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Matthew Hause Atego Chief Consulting Engineer 5930 Cornerstone Court West, Ste 250 San Diego, CA 92121, USA E: Matthew.Hause@Atego.com James Hummell Atego Principal Engineer 1747 E Morten Ave. Ste 202 Phoenix, AZ 85020, USA E: James.Hummell@Atego.com
Keywords: SysML, MBSE, Electrical Network, Interfaces, Simulation, Executable Models Abstract Modeling of the electrical grid is normally done using bespoke or custom tools and programs rather than generic modeling languages. This requires the engineer to develop the complete simulation system from scratch. In addition, it is difficult to model from different viewpoints and levels of abstraction. The models are normally created from a single perspective to solve a specific problem or analyze the system from a single point of view. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) was developed by INCOSE and the OMG to provide general purpose modeling language for systems. Most published examples of SysML are of electromechanical software intensive systems in the aerospace and transportation industries. This paper documents a work in progress by the author to develop a model of an example electrical network, including the user interface to show how SysML can be used to model complex systems of systems. In addition, it shows how a simulation tool integrated with SysML provides a means of integrating multiple paradigms as well as a Human Computer Interface to the simulation. 1. INTRODUCTION Electricity is ubiquitous in our world today. Virtually all systems depend on electricity in some way to power, telemeter, communicate with, and/or control them. Indeed it would be difficult to imagine how we would get along without electricity. Unfortunately, we are periodically presented with this opportunity due to electrical network outages. These can take the form of regional or local outages such as the East Coast in August 2011, the San Diego area in September 2011, and the Boston area in October 2011 to name some recent events. The outages were caused by a variety of reasons: Hurricane Irene, an early snowfall, and suspected human error for example. Normally however, outages have multiple causes taking place over a number of hours or even days. This is because of their complex nature as a system of systems and the fact that they designed to be resilient. For this reason, it is
important to gain as much of an understanding of the systems and their interactions. The best way to do this of course is to create models of these systems. 1.1. SCADA and Energy Management Systems As the electrical power grid systems became more complex, control systems were developed to ensure continuity of supply. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems allow the power network operator to view and control the status of many aspects of the network. Initially analog, digital control systems are used to automate many of the operations. These provide real-time wide area monitoring and control of power systems for grid-wide monitoring and control of the power flows, transmission limit calculations and power plant operation. Advanced control systems, system protection, communication and automation applications can significantly improve the capacity and reliability of existing power transmission and distribution networks. Energy Management Systems (EMS) provide even more complex control and predictive systems such as Automatic Generation Control (AGC), Steady State Analysis, Economic Dispatch, Interchange Scheduling, Load Forecast based on past history, weather and other factors, etc. (El-Hawary, 1997) 2. MODEL BASED ENGINEERING Even though MBSE is a well-known concept it is worth repeating its definition, as defined by INCOSE. “Model based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the formalized application of modeling to support system requirements, design, analysis, verification, and validation activities beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing throughout development and later lifecycle phases.” (INCOSE, 2007). Put simply, modeling is at the heart of all aspects of the development effort, covering the complete lifecycle, and has a direct effect on any generated artifacts. 2.1. The Systems Modeling Language In March 2003, the OMG issued a Request for Proposal (RfP) for a customized version of UML suitable for Systems Engineering written by the OMG Systems Engineering Domain Special Interest Group (SE DSIG). Friedenthal,
Friedenthal. The different levels of abstraction and multiple viewpoints provide different ways of looking at a problem. In addition. namely structure. Or a mapping can be created between the model and a particular programming language and code generated from the model. Multiple what-if scenarios can be modeled and studied for both the behavior and structure. data. Holt. In addition. design and verify complex systems. specify. human factors and so forth. (2007) and Hause. although. The Four Pillars of SysML 2. they are better than the “death by words approach” or a “design vacuum” when user requirements are vague. They provide users with practical feedback when designing systems at a less-costly point in the development cycle. These are the block definition diagram and the internal block diagram. Simulation can also be effective for demonstrating or teaching concepts. executable models. or regulator. (2006a). 2008).1. Modeling Viewpoints Figure 1 demonstrates how SysML supports modeling from different viewpoints to capture the structural. system analysis to design and so forth. Figure 1 shows the four pillars of SysML. As always. Evaluation of existing infrastructures and elimination of alternatives can be done using parametrics. At the very least. For example. 2011) 3. safety. most SysML tools provide interfaces to mathematical solvers and simulation systems. requirements and parametrics. Changing the simulation system to reflect user requirements can be done at a lower cost than once the actual system has been developed and tested. In addition. SysML added two new diagrams which are the parametric and requirements diagrams that will be explored later. models and code are levels of abstraction as are analysis and design. (Hause. 2007. use the right tool for the right job. behavior. Model transformation is what translates the model between different levels of abstraction.Burkhart. Other model transformations include reversing code into a model for evaluation. viewpoints can also be different stakeholders such as supplier. behavioral and parametric relations. Model transformation Computer based systems normally require models to be translated to some executable language. intended to enhance systems quality. procedures and facilities. The normal presentation of the SysML diagrams such as the internal . For the sake of brevity. They provide agility early on where it is needed and precision in later lifecycle phases. translation to non-OO languages will require more extensive mapping. 2003).2. One important point is that multiple tools can be used for this exercise. aspects such as security. For further information see (OMG. In other words. For more information on SysML. SYSTEM SIMULATION Simulation models are useful tools for the engineer. software and other engineering disciplines” (OMG SysML. the class and composite structure diagrams were modified to include elements to model logical and physical block structures for systems engineers. software. This can be done using normal analysis techniques and by hand. 3. often providing new insight. UML based tools support code generation to both OO and Non-OO languages. Figure 1. customer. Korff. Both the code and the model are representations of the system in different forms. (Hause. see OMG. 2008. (2003) gives early history on the development of the UML for SE RFP. concepts found in the model may not be faithfully translated into the code. stability. Most SCADA systems provide a simulation mode to allow operators to be trained on system procedures. test generation from both software and system models. personnel. block diagram can be modified to better represent the concepts modeled as shown in Figure 5. 2008. The customization of UML for systems engineering supports modeling of a broad range of systems which may include hardware. SysML supports these different viewpoints by providing context based views using the block definition and internal block diagrams as well as builtin view capabilities. This can be interpreted code or require that code be generated and compiled to execute model behavior. Generation of PlatformIndependent to Platform Specific models can be accomplished using the Object Management Group’s (OMG) Model Driven Architecture (MDA) concepts. 2006b). we will not attempt to describe the two languages in detail. and the fact that the UML specification is 1000 pages and the SysML specification is 300 pages. improve the ability to exchange systems engineering information amongst tools and help bridge the semantic gap between systems. The goal is to provide a “standard modeling language for systems engineering to analyze.
natural gas. Most blackouts are caused by a combination of these rather than a single reason. power lines under heavy load start to sag as the heat up. substation. The physical network could be modeled to examine the characteristics of the equipment. Load flow programs can then look at this telemetered data to determine if the telemetered data is consistent. Power Grid in the Northeast USA. step-up and step-down transformers. different viewpoints can be created to examine different aspects of the network. and regulators. It explains in great detail the sequence of events that caused the blackout and what can be done in the future to prevent another. NERC. Equipment includes primary distribution lines at 19kv and 12kv. The distribution network carries the electricity to the end customer. This can be quite critical. or nuclear and green sources such as hydro-electric dams. often large systems of systems. bad weather conditions. Consequently with all the interconnections. Generation consists of the power generating plants which can be coal. and distribution. customers. System Failure These systems of systems have thousands of interconnections and points of failure. It is most useful to those not . Figure 2. For example. The load flow program was not operating and did not provide a means for the operators to identify their precarious position. This provides a means for the operators to perform what-if scenarios based on current data: can a circuit breaker be opened or closed safely? Historical views are provided for reviewing the cause of problems and network outages. Substations provide the interface between the transmission and distribution networks. Equipment includes high and low voltage busses. The Utility System of Systems Electrical utilities are normally broken down into four major groups: generation. miscommunication. 138kv.1. There is quite a lot of information available on the recent major electrical network blackouts. high voltage transformers. Examples are the Northeast US and Canada blackout of 2003. Figure 2 shows an example of the power grid in a region of the northeast US. The telemetry supporting the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system could be modeled to look at communication paths loading to support the capture of cascade events to determine if sufficient diagnostic information can be collected to determine the sequence of events. However.2. 220 and 110 volts depending on the company and region. (2004) is a technical analysis of the East Coast US and Canada August 14. understaffing. Causalis. Individual countries will each have a unique mix of these. Economics and concern for global warming are causing a shift towards the green energy. and capacitor banks. wind. dependable and flexible. the European blackout of 2006. These are often at multiple voltage levels such as 69kv. 2003. 4. 4. pole top switches. The different colored lines represent different voltages. distribution transformers. The telemetered view via the SCADA system can be modeled to examine the flow of electricity through the network and control of that network. Simulated views of the actual network are often provided. Individual utilities and regulators have overlapping responsibilities and control. solar and tidal. etc. circuit breakers. user error. In areas where there are trees. physical obstacles such as trees. ELECTRICAL NETWORK MODELLING Power systems are complex. The existence of these models is often part of the utility’s operating license. most electric utilities are run for profit so resources are constrained by shareholders. resilient. The high voltage transmission network comprises transmission lines. (2008) has an analysis model of the blackout using a state/activity model notation. and circuit breakers. These are just a few of the models and viewpoints that can be created for electrical power grids. One of the causes of the East Coast US 2003 outage was due to faulty telemetry. Electricity is converted from higher transmission voltages to lower distribution voltages such as 19kv and 12kv.4. One mark of this is how any electrical outage makes the news headlines for many weeks afterwards. this can cause outages when the lines come in contact. As stated above. Finally Wikipedia (2011) contains an excellent description of the Northeast blackout of 2003. switchgear. outages can be catastrophic. faulty telemetry and so forth. secondary lines at 440. They are however generally very reliable. and 345kv up to 800kv depending on load requirements. These are caused by a variety of reasons including excess of demand. Models of the human operators making decisions can also be useful to identify human factors or human computer interface problems. transmission. The polarity was reversed causing the operators to underestimate to severity of the problem. blackout. Consequently this is a rich source for an example model. They are normally large geographically dispersed systems involving multiple operators and regulators. and the Southwest outage of 2011. especially for distribution systems.
THE ELECTRICAL NETWORK MODEL The model was created using the standard SysML diagrams. It shows the connections starting with the generator and continuing through to the substation transformer. Properties transferred are Impedance and Power. State Machine Simulation State models provide the behavioral aspect of the model. 5. The Example Electrical Grid Topology Figure 5 is a simplified model of the system. 5. 5. Stakeholders and viewpoints To start with a use case model was created to get a view of the context and the different possible stakeholders for an electrical grid as shown in Figure 3. Pole top switches are included to provide a means of modifying the network topology.3. TR1a_11k_69k : TRTransformer LD3 : Load QOut : PwrTx CN1b_TR1a_SUB1a : TRConductor QIn : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx SUB1 : Substation QOut : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx CN5_TR3_LD4 : TRConductor TR3_CN3_CN5 : TRTransformer LD4 : Load Figure 5. Model behavior was provided using state diagrams as well as code inserted into the operations owned by the blocks. Figure 6 shows the State Machine for the Conductor. generate power. Their use cases are Use Electricity. Generate Electricity and Supply customers. 5.4. transmission lines. Connections between the system components are provided by the SysML flow ports.Conductor operations New () TransferPower (in Tm : Timespan) Resistance () : Single Inductance () : Single Capacity () : Single HighVolt () : Single LowVolt () : Single HighLoad () : Single HiHiLoad () : Single Transfer () flow ports inout QIn : PwrTx inout QOut : PwrTx inout TMIn : Power inout TMOut : Power «block» . distribution lines and customer loads. electric generating company and the electrical supplier. The Electric Grid Components As described in previous sections.Transformer operations New () TransferPower (in Tm : Timespan) Resistance () : Single Inductance () : Single Capacity () : Single flow ports inout QIn : PwrTx inout QOut : PwrTx 1 TR1 1 LD1 LD2 «block» Load operations New () ConsumePower (in Tm : Timespan) Resistance () : Single Inductance () : Single Capacity () : Single flow ports in InSimR : OSingleValue in InSimX : OSingleValue inout QIn : PwrTx 1 GN1 «block» Generator operations New () GeneratePower (in Tm : Timespan) Resistance () : Single Inductance () : Single flow ports out EMOut : Emissions in FS : Fuel inout QOut : PwrTx «valueType» Power attributes Current : Single Voltage : Single + Voltage : Single + Current : Single «FlowSpecification» PwrTx flowProperties in Imp : Impedance out Pwr : Power Figure 4. The main stakeholders used in the model so far are the customer. The value type for Power is shown on the diagram along with its attributes. The Electrical Grid These components were then assembled onto an internal block diagram showing the interconnection between the different elements as shown in Figure 5. there are many more possible stakeholders and those listed have many more use cases than are shown. The state machines provide a means of conditional behavior for the component based on the state of the system. They each have operations describing their behavior such as transfer power.familiar with electrical networks as there are links to many of the concepts and terms used. Consequently. Stakeholder Use Cases Obviously. there are many different components in an electrical grid. distribution transformer. distribution substation. The Electric Grid Components The electrical network context shown is composed of conductors. they have flow ports typed by PwrTx defined to provide for the transfer of electricity. 5. The final model was quite large. bdd [Package] Common «block» Electrical Network Context Small 1 1 1 1 «valueType» BasePower CN2 1 GN1_Sub1 «block» . and consume power. ibd [block] Electrical Network Context Small «block» Electrical Network Context Small ResetGN SW1 : Switch QIn : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx RPh : RephasingUnit ResetTR1 GN1 : Generator QIn : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx ResetTR1b QIn : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx SW_TR1b_CN2 CN2_SW_TR1 : TRConductor QOut : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx TR1b_69k_11k : TRTransformer CN1a_GN1_TR1a : TRConductor QIn : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx ResetTR2 QIn : PwrTx TR1_11k_380 : TRTransformer QOut : PwrTx ARPh : AutoRephasingUnit QIn : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx LD1 : Load CN4a_TR1_LDs : TRConductor QIn : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx ResetTR1a SW_CN3_TR2 QOut : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx : PwrTx QOut QIn : PwrTx TR2_SW_CN4 : TRTransformer QIn : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx CN3_TR1b_SW : TRConductor ResetTR3 QOut : PwrTx CN4_TR2_LD3 : TRConductor QOut : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx QIn : PwrTx LD2 : Load Figure 3.1. The model was transformed into executable code translating the state diagrams and operational code as well as a mapping of one to one of the defined blocks and the user interface. In addition. The diagram is illustrative of the concepts and the diversity of the stakeholders. only a few of the diagrams can be shown due to the size of the paper. . transformers loads and generators.2. A sub-set of these are listed in Figure 4 below.
Load with Slider Controls Attached to the loads are Single Value Generators. Figure 9 shows an example of the user interface displays. This technique provides a means of viewing the same context from different viewpoints and aspects. Lamps are used to display Boolean values such as overload and the state of switches. They have been divided into generation. conductors heat and sag as they become overloaded. User Interface Displays The user interface displays are assembled based on the components defined in the model. 5. Power displays are used to show the load on the different power grid elements. 5. RESULTS SO FAR The simulation model described above can be used to demonstrate a variety of different fault scenarios. Grid Components with Display and Controls In order to prevent the diagram from becoming too cluttered. A switch is included to provide a means to open and close the distribution and transmission switches. The state machine shows the conductor transitioning from nominal to overload. more precise behavior could of course be done using parametric equations to take into account cable size and materials. CN2_alm : Lamp PIn : OBooleanValue POut : OBooleanValue GN1 : Generator QOut : PwrTx GN1_Sub1_alm : Lamp CN3_alm : Lamp CN4_alm : Lamp CN5_alm : Lamp PIn : OBooleanValue POut : OBooleanValue PIn : OBooleanValue POut : OBooleanValue PIn : OBooleanValue POut : OBooleanValue PIn : OBooleanValue POut : OBooleanValue CN3 : TR Conductor CN4 : TR Conductor CN5 : TR Conductor CN2 : TR Conductor QOut : PwrTx GN1_Sub1 : TR Conductor QOut : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx QOut : PwrTx InP : PwrTx PwrToday : PwrDisplay InP : PwrTx CN2_Disp : PwrDisplay InP : PwrTx TR1_Disp : PwrDisplay InP : PwrTx Pwr1 : PwrDisplay QOut : PwrTx CN1a_GN1_TR1a : TR Conductor QOut : PwrTx CN1b_TR1a_SUB1a : TR Conductor QOut : PwrTx POut : OBooleanValue PIn : OBooleanValue TestSwitch : SSwitch POut : OBooleanValue TestLamp : Lamp PIn : OBooleanValue CN1a_alm : Lamp POut : OBooleanValue PIn : OBooleanValue CN1b_alm : Lamp SUB1 : Substation POut : OBooleanValue PIn : OBooleanValue SUB1_alm : Lamp Figure 7. After a certain amount of time it will come in contact with a tree and transition to a fault state. it would not appear that a length of cable would have much state based behavior. Grid User Interface and Controls Simulation systems require a means of viewing and controlling the values and states of the components used in the simulation. Figure 9.5. These input components provide a means of altering the values on the loads. This coupling of the behavioral model and the display instrumentation allows the user to define the behavior. Each load has two single value generators for the reactance and resistance loads. ibd [block] Network Display Context Small «block» Electrical Network Context Small InSimR : OSingleValue Out : POutput InSimR : OSingleValue Out : POutput Out : POutput LoadImp : SingleValueGenerator LoadImp2 : SingleValueGenerator LoadImp3 : SingleValueGenerator Figure 8. data and components in the model as well as how these will be presented to the person running the simulation. Note that as the owning block (Electrical Network Context Small) is the same.7. Load Controls Figure 8 shows the four loads shown in Figure 5. As stated earlier. It remains in that state for a set amount of time as the conductor starts to sag. This corresponds to the normal breakdown of responsibilities in an electric utility. Loads can be varied for the simulation using the slider controls a results display as required. At face value. The display elements are lamps and power displays.6. . they are still part of the same assembly. 5. load and voltage. distance from the trees and so forth. Figure 7 shows these controls and displays. span length. the controls and display elements have been placed on a separate internal block diagram. 6. transmission and distribution. Of course. Two of these are documented below. State Machine for the Conductor Figure 6 shows the time based as well as event based behavior of a conductor. User Interface Controls Figure 9 shows an example of the user interface displays for the simulation.ibd [block] Electrical Network Context Small  «block» Electrical Network Context Small LoadX : SingleValueGenerator Out : POutput LoadX2 : SingleValueGenerator LoadX3 : SingleValueGenerator LoadX4 : SingleValueGenerator Out : POutput InSimX : OSingleValue LD4 : Load InSimR : OSingleValue Out : POutput LoadImp4 : SingleValueGenerator Out : POutput InSimX : OSingleValue LD2 : Load Out : POutput InSimX : OSingleValue LD3 : Load InSimX : OSingleValue LD1 : Load InSimR : OSingleValue Figure 6.
international. The model will also be proposed as one of the MBSE challenge problems. On this occasion. Fault Condition #2 – Real/Reactive Power Mismatch Power factor is the ratio of the real power to the reactive power flowing to the load. • Add additional behavior: auto-reclose on transformers • Automate the inputs for running different failure scenarios • Etc. lines are often in forested areas. 6. 345KV). 8. The example model uses a generic. CONCLUSION Network modeling is normally done using bespoke or custom tools. meaning trees need to be cut back. • SysML is formal enough for enabling model simulation. resulting in system instability and severe overvoltage fluctuations. • SysML is now taught in many universities and widely used in industry. There are many advantages to using SysML. . There are many reasons for this. reactive reserves. the trees were not cut back. industrial standard namely SysML to model the system of systems. etc. It is an important factor when assessing voltage profiles. It is worth pointing out that transmission lines (69KV. and so forth causing a failure cascade. Future plans include the following: • Expand the model to much greater complexity. SysML tools now offer easy ways for transforming models to some executable form and to execute them with minimal added design effort. the lines overloaded and sagged. and voltage stability. This was a contributing factor of the 2003 Northeast Blackout. Fault Condition #1 – Conductor Overload Results in Short This fault was one of the causes of the East Coast blackout in 2003.) However. FUTURE WORK As stated earlier. and most primary lines (12KV. the model is a work in progress.6. A typical problem is high air-conditioning loads which lower the power factor causing these problems. • Allows for modeling of a system of systems. (The laws of physics remain constant in spite of our best efforts. Most secondary lines (440v. Finally. The example model has demonstrated complex fault conditions. Simulation of systems in this way provides a means of experimenting with the system without destroying it. Reactive elements on the line can interact with the system and with each other to create resonant conditions. 220v) are insulated but some due to age and other reasons are still bare cables. • Component models can be interconnected based on more than just physical connections. • Provides the ability to model the system from multiple viewpoints.) Consequently the circuit breaker on the line opened. This is also known as cosine (phi). They are also more expensive than bare conductors. Conductors therefore placed away from obstructions (buildings. 7. etc. • It can be used for many other applications thus allowing for cross-pollination of ideas and experience. It is normally modeled as a dimensionless number between 0 and 1. • Add data logging for trending analysis of both analog and digital values • Add a network diagram as part of the UI • Add new types of load – automatic load generation over time.2. Short-sighted cost savings however in any industry can affect maintenance budgets. • SysML tools are now widely available. Insulated conductors cause the line to overheat and reduce capacity. It can be used for assessment of risk and reliability and to show where the systems need improvement. 138KV. trees. causing other lines to overload. This resulted in the loss of a major line. it can be used to communicate the concepts found in these systems. 19KV) are bare conductors without insulation. eventually making contact with the trees and shorting.1.
wikipedia.. Steiner. 2011.energy. Boca Raton. Matthew studied Electrical Engineering at the University of New Mexico and Computer Science at the University of Houston. A Brief History of Con Edison.gov/vehiclesandfuels/epact/pdfs/ep act_titles_3-4-5-6-19. the OMG. process control.nerc.com/docs/docs/blackout/NERC_Fin al_Blackout_Report_07_13_04. 2006a. European Electricity Blackout. C. Wiley. Why. Wiley-IEEE Press. Causalis. 2007b. systems engineering. communications. responsible for customizing Artisan Studio to meet the customers’ needs. the co-chair of the UPDM group and a member of the OMG SysML specification team. presented at INCOSE International Symposium 2006 Hause. Blackout: What Happened.coned. Electrical Power Systems: Design and Analysis. M.org/wiki/Northeast_Blackout_of_2003 Biography Matthew Hause is Atego’s Chief Consulting Engineer.. Technical Analysis of the August 14. His role at Atego includes mentoring. Moore. His roles have varied from project manager to developer. He has been a regular presenter at INCOSE. the IET. and Sons. Inc. modeling and simulation environment development as well as building reusable library components for industry. SysML and Architectural Frameworks such as DoDAF and MODAF. M. November 2006. standards development and training courses. September 2007 Mazer. Cross-Cutting Concerns and Ergonomic Profiling Using UML/SysML. M.. 2008. J. The Systems Modeling Language SysML. V1. (2001). virtual team management. Systems Engineering Vision 2020. . the IEEE. Colorado. Hause.0.. Version 2. 400 pgs.com/EuropeanElectricityBlackout. C. safety critical systems development. DoD Enterprise Architecture and many other conferences. human factors.pdf El-Hawary. NERC. BCS. 2006b. Basic Systems and Westinghouse Systems. James studied Computer Engineering at the University of Arizona. Within Atego. With 17 years industry experience. and many other areas of technical and real-time systems.Available online.. Morgan Kaufman September 2008 Hause. OMG Document Number: formal/2007-09-01. distributed control. project management. FL. He worked in the power systems industry for 20 years at Houston Lighting and Power. 2007 Wikipedia.03. and other systems.0/PDF.References Borberly.C. model-based engineering. F. NJ. US Government. and software development with UML. John. A. sales presentations. Electric Power Planning for Regulated and Deregulated Markets. SCADA. URL: http://www.asp Epact. Energy Management Systems (EMS). 2011. His role includes supporting pre and post sales activities with customers as well as training consultancy. He has been involved in military command and control systems. A. Distributed Generation: The Power Paradigm for the New Millennium. He has been developing multinational complex systems for almost 35 years. he has worked in Aerospace embedded systems engine controls.pdf Con Edison. INCOSE EuSEC Symposium 2006 Proceedings. Sept 2006. 313pgs.pdf OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysML™). “Are we there yet?” Assessing Quality in Model Based Systems Engineering.org/spec/SysML/1. avionics. CRC Press.omg. R.. (1995). http://en. systems development..causalis. 2004. M. June. and Kreider. A. Texas. and What Did We Learn?http://www. Denver. (2007). North American Electric Reliability Council. and process modeling and simulation both as a developer of applications and user of them. 1992. and customizing/integrating any software tool that is required by the customer. He has written a series of white papers on architectural modeling. 808 pages Friedenthal. 2003. Hoboken. http://www.com/history/electricity. Available online at http://www1. Practical Guide to SysML: The Systems Modeling Language.. He regularly contributes to the OMG for specification updates in many areas. Biles and Associates. he is a product developer for Artisan Studio. S. INCOSE International Symposium. 2011. TP-2004004-02. International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE). Available online at http://www. James Hummell is a Principal Engineer at Atego.eere. Accessed November.
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