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History of Canada Notes

Part One: European Colonization

The First Nations


peoples of Canada Came from Asia 12,000 years ago

Crossed ering !and ridge t"at #oined $ussia to Alas%a


tri&es made up t"e 'irst Nations


of t"e 'irst Nation tri&es (till live in Canada today Canada)s government gave t"e *nuit t"e Nunavut +erritory in nort"east Canada,

The Europeans in Canada


e-plorers to settle Canada .ere Norse invaders from t"e (/andinavian Peninsula *n 1000, t"ey &uilt a to.n on t"e nort"east /oast of Canada 0 esta&lis"ed a trading relations"ip .it" t"e *nuit

+"e Norse deserted t"e settlement for un%no.n reasons


did not return to Canada until almost 100 years later2

A Viking Ship

England Claims Newfoundland


*talian e-plorer ohn Ca!ot, sailed to Canada)s east /oast Ca&ot /laimed an area of land for England 6"is sponsor7 0 named it Newfoundland

ohn Ca!ot

New Fran"e

a"(ues Cartier sailed up t"e (t, ! $iver, Claimed t"e land for 'ran/e,

'ren/" /olonists named t"e area Ne. 'ran/e

Samuel de Champlain

New Fran"e )*ue!e"+


fur traders .ere #oined &y 'ren/" farmers, mer/"ants, and missionaries from t"e Cat"oli/ C"ur/" roug"t .it" t"em 'ren/" la.s, traditions, 0 religion

'ran/e .ouldn)t let anyone move to Ne. 'ran/e ."o .as not Cat"oli/

The ,ritish in Canada


ritis" /olonized t"e region sout" of Ne. 'ran/e

(a. Ne. 'ran/e)s su//ess in fur trapping 0 .anted to ta%e /ontrol of t"e fur trade

Fren"h and Indian -ar )#.$&+


!ed to t"e Fren"h and Indian -ar ."ere 8reat ritain foug"t for /ontrol of Canadian territory 0 t"e fur trade and /on9uered :ue&e/, 8reat ritain and *ro9uois *ndians versus 'ran/e and ;uron *ndians,

Treaty of /aris )#.0%+


ritis" /ontrol of all lands east of t"e <ississippi $iver, e-/ept for 2 islands off of Ne.foundland ritis" for/ed Nova (/otia)s 'ren/"=spea%ing people to leave

Nova (/otia)s 'ren/" .ent to anot"er 'ren/" /olony, !ouisiana>des/endants of t"ese people are t"e Ca#uns

*ue!e" A"t11#..&

ritis" allo.ed t"e 'ren/" to stay in :ue&e/, &ut /ontinued to /ontrol t"e region +"e :ue&e/ A/t guaranteed t"e 'ren/" t"e rig"t to maintain t"eir /ulture 6language, religion, traditions7

2i3ision of Canada

Englis" spea%ing /itizens lived in ?pper Canada 6Ontario7 <ost 'ren/" spea%ing /itizens lived in ! Canada 6:ue&e/7

@ @ @

-ar of #4#5
+"e 'ren/" and t"e ritis" .or%ed toget"er against t"e ?( ."o tried to invade Canada +"e .ar defined t"e ?(=Canadian &order 0 in/reased a sense of Canadian nationalism

ot" 'ren/" Canadians 0 Englis" Canadians #oined to prote/t t"eir land>t"ey .ere more united t"an ever &efore

-ar of #4#5

After the -ar of #4#5

'ren/" Canadians 0 ritis" Canadians realized t"at t"ey "ated &eing under ritis" rule +"ey t"oug"t t"at 8reat ritain .as too far a.ay to understand t"eir e/onomi/ 0 politi/al needs

/ro3in"e of Canada

Canadians &egan to re&el against ritis" /ontrol

ritain sent a government reformer to e-amine t"e Canadian pro&lem

$esult of t"e in9uiry, ritain dis/overed an e/onomi/ need to unify t"e 2 Canadian provin/es #4&#>?pper 0 ! Canada .ere united, esta&lis"ing t"e /ro3in"e of Canada

,ritish North Ameri"a A"t )#40.+

#40.' ,ritish North Ameri"a A"t' /reated a federation union of Canada

Aoined four /olonies 6:ue&e/, Ontario, Ne. runs.i/%, 0 Nova (/otia7 3 /olonies &e/ame Provin/es #oined &y a /ommon .ritten la. 6/onstitution7, = ritain a//epted t"e agreement &e/ause t"ey .ere glad to &e rid of t"e responsi&ility of prote/ting t"e /olonies 6e-pensive7

6esults of the ,ritish North Ameri"a A"t

Allo.ed ea/" region to sell goods more easily to one anot"er

*mproved trade "elped t"e e/onomy (oon t"ere .as enoug" money to &uild a railroad a/ross t"e /ountry

#440' Trans"ontinental 6ailroad .as &uilt 0 people /ould no. easily travel from t"e Atlanti/ O/ean to Pa/ifi/ O/ean

E7panding Canada
B"en Canada &e/ame a /onfederation in 1CD5, t"ere .ere only 3 provin/es !eaders desired to e-pand t"e ne. /ountry from t"e Atlanti/ to t"e Pa/ifi/

oug"t land from t"e ;udson)s ay Company +"oug"t t"e pur/"ase .ould &e a simple pro/ess, &ut pro&lems o//urred .it" t"e native peoples

E7panding Canada

Eventually t"e 'irst Nations 6*nuit7 agreed to relo/ate to reservations 6no. Nunavut7

+rans/ontinental $ailroad .as &uilt on t"is land

(oon, E ne. provin/es 0 1 territory .ere /reated: <anito&a, ritis" Colum&ia, Prin/e Ed.ard *sland, and t"e Nort".est +erritories



6esults of the 6ailroad'

*n/reased s"ipment of goods a/ross t"e /ountry *n/reased travel from /oast to /oast Created ne. provin/es 0 territories irt" of Canadian nationalism

&efore t"e railroad, most people only t"oug"t of t"emselves as &elonging to t"eir provin/eF after t"ey felt as if t"ey .ere part of one /ountry

Trans"ontinental 6ailroad


8O!@ .as dis/overed along t"e .estern /oast of Canada in 1C4D #494' Canada)s government /reated 8ukon Territory to meet t"e needs of t"e area)s population

#9:$' Saskat"hewan ; Al!erta

+"is land .as originally part of Nort".est +erritories, &ut &y early 1400s, many people .anted t"is to /"ange $eason 1: e/onomy "ad s"ifted from fur trade to farming, mining, logging 0 rail.ay $eason 2: population gre. 9ui/%ly &e/ause of t"e ne. industries $eason E: area /ould not afford everyt"ing people needed 6s/"ools7

y forming ne. provin/es, t"ey /ould /olle/t ta-es to pay for t"ese t"ings,

Farming <ats in Al!erta

#9&9' Newfoundland

Ne.foundland #oined t"e /ountry of Canada &e/ause:

Canada promised to "elp t"em &y &uilding many t"ings su/" as railroads 0 roads ritain didn)t .ant t"e /ost of supporting Ne.foundland anymore,

#999' Nuna3ut Territory

*n t"e 1450s, *nuit .anted to /reate a territory /alled Nunavut &e/ause:

Banted t"eir o.n territory so t"at t"ey /ould start ma%ing de/isions for t"emselves, +"ey needed t"eir o.n government, Banted /ontrol of t"eir land>for many years Canada "ad used t"e resour/es of t"e Ar/ti/ .it"out as%ing t"e *nuit *nuit still live t"e same .ay t"at t"eir an/estors did>t"ey use traditional met"ods for survival