located on the accessory gearbox
casing (reduction gearbox and accessory gearbox
scavenge)
One strainer is located on the oil pump assembly (gas
generator rear bearing scavenge)
Main characteristics
- Type : wide mesh filter.
Note : The rear bearing strainer is fitted in the electrical
magnetic plug housing (TU 208).
Main components
- Strainer body
- Wide mesh filter
- Mounting flange
- O'ring seal.
Functional description
A strainer is a wide mesh filter which retains any large
particles which may be present in the oil in order to protect
the scavenge pumps.
4.43
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STRAINERS
Type :
Wide mesh filter
Gas generator rear bearing
scavenge strainer
Reduction gearbox
scavenge strainer
Accessory gearbox
scavenge strainer
ACCESSORY GEARBOX
AND REDUCTION GEARBOX
STRAINERS
GAS GENERATOR
REAR BEARING STRAINER
(Before Mod. TU 208)
GAS GENERATOR
REAR BEARING STRAINER
(After Mod. TU 208)
GAS GENERATOR
REAR BEARING
STRAINER
ACCESSORY
GEARBOX
STRAINER
REDUCTION
GEARBOX
STRAINER
4.44
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH - GENERAL
Function
The low oil pressure switch detects low oil system pressure
and provides cockpit indication.
Position
- In the system : downstream of the filter
- On the engine : mounted on the filter base.
Main characteristics
- Type : diaphragm pressure switch
- Setting : 90 or 130 kPa (13 or 18.9 PSI) (according to
version)
- Indication : warning light on instrument panel.
Main components
- Pressure switch body
- Electrical connector
- Mounting flange.
4.45
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH - GENERAL
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
PRESSURE
SWITCH BODY
MOUNTING
FLANGE
Type :
Diaphragm pressure switch
Setting :
90 or 130 kPa
(13 or 18.9 PSI)
according to version
Indication :
Light on instrument panel
4.46
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The pressure switch comprises the following components :
- A diaphragm, subjected to the oil pressure downstream
of the filter
- A plunger, fixed to the diaphragm, to operate a
microswitch
- An electrical contact connected to a warning light on the
instrument panel
The pressure switch is secured by means of three screws on
the filter base.
An O'ring seal ensures the sealing between the pressure
switch and the filter base.
Operation
The pressure switch microswitch is open during normal
engine operation.
If the oil pressure downstream of the filter reduces to less
than 90 or 130 kPa (13 or 18.9 PSI) according to version,
the diaphragm moves down. This causes the electrical
contact to close, completing the circuit of the low oil
pressure warning light.
4.47
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LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
3
1
2
3
1
2
OPERATION
ENGINE AIRCRAFT
+28 VDC +28 VDC
LOW OIL
PRESSURE SWITCH
LIGHT "ON"
(instrument panel)
Firewall
CONTACT CLOSED
(low oil pressure,
min<130 kPA / 18.9 PSI)
CONTACT OPEN
(normal oil pressure)
DESCRIPTION
WARNING LIGHT
(instrument panel)
ELECTRICAL CONTACT
From filter To lubrication
PLUNGER
DIAPHRAGM
+28 VDC
4.48
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
Function
The transmitter provides a signal of oil pressure to the
instrument panel.
Position
- In the system : in the supply system, downstream of the
filter
- On the engine : screwed into the filter base.
Main characteristics
- Type : inductive or resistive according to version
- Output signal : voltage proportional to the oil pressure
- Supplied by the aircraft manufacturer.
Description
The transmitter includes :
- The transmitter body
- An electrical connector.
Operation
The inductive type transmitter is provided with a piston
connected to a push rod which has a core at its end. As oil
pressure increases the piston is pushed up, moving the core
in a coil, causing a voltage output proportional to the
pressure.
4.49
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
Aircraft component
Type :
Inductive or resistive
(according to version)
Output signal :
Voltage proportional to the
oil pressure
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
TRANSMITTER BODY
OPERATION
DESCRIPTION
PISTON COIL
4.50
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OIL SYSTEM
OIL PIPES AND DUCTS
This description includes external pipes and internal
passages of the oil system.
Pipelines - General
- Type of pipelines : rigid.
Tank to pressure pump
- Flexible pipeline supplied by the aircraft manufacturer
- Union on the pressure pump.
Pressure pump to filter
- Internal passage in the casing.
Filter to system
- Internal passage in the accessory gearbox casing.
Supply to the gas generator front bearings
- External pipe
- Union on the compressor casing.
Supply to the gas generator rear bearing
- External pipe.
Supply to the power turbine bearings and
reduction gearbox
- Internal passage
- Tube inside the output shaft protection tube.
Accessory gearbox supply
- Internal passages.
Scavenge, engine front end
- Internal passages.
Scavenge, gas generator rear bearing
- External pipe
- Union on pump.
Scavenge, engine rear part (power turbine and
reduction gear)
- Tube within output shaft protection tube
- Internal passages.
Breathing
- Gas generator front bearings - into accessory gearbox
- Gas generator rear bearing - external pipe overboard
- Reduction gearbox and power turbine - internal into
accessory gearbox.
Vent
- External pipe to the exhaust pipe
- External pipe from gas generator rear bearing overboard.
4.51
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OIL SYSTEM
OIL PIPES AND DUCTS
TANK
TO PUMP
SCAVENGE TO
COOLER AND TANK
SCAVENGE
TO PUMPS
FILTER
TO ENGINE
PUMP
TO FILTER
REAR BEARING
VENT
BREATHER
5.1
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
5- AIR SYSTEM
- Air system ...................................................................... 5.2
- Internal air system......................................................... 5.4
- Air tappings ................................................................... 5.8
- Compressor bleed valve ................................................ 5.10
- Air tapping unions ........................................................ 5.18
- Air pipes ......................................................................... 5.20 to 5.21
5.2
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
AIR SYSTEM
Function
The engine air system includes :
- An internal air system which ensures :
The pressurisation of the labyrinth seals
The cooling of the engine internal parts
The balance of forces on the rotating assemblies
- Air tappings which ensure :
Bleed valve operation
Start injector ventilation
Aircraft air system supply
Air supply to the FCU metering unit
- The compressor bleed valve.
Note : Refer to the various systems for the location,
characteristics and operation.
5.3
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AIR SYSTEM
COMPRESSOR BLEED
VALVE
AIR TAPPINGS
- Start injector ventilation
- Bleed valve operation
- Aircraft air system supply
- Air supply to the FCU metering unit
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM
- Pressurisation of labyrinth seals
- Cooling of internal parts
- Balance of forces on the rotating assemblies
5.4
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The internal air system pressurises the labyrinth seals,
cools certain parts and provides a balancing of forces.
Position
All the parts of the system are internal except the
pressurisation of the power turbine labyrinth which is
supplied by an external pipe.
Main characteristics
- Type : air pressure tapping with a calibrated flow
- Axial compressor outlet pressure : 160 kPa (23.2 PSI)
- Centrifugal compressor outlet pressure : 820 kPa
(118.9 PSI)
- Air flow : 2 % of the engine total flow.
Main components
- Internal passages
- Calibrated orifices
- External pipe for the power turbine labyrinth
pressurisation.
5.5
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM - GENERAL
Type :
Air pressure tapping with
a calibrated flow
Axial compressor
outlet pressure :
160 kPa (23.2 PSI)
Centrifugal compressor
outlet pressure :
820 kPa (118.9 PSI)
Air flow :
2 % of engine total flow
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM
- Internal passages
- Calibrated orifices
External pipe for the
power turbine labyrinth pressurisation
5.6
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM - FUNCTIONAL
DESCRIPTION
The internal air system can be considered in three parts :
the front section, the gas generator HP section and the
power turbine section.
Front section
Air tapped from the centrifugal compressor inlet is used to
pressurise the front bearing labyrinths. There is a very
small flow of air into the bearing chamber.
Air tapped from the same point is discharged through the
compressor bleed valve, mounted on the compressor casing
(see compressor bleed valve).
Gas generator section
Air tapped from the centrifugal compressor tip passes
down the rear face of the compressor wheel, through the
curvic couplings, the hollow shaft and internal passages. It
is used to :
- Cool the front and rear faces of the gas generator
turbines (discharging into the gas flow)
- Pressurise the labyrinth seals of the gas generator rear
bearing (small flow into the bearing housing) and the
injection wheel.
The air from the centrifugal compressor outlet flows
through the hollow nozzle guide vanes (1
st
stage) and
through holes in the shroud. It is used to cool the nozzle
guide vane and the front face of the gas generator turbine.
The centrifugal compressor casing is fitted with air tapping
points. This air is called clean air as it is out of the main air
flow stream.
Power turbine section
Air tapped from the combustion chamber is taken by an
external pipe to the reduction gearbox casing. It then
passes through internal passages to pressurise the labyrinth
seal on the power turbine shaft and to cool the rear face of
the power turbine.
A circulation of P0 air, induced by venturi effect, cools the
gas generator rear bearing chamber, and then flows through
the power turbine nozzle guide vanes, cooling them and
then joins the gas flow.
5.7
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
INTERNAL AIR SYSTEM - FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
P0
POWER TURBINE SECTION
GAS GENERATOR SECTION FRONT SECTION
5.8
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
Aircraft services
Compressor delivery air is tapped off for use in various
aircraft systems.
The engine has two air tapping unions (used for the aircraft
services) on the centrifugal compressor casing.
Note : The use of this bleed is restricted during take-off.
Bleed valve operation
Compressor delivery air is tapped to operate the compressor
bleed valve.
Air intake anti-icing
On the 1S version P2 air is used for air intake anti-icing.
The system includes an air tapping point, a pipeline which
passes forward through the front firewall, an electro-
valve, a pressure switch and the double skinned air intake
duct.
AIR TAPPINGS
Function
Air tappings are used for :
- Fuel control
- Start injector ventilation
- Aircraft services
- Bleed valve operation
- Air intake anti-icing.
Fuel control
P2 air is used for the acceleration control unit and the min
fuel flow limiter (in some versions 1C, 1D, 1M, ... ).
The system includes a pressure tapping and a pipe between
the tapping union and the FCU.
Start injector ventilation
Compressor delivery air is used to ventilate the start
injectors to avoid blockage by the carbonisation of unburnt
fuel.
The system comprises a tapping union and a pipe connected
to the start electro-valve.
5.9
Edition : December 2000
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AIR TAPPINGS
P2
P0
P0
P2
AIRCRAFT SERVICES
AND AIR INTAKE
ANTI-ICING (1S)
SIGNAL FOR THE
FUEL CONTROL
BLEED VALVE
OPERATION
START INJECTOR
VENTILATION
5.10
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE - GENERAL
Function
The compressor bleed valve prevents axial compressor
surge.
Position
- In the system : between the axial and centrifugal
compressors
- On the engine : at the top of the counter-casing.
Main characteristics
- Type : pneumatic or electrical (according to version)
- Control :
by P2/P0 pressure ratio (pneumatic type)
as a function of N1 (electrical type).
Note : The air can be discharged under the cowling in
order to improve cooling of the engine
compartment.
Principle
The valve prevents compressor surge by bleeding off a
certain quantity of air tapped from the axial compressor
outlet. When the valve is open, the discharge of air causes
the air flow through the axial compressor to increase thus
moving the working line away from the surge line.
5.11
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE - GENERAL
G
P2/P0
Surge line
Working line
(valve closed)
Working line
(valve open)
Type :
Pneumatic or electrical
(according to version)
Control :
- P2/P0 pressure ratio
(pneumatic type)
- As a function of N1
(electrical type)
ADMISSION
OF AMBIENT AIR
COMPRESSION AND
STRAIGHTENING OF THE AIR
P1' : AIR DISCHARGED
THROUGH THE COMPRESSOR
BLEED VALVE
5.12
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC
COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
This compressor bleed valve includes 3 main parts : the
tachometer box, the control electro-valve and the bleed
valve.
Tachometer box
It operates a relay controlled by a speed signal from the N1
tachometer transmitter.
Control electro-valve
It admits P2 air to close the valve when it is electrically
supplied.
Bleed valve
It includes a spring loaded piston subjected to P2 pressure.
The piston operates the valve.
Operation
Closing
When the N1 reaches 96 % the tachometer box closes the
electrical contact which actuates the control electro-valve
to the open position. P2 pressure pushes the piston which
closes the bleed valve.
Opening
When the N1 decreases below 94 %, the tachometer box
opens the electrical contact and the spring moves the
electro-valve to the closed position. The spring pushes the
piston which opens the bleed valve.
5.13
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
N1
P1'
P2
+
96% 94%
GRILL ON P1'
AIR DISCHARGE
P2 AIR SUPPLY
BLEED VALVE
CONTROL ELECTRO-VALVE
TACHOMETER BOX
5.14
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
The compressor bleed valve includes 3 main parts : the
detection capsule, the intermediate stage and the bleed
valve.
Detection capsule
It is subjected to P2/P0 pressure ratio and controls the air
leak downstream of the calibrated orifice B.
It is fitted with a filter at the inlet.
Intermediate stage
It includes a diaphragm which is subjected to the pressure
downstream of B. The diaphragm controls the leak which
determines the pressure downstream of the calibrated
orifice A.
Bleed valve
It includes a spring loaded piston subjected to a downstream
pressure. The piston opens or closes the P1' air passage.
It also includes a microswitch, operated by the piston,
which provides indication of the bleed valve position.
Operation
Closing
When the gas generator rotation speed N1 increases, the
compression ratio P2/P0 increases and beyond a certain
value :
- The pressure becomes sufficient to deform the detection
capsule which closes the leak
- The pressure downstream of the calibrated orifice B
increases
- The diaphragm of the intermediate stage closes the leak
- The pressure downstream of the calibrated orifice A
increases
- The piston moves down under P2 pressure and the valve
closes and stops the P1' air discharge.
Opening
The P2/P0 ratio is not sufficient to activate the capsule and
there is an air leak downstream of the calibrated orifices.
The piston is not actuated and the valve is open.
A certain amount of air, tapped from the centrifugal
compressor inlet, is discharged overboard.
5.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
P1'
A B
P0
P1'
P2
BLEED
VALVE
INTERMEDIATE
STAGE
MICROSWITCH INDICATOR
DETECTION
CAPSULE
BLEED
VALVE
INTERMEDIATE
STAGE
DETECTION
CAPSULE
FILTER
FILTER
5.16
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
BUTTERFLY TYPE COMPRESSOR BLEED
VALVE - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The compressor bleed valve includes 3 main parts : the
detection capsule, the intermediate stage and the bleed
valve.
Detection capsule
It is subjected to P2/P0 pressure ratio and controls the air
leak downstream of the calibrated orifice B.
It is fitted with a filter at the inlet.
Intermediate stage
It includes a diaphragm which is subjected to the pressure
downstream of B. The diaphragm controls the leak which
determines the pressure downstream of the calibrated
orifice A.
Bleed valve
It includes a spring loaded piston subjected to pressure
downstream of orifice A. The piston actuates the butterfly
valve by means of a rack and pinion mechanism.
It also includes a microswitch, operated by the piston,
which gives the position of the bleed valve by means of a
light ("on" valve "open").
Operation
Closing
When the gas generator rotation speed N1 increases, the
compression ratio P2/P0 increases and beyond a certain
value :
- The pressure becomes sufficient to deform the detection
capsule which closes the leak
- The pressure downstream of the calibrated orifice B
increases
- The diaphragm of the intermediate stage closes the leak
- The pressure downstream of the calibrated orifice A
increases
- The piston moves down under P2 pressure and rotates
the butterfly valve through the rack and pinion
mechanism. The valve closes and stops the air discharge.
Opening
The P2/P0 ratio is not sufficient to activate the capsules
and there is an air leak downstream of the calibrated
orifices. The piston is not actuated and the butterfly valve
is open.
A certain amount of air, tapped from the centrifugal
compressor inlet, is discharged overboard.
5.17
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
BUTTERFLY COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
A B
P1'
INTERMEDIATE
STAGE
RACK
PISTON
PINION
MICROSWITCH
DETECTION
CAPSULE
P2 AIR
P0 AIR
FILTER
BUTTERFLY VALVE
5.18
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
AIR TAPPING UNIONS
These pages summarise the various air tappings : start
injector ventilation, bleed valve control, power turbine
labyrinth pressurisation, aircraft supply.
They are located on the centrifugal compressor casing
front face. The air in this zone is considered clean air as it
is out of the main air stream and thus contains very little
debris.
At 100 % N1, in standard conditions, this air has a pressure
of 820 kPa (118.9 PSI) and a temperature of 320 C
(608 F).
Start injector ventilation
Union with a restrictor ( 1 mm).
Air flow : very low.
Power turbine labyrinth pressurisation
Union ( 1.9 mm).
Air flow : very low.
Aircraft services
Union.
Air flow : 100 g/s (0.22 lb/sec.) Max.
Compressor bleed valve
Union ( 1.9 mm).
Air flow : negligible.
Metering unit supply (FCU)
Union ( 1.9 mm).
Air flow : nil.
5.19
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
AIR TAPPING UNIONS
1 mm
1,9 mm
1,9 mm
7 holes 1,5 mm
AIR BLEED FOR
AIRCRAFT SYSTEM
SUPPLY FOR POWER
TURBINE LABYRINTH
PRESSURISATION
SUPPLY FOR VENTILATION
OF THE START INJECTORS
AIR BLEED FOR
AIRCRAFT SYSTEM
SUPPLY TO CONTROL THE
COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE
SUPPLY TO FUEL
CONTROL UNIT
5.20
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
AIR SYSTEM
AIR PIPES
This part considers the external air pipes of the air system.
Pipes - General
- Type of pipes : stainless steel, rigid
- Type of unions : QUINSON union.
P2 air pipe for the control of the compressor bleed
valve
Air pipe to supply the Fuel Control Unit
Air pipe for the ventilation of the start injectors
Air pipe for the pressurisation of the power turbine
labyrinth.
5.21
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 AIR SYSTEM
AIR PIPES
P2 AIR PIPE FOR THE
COMPRESSOR BLEED
VALVE CONTROL
AIR PIPE FOR THE VENTILATION
OF THE START INJECTORS
AIR PIPE FOR THE
PRESSURISATION OF THE
POWER TURBINE LABYRINTH
AIR PIPE TO SUPPLY
THE FUEL CONTROL UNIT
6.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
6- FUEL SYSTEM
- Fuel system..................................................................... 6.2
- Fuel Control Unit........................................................... 6.12
Fuel pump ................................................................................... 6.14
Fuel filter ..................................................................................... 6.18
Manual control ........................................................................... 6.24
Metering unit .............................................................................. 6.28
- Overspeed and drain valve ........................................... 6.30
- Start injector electro-valve ........................................... 6.36
- Main injection system ................................................... 6.42
- Start injectors ................................................................ 6.46
- Combustion chamber drain valve ................................ 6.50
- Fuel pipes........................................................................ 6.54 to 6.55
6.2
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
Main components
- Fuel control unit
Fuel pump
Filter
Valves
Metering unit.
- Overspeed and drain valve
- Start injector electro-valve
- Injection system.
FUEL SYSTEM - GENERAL (1)
Function
The fuel system ensures fuel supply, injection, distribution
and metering.
Position
All the system components are mounted on the engine
except the tachometer box (twin-engine configuration).
Main characteristics
- Supply by the aircraft system and the engine pump
- Centrifugal main injection and start injection by injectors
- Manual control
- Fuel control : hydromechanical controlling and metering
device.
6.3
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM - GENERAL (1)
START INJECTOR
ELECTRO-VALVE
START INJECTORS
INJECTION
WHEEL
F.C.U. OVERSPEED AND
DRAIN VALVE
AIRCRAFT
TANK
TACHOMETER BOX
(TWIN-ENGINE VERSION)
6.4
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM - GENERAL (2)
Low pressure fuel system (1S, 1E versions)
Function
This system is designed for aircraft without a booster
pump and assures the supply to the H.P. pump.
Position
All the components are fitted on a bracket on the underside
of the protection tube.
Main components
- Metal Filter (10 )
- Min pressure switch
- By-pass valve
- Pressure transmitter (optional)
- Manual valve
- Ejector
- Astatic valve
- Pre-blockage indicator
- Jet.
Functional description
The ejector pump is supplied with fuel from the HP pump
via the astatic valve which opens at a pressure of 550 kPa.
The ejector pump ensures a positive supply of fuel to the
HP pump inlet.
A connection between the two engines permits priming of
one engine by the other. Priming can also be carried out
using a hand pump.
6.5
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
LOW PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEM (1S, 1E VERSIONS)
FUEL SYSTEM - GENERAL (2)
PRIMING SUPPLY
TO OTHER ENGINE
(version 1S)
FUEL SUCTION
FROM TANK
HP PUMP
PRESSURE
(FCU)
ASTATIC
VALVE
TO BP
FILTER
HP PUMP PRESSURE
(FCU)
FILTER
EJECTOR
MANUAL
VALVE
BY-PASS
VALVE
FUEL SUCTION
FROM TANK
FUEL SUCTION
FROM TANK
JET EJECTOR
TO HP PUMP
(FCU)
EJECTOR
MIN PRESSURE
SWITCH
MIN PRESSURE
SWITCH
PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
(optional)
BY-PASS
VALVE
MANUAL
VALVE
ASTATIC
VALVE
PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
BP
FILTER
HP PUMP PRESSURE
(FCU)
6.6
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
This part shows the main components of the fuel system.
Fuel pump
Gear type pump, mechanically driven by the accessory
gearbox and fitted with a pressure relief valve.
Filter
The filter has a pre-blockage indicator (according to
version) and a by-pass valve.
Main and auxiliary valves
The main and auxiliary valves are controlled by the control
lever which acts at the same time on the acceleration
control unit cam.
Metering device
The hydromechanical controller acts on the metering
needle (see next chapter).
Valves
- Non-return valve
- Pressurising valve
- Overspeed and drain valve
- Start injector electro-valve
- Purge valve.
Injection system
- Start injectors (2)
- Centrifugal injection wheel.
6.7
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
START INJECTOR
ELECTRO-VALVE
START INJECTORS
PURGE VALVE
CONTROL LEVER
OVERSPEED AND
DRAIN VALVE
INJECTION WHEEL
FUEL PUMP
PRESSURE RELIEF
VALVE
FILTER
FILTER BY-PASS
VALVE
AUXILIARY VALVE
MAIN VALVE
CAM
METERING
DEVICE
NON-RETURN
VALVE
PRESSURISING
VALVE
6.8
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
This part deals with the following operating phases : pre-
start, starting, normal operation, manual control and shut-
down.
Pre-start
- The pump is not operating and there is no pressure in the
system
- The main and auxiliary valves are closed
- The constant P valve is closed
- The metering needle is closed by the acceleration control
cam
- The following valves are closed :
non return valve
pressurising valve
overspeed & drain valve
purge valve
- The start injector electro-valve is closed.
Purge of the system
During the initial phase of starting, the fuel supplied from
the aircraft system flows into the F.C.U., through the non-
return valve and to the purge valve which opens and
returns the fuel to the tank. The purpose of this phase is to
expel any air which may be in the system.
Starting
When engine start is selected, the start accessories are
electrically supplied.
The pump is driven and supplies the start injectors and then
the centrifugal injection wheel.
The constant P valve operates and returns the excess fuel
to the pump inlet.
The fuel flow is controlled by the movement of the control
lever.
At 45 % N1, the start accessories are de-energised by
releasing the start button and the start injectors are ventilated
by P2 air pressure.
The control lever is moved to the flight position,
progressively opening the main valve to accelerate the
engine until the hydromechanical control takes over.
6.9
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
PRE-START - PURGE - STARTING
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
6.10
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
Normal running
The required fuel flow is metered by the metering needle.
The metering needle position is determined by the
hydromechanical control system (refer to "CONTROL
SYSTEM" chapter).
The fuel pump always supplies more fuel than the engine
requires. The excess fuel returns to the pump inlet through
the constant P valve.
The start injectors are continuously ventilated by P2 air
circulation.
Shut-down
The lever is pulled fully rearward, closing the main valve
which cuts the fuel flow to the engine causing it to run
down & stop.
Manual control
The manual control is used for starting and stopping the
engine. It can also be used in case of a control system
failure.
6.11
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
NORMAL RUNNING - SHUT-DOWN - MANUAL CONTROL
FUEL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
6.12
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL CONTROL UNIT - GENERAL
Function
The Fuel Control Unit ensures fuel supply and fuel flow
metering.
Position
- On the left front face of the accessory gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type : hydro-mechanical
- Mounting : clamp
- Replaceable components :
Filter
Pre-blockage indicator (according to version).
Main components
- Fuel pump
- Filter
- Pre-blockage indicator (according to version)
- Valves and cam
- Metering unit.
6.13
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL CONTROL UNIT - GENERAL
FILTER
(position according
to version)
VALVE SHAFT
MOUNTING
CLAMP
PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
(according to version)
CAM
6.14
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL PUMP - GENERAL
Function
The pump assembly supplies fuel under determined
conditions of pressure and flow.
Position
- In the FCU.
Main characteristics
- Spur gear type
- Pressure relief valve setting : 3300 kPa (478.5 PSI)
- Rotation speed : proportional to N1 speed.
Main components
- Drive gear
- Driven gear
- Drive shaft
- Pressure relief valve.
6.15
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL PUMP - GENERAL
Type :
Spur gear
Pressure relief valve
setting :
3300 kPa (478.5 PSI)
Rotation speed :
Proportional to
N1 speed
DRIVEN
GEAR
DRIVE
GEAR
SHAFT
6.16
Edition : December 2000
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL PUMP - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The assembly comprises the pressure pump and the pressure
relief valve.
Fuel pump
It is a spur gear type pump which has a drive gear and a
driven gear, the drive gear being driven by the accessory
drive via the pump drive shaft which is a quill shaft. Two
lip seals, with a drain between them prevent fuel from
entering the accessory gearbox.
The pump is supplied with fuel from the aircraft system.
Pressure relief valve
It is a conical valve held closed by a spring.
Pressure reducing valve
This is a diaphragm valve which provides a constant
pressure output of approx. 400 kPa (58 psi) for the hydraulic
supply of the hydromechanical governor.
Operation
Fuel pump
The pump receives fuel from the aircraft LP system. The
fuel is drawn in by the pump, it passes between the gears
and the casing and is forced out under pressure.
Pressure relief valve
If the pump outlet pressure exceeds 3300 kPa (478.5 PSI)
the pressure relief valve will open and allow fuel to return
to the pump inlet thus limiting the maximum pressure in
the system.
Pressure reducing valve
The diaphragm is subjected to fuel pressure on one side
opposed by spring pressure on the other side. The position
of the diaphragm determines the position of the valve.
When pump outlet pressure increases the diaphragm moves
up, reducing the valve opening and thus maintaining a
constant downstream pressure.
6.17
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL PUMP - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE FUEL PUMP
DRIVE
GEAR DRAIN SEALS SHAFT
DRIVEN
GEAR
FUEL PUMP PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
PUMP
PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVE
PRESSURE
REDUCING
VALVE
6.18
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL FILTER - GENERAL
Function
The filter retains any particles that may be in the fuel in
order to protect the metering unit components.
Position
- In the system : between the pump and the metering unit
- On the engine : lower part of FCU.
Main characteristics
- Type : metal cartridge
- Filtering ability : 20 microns
- By-pass valve setting : P 200 kPa (39 PSID)
- Pre-blockage pressure switch setting : P 150 kPa
(21.75 PSID).
Main components
- Filter
- Pre-blockage indicator (according to version)
- By-pass valve.
6.19
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL FILTER - GENERAL
Type :
Metal cartridge
Filtering ability :
20 microns
By-pass valve setting :
P 200 kPa (39 PSID)
Pre-blockage pressure
switch setting :
P 150 kPa (21.75 PSID)
PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
(according to version)
FILTER AND
BY-PASS VALVE
(position according
to version)
6.20
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
The assembly comprises the base, the filtering element,
the by-pass valve and the pre-blockage indicator.
Filtering element
It is a metal cartridge with a filtering ability of 20 microns.
O'ring seals ensure the sealing between the cartridge and
the filter housing.
By-pass valve
This valve ensures a fuel flow to the metering unit in the
event of filter blockage. It is subjected on one side to filter
upstream pressure and on the other side to downstream
pressure plus the force of a spring.
Pre-blockage indicator
This is a differential visual indicator. It includes a red
indicator which pops out in a transparent cover when the
pressure difference across the filtering element exceeds a
given value.
It comprises :
- A body
- A red indicator
- Two O'ring seals which ensure the sealing between the
indicator and the FCU body and between the upstream
pressure inlet and the downstream pressure inlet.
Note : The pre-blockage indicator is not installed in all
versions.
6.21
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL FILTER - DESCRIPTION
RED INDICATOR TRANSPARENT
COVER
BODY
PRE-BLOCKAGE INDICATOR
Upstream
pressure
Downstream
pressure
O'RING
SEALS
FILTERING
CARTRIDGE
FILTER
BASE
O'RING
SEAL
PIN CUP
BY-PASS
VALVE
FILTER
6.22
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL FILTER - OPERATION
The operation is considered in normal operation, pre-
blockage and blockage.
Normal operation
The fuel from the pump enters the fuel filter and flows
through the filtering element (from outside to inside).
The filtering element retains particles larger than 20
microns. The fuel then flows to the metering unit.
Pre-blockage
When the filter becomes dirty, the pressure difference
across the filtering element increases.
If the pressure difference becomes higher than 150 kPa
(21.75 PSID) the red visual indicator pops out.
Note : The pre-blockage indicator can be reset by
removing the cover and pushing in the indicator.
Blockage
When the pressure difference across the filtering element
exceeds 200 kPa (39 PSID), the by-pass valve opens and
causes the fuel flow to by-pass the filter.
6.23
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL FILTER - OPERATION
OPENING OF
BY-PASS VALVE
P: 200 kPa (39 PSID)
BLOCKAGE
FILTER
BLOCKAGE
ONSET
BY-PASS
VALVE
PRE-BLOCKAGE
FILTER
BLOCKAGE
FUEL
FILTER
PRE-BLOCKAGE
INDICATOR
INDICATOR OPERATION :
P 150 kPa (21.75 PSID)
(THE RED VISUAL
INDICATOR APPEARS)
NORMAL OPERATION
6.24
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
MANUAL CONTROL - GENERAL
Function
A mechanical control linked to the fuel control unit permits
starting control, acceleration to nominal speed and stopping.
It can also be used as a manual fuel flow control in the
event of automatic control failure.
Position
- Interface on the left side of the FCU.
Main components
- Valve shaft
- Cam control lever
- Cam.
6.25
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
MANUAL CONTROL - GENERAL
CAM
VALVE
SHAFT
CAM CONTROL
LEVER
6.26
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
Operation
Stop position
- position a : the two valves are closed, the cam
maintains the metering needle closed.
Start and acceleration range
- position b : progressive opening of the main valve ; the
cam frees the metering needle above a certain angle.
Flight position
- position c : the main valve is fully open.
"Emergency + range"
- position d : progressive opening of the auxiliary valve,
the main valve remaining open.
"Emergency - range"
In case of automatic control failure supplying too much
fuel to the engine, the control lever can be placed in the
start range to reduce the fuel flow.
MANUAL CONTROL - DESCRIPTION -
OPERATION
Description
The manual control includes the following devices :
- The main valve which permits acceleration control
during the start phase and the use of the "emergency -"
range
- The auxiliary valve which is used for the "emergency +
range"
- The acceleration control cam which controls the position
of the metering needle for starting.
6.27
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MANUAL CONTROL - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
9
0

6
2

5
2

4
5

c
d a
P2
b
MAIN
VALVE
ACCELERATION
CONTROL CAM
AUXILIARY
VALVE
CONTROL
LEVER
6.28
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
METERING UNIT - GENERAL
Function
It ensures constant metering of the fuel injected into the
combustion chamber.
Position
- In the system : downstream of the pump
- On the engine : in the FCU.
Main characteristics
- Profiled needle which moves in a calibrated orifice.
- The metering needle is controlled by the hydromechanical
control system.
Main components
- Constant P valve
- Metering needle.
Note : See the "engine control" chapter for further
description.
6.29
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
METERING UNIT - GENERAL
CONSTANT P
VALVE
METERING NEEDLE
(controlled by hydromechanical
control system)
6.30
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
OVERSPEED AND DRAIN VALVE - GENERAL
Function
The valve controls the fuel supply to the injection wheel :
- Fuel supply during starting and in operation
- Fuel shut-off and draining of the injection wheel during
shut-down.
The assembly also includes an electro-valve for a rapid
engine shut-down in the event of power turbine overspeed
(only on twin-engine aircraft).
Position
- Lower left side of the combustion chamber casing.
Main characteristics
Pressurising valve setting : 180 kPa (26.1 PSI).
Manual control system
- Pressurising valve
- Overspeed and drain valve body
- Overspeed electro-valve.
6.31
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OVERSPEED AND DRAIN VALVE - GENERAL
PRESSURISING
VALVE
OVERSPEED AND
DRAIN VALVE BODY
OVERSPEED
ELECTRO-VALVE
(only on twin-engine
version)
6.32
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
OVERSPEED AND DRAIN VALVE -
DESCRIPTION
The assembly includes the pressurising valve, the dual
valve and the overspeed electro-valve.
Pressurising valve
This valve is operated by fuel pressure. Its main purpose is
to ensure priority flow to the start injectors during the
ignition phase.
Dual valve
It is actuated by a diaphragm subjected to fuel pressure :
one valve to open and close the fuel passage to the injection
wheel, the other one to drain the fuel remaining in the
injection wheel.
Overspeed electro-valve
Only on twin engine configuration. It drains the fuel under
the diaphragm in case of N2 overspeed thus causing the
dual valve to close and the engine to automatically shut
down.
6.33
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OVERSPEED AND DRAIN VALVE - DESCRIPTION
PRESSURISING
VALVE
DUAL VALVE
(ball valve)
DIAPHRAGM
FUEL
INLET
FUEL
INLET
FUEL OUTLET TO
DUAL VALVE
FUEL
OUTLET
DRAINING
OVERSPEED
ELECTRO-VALVE
(twin-engine)
PUMP PRESSURE
PRESSURISING
VALVE
DUAL VALVE
(overspeed and drain valve)
6.34
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
OVERSPEED AND DRAIN VALVE -
OPERATION
Two operating positions can be considered : engine running
(fuel supply) and engine stopped (fuel shut-off and draining
of the wheel).
Engine running position
As soon as the fuel pressure reaches the setting of the
pressurising valve (180 kPa/26.10 PSI), the pressure is
admitted under the diaphragm which causes the closing of
the drain valve and the opening of the fuel supply valve.
The fuel flows to the injection wheel and is sprayed into the
combustion chamber.
Stop position
The normal stop selection (closing of the main valve by the
control lever) results in a decrease of injection pressure.
The pressurising valve closes. The pressure decreases
below the diaphragm and the dual valve moves down
under pump pressure on the upper diaphragm. The drain
valve opens (draining of fuel to prevent blockage of the
injection manifold by carbonization of the remaining
fuel). When the engine is completely stopped, the drain
valve closes under the force of its spring.
Overspeed shut-down
Engine shut-down can also be affected by the electro-
valve which, when opened, causes the pressure to decrease
below the diaphragm and the valve to move down (shut-
down in case of power turbine overspeed for the engines
provided with this safety system).
Note : The detail shows the dual valve position after
complete shut-down of the engine.
6.35
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
OVERSPEED AND DRAIN VALVE - OPERATION
DETAIL
(after shut-down)
Overspeed
electro-valve
ENGINE RUNNING POSITION DURING SHUT-DOWN
6.36
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE -
GENERAL
Function
The start injector electro-valve ensures the fuel distribution
to the two injectors during engine starting.
Position
Upper part of the combustion chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Re-injection prohibit switch setting :
92 kPa (13.34 PSI) => 45 % N1
- Purge valve setting :
opening at 5 kPa (0.725 PSI)
closing at 120 kPa (17.4 PSI).
Main components
- Start injector electro-valve
- P2 ball valve
- Re-injection prohibit switch
- Purge valve.
6.37
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE - GENERAL
P2
PUMP
PRESSURE
PURGE
TO TANK
FUEL
INLET
FUEL OUTLET
TO INJECTORS
START INJECTOR
ELECTRO-VALVE
AND REINJECTION
PROHIBIT SWITCH
P2
BALL VALVE
PURGE
VALVE
6.38
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE -
DESCRIPTION
The assembly includes the electro-valve, the P2 ball valve,
the reinjection prohibit switch and the purge valve.
Electro-valve
It opens when energised during starting.
P2 ball valve
The valve admits P2 air pressure to ventilate the injectors
after the starting phase.
Reinjection prohibit switch
It prevents any electrical supply to the electro-valve when
the P2 pressure reaches a certain value obtained at the end
of starting and thus any reinjection.
Purge valve
It ensures a pre-start purge by returning a certain quantity
of fuel to the tank. As soon as start is selected, the pump
pressure acts on the diaphragm to stop the purge. The
auxiliary valve relieves the pressure under the diaphragm
after the engine has stopped.
6.39
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE - DESCRIPTION
P2
ELECTRO-VALVE RE-INJECTION
PROHIBIT SWITCH
RETURN
TO TANK
PUMP
PRESSURE
FUEL
INLET
AUXILIARY
VALVE
DIAPHRAGM
AND VALVE
BALL
VALVE
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE PURGE VALVE
6.40
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE -
OPERATION
Three main operating phases can be considered : purge
before start, injection during start and ventilation in normal
operation.
Purge of the system before starting
During the initial phase of starting, the fuel supplied from
the aircraft system flows into the F.C.U., through the non-
return valve and to the purge valve which opens and
returns the fuel to the tank. The purpose of this phase is to
expel any air which may be in the system.
Fuel injection
When starting is selected, the engine pump pressure
increases rapidly and closes the purge valve, the electro-
valve is energised open and the fuel supplied by the engine
pump flows to the 2 injectors which spray it into the
combustion chamber. The fuel is then ignited by the sparks
of the igniter plugs.
Ventilation of the injectors
At the end of starting, the supply to the electro-valve is cut
and the valve closes. The air under compressor pressure P2
(which has increased in the meantime) lifts the ball of the
valve and flows to ventilate the injectors. This ventilation
continues as long as the engine operates to prevent blockage
of the injectors by carbonization of the remaining fuel. The
P2 pressure actuates the pressure switch to prevent any re-
injection which could cause a flame-out by suddenly
reducing fuel flow to the injection wheel.
6.41
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE - OPERATION
PURGING OF THE SYSTEM
BEFORE STARTING
FUEL INJECTION
PUMP
PRESSURE
PUMP
PRESSURE
VENTILATION
OF THE INJECTORS
6.42
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
MAIN INJECTION SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The injection system sprays fuel into the combustion
chamber to give stable and efficient combustion.
Position
- On the engine : inside the combustion chamber. The
injection wheel is mounted between the centrifugal
compressor and the turbine shaft. The distributor is
bolted to the diffuser backplate.
Main characteristics
- Type : centrifugal injection
- Radial fuel supply.
Main components
- Inlet union
- Supply pipe
- Distributor
- Wheel with spraying jets.
6.43
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
MAIN INJECTION SYSTEM - GENERAL
Type :
Centrifugal injection,
radial fuel supply
CENTRIFUGAL
INJECTION WHEEL
(with spraying jets)
SUPPLY PIPE
FUEL INLET
UNION
DISTRIBUTOR
6.44
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
MAIN INJECTION SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION -
OPERATION
Description
The injection system comprises the fuel inlet union, the
internal supply pipe and the centrifugal injection assembly-
distributor and wheel.
Fuel inlet union
Fitted at the lower right front face of the compressor
casing, it has a plug to test the sealing of the union.
Internal supply pipe
This pipe connects the inlet union to the fuel distributor. It
is fitted between the front swirl plate and the diffuser back-
plate.
Centrifugal injection assembly
This assembly consists of a stationary distributor and a
wheel. The distributor, fitted onto the diffuser back-plate,
is drilled with axial holes which deliver the fuel to the
wheel. The injection wheel, mounted by curvic couplings
between the compressor and the turbine shaft, is drilled
with radial holes which form the fuel spraying jets. Sealing
between the distributor and the wheel is achieved by
pressurised labyrinth seals.
Operation
The fuel is delivered to the distributor by the internal
supply pipe.
It passes through the distributor's axial holes into the
chamber in the injection wheel.
As the injection wheel is rotating at high speed (N1) the
fuel is centrifuged out through the radial holes and is
sprayed between the two swirl plates.
It should be noted that the injection pressure is supplied by
the centrifugal force and therefore the fuel system does not
require very high pressures.
The injection wheel fuel chamber is sealed by pressurised
labyrinth seals. There is a small air flow into the fuel
chamber. During shut-down the fuel remaining in the
system is purged via the overspeed and drain valve.
6.45
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
MAIN INJECTION SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
FUEL INLET
FUEL INLET
UNION INTERNAL
SUPPLY PIPE
FUEL SPRAYING
INTO THE COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
DISTRIBUTOR
CENTRIFUGAL
WHEEL
LEAK CHECK
PLUG
6.46
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTORS - GENERAL
Function
The two start injectors spray fuel into the combustion
chamber during engine starting.
Position
- On the upper part of the turbine casing at 2 o'clock and
10 o'clock
- They penetrate into the mixer unit.
Main characteristics
- Type : simple injector
- Quantity : 2
- Ventilation : by air flow.
Main components
- Mounting flange
- Fuel inlet union
- Injector body
- Spraying jet.
6.47
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTORS - GENERAL
Type :
Simple injector
Quantity :
2
Ventilation :
By air flow
INJECTOR
IGNITER
PLUG
6.48
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTORS - DESCRIPTION -
OPERATION
Description
The injectors are mounted on the upper part of the turbine
casing. They penetrate into the combustion chamber
through holes in the mixer unit.
They are secured by two bolts onto bosses with seals and
spacers to prevent leaks and adjust the depth of penetration
into the combustion chamber.
Injector components
- Injector body with mounting flange
- Fuel inlet (threaded to receive a union)
- Filter manifold
- Spacer and seals
- Nut
- Jet
- Shroud.
Operation
Starting
During starting the injectors are supplied with fuel.
The fuel is atomised and is ignited by the sparks from the
igniter plugs. The flame thus produced, ignites the fuel
sprayed by the centrifugal injection wheel.
Normal running
When the engine reaches self sustaining speed (approx.
45 % N1) the fuel supply to the injectors is shut off.
P2 air is then blown through the injectors to avoid
carbonisation of the residual fuel.
It should be noted that ventilation is continuous during
engine running.
6.49
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
START INJECTORS - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
P2
FILTER
MANIFOLD
JET
SPACERS AND
SEALS
SHROUD
NUT
FUEL
INLET
MOUNTING FLANGE
(mounting with two bolts)
INJECTOR
DESCRIPTION OPERATION
Starting
START
INJECTOR
SUPPLY
START
INJECTOR
VENTILATION
Normal running
6.50
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
COMBUSTION CHAMBER DRAIN VALVE -
GENERAL
Function
The valve drains overboard any unburnt fuel remaining in
the combustion chamber.
Position
- On the engine : screwed into the turbine casing lower
part.
Main characteristics
- Type : half-ball valve
- Setting : Closing obtained at about 40 % N1.
Main components
- Valve body
- Outlet union.
6.51
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
COMBUSTION CHAMBER DRAIN VALVE - GENERAL
VALVE
BODY
Type :
Half-ball valve
Setting :
Closing obtained at
about 40 % N1
OUTLET
UNION
6.52
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
COMBUSTION CHAMBER DRAIN VALVE -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The drain valve includes the following components :
- A threaded part to fix the valve on the combustion
chamber
- A half ball valve mounted on a tension spring
- An outlet union which connects to the drain system
- A circlip which retains the valve in the body.
Operation
The valve has two positions : open and closed.
Open position
When the engine is not running and at the beginning of
start, the valve is held open by the action of the tension
spring.
Any unburnt fuel in the combustion chamber will drain
through the valve overboard to the drain system. This
ensures that no fuel accumulates in the combustion chamber
which could cause starting problems (e.g. :
overtemperature) .
Closed position
As the engine starts the combustion chamber pressure
increases. This pressure is felt on the upper surface of the
half ball which moves down to close the drain.
The valve closes during the initial phase of starting for a
speed of about 40 % N1.
6.53
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
COMBUSTION CHAMBER DRAIN VALVE - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
SEAL
HALF-BALL
VALVE
"OPEN" position
OPERATION
"CLOSED" position
Unburnt fuel
To drain system
P2 air pressure
DESCRIPTION
SPRING
OUTLET
UNION
CIRCLIP
THREADS
6.54
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL PIPES
Description
The fuel pipes ensure the circulation of fuel between the
components of the system.
Main characteristics
- Type : rigid, stainless steel
- Unions : with integral olives.
Main pipes
- Fuel inlet union
- From FCU to overspeed and drain valve and to injector
electro-valve
- From electro-valve to the two injectors
- From overspeed and drain valve to fuel inlet union
- From union to the wheel (internal pipe)
- From the pump to the overspeed and drain valve and the
purge valve (control system)
- Drains.
Note : The pipes may be different according to version.
6.55
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL PIPES
P2
P2
FCU TO OVERSPEED
AND DRAIN VALVE
AND TO START INJECTOR
ELECTRO-VALVE
PUMP PRESSURE TO
OVERSPEED AND DRAIN
VALVE AND PURGE VALVE
RETURN
TO TANK
ELECTRO-VALVE
TO INJECTORS
DRAINS
FUEL INLET
UNION
OVERSPEED AND DRAIN
VALVE TO FUEL INLET UNION
7.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
7- CONTROL SYSTEM
- Control system............................................................... 7.2
General ...................................................................... 7.2
Description .................................................................................. 7.4
Operation ................................................................... 7.6 7.33
7.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
Main components
- Fuel control unit
- Engine and systems
- Aircraft : various systems (control, indication, supply)
- Tachometer box - according to version.
CONTROL SYSTEM - GENERAL
Functions
The system is designed to adapt the engine to the aircraft
power requirements whilst remaining within defined limits.
The main functions are :
- Manual control
- Speed control
- Various limits
- Acceleration control
- Overspeed protection.
Main characteristics
- Hydromechanical control
- Manual control.
7.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - GENERAL
TEST
G-BKXD
SA 365 N
CONOCO
Management Aviation
F.C.U.
TACHOMETER BOX
(according to version)
AIRCRAFT
(various systems)
ENGINE
(engine and systems)
MAIN FUNCTIONS
- Manual control
- Speed control
- Various limits
- Acceleration control
- Overspeed protection
7.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
The complete system includes aircraft components, engine
components and the FCU.
Aircraft components
- Control devices (control lever and anticipator)
- Indicating devices (indicators, lights...)
Engine components
- Hydromechanical components :
Overspeed and drain valve
Purge valve
Start injector electro-valve
Pressurising valve
Start injectors
Main injection system
- FCU components :
Power turbine speed governor
Gas generator speed governor
Acceleration control unit
Metering unit.
7.5
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
ANTICIPATOR
POWER TURBINE
SPEED GOVERNOR
GAS GENERATOR
SPEED GOVERNOR
METERING
UNIT
PRESSURIZING
VALVE
INJECTION
WHEEL
OVERSPEED AND
DRAIN VALVE
CONTROL
LEVER
PURGE
VALVE
START
INJECTORS
START INJECTOR
ELECTRO-VALVE
ACCELERATION
CONTROL UNIT
7.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
Control - General
Installation configuration
The gas generator supplies power to the power turbine
which is connected to the helicopter main rotor.
Installation requirements
- Aircraft rotor speed (NR) almost constant in all operating
conditions (because of the rotor efficiency) whatever the
load applied
- Max torque limitation (imposed by the mechanical
transmission and the helicopter main gearbox)
- Power turbine rotation speed (N2) within given limits
(in fact almost constant, as it is connected to the rotor)
- Limitation of the gas generator rotation speed N1 :
Max N1 (maximum engine power)
Min N1 (to avoid critical speeds)
- Load sharing (equal sharing of loads between the 2
engines)
- Protection against surge, flame-out, overtemp
Adaptation to requirements
The control system ensures the engine adaptation to the
requirements by metering the fuel flow CH sprayed into
the combustion chamber.
Thus, the gas generator adapts automatically to the
requirements (N1 demand) to maintain constant power
turbine rotation speed N2 whilst keeping all the other
parameters within determined limits.
This adaptation is illustrated by :
- The diagram W/N2 which illustrates the power W, the
max torque C and the rotation speeds N1 and N2
- The diagram N1/N2 which illustrates the N1/N2
relationship.
7.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL - GENERAL
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
N1
N2
Control
system
CH
INSTALLATION CONFIGURATION
AND REQUIREMENTS
N1
NR
Max
Min
Nominal N2
Operating
range
W
N2
M
a
x

t
o
r
q
u
e
N1 isospeeds
Max N1
Min N1
POWER W / N1, N2
N1 / N2
ADAPTATION TO REQUIREMENTS
TET
N2
C W
REQUIREMENTS
- NR
- N2
- Max torque
- N1
- W eng 1 = W eng 2
- Protections
7.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
Principle of the control loop
The system meters the fuel flow in order to match the
engine power to the requirements thus keeping power
turbine rotation speed constant. The control components
are contained in the hydromechanical unit mounted on the
front face of the accessory gearbox.
Operation of the control loop
The power turbine governor compares the actual speed N2
with a speed datum which varies with the collective pitch.
It determines a speed datum (N1*) which is a function of
the difference measured.
The gas generator governor compares the datum speed
(N1*) and the actual speed (N1) and meters the fuel to
maintain the datum speed, thus matching the gas generator
to the conditions.
The acceleration control unit limits the transient fuel flow
variations in relation to P2 pressure so as to prevent
compressor surge while permitting quick response times.
Static droop
In this type of control, the speed N1 is made inversely
proportional to N2. The relation N1/N2 illustrates this
proportionality and the N2 variation is called "static droop".
This droop ensures the stability of the system but it cannot
be tolerated as the helicopter rotor requires a given speed.
As the load mainly results from the collective pitch, a
linkage with the governor is provided to compensate the
static droop. Moreover, this linkage advances the phase of
detection (this is why it is called anticipator) to reduce the
response time.
The diagram illustrates the static droop line for different
collective pitch angles (anticipator effect).
In the diagram : 1 = low pitch, 2 = medium pitch,
3 = high pitch.
In operation, the points 1, 2 and 3 are obtained and the
droop is slighthy overcompensated ; ie : power turbine
speed (and therefore rotor speed) maintained almost
constant in all operating conditions.
In transient conditions, the power turbine speed varies, but
the governing system responds to regain the nominal
speed very quickly.
Note : the static droop is slightly overcompensated.
7.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
PRINCIPLE OF THE CONTROL LOOP
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
+
+
+
P2
N1*
N1
N2
N2*
Q
N1
N2
N1
N2
N2 N1
N2 N1
ACCELERATION
CONTROL UNIT
GAS GENERATOR
SPEED GOVERNOR
POWER TURBINE
SPEED GOVERNOR
GAS
GENERATOR
POWER
TURBINE
MAIN GEARBOX
COLLECTIVE
PITCH CONTROL
Static droop
Apparent static droop
WITHOUT
ANTICIPATOR
WITH
ANTICIPATOR
1
2
3
Apparent static
droop line
Static droop line
without anticipator
for different
2
3
1
7.10
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (3)
Hydraulics of the FCU
The hydromechanical control unit operates with the fuel as
hydraulic fluid and lubricant.
The illustration shows the entire fuel system.
7.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
HYDRAULICS OF THE FCU
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (3)
7.12
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (4)
Power turbine governor
This proportional type governor determines a datum signal
according to the anticipator signal and the actual speed.
In stabilized conditions, the flyweight centrifugal force
balances the datum spring force. The articulated lever is in
a fixed position in front of the potentiometric jet. The
reduced pressure flows to the low pressure and a modulated
pressure is established in the chamber. The amplifier
piston (subjected to a reference pressure on one side and to
the modulated pressure on the other side) determines the
N1 datum transmitted to the gas generator governor by a
lever and a plunger.
Transient conditions, the anticipator modifies the spring
tension while the centrifugal force changes. The articulated
lever pivots and moves in front of the potentiometric jet
thus altering the leak and therefore changing the modulated
pressure. The amplifier piston then moves and, by means
of the lever and plunger, sets a new datum on the gas
generator governor. The gas generator adapts itself to the
new condition until the balance is regained.
Operating envelope of control
The graph illustrates the N2 speed between max and min
N1 ; the static droop is compensated, and slightly
overcompensated, by the action of the anticipator.
7.13
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE GOVERNOR
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (4)
100% N2
N1
90
80
70
100%
Max
Min
ANTICIPATOR
MAX N1
STOP
ARTICULATED
LEVER
POTENTIOMETRIC
JET
MIN N1
STOP
N1 DATUM
PLUNGER
AMPLIFIER
PISTON
N2 DATUM
SPRING
N2 SPEED
DETECTOR
(flyweight)
Low pressure
( 1 b)
Modulated pressure N2
( 2.8 b)
Reduced pressure
( 4 b)
Operating envelope of control
Power turbine
nominal speed
Static droop lines for
different collective
pitch positions
7.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (5)
Gas generator governor
This integral type governor controls the datum speed
demanded by the power turbine governor. It achieves this
control by metering the fuel flow.
In stabilized conditions, the flyweight centrifugal force
balances the force of the datum spring. The lever is in a
fixed position and the valve determines a given modulated
pressure. The working piston controls a given position of
the metering needle which meters the fuel flow to obtain
the required rotation speed. The system is "in balance".
In transient conditions, we have seen that the power
turbine governor determines a new datum which upsets the
balance. The lever moves, the leak varies and consequently
the modulated pressure. The working piston moves the
metering needle until the new N1 datum is obtained. The
gas generator speed increases or decreases, thus regulating
engine output power to match the load and obtain a
constant power turbine speed.
7.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
GAS GENERATOR GOVERNOR
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (5)
t
t
C
N2
Q
N1
t
t
N1 DATUM
SPRING
ARTICULATED
LEVER
N1 SPEED
DETECTOR
(flyweight)
DAMPING
DEVICE
THERMAL
COMPENSATOR
POTENTIOMETRIC
JET
WORKING
PISTON
METERING
NEEDLE
Low pressure
( 1 b)
Modulated pressure N1
( 3 b)
Reduced pressure
( 4 b)
N1 SPEED (Increase or
decrease to match the load
variations)
FUEL FLOW Q (Variation
controlled by the governor)
N2 SPEED (Transient variation
and quick return to nominal speed)
LOAD C (Eg : collective pitch)
VARIATION OF THE MAIN
PARAMETERS IN TIME
7.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (6)
Acceleration control unit
It limits fuel flow increase in transient conditions, in order
to prevent compressor surge during acceleration.
In stabilized conditions, there is a gap between the fork
and the metering valve. The position of the metering valve
is determined by the working piston.
In load increase transient conditions, the governor
"responds" and the working piston moves rapidly. Under
the action of its spring, the metering needle opens until it
stops against the fork. This displacement represents what
is called "instant flow increase" initiating the acceleration.
Then the subsequent increase in P2 pressure causes the
deformation of the capsule which permits further opening
of the metering needle until it comes into contact with the
working piston.
7.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
ACCELERATION CONTROL UNIT
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (6)
x
P0 P2
P0
Q
P2
Maxi
Mini
X
Min flow stop of the
acceleration control unit
Max flow stop of the
acceleration control unit
Max flow for a determined P2
pressure (lever mechanism position)
ACCELERATION CURVE
(Fuel flow Q as a function of compressor pressure P2)
"X" instant flow increase = distance
between the metering valve position
and fork position
BAROSTATIC
DEVICE
ACCELERATION
CAPSULE
LEVER
MECHANISM
CAM WORKING
PISTON
DIAGRAM OF THE MECHANISM
ACCELERATION
CAPSULE
GAP (x) CAM WORKING
PISTON
FUEL METERING
NEEDLE
LEVER
MECHANISM
METERING
NEEDLE
7.18
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (7)
Deceleration control unit
In some versions, a deceleration control unit (or min flow
limiter) is included in the metering unit to prevent flame-
out during deceleration.
In load decrease transient conditions, the closing of the
metering needle is limited by a mechanical stop.
This mechanical stop is controlled by a diaphragm subjected
to P2 pressure.
The stop withdraws as the P2 pressure decreases in order
to prevent engine flame-out during rapid deceleration.
7.19
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DECELERATION CONTROL UNIT
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (7)
P2
P0
P2
Q
P2
DECELERATION CURVE
(Q as a function of P2)
DECELERATION
CONTROL UNIT
Min flow curve
as a function of P2 pressure
7.20
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (8)
Metering unit
Metering needle
The metering needle is a profiled needle which moves in
a calibrated orifice.
The fuel under pump pressure flows through the passage
determined by the metering needle sliding in the orifice.
Constant P valve
To obtain a fuel flow solely depending upon the metering
needle position, this valve keeps a constant pressure
difference across the metering needle. It consists of a
diaphragm subjected metering needle pressure variation.
Any variation of pressure difference (P) is sensed by this
valve which returns more or less fuel to the inlet of the
pump. In fact, the pump always supplies a flow higher than
the engine requirements and the excess fuel is returned to
the inlet.
The P transient variations are due to the pump pressure
variations, to the downstream pressure variations and of
course to the displacement of the metering valve.
For example : when the metering needle opens, the pressure
difference decreases, the valve diaphragm senses this and
moves to close the return. More fuel is admitted to the
engine, the upstream pressure increases and the nominal
P is regained.
The graphs below illustrate the valve operation
Graph of fuel flow (Q) as a function of metering needle
position (S) : each position corresponds to a fuel flow and
each displacement S corresponds to a proportional flow
variation Q.
Graph of fuel flow (Q) in relation to the pressure
difference (P) : in transient conditions, the P varies, but
the valve operates to return it to its initial value with a slight
static droop.
7.21
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METERING UNIT
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (8)
FUEL
RETURN
FUEL
INLET
FUEL
OUTLET
METERING
NEEDLE
CONSTANT
P VALVE
P
Q
Max
Min
Q AS A FUNCTION OF P
S
Q
Q
S
Q AS A FUNCTION OF
NEEDLE POSITIONS (S)
7.22
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (9)
Limits of gas generator speeds
The gas generator rotation speed varies (to adapt the
engine to changing conditions) between two extreme
limits represented by adjustable mechanical stops.
Max speed
It is automatically limited by a fixed adjustable stop which
represents the max operating rating.
TAKE-OFF - Max take-off power in the case of a single
engine (in fact, this rating is given at a
value slightly lower than the mechanical
stop and the engine must be operated not
to overcome it).
MAX CONTINGENCY - Max power in the case of
engine failure during take-
off or landing of a twin
engine helicopter. In some
versions an extreme rating
called super contingency
power is used.
The effect of fuel temperature on the speed (variation of
fuel viscosity changing the balance point of the
hydromechanical governor) is compensated by the capsule
in order to obtain speed invariability (especially max N1).
A slight max N1 variation is however introduced but
within given limits.
Min governed speed
It is limited by a fixed adjustable mechanical stop to avoid
low speeds corresponding to critical ratings. In operation,
this limit is practically never reached because, even at zero
torque, the power to drive the compressor requires a higher
speed. Therefore, the stop is only a safety measure and it
is only adjusted on the FCU test rig.
Limits of fuel flow
Fuel flow variation in transient conditions is limited by the
acceleration control unit to obtain an optimum acceleration
without compressor surge. The acceleration rate determines
the response time. The slope of acceleration is only
adjustable on the test rig.
The min fuel flow (limit to prevent flame-out) is limited by
a mechanical stop on the metering needle. In some versions,
this stop is variable with P2 pressure ; it is also called the
deceleration control unit.
The max fuel flow is determined by the full opening of the
metering needle for a given pressure difference P. It is a
factory adjustment which represents a sort of power
limitation.
In manual control (emergency control), the max fuel flow
is limited at a lower value to avoid exceeding of the limits.
7.23
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LIMITS
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (9)
N2
N1
90
80
70
100%
100%
N1
t
Q
P2
Max.
Min.
N1 LIMITS
N1 max as a function of
fuel temperature
N1 thermal
limit
N1limit to
ensure power
Metering unit max Q
Manual control max Q
(emergency)
Metering unit min Q
(with deceleration
control unit)
Metering unit min Q
(without deceleration
control unit)
FUEL FLOW LIMITS (Q)
7.24
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (10)
Limit of torque
A max torque limit is required by the mechanical
transmission. The control system does not ensure a torque
limit and the operating instructions should be observed to
prevent any overtorque. The flight manual indicates the
torque limits : also see chapter "indication" of this manual
for details of the torque measuring system.
Power turbine overspeed safety system
This safety system is not included in the control unit but is
often mentioned among the functions of the engine control
system.
The overspeed safety system is designed mainly to take
into account the case of shaft failure resulting in a very
sudden acceleration which cannot be contained by the
speed governor. The system includes a speed detector, an
electronic unit and the overspeed and drain valve of the
fuel system.
It is installed on some versions : twin engine configurations
mainly (see details of the system in electric system chapter).
7.25
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LIMIT OF TORQUE - POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SAFETY SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (10)
TEST
Q
C
OVERSPEED AND
DRAIN VALVE
TACHOMETER
BOX
N2
DETECTOR
TORQUE
INDICATOR
7.26
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (11)
Control system performance
As regards the operation, the control system performance
determines some flight characteristics.
The following can be distinguished :
- The response time
- The static and dynamic power turbine speed variations
- The max speed of the gas generator.
Response time
It can be defined as the time required to regain power
turbine nominal speed in transient conditions. The response
time is closely associated to the rate of acceleration of the
gas generator.
A check of the response time can be made by recording
parameters during a load application. It is approx. 4
seconds between N1 min and max in standard conditions.
Dynamic variation of power turbine speed
It is the transient speed variation occurring during a load
variation. The amplitude of this variation can be observed
on the rotor speed indicator ; it is related to the other
characteristics.
Static variation of power turbine speed
It can be defined as the speed variation at different ratings.
This static variation (a static droop which is slightly
overcompensated) can be checked by noting NR speed at
different operating points (eg : ground fine pitch and cruise
pitch). With the increase of power, the NR increases
slightly within given limits.
Max available speed of the gas generator
It is the max speed that can be obtained from the gas
generator (take-off on single engine and max contingency
on twin engine). This rating can be checked on a load
application, noting the max speed obtained when the rotor
speed starts decreasing.
7.27
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CONTROL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (11)
4 sec
4 sec
100% N2
N1
Max
90
80
70
Min
N2
100%
RESPONSE TIME AND DYNAMIC
VARIATION OF THE POWER
TURBINE SPEED N2
STATIC VARIATION OF N2
POWER TURBINE SPEED
Time
7.28
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (12)
Twin-engine configuration
Principle of load sharing
In normal conditions, the helicopter rotor is driven by the
two power turbines and therefore :
NR = k N2 eng 1 = k N2 eng 2
The speed signals received by the two power turbine
governors being identical (as well as the signals from the
collective pitch), they determine identical datum signals
sent to the two gas generator governors which meter fuel
flow to keep them constant.
As the power is closely related to the N1 speed and as the
efficiency does not vary much from one power turbine to
another, a fairly good load sharing is obtained.
Operation on one engine
In this case, the engine remaining in operation supplies the
power while the other one is disconnected by the free
wheel.
The limit of the operative engine is represented by the max
contingency rating automatically limited by the fuel control
unit. This rating, determined for engine failure during
take-off or landing, has a limited duration : 2 mn 30 s.
7.29
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
TWIN-ENGINE CONFIGURATION
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (12)
Q
N2
NR=k.N2 eng1=k.N2 eng2
N1
N1*
N2*
N
C
t4
N1
NR
N2
(1&2)
Tq1&Tq2
t4
N1 Max
POWER TURBINE
GOVERNOR
TRIM
COLLECTIVE
PITCH
MAIN
GEARBOX
REDUCTION
GEARBOX
POWER
TURBINE
GAS
GENERATOR
FREE WHEEL
GAS GENERATOR GOVERNOR
7.30
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (13)
Control system loop (1)
"Image" of load increase
t = 0 - "Start" Collective pitch movement
- The pitch increases
W
1
> W - The resisting torque becomes higher than
the drive torque
N2 - The power turbine rotation speed decreases
G - The N2 governor detects the 2 signals, and
sends a datum increase to the N1 governor :
the N1 governor increases the fuel flow Q
Q - Instantaneous flow step
P2 - The compressor discharge pressure increases
AC - The acceleration control unit enables the
acceleration to continue
Combustion - The flow Q increases in the combustion
chamber
N1 - increases, the output power W increases, the N2
speed stops decreasing and returns to its nominal
value when the equilibrium between torques W
1
=
W is achieved.
t = 4 seconds End of transient
Evolution of parameters
- Collective pitch
Sudden increase from min. to max. almost instantly
N2 - Power turbine speed
Transient decrease and rapid return to nominal
speed after a slight overshoot, and a slight
overcompensation of the static droop
N1 - Gas generator speed
Speed increase and stabilisation after a slight
overshoot
t - Time in seconds
7.31
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM LOOP (1)
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (13)
t = 0
t = 4
W = W
1
N2
W
N1
W > W
1
N2
Q
P2
AC
Q
NR
G
N2
N1
3
2
2
3
1
1
N2
2
3
1
2
3
1
t
t
t
N1
N2
Combustion
Evolution of parameters during a load increase "Image" of a load increase
7.32
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (14)
Control system loop (2)
"Image" of a load decrease
t = 0 - "Start" Collective pitch movement
- The pitch decreases
W
1
< W - The resisting torque becomes lower than the
drive torque
N2 - The power turbine rotation speed increases
G - The governor detects the N2 increase and
decreases the fuel flow Q
DC - The deceleration controller limits the min
fuel flow (if needs be)
Combustion - The flow Q decreases in the combustion
chamber
N1 - decreases, the output power W decreases, the N2
speed returns to its nominal value.
t = 4 seconds End of transient
Evolution of parameters
- Collective pitch
Rapid decrease of pitch
N2 - Power turbine speed
Transient increase and return to nominal speed
(within the static droop)
N1 - Gas generator speed
Speed decrease and stabilisation
t - Time in seconds
7.33
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM LOOP (2)
CONTROL SYSTEM - OPERATION (14)
N1
3
2
3
2
1
1
N2
2
3
1
2
3
1
t
t
t
N1
N2
t = 0
t = 4
W = W
N2
W
N1
W < W
1
N2
G
Q
P2
DC
Q
NR
1
Combustion
N2
"Image" of a load decrease Evolution of parameters during a load decrease
8.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
8- CONTROL AND INDICATION
- Manual control system.................................................. 8.2
- Indicating system........................................................... 8.6
- Speed indication............................................................. 8.8
- Tachometer transmitters............................................... 8.10
- Speed probes (1K, 1S, 1E versions).............................. 8.14
- Gas temperature indication .......................................... 8.16
- Thermocouple probes.................................................... 8.18
- Thermocouple junction box (1S version) .................... 8.20
- Torque indication........................................................... 8.22
- Torquemeter................................................................... 8.24
- Torque transmitter ........................................................ 8.26
- Miscellaneous indications ............................................. 8.28 to 8.35
8.2
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
MANUAL CONTROL SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The system ensures the manual control of the engine.
Main components
Fuel flow control
This lever is used to start and stop the engine and to control
the engine power manually in the event of an FCU failure.
Anticipator control
This lever links the collective pitch to the fuel control unit.
Note : As regards the electrical controls refer to chapters
starting and electrical.
8.3
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
MANUAL CONTROL SYSTEM - GENERAL
FCU
CONTROL
LEVER
ELECTRICAL CONTROLS
COLLECTIVE PITCH
ANTICIPATOR CONTROL
FUEL FLOW CONTROL
8.4
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
MANUAL CONTROL SYSTEM - MECHANICAL
CONTROLS
Function
The control lever is used to control engine start and shut-
down. It can also be used for manual engine power control ;
particularly in the event of a failure of the control system.
The collective pitch lever inputs signals to the anticipator
during flight.
Description
This system includes the control lever with its mechanical
linkage and the collective pitch lever with its mechanical
linkage.
Operation
This part only mentions the position of the mechanical
control lever. See chapter 6 and the aircraft manual for
more details.
Stop position. Cam in contact, the two valves are closed.
Start position. Lever at approx 20, slight opening of the
main valve.
Acceleration range. Lever moved from "idle" position to
"flight" position ; progressive opening of the main valve,
and after a certain angle the cam releases its contact.
Flight position. Lever in the "flight" notch : main valve
fully open.
Manual range (+). After overriding the lock, the lever can
be moved forward in the + range : increase of fuel flow.
Manual range (-). Lever moved rearward in the (-) range :
decrease of fuel flow down to shut-down after overriding
the lock.
8.5
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
MANUAL CONTROL SYSTEM - MECHANICAL CONTROLS
CONTROL
LEVER
ENGINE HELICOPTER
FUEL
CONTROL
UNIT
COLLECTIVE PITCH
90
5
2

4
5

1
1
0

8.6
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
INDICATING SYSTEM
Functions
The indicating system provides the following functions :
- It allows the pilot to check that the engine is operating
within determined limits
- It indicates faults or abnormal changes of parameters
- It allows the checking of certain operating phases.
Note : In fact there are operating parameters (e.g. : N1
and torque) and monitoring parameters (e.g. N2,
t4, oil temperature and pressure).
Miscellaneous indications
- N1 gas generator rotation speed
- N2 power turbine rotation speed
- t4 gas temperature
- Engine torque
- Oil system (refer to Chapter "OIL SYSTEM")
- Indicating lights
- Cycle counter.
8.7
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
INDICATING SYSTEM
ENGINE TORQUE
INDICATION
FUNCTIONS
t4 TEMPERATURE
INDICATION
N2 SPEED
INDICATION
N1 SPEED
INDICATION
LUBRICATING SYSTEM
INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS
INDICATIONS
- To ensure that the engine operates
within determined limits
- To indicate fault or abnormal changes
of parameters
- To check certain operating phases
8.8
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
SPEED INDICATION
Function
This system measures the rotation speeds of the gas
generator (N1) and the power turbine (N2).
Main characteristics
- Type : tachometer transmitter or phonic wheel according
to version
- Transmitter signals : frequency proportional to the
rotation speed.
Main components
- N1 speed transmitter
- N2 speed transmitter
- Electrical harnesses for connection to the indicators.
Description
One or two tachometer generators (N2 optional) linked to
one or two indicators.
Operation
N1 is an operating parameter as it reflects the engine power
and serves to determine the limit ratings.
The N2 signal is used for the N2 indication (associated
with the NR indication).
8.9
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
SPEED INDICATION
N1 INDICATOR
N2 INDICATOR
ACCESSORY GEARBOX REAR FACE
8.10
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
TACHOMETER TRANSMITTERS -
GENERAL
Function
To measure the rotating assembly's rotation speed.
Position
- Rear face of the accessory gearbox :
N1 on the right side
N2 on the left side according to version.
Main characteristics
- Quantity : 2 identical N1 and N2 transmitters
(interchangeable)
- Type : 3-phase permanent magnet generator.
Main components
- Body
- Electrical plug.
8.11
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TACHOMETER TRANSMITTERS - GENERAL
Number :
2 identical
transmitters
Type :
3 phase, permanent
magnet generator
BODY
ELECTRICAL PLUG
8.12
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
Operation N2
The permanent magnet rotation in front of the three coils
induces an alternating current.
The frequency of this current is proportional to the rotation
speed.
In normal operation, there is a link between the rotor speed
NR and the power turbine speed N2. The same instrument
can be used to indicate the NR and N2 speeds (the two N2
speeds in a twin engine configuration).
N1 & N2 TACHOMETER TRANSMITTERS -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The assembly consists of :
- A tachometer generator which has a mechanically driven
permanent magnet as rotor. It delivers an electrical
signal which is a three-phase alternating current with a
frequency proportional to the speed
- An asynchronous motor which receives the transmitter
signal and displays the speed on a graduated dial.
Operation N1
The permanent magnet rotation in front of the three coils
induces an alternating current.
The frequency of this current is proportional to the rotation
speed.
8.13
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
N1 & N2 TACHOMETER TRANSMITTERS - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
STATOR
INDICATOR
8.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
SPEED PROBES (1K, 1S, 1E VERSIONS)
Description - Operation
On the versions 1E, 1K and 1S the speed indication is
achieved using phonic wheels and speed probes.
Description
The system consists of a toothed wheel, called a phonic
wheel, rotating in front of an electro-magnetic pick-up
which is connected to an indicator.
The phonic wheel for N1 indication is fitted on the starter
generator drive shaft. The N1 probe is mounted on the
accessory gearbox casing right hand side.
The phonic wheel for N2 indication is fitted on the rear of
the intermediate gear of the reduction gearbox and the N2
probe is mounted in the bottom of the rear drive shaft
casing.
Operation
The passage of the teeth in front of the electro-magnetic
probe induces an alternating current in the probe windings.
This current has a frequency proportional to the speed and
the number of teeth :
nd x N
F =
60
Where : nd = N of teeth ; N = rotation speed in RPM ;
F = frequency
The signal from the probe is transmitted to the cockpit
indicator which transforms it into an indication which may
be analog, digital or both.
8.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
SPEED PROBES (1K, 1S, 1E VERSIONS)
F =
nd x N
60
TO THE
INDICATOR
SPEED
PROBE
PHONIC
WHEEL
PHONIC
WHEEL
PHONIC WHEEL
(starter generator
drive shaft)
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC
PROBE
INDICATOR
OPERATION DESCRIPTION
N2 SPEED PROBE
N1 SPEED PROBE
N1 SPEED
PROBE
N2 SPEED
PROBE
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
REAR OF THE
INTERMEDIATE GEAR
OF THE REDUCTION
GEARBOX
8.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
GAS TEMPERATURE INDICATION
Function
This system provides an indication of the gas temperature
(t4) at the gas generator turbine outlet.
Position
- All the system components are located on the engine
except the t4 indicator.
Main characteristics
- Type : pyrometric device with thermocouple probes
- Indication : degrees Celsius.
Main components
- Thermocouple probes
- Thermocouple junction box (1S version)
- Harness
- Indicator.
General operation
The gas temperature (t4) is an operating parameter,
particularly during engine starting.
As it would be difficult to measure the turbine inlet
temperature, the gas generator outlet temperature is
measured.
Measurement is made by thermocouples connected to an
indicator.
The system produces a voltage proportional to the
temperature of a junction of two dissimilar metals. The
voltage produced is measured by a galvanometer indicator
which is graduated in degrees Celsius.
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES -
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
Functional description
The thermocouple probes are identical. They are positioned
to give a homogeneous measurement.
Each probe contains a hot junction (Chromel and Alumel
wires soldered together).
The thermocouples are connected in parallel either to the
aircraft indicator directly or through an amplifier providing
analog and digital outputs.
A thermocouple produces an electromotive force which is
proportional to the temperature difference between the hot
and the cold junction.
The electromotive force is delivered to the t4 indicator
(galvanometer graduated in degrees Celsius).
The probes are wired in parallel. The reading obtained is
an average temperature.
8.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
GAS TEMPERATURE INDICATION
t4 TEMPERATURE
INDICATION
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES
t
THERMOCOUPLE
JUNCTION BOX
(1S version)
THERMOCOUPLE
JUNCTION BOX
(1S version)
INDICATOR ALUMEL
CHROMEL HOT
JUNCTION
COLD
JUNCTION
8.18
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES - GENERAL
Function
The thermocouple probes measure the gas temperature
(t4) at the gas generator outlet.
Position
- Around the rear part of the combustion chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Type : Chromel-Alumel
- Number : 3 probes
- Alumel wire : magnetic, negative polarity
- Chromel wire : non magnetic, positive polarity
- Connection : in parallel.
Main components
- For each probe :
Probe (sheath and thermocouple)
Mounting nut
Cable.
8.19
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
THERMOCOUPLE PROBES - GENERAL
CABLE
MOUNTING
NUT
PROBE
Type :
Chromel - Alumel
Number :
3 probes
Alumel wire :
Magnetic, negative polarity
Chromel wire :
Non magnetic, positive polarity
Connection :
In parallel
8.20
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
THERMOCOUPLE JUNCTION BOX (1S
VERSION)
Function
The junction box forms the interface between the
thermocouples and the indicator.
Position
- On a bracket at the upper part of the power turbine.
Main characteristics
- Type : box with connectors.
Main components
- Junction box
- Mounting flange
- Connectors.
Description
It includes the following connectors :
- Thermocouple connectors
- Indicator connectors.
The connection system of chromel and alumel wires is in
the box.
Operation
The t4 junction box provides a connection between the
thermocouple probes and the aircraft indicator.
8.21
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
THERMOCOUPLE JUNCTION BOX (1S VERSION)
THERMOCOUPLE
CONNECTORS
THERMOCOUPLE
CONNECTOR
Type :
Box with
connectors
INDICATOR
CONNECTOR
JUNCTION
BOX
THERMOCOUPLE
8.22
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
TORQUE INDICATION
Function
To provide an indication of the engine torque measured at
the reduction gearbox intermediate gear.
Position
- All the system components are located on the engine
except the torque indicator.
Main characteristics
- Type : hydraulic torquemeter
Main components
- Torquemeter piston
- Electrical transmitter
- Torque indicator.
Description
Refer to the following pages.
General operation
The reaction torque is transformed into axial force on the
reduction gear intermediate pinion. The force is transmitted
to a piston which determines an oil leak modulating a
pressure representative of the torque.
The pressure is transformed into electrical current supplied
to the indicator by a transmitter.
8.23
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
TORQUE INDICATION
TORQUE MEASUREMENT
- Hydraulic torquemeter
- Electrical transmitter
- Torque indicator
INDICATOR
FILTER
TRANSMITTER
LEAK
TORQUEMETER
PISTON
RESTRICTOR
TO ENGINE
LUBRICATION
OIL PUMP
8.24
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
TORQUEMETER
Function
To measure the torque transmitted to the output drive.
Position
- In the intermediate gear of the reduction gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type : hydraulic, using oil from the engine lubrication
system.
Description
The torquemeter piston is fitted into the hub of the
intermediate gear of the reduction gearbox on three stop
bearings.
The head of the piston fits into a cavity in the reduction
gearbox front casing. An oil tube passes through the
hollow shaft of the piston and forms a passage between the
piston and the tube base. Oil from the torquemeter system
can pass through this passage.
Operation
The torque on the output shaft is transmitted to the reduction
gearbox. The intermediate gear, which has helical teeth,
transmits the axial force to the piston, via the stop bearings.
The movement of the intermediate gear/piston assembly
varies the oil flow between the piston and the tube base.
This pressure variation is felt by the torque transmitter.
8.25
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
TORQUEMETER - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Type :
Hydraulic
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
TORQUEMETER
PISTON
STOP
BEARINGS
LUBRICATION
TUBE
OIL INLET
(pressure modulated
by the piston)
REDUCTION
GEARBOX
CASING
OIL FLOW
VARIATION
8.26
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
TORQUE TRANSMITTER
Function
The transmitter transforms the hydraulic signal (modulated
pressure from the piston) into an electrical signal and
transmits it to the indicator.
Position
- Rear right hand side of the accessory gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Type : inductive or resistive, according to version
- Adjusted and matched to the reduction gearbox.
Main components
- Transmitter.
Description
The system includes :
- A calibrated orifice
- A transmitter
- A pressure tapping point.
Note : The torque transmitter or the indicator (according
to version) is adjusted and matched to the reduction
gearbox.
8.27
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
TORQUE TRANSMITTER
INDICATOR
TORQUEMETER PISTON
MODULATED PRESSURE
TRANSMITTER
PUMP
PRESSURE
RESTRICTOR
PRESSURE
TAPPING
Type :
Inductive or resistive
(according to version)
Note : The torque transmitter or the
indicator (according to version)
is adjusted and matched to the
reduction gearbox.
8.28
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS -
GENERAL
Function
The miscellaneous indications provide information about
the engine operation
Position
- Engine
- Aircraft.
Main characteristics
- Electrical measurement circuit directly connected to
indicators.
Main components
- Sensors and engine accessories (refer to corresponding
chapters for more information)
- Instruments and indicators on the instrument panel :
Indicators
Instruments.
8.29
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS - GENERAL
Firewall
ENGINE AIRCRAFT
SENSORS AND ACCESSORIES
ENGINE
LIGHTS AND INSTRUMENTS
8.30
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS -
INDICATORS
There are several indicators which give information about
the engine operation. These pages summarize the various
lights which have already been dealt with in other chapters.
Position
- On the instrument panel.
Main characteristics
- Indicating lights directly connected to engine sensors
- Indications provided by the aircraft.
Lights directly connected to the engine sensors
- Low oil pressure
- Electrical magnetic plug
- Bleed valve position.
FUEL
INDICATING
OIL
INDICATING
AIR
INDICATING
POWER
INDICATOR
OVERSPEED
INDICATING
FIRE
INDICATING
"LIFE"
INDICATOR
- "Real time" fuel flow indicator
- Total fuel flow indicator
- Min fuel pressure indicator
- Max oil temperature indication
- Compressor bleed valve position
indication
(See chapter "air system")
- Air intake anti-icing indication
- Air intake sand filter condition
indicator
- Power loss indication
(For example N2 differential
indicator in a twin engine
configuration)
- Power difference indication
(For example torque differential
indicator in a twin engine
configuration)
- Overspeed arming indicator
(See chapter "electric system")
- Overtemperature detection in given
engine area
(See chapter "power plant
installation")
- Example : PSU control box on
ARRIEL 1M
(See chapter "electric system")
INDICATIONS ACCORDING TO AIRCRAFT TYPE
8.31
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS - INDICATORS
HELICOPTER
ENGINE
+ 28 V
Low oil pressure
Bleed valve position
Electrical magnetic plug
Circuit breaker
INDICATING :
Fuel
Oil
Air
Power
Overspeed
Fire
"Life"
8.32
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS -
N1 INDICATOR (1S VERSION)
Function
The two N1 indicators provide an analog (needle on a dial)
and digital indication. Each indicator has a P0 pressure
sensor and receives temperature t0 and N1 signals.
Position
- Instrument panel.
Main characteristics
- Analog indicator graduated in percent
- Digital display unit in percent
- Bleed valve and operating mode indicators.
Main components
- Sensors
- Indicator.
Operation
In normal operation (twin engine), the system operates as
a normal tachometer system. A connection between the
two indicators allows passage to the OEI (One Engine
Inoperative) mode when one of the two engines fails.
The change to OEI mode is automatic when one N1 is
lower than 66 % and the other one higher than 94 %.
In this configuration, the max speeds indicated are :
- Max contingency : 101.7 %
- Intermediate contingency : 100 %
- Max continuous : 99 %.
The indicator has an integrated microcalculator which
allows indication of the OEI ratings corrected by flight
conditions :
- Normal mode: analog N = digital N = actual N
- OEI mode : analog N = digital N = corrected N
(Zp - t0)
- Test : analog N indicates max contingency :
i.e. 101.7 %
digital N indicates actual max contingency
(Zp and t0).
In normal operating conditions, the analog indication is
the same as the digital indication, but the available max
contingency rating (depending upon the conditions) can
be read by actuating the test button.
This indication must be compared to a table located in the
cockpit which shows the ratings as a function of Zp and t0.
About 2 seconds after actuating the button, the digital
indicator displays 188.8 and then returns to the normal
indication.
The OEI operating mode is indicated by the flashing of the
decimal point and by the visual and audible warning
system.
The system also ensures :
- The cut-out of the cabin heating
- The cut-out of the EAPS if anti-icing is not selected.
8.33
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
- 1S VERSION -
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS - N1 INDICATOR
BV
100
98 96
95
75
55
35
15
T
N1%
N1
t0 20
102.7 102.7 102.6 102.5 102.3 102.1 101.8
102.7 102.6 102.5 102.4 102.2 102.0 101.7
102.7 102.6 102.4 102.3 102.1 101.9 101.7
102.7 102.4 102.3 102.2 102.0 101.8
102.6 102.3 102.2 102.1 101.9
102.4 102.2 102.1 102.0
102.1 102.1 102.0
102.0 102.0
-3.5 +10 +25 +30 +35 +40 +45 +50
-1
+1
+3
+5
+7
+9
+11
+13
+15
Zp (ft x 1000)
t0 (C)
N1 INDICATOR
EXAMPLE OF COMPARISON
TABLE
EXAMPLE OF LIMIT
GRAPH
MAX TWIN ENGINE
RATING (100%)
MAX AUTHORIZED
SPEED AT GIVEN
RATING (ZP/t0)
MAX INDICATED
SPEED : i.e. 101.7%
COMPRESSOR
BLEED VALVE
INDICATOR LIGHT
MAX ONE
ENGINE
RATING
(101.7%)
FLASHES
WHEN
INDICATING
OEI RATING
TEST
8.34
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CONTROL AND INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS -
CYCLE COUNTER
Function
The cycle counter automatically carries out the calculations
stated in the maintenance manual.
Main components
- Tachometer box with failure indicator
- Display unit with N1 and N2 cycle displays
- Electrical connectors.
Note : In the 1E and 1S version, a same box ensures the
two functions of N2 overspeed protection and
cycle counter.
Operation
The input signal is the N1 speed supplied by a pick-up or
by the tachometer generator.
With this information, the system converts the engine
actual operating cycles into "reference cycles" and displays
the result.
For the power turbine, the relationship is : 1 cycle = 1 start.
It is then possible to calculate the number of cycles of life
limited parts.
The electronic box corresponding to an engine variant can
perform some (or all) of the following functions :
- Count engine operating cycles
- Control electro-pneumatic compressor bleed valve
- Protect against power turbine overspeed
- Monitor the power turbine.
8.35
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CONTROL AND INDICATION
MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS - CYCLE COUNTER
DISPLAY
UNIT
FAILURE
INDICATOR
N1, N2 AND 24 V
INPUT
N1 AND N2
CYCLE DISPLAYS
9.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
9- STARTING
- Starting system ............................................................. 9.2
- Starter ............................................................................. 9.10
- Ignition system .............................................................. 9.16
- Ignition units .................................................................. 9.18
- Igniter plugs ................................................................... 9.22
- Ignition cables ................................................................ 9.26 to 9.27
9.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
Main components
- Starter (cranking)
- Ignition units and igniter plugs
- Fuel system (supply, metering and delivery)
- Indicating and control system :
Electrical system
Instruments.
STARTING SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The starting system ensures starting (on the ground and in
flight) and ventilation of the engine. It includes the following
functions : cranking, fuel supply and ignition.
Position
All the starting accessories are installed on the engine.
Indicating and control components are supplied by the
aircraft manufacturer.
Main characteristics
- Starting envelope : according to version
- Start duration : between 25 and 30 sec
- Max ventilation time : less than 15 sec
- Stabilisation time before shut-down : 60 sec
- Run-down time : more than 30 sec from 30 to 0 % N1.
9.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
STARTING SYSTEM - GENERAL
CRANKING
FUEL SUPPLY AND
DISTRIBUTION
IGNITION
UNITS
IGNITER
PLUGS
IGNITION
START CONTROL
AND INDICATING
STARTER
9.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
STARTING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
Starter
The starter is electrically supplied with direct current from
the batteries through the aircraft electrical system.
During starting, the starter drives the gas generator rotating
assembly through the accessory drive train.
At the end of starting, the electrical supply to the starter is
cut.
The starter is installed on the front face of the gearbox
casing.
Ignition unit
The ignition units are of high energy type. They transform
the direct current voltage provided by the aircraft system
into high energy voltage required for the igniter plug
operation.
The ignition units are located at the right side of the axial
compressor casing.
Igniter plugs
The engine has two igniter plugs which ignite the air fuel
mixture sprayed by the start injectors.
The igniter plugs are installed close to the start injectors
and are connected to the ignition units by two cables.
Fuel system
The fuel system supplies fuel to the start and main injectors.
Refer to "FUEL SYSTEM" chapter for more details.
Control and indicating system
The control system includes :
- The cockpit components (fuses or circuit-breakers,
ventilation and start push-buttons, the manual control
lever)
- The supply (28 V battery)
- The accessory relay (to electrically supply the starting
accessories)
- The starter contactor
- The overspeed box (twin engine only).
9.5
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
STARTING SYSTEM - DESCRIPTION
VENTILATION
PUSH-BUTTON
START
PUSH-BUTTON
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
STARTER
CONTACTOR
ACCESSORY
RELAY
OVERSPEED
BOX
STARTER-
GENERATOR
IGNITION
UNITS
START INJECTOR
ELECTRO-VALVE
9.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
STARTING SYSTEM- OPERATION (1)
This section deals with operating sequences associated
with the starting system : start, stop and ventilation
Starting cycle
The starting cycle is characterised by the evolution of the
engine parameters, especially the rotation speed and the
gas temperature.
The main points of the starting cycle are :
- Start selection
- Self-sustaining speed (de-energisation of the starter and
ignition units)
- End of start (stabilisation at min power).
Shut-down cycle
This cycle comprises the following points :
- Stabilisation at idle speed
- Stop selection
- Run-down and stop.
Ventilation cycle
A ventilation consists of cranking the rotating assembly
without supplying fuel or ignition (dry ventilation). It is
used for cooling the engine or for maintenance procedures.
The ventilation cycle comprises the following phases :
- Ventilation
- Cranking of the rotating assembly
- End of ventilation and run-down.
Note : Ventilation time is limited to 15 sec. to avoid
overheating of the starter motor.
9.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
STARTING SYSTEM - OPERATION (1)
N1
200C
(injection wheel
supply)
Time
N1 speed
Time
Self-
sustaining
speed 45%
Selection
t4 gas
temperature
Stop selection
Run-down
SHUT-DOWN CYCLE
N1 speed
(15 sec. max)
Ventilation off
STARTING CYCLE
VENTILATION CYCLE
Selection
Stabilisation
Time
9.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
STARTING SYSTEM- OPERATION (2)
Start - Stop - Ventilation
Power supply of the helicopter "ON"
- Valves closed, metering needle closed by the cam.
Booster pumps switched on
- Purge of the fuel system with a return to the tank.
Starting
- The control lever is moved to the "start" position :
slight opening of the main valve
- Pushing the start push button initiates the start by
electrically supplying :
the starter
the start injector electro-valve
the ignition system
- At 45 % of N1 (self sustaining speed) it is necessary to
release the start push button to cut the supply to the start
relay and accessories.
Note : During the start it is necessary to control the
acceleration of the engine, with the control lever,
and to observe the N1 speed and T4 temperature.
Stop
- After stabilisation pull the control lever to the "stop"
position : the main valve closes. Note the run-down
time.
Ventilation
- Power supply switched on
- Press the ventilation button (max 15 secs) :
power supply to the starter motor via the start
contactor.
9.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
START - STOP - VENTILATION
STARTING SYSTEM - OPERATION (2)
9.10
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
STARTER - GENERAL
Function
The starter motor cranks the gas generator rotating assembly
during starting and ventilation. At the end of starting
(when the rotation speed is sufficient), the starter operates
as a Direct Current generator.
Position
- On the front face of the accessory gearbox. It is secured
by a clamp.
Main characteristics
- Supplied by the aircraft manufacturer
- Type : starter-generator
- Supply : VDC through heavy duty cables (32 V max)
Main components
The starter main components are :
- The starter (starter/generator)
- The mounting flange
- The supply terminals.
Interfaces
- Starter electrical supply from the + 28 VDC supply bus
bar through the starter contactor
- Drive of the gas generator rotating assembly through the
accessory drive train
- Direct current supply to the aircraft system from the
starter generator when the starting phase is completed.
9.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
STARTER - GENERAL
TERMINALS
STARTER
MOUNTING FLANGE
Aircraft supply
Type :
Starter-generator
Electrical supply :
VDC through heavy
duty cables (32 V max)
9.12
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
STARTER - DESCRIPTION
Description
The starter comprises the following components :
- Connection terminals
Excitation
Generator
Negative pole
Starter
Balance
- Casing
- Mounting flange
- Brushes
- Windings (stator and rotor)
- Cooling fan
- Drive shaft
- Commutator.
9.13
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
STARTER - DESCRIPTION
CASING BRUSHES
DRIVE SHAFT
COOLING FAN
BALANCE
GENERATOR STARTER
NEGATIVE POLE EXCITATION
SUPPLY TERMINALS
COMMUTATOR WINDINGS
(stator and rotor)
MOUNTING FLANGE
(on accessory gearbox)
9.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
STARTER - OPERATION
Operation
Engine cranking
When "START" is selected the starter contactor closes and
connects the aircraft DC bus bar to the starter.
The starter then cranks the rotating assembly through the
accessory drive train.
The torque on the starter shaft is inversely proportional to
the gas generator speed and will be higher when the
atmospheric temperature is low.
The N1 increases up to self-sustaining speed (45 %) at
which point the torque becomes negative.
The supply to the starter is cut by the opening of the starter
contactor.
Electrical generation
At the end of the start cycle the starter is no longer
electrically supplied and it is driven by the gas generator
through the accessory drive train. Thus it acts as an
electrical generator and supplies current to the aircraft
circuit.
9.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
STARTER - OPERATION
START
TORQUE
SELF-SUSTAINING SPEED 45 % 0
GAS GENERATOR SPEED
TORQUE WITH A DECREASING
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
GENERATOR STARTER
SUPPLY TO THE
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT
SUPPLY TO
STARTER RELAY
+VDC Eq
Ex
+D
+G
+
9.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
IGNITION SYSTEM
Function
This system ensures the ignition of the fuel sprayed by the
start injectors into the combustion chamber.
Position
All the ignition system components are installed on the
engine, except the electrical supply circuit.
Main characteristics
- Type : High Energy (HE)
- Supply voltage : 10 to 32 VDC.
Main components
- Ignition units
- Ignition cables
- Igniter plugs.
Note : Refer to the following pages for the description
and operation of these components.
9.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
IGNITION SYSTEM
Circuit-
breaker
Igniter
plugs
IGNITION
UNITS
IGNITION
CABLES
IGNITER
PLUGS
2
8

V

D
C

B
u
s
Ignition
unit
Ignition
unit
Accessory
relay
Ignition
cables
Type :
High Energy
Supply voltage :
10 to 32 VDC
9.18
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
IGNITION UNITS - GENERAL
Function
The ignition units transform the input voltage into high
energy output.
Position
- Mounted on a support at the front right part of the engine.
Main characteristics
- Type : High Energy
- Supply voltage: 10 to 32 VDC
- Output voltage : 2000 VAC
- Quantity : 2.
Main components
- Ignition units
- Input electrical connector
- Output electrical connectors
- Mounting flanges.
9.19
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
IGNITION UNITS - GENERAL
IGNITION
UNITS
MOUNTING
FLANGES
IDENTIFICATION
PLATE
Type :
High Energy (HE)
Supply voltage :
10 to 32 VDC
Output voltage :
2000 VAC
Quantity :
2
9.20
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
IGNITION UNITS - DESCRIPTION -
OPERATION
Description
The ignition unit comprises the following components :
- An input circuit which includes the connector and the
alternating-direct converter
- A transformer
- An output circuit which includes :
A rectifier
A capacitor
A discharge tube.
Operation
The ignition unit is supplied with 28 VDC.
The converter transforms the DC voltage into an alternating
voltage.
The transformer amplifies the alternating voltage and
supplies the rectifier.
The rectifier selects the positive phases and loads the
capacitors. The capacitor accumulates the electrical loads
(positive phases) and discharges at regular intervals into
the discharge tube.
The discharge tube controls the phases of loading and
discharge.
Then the high energy voltage is delivered to the igniter
plugs through the ignition cables (2000 Volts).
9.21
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
IGNITION UNITS - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
+
-
CONVERTER TRANSFORMER
CAPACITOR
RECTIFIER
IGNITER PLUG
DISCHARGE TUBE
DIRECT
CURRENT
INPUT
28 VDC
VDC
t 0
VAC
t 0
VAC (kV)
t 0
V (kV)
t 0
CAPACITOR
DISCHARGE
2000 V
9.22
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
IGNITER PLUGS - GENERAL
Function
The igniter plugs produce sparks to ignite the fuel sprayed
by the start injectors.
Position
- Mounted beside the start injectors on either side of the
combustion chamber casing.
Main characteristics
- Type : High Energy (HE), surface discharge
- Quantity : 2.
Main components
- Plug body
- Electrode
- Mounting flange (2 bolts on the combustion chamber
boss)
- Electrical connector (connection with the ignition unit)
or ignition cable (according to version).
9.23
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
IGNITER PLUGS - GENERAL
IGNITION CABLE
IGNITION CABLE
ELECTRODE
PLUG BODY
PLUG BODY
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
MOUNTING FLANGE
Type :
High Energy
Surface discharge
Quantity :
2
BEFORE MOD TU 271A
AFTER MOD TU 271A
9.24
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
IGNITER PLUGS - DESCRIPTION -
OPERATION
Description
An igniter plug comprises :
- An external body connected to the negative terminal
- A semi-conductor fitted in the tip of the plug
- An insulator
- A central electrode connected to the positive terminal
- An electrical connector for connection to the ignition
unit (or the ignition cable integral with igniter)
- Seals and spacers.
Operation
The high energy current produced by the ignition unit is
supplied to the central electrode of the igniter plug. It
discharges, across the semi-conductor to the plug body
causing a powerful spark.
This spark ignites the air fuel mixture sprayed into the
combustion chamber by the start injector.
9.25
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
IGNITER PLUGS - DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Spark
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
(connection with the ignition unit)
INSULATOR
OPERATION DESCRIPTION
SEMI -
CONDUCTOR
EXTERNAL
BODY
(-)
CENTRAL
ELECTRODE
(+)
INJECTORS
IGNITER
PLUG
SEALS AND
SPACERS
IGNITER
PLUG
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
9.26
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
STARTING
IGNITION CABLES (POST MOD TU271A)
Function
The ignition cables supply the high energy current
(produced by the ignition units) to the igniter plugs.
Position
- Between the ignition unit and the plugs.
Main characteristics
- Type : multi-core nickel-plated copper wire
- Number : 2 identical independent cables
- Shielding : triple braided
- Voltage rating : 5 kVolts.
Main components
- Igniter plug cable connector
- Ignition cable (wire and shield)
- Ignition unit connector.
Description
One ignition cable includes :
- A nickel-plated copper multicore
- An outer shielding (stainless steel braid)
- Two inner shields (silver-plated copper braid)
- Two stainless steel rigid end fittings
- Two electrical connectors
One igniter plug connector (ceramic insulator, spring
and nut)
One ignition unit connector (teflon insulator, silicone
joint, spring and nut).
9.27
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 STARTING
IGNITION CABLES (POST MOD TU271A)
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
(to the ignition unit)
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
(to the igniter plug)
Type :
Multicore nickel-plated
copper wire
Number :
2 identical
independent cables
Shielding :
Triple braided
Operating voltage :
5 kVolts
IGNITION CABLE
(wire and shield)
10.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
10- ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
- Electrical system ........................................................... 10.2
- Electrical accessories .................................................... 10.4
- Power turbine overspeed safety system....................... 10.6
- Power turbine overspeed sensor................................... 10.10
- Tachometer box.............................................................. 10.14
- Super contingency power system ................................ 10.24
- Electrical harnesses ...................................................... 10.28 to 10.29
10.2
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Function
The system contributes to the various indicating and
control functions of the engine :
- Indicating
- Fuel control
- Safety systems
Main characteristics
- Power supply : 28 VDC from aircraft electrical system
Main components
- Engine electrical components (indicating components
and sensors)
- Control and indicating components (aircraft)
- Electrical harnesses.
10.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Power supply :
28 VDC from aircraft
ACCESSORIES AND SENSORS
ELECTRICAL
HARNESSES
10.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES - GENERAL -
Function
The electrical accessories are involved in various engine
functions. This chapter summarises the various accessories.
For the detail of each one refer to the appropriate chapter.
Electrical accessory classification
The accessories can be classified as follows :
- Control components (buttons, selectors, potentiometers )
- Indicating components (indicators, lights, displays )
- Engine accessories (controlled accessories, sensors
connected to the aircraft).
Control components
- Switch push buttons, relay circuit-breakers, etc...
Indicating components
- Light, indicators, etc...
Engine accessories supplied by the engine
manufacturer
- Igniter plug
- Ignition Unit
- Start electro-valve
- Power turbine overspeed electro-valve (twin engine
configuration)
- Super contingency power electro-valve (example : 1M)
- Compressor electro-valve
- Bleed valve microswitch (position)
- Oil pressure switch
- Electrical magnetic plug
- Tachometer transmitter
- Power turbine overspeed probe (twin engine)
- Pyrometric harness
- Torque transmitter
- Tachometer box
- Super-contingency power box (example : 1M).
10.5
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES - GENERAL
CONTROLE AND INDICATING COMPONENTS ENGINE ACCESSORIES
10.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SAFETY
SYSTEM - GENERAL
Function
The safety system causes the immediate shut-down of the
engine in the event of power turbine overspeed.
The system (mainly designed to protect against shearing
of the power shaft) requires a very quick response and a
high reliability.
This safety system is only installed on twin-engine
configurations.
Position
All the components are installed on the engine except the
tachometer box which is mounted on the aircraft.
Main characteristics
Overspeed setting : 120 % N2
- Automatic test :
for each start
during periodic inspection.
Main components
- Speed sensor
- Tachometer box
- Overspeed electro-valve.
10.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SAFETY SYSTEM - GENERAL
OVERSPEED
ELECTRO-VALVE
OVERSPEED
SENSOR
TACHOMETER
BOX
10.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SYSTEM -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The speed sensor is mounted facing two phonic wheels
with a different number of teeth, mounted on the turbine
shaft. It is connected to the tachometer box (in the aircraft).
The tachometer box electrically supplies the overspeed
electro-valve on the overspeed and drain valve.
Operation
In the event of an overspeed, when the tachometer box
receives two frequency signals, it energises the overspeed
electro-valve to move to drain position causing the engine
shut-down.
10.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SAFETY SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
TACHOMETER
BOX
OVERSPEED
ELECTRO-VALVE
SPEED
SENSOR
10.10
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SENSOR -
GENERAL
Function
The power turbine overspeed sensor monitors N2 and
transmits the signal to the tachometer box (twin-engine
version).
Position
Screwed into the bottom of module 4 casing.
Main characteristics
- Double pick-up
- Type : magnetic.
Main components
- Sensor
- Locating dowel
- Hollow bolt.
10.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SENSOR - GENERAL
SENSOR
LOCATING
DOWEL
Double pick-up
Type :
Magnetic
HOLLOW
BOLT
PHONIC WHEELS
10.12
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SENSOR -
OPERATION
Description
The sensor is fitted facing the phonic wheels, it includes
two electro-magnetic pick-ups.
The sensor is secured by a hollow bolt and is fitted with a
locating pin to ensure the correct orientation.
Operation
The passage of the teeth in front of the electro-magnetic
sensor induces two alternating currents having a frequency
proportional to the speed and to the number of teeth :
nd x N
Frequency F =
60
(nd = number of teeth, N = rotation speed in Rpm)
As the phonic wheels don't have the same number of teeth,
the double sensor gives two different frenquencies
proportional to the speed.
10.13
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
POWER TURBINE OVERSPEED SENSOR
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
nd x N
60
F =
HOLLOW BOLT
SENSOR
PHONIC WHEELS
TO THE TACHOMETER BOX
SENSOR
PHONIC WHEEL
ELECTRO-MAGNETIC
PICK-UP
PHONIC
WHEEL
TACHOMETER
BOX
10.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - GENERAL
Function
To supply the overspeed electro-valve in case of an
overspeed detection and to control the operation of the
bleed valve (according to version).
Position
- In the aircraft
Main characteristics
- Electronic box
- Automatic test
- Periodic test.
Main components
- Push-buttons
test
rearming
or selector according to version
- Electrical connector(s).
10.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - GENERAL
TEST
TEST
PUSH-BUTTON
REARMING
PUSH-BUTTON
TEST
SELECTOR
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTOR
OVERSPEED
CONNECTOR
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
FOR THE COMPRESSOR
BLEED VALVE CONTROL
10.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - DESCRIPTION
Description
The tachometer box is mounted in the aircraft, it is connected
to the overspeed sensor by an electrical harness.
It includes two frequency detectors, a V relay, a bi-stable
relay S and S', a rearming and a test push button.
A cross monitoring system between the two overspeed
boxes inhibits the overspeed system of the other engine in
case of overspeed.
10.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - DESCRIPTION
TEST
OSCILLATOR
N2
N2
120 %
120 %
V S
ENGINE
SHUT-DOWN
S'
OVERSPEED ELECTRO-VALVE
INHIBITION OF THE STARTING
INHIBITION OF THE ENGINE 2 SYSTEM
25 %
25 %
REARMING
EVENTUAL INHIBITION OF THIS SYSTEM
10.18
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - OPERATION (1)
Power on
At power on, the sensors give the F1 and F2 frequencies
to frequency detectors which supply the light through the
mutual monitoring system (up 25 % of N2).
An eventual rearming is possible.
Overspeed condition
In the event of N2 overspeed (N2 120 %) the two signals
of N2 (F1 and F2) are supplied to the two frequency
detectors which complete the circuit through relay V.
Relay V closes its contacts :
supplying relay S
breaking the circuit of the other engine.
The contacts of relay S
open the other engine's overspeed circuit
supply the overspeed solenoid
open the start circuit
open the overspeed light circuit.
10.19
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - OPERATION (1)
POWER ON
POWER ON
OVERSPEED
- The light turns on (up to
25 % of N2)
- Rearming (eventually)
OVERSPEED
- Supply of the mono-
stable relay V
- Supply of the bi-stable
relay S
- Supply of the overspeed
electro-valve
- Inhibition of engine 2
system
- Inhibition of the start
TEST
OSCILLATOR
N2
N2
120 %
120 %
V S
ENGINE
SHUT-DOWN
S'
OVERSPEED ELECTRO-VALVE
INHIBITION OF THE STARTING
INHIBITION OF THE ENGINE 2 SYSTEM
25 %
25 %
REARMING
EVENTUAL INHIBITION OF THIS SYSTEM
10.20
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - OPERATION (2)
Automatic monitoring (A, B, C, D, K, M versions)
The condition of the pick-up signals is checked at each
start with the light turning-off above 25 % N2.
Periodic test
Engine stopped, operation of the push button simulates an
overspeed :
the light goes off
the electro-valve is supplied
the start system is inhibited
After this test it is necessary to rearm the system.
Rearming
When the rearm push button is pressed the relay S' is
supplied and the relay returns to the normal position.
10.21
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - OPERATION (2)
AUTOMATIC MONITORING
AUTOMATIC MONITORING
A, B, C ,D, K, M VERSION :
whatever N1
N2 (x) N2 (y)
OK OK
OK
OK
0
0
0
0
Light off
Light on
Light on
Light on
TEST
OSCILLATOR
N2
N2
120 %
120 %
V S
ENGINE
SHUT-DOWN
S'
OVERSPEED ELECTRO-VALVE
INHIBITION OF THE STARTING
INHIBITION OF THE ENGINE 2 SYSTEM
25 %
25 %
REARMING
EVENTUAL INHIBITION OF THIS SYSTEM
OVERSPEED MANUAL TEST
OVERSPEED
MANUAL TEST
- Supply of the oscillator
120 % *
- Oscillator inhibited for
N2 > 25 %
10.22
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - OPERATION (3)
Automatic monitoring (1E, 1S versions)
This protection doesn't exist on all boxes.
- Above 25 % N2 and below 83 % N1 : the loss of one N2
speed signal is indicated by the light staying "on".
- Above 25 % N2 and 83 % N1 :
the loss of one N2 speed signal is also indicated by
the light staying "on"
the loss of two N2 speed signals causes the engine to
be shut down by the overspeed system.
- Above 25 % N2.
the loss of the N1 speed signal or any defect of the
protection stage is indicated by the flashing of the
light.
Note : In all cases of engine shut down by overspeed,
starting is not possible.
10.23
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
TACHOMETER BOX - OPERATION (3)
TEST
OSCILLATOR
N2
N1
N2
120 %
120 %
V S
ENGINE
SHUT-DOWN
S'
OVERSPEED ELECTRO-VALVE
INHIBITION OF THE STARTING
INHIBITION OF THE ENGINE 2 SYSTEM
25 %
1S, 1E
VERSION
83 %
25 %
REARMING
EVENTUAL INHIBITION OF THIS SYSTEM 1E, 1S VERSION MONITORING
AUTOMATIC MONITORING
1S, 1E VERSION :
N1 < 83 %
N2 (x) N2 (y)
OK OK
OK
OK
0
0
0
0
Light off
Light on
Light on
Light on
N1
OK
0
Light off
Light flashing
N1 > 83 %
N2 > 25 %
N2 (x) N2 (y)
OK OK
OK
OK
0
0
0
0
Light off
Light on
Light on
Engine shut-down
10.24
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SUPER CONTINGENCY POWER SYSTEM -
GENERAL
Function
The purpose of this system is to provide on extreme power
rating : super contingency power rating. This system is
only available on some versions.
The control box, delivered with the engine ensures:
- the recording and display of the engine operating hours
in hundreths of an hour.
- the recording and indication by a red flag of the use of
S.C.P.
- the ouput of a duplicate signal to a flashing light in the
cockpit to indicate use of S.C.P.
Position
The electro-valve is on the FCU, the control box in the
helicopter.
Main characteristics
- Selection by button on the collective pitch lever.
Main components
- Control box
- Super contingency power electro-valve.
Note : The S.C.P. control box is associated with the
module M03.
10.25
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SUPER CONTINGENCY POWER SYSTEM - GENERAL
S.C.P. ELECTRO-VALVE
ELECTRICAL
CONNECTORS
ENGINE
HOUR COUNTER
RED FLAG
S.C.P.
CONTROL BOX
(associated with module M03)
10.26
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SUPER CONTINGENCY POWER SYSTEM -
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
Description
The electro-valve on the fuel control unit opens when
electrically supplied to permit an increase of modulated
pressure and therefore an increase of the max available
rating.
The control box belongs to module n 03, it indicates the
engine hours and the operation of S.C.P.
The system includes :
a selector on the collective pitch-lever
an automatic armament switch in the torque indicating
system.
a flasher relay
an indicating device (light and flag)
Operation
S.C.P. Arming
Two conditions are necessary for the arming of the S.C.P.
system:
- the pilot must select S.C.P.
- there must be a torque difference between the engines
22 %.
The detection logic in the torque indicating system closes
its contact thus supplying, through the pilot's selector, the
S.C.P. electro-valves of both engines and the S.C.P. light
in the cockpit. Super Contingency Power will now be
available on the operative engine.
Rating detection
From 50 to 102.5 % N1 the S.C.P. box counts the engine
hours.
From 102.5 to 103.8 % N1, that is in S.C.P. mode, the
engine hours counting is increased by a multiplication
factor of 4.4. The S.C.P. light is on.
If the N1 remains above 103.8 % for more than 5 seconds
the bi-stable relay is supplied and relay (C) is supplied
causing the flashing of the S.C.P. light. Simultaneously the
red flag is activated and appears in the window.
Note 1 : Normal max N1 is 102.4 % for the Arriel 1M1
/ 1MN1 without S.C.P. In S.C.P. mode the max
N1 is 105 %.
Note 2 : The maximum authorised accumulated
operating time in S.C.P. is 1 minute. The use of
this rating requires replacement of the engine
and the S.C.P. box.
10.27
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
SUPER CONTINGENCY POWER SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION - OPERATION
C
COLLECTIF PITCH
S.C.P. SELECTOR
TORQUE
INDICATOR
FLASHER
UNIT
RELAY
RELAY TO
ELECTRO-VALVES
+ 28 V
+ 28 V
+ 28 V
FLAG
S.C.P.
ELECTRO-VALVE
WINDOW
SIGNAL FROM
N1 TACHO. GEN.
TO
N1 INDICATOR
S.C.P.
CONTROL BOX
S.C.P.
BI-STABLE RELAY
ENG. HOURS
COUNTER
TO OTHER
ENGINE
(SCP electro-valve)
(T x4.4)
T:5 secs N1 103.8 %
N1 102.5 %
N1 50 %
D 22%
(T x1)
10.28
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL HARNESSES
Function
Harnesses link the engine accessories to the aircraft.
Description and operation
All engine versions have a multi-pin plug for the engine/
aircraft interface and a second electrical plug for the
pyrometric system (except on ARRIEL 1S1 : only one
electrical plug for the two harnesses).
On the twin-engine version : a harness for the speed
detection to stop the engine in case of overspeed.
Note : The starter-generator cables must also be
mentioned.
10.29
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL HARNESSES
SPEED DETECTION
HARNESS FOR THE
OVERSPEED SYSTEM
(twin-engine version)
PYROMETRIC
HARNESS
ACCESSORY
HARNESS
ARRIEL 1S1 : only one connector
11.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
11- ENGINE INSTALLATION
- Engine compartment ..................................................... 11.2
- Engine mounting............................................................ 11.4
- Power drive .................................................................... 11.8
- Air intake........................................................................ 11.10
- Exhaust system .............................................................. 11.12
- Engine system interfaces .............................................. 11.14
Oil system.................................................................................... 11.14
Aircraft LP fuel system.............................................................. 11.16
Manual controls .......................................................................... 11.18
Air system.................................................................................... 11.20
- Drain system .................................................................. 11.22
- Fire protection ............................................................... 11.24 to 11.25
11.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE COMPARTMENT
Function
The engine compartment accommodates the engines and
ensures their ventilation.
Position
- At the rear of the helicopter main gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Insulated compartments
- Compartment ventilation by air circulation.
Main components
- Firewalls
- Cowlings
- Support platform.
Description
A typical twin-engine installation includes the following
components :
- Two areas separated by a central firewall :
Right engine area
Left engine area
- Three main firewalls :
Front firewall
Rear firewall
Central firewall.
- The main engine mountings
- Two main cowlings :
The air inlet cowling which permits access to the air
intake
The engine cowling which permits access to the
engine and to the exhaust system.
The compartment ventilation is ensured by air circulation
in order to maintain an acceptable temperature in the
various areas.
The ventilation can be increased by the compressor bleed
valve air discharging into the engine compartment.
11.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE COMPARTMENT
FRONT
FIREWALL
MAIN
GEARBOX
ENGINE CENTRAL
FIREWALL
REAR
FIREWALL
ENGINE
COWLING
AIR INLET
COWLING
SUPPORT
PLATFORM
ENGINE
MOUNTING
EXAMPLE OF SINGLE ENGINE
INSTALLATION
EXAMPLE OF TWIN-ENGINE
INSTALLATION
11.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE MOUNTING - GENERAL
Function
The engine mountings attach the engine to the airframe.
The lifting brackets permit the removal and installation of
the engine.
Position
- Front mounting : at the front lower part of the accessory
gearbox casing
- Rear mounting : at the front lower part of the reduction
gearbox casing, or on the protection tube (according to
version)
- Lifting brackets : 2 at the front part and one at the rear.
Main components
- Front mounting : flange or yoke (according to version)
- Rear mounting : clamps and cradle (according to version)
- Engine lifting points :
two brackets on the centrifugal (compressor casing
flange)
one bracket on the power turbine casing flange.
11.5
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE MOUNTING - GENERAL
FRONT LIFTING
BRACKETS
REAR LIFTING
BRACKET
FRONT
FLANGE
CRADLE CLAMPS
11.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE MOUNTING - FUNCTIONAL
DESCRIPTION
There are two types of engine mounting depending on the
engine variant.
- Variants A, B, C, D and M:
Front support - ring of bolts on the front flange.
Rear support - a cradle under the protection tube, secured
by two clamps.
- Variants E, K and S :
Front support - yoke bolted to the front face of the
accessory gearbox, supported on two trunnion mounts.
Rear support - a rod connects to the bracket on the
bottom of module 5.
11.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE MOUNTING - FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
MOUNTING BY
CLAMPS ON THE
PROTECTION TUBE
TYPE A - B - C - D - M
REAR
MOUNTING
TYPE E - K - S
MOUNTING BY THE
FRONT SUPPORT
CASING FLANGE
TYPE A - B - C - D - M
MOUNTING BY TWO
ATTACHMENT
POINTS ON THE
AIRFRAME
TYPE E - K - S
11.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
POWER DRIVE
Function
The power drive transmits the engine power to the helicopter
transmission system.
The link is made by a transmission shaft designed to
absorb the engine torque and slight misalignements (supply
by aircraft manufacturer or TURBOMECA according to
version)
Position
- Between the engine and the helicopter main gearbox.
Main characteristics
- Shaft designed to absorb the engine torque and slight
misalignments
- Rotation speed : 6000 RPM at 100 %.
Main components
The main components are :
The engine drive shaft flange
The flector (engine end)
The adapting flange
The drive shaft
The flexible coupling (MGB end)
The main gearbox input flange.
Functional description
The engine drive shaft consists of a steel tube, fitted with
the following elements at each end :
- A triangular flange connected to the MGB input flange
with a flexible coupling
- A splined flange, connected to an adaptor flange which
is connected to the engine drive shaft flange with a
flector.
The flexible couplings are installed between the flanges.
They transmit torque, absorb shock and vibration and
allow slight misalignment.
Note : In single engine versions, the free wheel unit drives
the main gearbox and the tail rotor shaft drive.
11.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
POWER DRIVE
MAIN GEARBOX
INPUT FLANGE
DRIVE
SHAFT
ENGINE
DRIVE-FLANGE
FLEXIBLE
COUPLING
SPLINES
ADAPTOR FLANGE
(splined)
FLECTOR
1S VERSION
1E VERSION
11.10
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
AIR INTAKE
Function
The air intake system directs the ambient air into the
engine.
Position
- In front of the engine.
Main characteristics
- Type : Static or dynamic, annular
- Air flow : 2.5 kg/s (5.5 lb/sec.).
Main components
- Helicopter air intake
- Intake duct
- Anti-icing system.
Functional description
A circular flange on the compressor casing permits
connection of the aircraft air intake duct. The admission of
air can be made through a static or a dynamic intake which
can be provided with protection devices (filters, anti-
icing...). A pressurized seal can also be fitted to improve
the connection sealing. Some versions are provided with a
device for compressor washing.
11.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
AIR INTAKE
SEAL ANTI-ICING AIR DUCT
FILTER
UNION FOR
COMPRESSOR WASHING
11.12
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Function
The exhaust system discharges the exhaust gas overboard.
Position
- At the rear of the engine.
Main characteristics
- Type : divergent
- Gas temperature : 600 C (1080 F).
Main components
- Engine exhaust pipe
- Exhaust extension.
Functional description
The exhaust expels the gases directly but it can be adapted
to the aircraft by means of an extension. The engine
compartment ventilation can be accelerated by venturi
effect between the engine exhaust pipe and the aircraft
duct.
11.13
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
EXHAUST SYSTEM
VENTURI TO ACCELERATE THE
COMPARTMENT VENTILATION
EXHAUST PIPE EXTENSION
11.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (1)
Oil system interfaces
For each engine, the oil system has three interfaces as
follows :
- Oil return line to the aircraft oil cooler
- Oil supply line to the oil pump pack
- The vent line : from the oil tank to the accessory gearbox
and to the exhaust.
11.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
OIL SYSTEM INTERFACES
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (1)
AIRCRAFT ENGINE
OIL SUPPLY
OIL RETURN
TO THE COOLER
BREATHING
11.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (2)
Aircraft LP fuel system
Function
The system supplies the engine with fuel under determined
conditions of pressure, flow, temperature and filtering.
Main characteristics
- Filtering 10 micron.
Main components
- Fuel tank
- Booster pump
- Filter assembly
- Fuel shut-off valve
- Fuel inlet union
- Return to tank union.
Functional description
The interface comprises the union on the FCU and return
to tank union. The aircraft system may include various
devices : vent, level indication, filler neck, booster pump,
pressure indicator, flowmeter. The booster pump will
prime the engine system and prevent cavitation of the
pump.
The filtering unit, normally fitted with a pre-blockage
indicator and a by-pass valve is in the line before the shut-
off valve which is used to isolate the engine compartment
from the aircraft system.
Note : In the 1S, 1E versions, the fuel inlet union is
located on the LP fuel system, located under the
engine.
11.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
AIRCRAFT LP FUEL SYSTEM
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (2)
FUEL SHUT-OFF
VALVE
FILTER UNIT
(filtering 10 microns)
FUEL
TANK
BOOSTER
PUMP
(except 1S)
FUEL INLET
UNION
RETURN TO
TANK UNION
1S, 1E VERSIONS
HP PUMP PRESSURE
(FCU)
FUEL SUCTION
FROM TANK
11.18
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (3)
Manual controls
Function
To allow the control of the fuel valves and of the anticipator.
Position
The engine control lever and the collective pitch lever are
in the cockpit and are mechanically connected to the
F.C.U.
Main components
- Control lever
- Collective pitch lever
- Fuel control unit.
Functional description
- Engine control lever (Lever actuating 2 valves and a
cam in the fuel control unit : see chapter "fuel system"
and aircraft manuals for the mechanical linkage).
- Anticipator control (Linkage with the helicopter
collective pitch : see operation of the anticipator in the
chapter "engine control" and details of the mechanical
connection in the aircraft manuals).
11.19
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
MANUAL CONTROLS
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (3)
CONTROL LEVER
FUEL VALVE
CONTROL
ANTICIPATOR
CONTROL
COLLECTIVE
PITCH LEVER
11.20
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (4)
Air system
Function
The system provides warm compressed air to the aircraft
for the aircraft services.
Position
One tapping boss on each side of the centrifugal compressor
casing.
Main components
Air tapping points (x 2).
Functional description
Aircraft pipes can be connected to the two tapping points
to supply a given flow of P2 air. The flow is limited by
restrictors but any air bleed affects engine performance.
Possible uses of the air
- Cabin heating
- Pressurized seal
- Air intake anti-icing
- Particle separator...
Note : Refer to aircraft manuals for detailed description
of these systems.
11.21
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
AIR SYSTEM
ENGINE SYSTEM INTERFACES (4)
P2
P2 TAPPING
11.22
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
DRAIN SYSTEM
Function
To drain fluids from certain engine components.
Position
- Various pipelines on the engine connected to the aircraft
drain system.
Main characteristics
- Stainless steel tubes.
Main components
- Combustion chamber drain valve
- General vent
- F.C.U. drive drain
- Overspeed and drain valve
- Exhaust pipe drain
- Output shaft casing drain
- Air vent of the Gas generator rear bearing
- Rear bearing collector drain.
Description
A drain collector is fitted on a bracket at the bottom of the
accessory gearbox casing and is connected by a flexible
pipe to an aircraft drain.
Four drain tubes are connected to the drain collector, the
output casing drain, the pump drive drain, the combustion
chamber drain and the overspeed and drain valve.
The gas generator rear bearing vent pipe vents into the
engine compartment.
The engine breather comprises a T union on the upper right
side of the accessory gearbox. Connected to the front of
this union is the oil tank breather and to the rear, the pipe
which discharges into the exhaust.
The rear bearing supply collector has a drain into the
engine compartment.
The exhaust pipe drain connects into a pipe which is
connected to an aircraft overboard drain.
11.23
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
DRAIN SYSTEM
AIR VENT OF THE
GAS GENERATOR
REAR BEARING
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
DRAIN VALVE
FCU DRIVE
DRAIN
OVERSPEED AND
DRAIN VALVE
OUTPUT SHAFT
CASING DRAIN
TO AIRCRAFT
REAR BEARING
COLLECTOR DRAIN
EXHAUST PIPE
DRAIN
GENERAL
VENT
11.24
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
ENGINE INSTALLATION
FIRE PROTECTION
Function
The fire protection system comprises overtemperature
detection in the various engine areas, the indication in the
cockpit, the extinguishing function.
Main characteristics
- Engine manufacturer supply (except 1S)
Bi-metallic detectors.
- Aircraft manufacturer supply
Optical detectors (1S only)
Indicating system
Extinguishing system.
Main components
- Engine
Six detectors (except : 1E : one detector, 1S : no
detector)
Harness (fire proof cables).
- Aircraft
Two detectors (1S only)
Extinguishing system
Test system.
Functional description
The detection is ensured by non sealed detectors with
normally closed contact (1A, B, C, D, K, M) or one sealed
detector with normally open contact (1E) or by means of
an aircraft mounted optical device (1S).
Some detectors have a built-in resistor which permits the
discrimination of circuit conditions (1C, D, K, M) : normal,
overtemp, harness failed.
In the case of detectors with normally closed contact, the
detectors are installed in series and have a setting which
corresponds to the engine area of location ("cold" area or
"hot" area) and thus they are not interchangeable.
Note : "cold" area or area 1 : area located forward of the
junction of the compressor and the combustion
chamber mounting flanges.
"hot" area or area 2 : area located rear of the same
junction.
11.25
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 ENGINE INSTALLATION
FIRE PROTECTION
1A,B,C,D,K,M (6 detectors)
1E
(1 detector)
1S (2 detectors on aircraft)
POSITION OF DETECTORS
NON SEALED DETECTOR
(1A, B, C, D, K, M )
SEALED DETECTOR
AT REST (1E )
Detection
logic
+
+
+
Extinguishing
button
Test button
Alarm
EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM
(bottle, manifold... )
Area 1 (cold) Area 2 (hot)
Aircraft Engine
EXAMPLE OF FIRE DETECTION / EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM
12.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
12- OPERATING LIMITATIONS
AND PROCEDURES
- Operating limitations ................................................... 12.2
- Operating procedures .................................................. 12.6 to 12.9
12.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
OPERATING LIMITATIONS (1)
The engine operating limitations are defined in the official
manuals, however the following figures provide
information for training purposes.
Operating envelope
The engine is designed to operate within a clearly defined
climatic range of temperature and pressure altitude e.g. : -50
C to +50 C (-58 F to 122 F) and -500 m to +6000 m (-1640
ft to 19680 ft).
The starting envelope also has given limits e.g. : -500 m to
4500 m (-1640 ft to 14760 ft) and -50 C to +50 C (-58 F to
122 F) depending on the fuel and oil used.
Gas generator rotation speed
The main limitations are :
- AEO max T/O 5 min
max continuous : 98 % N1
- OEI max contingency - (2 min 30 sec)
inter contingency - unlimited
super contingency - according to version.
Power turbine rotation speed
The main limitation is :
- Overspeed : 120 % N2 (twin-engine).
t4 gas temperature
These figures vary according to version :
- Max during start : 750 C
- Max (t < 10 sec.) : 865 C
- Max OEI (2 min 30 sec) : 941 C
- Max take-off : 912 C (< 5 min).
12.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
OPERATING LIMITATIONS (1)
t0
Zp
GAS GENERATOR
ROTATION SPEED
- AEO max take-off (< 5 min)
- AEO max continuous (98 % N1)
- OEI (< 2 min 30 sec)
- OEI inter contingency
(unlimited)
- OEI super contingency
(according to version)
POWER TURBINE
ROTATION SPEED
Twin-engine :
- Power turbine overspeed
120 % N2
FLIGHT ENVELOPE
- Flight
- Starting
GAS TEMPERATURE
- Max during start
- Max (t < 10 sec.)
- Max OEI (2 min 30)
- Max take-off
12.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
OPERATING LIMITATIONS (2)
Torque
The torque limit is imposed by the aircraft transmission.
The max torque limits are given for steady power settings
and for transitory overtorque in AEO and OEI modes.
Oil
There are various limits associated with the oil system,
e.g. consumption = 0.3 l/h ; max pressure 800 kPa
(116 PSI) ; min pressure 130 kPa or 90 kPa according to
version (18.85 PSI), max temperature 115 C (239 F).
Starting - shut-down
There are many limits associated with engine starting :
- Min voltage before start (e.g. 25 V)
- Min voltage during start (e.g. 15 V)
- Start duration : between 25 and 30 sec
- Ventilation duration : < 15 sec
- Number of consecutive starts - according to version
- Waiting time after 3 start attempts (e.g. 20 min)
- Stabilisation time before shutdown : 60 sec
- Run-down time : > 30 sec from 30 % to 0 % N1.
Other limitations
Max air tapping rate , electrical consumption, load factors,
vibration, etc.
12.5
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
OPERATING LIMITATIONS (2)
TORQUE
- Stabilised max torque
- Transient max torque
MISCELLANEOUS
- Air bleed
- Electrical consumption
- Loads factors
- Vibration
OIL
- Max consumption
- Max pressure
- Min pressure
- Max temperature
STARTING - SHUT-DOWN
- Electrical voltage
- Number of consecutive starts
- Stabilisation, run-down and
ventilation times
12.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
OPERATING PROCEDURES (1)
The operating procedures are considered for training
purposes only. Refer to the aircraft manual.
Pre-start checks
- Inspections, checks
Starting
- Power "on"
- Control lever to "start position"
- Start button pressed and held. The engine starts and
accelerates. During start, check : N1, N2, t4, oil Pr and
t. At 45 % N1, release the "start button"
- Control lever moved to "Flight". The engine accelerates
up to nominal rotor speed.
Shut-down
- Stabilisation
- Control lever to "stop". The engine shuts down : check
the rundown time.
Ventilation
- Control lever to "stop"
- Cranking button "on" (and maintained). The engine
accelerates without ignition and fuel : ventilation should
not exceed 15 seconds.
Relight in flight
- Procedure identical to start on ground.
Note : Confirm shut-down before start attempt. Wait until
N1 has decelerated.
12.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
START - SHUT-DOWN - VENTILATION - RELIGHT
OPERATING PROCEDURES (1)
SHUT-DOWN STARTING
RELIGHT IN FLIGHT VENTILATION
90
5
2

4
5

12.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
OPERATING PROCEDURES (2)
Flight
- Control lever in "flight" position. Automatic control :
monitor engine parameters, especially the N1 indication.
Engine failure (twin-engine)
The engine remaining in operation supplies the power
required, within its limitations (MCP : 2 min 30 sec).
Control system total failure
The manual control procedure can be applied ("plus" and
"minus" range) : close monitoring of parameters.
Training to engine failure
This procedure must be carried out with a reduced helicopter
mass, (refer to flight manual).
12.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND PROCEDURES
OPERATING PROCEDURES (2)
ENGINE FAILURE
(twin-engine)
FLIGHT
TRAINING TO
ENGINE FAILURE
CONTROL SYSTEM
TOTAL FAILURE
90
5
2

4
5

13.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
13- VARIOUS ASPECTS OF
MAINTENANCE
- Maintenance concept .................................................... 13.2
- TBOs and life limits....................................................... 13.4
- Preventive maintenance ................................................ 13.6
- "On-condition" monitoring.......................................... 13.8
- Corrective maintenance ................................................ 13.10
- Lubricants - Fuels - Materials ..................................... 13.12
- Tooling ............................................................................ 13.14
- Technical publications .................................................. 13.16
- Product support ............................................................ 13.22 to 13.23
13.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
Introduction
The engine is designed to have a high availability rate with
reduced maintenance.
The main aspects of the maintenance concept are the
following :
- Effective modularity
- Good accessibility
- Reduced removal and installation times
- On-condition facility
- Quick repair.
Maintenance levels
Four maintenance levels can be considered :
First line maintenance (level "O") : engine installed in
the aircraft.
- Scheduled and preventive maintenance
Checks and inspections
Life limit or time-ex removal.
- Corrective maintenance
Fault detection
Component replacement (LRU)
Check.
Second line maintenance (level "I") : engine maintenance
in a workshop.
- Corrective maintenance : SRU and module removal and
installation.
Third line maintenance (level "H") : deep maintenance
which involves module repairs.
- Corrective maintenance : component replacement.
Fourth line maintenance (level "D") : overhaul and
repair in specific workshop.
- Maintenance scheduled when the TBO is completed or
when the life limits of some components are reached
- Corrective maintenance.
Other aspects of maintenance
Refer to the following pages.
Note : LRU - Line Replaceable Unit
SRU - Shop Replaceable Unit.
13.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
2
nd
LINE MAINTENANCE
(level "I")
(engine removed)
- Corrective maintenance
(modules, SRU)
MAINTENANCE LEVELS
3
rd
LINE MAINTENANCE
(level "H")
(engine removed)
- Deep maintenance
1
st
LINE MAINTENANCE (level "O")
(engine installed on aircraft)
- Scheduled or preventive
maintenance
- Corrective maintenance
4
th
LINE MAINTENANCE
(level "D")
(engine removed
in specific workshop)
- Scheduled maintenance
(overhaul, repair)
- Corrective maintenance
13.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TBOs AND LIFE LIMITS
Engine, module and accessory TBOs
TBOs (operating Time Between Overhauls) are defined
for the engine, the modules and the accessories. These
TBOs, determined by tests and experience, are subject to
an extension programme.
Component life limits
Certain components (mainly rotating parts such as
compressor, turbines, injection wheel, flectors) have a
life limit which requires the part to be scrapped when the
limit is reached.
The life is measured in operating cycles.
Counting of hours and cycles
A cycle is a clearly defined operating sequence. Cycle
counting is effected either manually or automatically. The
method of counting cycles and the various limits are
described in Chapter 5 of the maintenance manual.
A counting check (comparison between automatic counting
and manual counting) is a procedure planned in the periodic
maintenance.
A simple check can be carried out by comparing the two
engine readings for a given period of operation.
TBO components
- Engine
- Modules
- Certain accessories.
Life limited components
- Axial and centrifugal compressors
- Injection wheel
- Turbines.
13.5
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TBOs AND LIFE LIMITS
TBO
- Engine
- Modules
- Accessories
AUTOMATIC COUNTING
COUNTING
- Manual counting
- Automatic counting
- Counting check
LIFE LIMITS
Cycles for :
- Compressors
- Turbines
- Injection wheel
CYCLE
COUNTER
13.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Preventive maintenance includes the procedures which
must be systematically carried out.
Servicing inspections
- Inspection before the first flight of the day
- Inspection after the last flight of the day.
(Refer to maintenance manual).
Periodic inspections
- These procedures can be "blocked" (at fixed intervals
for all the procedures) or staggered (each procedure is
distributed over a period of time to reduce the turnaround
time while still respecting the intervals)
- 100 hour, 500 hour, 1500 hour or calendar inspections
(18 months)
- Special inspections :
Particular inspections
Inspections according to airworthiness.
Main inspection points of preventive maintenance
- Visual inspections
- Magnetic plug and filter inspection
- Oil sampling for analysis
- Level checks
- Compressor cleaning (according to operating conditions)
- Operating checks and ground run test
- Cycle counting check
- Static droop check
- Run down check.
13.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
SERVICING INSPECTIONS
- Inspection "after the last flight of the day"
- Inspection "before the first flight of the day"
PERIODIC INSPECTIONS
- Procedure "blocked" or "staggered"
- 100 hour inspection
- 500 hour, 1500 hour or calendar inspections
(18 months)
- Special inspections
MAIN INSPECTION POINTS
- Visual checks : air intake, compressor, exhaust, turbine, casings, attachments,
pipes, wiring, controls
- Inspection of filters : oil filter, fuel filter, air tapping unions and jets
- Inspection of magnetic plugs
- Oil sampling (for analysis)
- Oil level (and replenishment if required)
- Compressor cleaning (depending on operating conditions)
- Ground run test
- Static droop test
- Run down check
- Cycle counting check
13.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ON-CONDITION MONITORING
When applying on-condition maintenance, the maintenance
procedures are carried out according to the condition of
engine components. It requires a monitoring which includes
appropriate procedures studied during the engine design.
Objectives of on-condition monitoring
The objective is to increase safety and to reduce
maintenance costs.
This is achieved because the monitoring ensures an early
diagnosis of defects which could have seri ous
consequences ; on the other hand, monitoring avoids
unnecessary maintenance tasks.
On-condition monitoring resources
On-condition monitoring implies an appropriate design of
the engine which allows the use of monitoring tools.
The following procedures are considered :
- Borescopic inspection : this permits inspection of internal
parts which are not accessible without disassembly :
compressor, combustion chamber and turbine. A special
tool is used to allow direct visual inspection of the parts
- Lubricating oil check : various methods are used to check
for the contamination of the oil (magnetic plugs, strainers,
sampling). Samples of oil are taken at regular intervals
and the samples are analysed to measure the
contamination and anticipate incipient failures (analysis
by magnetoscopy, ferrography, spectrometric oil
analysis)
- Vibration level check : the vibration level of the rotating
assemblies gives an indication of the engine condition.
Sensors installed at given points are used to measure the
vibration level. This type of check is carried out during
periodic inspections or according to engine condition
- Visual inspection : conventional visual inspections are
also considered for on-condition monitoring (air intake
inspection , exhaust pipe inspection , exhaust and engine
external inspections).
13.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
ON-CONDITION MONITORING
OBJECTIVES OF
ON-CONDITION MONITORING
BORESCOPIC INSPECTION
MAGNETIC PLUGS
VIBRATION CHECK STRAINERS
OIL SAMPLING VISUAL INSPECTION
- To increase safety
- To reduce maintenance costs
13.10
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
The objective of corrective maintenance is to put the
engine back into normal service as soon as possible.
Corrective maintenance includes all procedures which
must be carried out when required (failure, defect). It
implies general and particular activities.
Corrective maintenance main tasks
- Removal and installation : removal and installation of the
complete power plant, of the accessories and of the
modules and of some engine components as required.
Note : Assembly and disassembly of the engine is dealt
with in general overhaul and repair
- Functional checks : functional check of systems, and
accessories
- Condition checks
- Adjustments
- Miscellaneous procedures : cleaning, storage
- Repairing (components may be repairable or consumable)
- Fault finding (refer to chapter 15 "FAULT ANALYSIS
AND TROUBLE SHOOTING")
- Particular instructions : for example, procedures in the
event of oil contamination, surge, heavy landing, handling
accident, lightning strike.
13.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
MAIN TASKS
- Removal and installation
- Functional and condition checks
- Adjustments
- Miscellaneous procedures (cleaning, storage ...)
- Repairing (consumable or repairable components)
- Fault finding
- Particular instructions
OBJECTIVES OF CORRECTIVE
MAINTENANCE
- To put the engine back into normal
service as soon as possible
13.12
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
LUBRICANTS - FUELS - MATERIALS
This part deals with information on materials used : fuels,
lubricants, greases, fluids.
Lubricants
The engine manufacturer recommends the use of synthetic
oils which keep their lubricating properties over a wide
temperature range and have a longer operating life.
Medium viscosity oils (5 cSt) are more particularly
recommended but other types (3 to 3.9 cSt) may be used as
an alternative.
The maintenance manual (chapter 71.00.02) contains
specification tables and precautions.
We shall remind you here that the mixture of oils of
different types is not recommended. Therefore the system
should be flushed when the oil specification is changed.
Fuels
The quality of the fuel is essential for the correct operation
of the engine. It is particularly important to ensure a proper
fuel supply : specification, water content, purity
The maintenance manual (chapter 71.00.02) contains tables
indicating the fuel types with the corresponding US, UK,
NATO and French specifications.
Two types of fuel can be considered :
- The "normal fuels" which can be used without restriction
in all the operating envelope
- The "emergency fuels" (or replacement fuels) which
may be used, but with particular restrictions and for a
limited time in order not to affect the engine TBO.
Materials
Various products are used for engine parts maintenance.
For example graphite grease, molybdenum disulphide for
the installation of parts, cleaning and inhibiting products.
The various products must be used carefully, for instance
use of trichlorethylene on titanium alloy parts is forbidden.
13.13
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
LUBRICANTS - FUELS - MATERIALS
FUELS
(maintenance manual, chapter 71.00.02)
- Normal fuels : (without restriction)
- "Emergency" fuels (with particular restrictions :
operating times, additives)
LUBRICANTS
(maintenance manual, chapter 71.00.02)
- Normal lubricants : medium viscosity synthetic oils
- "Emergency" lubricants : medium and low viscosity oils
- No mixture of oils of different specifications
- Flushing of the system when the oil specification is changed
MATERIALS
- Part installation : graphite grease,
molybdenum disulphide
- Cleaning : water, fuel, alcohol, detergent
- Storage : waterproof product
13.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TOOLING
This part deals with information on maintenance tools.
Tools
Maintenance requires certain tools, but in addition to the
normal standard tools, a certain number of special tools
and test equipment can be used.
During a training course, these tools are used to carry out
practical work : current maintenance and modular
maintenance tools.
The tools are described in an illustrated catalogue and also
in the maintenance manual.
In the catalogue, tools can be identified either by the
function, or by the aspect or the reference.
Tool classification
We can distinguish :
- Tools used for standard practices (e.g. : thread insert
replacement)
- Blanking devices
- Handling equipment (e.g. : lifting device, engine support,
transport trolley)
- Packing equipment (e.g. : wooden or metal container)
- Tools used for removal and installation (e.g. : extractors,
wrenches, supports for module removal and installation)
- Tools for miscellaneous procedures and checking
equipment :
Oil drain
Compressor washing
Vibration check
Borescopic inspection
Pressure transmitter inspection (torquemeter, fuel,
oil)
Ignition system inspection
Harness inspection
Electrical measurement
Fuel injection system permeability.
Note : The tools are to ISO standard.
13.15
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TOOLING
- Normal
- Specific
TOOLS
Identification by :
- Function
- Picture
- Reference
TOOL CLASSIFICATION
CATALOGUE
- Standard practices
- Blanking devices
- Handling equipment
- Packing equipment
- Removal and installation
- Checking procedures:
Oil drain
Compressor washing
Vibration check
Borescopic inspection
Pressure transmitter inspection
Ignition system inspection
Harness inspection
Electrical measurement
Fuel injection system
permeability
13.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - GENERAL
This part deals with the engine technical documentation.
Operation documents
The operation documents are :
- The control documents (e.g. : flight manual)
- The management documents :
Flight log book
Engine log book (records and provides information
on the engine status).
Maintenance documents
- The current maintenance documents are the following :
Maintenance manual (describes the engine and its
systems and all the maintenance procedures)
Service bulletins (approved by the authorities, and
issued to inform the operators of a modification or an
instruction which affects the operational aspects)
Service letters (letter sent to inform the operator of
certain instructions related to the operation of the
engine)
Modification index
- The general overhaul and repair documents :
Overhaul manual
Standard practices manual
Work specification.
- The deep maintenance documents (specific manual).
Identification documents
The identification documents are :
- The current maintenance documents :
Spare parts catalogue (list and reference of all the
spare parts)
Special tool catalogue (tool designations and
references).
- Overhaul and repair documents :
Illustrated parts catalogue (illustrates in detail all the
engine and accessory parts ; only used for general
overhaul)
Descriptive list and drawings.
Note : Before all maintenance procedures :
- Refer to official documentation
- Use the documentation "in a rational way"
- Make sure that documentation is up-to-date.
13.17
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
DOCUMENTS
OPERATION MAINTENANCE IDENTIFICATION
Overhaul
repair
Current
maintenance
Management Control
Example :
Flight manual
Example :
- Engine log book
- Spare parts catalogue
- Special tool catalogue
- Illustrated parts
catalogue
- Descriptive list
and drawings
CURRENT MAINTENANCE
GENERAL OVERHAUL
REPAIR
DEEP
MAINTENANCE
- Maintenance manual
- Service bulletins and letters
- Modification index
- Overhaul manual
- Standard practices manual
- Work specification
- Specific manual
13.18
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS -
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
It describes the engine and its systems and all the
maintenance procedures.
Layout
This document has been compiled according to the
requirements in the American standard "A.T.A. 100" as
follows :
Page numbering (ATA 100)
Description and operation............................ from 1 to 99
Fault analysis ......................................... from 101 to 199
Special procedures ................................. from 201 to 299
Removal ................................................. from 301 to 399
Installation ............................................. from 401 to 499
Cleaning................................................. from 601 to 699
Replacement .......................................... from 701 to 799
Check, inspection................................... from 801 to 899
Servicing ............................................ from 1101 to 1199
Storage ............................................... from 1201 to 1299
Tests ................................................... from 1301 to 1399
Layout of a chapter
0. Introduction
1. General
2. Purpose
3. Complementary documentation
4. Breakdown
A. Chapters
B. Page numbering
C. Item numbering
D. Illustration
5. Effectivity
6. Revisions
A. Normal revisions
B. Temporary revisions
7. Use of this manual
A. Systematic maintenance operation
B. Optional maintenance operations
C. Replacement of modules
8. List of abbreviations
CHAP DESIGNATION
00 Introduction
05 Time Between Overhauls and life limits
26 Fire protection system
70 Standard practices
71 Power plant
72 Turboshaft engine
73 Fuel system
74 Ignition system
75 Air system
77 Engine indicating
78 Exhaust system
79 Oil system
80 Starting
83 Accessory gear-box
13.19
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - MAINTENANCE MANUAL
OBJECTIVE
- Description / operation of the engine
and its systems
- Maintenance procedures
LAYOUT
- Chapters
- Sub-chapters
- Paragraphs
NUMBERING
- Gives the subject treated by the page
CONSULTATION
- Consultation method
- Up-dating
13.20
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - TURBOMECA
ENGINE LOG BOOK
Function
This log book is used for :
- Recording all information about the engine, the modules
and the accessories, including the hours and cycles used
and work carried out
- Recording the basic modification standard of the engine.
Contents
- Test bed results sheet
- Section A : test certificate and record of modifications
embodied on non modular parts
- Section B : record of modules
- Section C : record of equipment
- Section D : availability state
- Section E : operation, maintenance and servicing
- Maintenance and accessory log cards.
Use of the log-book
- Test bed results sheet and section A : completed in the
factory, may not be modified by the operator
- Section B : when a module is replaced, record the
reference number, the serial number and the date on the
right hand page
- Section C : accessory replacement : when an accessory
is replaced, the details should be entered on the right
hand page.
- Section D : TBO : the TBO of a replacement module
should be recorded here
- Section E :
"Daily" column : record the daily hours and cycles
"Total since new" column : record the accumulated
hours and cycles
"Total since start of life" column : record the
accumulated hours and cycles since the last modular
rebuild.
Note : After changing a module the "total since start of
life" column should be returned to zero.
"Observations" column :
Record :
- The type of work carried out
- The reference, serial N, hours/cycles and reason
for change of module or accessory replaced
- The embodiment of a modification.
Module/Component log card : record fitting/removal
details.
13.21
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS - TURBOMECA ENGINE LOG BOOK
R Dsignation / Identity
Fabricant - Rfrence
Manufacturer - Reference
N Srie
Serial No
Date
Signature
R Dsignation / Identity
Fabricant - Rfrence
Manufacturer - Reference
N Srie
Serial No
Date
Signature
R Dsignation / Identity
Fabricant
Manufacturer
N Srie
Serial No
Date
Signature
Rfrence / Reference
Fabric. / Manuf. Motorist. / Eng. M.
h quipt pose
Accy hrs when fitted
Tot. h. moteur / Total eng. hrs
Pose / Fitting
Prvi. dpose
Forecast rmv.
1 - POTENTIEL / T.B.O.
Moteur non modulaire
ou modules / Nonmodular
engine or modules
Bote accessoires
Accessory gearbox
Compresseur axial
Axial compressor
Total
h
Effectu
Consumed
h
Disponible
Available
h
2 - VIE LIMITE / LIVE LIMIT
Pices / Parts
Roue compresseur axial
Axial compressor wheel
Total
Cycles
Effectu
Consumed
Cycles
Disponible
To be run
Cycles
SECTION D
SECTION C
SECTION B
SECTION E
FONCTIONNEMENT / TIME RUN
Journalier
Daily
Cycles
Date
Gas
Gen
T.L.
P.T.
H
Total depuis neuf
Total since new
Cycles
Gas
Gen
T.L.
P.T.
H
Total depuis tat de disp.
Total since stat. of life
Cycles
Gas
Gen
T.L.
P.T.
H
Observations - Travaux effectus - Signature
Observations - Works carried out - Signature
13.22
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
PRODUCT SUPPORT
General
TURBOMECA provides the operator with the training
and the assistance required to maintain the product in good
operating condition.
Main aspects of the support
The support covers the following fields :
- Training
- Technical documentation
- Spare part provision
- Technical assistance
- Engine overhaul and repair
- Contracts.
Subsidiaries and support centres
Subsidiaries and support centres have been set up to
provide a world wide support network.
13.23
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF MAINTENANCE
PRODUCT SUPPORT
TRAINING
TECHNICAL
DOCUMENTATION
SPARE PART
PROVISION
CONTRACTS
TECHNICAL
ASSISTANCE
SUBSIDIARIES AND
SUPPORT CENTRES
14.1
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
14- MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
- General .......................................................................... 14.2
- Inspection and check procedures ................................ 14.4
- Removal and installation procedures ......................... 14.52
- Deep maintenance.......................................................... 14.62
- Repair and overhaul ..................................................... 14.64 to 14.65
14.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES - GENERAL
This part is an introduction to the different maintenance
procedures, which are described in the following pages for
training purposes only.
These procedures are dealt with in discussion and practical
work during a training course.
Procedures described
- Standard practices
- Cautions (Cautions, Warning)
- Storage
- Compressor washing
- Oil checks
- Miscellaneous checks
- Borescopic inspection
- Axial compressor inspection
- Operating checks
- Vibration check
- Electrical harness check.
- Permeability check
- Engine removal and installation
- Removal and installation of the accessories
- Module removal and installation
- Repair, general overhaul.
Note : Refer to the maintenance manual and ensure that
it is up to date before carrying out any maintenance
procedure.
14.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES - GENERAL
PROCEDURES
- Definition
- Instructions and operating modes
LISTS OF PROCEDURES
- Standard practices
- Cautions
- Storage
- Washing
- Miscellaneous checks
- Miscellaneous procedures
- Removal, installation
- Repair
- Adjustments
Refer to the maintenance manual before
carrying out any maintenance procedure.
Note :
14.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
STANDARD PRACTICES
General
"Standard practices" are all the common procedures and
practices, required for the maintenance and repair of
engines. These "standard practices" are dealt with in one
chapter of the maintenance manual (chapter 70).
They are also dealt with in a specific document, called The
Standard Practices Manual, mainly used by repairers.
Main practices
Standard practices mainly deal with :
- Torque loading
- O'ring seal installation
- Locking of assemblies
- Pipe and union assembly
- Thread insert replacement
- Magnetic seal replacement
- Application of miscellaneous products (loctite, graphite
grease)
- Repair techniques (exhaust pipe welding, crack stop
drilling)
- Installation of electrical connectors
- Check and inspection (ex. : fuel/oil dilution check).
14.5
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
STANDARD PRACTICES
LOCKING OF ASSEMBLIES
O'RING SEAL INSTALLATION
THREAD INSERT REPLACEMENT
TORQUE LOADING
(torque wrench)
PIPE AND UNION ASSEMBLY
STANDARD PRACTICES
- Manual
- Chapter 70 of the
maintenance manual
14.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ADVISORY NOTICES
Three types of advisory notice are used in the technical
publication :
- WARNING
- CAUTION
- NOTE.
Interpretation
WARNING : warns the reader of the possibility of physical
harm (e.g. : wounding, intoxication, electrocution).
CAUTION : warns the reader of the possibility of damaging
the engine or tooling.
NOTE : gives the reader advice on how best to carry out a
task.
Examples
WARNING : do not breath the oil fumes. Do not leave oil
in contact with the skin.
CAUTION : if the flush is being carried out because of
metal particles in the oil system, change the filter and
thoroughly clean the tank.
NOTE : take the oil sample before carrying out any
replenishment.
List of the main notices
WARNING :
- Toxicity of engine oil, cleaning products and
extinguishing products
- Eye protection
- Fire risk
- Electrical discharge from HE ignition unit.
CAUTION :
- Use of the correct tool
- Use of certain products
- Weak points of the engine or tools
- Tightening torques.
NOTE :
- Oil analysis
- Cycle counting
- Engine storage
- Parameter measuring.
14.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ADVISORY NOTICES
- Toxicity of engine oil and vapours
- Toxicity of cleaning products
- Toxicity of extinguishing products
- Eye protection
- Fire risk
- Electrical discharge from HE ignition unit :
- electrocution
- risks with use in an inflammable
atmosphere
- Titanium part cleaning
- Scrapping of O'ring seals
- Use of the correct cleaning products
- Engine cooling
- Engine cleaning after use of
extinguishing product
- Orifice protection during removal
- Borescope fragility
- Tightening torque
- Oil analysis
- Cycle counting
- Installation of O'ring seals
- Engine storage
- Insulation measurements
- Procedural change with modification
WARNING
(physical harm)
CAUTION
(possibility of damage)
NOTE
(advice)
14.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
STORAGE
General
When an engine is not used for a long time, it must be
protected against corrosive agents.
The most efficient protection consists of :
- Washing and protecting the air path by spraying a
specific product
- Housing the engine in a waterproof metal container with
dessicant bags.
If there is no container, the engine can be housed in a water
and vapour proof cover with desiccant bags.
Type of storage
- "Long term" storage : procedure which protects the
engine for a duration of more than 3 months if the engine
is not installed in the helicopter. The engine is then
inhibited in the package (in non sealed case or in metal
container)
- "Short term" storage : procedure which protects the
engine for a duration of less than 3 months if the engine
is not installed in the helicopter.
If the engine is installed in the helicopter :
When the engine is not used for less than 7 days,
install the air intake and exhaust blanking devices
and close the cowlings
When the engine is not used between 7 days and 6
months, drain and replace the oil, do a 5' ground run
check every 7 days
When the engine is not used for more than 6 months,
remove the engine and do the "long term" storage
procedure.
Note : Refer to maintenance manual for storage limits
(eg. : 10 years in metal container).
14.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
STORAGE
GENERAL
- Protection against
corrosive agents
- Cleaning, internal and
external protection
PROCEDURES
- For engine installed in aircraft (less than
7 days or between 7 days and 6 months)
- For uninstalled engines (3 months
and more than 3 months)
- Internal and external protection
- System protection
- Inhibiting products
- Blanking devices
TYPE OF STORAGE
- "Long term" : duration more than 3 months
(storage in a container)
- "Short term" : duration less than 3 months
(protection cover)
PACKAGE
- In non sealed case
- In metal container : procedure, storage
and periodic inspections
Note : Package of engine, modules
and accessories
14.10
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CLEANING AND PROTECTION
General
Given procedures are applied to clean and protect the
engine.
Main procedures
- Internal cleaning and protection (rinsing, washing,
cleaning, protection : refer to compressor washing)
- External cleaning and protection
- Procedure after usage of extinguisher
- Procedure to protect the equipment (ex. : water in
fuel).
Note : Follow the instructions for the use of the cleaning
products.
Refer to maintenance manual, chapter 71.
14.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CLEANING AND PROTECTION
GENERAL
- Cleaning
- Protection
NOTES
- Precautions
- Ref : Maintenance
manual chap. 71
PROCEDURES
- For internal parts
(refer to compressor
washing)
- For external parts
- For equipment
14.12
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
COMPRESSOR WASH
General
Compressor washing avoids dirt accumulation and
corrosion in the air path, particularly the compressor.
Types of treatment
- Washing and/or rinsing : removal of corrosive deposits
(particularly salt deposits)
- Cleaning : removal of deposits likely to accumulate on
the internal parts
- Protection : protection of surfaces against corrosion.
Frequencies
- Washing : frequently in salt laden atmosphere
- Cleaning : periodic inspection before storage, if necessary
- Protection : before storage or in case of long grounding.
Note : Frequencies depend on operating conditions.
Procedures
Compressor washing mainly consists of spraying a suitable
product in the air intake during one or several ventilation
sequences (water, Ardrox).
Note : Many aircraft are fitted with a compressor washing
system. Washing and cleaning during a ventilation
is considered the most efficient.
14.13
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
COMPRESSOR WASH
GENERAL
- To avoid dirt accumulation and
corrosion in the air path,
particularly the compressor
- Preventive operation
PROCEDURES
- Spraying a suitable product in
the air intake during one or
several sequences
- Spraying device
- Products (water, ardrox)
TYPES OF TREATEMENT
- Washing and / or rinsing :
removal of corrosive deposits
(particularly salt deposits)
- Cleaning : removal of deposits likely to
harm the internal parts
- Protection : protection of surfaces against
corrosion
FREQUENCIES
- Washing : frequently in salt laden
atmosphere
- Cleaning : at periodic inspection before
storage, if necessary
- Protection : before storage or in case of
long grounding
14.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
OIL SYSTEM SERVICING
This part summarizes the maintenance procedures for the
oil system.
Particular instructions
Maintenance manual instructions must be followed in the
following cases :
- Oil specification change
- Mixing with a product which is not in conformity with
oil specification
- Oil life limitation
- Oil filter blockage
- Dilution.
Particle sampling
- Particle sampling procedure with magnetic plugs
- Particle interpretation
- Particle analysis.
Spectrometric oil analysis
- Purpose of the spectrometric analysis
- Sampling frequency
- Sampling procedure
- Word definition (ppm, concentration, contamination
speed, thresholds)
- Result interpretation (warning threshold and immediate
stop table).
Oil change
- Drain conditions (blockage, particles, before removal)
- Drain procedure (engine through magnetic plugs, cooling
unit and tank according to aircraft manufacturer's
procedure).
Oil filling
- Aircraft manufacturer's procedure.
Oil system flushing
- Conditions (oil specification change, contamination,
life limitation)
- Procedure (draining, filling, ground run, draining, filter
inspection, final filling).
14.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
OIL SYSTEM SERVICING
PARTICULAR INSTRUCTIONS
- Conditions
- Procedure
- Oil specification change
- Mixing
- Life limitation
- Filter blockage
- Oil dilution
SPECTROMETRIC
OIL ANALYSIS
- Purpose
- Frequency
- Procedure
- Definition
- Interpretation
OIL CHANGE
- Conditions
- Procedure
- Tank (aircraft manufacturer's
procedure)
PARTICLE SAMPLING
- Procedure
- Interpretation
- Analysis
OIL SYSTEM FLUSHING OIL FILLING
14.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
MISCELLANEOUS PROCEDURES
This part only mentions procedures which are part of the
maintenance activity.
Introduction into service
The introduction into service includes :
- The preparation of an engine delivered in a wooden case
- The preparation of an engine delivered in a metal
container
- Installation in the aircraft
- A ground run check.
Adjustments
The engine is designed to require no current maintenance
adjustments.
Refer to corresponding pages and to maintenance manual
for more details.
Particular instructions
- Fuel : follow particular instructions in case of use of an
alternative fuel and additives and in case of filter blockage
- Foreign Object Damage (FOD) : procedure according
to the nature of the body ingested (direct visual inspection,
borescopic inspection, vibration check)
- Exceeding of limits : particular instructions in case of
temperature, torque and speed exceedance, and in case
of engine flame out, compressor surge
- Heavy landing
- Damage during transport.
Treatment after use of extinguishers
The treatment required after use of a fire extinguisher or an
accidental operation of the extinguishing system, minimises
corrosion by extinguishing products.
The treatment is different according to the conditions of
the extinguisher use and to the extinguishing products
(CO
2
, foam, powder, halon).
14.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
MISCELLANEOUS PROCEDURES
INTRODUCTION INTO SERVICE
- Preparation of an engine delivered
in a wooden case
- Preparation of an engine delivered
in a metal container
- Ground run check
PARTICULAR INSTRUCTIONS
- Fuel
- Foreign Object Damage
- Exceeding of limits
- Heavy landing
- Damage during transport
ADJUSTMENTS
- The engine is designed not to require
current maintenance adjustments.
(refer to maintenance manual)
TREATMENT AFTER USE
OF EXTINGUISHERS
- Normal or accidental use
- Treatment to reduce corrosion by
extinguishing products
- Treatment according to use conditions
(fire or accidental use) and to the
extinguishing product (CO
2
, foam,
powder, halon...)
14.18
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
BORESCOPIC INSPECTION
General
Borescopic inspection allows the inspection of the internal
parts which are not accessible without disassembly. This
type of inspection uses a special tool which allows a direct
visual inspection of the parts.
Borescopic inspection can be carried out with the engine
in or out of the helicopter, and on removed modules.
Combustion chamber borescopic inspection
To do this inspection, it is necessary to remove an igniter
plug.
The combustion chamber inspection is done by entering
the borescope through the igniter plug orifices
Borescopic inspection of the gas generator turbine
It allows the visual inspection of the nozzle guide vane and
the wheel (blades, blade roots...). The inspection is carried
out using a flexible borescope and a guide in one of the
igniter plug orifices.
14.19
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
BORESCOPIC INSPECTION
- Inspection of the internal parts
which are not accessible without
disassembly
- Use of special tools
- Borescopic inspection with the
engine in or out of the helicopter
- Rotation of the N1 rotating
assembly through one of the
accessory drives or the compressor
- Rotation of the N2 rotating
assembly either through the rotor
(engine on aircraft) or through the
main power drive (engine removed)
Combustion
chamber and turbine
14.20
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
AXIAL COMPRESSOR INSPECTION
Function
This check permits the detection of dents, cracks and
erosion.
Conditions
This check can be carried out with the engine installed or
uninstalled, and on a removed module.
Procedures
- Visual inspection of the blades
- Erosion inspection using a gauge.
Visual inspection
The blades must be inspected for cracks, folding, pitting,
dents and nicks.
Erosion inspection
This is carried out by placing the template on the inlet
cone, with the indicator plate butted up against the blade
root. The calibrated gauge is then introduced between
blade and template to measure the erosion.
Criteria
The maintenance manual details the procedure to be
followed, the number of dents permitted, their max depth
and the max permitted erosion value. No cracks permitted.
Refer also to the maintenance manual for the rework
procedure of the axial compressor 1st stage blades.
14.21
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
AXIAL COMPRESSOR INSPECTION
VISUAL INSPECTION EROSION INSPECTION
D
L
2 mm (0.0787 inch)
3 mm (0.1181 inch)
D
C
B
A
Max limit
sector D = 3 mm
Max limit
sector A = 1 mm
GAUGE
TEMPLATE
14.22
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
FREEWHEEL CHECK
On single engine version :
Function
To check the oil level (single engine).
Conditions
This check can be carried out engine installed or removed
from the helicopter.
Procedure
The free wheel is equipped with two plugs, for oil level
check and oil draining.
The filling port must be correctly positioned.
On some versions, the oil supply is assured by means of a
lubricating jet located inside the accessory gearbox.
14.23
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For training purposes only
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FREEWHEEL CHECK
OIL FILLING
PORT
OIL LEVEL CHECK
POSITION :2 O'CLOCK
14.24
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CHECK OF INJECTION FUEL INLET UNION
Purpose
To check for leaks of fuel or P2 air.
Conditions
This check is carried out in the aircraft during a ground run.
Procedure
With the blanking screw removed and the engine running
there must be no leaks from the orifice. In the event of leaks
the seals must be replaced and a further check carried out.
14.25
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CHECK OF INJECTION FUEL INLET UNION
LEAK CHECK POINT
(normally blanked)
"O" RING
COPPER
SEAL
14.26
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
VIBRATION CHECK
Conditions
The vibration check is systematically made at regular
intervals and in the following cases :
- After any failure due to an excessive vibration level
- In case of doubt about the engine vibration level
- After a modular maintenance operation.
Procedure
This check is carried out with a vibration sensor fixed on
the engine (on the HE unit support or on the rear flange of
the turbine casing). The accelerometer measures the
vibration generated by the gas generator and the power
turbine.
There are many vibration checking sets (refer to the
maintenance manual).
14.27
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VIBRATION CHECK
VIBRATION
SENSOR
REAR SENSOR
BRACKET
(on the HE unit support
or on the rear flange
of the turbine casing)
VIBRATION
TEST SET
Examples of a vibration measurement system.
(Other systems can be used)
14.28
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ENGINE POWER CHECK
Conditions
An engine power check can be carried out in flight by
recording certain parameters and plotting them on a graph.
For further details see the flight manual.
14.29
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ENGINE POWER CHECK
t0
Tq %
Zp NR
N1
Example of a diagram with an operating point shown with dotted lines
GOOD
BAD
14.30
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
TORQUE TRANSMITTER AND LOW OIL
PRESSURE SWITCH CHECK
Purpose
To check the operation of the torque transmitter and the
low oil pressure switch.
Conditions
The component to be checked must be removed from the
engine.
Procedure
The check can be carried out either using the Turbomeca
test set or a Barfield pump.
Torque transmitter : the pressure corresponding to 100 %
torque is written on the module 5 log card. With the
transmitter fitted on the test set the pressure is raised to the
log card figure and the indication can then be checked and
adjusted.
Low oil pressure switch : with the unit fitted on the test
set the pressure can be increased & decreased to check at
what pressure the switch makes & breaks.
14.31
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TORQUE TRANSMITTER AND LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITCH CHECK
TEST SET
TORQUE TRANSMITTER
LOW OIL PRESSURE
SWITCH
DIGITAL
INDICATOR
REFERENCE
CAPSULE
COCK
CONTROL
BARFIELD PUMP
14.32
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
IGNITION SYSTEM CHECK
Purpose
To check the operation of the engine ignition system.
Conditions
This check can be carried out with the engine installed or
uninstalled. The test set requires a 28 volt supply.
Procedure
The test set is connected to the HE unit input connector.
Selection of "ignition" on the test set supplies the HE unit,
a light indicates a complete circuit and the igniters operate.
Note : The same test set can be used for testing the start
injector electro-valve.
14.33
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For training purposes only
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IGNITION SYSTEM CHECK
TEST SET
28 VDC
SUPPLY
TO H.E. IGNITION UNIT
14.34
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
OVERSPEED SYSTEM CHECK
Purpose
To confirm the integrity of the overspeed system.
Conditions
The check can be carried out engine installed or uninstalled,
tacho box installed or uninstalled.
Procedure
With the test set supplied with 28 V and connected to the
tachometer box signals of overspeed frequency can be
supplied to the box to check its operation.
Note : The same test set can be used to check insulation
and resistance of the overspeed pick-up probe.
14.35
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For training purposes only
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OVERSPEED SYSTEM CHECK
TEST
TACHOMETER BOX
TEST SET
14.36
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE OPERATION
CHECK
Purpose
To check that the bleed valve operates at the correct RPM.
Conditions
This check can only be carried out with the engine running
at high RPM, perhaps necessitating a take-off.
Procedure
For the electro pneumatic valve check that the N1 threshold
(opening and closing) is correct.
For pneumatic valves, the threshold is function of altitude
and atmospheric temperature. It is necessary to refer to a
graph in the maintenance manual.
14.37
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE OPERATION CHECK
N1
Z = 2000 m
Z = 0
t0
Example of curve showing the N1 threshold as a function of t0 and Z.
(pneumatic bleed valve)
14.38
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
OIL PRESSURE CHECK
Purpose
To accurately check the engine oil pressure in case of
doubt, after a module change or after assembling a repaired
or overhauled engine.
Conditions
Engine installed & running, the pressure is checked at 2
points using a calibrated pressure measuring tool.
Procedure
Connect the measuring tool to the test point, start the
engine and allow it to warm up to the normal operating
temperature. Set the RPM at 85 % then read the temperature
& pressure.
Plot the temperature & pressure on the graph in the
maintenance manual to see if the pressure is within
tolerance.
Note : There are several graphs to allow for different oil
viscosities.
14.39
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
OIL PRESSURE CHECK
t
P
Example of graph to check oil pressure for a given oil specification on a given tapping point.
14.40
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
START INJECTOR AND IGNITER PLUG
PENETRATION CHECK
Conditions
In the event of starting problems on replacement of a plug
or injector the penetration of the plug and injector must be
calculated and adjusted using spacers and seals.
Procedure
It is necessary to measure the length under the head of the
injector and igniter and then measure the distance from the
turbine casing face to the mixer unit, using a special gauge
supplied by Turbomeca. Using the figures thus obtained,
and the calculation table in the maintenance manual, the
thickness and quantity of spacers and seals can be calculated.
Note : There must always be a seal against the face of the
injector/igniter and against the face of the turbine
casing.
14.41
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
START INJECTOR AND IGNITER PLUG PENETRATION CHECK
MEASUREMENTS OF THE INJECTORS
AND IGNITER PLUGS PENETRATION
IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER
START
INJECTOR
IGNITER
PLUG
GAUGE
X
'
C
' L
'
e
'
L
X e C
COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
14.42
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
PERMEABILITY CHECK
Conditions
A permeability check of the fuel injection wheel must be
carried out during periodic servicing. It may also be
carried out in case of suspected problems.
Procedure
The permeability test tool is connected to the injection
wheel inlet union ; it is then filled to the top with water.
After opening the cock at the inlet to the engine the time
taken for the water level to pass between the two marks A
and B on the tube is measured. A table in the maintenance
manual shows the action to be taken according to the time
recorded, e.g. t < 8 sec. - next check in 450 hours.
t > 11 sec. - carry out wheel cleaning procedure.
14.43
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For training purposes only
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PERMEABILITY CHECK
A
B
MEASUREMENT OF
FLOWING TIME BETWEEN
A AND B
FUNNEL
COCK
INLET UNION
14.44
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
STATIC DROOP CHECK AND ADJUSTMENT
This is mandatory check in the event of an anomaly such
as :
- drift of max N1
- drift of NR
- N1 difference between 2 engines.
Procedure
The procedure is carried out with the engine running on
ground and is defined in the Maintenance Manual.
This check verifies the relationship between N1, the
anticipator angle at min. pitch end the NR. The procedure
then determines the necessary action. This may require
adjustment of the temperature compensating bulb or its
replacement if the adjustment limit is reached.
It is particularly important to use high precision digital
indicators for the readings during the check.
Note : Any adjustment of the temperature bulb must be
recorded in the engine log book to ensure that the
maximum adjustment limit is not exceeded.
14.45
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
STATIC DROOP CHECK & ADJUSTMENT
B = 0 B = 10 B = 30 B = 20
322 325 330 335 340 345
75
77
79
81
82
83
87
N1 %
346.2
347.7
89
85
350 355 358
82.3
81.1
22
NR min rpm
BEFORE TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR ADJUSTMENT
AFTER TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR ADJUSTMENT
14.46
Edition : December 2000
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CHECK OF NR AND OF N1 MATCHING
This check verifies the instrumentation and the adjustment
of the components of the fuel flow control system.
The check procedure is defined in the Flight Manual.
Note : It is particularly important to use high precision
digital indicators.
Any anomaly will be either an indication anomaly
(indication of NR, N1 or torque) or incorrectly rigged
controls e.g. anticipator or an anomaly in the F.C.U.
(temperature compensation bulb).
Normally the first action to take is to carry out a static
droop check.
14.47
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CHECK OF NR AND OF N1 MATCHING
NR
N1 N1
TEMPERATURE
COMPENSATING CAPSULE
14.48
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CHECK OF MAX. N1
The max. N1 check ensures that the maximum engine
power is available.
The check procedure is described in the Flight Manual.
Generally the check will show, according to the engine
type :
- Either that the engine reaches the max N1 stop
- Or that the stop is beyond the normal max N1.
This check may identify an anomaly such as fuel system
blockage, leak in the fuel system, drift at the fuel control
caused by the temperature compensator.
Note : This check must be carried out using very accurate
instruments such as digital RPM indicators.
14.49
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CHECK OF MAX N1
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
Correct adjustment range
Fuel temperature C
50
104,8
103,8
TEMPERATURE COMPENSATING
CAPSULE (PRE-MOD TU183)
BIMETALLIC CORRECTOR
(POST-MOD TU183)
FCU SEEN FROM
THE FRONT
MARK
TEMPERATURE CAPSULE
ADJUSTING SCREW
(ADJUSTMENT, IF NECESSARY)
N1 max %
14.50
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CYCLE COUNTING
Cycle counting enables the calculation of usage of life
limited parts such as compressors, injection wheel and
turbine wheels.
Two types of cycles must be counted : gas generator cycles
and power turbine cycles.
Gas generator cycles
There are two formulas which can be used, the
recommended method and the lump method.
The recommended method takes into account the max N1
(K1) and min N1 (K2) reached, as well as the number of
partial cycles (n) during the flight.
The lump method takes into account only the partial cycles
during the flight.
A partial cycle corresponds to a significant deceleration
followed by a significant acceleration without stopping
the engine.
Power turbine cycle
For the power turbine one flight equals one cycle.
Refer to the maintenance manual, chapter 5 for full details
of the cycle counting including the exclusions and
obligations.
14.51
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
CYCLE COUNTING
Highest
N1 %
K1
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.65
0.6
0.55
0.5
K2
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
<70
0.05
0.15
0.15
0.1
TIME
N1%
Start Stop
Recommended method
CALCULATE N = K1 + nK2
Where : N = Number of cycles
K = Number from chart for highest N1
n = Number of accelerations
K2 = Number from chart for each accel.
Thus : N = 0.8 + 1 x 0.1 = 0.9 Gas Gen cycles
Lump method
CALCULATE N = 1 + n x 0.15
Thus : N = 1 + 1 x 0.15 = 1.15
Lowest
N1 %
EXAMPLE OF A FLIGHT PROFILE
14.52
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE
POWER PLANT
Removal - Installation
The procedure for engine installation in the airframe is the
responsibility of the aircraft manufacturer. The removal
and installation procedures are therefore described in the
aircraft maintenance manual. Nevertheless, this section
deals with these procedures generally for training purposes.
During installation, some points must be checked, such
as :
- Before installation :
Check the engine general condition (casings,
harnesses, pipes, accessories)
Check the free rotation of the rotating assemblies
Check the condition and attachment of equipment
Remove the various blanks.
- After installation :
Do a general check (attachments, levels, various
connections)
Do a ground run (starting, operation, stop, ventilation)
Do a flight test.
Installation of the engine on the support stand
The installation procedure requires the use of a special
sling and support.
The engine is secured on its rear support by a clamp and on
its front support by bolts.
The engine can be put in the vertical position by means of
two struts mounted at the front of the support stand.
14.53
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE POWER PLANT
REMOVAL - INSTALLATION
- Aircraft manual
- Checks :
Before installation
After installation
INSTALLATION ON STAND
- Horizontal position
- Vertical position
Lifting tool
Trolley Support stand
Pulley bloc
14.54
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE
ACCESSORIES
This part summarizes the accessories which can be replaced
on the flight line (Line Replaceable Units).
List of the accessories
Refer to the following pages.
The table gives :
- The accessory identification
- The method of attachment
- Remarks.
Removal and installation procedure
Refer to maintenance manual. In a training course,
procedures are dealt with in a video course and practical
sessions.
Caution - Warning - Note
Strictly follow the maintenance manual instructions :
ignition unit, oil
Refer to ADVISORY NOTICES in this chapter.
Consumable or repairable components
The accessories are considered as either consumable or
repairable.
Some accessories which are considered as consumable :
fire detector, start injector, igniter plug, ignition unit,
speed sensors, filters, strainers, magnetic plug
14.55
Edition : December 2000
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For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE ACCESSORIES
LIST OF ACCESSORIES
- Identification
- Method of attachment
- Remarks
PROCEDURES
- Maintenance manual
PRECAUTIONS
- Note
- Caution
- Warning
CONSUMABLE OR REPAIRABLE
COMPONENTS
- Consumable components
- Repairable components
- TBO / on-condition
14.56
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ATTACHMENT
Bolted onto the accessory gearbox
Two bolts on protecting tube rear mounting
flange
Ring of bolts on the power turbine casing
Standard unions
4 bolts on combustion chamber mounting
flange
3 bolts on exhaust pipe mounting flange
REMARKS
1S, 1K, 1E
ACCESSORY
Front attachment
Rear attachment
Exhaust pipe
Pipes
Front lifting bracket
Rear lifting bracket
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE ACCESSORIES
List of the engine accessories.
14.57
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
ACCESSORIES
Oil pumps
Oil filter
Pre-blockage indicator
Oil pressure transmitter
Low oil pressure switch
Electrical magnetic plug assy.
Oil cooler
Magnetic plugs
Strainers
ATTACHMENT
3 bolts on the accessory gearbox
Cover & bolt
Screwed into the filter base
Screwed into the filter base
3 bolts on the filter base
Screwed into the housing
Bayonet type attachment
1 bolt
REMARKS
Installed in the aircraft
Rear bearing strainer in pump inlet
ACCESSORIES
Compressor bleed valve
ATTACHMENT
Clamp
REMARKS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE ACCESSORIES (CONTINUED)
List of oil system accessories.
List of air system accessories.
14.58
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE ACCESSORIES (CONTINUED)
List of fuel system accessories.
ATTACHMENT
2 half-shells + clamp
2 screws
Screwed into the FCU
Threaded bowe
Installed on start electro-valve
2 bolts on turbine casing
Installed on overspeed and drain valve
2 screws on the combustion chamber casing
Screwed into the combustion chamber casing
Installed on ejector
Installed on protection tube
ACCESSORIES
Fuel Control Unit
Fuel filter
Blockage indicator
LP fuel filter
Start purge valve
Overspeed & drain valve
Pressurazing valve
Start injectors
Combustion chamber drain valve
Astatic Valve
Ejector
REMARKS
Don't forget N2 drive coupling
1S, 1E, 1K
1S , 1E
1S, 1E
1S, 1E
14.59
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE ACCESSORIES (CONTINUED)
List of indicating system accessories.
ATTACHMENT
Two screws
Screwed into casing
2 bolts on Acc. gearbox
Fitted in aircraft
Thermocouples screwed into casing
Screwed into casing
ACCESSORIES
N1 & N2 speed sensors
Torque transmitter
N1 & N2 tacho-generators
Tachometer box
Thermocouple harness
Overspeed sensor
REMARKS
1S only
Adjustable except 1S, 1E
N2 optional
Fragile probes
Locating pin
List of starting system accessories.
ATTACHMENT
Collar & clamp
Screws on a bracket
2 screws on the combustion chamber casing
Threaded union at each end
ACCESSORIES
Starter
Ignition unit
Igniter plug
Ignition cables
REMARKS
Supply by a/c manufacturer
Post mod TU 271A
14.60
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF ENGINE
MODULES
Modular design
The engine is of modular construction. This concept
avoids the return of the complete engine to a specialized
workshop and thus provides a higher operational
availability and a reduction of maintenance costs.
Module replacement
Each module is a unit which can be replaced without
balancing or adaptation work.
However, some precautions must be taken when replacing
a module. This page mentions the main points related to
this question :
- Reasons for module removal
Inspection (access to some components)
Replacement
- Module identification
Identification plate on module
Compatibility table
Engine log book
- Removal and installation conditions
Engine installed (or uninstalled)
Installation on working stand
Particular position (horizontal or vertical)
- Tools
Standard tools
Special tools
- Inspection after replacement
Ground run check
Condition checks
Functional checks
Performance checks
- Module follow-up
Engine log book and module log card
- Interfaces
Intermodular parts
Equipment
Mounting.
Note : Refer to maintenance manual.
14.61
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF ENGINE MODULES
MODULE REPLACEMENT
- Reasons
- Identification
- Conditions
- Tools
- Inspection after replacement
- Module follow-up
- Interfaces
MODULE M02
M02 / M03
1 TIE BOLT NUT &
1 RING OF BOLTS
MODULE M03 MODULE M04
MODULE M05 MODULE M01
M01 / M05
1 RING OF BOLTS
M02 / M01
4 BOLTS
M03 / M04
1 RING OF BOLTS
14.62
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
DEEP MAINTENANCE
Deep maintenance, also called 3rd line or H Level, covers
certain defined operations to repair an engine, module or
accessory by replacing some parts without necessitating
machining or test bed checking.
It requires specific training, tooling and approved
documentation.
The following operations are possible :
- Fuel injection manifold cleaning
- Replacement of the gas generator turbine casing
- Replacement of the gas generator rear bearing
- Replacement of the nozzle guide vane
- Operations on components of module 3 e.g. cleaning of
the turbine shaft.
In the future :
- Replacement of the axial compressor
- Replacement of the power turbine and/or the bearings
- Any other operation that may be dearmed necessary.
14.63
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
DEEP MAINTENANCE
AXIAL
COMPRESSOR WHEEL
GAS GENERATOR
TURBINE CASING
REAR BEARING
NOZZLE
GUIDE VANE
INJECTION
MANIFOLD
GAS GENERATOR
HOLLOW SHAFT
POWER TURBINE
14.64
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REPAIR AND OVERHAUL
Overhaul
Overhaul is a maintenance operation which is carried out
when the engine (or module) has reached the end of its
TBO, either operating hours or cycles.
The overhauled engine (or module) is then put back into
service with zero hours for a new TBO.
Repair
Repair is a maintenance operation which must be carried
out when the engine (or module) is unserviceable.
After a repair (IRAN), the engine (or module) is put back
into service with its old TBO.
Note : TBO : Time Between Overhaul
IRAN : Inspect & Repair As Necessary.
Main procedure steps
- Engine reception
- Disassembly
- Cleaning
- Inspection
- Investigation
- Repair
- Installation (of engine and accessories)
- Tests
- Delivery.
14.65
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
REPAIR AND OVERHAUL
TESTS
DELIVERY
ENGINE
RECEPTION
DISASSEMBLY - REPAIR
ACCESSORY ASSEMBLY
REPAIR
INVESTIGATION
DISASSEMBLY
INSPECTION CLEANING
ENGINE OR MODULE
AT THE END OF TBO
OR FOR REPAIR
REPAIR AND OVERHAUL
SHOP
ENGINE OR MODULE DELIVERY
AFTER OVERHAUL WITH
FULL TBO, OR REPAIRED
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
15.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
15- FAULT ANALYSIS AND
TROUBLE SHOOTING
- Fault analysis ................................................................ 15.2
- Trouble shooting ........................................................... 15.32 to 15.47
15.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
Fault analysis
The faults analysed in this chapter concern :
- The bare engine
- The oil system
- The air system
- The fuel system
- Engine control
- Engine indicating
- Starting
- The electrical system
- The engine installation.
FAULT ANALYSIS
General
Fault analysis is based on a school hypothesis which will
bring about a better knowledge of the engine and will
prepare the technician for all events.
Fault analysis involves finding the effects of a given
failure, even if it is unlikely to happen or results from
particular circumstances.
During a training course, each case is commented on and
discussed with the trainees.
The analysis can be made at the end of each chapter or in
the section devoted to maintenance.
15.3
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FAULT ANALYSIS
FAILURE HYPOTHESIS
(anomalies)
EFFECTS
(symptoms)
OIL FILTER
PARTIAL BLOCKAGE
PRE-BLOCKAGE INDICATOR
AND PRESSURE DECREASE
COMPONENT
HYPOTHESIS (or chosen case)
EFFECT (S)
Example :
15.4
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
Foreign object ingestion
The damage of course depends upon the object ingested.
The effects can be : power loss, vibration and in the
extreme, engine shut-down.
Fuel injection system
A partial blockage can cause control instability, starting
difficulties, and loss of power (max N1 unobtainable).
Turbines
Erosion of the blades causes a loss of power, and corrosion
of the blades causes reduced strength of the components.
Blade creep can cause rubbing which causes abnormal
noises and a short run-down time.
In the event of blade breakage, the broken parts are
retained by the containment shield.
FAULT ANALYSIS - BARE ENGINE (1)
The air path
Dirt in the air path causes a reduced air flow and thus
reduced power with a higher gas temperature and a reduced
surge margin.
Compressor
Two main problems :
- Erosion : it has the same effect as dirt with reduced
strength of the components
- Corrosion : it also causes reduced strength of the
components.
Combustion chamber
According to the combustion chamber anomaly
(deformation, cracks) : starting difficulties, overheat,
instability of control system or, in the extreme, flame out.
15.5
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FAULT ANALYSIS - BARE ENGINE (1)
AIR PATH
- Dirt
COMPRESSOR
- Erosion
- Corrosion
AIR INTAKE
- Foreign object ingestion
TURBINES
- Erosion, corrosion
- Blade creep
- Blade breakage
- Deformation
- Cracks
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
- Partial blockage
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
15.6
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
Abnormal wear of the bearings and gears causes oil
contamination which can be detected by magnetic plugs
and by oil analysis. More serious damage will cause
vibration and possibly an accessory drive failure.
Power transmission
A failure of the power shaft causes overspeed and automatic
shut-down (twin-engine version).
Imbalance of the shaft will cause vibration.
Sealing
An internal seal leakage causes either a fluid or gas leak ;
consequences according to the system concerned.
Any external leak is generally visible.
FAULT ANALYSIS - BARE ENGINE (2)
Exhaust system
Any obstruction or damage to the exhaust system affects
the engine operation : performance drop, tendency to
surge...
Bearings
Abnormal wear causes oil contamination, detected by the
magnetic plugs and the oil analysis.
A bearing failure causes vibration, instability of control
and performance drop. A failure or major damage can also
cause engine hang up during start or blockage of the
rotating assembly.
Accessory drive
A failure of the accessory drive shaft will cause an engine
shut-down (oil and fuel pump stop...).
A failure of one accessory drive shaft will cause an effect
according to the accessory concerned.
15.7
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FAULT ANALYSIS - BARE ENGINE (2)
BEARINGS
- Wear
- Failure
EXHAUST SYSTEM
- Deformation
- Obstruction
ACCESSORY DRIVE
- Accessory drive shaft failure
- Accessory shaft failure
- Wear of gears and bearings
SEALING
- Internal leak : Gas, air,
oil, fuel
- External leak
POWER TRANSMISSION
- Failure
- Imbalance
15.8
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
If the pump pressure relief valve is jammed :
- Open : loss of pressure
- Closed : dormant fault.
Cooling unit
If the cooling coil is obstructed, the flow is ensured
through the by-pass valve and causes an increase of oil
temperature.
Note : In case of a pressure drop being confirmed by the
indicating system, the engine should be shut-down
to prevent more serious damage. An increase of
pressure also indicates a fault in the system
(obstruction of jets for example).
FAULT ANALYSIS - OIL SYSTEM (1)
Oil tank
When the oil level is too high, the expansion volume
becomes insufficient, and could cause a leak through the
air vent.
When the oil level is too low, there is a risk of insufficient
lubrication (the loss of pressure is obviously indicated).
Oil filter
A partial blockage is indicated by the pre-blockage
indicator.
When a complete blockage occurs, the lubrication is
ensured through the by-pass valve, with a risk of system
contamination.
Oil pumps
A drive shaft failure causes a rapid pressure drop and
lubrication failure, with cockpit indication.
The seizing of a pump causes shaft overtorque with the risk
of failure.
15.9
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FAULT ANALYSIS - OIL SYSTEM (1)
COULING UNIT
- Cooling coil obstructed
OIL FILTER
- Partial blockage
- Complete blockage
OIL PUMPS
- Drive shaft failure
- Pump seizing
- Pressure relief valve : open,
closed
OIL TANK
- Oil level too high
- Oil level too low
15.10
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - OIL SYSTEM (2)
Internal supply
A local lubrication problem results in a rather quick
process of deterioration.
It can be detected by abnormal pressure and/or temperature,
by particles on magnetic plugs or by the oil sampling
analysis.
Breathing
The obstruction of a breathing line (or anomaly of the
centrifugal breather) may cause overpressure, lubrication
problem, or a leak through the sealing system
The obstruction of the general air vent causes foaming in
the tank.
Sealing anomaly
An "external" leak is indicated by a visible leak and
increased oil consumption.
An "internal" leak causes an oil leak into the air system,
increased consumption, pressure fluctuations, smoke
Oil contamination
It is already the consequence of an anomaly. Example :
fuel dilution of the oil, oil contamination, particles on
magnetic plugs or in the filter, oil sampling analysis results
(out of tolerance).
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FAULT ANALYSIS - OIL SYSTEM (2)
BREATHING
- Breathing line obstruction
- Centrifugal breather
- Air vent line obstruction
OIL CONTAMINATION
- Dilution
- Contamination
- Particles on magnetic plugs
- Oil sampling analysis results
SEALING ANOMALY
- "External" sealing
- "Internal" sealing
INTERNAL SUPPLY
- Local anomaly (obstruction of jet)
15.12
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - AIR SYSTEM
Internal pressurisation system
Any anomaly (obstruction, abnormal clearance) will result
in operating problems :
- Internal oil leak (as labyrinth pressurisation is affected)
- Local overheat (as the system is used to cool the internal
parts)
- Loss of power if too much air is tapped.
Power turbine bearing pressurisation
Breakage or obstruction of the P2 air pipe. The labyrinths
are therefore not pressurised :
- Oil leak from hot section
- Consumption
- Smoke emission.
Air tappings for the aircraft
If the air supply is obstructed : refer to aircraft system
concerned.
If too much air is tapped, it affects the engine performance
(W, t4, CH).
FCU air supply
A leak, breakage or clogging of the restrictor will give an
incorrect signal to the FCU affecting the engine acceleration
and deceleration (according to version). A complete loss
of the pressure will cause very low N1.
Start injector supply
If P2 air tapping is obstructed : Starting problems.
Injector ventilation ball valve
If the valve sticks open this can cause a leak of fuel into the
air system and cause starting difficulty.
If the valve sticks closed there will be no injector ventilation,
causing injector clogging.
Compressor bleed valve
If the valve remains open, it causes a permanent air
discharge and a decrease of available power.
If the valve remains closed, it can lead to engine surge at
low N1 speeds.
15.13
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FAULT ANALYSIS - AIR SYSTEM
A B
- Valve jammed "open"
- Valve jammed "closed"
COMPRESSOR
BLEED VALVE
- Valve remains "open"
- Valve remains "closed"
INTERNAL PRESSURISATION
SYSTEM
- Obstruction
- Abnormal clearance
- Leak
FCU AIR SUPPLY
- Leak
- Broken pipe
- Obstruction
POWER TURBINE BEARING
PRESSURISATION
- Broken pipe
- Obstruction
- P2 air tapping blockage
START INJECTOR SUPPLY
INJECTOR VENTILATION
BALL VALVE
- Air supply anomaly
- Excessive tapping
AIRCRAFT AIR
TAPPINGS
15.14
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - FUEL SYSTEM (1)
Aircraft fuel system
An aircraft fuel system anomaly will cause an incorrect
supply to the engine fuel system.
The effects depend upon the anomaly. For example :
- Reduced performance
- Starting difficulties.
Fuel pump
Total failure (i.e. : drive shaft breakage) : engine shut-
down and/or no start.
- Pressure relief valve jammed closed : dormant fault,
overpressure hazard
- Pressure relief valve jammed open : reduced performance
or even engine shut-down
- Drive shaft seal leak : fuel leak from the drain.
Fuel filter
In case of partial blockage : indication by the pre-blockage
indicator.
In case of blockage : by-pass flow with possible fluctuations
of engine ratings.
- By-pass valve jammed closed : dormant fault
- By-pass valve jammed open : by-pass flow with system
contamination.
15.15
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FAULT ANALYSIS - FUEL SYSTEM (1)
AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEM
- Fuel supply to the
engine fuel system
FUEL FILTER
- Partial blockage
- Blockage
- By-pass valve (jammed open or closed)
FUEL PUMP
- Total failure (shaft breakage)
- Pressure relief valve (jammed open or closed)
- Shaft seal leak
15.16
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - FUEL SYSTEM (2)
Start electro-valve
Electro-valve : the valve remains closed, no supply to the
injectors, no start.
Pressure switch : if the pressure switch does not operate,
the re-injection prohibit function is lost. If the switch
contact is failed, no supply to the electro-valve and therefore
no start.
Start injectors
Clogging : starting difficulties or no starting.
Incorrect penetration of injectors : starting difficulties
(clogging or deterioration of injectors).
Loss of ventilation : clogging after a certain operating
time.
Note : Starting with only one injector operative is possible.
Overspeed and drain valve
Pressurising valve jammed "closed" : no supply to the
injection wheel and therefore no start ; there is however a
fuel supply to the injectors which causes a slight gas
temperature increasing.
Pressurising valve jammed "open" : premature fuel
supply to injection wheel causing difficult ignition.
Dual valve : no start if the valve remains in "drain"
position, clogging of the injection wheel distributor, if it
remains in "injection" position.
Overspeed electro-valve inoperative : no shut-down in
case of power turbine overspeed.
Fuel injection wheel
Insufficient sealing : internal fuel leak, possible
contamination of P2 air and coking of internal parts.
Clogging of the fuel distributor : fuel flow limited and
therefore max N1 speed unobtainable.
Note : Refer to maintenance manual for check procedure
and corrective action.
15.17
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FAULT ANALYSIS - FUEL SYSTEM (2)
START INJECTORS
- Blocked
- Incorrect penetration
- No ventilation
OVERSPEED AND DRAIN VALVE
- Pressurising valve :
- Dual valve anomaly
- Overspeed electro-valve inoperative
jammed "open"
jammed "closed"
INJECTION WHEEL
- Leak
- Clogging
START INJECTOR ELECTRO-VALVE
- Solenoid
- Pressure switch
15.18
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - CONTROL SYSTEM (1)
Engine control lever
Breakage (or disconnection) of the linkage : the FCU
lever remains in its initial position. Manual control is not
possible for starting, stopping or emergency.
Seizing of the mechanism (or of the valves) : more force
required to move the control lever.
Incorrect adjustment of the lever : the control lever
position does not correspond to the FCU lever position.
Effect depending upon maladjustment (eg : starting or
shut-down difficulties).
Anticipator control
Breakage of the collective pitch FCU mechanism : the
governing system operates on one static droop line.
Therefore no droop compensation. In twin-engine
configuration, this will result in an N1 desynchronisation
of the engines.
Incorrect adjustment of the control : the datum does not
correspond to the collective pitch position. The rotor speed
is affected. In twin-engine configuration, split of the two
N1 if the two data are different.
15.19
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FAULT ANALYSIS - CONTROL SYSTEM (1)
ENGINE
CONTROL LEVER
- Linkage broken or disconnected
- Seizing
- Incorrect adjustment
ANTICIPATOR
CONTROL
- Linkage broken
- Incorrect adjustment
ENGINE CONTROL LEVER ANTICIPATOR CONTROL
15.20
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - CONTROL SYSTEM (2)
Power turbine governor
Failure of the drive shaft : max N1 datum, the engine
accelerates to max N1 stop. In twin-engine configurations,
the other engine decelerates to compensate.
Problem in the hydraulic system : wrong modulated
pressure, the required N1 is not obtained, possible
fluctuations.
Anticipator : see previous page.
Gas generator governor
Failure of the drive shaft : the engine acceleration to
maximun fuel flow and an overspeed is probable (extremely
remote as the shear section of the drive is on the fuel pump
shaft).
Compensating capsule anomaly : N1 will tend to vary
with fuel temperature. The "sagging" of the capsule will
reduce max N1.
Hydraulic system anomaly : instability, response time
out of tolerances.
Acceleration control unit
P2 air supply pipe failure : the engine decelerates to
minimum fuel flow. In twin-engine configuration, the
other engine accelerates to compensate.
P2 air supply anomaly : any supply anomaly will affect
the acceleration time and therefore the response time.
A P2 supply problem to the deceleration control unit (for
the engines provided with this device) could cause flame-
out in extreme transient conditions.
Fuel metering device
Any anomaly (eg : jamming of metering valve or constant
P valve) results in an incorrect fuel flow control and
therefore instability.
Note : Remember that fuel flow can be controlled manually
with the engine control lever.
Working piston
Any operation anomaly (a blockage) of the working piston
causes starting difficulties : start impossible or slow,
rapide start with overheat.
15.21
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FAULT ANALYSIS - CONTROL SYSTEM (2)
GAS GENERATOR GOVERNOR
- Drive shaft failure
- Compensating capsule anomaly
- Hydraulic system anomaly
ACCELERATION CONTROL UNIT
- P2 air supply pipe failure
- P2 air supply anomaly
METERING DEVICE
- Any anomaly
POWER TURBINE GOVERNOR
- Drive shaft failure
- Hydraulic system anomaly
WORKING PISTON
- Operating anomaly
15.22
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - ENGINE INDICATING
Rotation speed indication
- Most problems lead to a complete loss of signal and
therefore no indication
- Check other parameters to confirm the failure of the
indicating system (Refer to flight manual for operating
instruction to be applied).
Gas temperature indication
Thermocouple anomaly : possible alteration of the
indication ; the mean value of the remaining probes is read.
Broken wire of the pyrometric harness : loss of the
indication.
Loose thermocouple probe : fluctuations or wrong
indication.
Oil pressure indication
Min oil pressure switch : two possibilities :
- No indicating light
- Indicating light permanently "on".
Note : Check oil pressure and torque indication to confirm
the pressure switch anomaly.
Oil pressure transmitter : no indication at all or incorrect
indication an case of failure.
Note : Check torque and min pressure light to confirm the
failure.
Torque indication
Hydraulic torquemeter : jamming or leak will cause an
incorrect indication.
Note : The system does not operate in case of lubricating
pressure failure.
Torquemeter transmitter : no indication or incorrect
indication in case of malfunction or incorrect adjustment.
Note : Pressure check to determine the failed component
of the system.
15.23
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FAULT ANALYSIS - CONTROL SYSTEM (2)
ROTATION SPEED INDICATION
- Anomaly of the speed sensor -
indication
GAS TEMPERATURE INDICATION
- Thermocouple anomaly
- Broken wire of the pyrometric harness
- Loose thermocouple probe
OIL PRESSURE INDICATION
- Min oil pressure switch anomaly
- Oil pressure transmitter anomaly
TORQUE INDICATION
- Hydraulic torquemeter anomaly
- Torquemeter transmitter anomaly
15.24
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - STARTING
Electrical power supply
A low DC supply voltage will cause difficult engine
starting and excessive gas temperature.
Note : The voltage should not decrease below 15 Volts
during starting.
Starter
If the starter is failed :
- Insufficient torque during starting, slow acceleration
with high gas temperature
- No starting.
Ignition unit
A High Energy ignition unit failure causes no ignition at all
or insufficient energy to obtain the correct pulse rate.
Note : Starting is nevertheless possible with one unit
inoperative.
Igniter plug
In case of an igniter plug problem, no sparks are produced,
or the sparks do not have enough energy to ignite the fuel.
Note : Starting is possible with one plug inoperative.
Starting control system
With a total power supply failure there is no voltage on the
accessories so no cranking and no ignition.
With no starter power supply there is no cranking ; but the
ignition operates (operation of the ignition system can be
heard).
With no ignition power supply there is no ignition ; but the
starter operates.
15.25
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FAULT ANALYSIS - STARTING
ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY
- Low DC supply voltage
STARTER
IGNITER PLUG
- Igniter anomaly
IGNITION UNIT
- HE ignition unit anomaly
STARTING CONTROL SYSTEM
- Total power supply loss
- Starter power supply loss
- Ignition power supply loss
- Starter motor anomaly
15.26
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (1)
Electrical power supply
- DC power supply anomaly during start : no starting
or starting "difficulties" (sluggish start, high gas
temperature)
- DC power supply anomaly in "normal operation" :
Total failure : the engine remains in operation but
without some indicating and without overspeed safety.
Battery failure : back-up by DC generator
Generator failure : back-up by battery or other
source.
- Internal supply anomaly of the tachometer box : an
internal supply anomaly will cause the non operation of
the system (the light remains illuminated).
Start control system
Refer to fault analysis of starting.
Indicating systems
Refer to fault analysis of indicating systems.
15.27
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FAULT ANALYSIS - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (1)
ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY START CONTROL SYSTEM INDICATING SYSTEMS
- Anomaly of DC supply :
during start
in normal operation
- Internal supply anomaly of the tachometer
box
- Refer to fault analysis of starting
- Refer to indicating systems
15.28
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (2)
Overspeed pick-up
One pick-up : fault indicated by the light (remaining "on"
above 25 % N2).
Overspeed electro-valve
Electro-valve failure : no engine shut-down in case of
overspeed; dormant fault which would be detected during
the periodic test.
Valve jammed open : no start (remote probability).
Tachometer box
Inoperative : no overspeed system capability but the
problem is indicated by the test.
Unwarranted operation : extremely remote probability
considering the design of the system.
Super Contingency Power system
Abnormal operation of the control system : no arming
of super contingency rating.
Abnormal operation of SCP box : no indicating of
"SCP" or recording of life not correct.
15.29
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FAULT ANALYSIS - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM (2)
OVERSPEED PICK-UP
- One pick-up
OVERSPEED ELECTRO-VALVE
- Electro-valve failure
- Valve jammed "open"
SCP SYSTEM
- Arming circuit inoperative
- SCP box
TACHOMETER BOX
- Inoperative
- Unwarranted operation
TEST
OSCILLATOR
N2
N2
120 %
120 %
V S
ENGINE
SHUT-DOWN
S'
OVERSPEED ELECTRO-VALVE
INHIBITION OF THE STARTING
INHIBITION OF THE ENGINE 2 SYSTEM
25 %
25 %
REARMING
15.30
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Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
FAULT ANALYSIS - ENGINE INSTALLATION
Engine compartment
Lack of ventilation can cause an increase of temperature
which can be, in extreme cases, detected by the fire
detection system.
Engine attachment
Incorrect adjustment, abnormal clearance or misalignment
will cause vibration or abnormal stresses with all the usual
consequences.
Air intake and gas exhaust
A partial obstruction affects the engine performance.
Particular instructions are given in the maintenance manual,
for engine operation in a "hostile atmosphere" :
- Sand : increases erosion
- Salt : causes corrosion
- Pollution : both erosion and corrosion.
Drains and air vents
In case of obstruction of a drain, effect according to the
drain system (refer to system concerned).
Particular attention to obstruction hazard caused by
deformation during engine removal and installation or
caused by insects in some countries.
Power transmission
A failure of the power shaft causes a power turbine
overspeed and automatic engine shut-down by the
overspeed protection system (twin-engine only).
Misalignment of the shaft causes vibration and possible
failure.
Fire protection
The engine fire protection system is described in the
aircraft manual.
Air tappings
Any air tapping affects the engine performance. An
excessive air tapping reduces the power available ; or
increases the gas temperature for a given power rating.
15.31
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FAULT ANALYSIS - ENGINE INSTALLATION
AIR INTAKE AND
GAS EXHAUST
- Partial obstruction
- Dirty atmosphere
ENGINE COMPARTMENT
- Lack of ventilation
ENGINE ATTACHMENT
- Incorrect adjustment
- Abnormal clearance
- Misalignment
POWER TRANSMISSION
- Shaft failure
- Misalignment
DRAINS AND AIR VENTS
- Obstruction
AIR TAPPING
- Excessive air tapping
FIRE PROTECTION
- Refer to aircraft documentation
- Detector anomaly
15.32
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FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING
General
Trouble shooting is a very important aspect of maintenance.
An "efficient" diagnosis reduces the extra maintenance
costs due to unjustified removals and additional diagnosis
time.
In fact, even with a very high reliability product, failure is
inevitable and required actions should be taken efficiently.
After the fault analysis which consists of finding the effect
of a given failure, this section considers the case in
reverse ; i.e. : finding the probable cause of a fault.
Repair procedure
The corrective maintenance actions should be guided by
two main considerations :
- Minimum downtime
- Justified removal of components.
The procedure to be applied depends on the case but in
general, a good knowledge of the product and a methodical
research would permit a safe diagnosis and a quick
corrective action.
Generally, the procedure includes failure identification,
its analysis, the isolation of the component, and the repair
choice.
15.33
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TROUBLE SHOOTING
Or other
perception
Symptoms (and other additional indications)
All factors should be taken into consideration
as well as the interactions.
Analysis of the fault
Identification of the faulty component
Additional
checks
Deduction Substitution
Remedy
(adjustment, replacement, cleaning, repair...)
Fault
(single, double,
dormant)
Inevitable Random
Trouble shooting
- Diagnosis
- Remedy
- Repair
- Check
- Adequate means and
procedures
- Training of personnel
MTTR
(Mean Time To Repair)
Total time required
for repairing
15.34
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Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - STARTING FAULTS (1)
No effect after selecting start
N doesn't increase
Is ventilation
possible ?
- Overspeed not rearmed
- Starting circuit (circuit breaker,
selector switch, relay )
- Starter contactor
- Electrical supply
- Starter
Yes No
Note : Further tests (engaging noise of the contactor...) help locate the failure.
15.35
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - STARTING FAULTS (2)
The ignition
system operates
(noise of HE components)
- Start electro-valve
- Injectors
- HE ignition units
- Igniter plugs
Yes No
Note : Refer to the test
procedure for
discrimination
Start is possible
with one injector and one
igniter plug provided
they are on the same side
Note : It is also possible to
check for a fuel flow
through the combustion
chamber drain.
Or
fuel supply problem
Fuel flows
Ignition system - Start electro-valve
- Fuel supply
Yes No
On selection of start, N increases, but no t4
15.36
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - STARTING FAULTS (3)
Abnormal t4
t4 200
Variant : N and t4 increase, but the starting is not effective, so no N2
t4 > 200
but insufficient
t4 too high
Increase due to the
injectors, but the
main fuel system is
not supplied
- FCU
- Control lever
- Procedures
- Overspeed drain valve
- FCU
- Control lever
- Inadequate fuel supply
(LP system, filters...)
- Pressurising valve
- Overspeed and
drain valve
Note : In all cases, check the electrical
supply (battery voltage)
Failure of the accessory drive shaft
15.37
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULTS DURING SHUT-DOWN
Shut-down selected by moving
the throttle lever rearwards
N1
deceleration
Control lever
disconnected
Yes
Stop selection
The engine stops
N1 , t4
No
Yes
Poor sealing of
the fuel system
No
Abnormal friction of the rotating assembly
The engine shut-down can then be
affected by the manual control
system or by the fuel shut-off (fire)
valve.
Further checks required.
No
Normal
shut-down
Yes
Correct
rundown time
15.38
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULT DURING VENTILATION
Ventilation selection
(press and hold)
N1 indication
Yes
The gas generator
is driven
No
Accessory drive train
"Normal"
ventilation
Note : 15 sec. max to avoid starter overheat
No Yes
The starter turns
No Yes
N1 indication
Starting is
possible
No Yes
- Starter contactor
- Starter
- Electrical supply
Ventilation
selector
15.39
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - LUBRICATION FAULTS (1)
Abnormal oil pressure indication
Fluctuation No pressure Low High
- Oil condition
- Sealing
- Internal blockage
- Pressure relief valve
- Filter blockage
- Pressure relief
valve
- Measuring
system
- Blockage of
a jet
Min oil pressure
light illuminated
Yes No
- Failure of the pump shaft
- Pressure relief valve
- Internal blockage
- Large internal or external
leak
Pressure indicating system :
- Transmitter
- Indicator
- Harness
15.40
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - LUBRICATION FAULTS (2)
Abnormal oil temperature indication
High Low
Yes No
- Measuring system
- Insufficient cooling
- Local lubrication
problem (blockage of a jet)
Measuring system
Abnormal oil consumption
Visible leak
External leak Internal leak
Pipe or
accessory
Contamination of the
bleed air
Leak from the cold
section labyrinth seals
(front section)
Smoke and oil in the
exhaust pipe
Leak from the hot section
labyrinth seals.
(rear section)
General vent pipe
failure (blockage,
wrong indication)
P2 air pipe failure
Oil contamination
Corrective action Detection
According to amount, origin
and rate of contamination...
- Magnetic plugs
- Analysis
- Color, aspect
15.41
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - FAULTS LEADING TO ENGINE
SHUT-DOWN IN FLIGHT
Uncommanded engine shut-down
Yes
Actual overspeed
No
- Loss of signal
- Tachometer box
Note : Unlikely
No Yes
Engine internal
anomaly
N2, N1, Tq, t4, oil pressure
Operation of the
power turbine overspeed
system
Abnormal fuel
supply :
- Pump shaft
failure
- Pipe failure
- Water in fuel
- FCU
Water or ice
ingestion
- Failure of the power
transmission shaft
- FCU
Doubt
Rearming and
corrective actions
Note : In a twin-engine configuration, the engine which remains in operation supplies the required power within its limits.
15.42
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (1)
Bleed valve
(closed)
FCU
acceleration controller
Abnormal gas temperature indication
Yes
Max N1 reached
No
Dirty
compressor
Engine internal problem Measuring system
Compressor surge
Engine anomaly (air intake,
compressor...)
Loss of power
- Blockage of the injection system
- Isufficient fuel supply (pumps, filters...)
- FCU - temperature compensation device
- Anticipator, adjusment
- Torque and gas temperature indication
- Engine : dirty compressor, turbine creep,etc ...
Note : Particular attention : check of the max N1.
15.43
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (2)
Gas generator rotation speed N1
Incorrect
response time
- FCU
- Anticipator
- Gas generator
internal problem
Overspeed
FCU
FCU
Fluctuation
Uncommanded
deceleration
Uncommanded
acceleration
- Abnormal fuel supply
- FCU
- Abnormal operation of one
of the fuel system
accessories (refer to the
chapter "fuel system")
- Loss of P2 supply to FCU
- Air in the fuel system
- Dirt in the fuel system
- Constant P valve
- Blockage of the
centrifugal wheel
- FCU
15.44
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (3)
Power turbine rotation speed N2
Overspeed
- Failure of the
transmission shaft
- Control system failure
Incorrect speed
- Indicator
- FCU
- Anticipator adjustment
Vibration
Gas generator
or power turbine
rotating assembly
Engine attachment
Power transmission
shaft
Engine - aircraft
alignment
15.45
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - MISCELLANEOUS CASES (4)
Instruments
Note : Failures which cause abnormal indication.
- Inaccurate indication (transmitter / receiver)
- Systems associated with the engine
Refer to other cases
Fire "failure"
Unjustified illumination Refer to aircraft documentation
No illumination in test mode Refer to aircraft documentation
Fire warning
Unjustified illumination Detector failure
No illumination in test mode Test system
Lights
Justified illumination
No illumination in the event of overheat
Overheat or fire
Detection circuit
Chip detection Unjustified illumination Sensor "sensibility"
No illumination despite particles Electrical magnetic plug or
wiring failure
Justified illumination Deposit of particles
Low oil pressure
Oil filter pre-blockage
Fuel filter pre-blockage
(according to version)
Unjustified illumination Pressure switch
No illumination despite effective pressure drop Pressure switch
Justified illumination Pressure drop
Unjustified indication Indicator
No indication despite the
differencial pressure increase
Indicator
Justified indication Blockage
15.46
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - CONCLUSION
Despite the high reliability of the product failures remain
inevitable and happen at random. But their rate and effects
can be reduced if the "enemies" of the engine are taken into
consideration.
When the failure occurs, you have to be in a position to
correct it.
"Enemies" of the engine
The traditional adverse conditions for this type of engine
are :
- Supply (air, oil, fuel, electricity)
- Operation ("non respect" of instructions and procedures)
- Maintenance ("non respect" of inspection frequencies
and of the strict application of the procedures).
15.47
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 FAULT ANALYSIS AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
TROUBLE SHOOTING - CONCLUSION
MAINTENANCE
- "Non respect" of
inspection frequencies
- Various mistakes
- Wrong logistics.
OPERATION
- "Non respect" of instructions
and procedures
- Severe operating conditions.
AIR
- Sand
- Salt
- Miscellaneous
pollution.
OIL
- Not in conformity
with specifications
- Miscellaneous
contamination.
FUEL
- Not in conformity with
specifications
- Water in fuel
- Sulphur + salt in the
air = sulfidation.
ELECTRICITY
- Too low voltage
during starting
- Interference.
16.1
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
16- CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
- Introduction .................................................................. 16.2
- Questionnaire 1 ............................................................. 16.3
- Questionnaire 2 ............................................................. 16.6
- Questionnaire 3 ............................................................. 16.12
- Questionnaire 4.............................................................. 16.15 to 16.30
16.2
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
INTRODUCTION
Method
Continuous checking helps to ensure the information is
assimilated. It is more a method of work than a testing in
the traditional sense.
Objectives of the questionnaires
The questionnaires permit a progressive assimilation and
long term retention. The questionnaires are a subject for
discussion (effects of group dynamics). They also permit
students to consider important subjects several times un-
der different aspects.
Integration into the training programme
- First hour every day for revision of the subjects previ-
ously studied
- After each chapter (or module) of the course
- At the end of the training course.
Types of questionnaires
Several types of questionnaire can be employed during a
course :
- Traditional written questionnaire
- "Short answer" questionnaire
- Multi Choice Questionnaire (MCQ)
- Oral questionnaire
- Learning Through Teaching (LTT ; the student has to
explain a given subject).
Examination
The final examination at the end of the course consists of
three tests : written, oral and practical. A certificate and an
approval card are given to the student if the results are
satisfactory.
16.3
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 1
This traditional questionnaire is established according to
the same plan as the training manual in which the answers
can be found.
Power plant
1 - List the main functional components of the power
plant.
2 - Explain the thermodynamic operation of the engine.
3 - State the following features (at take-off, in standard
atmosphere) :
Power on the shaft
Output shaft rotation speed
Mass of the engine with specific equipment
Main overall dimensions of the power plant
4 - Explain the principle of engine adaptation to helicopter
power requirements.
5 - Give a definition of the operating ratings.
6 - How do temperature and altitude affect the engine
performance.
Engine
1 - List the main components of the gas generator.
2 - State the following characteristics :
Compression ratio
Turbine entry temperature
N2 speed at 100 %
N1 speed at 100 %
3 - Describe the power turbine assembly.
4 - Describe the fuel injection system.
5 - List the engine driven accessories.
6 - List the bearings which support the gas generator.
7 - Describe the system used for bearing sealing.
8 - Describe the modular construction of the engine.
9 - Describe the engine air intake.
10 - List the manufacturing materials of the engine main
components.
16.4
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 1 (continued)
Oil system
1 - Draw a simplified diagram of the oil system.
2 - Explain the general operation of the oil system.
3 - Describe the oil filter assembly.
4 - State the location of strainers and magnetic plugs.
Air system
1 - List the functions ensured by the internal air system
(secondary system).
2 - List the function of the various air tappings.
3 - Why are the start injectors ventilated ?
4 - Explain the purpose and the operation of the compressor
bleed valve.
Fuel system
1 - What is the purpose of the Booster pump.
2 - Describe the fuel pump.
3 - Describe the fuel metering unit.
4 - What is the purpose of the constant P valve.
5 - Explain the principle of fuel injection (main and starting
injection).
6 - Explain the operation of the overspeed & drain valve.
Control system
1 - List the main functions of the control system.
2 - Explain the basic principle of the control system.
3 - Explain the operating principle of the speed control.
4 - Describe the purpose and operation of the anticipator
control.
5 - Explain the operation of the acceleration controller.
6 - What are the main sections of the FCU.
7 - Describe and explain the operation of the power turbine
overspeed system.
8 - Describe the principle of load sharing in a twin engine
configuration.
Indicating system and manual control
1 - Describe the manual control system.
2 - Describe the power turbine speed indicating system.
3 - Explain the operating principle of the torquemeter
system.
4 - Describe the gas temperature indicating system.
16.5
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 1 (continued)
Starting
1 - Describe the cranking function of the engine.
2 - Describe the ignition system (ignition unit and igniter
plugs).
3 - List the main phases of the starting cycle.
4 - Describe the starting control electrical system.
Electrical system
1 - List the engine electrical accessories.
2 - List the sensors (state the type of signal produced).
3 - Describe the electrical harnesses and connectors.
Engine installation
1 - Describe the attachment of the engine to the aircraft.
2 - Describe the engine power drive and the power
transmission.
3 - List the various engine / aircraft interfaces.
4 - Describe the fire protection system of the engine.
Limitations and engine handling
1 - List the main operating limitations of N1.
2 - Describe the engine starting procedure.
Various aspects of maintenance
1 - List the main practices of a periodic inspection.
2 - List the methods used for "on condition monitoring".
3 - List the technical publications used for engine
maintenance.
Maintenance procedures
1 - Describe the compressor cleaning procedure.
2 - Name the LRUs of the air system.
3 - Explain the attachment of each of the modules.
Fault analysis and trouble shooting
1 - Carry out the fault analysis exercises.
2 - Carry out the trouble shooting exercises.
16.6
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
Questions Answers
1 - ARRIEL 1 power class ?
2 - Power turbine rotation speed at
100 % ?
3 - Type of main fuel injection ?
4 - Number of engine modules ?
5 - Number of power turbine stages ?
6 - Meaning of AEO ?
7 - Mass of the equipped engine ?
8 - Power evolution when altitude
increases ?
9 - Specific fuel consumption at
350 kW?
10 - Flight envelope - Max altitude ?
11 - Flight envelope -
Max temperature ?
12 - Start envelope - Max altitude ?
13 - Engine air flow at 100 % N1 ?
14 - Overall compression ratio ?
15 - Max turbine entry temperature ?
16 - Gas generator rotation speed at
100 % N1 ?
17 - Direction of rotation of the gas
generator ?
18 - Direction of rotation of the power
turbine ?
19 - Manufacturing material for the
axial compressor ?
20 - What type of bearing is the axial
compressor bearing ?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2
The following questions require short and accurate an-
swers.
The student can answer orally or in the space provided for
the answers.
Questions Answers
16.7
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
30 - Type of power turbine front
bearing ?
31 - Type of gas generator rear bearing ?
32 - To which module does the power
turbine nozzle guide vane belong ?
33 - Type of power turbine ?
34 - Does the exhaust pipe belong to one
module (yes or no) ?
35 - Type of exhaust pipe attachment ?
36 - Number of gears in the reduction
gearbox ?
37 - Rotation speed of the intermediate
gear of the reduction gearbox ?
38 - Number of driven accessories on
the accessory gearbox ?
39 - Manufacturing material for the
accessory gearbox casing ?
21 - How is the axial compressor
mounted on the gas generator
module ?
22 - Axial compressor compression
ratio ?
23 - Manufacturing material for the
centrifugal compressor wheel ?
24 - Number of stages of the centrifugal
compressor diffuser ?
25 - Type of combustion chamber ?
26 - Manufacturing material for the
combustion chamber ?
27 - Type of main fuel injection ?
28 - Pressure drop in the combustion
chamber ?
29 - Number of stages of the gas
generator turbine ?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers Questions Answers
16.8
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
50 - Setting of the low oil pressure
switch ?
51 - Max oil temperature ?
52 - Location of the centrifugal breather ?
53 - Air tapping for the pressurisation of
the power turbine front bearing ?
54 - Air pressure at the centrifugal
compressor outlet ?
55 - Temperature at the centrifugal
compressor outlet ?
56 - When does the start injector
ventilation begin ?
57 - Max air tapping flow ?
58 - Type of compressor bleed valve ?
59 - Position of the bleed valve during
starting ?
40 - Is the oil pressure adjustable ?
41 - Number of pumps in the oil pump
pack ?
42 - Type of oil pumps ?
43 - What is the setting of the check
valve at the pressure pump outlet ?
44 - Filtering ability of the oil filter?
45 - Setting of the oil filter by-pass
valve?
46 - Which bearings are ball bearings ?
47 - Type of seal for the gas generator
rear bearing sealing ?
48 - Max oil consumption ?
49 - Type of oil pressure transmitter ?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers Questions Answers
16.9
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
60 - What are the bleed valve control
signals ?
61 - Where is the bleed valve fitted ?
62 - Type of fuel filter ?
63 - Filtering ability of the fuel filter ?
64 - Setting of the fuel filter by-pass
valve ?
65 - Type of fuel pump ?
66 - Position of the pump pressure relief
valve in normal engine running ?
67 - Type of fuel metering device ?
68 - Position of the constant P valve
when the engine is stopped ?
69 - Type of manual fuel flow control ?
70 - Type of valve for injector
ventilation ?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers Questions Answers
71 - How is the anticipator signal
transmitted ?
72 - Setting of the fuel pressurising
valve?
73 - Fuel flow through the start
injectors?
74 - Number of start injectors ?
75 - Position of the combustion chamber
drain valve when the engine is
stopped ?
76 - Type of fuel control system ?
77 - Signals for the acceleration
controller
78 - Average response time of the
control system
79 - Is the static droop compensated
80 - Position of the main valve with
lever in emergency plus
16.10
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
91 - Where is the oil pressure transmitter
located ?
92 - How are the thermocouples
connected (parallel or series) ?
93 - Location of the torquemeter ?
94 - Type of torque sensor ?
95 - Type of signal output by the torque
sensor ?
96 - Is the torque transmitter associated
with a particular module ?
97 - Type of starter ?
98 - Type of ignition system ?
99 - Gas generator rotation speed at
starter cut-off ?
81 - Meaning of OEI ?
82 - Type of N2 controller ?
83 - Position of the auxiliary valve with
the lever in the emergency minus
range ?
84 - Closing threshold of the reinjection
prohibition switch
85 - What keeps the metering needle
closed when the control lever is
closed ?
86 - Position of the manual control lever
in normal engine running ?
87 - Type of speed sensors ?
88 - What is the average torque pressure
at 100 % torque ?
89 - How does the low oil pressure
switch sense the pressure ?
90 - Number of thermocouple probes ?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers Questions Answers
16.11
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
111 - Max gas temperature during
starting ?
112 - Low oil pressure switch setting ?
113 - Max oil temperature ?
114 - Min electrical supply voltage
before starting ?
115 - Type of recommended lubricant ?
116 - Meaning of IPC ?
117 - Meaning of TBO ?
118 - Is borescopic inspection of the
combustion chamber possible ?
119 - Procedure in case of operation in
super contingency rating ?
120 - Is there an adjustment of the
torquemeter ?
100 - Number of igniter plugs ?
101 - Max duration of a ventilation ?
102 - Is the ignition cable integral with
the igniter plug ?
103 - Number of electrical connectors ?
104 - Location of the tachometer box ?
105 - Type of seal on the power shaft ?
106 - Type of connection engine/MGB ?
107 - Number of engine drains ?
108 - Engine operating envelope ; min
and max altitude pressure?
109 - Max starting altitude ?
110 - Power turbine max overspeed ?
QUESTIONNAIRE 2 (continued)
Questions Answers Questions Answers
16.12
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 3
This multi-choice questionnaire is used to review, in a
relatively short time, certain important points and to test
the acquired knowledge.
Answers to the questions can be found at the end of the
questionnaire.
1 - The ARRIEL 1 engine is :
a) a free turbine turboshaft engine
b) a turbo-jet engine
c) a fixed turbine turboshaft engine.
2 - Section of passage of the compressor diffusers :
a) regular
b) divergent
c) convergent.
3 - Type of combustion chamber :
a) annular with centrifugal injection
b) annular, reverse flow
c) annular, indirect flow.
4 - The power turbine nozzle guide vane belongs to :
a) module M04
b) module M03
c) module M02.
5 - Type of exhaust pipe attachment :
a) bolts
b) mounting pads
c) clamp.
6 - How many bearings support the gas generator :
a) 4
b) 2
c) 3.
7 - The engine includes :
a) a hot section and a cold section
b) 5 modules
c) 4 modules.
8 - Type of oil system :
a) dry sump
b) constant pressure
c) lubrication by splashing.
9 - Setting of the oil filter pre-blockage indicator :
a) lower than the by-pass valve
b) higher than the by-pass valve
c) the same as the pump valve.
10 - The oil strainers are located :
a) at the outlet of the pumps
b) on the inlet of the scavenge pumps
c) at the inlet of the lubricated components.
11 - Is there a max oil temperature :
a) yes, 60 C
b) no
c) yes, 115 C maxi.
16.13
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 3 (continued)
12 - The air tapped at the centrifugal wheel outlet
pressurises :
a) some labyrinth seals
b) the tank
c) the pumps.
13 - Position of the bleed valve during flight ?
a) open
b) closed
c) depends on conditions.
14 - Ventilation of start injectors :
a) does not exist
b) is made with air from the compressor
c) is made with atmospheric pressure air.
15 - The injection centrifugal wheel is drained :
a) permanently
b) to enable the ventilation cycle
c) during engine shut-down.
16 - The max speed of the gas generator is :
a) limited by a hydraulic stop
b) limited by a mechanical stop
c) not limited by the Fuel Control Unit.
17 - The gap between the metering needle & the fork :
a) represents the instant flow step
b) varies with N1
c) provides a smoother acceleration.
18 - The fuel pump is :
a) vane type
b) gear type
c) centrifugal.
19 - The fuel system pressurising valve :
a) is electrically controlled
b) operates when overpressure occurs
c) gives priority to the start injectors.
20 - The starter is de-energised :
a) automatically
b) by air pressure
c) manually.
21 - The thermocouples are wired :
a) in series
b) in parallel
c) on the turbine casing.
16.14
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 3 (continued)
22 - The torque indicating system :
a) is hydraulic
b) is not used
c) is of phase displacement type.
23 - Number of thermocouple probes :
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5.
24 - Max oil pressure ?
a) 3 bars
b) 6 bars
c) 8 bars.
25 - Bleed valve position is transmitted by :
a) a pressure switch
b) a micro switch
c) an RVDT.
26 - The starter is supplied via a :
a) relay
b) micro switch
c) transistor.
27 - Starting is possible with one igniter :
a) yes
b) no
c) yes, in emergency.
28 - HE ignition means :
a) Hot Electrode
b) High Energy
c) High Emission.
29 - Borescopic inspection is used to check :
a) the external parts condition
b) the condition of internal parts which are not
accessible without removal
c) the reduction gearbox condition.
30 - The reliability of the engine is :
a) good
b) fairly good
c) extremely good.
1 - a
6 - c
1 1 - c
1 6 - b
2 1 - b
2 6 - a
A n s w e r s
2 - b
7 - b
1 2 - a
1 7 - a
2 2 - a
2 7 - a
3 - a
8 - a
1 3 - c
1 8 - b
2 3 - a
2 8 - b
4 - b
9 - a
1 4 - b
1 9 - c
2 4 - c
2 9 - b
5 - a
1 0 - b
1 5 - c
2 0 - c
2 5 - b
3 0 - a b c ?
16.15
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
2- Name the reference stations :
0 - ................................. 3 - ..................................
1 - ................................. 4 - ..................................
2 - ................................. 5 - ..................................
Max take-off power ........................
Compression ratio .......................
Engine air flow .......................
N2 speed at 100 % ......................
N1 speed at 100 % .......................
QUESTIONNAIRE 4
This questionnaire is a sort of drill which is also used to test
and perfect the knowledge acquired.
1- Complete this table (with values) :
G
Q
C T 1 T 2
CC
1 0 2 3 4 5
16.16
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
3- Engine description - Complete the legend of the
diagram :
1 - ................................................... 2 - ...................................................... 3 - .................................................
4 - ................................................... 5 - ...................................................... 6 - ................................................
7 - ................................................... 8 - ...................................................... 9 - ................................................
1
7
2 3 4 5
6 8
9
16.17
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
4- Oil system - Complete the legend of the diagram :
1 - ................................................... 2 - ...................................................... 3 - .................................................
4 - ................................................... 5 - ...................................................... 6 - ................................................
ENGINE AIRFRAME
1 2
6
3
4 5
16.18
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
5- Complete the following table :
Injector ventilation
Acceleration control unit
Bleed valve control pressure
Injection wheel pressurisation
Axial compressor bearing pressurisation
Gas generator rear bearing cooling
Power turbine bearing chamber labyrinth pressurisation
Gas generator turbine disc cooling
P0 P1' P2
16.19
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
6- Complete the legend of the compressor field diagram :
A- ................................................... B- ...................................................... C- .................................................
A
B
C
COMPRESSION
RATIO P2 / P0
AIR FLOW G
16.20
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
7- Fuel system - Complete the legend :
1 - ................................................... 2 - ...................................................... 3 - .................................................
4 - ................................................... 5 - ...................................................... 6 - ................................................
7 - ................................................... 8 - ...................................................... 9 - ................................................
10 - ................................................... 11 - ...................................................... 12 - ................................................
1 2 3 4 5 6
7
8
9
10 11 12
16.21
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
8- Control system - List the components :
1 - ................................................... 2 - ...................................................... 3 - .................................................
4 - ................................................... 5 - ...................................................... 6 - ................................................
7 - ................................................... 8 - ......................................................
1
2
3
P2
Q
+
+
+
N1*
4
N2
N2*
N1
5
6
8
7
16.22
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
9- Complete the following table :
Fuel pump ..........................................................
Pump pressure relief valve ................................
Constant P valve..............................................
Metering needle .................................................
Start injector electro-valve.................................
Overspeed electro-valve ....................................
Pressurising valve ..............................................
Main valve .........................................................
Combustion chamber drain valve ......................
Engine stopped
Engine in stabilised
flight
16.23
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
10 - Complete the following graphs during a load C increase :
Power turbine
speed N2
Fuel flow
Q
Gas generator
speed N1
time
time
time
time
Load C
16.24
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (suite)
11 - Fuel system - List the components :
1 - .......................... 2 - .......................... 3 - ......................... 4 - ..........................
5 - .......................... 6 - .......................... 7 - ......................... 8 - ..........................
9 - .......................... 10 - .......................... 11 - ......................... 12 - ..........................
13 - .......................... 14 - .......................... 15 - ......................... 16 - ..........................
17 - .......................... 18 - .......................... 19 - ......................... 20 - ..........................
21 - .......................... 22 - .......................... 23 - ......................... 24 - ..........................
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
21 22 20 23 24
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
9
8
10
16.25
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
12 - Drain system - List the drains :
1 - .......................... 2 - .......................... 3 - ......................... 4 - ..........................
5 - .......................... 6 - .......................... 7 - ......................... 8 - ..........................
4 3
5
6 7
8
1 2
16.26
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
13 - Complete the following table :
14 - List the main resources for on condition monitoring :
1 - ..............................................................................................................
2 - ..............................................................................................................
3 - ..............................................................................................................
4 - ..............................................................................................................
5 - ..............................................................................................................
6 - ..............................................................................................................
7 - ..............................................................................................................
8 - ..............................................................................................................
Number of lifting points ?
Type of fire detectors ?
Number of drain points ?
Air used for intake anti-icing ?
Max air tapping flow for aircraft use ?
Loss of power due to aircraft tapping ?
16.27
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
15 - Define of the following documents :
Maintenance manual
Spare parts catalogue
Tool catalogue
Service bulletin
Service letter
Engine log book
Flight manual
16.28
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
16 - Maintenance procedures
1 - List 2 advisory notices of "warning"
category.
2 - Time of non operation requiring
long term storage.
3 - Compressor washing - Product and
procedure.
4 - Procedure to rotate the power
turbine for borescopic inspection.
5 - Location of the vibration sensor
Installation.
6 - Type of attachment of the
compressor bleed valve.
7 - Type of attachment of the fuel
control unit.
16.29
Edition : December 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000 CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
1 - Dirty compressor.
2 - Fracture of the power shaft.
3 - Fracture of the accessory drive shaft.
4 - Obstruction of the power turbine
pressurisation pipe.
5 - Blockage of the fuel filter element.
6 - Partial clogging of the centrifugal fuel
injection wheel.
7 - Jamming of the constant P valve.
8 - No electrical supply of the start
injector valve.
9 - Fracture of the P2 pipe to the FCU.
10 - Fuel leak from the start purge valve.
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
17 - Fault analysis. Indicate (briefly) the effects of the following faults.
16.30
Edition : December 2000
For training purposes only
Copyright - TURBOMECA - 2000
Training Manual ARRIEL 1
CHECKING OF KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONNAIRE 4 (continued)
18 - Trouble shooting. Indicate the probable cause(s) of the following faults.
1 - On start selection, N increases but
not the gas temperature.
2 - On start selection, N and t4 increase
but not sufficiently to obtain start.
3 - Surge of the compressor.
4 - Max power not obtained.
5 - On stop selection, the engine does
not completely shut-down.
6 - Incorrect speed of the helicopter
rotor.
7 - Power turbine overspeed.
8 - Drop of oil pressure.
9 - Abnormal t4 temperature.
10 - N1 overspeed.
END
but not t he END of your t r ai ni ng
whi ch must be cont i nued,
har moni zi ng knowl edge and exper i ence.
THANK YOU f or your ki nd at t ent i on.
of this manual and (maybe also) of the course
Au r evoi r
Good bye
Adi s
Auf Wi eder sehen
Adeus
Ar r i veder ci
Far vel
Tot zi ens
Adj
Nkemi i n
Ant i o
Ma sal aam
TURBOMECA Training Centre
REMARKS CONCERNING THE TRAINING AIDS REMARKS CONCERNING THE TRAINING COURSE
Name ....................................................................................................................................... .
Address .................................................................................................................................... .
Course .............................................................. from............................ to............................. .
REMARKS
Remarks (appreciations, criticisms, suggestions...) should be forwarded to :
TURBOMECA
CENTRE D'INSTRUCTION
40220 TARNOS - FRANCE
40220 TARNOS - FRANCE
C E N T R E D ' I N S T R U C T I O N
E-mail: training.centre@turbomeca.fr
www.turbomeca-support.com
Tel: France .............................. 05 59 74 40 07
International ................. 33 5 59 74 40 07
Fax: France .............................. 05 59 74 45 16
International ................. 33 5 59 74 45 16