Absdf

e*g;Edkif"m;
wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
Heavenly Sword and Dragon Sabre
( Yi Tian Tu Long Ji )
Jim Yong

usif;,Hk\ &Dxsefxl;vHk

rmwdum
tcef; (1)
tcef; (2)
tcef; (3)
tcef; (4)
tcef; (5)
tcef; (6)
tcef; (7)
tcef; (8)
tcef; (9)
tcef; (10)
tcef; (11)
tcef; (12)

cGef;vGefbk&m;ausmif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ESpfukd,fh wpfpdwf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
t½ªH; ESifh tEkdif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
yef;aMuG yef;yGifh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
e*g;Edkif"m; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
aoG;vuf0g; &GufavS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
a&Tig; tmrcHXme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
[lwef; ckESpfazmf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
a&Tig; tmrcHXme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
rdef;racsmav; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
ya[Vdqefaom rdef;uav; . . . . . . . . . . . 94
"m;jyyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif

e*g;Edkif"m;

tcef; (1)
cGef;vGefbk&m;ausmif;
[dkeefe,f&dS NrifYrm; oDacgifavorQ txifu&&dSvSaom qef;qufawmifwef; awmifwufvrf;
wpf a e&mwG i f Nzpf y g\/touf t &G , f t m;Nzif Y q,f Y a Ncmuf E S p f c ef Y o m &d S O D ; rnf Y rd e f ; uav;wpf O D ; onf
Nrif;uav;wpfaumifEiS Yf twl c&D;ESiv
f suf&\
Sd / rde;f uav;\ oGi[
f efu ESi;f aomufyef;vdk vef;vef;0if;0if;&dv
S suf
rsufvHk;tpHkrSmvnf; aomuf&SI;Bu,fyrm &Tef;vufawmufyae\/
&d k ; pif ; pG m 0wf p m;qif , if x m;vif Y upm; rd e f ; uav;\ ysd L rspf a Bumif Y &S i f ; aom tvS & k y f y H k u
awmyef;av;wpfyGifYES,f vef;pGifYpGm ay:vGifae\/
rde;f uav;onf vGepf mG NrifYrm;NyD; vlot
l oGm;tvm NywfawmufvaS om awmifrBuD;\ awmifwufvrf;wGif
wpfa,mufwnf; c&D;ESifaevifYupm; aBumuf&GHY[efpdk;pOf;rQray:acs/
rdef;uav;onf ywf0ef;usif&dS omarmzG,f awmawmifobm0tvStyrsm;udk ai;&if;NzifYwvSnfY?
awmNrdKiftwGif; bmombm0 NrL;xl;aysmfyg;um rm*"aw;zGJYvsuf&dSaom aus;iSufom&umav;rsm;{/f oHomrsm;udk
vnf;aumif;? em;pGifYaxmif&if;wpfvSnfYNzifY vufpGJawmf Nrif;av;{/f ZwfBudK;udk udkifqGJvsuf awmiftwuf
awmvrf;twdkif; rSefrSefav;av; Nznf;Nznf;nifnif avQmufvSrf;vsuf&dSae\/
rdef;uav;{/f zGHYxGm;aom&if? vHk;0ef;pGifYum;aomwifwdkYtBum; ao;usifaom cg;txufwGifrl
"m;wdkwpfacsmif;u csdwfqGJvsuf yg&dSae\/
trS e f r l rd e f ; uav;onf vG e f p G m a0;vH a omt&yf r S þtxif u & qef ; quf a wmif w ef ; od k Y
c&D;ESifvmcJY&&SmolNzpfyg\/
rde;f uav;{/ftrnfrmS aumYvif;vif;NzpfNyD; emrnfBuD; xdyo
f ;D odik ;f ynm&Sif aumYcsi;f ESiYf trsKd ;orD;ynm&Sif
ppf&kHwdkY\ orD;axG;av;yif Nzpf\/
aumYvif ; vif ; onf þrQ a0;vH a om t&yf r S a eNyD ; vQif Nrif Y rm;vS a om txif u &awmif o d k Y
wpfa,mufxD;wnf; a&muf&dSvmcJYNcif; &nf&G,fcsufrJYawmY r[kwfacs/
1

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
obm0tavsmuf qef;Bu,fpGm NzpfxGef;aeaom awmawmif\ pdrf;vef;nGwfEl;zG,f tvStywdkYudk
&I B unf Y Nrif a wG Y vd k a omaBumif Y wpf a Bumif ; ? &if x J 0 ,f vd I u f a rmpG m cH p m;ae&&S m aom cspf a 0'em
taNymuftpufuav;rsm;vGiYf Ny,faNyaysmufvkd aNyaNymufNim; [laom &nf&,
G cf sufNzifYvnf;aumif;? þawmBuD;ESiYf
þawmifodkY a&mufvmcJYNcif;yif Nzpfyg\/
,ckrl wNznf;Nznf;ESifY awmif{/f twufvrf;u rwfvmNyDNzpf\/
od k Y aomf us,f 0 ef ; aom awmvrf ; wpf a vQmuf eif ; avQmuf & ef tk w f a vS u m;xpf u av;rsm;
cif ; usif ; pD r H a y;xm;oNzif Y aumYvif ; vif ; ES i f Y vuf p G J a wmf Nrif ; uav;wd k Y rS m ouf a wmif Y ouf o m
vSrf;wufvmEdkifyg\/
trSefrl þqef;qufawmifwGif a&Smifvifausmif;awmfBuD;tm; pwif wnfaxmifay;cJYol xefrif;quf\
tpOD;bk&ifudk,fawmf vufxufwdkifuyif þawmvrf;tm; avSum;xpfav;rsm;NzifY azmufvkyf&ef trdefYxkwfí
azmufvkyfapcJYNcif; Nzpfonfr[kwfygvm;/
aumYvif;vif;onf avSum;xpftwdkif; wufvmNyD;rS aemufbufodkY vSnfYBunfYvdkuf\/ xdktcg aemuf
a0;ysyswGif usef&pfcJYaom usOf;aNrmif;ao;i,fvSonfY vrf;taetxm;udk awGY&NyD; rsufESmcsif;qdkif&dS
wpfbufaomawmifoYkd vSr;f BunfYNyefaomf a&wHceG if g;oG,f pD;usaeonfY vGepf mG vSyonfY &Icif;udyk g awGYvu
kd &f \/
vif;vif;onf &ifudkaumYvsuf OD;acgif;vnf;armYum awmyef;? awmifyef;&eHYrsm; o,faqmifvmaom
vef;qwfonfY avoefYat;udk wpf0&I&dIuf&if; c&D;qufcJY\/
wpfqpfcsdK;auGY wpfckodkYta&muf txufawmifay:odkY trIrJY vif;vif; armYBunfYvdkufcsdefwGifrl
vG e f p G m BuD ; rm;us,f 0 ef ; aom bk & m;ausmif ; 0if ; BuD ; ud k awG Y vd k u f & NyD ; ausmif ; 0if ; twG i f ;
ausmif;aqmifBuD;i,frsm;udkvnf; Nrifvdkuf&\/
vif;vif;onf xdkausmif;aqmifBuD;i,frsm;udk wai;warm BunfY&if; tawG;0ifvm\/
]]a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;u odkif;ynmudk tpysdK;cJYwJY t&if;cH a&aomufNrpfBuD;yJqdkwm vlwdkif;
vufcHxm;Buw,f? 'gayr,fY 0gqef;awmifrSm usif;yr,fY "m;a&;NydKifyGJBuD;rSmusawmY 'Dausmif;u odkif;ynm&Sif
bkef;awmfBuD;awG bmaBumifY ryg&wmvJ? *dkPf;BuD;ig;*dkPf;xJrSm a&Smifvifausmif; *dkPf;wpfckwnf; rygvmygvm;?
tif; 'Dausmif; bkef;awmfBuD;awG[m Edkifr,frxifvdkY oGm;r,SOfNydKifwmvm;? 'grSr[kwf tpOftvmBuD;rm;cJYwJY
ausmif;awmf&JY emrnfodu©mawG usoGm;rSm pdk;&drfvdkYyJvm;}}
vif;vif;u tawG;pudk qufvdkufrdNyef\/
]]'grSr[kwf&if 'Dvdkrsm; Nzpfrvm;? 'Dausmif;u bkef;BuD;awG[m w&m;usifYBuHtm;xkwf&mu
w&m;ayguf o G m ;Buyga&m? tJ ' D a wmY od k i f ; ynm b,f a vmuf y J a wmf a eayr,f Y avmuD v l o m;awG v d k
*kPfyumoerrufawmYwJYtwGuf wpfzufom;awGeJY t&HI;tEdkif rNyKcsifawmYvdkYvm;}}
vif;vif;onf a&Smifvifausmif;awmfBuD;ESifY ywfowfí olYtawG;ESifYol &dSaepOf &kwfw&uf
a&SYbufawmtkyfrsm;tBum; oHBudK;csif; wcRrfcRrfwD;cwfNrnfoHrsm;ESifYtwl wpfpHkwpfa,muf{/f EIwfrS
oHa0*pm&GwfzwfoDqdkaeoHudkvnf; Bum;vdkuf&\/
vif;vif;onf ydkí yDNyifpGmBum;&ef em;pGifYvdkufaomf
]]tcspfrS ylavmifNyif;Nyaom aomua0'emaygufzmG ;vm\/cspfrS wkev
f yI Bf umuf&YHG pw
d rf sm; ay:xGuv
f m\/
tcspfESifY uif;uGmEdkifolonf ylavmifNyif;Nyaom aomua0'emESifY wkefvIyfaBumuf&GHYpdwfrS uif;a0;Edkif\/}}
vif;vif;onf ,if;oHa0pm &GwfoHBum;onfESifY tvdkvdk &ifckefvdIufarmvm\/
tb,frQ awGai;aerdonfrod? owd0ifvmaomtcsdefwGif vif;vif;wpfOD;wnf; a&&Gwfvdkufrd&Smonf/
]]ig olYukd oGm;BunfYryS ?J tcspfeYJ uif;a0;atmif b,fvakd e&rSmvJ? b,fvrkd S tcspfeYJ uif;atmifaeEdik rf mS vJ}}
vif;vif;onf olYtawG;udk csufcsif; taumiftxnfazmfvdkuf\/
qGJudkifxm;aom Nrif;ZmwfBudK;udk teD;&dS opfyifwpfyif{/f tudkif;wGif csufcsif; csnfvdkufNyD; toHvm&m
awmtkyfxJodkY vsifNrefpGm aNy;0ifavawmYonf/
awmtkyf{/f aemufwGif aNzmifYNzL;nDnmaom awmifwufvrf;uav;wpfckudk awGY&\/
2

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
NyD; ..... a&yHk;BuD;ESpfvHk;udk ycHk;xufwGifxrf;vsuf EIwfrSvnf; w&m;pm&Gwf&if; awmifwufvrf;twdkif;
oGm;aeaom bkef;BuD;wpfyg;udkyg vif;vif;Nrifvdkuf&onf/
vif ; vif ; onf aNcvS r f ; oG u f o G u f v S r f ; í bk e f ; BuD ; aemuf o d k Y aNy;vd k u f o G m ;\/
ayig;q,fcefYtuGmta0;odkYa&muf\/
vif;vif;rsufvHk;tpHk NyL;0dkif;vsuf wpfcsufrQ wkefvIyfoGm;rd\/
taBumif;um; ,if;bkef;BuD; xrf;vmaom a&yHk; ESpfvHk;rSm oHNzifY NyKvkyfxm;aom a&yHk;BuD;ESpfyHk; NzpfaeNyD;
omref a&yHk;t&G,ftpm;xuf ydkí BuD;aeonfudkvnf;aumif;? NyD;aemuf bkef;BuD;\ vnfyif;? aNcaxmufESifY
vufrsm;wGiv
f nf; BuD;rm;wkwcf ikd af om oHBudK;rsm;NzifY csnaf ESmifxm;ao;onfuv
kd nf;aumif; vif;vif;trSwrf xif
awGYNrifvkduf&aomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/
wd w f q d w f N id r f o uf a om awmvrf ; 0ef ; usif w G i f oH B ud K ;oH wcRif c Rif N rnf a eNcif ; rS m bk e f ; BuD ;
aNcwpfvSrf;vSrf;wdkif; aNray: w&GwfwdkufqGJaeaom oHBudK;rsm;\ xdcwfoHaBumifYyif Nzpf\/
oHa&yHk; ESpfvHk;wGifvnf; a&tNynfY NznfYxm;ao;&m oHyHk;ESpfvHk;{/f tav;csdefrSm vGefpGm av;yifvSaBumif;
vif;vif; em;vnfvdkuf\/
vif;vif;onf xl;qef;aom tNriftm&HkaBumifYwpfcsufrQom wkefvIyfoGm;rdNyD;aemuf bkef;BuD;aemufodkY
trDvdkuf&if; EIwfrSvnf; ....
]]OD; . . . OD;yOöif; cPavmufaeygOD;? wynfYawmf avQmufxm;p&m&dSvdkYyg}} [k vSrf;í atmfaNymvdkuf\/
bkef;BuD;onf vif;vif; toHaBumifY aemufodkY vSnfYBunfYvdku\/ &kwfw&ufaomf ESpfOD;pvHk
aBumifpDpDNzpfoGm;Bu&\/
taBumif;um; ,if;bkef;BuD;udk vGefcJYaom oHk;ESpfuyif vif;vif;Nrifzl;cJYNyD; bkef;BuD;{/f bGJYtrnfrSm
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfNzpf\/
ay&kH;awmif "m;a&;,SOfNydKifyGJwGif BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfudk Nrifzl;cJYNcif; Nzpf\?
xdkYNyif vif;vif;onf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf{/f odkif;ynmtaBumif;udk odcJY\/ BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfonf
&dk;om;at;aq;pGm aewwfaomfvnf; twGif;tm; odkif;ynmurl vGefpGm euf&Idif;vS\/ odkif;avmu&dS
xdyfwef;odkif;ynm&Sif tm;vHk;\ twGif;tm;ynmxuf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf{/f twGif;tm;odkif;u rnYHygacs/
vif;vif;u BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfteD;odkY a&mufatmif taNy;wufoGm;&if; . . .
]]aBomf . . . vufpowfawmY OD;yOöif;udk;? b,fvdkvkyfNyD; 'DvdkNzpf&wmvJ OD;yOöif;}}[k ar;vdkuf\/
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfu vif;vif;\tar;udkraNz/ NyHK;vsuf acgif;om wpfcsufndwfNyNyD; ae&mrS
xGufoGm;av\/ vif;vif;rSmrl aemufrSvdkuf&if; atmfaNymae\/
]]OD;yOöif;u wynfYawmfrudk rrSwfrdawmYbl;vm;? wynfYawmfr aumYvif;vif;av}}
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfu orifvnfNyefrQ vSnfYBunfYNyD; NyKH;í acgif;ndwfNy\/ EIwfrSrl rnfonfYpum;rQ
rqdkacs/ BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf{/f aNcvSrf;rsm;rSmrl ydkíoGufvmum awmifay:vrf;twdkif; avQmufwufoGm;\/
xdktcg aumYvif;vif; raeEdkifí . . . .
]]OD;yOöif;udk b,folu oHBudK;eJY csnfxm;wmvJ? bmNzpfvdkY OD;yOöif;udk 'DvdkEdSyfpuf&wmvJ}}[k qufí
atmfar;\/
þwpfBudrfwGif BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfu vSnfYyifrBunfYawmY/ vufNzifYom aemufodkYvSrf;í ar;Nref;Ncif;
rNyK&ef oabmNzifY cgNyvdkuf\/
aumYvif;vif; vGepf mG tHYH tm;oifYomG ;\/ xl;qef;aom þudprö sdK;wGif vif;vif;rar;bJraeEdik /f xdYk aBumifY
vif;vif;onf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfaemufodkY aNy;vdkufoGm;Nyef\/
,ckwpfBudrfrl vif;vif;onf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf\ a&SYodkYa&mufatmif NzwfaNy;oGm;NyD; [efYwm;xm;&if;
olodvdkonfudk ar;Nref;&ef &nf&G,fxm;\/ olY&nf&G,fcsuf txraNrmufygacs/
taBumif;rl BuD;rm;aom oHBudK;rsm;NzifY wkyfaESmifxm;Ncif;cH&&Hkru vGefpGmav;yifaom oHyHk;BuD;ESpfyHk;udk
xrf;í oGm;aeaom BuG,&f iT u
f ,
kd af wmf\ a&SYoYkd vif;vif; b,frQyif tm;pdu
k í
f vdu
k o
f nfYwikd f rrDEikd af omaBumifYyif
Nzpfyg\/
3

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]OD;yOöif;u odkif;ynm b,favmufaumif;aumif; wynfYawmfruawmY rrDrDatmif vdkuf&rSmyJ OD;yOöif;}}
vif;vif;u trDvu
kd &f ef BudK;pm;&if; BuG,&f iT u
f ,
kd af wmftm; atmfaNym\/ odYk aomf BuG,&f iT u
f ,
kd af wmfonf
olYa&SYrSyif raES;rNref avQmufvSrf;aeqJ Nzpfyg\/
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf\ aNcvSrf;wdkif; oHBudK;oH wcRifcRifuvnf; pnf;0g;udkufpGm NrnfaeqJ/
wNznf;Nznf;ESifY awmifwufvrf;u NrifYonfxuf NrifYvmNyD;aemuf awmif\ aemufbufodkYyif
a&mufvmNyD Nzpf\/
aumYvif;vif;rSm awmifwufaom vrf;wpfavQmufvHk; taNy;uav;NzifYom vdkufae&í armyef;vsuf
touf&IoHyif Nyif;vmNyDNzpf\/
odkYaomf- ,ckcsdefxd BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf{/fa&SYrS NzwfausmfroGm;Ekdifygacs/ xdkYaBumifY aumYvif;vif;u
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmftm; pdwfxJrS usdwfí csD;usL;vdkuf\/
]]'gaBumifY azaz araru 0gqef;awmifrSm aNymwmudk;? 'Dbkef;BuD;&JY odkif;ynmtm;u odyfNrifYrm;w,fwJY?
'Dwkef;u ig aumif;aumif; r,HkcJYbl;? igudk,fwdkif vufawGYprf;awmYrS r,HkbJudk raeEdkifawmYbl;}}
xdktcdkuf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfonf ausmif;aqmifwpfaqmif\aemufodkY avQmufoGm;NyD; oHyHk;BuD;ESpfvHk;xJrS
a&rsm;udk ausmif;aqmifaemufbuf a&wGif;xJodkY oGefcsvdkuf\/
aumYvif;vif;onf xdktcsif;t&mudk Nrifaomf vGefpGmtHYBooGm;{/f/ atmf[pfívnf; . . . .
]]OD;yOöif;? b,fvdkaBumifY a&xrf;NyD; a&wGif;xJ avmif;xnfYaewmvJ qifNcifygOD;}}
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfu at;aq;wnfNidrfpGm acgif;cgNyvdkuf\/ aumYvif;vif;u oabmwpfrsdK;aYygufum
&,farmvsuf . . .
]][kwfNyD . . . [kwfNyD? vufpowfawmY OD;yOöif;u eufeJwJY odkif;ynm&yfwpf&yfudk avYusifYaewmudk;}}
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfu acgif;cgNyNyef\/ vif;vif; em;rvnfpGmNzif; a'gooHuav;pGufvsuf . . .
]]apmapmwkef;u wynfYawmfrudk,fwdkif OD;yOöif; w&m;pmqdkaewmudk Bum;&wmyJ? OD;yOöif;u tckrS
b,fvdkaBumifY pum;raNym&wmvJ}}
odkYaomf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfu pum;wpfcGef;rSNyefraNym? oHyHk;BuD;ESpfyHk;udk qwfceJqGJum awmifatmufodkY
qif;oGm;Nyef\/
aumYvif;vif;rSm a&wGif;em;odkY taNy;uav;oGm;NyD; iHkYBunfYvdkuf\/ odkY&mwGif a&wGif;xJwGif
bmxl;Ncm;csufrQrawGY&acs/
vif;vif;onf awmifatmufodkY Nyefqif;oGm;aom BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfudkom ai;aBumifBunfYaevdkufrd\/
vif;vif;onf vmpOfu awmvrf;wpfavQmuf taNy;uav; wufcJY&oNzifY acR;uav;pdkYum
tdkufpyfpyfNzpfae\/ xdkYaBumifY a&wGif;eHab;&dS ausmufcHkwef;wGif xdkifí avnif;cH tyef;aNzaevdkufrd\/
ywf0ef;usifonf at;Nidrf;om,mvS\/ awmif\vSyNcif;? awm\ qdwfNidrfNcif;ESifYtwl wpfcgwpf&H
csdKvGifaom acgif;avmif;oHrsm;udkyg Bum;&wwfao;&m þywf0ef;usif awm&dyfNrdKifonf wu,fyif at;Nidrf;NyD;
avmuDvlom;rsm;ESifY uif;a0;aomae&maumif;wpfae&m Nzpfonf[k vif;vif;pOf;pm;vdkufrd\/
xdkpOf vif;vif;{/f tawG;tm&HkxJodkY pOf;pm;zG,ftaBumif;wpfck zswfceJ 0ifa&mufvmNyef\/
]]BuG,&f iT u
f ,
kd af wmf&YJ wynfY usef;qef;zke;f wpfa,muf b,furkd sm;a&mufaeygvdrYf ? olYuo
kd m ar;BunfY&&if
taBumif;pHkodrSm aocsmw,f}}
xdkYaemuf vif;vif;onf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfNyefqif;oGm;&m awmifatmufbufodkY qif;vmcJY\/
awmvrf;twdkif; twefBumavQmufvmcJYpOf &kwfw&uf ta&SYbufatmufem;qDrS oHBudK;NrnfoHrsm;udk
Bum;vdkuf&\/ xdkoHBudK;rsm;rSm tNcm;r[kwf/ BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf a&xrf;í wufvmaomtoHyif Nzpf\/
vif;vif;onf awmvrf;twdkif; avQmufae&mrS vrf;eHab;&dS opfyifwpfyif{/f aemufodkY 0ifa&mufykef;aevdkuf\/
pdwfxJurl . . .
]]OD;yOöif;u t ovdk pum;raNymcsifayr,fY aemufuG,fuae ol bmvkyfaew,fqdkwm ig acsmif;BunfYrSyJ}}
oHBudK;oHrsm; ydkí Bum;vm&NyD Nzpf\/
4

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
rSeo
f nf/ BuG,&f iT u
f ,
kd af wmf{/f ycH;k xufwiG f a&yH;k ESpyf ;kH xrf;vsuf awmvrf;twdik ;f avQmuf&if;vufrv
S nf;
pmtkyfwpftkyfudkifum pdwf0ifpmpGmzwfvsuf&dSonfudk vif;vif; awGYvdkuf\/
vif;vif;onf opfyifuG,frS acsmif;BunfYae&mrS BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmftem;odkY a&mufcsdefwGif &kwfw&uf
ckefxGufNyD; atmfar;vdkuf\/
]]AsdKY . . . OD;yOöif;? bmpmtkyfzwfaewmvJ}}
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfvnf; rxifrSwfbJ &kwfw&uf Nzpfí EIwfrS vTwfceJ . . .
]]tdk . . . rif;udk;? OD;yOöif;awmif vefYoGm;w,f}}
vif;vif;u oabmus &,farmvsuf . . .
]]OD;yOöif;u t csifa,mif aqmifaewmr[kwfvm;? uJ . . . tck tnmay:NyDav}}
BuG , f & T i f u d k , f a wmf { /f rsuf E S m Nyif w G i f wk e f v I y f a om t&d y f t a,mif Nzwf o ef ; oG m ;NyD ;
eHab;0ef;usifodkYBunfY&if; vufumNyavonf/
vif;vif;u em;rvnfaom trlt&mNzifY . . .
]]aeygOD;? OD;yOöif;u b,folYudk aBumufaewmvJ}} [kar;Nyef\/
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf rnfodkYrQ NyefraNzrD teD;&dS awmtkyfeHab;rS bkef;BuD;ESpfyg; &kwfw&uf xGufvmNyD;
wpfyg;u atmfaigufoHNzifY . . .
]]BuG,f&Tif . . . rif; pnf;urf;azmufw,f? pum;aNymcGifY r&bJeJY udk,fYoabmeJYudk,f aNymw,f? aemufNyD;
tNyif u vl e J Y a Nymw,f ? NyD ; awmY rd e f ; uav;eJ Y aNymw,f ? uJ . . . vm vd k u f c J Y ? pnf ; urf ; Buyf r wf w J Y
q&mawmfqDoGm;r,f}}
BuG , f & T i f u d k , f a wmf r S m rnf o d k Y r Q apm'urwuf a cs/ OD ; acgif ; iH k Y v suf bk e f ; BuD ; ES p f y g;aemuf o d k Y
wdwfwqdwfvdkufoGm;\/
aumYvif;vif;rSm bkef;BuD;rsm;aemuf taNy;uav;vdkuf&if; a'gooHNzifY . . .
]]'DavmurSm olYudk b,foleJYrS pum;raNym&bl;qdkwJY pnf;urf;&dSovm;? 'D OD;yOöif;udk wynfYawmfr
odw,f? odvdkY wynfYawmfreJY pum;aNymwm? OD;yOöif;eJY b,fvdkywfowfvdkYvJ? bmqdkifvdkYvJ}}
bkef;BuD;ESpfyg;teuf udk,fum,BuD;xGm;aom bkef;BuD;u rsufESmyifYvsuf . . .
]]'DrmS 'umr? [dv
k eG cf YJ wYJ ESpaf ygif;wpfaxmifausmf a&Smifvifb&k m;ausmif; pwifNyD; wnfaqmufuwnf;u
a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;ay:udk rdef;rrwufcJY&bl;? 'gaBumifY 'umrvJ ckcsufcsif;qif;oGm;yg}}
aumYvif;vif; a'goydkxGufvmum . . .
]]'DrSm 'umrav; . . . igwdkY bkef;BuD;udpöudk omrefvlraNymeJY? rif;{u&mZfawmif 0ifpGufcGifYr&dSbl;?
'umrav; ar;vJtydkyJ? usKyfwdkYrSm aNz&Sif;cGifYr&dSbl;}}
]]'DOD;yOöif;u &dk;om;w,f? at;at;aq;aq;aewwfw,fqdkwm wynfYawmfr odw,f? OD;yOöif;wdkYu
oufouf 'DO;D yOöi;f udk tEdik u
f siYf aeBuwm r[kwv
f m;? tif; . . . xif;rif q&mawmfBuD;aum? [lqufq&mawmfBuD;eJY
[l&SefYq&mawmfBuD;awGaum b,fa&mufukefNyDvJ? tJ'D q&mawmfBuD;awGudk yifYxGufcJYyg? wynfYawmfru
tJ'Dq&mBuD;rsm;eJY tckudpöudkaNz&Sif;r,f}}
bkef;BuD;ESpfyg;rSm vif;vif;xHrS rarQmifvifYaompum;udkBum;aomf rsufESmawmfawmf ysufoGm;Bu\/
wkefvIyfNcif; t&dyfta,mif Nzwfoef;oGm;\/
wkefvIyfrnfqdkvnf; wkefvIyfoifYygay\/
taBumif;um; xif;rif q&mawmfrSm a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;\ ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfBuD;Nzpfovdk
[lqufq&mawmfrSmvnf; a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;\ vdk[efYausmif;wdkuf q&mawmfNzpfNyD;? [l&SefYq&mawmfrSmrl
a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;\ wmrmausmif;wdkufq&mawmfNzpf\/
þq&mawmf B uD ; oH k ; yg;rS m a&S m if v if b k & m;ausmif ; wG i f BoZmt&d S e f t 0gvG e f p G m BuD ; rm;aom
t"dywdq&mawmfBuD;rsm;yifNzpfonfr[kwfygvm;/

5

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
xdkYaBumifY bkef;BuD;rsm;onf þt"dywd q&mawmfBuD;oHk;yg;\ bGJYtrnfudk rac:0HYcJYBu/
]]ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfBuD;}}
]]vdk[efYausmif;wdkufq&mawmfBuD;}}
]]wmrmausmif;wdkufq&mawmfBuD;}}
[líom ac:Buavonf/
,ckrl bkef;BuD;rsm; rac:0HYBuonfudk vif;vif;u t"dywdq&mawmfBuD;oHk;yg;\ bGJYtrnfudk
'dk;'dk;a'gufa'guf raBumufr&GYHac:vdkuf&m bkef;BuD;rsm; tvdktavsmuf wkefvIyfoGm;BuNcif;yifNzpf\/
udk,fum, xGm;BudKif;aom bkef;BuD;rSm pnf;urf;Buyfrwfa&;ausmif;wdkuf q&mawmfBuD;\wynfY
qufrdefNzpf\/
qufrdefu rdrdq&mawmfBuD;\ trdefYt& rdrd\ *dkPf;wlnD quf&SifESifYtwl BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmftm;
wdwfwqdwfvma&mufapmifYBunfYaeNcif;yif Nzpfyg\/
qufrdefudk,fawmfonf aumYvif;vif;\ pum;udk Bum;aomf toHudkNrSifYí . . .
]]'umrav;u bke;f BuD;wdYk &YJ at;csrf;wJYae&mudk vma&mufaESmifY,u
S w
f mqd&k ifawmY bke;f BuD;wdYk u cGiYf NyKrSm
r[kwfbl;}}
aumYvif;vif;u rJYNyHK;NyHK;NyD; . . .
]]wynfYawmfru OD;yOöif;wdkYudk aBumufae&rSmvm;? OD;yOöif;wdkY tckcsufcsif; BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfudk
csnaf ESmifxm;wJY oHBudK;awGukd aNzay;yg? EdYk r[kw&f if wynfYawmfru xif;rif q&mawmfBuD;eJY oGm;aNz&Si;f &vdrYf r,f}}
bkef;BuD;ESpfyg;rSm vif;vif;tm; bmNyefaNym&rSef;rodatmif NzpfoGm;\/
wu,f r l
aumYvif ; vif ; \
rd b ES p f y g;Nzpf a om
aumYcsif ; ES i f Y ppf & H k r S m
a&Smifvif*dkPf;csKyfq&mawmfBuD;xif;rifESifY vGefpGm &if;ESD;olrsm; NzpfBu\/ q&mawmf xif;rifonf vif;vif;
i,fpOfu vif;vif;\ rdbrsm;xH tvnftywf BuGa&mufzl;\/
vif;vif;\ rdbESpfyg;rSm odkif;avmuwGif trSefwu,f NydKifpH&Sm;atmif odkif;ynmt&mwGif
tvGefNrifYrm;euf&dIif;pGm wwfajrmufuRrf;usifolrsm;Nzpfí a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfBuD;u olwdkYtm;
av;pm;xm;\/
vif;vif;onf txifu& a&Smifvifb&k m;ausmif; wnf&&Sd m qef;qufawmifay:odYk a&mufvmNcif;rSmvnf;
ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfBuD;tm; zl;aNrmfvdkaomtaBumif;wpfaBumif;vnf; yg&dSyg\/
od k Y &mwG i f ,ck r l vif ; vif ; awmif a y:od k Y a&muf v Qif a &muf c sif ; xl ; qef ; aom
tNzpfESifYBuHKae&NyDr[kwfygvm;/
qufrdefESifY quf&Sifudk,fawmfESpfyg;rSm vif;vif;\cg;wGif "m;wdkwpfacsmif; csdwfqGJxm;onfudkyg
awGYvdkuf&aomf ydkí a'goxGufvmBu\/
quf&Sifudk,fawmfu toHeufNzifY . . .
]]'umr cg;rSmcsdwfxm;wJY"m;udkcsNyD; awmifay:u csufcsif;qif;oGm;yg? tJ'Dvdk qif;oGm;&if OD;yOöif;wdkY
'umrav;udk bmrSrvkyfbl;}}
vif ; vif ; onf ol r \"m;ud k od r f ; qnf ; rnf [ k q d k a omf yd k í a'goxG u f v m\/ xd k Y aBumif Y
cg;rS"m;udkNzKwf,lvdkufNyD; vufESpfbufNzifY rvsuf yrmrcefYNyHK;NyD; . . .
]]aumif;ygNyDbk&m;? trdefYawmfNrwftwdkif;ygyJ}} [kqdkvdkuf\/
quf&SifwdkYrSm i,fpOfuyif þa&Smifvifausmif;awmfBuD;wGif aexdkifBuD;Nyif;vmcJY&m q&mawmfBuD;rsm;\
aNymNycsuft& a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;rSm q,fESpfausmftwGif; odkif;avmu wpfckvHk;\ odkif;ynmydkif;qdkif&m
yifrNzpfaBumif; rBumcP Bum;cJY&zl;\/
xd k Y Nyif od k i f ; avmuwgif rnf r Qyif a usmf B um;aom od k i f ; ynm&S i f B uD ; yif N zpf a p
a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;0if;twGif;odkY "m;vufeufudkifaqmifí r0iftyfaBumif; od&\/
,ckrl þrdef;uav;onf a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;xJodkYr0ifa&mufonfYwdkif a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;\
e,ferdwftwGif; "m;udkifaqmifvsuf a&muf&dSvmoNzifY NzKwfcscdkif;&Ncif;Nzpf\/
6

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
aumYvif;vif;u rdrw
d Ykd trdeYf ay;ouJYoYkd cg;rS"m;udNk zKwfí vufEpS b
f ufNzifY ,Ofaus;pGm tyfEv
HS monfukd
awGY&\/
quf&Sifonf a&SYwpfvSrf;wdk;í vif;vif;\ vufrS"m;udk ,lvdkuf\/
od k Y aomf quf & S i f \ vuf a csmif ; rsm; "m;td r f u d k xd v d k u f p Of c Pü quf & S i f \ ud k , f c E¨ m rS m
tvGeftm;aumif;aom wpfpHkwpfa,mufu wGef;xkwfvdkufouJYodkY aemufodkY vdrfYusoGm;awmYav\/
ae&mrSmvnf; awmifurlavQmuav;NzpfoNzifY 'vdrfYaumufauG;usoGm;&mrS opfyifi,fwpfyiftm;
vufNzifYqGJí xdef;vdkufawmYrS tus&yfvsuf udk,fudk Nyefvnf xdef;rwfEdkifawmY\/
xdktcsif;t&mudk Nrifvdkufaom qufrdefrSm a'gotrsuf xGufouJYodkY wkefvIyfNcif;vnf;NzpfoGm;&\/
qufrdef us,favmifpGmNzifY . . .
]]rif;wu,f owdå&Sdygvm;? igwdkYa&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;udk wrifvmNyD; &efpw,faygYav [kwfvm;}}
,if;odkY qdkNyD;onfESifY &kwfw&uf ckefwufNyD; b,fvufoD;udkxdk;xkwf&if; nmvuf0g;apmif;udkwGJí
vif;vif;tm; wdkufcdkufawmY\/
vif;vif;url avoHukd em;pGiYf &EHk iS Yf yif qufred \
f odik ;f tm; quf&iS x
f ufyí
kd tm;aumif;aBumif; odvu
kd Nf yD
Nzpf\/
xdkYaBumifY "m;&dk;udk udkifvsuf "m;udk"m;tdrfrS qGJxkwfNcif;rNyKbJ qufrdef\ ycHk;udk ckwfcsvdkuf\/
qufrdefu vif;vif;\ ckwfcsufudk ycHk;ESdrfYí a&Smif&if; vufudk &kyfodrf;um"m;udkvSrf;qGJvdkuf\/
xdktcsdefwGifBuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfonf eHab;rS&yfBunfY&if;rS vGefpGm pdwfylyifvm\/ xdkYaBumifY atmf[pf
[efYwm;vdkuf\/
]]rvkyfBuygeJY? &yfvdkufBuyg}}
BuG,f&Tif\ [efYwm;csufu aemufusoGm;NyD Nzpf\/
qufrdefonf "m;tdrfudk qkyfrdonfESifY tiftm;oHk;í vk,l&ef pdwful;vdkuf\/
odkYaomf vufz0g;rS vufarmif;&dk;wpfavQmuf &kwfw&uf xHkusOfoGm;NyD; "m;tdrfudkifvufpvufudk
uref ; uwef ; vT w f v d k u f & if ; wpf q uf w nf ; wG i f aemuf o d k Y a&S m if a Ny;rnf N yKpOf aumYvif ; vif ; \
vQyfwNywfwdkufuGufrdum aemufodkY vefusoGm;onf/
qufrdefonf quf&Sifudk,fawmfxuf tusemavonf/ rsufESmwGif 'Pf&mrsm;&&dSNyD; aoG;rsm;yif
pdkYxGufvm\/
xdktcdkufaumYvif;vif;vnf; tawG;wpfck0ifvm\/
]]a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;udk ig pdwfaNyvufaysmuf tvnfvmwm tckawmY taBumif;rJY &efNzpfvdkuf&NyD}}
xdkYaemuf aumYvif;vif;onf BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmftem;odkY vsifNrefpGmoGm;um vufxJrS "m;NzifY
BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf\ aNcvufwdkYwGif csnfaESmifxm;aom oHBudK;rsm;udk ckwfNzwfvdkuf\/
BuG,f&Tifu aBumufaBumufvefYvefYNzifY . . . .
]]rvkyfeJY? rvkyfeJY}} [k[efYwm;ao;\/
odkYaomf aumYvif;vif;url ckwfNzwfNrJ Nzwf&if;rS . . .
]]bmNzpfvdkY rvkyf&rSmvJ}} [k ar;vdkuf\/
wqufwnf;wGif xGufaNy;oGm;Buaom qufrdef ESifY quf&Sifudk,fawmfESpfyg;udk vufndI;xdk;Ny&if; . . .
]][dkrSmawGYvm;? olwdkY owif;oGm;ay;aeBuNyD? wynfYawmfrwdkY 'Dae&mu tNrefqHk;aNy;BuygpdkY? OD;yOöif;&JY
[dkwynfYav;aum rawGYygvm;? olYudkyg wpfygwnf; ac:vdkuf}} [kqdkvdkuf\/
BuG,f&Tifu xGufaNy;&ef Niif;qefae\/ OD;acgif;udk cg,rf;aeNyef\/ xdkpOf . . .
]]uRefawmf'DrSm&dSygw,fAs}} [laom wpfpHkwpfa,muf\ toHudk Bum;vdkuf&\/
aumYvif;vif; zswfceJ vSnfYBunfYpOf touf q,fYaNcmufESpfcefY a,mufsm;av;wpfOD;udk awGYvdkuf&\/
olutNcm;r[kwfyg/ BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmf\ wpfOD;wnf;aomwynfY usef;qef;zkef;yifNzpf\/

7

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
aumYvif;vif;onf olYudk aumif;pGmrSwfrd\/ vGefcJYaom oHk;ESpfcefYu olwdkY q&mwynfYESpfOD;
0gqef;awmifay: "m;a&;NydKifyGJvma&mufpOf aumYvif;vif;ESifY oduRrf;cJYNyD;Nzpf\/ aumYvif;vif;u xdktoHudk
Bum;onfESifY . . .
]]a[Y usef;qef;zkef;? 'Du bkef;BuD;awGu rif;&JYq&mudk tEdkifusifYaeBuwmuG,fY? rif;wdkY tckcsufcsif;
'Du a&Smifvifyk&0kPfxJu xGufNyD; a0;&mudk aNy;BuygawmYvm;}}
odkYaomf usef;qef;zkef;u BuG,f&Tifudk,fawmfuJYodkYyif acgif;cg,rf;Ny&if; . . .
]]cifAsm;rSm;aeNyD? b,folurS uRefawmfYq&mudk tEdkifrusifYygbl;As}} [k qdkav\/
aumYvif;vif;u tHYtm;oifYNcif;? a'goNzpfNcif;aygif;pyfvsuf . . .
]]bmaNymw,f usef;qef;zkef;? olwdkYu rif;&JYq&mudk oHBudK;eJYvJ csnfaESmifxm;w,f? aemufNyD;
pum;aNymcGifYvJ ydwfyifxm;w,f? 'gawmif tEdkifusifYwm r[kwfao;bl;vm;}}[k Nyefar;\/
BuG , f & T i f u rJ Y N yH K ;wpf c suf N yH K ;NyD ; acgif ; cg,rf ; Nyvd k u f \ / NyD ; vQif vif ; vif ; tm; awmif a y:rS
tNrefqif;oGm;&efom vuf[efNyvdkufav\/
xdkpOf awmifukef;awmtkyfrsm;Bum;rS bkef;BuD;wpfcsdKY aNy;qif;vmonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ EIwfrSvnf; . .
]]b,folvJa[Y? wdkYa&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;udkvmNyD; &efpwm}}[k atmfar;vmBu\/
usef;qef;zkef;u aNy;qif;vmaom bkef;BuD;rsm;Bum;atmif . . .
]]OD;yOöif; . . . olu}}
odkYaomf usef;qef;zkef;pum;u a&SYrqufbJ þwGif&yfoGm;&\/ taBumif;rl aumYvif;vif;u
usef;qef;zkef; qufraNymEdkifatmif uref;uwef; [efYwm;vdkufaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/
]]usef;qef;zkef; igYemrnfudk raNymeJY}}
trSefrl þudpw
ö Gif olraBumifY NyóemNzpfvmaBumif; vif;vif;em;vnfvdkuf\/ xdkYaBumifY NyóemwGif
olrrdbrsm;yg ywfowfvmrnfudk vif;vif;pdk;&drfoGm;\/
vif;vif;u xyfrHí . . .
]]a[Y usefqef;zkef;? igYrdbemrnfudkyg vHk;0raNymeJYaemf}}[k owday;vdkufNyef\/
xd k p Of ol w d k Y tem;od k Y aemuf x yf b k e f ; BuD ; av;yg; a&muf & d S v m\/ bk e f ; BuD ; rsm;\
aNcvSrf;yHkudkBunfYonfESifYyif odkif;ynmtqifYedrfYolrsm; r[kwfaBumif; vif;vif; odvdkuf\/
þbkef;BuD;rsm;rSmrl olwdkYESifY rvSrf;rurf;wGif 0dkif;í&yfaevdkufBu\/ aemufrSa&mufvmaom
bkef;BuD;av;yg;u vif;vif;\ a&SYem;odkY wdk;avQmufvmNyD; wpfyg;aom bkef;BuD;u qdkav\/
]]'umrav; b,fvt
dk aBumif;&dv
S Ykd bk&m;ausmif;udk vmcJY&wmvJ? bke;f BuD;wdYk &YJ bk&m;ausmif; pnf;urf;u
rdef;uav;r0if&bl;? NyD;awmY tNyifvlqdk&if "m;vufeuf vHk;0udkifaqmifvmcGifY rNyKbl;? 'gaBumifY 'umrav;
vufxJu "m;udk at;at;aq;aq; csvdkufyg? ausmif;y&0kPfu xGufoGm;yg}}
vif;vif;u taNctaer[efrSef; csufNcif;odvdkuf\/ tvdkufoifY avQmufxm;NyD; Nyef&efvnf;
pdwful;vdkufrd\/ xdkYaBumifY avoHaysmYuav;NzifY . . .
]]OD;yOöif;wdkYu wynfYawmfrudk bk&m;ausmif;xJ 0ifcGifYray;bl;qdkawmYvJ wynfYawmfr Nyef&awmYrSmaygY}}
vif;vif;u pum;tqHk;wGif csmueJae&mrS vSnfYxGufvdkuf\/ yxr pum;aNymvmaom bkef;BuD;u eHab;odkY
wdrf;z,fay;vdkuf\/ odkYaomf 'kwd,ESifY wwd,bkef;BuD;rsm;u wm;vdkufNyD; . . .
]]'umrav; cPaeygOD;? vufeufcsxm;cJYNyD;rSoGm;yg}}
aumYvif;vif; axmif;ceJ a'golykefxoGm;\/ rsufrmef0ifYvsuf "m;&dk;udk udkifvdkufrd\/
yxrbkef;BuD;u Bum;Nzwfí . . .
]]bkef;BuD;wdkYu 'umrav;&JY"m;udk r,l&Jygbl; 'umrav;? awmifaNcudk a&mufwmeJY "m;udk csufcsif;
Nyefay;rSmyg? tck[mu bkef;BuD;wdkY&JY a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif; pnf;urf;rdkYvdkY aNym&wmyg? pdwfr&SdygeJY 'umrav;}}
yxrbkef;BuD;\ csdKomaom pum;aBumifY vif;vif;\ a'gowdkYaNyaysmufpNyKvm\/ pdwfaysmYvm\/
odkYaomf olr vufxJu"m;udk ay;tyfvdkufvQif olrrdbESpfyg;\ *kPfodu©mudk xdcdkufrnfpdk;ae\/
8

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
vif;vif; "m;udk ay;&aumif;Edk;Edk;? ray;bJae&aumif;Edk;Edk; NzpfaepOf bkef;BuD;wpfyg;u &kwfw&uf
ckefxGufvmNyD; . . . .
]][dwf. . . tckxd "m;rtyfao;bl;vm;}}[k trdefYay;oHNzifYaNymNyD; "m;udk vk&efNyKvdkuf\/
aumYvif;vif;onf "m;udktyfESH&ef qHk;NzwfrnfNyKqJwGif xdkodkYNyKrlNcif;cH&oNzifY a'goxGufvmNyD;
Nyefvnfwdkufcdkuf&ef csufcsif; qHk;NzwfvdkufavawmY\/
odkYNzifY bkef;BuD;onf aumYvif;vif;\ "m;tdrfudk vSrf;ícsKyfudkifvdkuf\/ bkef;BuD;\ "m;udkifvufu
vGefpGmoefrmNyD; tm;ygvSonf/
vif;vif;onf aemufwpfvSrf;qkwfí a&Smifwdrf;vdkufNyD; "m;udk "m;tdrfrS vsifNrefpGm qGJxkwfvdkufNyD;
vSr;f ckwv
f u
kd \
f / bke;f BuD;onf uref;uwef; olYvufol &kwo
f rd ;f vdu
k &f \/odYk aomf vufzrd;k wGif "m;csufav;csuf
xdrSefoGm;NyD; olYvufodkY ygoGm;aom "m;tdrfrSvnf; vGwfusoGm;\/xdkpOf tNcm;bkef;BuD;oHk;yg;u vif;vif;tm;
0dkif;0ef;wdkufckdufvmawmY\/
tpOD;wGif udk,fwpfNyefolwpfNyef vuf&nfwl wdkufcdkufEdkifaomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGif vif;vif;\
vuf & nf u svm\/ wd k u f u G u f r sm;vnf ; tm;aysmY v m\/ vif ; vif ; taNctae&I H ; ed r f Y & awmY r nf & d S p Of
touft&G,fvGefpGmtdkrif;vsuf cE¨mudk,f ydefvSDvSaom bkef;awmfBuD;wpfyg; olwdkYtem;odkY trSwfrxif
a&mufvm\/
,if;bkef;BuD;tdku vufESpfzufydkufvsuf aumYvif;vif;ESifY bkef;BuD;rsm; wdkufcdkufaeBuonfudk
acgif;wndwfndwfESifY NyHK;íBunfYaeav\/
xdkpOf aumYvif;vif;onf &IH;&dyfNyvmNyDNzpfí bkef;BuD;rsm; rcHcsdrcHomNzpfatmif atmfaNymavonf/
]]bmvJ? a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;u odkif;avmu&JY t"du& yifrqdk? tckawmY tkyfpktm;udk;NyD;
tEdkifusifYaeygvm;[if}}
]][dwf . . . tm;vHk;&yfvdkufprf;}}
apmapmu wdkufyGJudkvufydkufvsuf acgif;wndwfndwfNzifY BunfYaeaom bkef;BuD;tdk\ toHyif Nzpfyg\/
usefbkef;BuD;rsm;onf bkef;BuD;tkdtm;Nrifaomf wdkufcdkufNcif;udk csufcsif; &yfypfvdkufBu\/
rSefyg\/ bkef;BuD;tdkrSm wNcm;r[kwf? a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;awmf\ 0gawmftBuD;qHk; t"dywd
q&mawmfBuD; oHk;yg;teuf vdk[efYausmif;wkduf q&mawmf [lqufyif Nzpfyg\/
aumYvif;vif;onf [lqufq&mawmf\ bGJYrnfudk olYrdbrsm;xHrS wpfqifY Bum;cJYzl;aomvnf;
q&mawmfudkawmY Nrifzl;Ncif;r&dScJYacs/
odkY&mwGif þbkef;BuD;tdktm; usefbkef;BuD;rsm;u vGefpGm&dkao[ef? aBumuf&GYH[ef? av;pm;[ef
trlt&mrsm;udk awGY&oNzifY þbkef;BuD;tkdrSm a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;\ t&dSeft0g BoZmBuD;rm;aom
q&mawmfwpfyg;yif Nzpf&rnf[k em;vnfvdkuf\/
aumYvif;vif;\ pdwfrSvnf; . . .
]]igYtaztar emrnfudkawmY igb,fenf;eJYrS zGifYaNymvdkYrNzpfawmYbl;? Nyóemu wNznf;Nznf;eJY
BuD;rm;vmNyD? tazeJY taromod&if igYudkaumif;aumif;BuD; qlvdrfYr,f? igvJ 'Dbkef;BuD;tdkeJY b,fvdkrS
,SOfNydKifEdkifrSmr[kwfbl;? tJ'DawmY 'Dae&mu igtNrefqHk; xGufoGm;rS NzpfawmYr,f}}
odkY&mwGif aumYvif;vif;onf a'goxGufaomtoHNzifY ]]t&Sifbk&m; wynfYawmfru om,mvGef;wJY
'Dawmawmif&Icif;awGudk pdwfaNyvufaysmufoabm BunfYzkdY &dk;&dk;om;om; tvnfvmrdwmyg? tckawmY
a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;[m aeNynfawmfu bk&ifYeef;awmfxufawmif pnf;urf;BuD;aeygvm;? "m;wdkav;utp
odrf;qnf;rvkdYwJY? wynfYawmfr rodvdkY q&mawmfBuD;udk ar;yg&ap? wynfYawmfru a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;
y&d0kPfxJudk a&mufaevdkYvm;? NyD;awmY wm;rm;abmfbd q&mawmfBuD;u tdE´d,Nynfuae a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;udk
BuGvmNyD; odkif;ynmrsdK;apYudk olay;cJYwm[m usrf;*efy&dywåd oifBum;usufrSwf&vGef;vdkY anmif;nmaewJY
bkef;BuD;awGudk udk,fvufoefrm oefpGrf;atmif aoG;vnfywf vIyf&Sm;vmatmif twGufyJ r[kwfvm;? tckawmY
BunfYygOD;bk&m;? a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;[m emrnfBuD;vmwmeJY odkif;twwfynmNrifYrm;vmwmeJYtrQ
wpfzufom;udkydkNyD; tEdkifusifYcsifvmwm r[kwfvm;bk&m;? aumif;NyD q&mawmfBuD;? 'DaeY wynfYawmfr vufxJu
9

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
vufeufudk &Sifbk&m; ,lxm;vdkufyg? 'gayr,fY wynfYawmfrudk taorowfypf&ifawmY 'DaeY a&Smifvifausmif;u
bk e f ; BuD ; awG u tm;EG J Y w J Y rd e f ; uav;wpf a ,muf u d k 0d k i f ; NyD ; ES d y f p uf y gw,f ? wd k u f c d k u f v d k u f y gw,f v d k Y
odkif;avmuwpfckvHk;odoGm;atmif aBuNimarmif;cwfvdkufrSmyJbk&m;}}
aumYvif;vif;onf yifudkuyif pum;aNym vGefpGm oGufvufcsufcsmolNzpf&m ,ckudpöwGifvnf;
olrtrSm;csnf;oufouf[k r,lqoNzifY aNymyHkqdkyHkwdkYu ydkí oGufvufae\/ csufaumif;udkvnf; wkdwdkESifYvdk&if;
aNymEdkifav\/
[l q uf q &mawmf o nf vif ; vif ; \ pum;ud k pd w f & S n f v uf & S n f em;axmif N yD ; aemuf
rJYNyHK;wpfcsufNyHK;vdkuf\/
xkdYaemuf Nznf;nif;aom toHNzifY . . .
]]od k i f ; q&mBuD ; aumYcsif ; eJ Y od k i f ; q&mrBuD ; ppf & H k w d k Y &J Y orD ; u od k i f ; ynmawmf & H k r u
pum;ppfxdk;wJYae&mrSmvnf; w,fNyD; awmfygvm;}}
q&mawmf rdeYf NrGuv
f maom pum;udk Bum;aomf aumYvif;vif; rsuv
f ;kH pHk NyL;0dik ;f oGm;&Smyg\/ pdwx
f rJ v
S nf;
]]'Dbkef;BuD; b,fES,fY igYrdbawGudk odae&ygvdrfh}} [k awG;vdkufrd\/
trSefrl [lqufq&mawmfonf aumYvif;vif;udk Nrifvdkuf&kHESifY odkif;q&mBuD; aumYcskif;ESifY odkif;q&mrBuD;
ppf&kHwdkY\ orD;rSef;odonf r[kwfay/ apmapmu
vif;vif;ESifY bkef;BuD;rsm; tNyeftvSef wdkufcdkufpOf vif;vif; toHk;NyKaom odkif;uGufudk BunfYíom
aumYcsif;ESifY ppf&kHwdkY\ orD;NzpfaBumif; tuJzrf;rdNcif;yif Nzpfyg\/
wu,f r l [l q uf q &mawmf o nf vif ; vif ; tm; wpf E S p f o rD ; t&G , f u yif od c J Y \/
vif;vif;\zcifaumYcsif;onf vif;vif;wpfESpfaNrmufarG;aeYwGif rdwfaqGtaygif;toif;rsm;tm; zdwfBum;vsuf
auR;arG;cJY\/ xdkpOfu [lqufq&mawmfonf vif;vif;arG;aeYvufaqmiftNzpf vdk[efYoH&kyfwkwpfpHkudk
vuf a qmif a y;cJ Y \/ xd k o H & k y f w k r S m tvG e f c uf c J e uf e J p G m NyKvk y f x m;NyD ; cvk w f z G i f Y vd k u f o nf E S i f Y
&k y f w k E S p f c k r S m a&S m if v if o d k i f ; ynmES p f r sd K ;xJ r S wpf r sd K ;Nzpf a om vd k [ ef Y vuf o D ; od k i f ; (18) uG u f u d k
tptqH;k upm;NyEkid af vonf/ ,if;&kyw
f \
k xl;Ncm;aom pGr;f yum;udk vif;vif;t&G,af &mufawmYryS if zcifNzpfou
l
aNymNyNyD; xdk vdk[efY&kyfwk ESpfckudk vif;vif;vufodkY ay;tyfcJY\/
vif;vif;onfvnf; tcsdeftm;vyfonfESifYtrQ &kyfwkudk xkwfí upm;avY&dScJY\/ odkYaomf,ck
vif;vif;onf [lqufq&mawmftm; vHk;0 rSwfrdNcif; r&dSacs/
[lqufq&mawmfonf tHYtm;oif;vsuf&dSaom aumYvif;vif;\ trlt&mudkBunfY&if; NyHK;vdkufNyD;aemuf . . .
]]bkef;BuD; b,folb,f0gqdkwm 'umrav; pOf;pm;vdkYr&bl;Nzpfaew,fxifw,f? bkef;BuD; 'umrav;udk
wpfckar;r,f? 'umrav;udk,frSm vdk[efoHrPd&kyfwkwpfpHk &dSaew,fr[kwfvm;}}
[lqufq&mawmf pum;udk Bum;&awmYrS aumYvif;vif; oabmaygufoGm;NyD; &,fEdkifarmEdkifNzpfoGm;\/
0rf;omaom toHNzifYvnf; . . .
]]aBomf . . . q&mawmfBuD;u vufpowfawmY [lqufq&mawmfBuD;udk;? 'gaBumifYvJ wynfYawmfr&JY
rdbrsm;taBumif;udk tm;vHk;odwmudk;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu NyHK;vsuf . . .
]]'geJY 'umrav; bmudpöeJY 'Dudk a&mufvm&wmvJ}}
[lqufq&mawmf\ ar;cGef;udk vif;vif; csufcsif;raNz/ rsufvTmuav;cs? acgif;uav;iHkYvsuf
Nidro
f ufpmG aevdu
k \
f / taBumif;um; trSew
f iG f vif;vif;onf oem;p&maumif;aom cspfopl eG Yf ypfc&H olav;Nzpf\/
&ifeifYatmif cspf&olu tNcm;aom rdef;rwpfa,mufESifY vufxyfoGm;cJY\/ ,if; cspfESvHk;om;a0'em aNyaysmufvdk
aNyaysmufNim; rdbESpfyg;ESifY vGefpGm&if;ESD;aom q&mawmfBuD; xif;rifxHodkYoGm;í oHa0*w&m; a[mBum;cdkif;rnf[k
pdwful;NzifY þawmESifY þawmifodkY a&mufvmNcif;Nzpfonf r[kwfygvm;/

10

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
odkY&mwGif rxifrSwfbJ þNyóemESifY BuHK&oNzifY ,cktcg vif;vif;onf rlv&nf&G,fcsufNzpfaom
xif;rifq&mawmftm; zl;aNrmf&efudkrl vufvTwfvdkufawmYrnf[k qHk;Nzwfvdkuf\/ xdkYaBumifY [lqufq&mawmf\
tar;udk tvsOf;oifYatmif ol aNzvdkuf\/
]]wynfYawmfr tvnfoufouf vmwmygbk&m;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu NyHK;vsuf . . .
]]bkef;BuD;wdkY&JY bk&m;ausmif; pnf;rsOf;aBumifY 'umrav;udk bk&m;ausmif;xJrac:Edkifwmudk pdwfr&dSygeJY}}
]]ta&;rBuD;ygbl;bk&m;? 'DvdkqdkvJ wynfYawmfrNyefygawmYr,fbk&m;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu NyHK;NrJNyHK;vsuf
]]'Dvdkqdk&if bkef;BuD;udk,fwdkif 'umrav;udkydkYay;r,fav}}
[lqufq&mawmf\ pum;aBumifY usefbek ;f BuD;rsm; tHYBooGm;\/ tb,fYaBumifYrl [lquf q&mawmfonf
a&Smifvifausmif;wGif 0gawmftBuD;qHk; q&mawmfNzpfygvsuf aumYvif;vif;vdk rdef;uav;wpfa,mufudk
q&mawmfu av;av;rlrl qufqHaNymqdkaeonfudk awGYNrifae&aomaBumifYyifNzpfyg\/
aumYvif;vif;u . . .
]]q&mawmfBuD; bmrS tm;remygeJY? wynfYawmfr apmapmwkef;u OD;yOöif;awGudk apmfum;rdwmudkyJ
wynfYawmfr awmif;yef&OD;rSmyg}}
[lqufq&mawmfu NyHK;vsufESifYyif . . .
]]&ygw,f? bkef;BuD;twGuf bmrS tyef;rBuD;ygbl;? awmfawmfBum 'umr&JY tazu bkef;BuD;udk
{nfY0wfrausbl;vdkYaNymaeygOD;r,f}}
aumYvif;vif;onf rdrdtay: [lqufq&mawmfu ,ckuJYodkY ysLysLiSmiSm qufqHonfudk awGY&aomtcg
[lqufq&mawmft; tvGefav;pm;BunfndkoGm;\/ xdkYaBumifY [lqufq&mawmf\ vdkufydkYay;rnf [laom
qE´udkvnf; vif;vif; rNiif;y,fawmYacs/
]]'DvdkqdkvJ oGm;BuygpdkYbk&m;}}
odkYNzifY aumYvif;vif;ESifY [lqufq&mawmfwdkYonf awmifatmufqDodkY OD;wnfum qif;vmcJYBu\/
twefBum avQmufqif;cJYNyD;aemuf vrf;csdK;auGYwpfckodkY ta&mufwGif aemufbufrS aNcoHvdkvdk Bum;&oNzifY
vSnfYBunfYvdkufBu&m aemufyg;buf cyfvSrf;vSrf;rS xyfBuyfruGm vdkufvmaom usef;qef;zkef;udk rarQmfvifYbJ
awGYvdkufBu&\/ usef;qef;zkef;onf teD;uyfrl vdkufrvmcJYacs/
vif;vif;u usef;qef;zkef;tm; &Tef;vufpGm NyHK;BunfY&if; ar;avonf/
]]usef;qef;zkef;? rif;vJigYudk vdkufydkYrvdkYvm;[if}}
usef;qef;zke;f \ 0if;yaom rsufEmS wGif &Suaf oG;a&mif Nzef;yufomG ;&if; ]][kwf . . . [kwu
f }hJ } [k aNz&Smonf/
xd k p Of c d k u f bk e f ; BuD ; wpf y g; aNy;vd k u f v monf u d k awG Y vd k u f B uNyef \ / [l q uf q &mawmf u
rsufarSmifukyfBunfY&if; . . .
]]bmNzpfvdkY 'Davmufawmif a&;BuD;cGifus,f aNy;vm&wmvJ}}
xdkbkef;BuD;u csufcsif;raNz? [lqufq&mawmftm; t&dktaoNyKNyD; teD;tem; wdk;uyfvm&if;
avoHwdk;wdk;NzifY wD;wdk;avQmufxm;aeav\/ [lqufq&mawmfonf bkef;BuD;avQmufxm;csuftqHk;wGif vSpfceJ
rsufESmwpfcsufysufoGm;NyD;aemuf . . . ]]'DvdkudpörsdK;vJ&dSao;wmudk;}} [k wpfOD;wnf; a&&Gwfvdkuf\/
taNy;tvTm; vma&muf avQmufxm;aom bkef;BuD;uyif qufí . . .
]]ausmif;xdkif q&mawmfBuD;u q&mawmfudk aqG;aEG;zdkY yifYcdkif;vdkufygw,f}}
aumYvif;vif;onf [lqufq&mawmf\ pdwfvIyf&Sm;oGm;yHk&aom oGif[efudk tuJcwfNyD;aemuf
bk&m;ausmif;wGif wpfpHkwpf&m ta&;ay:Nyóem &dSNyDNzpfaBumif;odvdkuf\/ xdkYaBumifY aumYvif;vif;u . . .
]]q&mawmf b k & m;? wynf Y a wmf r ud k bmrS tm;remygeJ Y b k & m;? tck q&mawmf B uD ; &J Y a usmif ; rS m
udpöwpfckay:aew,f r[kwfygvm;bk&m;? q&mawmfBuD; NyefBuGawmfrlygbk&m;? aemifwpfcsdef odkif;avmurSm
NyefqHkwJY tcgusawmYrS q&mawmfbk&m;eJY pum;pHkvifatmif aNymBuwmaygY}}
11

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
[lqufq&mawmfu NyHK;&Tifaom trlt&mNzifY . . .
]]'umrav;[m wu,fudk oabmxm;BuD;wmyJ? bkef;BuD; csD;usL;ygw,f}}[k rdefYqdkNyD;aemuf awmifay:odkY
NyefvnfwufoGm;avawmY\/
aumYvif;vif;rSmrl awmifatmufodkY qufíqif;vm\/ usef;qef;zkef;vnf; vif;vif;\aemuf
ig;vSrf;uGmrS vdkufygvmvsuf &dS\/
vif;vif;u aemufNyefwpfcsufBunfYí. . .
]]usef;qef;zkef; igar;wm trSeftwdkif;aNzyg? rif;&JYq&mudk olwdkY bmaBumifY ESdyfpuf&wmvJ?
tEdkifusifY&wmvJ? rif;q&mrSm twGif;tm; odkif;ynm odyftqifYNrifYwmyJ r[kwfvm;? bmNzpfvdkY olwdkYudk
aBumufae&wmvJ}}[kar;onf/
usef;qef;zkef;u a&SYESpfvSrf;wdk;vsuf . . .
]]uRefawmfwdkY a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;&JY pnf;urf;uodyfBuD;w,fAs? bk&m;ausmif;xJu b,fbkef;BuD;rqdk
pnf;urf; azmufzsuf&if 'PfcwfcH&wmyJ? wrifoufouf tEdkifusifYwm? ESdyfpufnSif;yef;wm r[kwfygbl;}}
aumYvif;vif; tHYBooGm;\/
]]rif;&JY q&mawmf[m tifrwef at;at;aq;aq; aewwfwJY yk*¾dKvfyg? 'Dvdk yk*¾dKvfrsdK;u bmtNypf
usL;vGefrSmvJ? {uEÅ txifvGJcH&wm NzpfygvdrfYr,f}}
usef;qef;zkef;u oufNyif;cs&if; OD;acgif;udk cg,rf;Ny\/ xdkYaemufwGifrl usef;qef;zkef;u aumYvif;vif;
oabmayguf&ef NzpfaBumif;&,fukefpif aNymNyawmY\/
vG e f c J Y aom q,f E S p f c ef Y u usef ; qef ; zk e f ; onf aNcmuf E S p f t &G , f c ef Y om &d S a o;\/ rd b rJ Y
wpfaumifBuGufvnf;Nzpf&m bkef;BuD;BuG,f&Tifu ac:,l auR;arG;xm;vdkuf\/ bkef;BuD;BuG,f&Tifonf
usef;qef;zkef;tm; udk&if0wfray;ay? Omref vltNzpfom ausmif;oifcef;wGifaeap\/ bkef;BuD;BuG,f&Tifonf vGefpGm
at;csrf;\/ rnfolESifYrQvnf; pum;rsm;Ncif;? cdkuf&efNzpfNcif; r&dSacs/ oabmouúm,vnf; vGefpGmNzLpif\/
BuG , f & T i f o nf od k i f ; ynmvnf ; vH k ; 0 rwwf a Nrmuf a cs/ xd k Y aBumif Y BuG , f & T i f t m; bk & m;ausmif ; yd k i f
usrf;*efpmayrsm;xm;&m yd!uwfwdkufwGifom oefY&Sif;a&;wm0ef,lap&onf/ BuG,f&Tifonf pdwfoabmxm;
El;nYHaysmYaysmif;olyDyD rnfolu b,fodkYyifcdkif;cdkif; rNidKrNiif ulnDvkyfudkifay;wwf\/
odYk NzifY q&mwynfYEpS Of ;D onf wpfaeukef wpfaecef; a&S;acwftqufqufrS xde;f odr;f xm;cJYaom bk&m;\
usrf;*ef pmaypmtkyfrsm; tBum;wGifom tcsdefukef&awmY\/
BuG,f&Tifonf vGefpGm at;csrf;ol NzpfouJYodkY bk&m;a[m usrf;*efpmayrsm;udkvnf; vGefpGm
BunfnKd ESpo
f uf\/ xdYk aBumifY BuG,&f iT o
f nf oefY&iS ;f a&;wm0efrsm;NyD;pD;csdew
f iG f xdik í
f usrf;pmtkyrf sm;udk pdwBf udKuf
wpftkyfNyD;wpftkyf a&G;cs,f zwfaeavawmY\/
wpfaeYwGif BuG,f&Tifonf vGefpGm a&S;usaom usrf;pmtkyfwpftkyfudk xkwf,l zwfBunfYrdvdkuf\/
xdkusrf;pmtkyfrSm &dEGrf;aeNyDNzpf&m axmifaomif;ru ta&twGuf&dSaom usrf;*efpmtkyfrsm; tBum;wGif
xdu
k srf;pmtkyu
f kd rnforl Q owdrxm;rdBuacs/ usrf;*ef\ ESpo
f ufwrf;onfvnf; cefYreS ;f íyif r&Edik af vmufatmif
a&S;usvGef;vSayonf/
BuG , f & T i f o nf ,if ; usrf ; pmtk y f u d k avYvmzwf & I & if ; tvG e f cuf c J e uf e J a om od k i f ; usrf ;
pmtkyfwpftkyfNzpfaBumif;odvdkuf&\/ pmtkyf\ tnTef;wGifvnf; ,if;usrf;pmtkyfudk a&;om;NyKpkolrSm
a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;awmfwGif odkif;ynmrsdK;apY csay;aom wm;rm;abmfwd q&mawmfBuD;udk,fwdkifNyKpkcJYaBumif;
azmfnTef;xm;avonf/
wu,frl BuG,f&Tifonf odkif;ynm rwwfyGefvdkay/ vdkvm;ESpfoufNcif;vnf; r&dSay/ odkYaomf
w&m;udkawmYrl vGefpGm usifYBuHtm;xkwfonf/ xdkYaBumifY BuG,f&Tifonf usrf;pmwGif a&;om;xm;aom
odkif;usifYpOfrsm;udk tenf;i,frQom avYvmrSwfom;NyD; w&m;udkom usifYBuHtm;xkwfaeavonf/
wynfYNzpfol usef;qef;zkef;ukdvnf; rdrd usifYBuHtm;xkwfaom w&m;tm;xkwfenf;udk oifay;NyD;
usifYBuHapavonf/
12

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
wu,frl rdrdwdkY usifYBuHtm;xkwfaeaom usrf;pmyg w&m;tm;xkwfenf;rsm;rSm tvGeftqifYNrifYNyD;
cufcJeufeJaom twGif;tm; odkif;usifYpOfwpf&yfNzpfaBumif; q&ma&m wynfYyg rodBuacs/
xdkYaBumifY q&mwynfYESpfOD; tcsdefESifYtrQ &uf&Snfvrsm; rqkwfrepf usifYBuHtm;xkwfvmaomtcg
tvGefNynfY0aom twGif;tm;rsm; pkpnf;&&dSvmavawmYonf/
odkY&dSpOf vGefcJYaom oHk;ESpfcefYurl xdkwm;rmabmfwdusrf;udk a&Smif&Srf;qdkolESifY &DacgYqdkol ESpfOD;u
bk & m;ausmif ; xJ o d k Y wd w f w qd w f 0 if í cd k ; ,l o G m ;\/ xd k o d k Y cd k ; ,l N cif ; cH & aBumif ; ud k BuG , f & T i f u
ausmif;xdkifq&mawmftm; &dk;om;pGm avQmufxm; taBumif;Bum;vdkuf\/ xdkYaBumifY ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfu
BuG,f&TifwdkY q&mwynfYESpfOD;tm; xdkolESpfa,mufaemufodkY vdkufí usrf;pmtkyfudk Nyefawmif;,l&ef apcdkif;vdkuf\/
q&mwynf Y E S p f O D ; onf a&S m if & rf ; ES i f Y &D a cgY w d k Y \ owif ; ud k pH k p rf ; &if ; aemuf q H k ; wG i f ig;ES p f w pf B ud r f
odkif;avmuvHk;qdkif&m "m;a&;NydKifyGJBuD; usif;yavY&dSaom 0gqef;awmifay:odkY a&Smif&rf;ESifY &DacgYwdkY
vma&mufBurnfNzpfaBumif; od&dSvdkuf&\/
od k Y N zif Y q&mwynf Y E S p f O D ; onf 0gqef ; awmif a y:od k Y v mcJ Y B u\/ awmif a y:od k Y a &muf a omtcg
aumYvif;vif;\ zcif aumYcsif;ESifY rdcif ppf&kHwdkYudk awGYqHkum usdK;aBumif;pHkvif aNymNyvdkuf\/
aumYcsif;ESifY ppf&kHwdkYrSm NydKifpH&Sm;aom xdyfoD;odkif;orm;rsm;NzpfBu\/ odkYaom olwdkYZeD;armifESHonf
BuG,f&Tifbkef;BuD;tm; tuJcwfvdkufrdaomtcg vGefpGm tHBooGm;Bu\/
taBumif;rl BuG,f&Tifonf odkif;uGufwpfuGufrQyifwwfuRrf;Ncif; r&dSaomfvnf; twGif;tm;url
olwdkYxufyif NynfY0aeaBumif; odvdkuf&aomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/
aumYcsif;ESifY ppf&kHwdkYonf 0g&ifYodkif;ynm&Sifrsm; NzpfBuolrsm;Nzpfí wpfbufvl\ vrf;avQmuf[ef?
vI y f & S m ;[ef ? rsuf v H k ; tBunf Y t m; ponf w d k Y u d k wpf c suf r QBunf Y v d k u f o nf E S i f Y xd k v l w G i f twG i f ; tm;
tb,frQ&dSaBumif;cefYrSef;Edkifolrsm; Nzpf\/
aumYcsi;f ESiYf ppf&w
kH Ykdonf orD;Nzpfol aumYvif;vif;tm; BuG,&f iT \
f twGi;f tm; taBumif;udk zGiYf [aNymcJYí
aumYvif;vif; xdkpOfuyif odcGifY&cJY\/
aumYcsif;ESiYf ppf&w
Hk Ykd onf BuG,&f iT \
f usdK;aBumif;aNymNycsufukd em;axmifNyD;aemuf csufcsif;yif a&Smif&rf;ESiYf
&DacgYwdkYtm; zrf;csKyfvdkuf\/
a&Smif&rf;onfvnf;aumif;? &DacgYonfvnf;aumif; xdyfwef;odkif;orm;rsm; NzpfBuonf/ odkYaomf
aumYcsif;ESifYppf&kHwdkY ZeD;armifESHESifY,SOfvdkufaomf vuf&nf uGmoGm;Nyefonf/ xdkYaBumifY olwdkYtm; tvG,fwul
trdzrf;EdkifNcif;yif Nzpf\/
BuG , f & T i f o nf wm;rm;abmf w d usrf ; pmtk y f t aBumif ; ud k ol w d k Y tm; ar;Nref ; aomf ol w d k Y u
bl;omuG,faeBu\/ olwdkYESpfOD;\ wpfudk,fvHk;tESYH &SmNyefaomfvnf; tpterQyif rawGYbJ aysmufNcif;rvS
aysmufcgaeav\/
od k Y ES i f Y BuG , f & T i f w d k Y q&mwynf Y ES p f a ,muf o nf aemuf q H k ; wG i f pd w f y suf v uf y suf N zif Y
a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;odkY NyefvmcJYBu&onf/
ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfonf usrf;pmtkyfNyefr&vmaBumif; odonfESifY BuG,f&Tiftm; ausmif;awmf\
pnf;urf;twdkif; tNypf'PfcwfvdkufavawmY\/
aumYvif;vif;onf usef;qef;zkef; aNymNyaom BuG,f&Tif\ NzpfaBumif;ukefpif taBumif;pHkudkpdwf0ifpm;pGm
em;axmifNyD;aemuf oufNyif;csvsuf . . .
]]'DtwGufeJYyJ rif;&JYq&mawmfudk pum;aNymcGifY ydwfyif? oHBudK;eJYvJ csnfaESmif? oHyHk;BuD; ESpfyHk;eJYvJ
a&tNynfYxnfYNyD; ycHk;ay:xrf;vdkY awmifatmuf awmifay: a&wGif;xJudk a&NznfYcdkif;wmyJvm;[if}}
usef;qef;zkef;uNyHK;vsuf . . .

13

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]'gu a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;&JY tNypf'Pfcwfenf;ygyJ? bkef;awmfBuD;awGaNymwm Bum;zl;w,f? 'gu
tNypf'Pfcwfw,fvdkYqdkayr,fY wu,frSm tNypf'PfcwfcH&wJY yk*¾dKvftwGuf trsm;BuD; tusdK;&dSw,fwJY?
vlwpfa,muf[m pum;raNymbJae&if pdwNf idraf wmY w&m;tm;xkwv
f Ykd ydNk yD;aumif;w,f? aemufNyD; tifrwefav;wJY
oHyHk;awGeJY a&tNynfY awmifwufawmifqif; vkyf&wJYtwGuf cE¨mudk,f ydkNyD; oefrmvmw,f? cHEdkif&nf
odyf&dSvmw,f}}
aumYvif;vif;u oabmus[ef tNyHK;uav;NzifY . . .
]]'Dvdkqdk&if rif;&JYq&mu tNypf'Pf cHae&wm r[kwfbJ odkif;ynm avYusifYaewmaygY [kwfp? [if; ...
[if; . . . igu pyfpkovdk NzpfaeygNyD}}
usef;qef;zkef;u tavmwBuD;NzifY . . .
]]cifAsm; uRefawmfYq&mtay: apwemxm;wmudk uRefawmfeJY q&mu trsm;BuD; aus;Zl;wifygw,f}}
pum;waNymaNymESifY qif;vmcJYBu&m aumYvif;vif; BuG,f&Tiftm; NyefawGYpu vufpGJawmf Nrif;uav;tm;
csnfaESmifcJYonfY awmifauGYtqif; vrf;uav;odkY a&mufvmcJYBu\/ aumYvif;vif;onf usef;qef;zkef;tm;
vSnfYBunfYvdkuf&if;. . .
]]usef;qef;zkef;? rif; 'Dae&muyJ NyefawmY igYudkvdkufrydkYygeJYawmY}}
usef;qef;zkef;u apm'urwufbJ xdkae&mwGifyif &yfaevkdufonf/ xdktcdkuf aumYvif;vif;onf
&kwfw&uf wpfpHkwpfcktm; owd&vdkufoNzifY tdwfxJodkY EdIufvdkuf\/
aumYvif;vif;\ vufxJwGifygvmaom t&mrSmrl tNcm;awmYr[kwf/ olr\ wpfESpfaNrmuf arG;aeYyGJwGif
[lqufq&mawmfu olrtm; arG;aeYvufaqmif ay;cJYaom vdk[ef oHrPd&kyfwk wpfpHkyifNzpfyg\/
usef;qef;zkef;u xdk&kyfwkudk em;rvnf[ef pdkufBunfYaepOf aumYvif;vif;u olYvufxJxnfYvdkuf\/
yxraomf usef;qef;zkef;onf xdk&kyfwkudk r,l&JbJ aBumifai;íom BunfYae\/
]]ig rif;udk vufaqmifay;wmav? a&mY ,lyg}}
usef;qef;zkef; r,l0HY,l0YHNzpfaepOf aumYvif;vif;u vufxJodkYtwif;xdk;xnfYay;cJYNyD;aemuf Nrif;ay:odkY vTm;ceJ
ckefwufum xdkae&mrS xGufcJ\/
]]a[Y . . . 'umrav;? cPavmuf aeygOD;}}
xdktcdkufrSmyif awmifukef;xufrS atmfaNymvdkufaom toHwpfoHudk aumYvif;vif;Bum;&oNzifY
Nrif;ZmwfBudK;udk owfvsuf &yfaevdkuf&\/ trSefrl xdktoHrSm [lqufq&mawmf\ toHyif Nzpfyg\/
aumYvif;vif;onf q&mawmfwGif wpfpHkwpfck udpö&dSíom rdrdtm; wm;Ncif;Nzpfrnf[k od&í ae&mrSyif
apmifYaevdkuf\/
[lqufq&mawmfvnf; cPcsif;yif olwdkYtem;odkYa&mufvm\/ q&mawmfonf a&mufvQifa&mufcsif;
usef;qef;zkef;tm; . . .
]]uJ usef;qef;zkef; bk&m;ausmif;xJudkom NyefayawmY? b,frS avQmufroGm;eJY}}[k rdefYrSm\/
usef;qef;zkef;u [lqufq&mawmftm; t&dktaoay;vdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf aumYvif;vif;tm; wpfcsufrQ
pdkufBunfYNyD;vQif awmifay:odkY wufoGm;awmY\/
xdktcgusrSyif [lqufq&mawmfonf aumYvif;vif;tm; pm&Gufwpf&Guf xkwfNy&if; . . .
]]'umrav; 'Dpm b,fola&;w,fqdkwm odovm;}}
aumYvif;vif; Nrif;ay:rS ckeq
f if;vdu
k \
f / NyD; [lqufq&mawmf xkwNf yaompmudk ,lí zwfBunfYvu
kd \
f /
pm&Gufay:wGif . . .
]]q,f&uftwGif; cGef;vGefbk&m;oHk;qlu a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;&JY odkif;ynmudk vmavYvmzvS,fr,f}}
aumYvif;vif;u oabmrayguf[efNzifY . . .
]]cGef;vGefbk&m;oHk;qlqdkwm b,folvJ? 'DvloHk;a,mufu avvHk; w,fxGm;ygvm;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu tHYtm;oifYpGm . . .
]]aBomf . . . vufpowfawmY 'umrav;u olwdkYudkrodbJudk;}}
14

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
aumYvif;vif;u OD;acgif;cgí
]]wynfYawmfru olwdkYtrnfudkawmif rBum;zl;bl;? azaz eJY arar aNymoHvJ rBum;zl;bl;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu qufí
]]'umrav; cefYrSef;BunfYprf;? 'Dpm b,fenf;b,fyHka&mufvmovJqdkwm}}
aumYvif;vif;u
]]cGef;vGefbk&m;oHk;qlu vlvTwfNyD; ay;ckdif;vdkufwmNzpfrSmaygY}}
]]r[kwfbl; 'umrav;? bkef;BuD;wdkY&JY a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;udk 'Dvdk odkif;ynm zvS,fwmwdkY?
pdefac:wmwdkYqdkwm rBumcP BuHKawGYae&wJY udpöyg? bkef;BuD;wdkYuawmY wwfEdkifoavmuf pdefac:vmoludk
Niif;y,fvYkd&&if Niif;y,fvu
kd w
f ,f? azsmif;zsvYkd&&if azsmif;zsvu
kd yf gw,f? bke;f BuD;wdYk u w&m;"r®uo
kd m a[mBum;wJY
yk*d¾KvfawGyg? olwpfxl;eJY cdkuf&efNzpfyGm;aevdkY b,fwifYw,fygYrvJ}}
aumYvif;vif;u Bum;Nzwfí
]]'gvJ [kwfom;yJ}}
]]'gayr,fY wpfcsdKYodkif;orm; odkif;ynm&SifawG[m olwdkY a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;udk a&mufvmvdkY
a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;u olwdkYudk vufpGrf;rNybl;qdk&if olwkdYu rauseyfbl;? rNyefBubl;? 'gaBumifYvJ
bkef;BuD;tckOD;pD;aewJY vdk[efYausmif;wdkuf[m tJ'Dvdk vlrsdK;awGudk {nfYcHzdkYtwGuf wnfaqmufvdkuf&wmyJaygY}}
aumYvif;vif;u &,farmvsuf . . .
]]vufpowfawmY q&mawmfBuD;u olrsm;eJY &efNzpfzdkY oufoufwm0ef,lxm;wmudk;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu rJYNyHK;NyHK;um . . .
]]tdk . . . aNym&if;qdk&if; bkef;BuD;&JYpum;u OD;wnfcsufaNymif;oGm;NyD? 'Dpm&GuftaBumif; Nyefaumuf&atmif
tck'Dpm&Gufudk vdk[efY ausmif;wdkufxJu e*g;Edkifvdk[efYqif;wk&kyf&JY vufxJuae &vmwmuG,fY}}
aumYvif;vif;u tHYBooHNzifY . . .
]]b,folu qif;wkawmf&JY vufxJudk xnfYvdkufwmvJbk&m;}}
]]'D e*g;Ed k i f v d k [ ef Y bk & m;&k y f w k B uD ; u ayoH k ; q,f a vmuf N rif Y w muG , f Y ? 'D & k y f w k & J Y vuf x J u d k
pm&GufwifzdkYqdkwmrvG,fbl;? bk&m;&kyfwk&JY udk,fawmfudk aq;aBumoefYpifzdkY twGufawmif avSum;BuD;awG
axmifNyD;wuf&wm? tckvJ oefY&Sif;a&;vkyfzdkY avSum;axmifNyD; wufvdkufawmY 'Dpm&GufudkawGYwmyJ?
'gudkBunfYNcif;NzifY 'Dvl&JY odkif;ynm[m aygYao;ao;r[kwfbl;qdkwm cefYrSef;vdkY&w,f 'umrav;? 'gaBumifY
'Dvl[m odkif;avmurSmemrnfr&dSwJY odkif;orm;r[kwfEkdifbl;qdkwmudkvJ bkef;BuD;cefYrSef;vdkY&w,f 'umrav;?
'gaBumifY 'umrav;rsm; 'Dvludk odrvm;vdkY ar;BunfYwmyg}}
aumYvif;vif;u q&mawmf\ qdkvdk&if;udk oabmaygufoGm;\/ xdkYaBumifY . . .
]]q&mawmfBuD;u 'D cGef;vGefbk&m;oHk;ql[m wynfYawmfreJY ywfowfaew,fvdkYrsm; xifaeovm; bk&m;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu NyHK;vsuf
]]'Dpmudk awGYwJYtcsdefeJY 'umrav; a&mufvmcsdefeJY wdkufqdkifBuHKBudKufaeawmY ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfu
enf;enf;yg;yg;r,HkouFm NzpfoGm;cJYwmyg}}
aumYvif;vif;ursufESmxm;udk BuKwfvsuf . . .
]]wynf Y awmf r 'D v l o H k ; a,muf u d k rod w mawmY trS e f y gbk & m;? 'D e mrnf u d k a wmif ck
q&mawmfaNymNyrSBum;zl;wmygbk&m;? q&mawmfBuD;uaum olwdkYudk bmaBumufaezdkYvkdovJ? q,f&uftwGif;
olwdkYvm&J&if vmBuyapaygY? tJ'DawmYrS ausmif;rSef;uefrSef; odatmif tpGrf;NyvkdufaygYbk&m;}}
[lqufq&mawmfu rJYNyHK;NyHK;vsuf . . .
]]aBumufwmawmY wpfpufuav;rS raBumufygbl;? olwdkYu 'umrav;eJY bmrS rywfoufbl;qdkawmYvJ
bkef;BuD; ydkNyD; pdwfcsoGm;&wmaygYav}}

15

ygvm. vif .ay:odkY NyefwufNyD.BunfYvdkufaomf tuÐstNzL0wfxm.aNymonfYtvm.f í cGef.vif.folurS a&Smifvifbk&m.eJY BunfYNzpfatmif BuHOD.rvTwfvdkufaygY/ 'Dpm&GufxJrSm a&.wdkY&JY ynmwpf0ufeD.&m opfyifwpfyift&dyfwGif xdkifí tem.fvdkY olwdkYu txufpD.vGefbk&m.awmtkyftwGif. tcGiYf tvrf. aygifay:wGif BudK.wJY avoHudkBunfY&if tawmfudk 0ifYBuGm.pHkwdkYonf olwdkYESifYpum.wuúodkvf aevif. pdwfxJrSvnf.ausmif.ql trnfcHxm.SOfNydKifcsifawmY igwdkYu olYpdwfqE´twdkif. ud k csnf x m.fYudk yGJBuD.udk em.rBuD.vSrf.laevdkuf\/ xdkpOf &kwfw&uf cyfvSrf.awmtkyfxJrS vGefpGmom.maom BudK.vd k u f \ / xd k Y a emuf toH B um.bdk.ESifY wpfpHkwpf&m ywfoufaevQif wu.em. aemufv0ufavmufqdk odkif.fYyHkyJbk&m.pm.udk wnfaqmufcJwm ESpfaygif.rS z.ynmawmfcsifrSawmfrSm? wu.rSyJ? 'gayr.ESif&if.Edkif"m.r.qlu igwdkY a&Smifvifbk&m.vSrf. 'Dvl&JY wl&d.oHk./ .vif.mufsm.ausmif.f pdik .qdkwmav}} aumYvif. .udk tefwkvdkY r&ao.&NyD Nzpfyg\/ aumYvif.f pD.vif.}} aumYvif. Nrif .vif.oHpOftwdkif.ygNyD? b.vsuf xdkifaeonfudk awGY&NyD.wJY vlawGu wu.? araraNymNyzl.eJY .wdkYonf xdkol\ ab.NyD.tBum.&daS omfvnf.awmfbufrSaeí aNymaeonfudk awGYaomf [lqufq&mawmfu ]]a&Smifvif bk&m.csifvm&ifawmY ususee qHk.\ wD.aysmfyg.mufonf olrtm.oHk.wHkYtm.ausmif.oH}[laom aw. 0ifYBuGm..oHudk wD.avmuf 'DvlawGwwf&if 'DNydKifyGJuawmY [if.}} trSefpifppf þ ]rm*"aw. .eD.ckrl aumYvif. olwdkYuom odkif.wyf wl&d.? wpfenf.oHpOfudk vdkufí NrL.rS vSrf. aumYvif . pG m em. vdkufavsm&awmYrSmaygY? 'DrSm 'umrav.ygNyDbk&m. onf [l q uf q &mawmf \ apwemud k aumif .&m cyfvSrf. wD.onf xdNk ydKifyu JG kd vGepf mG pdw0f ifpm.rmefwufBuGpGm aNymaom [lqufq&mawmf\ pum.axmifaeayawmY? olwdkY igwdkY a&Smifvifbk&m.aygYav/ wu.vGefbk&m.ausmcdkif.udk 'ke.odkY avQmuf0ifoGm.? cGef.pGm uckefaeonfudk awGY&aomaBumifYyifNzpfonf/ ]]tif. vif .vif.vGefbk&m.cwfolem. aw. ]]aumif.u qdkNyef\/ ]]q&mawmfBuD.ausmif. .vQif Nrif. url aus. t&dyaf umif. tH Y Boruk e f N zpf a paom Nrif u G i f .? wynfYawmfr owif.wyfwl&d.vd k u f & \/ vif .vm\/ ]]'DvdkNydKifyGJrsdK.aeBuNyD.fodkif.iSufom&umrsm.cdkvmNyD.u tm.Ncif.ausmif.oHk. tm.fwrf.atmif e*g.bl.m wpfrsdK.vif.ynmrSm xdkaw. . vif .odkY ysH0Jem.axmifaeygYr.enf.rlromygacs/ BunfYciG Yf BunfYvrf.wpfa.fvdkYom odkif.fcsif&ifawmY ta&. onf xd k i f a e&mrS xNyD .yJaygY}} vif.ygonf/ awmtpyf opfyifrsm.ywfvnfwGif 0dkif.aemuf .aom a.fY cGef.cwfoHudk Bum.vnf v d k u f \ / tu.udk em.xl.csrf.om em.onf c&D.m wpfrsdK.Ny wdkufxkwf&aomtcg tm.ygbl. Nzpfae&ayrnf r[kwfygvm. wu.pGm wD .Nyefí oDqdk wGefNrnfBuonfudk qdkvdkNcif.ynmrSm azaz? arar? bdk.pm. cwf v suf & d S o nf u d k awG Y vd k u f & \/ vif .uaevmNyD.avmurSm taNzay:rSmyg? owif.aumif.ynmtpGrf.wJY rm*"aw.yGJaumif.udk wifum at.odaomf [lqufq&mawmfonf pdwfcsoGm.xm. . awmifatmufodkY qif.vmcJYavawmYonf/ vif.u vufvTwfvdkY rNzpfbl.cwfvdkufonfESifY iSufrsdK.fNrifYrm.mynmu w. pOf.fBuOfum awmtkyx f o J Ykd Nrif.udk tHwkEdkifovm.axmifNyD.ynm zvS. aw.oH tqifYawmif a&mufaeNyDudk. wpfaxmifausmfoGm.ql[lonf aumYvif.ESifY rnfodkYrQ rywfowfaBumif. odkif. pOf.f}}[k aNymNyD.vif.u a&Smifvifbk&m.Nzpf\/ 16 .í ray:vmatmif Nzpfaeonf/ xdYk aBumifY pdwyf suyf su&f v Sd monfEiS Yf vrf.

NyKNyD.foHpOfrsm.f? uRefru &SifY rm*"aw.zG.ai.ESD.edrfYvmoNzifY xdkvlu rsufarSmifukyfí tuGufa&GY&ef pOf.m wD. wNznf.rnf NzpfNyD.Zl.onf xdkoludk EIwfqufNyD.fusvm&Smonf/ vif.tNzpf ul.vif.vHk.oHpOfrSmvnf.aNymif.u &Sif usm. ]]uRefr araruawmY 'Dvdk wl&d.Ncif.fcspfuRrf.Nyygvm. ud k &yf v d k u f \ ? NyD .fY uRefru tysif.}} [k atmfaNymvdkuf\/ xdkvl\ toHu BoZm&dSvS\/ toufrSmrl oHk. .mynmeJYywfoufvdkY tawmfoduRrf.avawmY\/ xdkvlu 0rf.vif.atmif e*g. vQif t d w f x J r S usm.cJY\/ xdkvlu vif. NyHK.rS acsmif.aNrmif. usm.aNrmif.f? uRefrudkvJoifay.&NzifY .wmyJ? usKyfudk wpfyk'favmufwD.u vsifNrefpGm vufumNyNyD. ab.pm. m wD .mynmwGif vGefpGmtqifYNrifYaom ynm&yfwpfcktNzpf owfrSwfxm.a&TYpOf wpfbufu ta&.udk Bum.onf wl&d.onf idkifai.moHudk vif.wJY tuGufygvm.xdk. .vif.Sufrdwm awmif. .ESifY aBuuGJvGrf. xGufcJYygvm.u yGifYvif.axmif&if. oabmaygufem.\/ ]]‘cifAsm.fu q&mBuD.aevdkuf\/ aumYvif.vmoNzifY EIwfrS vTwfceJ toHxGufoGm.onf opfyifrsm.vif.vm\/ vif.aom pdwfoabmxm.\ &if. yGifYvif.armoGm.&dk.BunfYaeaom vif.a&TYaeawmY\/ odkYwpfa.opfyifBum.pGm em.rS xGufcJY\/ NyD.cwfoHrsm.BunfYae&mrS vGefpGm pdwf0ifpm.vif.wpfuGufudk a&TYvdkuf7m rBumcifrSmyif taNctae aNymif.olNzpf&m csufcsif.vJ aus.fcHpm. ]]apmapmwkef.aNymonfYtwdkif.oGm.fí acsmif.udk vGrf.qefaom yGifYvif.fausmfcefYom &dSOD. 'Dbufudk a&mufvmwmyg}} xdkvlu olYwl&d.onf i.rd\/ aw. . ol N zpf \ / od k Y aomf eH a b.pD.udk em.vdkuf&vdkY pdwfrxdef.armzG.wpfuGuf ra&TYvdkuf&wmvJ}} trS e f r l xd k v l o nf vif .mufwnf. wpf c k u d k xkwfNyD.vif.aemuf xdkae&mrS xGufvmcJYNyefav\/ 17 .aomf&.w Nrifa.EdkifNzpfNyD.od&oNzifY vGefpGmoabmusoGm.oG.Edkif"m.mifvmrdNyef\/ od k Y &d S p Of xd k v l u wl & d . ]]w. cwf N cif .csufoHpOfrsm.awmY bmrS rnfrnf && rwwfbl.vsuf .vnfaBumif.f? 'gayr.vif.udk vGefpGm oabmusoGm.udk ab.mufxnf. þynmrSm aw.vif.rS uG.bufrS tNzLvHk.Buonf/ vif. vif .aom pum.u olxif&m aNymvdu k af om tuGuo f nf rarQmfvifYbJ tuGurf eS Nf zpfomG .vif.BuD.\ uav.vif.udk tEdkif&oGm.omtm.}} xdkolu olYaemufwGif vl&dSonfudk owd&vdkuf\/ xdkYaBumifY vsifNrefpGm aemufbufodkY vSnfYí ]]b.vif.cwfwm odyfawmfygw.&SifY}} xdkvlu vif.yefygw.tBum. xuf u sm.mwD. .a&T Y &mwG i f awmf v G e f .txD.vmrd\/ wrf.om.oHvuf&mudk Bum.usef tazmfrJYqefaom 0rf.Nznf.wuúodkvf aevif.NyD.Aef .faumif.u wl&d.vif. .ygw.wpfa.usm.q.Asm}} vif.axmifae&mrS rsuf&nfrsm. trnf.farmaevdkuf\/ xdkvlonf vif. rsufESmoGifNyifu ydefydefvsvsyif Nzpfyg\/ vif.yifNzpfonf/ vif.*Dwwl&d.aewmukd uRefraESmifY.rd\/ ]]bmNzpfvdkY [dktrnf.enf.

kH a.vif. vG e f bk & m.vif.qlESifY a&Smifvifbk&m. a&Smifvifbk&m.? aNcarT.oef o nf Y Nrif f .muf Nrif.fyHk 0if&rnfudk .atmif e*g.pm. .mufudkBunfY&if.muf a emuf o d k Y vd k u f & if .wGif csdwfxm.ausmif.fpDyg&dS\/ vif.onf a&Smifvifbk&m. vufeufudk.ukef. a.rsm.udk pD.oHk. &Snv f sm. Nrif.rsm.wuúodkvf aevif.qdkovdkyif vif. NyefwufvmNyef\/ bk & m. ES i f Y q.aumifudk 'kef.aeYonf cGef. tcef.av.vif.mufpvHk.vif.a.tm.wnfum awmifay:vrf.vmNyD.vGef bk&m.b.onf xdkvloHk.mufu tm. (2) wpfudk.wGif csufcsif.vHk.f r d k i f c ef Y tuG m od k Y a&muf a omf &k w f w &uf ol Y aemuf b uf q D r S Nrif.f vSr.onfvufpGJawmf Nrif.onfoGm.muf pD.q.í r&atmifNzpfae\/ vif.f wGif Z&yfwpfcu k kd awG Y vd k u f & \/ xd k o l r sm.NyD Nzpfyg\/ .ckwdkif pOf.fYyGJBuD. wnf w .twdkif.vdkufav\/ vif.Edkif"m.SOfNydkif&rnfYaeY yifNzpf\/ odkYaomf vif.ay:rS vloHk.ckqdkvQif q.wwfNyD.oHk.aom Nrif.a.udk ESprf ikd cf efYtxd 'ke.&if.\/ odkYaomf xdv k o l .Nzpf & m vif .bufudk OD .vif.rSm aNrNyefYrS Nrif.r[kw/f ZufarT. pdwfvIyf&Sm.fpDeJY a&Smifvifbk&m.rSm toufig. rrD a wmYrS e f .onf olYNrif. zswfceJvSnfYBunfYaomtcg vloHk.aemuf &kww f &uf a&SYcyfvrS .tqHk.qDodkY OD.ausmif.mufxGufcGmoGm. rsm.rd\/ ]]tif.oGm.a.f q d k a wmY {uEÅ [d k c G e f .f pD.oGm.ausmif. Nzwfausmfum a&Smifvifbk&m.onf a&Smifvifbk&m.eHab.rsm.cGmoHrsm.f ESpfpdwf bmvdkvdkESifY vif.vmonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ Nrif.yif xdkoHk.ESD. ql qd k o l a wG y J N zpf r .pGm aygufaeaom vG e f p G m taNy.avawmYonf? vif.pdkif.ausmif. vif . onf xd k o l o H k . rS rsufNcnfNywfoGm.ausmmif.av\/ Nrif.onf tawG.bufodkY Nyefvnf OD.vif.\ aNcvSrf.rSm vsifNrefoGufvufvSNyD.a.aemuf o d k Y quf í vd k u f a evQif v nf .ausmif.f pdik .fcefY&dSNyD.&m aemufodkY vdkufoGm.rsm. pa&mufaomaeYrSm .odkif.f ? igomaemuf u soG m . csufcsif.rsm.udk BunfYvkduf&rSm r[kwfbl.vif.}} vif.xJodkY b.oH k .aevdkufawmY\/ 18 .yJGaumif.f&ufaNrmufoGm. 'DvloHk.rsm.fenf.aom tdwfxJwGif vufeufudk.Bum.vif.ausmif .a. od o Nzif Y xd k Z &yf w G i f acwåem.&if wu.pD.

udkyJ a&mufrSmaygY? a&Smifvifbk&m.oHk.uJYodkY ao.vif.vdkufNyD.Ncm.oG.udk vm&wmvJ}} vif.vmonfudk awGYvkduf&\/ vif.ql&JY udpöudk od&wmvJ}} aumYvif.uaum b.í ]]&S i f w d k Y oH k .fYES.? tck b.fol&IH. ]]at.vif.vkdY b.vif. b.NyD.uav. .f b.Nyefqif. .aemuf apmapmu a&Smifvifbk&m. tuJcwfNyD.vsuf .rSm 0g.vif.muftm.\/ ol\ NzLaomtom.f? rdef. . .fYES.u xdkvloHk.f .fae\/ vGefpGmoabmaumif.ru b.cGmoHrsm.ausmif.udk rBunfYbJ tay:odkYom acgif.r rif./ bmNzpfvdkY apmapm0ifoGm.ay:rS qif.vdkufonf/ ]]q&mBuD.u bkqwfqwftoHNzifY . ql u a&Smifvifbk&m. . .vdkvdkyif wif.fvkyf usKyfwdkY a&Smifvifbk&m.? tNyifvlawGvJ vufeufeJY rvm&bl.wdkY oHk.wdk.laevdkuf\/ vif.fYES.mufonf vif.0ifbl.Nyma&mif&dSolonf &kwfw&uf a&SYwpfvSrf.vGefbk&m. .Nyefqif.wuúodkvf aevif.foGm.onf/ ]][JY .ae&m Z&yfa&SYodkY a&mufonfESifY Nrif.fYudk nYHvdkY csufcsif.u a&Smifvifbk&m.SOfNydKifcJYNyD. . apmapmu vloHk.a.vif. aNymae\/ vif.NyHK.OD.oH k .Bum.rnfYyHkyif/ aemufwpfOD.muftm.&NyD.u b.em.u wdkYeJYvmNyD. ar.rvdkYvJ}} ]]uRefrvJ a&Smifvifbk&m.u rJYNyHK.uyfí aocsmpGmtuJcwf BunfYcGifY&vdkuf\/ yxrwpfa.awGeJY . . .Bu\/ rsufESmeDESifYvlu ]]rdef.aNympOf vif.faom udk.aNymwm rSefw. .udk oGm. ]]uav.ql[laom trnfudk aNymoHBum.ae&wmvJ ? cG e f .u tHYBovsuf .mufu wu.uav. vG e f b k & m.fvkyf 'DvloHk. .ausmif.a.rIr&dS/ oYdkaomf rsufESmNyifta&mifrSm 0gxdefvsuf a&m*gonfESifY wlaeavonf/ vif.&SdNyD.&rSmvJ}} xdkolu acgif.vmaom tNzpfudk tHYBord&if. rdef. .mufonf rarQmfvifYbJ vif. 19 .udkarmYí .vif.vHk. uav. EdIif.a.uav. odkYaomf rBumrDtcsdefwGif awmifay:bufqDrS Nrif.armYNyD.ausmif.ausmif.vdkY&rvm.r ray. ]]bmNzpfvdkY rod&rSmvJ}} rsufESmpdrf.NymNym rsufESm&Sifu vif.NymESifY vluyif toHrmrmNzifY ]]rif. vloHk. a.ausmif.vif.rvdkYyJaygY}} xdkpOf rsufESmpdrf.oGm.mufu 'Davmuf NrefNrefNyefqif.ausmif.a&mift&dyfaiGY ysYHxGufaeouJYyif/ xdkvludk BunfY&onfrSmyif wpfESpfwmywfvHk. rsufapmif.ndwfvsuf .vif. aea&mifESiYfyif xdawGY&[ef rwlacs/ aemufqHk.udkroGm.}} xdkNrif.Bud. ]][. ]]a&Smifvif bk&m.vm&wmvJ}} pdrf.url rsufESmoGifNyifxl.w. wpfcsdefvHk.vm&wmvJ? 'DvloHk.fqdkwm odwmvJ}} ]]'Duae wufoGm.\EIwfrS cGef.vif.ar.&. . pum.fvHk.vm&if.\/ ]]'Dr.fvkyf bk&m.ausmif.w.mufrSm t&yfykyk? rsmufESmeD&JNyD. .a.rsufESmysufoGm.rmxm.NyDr[kwfvm.foYl wynfYv?J bmudpö 'Da&Smifvifb&k m.okH.a.muf Nyefqif.ausmif.a.NyHK. Z&yfxJodkY0ifumtem.Edkif"m.}} xdkolYavoHu armufrmvSNyD. rsufESmurl wpfcsdefvHk..Nref.vif.ubkef.muf u bmrd k Y vd k Y 'D a vmuf a wmif 0if Y BuG m .foGm.pD.ausmif.}} vif.vm&wmvm.bJeJY}} xdkvloHk.wGif tpdrf.wpfcsufcJBunfYvdkuf\/ vif.tm. teD.oHk.\ &ifxJwGif AavmifqloGm.&JYemrnfu bmvJ? b. csufcsif.aeaomolu NyHK.udka&mufcJYwmvm.f &SifwdkY usawmYaum bmNzpfvdkY vufeufaqmifvm&wmvJ}} rsufESmpdrf.onfudk oabmrus[efyifNzpfyg\/ odkYaomf rsufESmeDNref.fqdkwm taNzrod&ao.aomf csufcsif.a. atmfar.Nyma&mifESifYvlu &kwfw&uf0ifí .rS aqmvQifpGm Nyefqif.folEkdifw.xJudk rdef.u &ifudkawmY acgif.vif.atmif e*g.onf xdkvloHk.vif.&if a&Smifvifbk&m.wpfOD.

ruswJY "m.vHk.wdkYtBum.ae&wmvJ}} pdrf.\ "m.b. .rSm xdkvlYvufxJygoGm.f ? aeygOD.wpfOD. a'go odyfrBuD.Nyma&mifESifY vif. tvdkvdkaxmifvmonf/ rsufESmeDNref.kH ay:odYk ]awmuf} ceJxufydkif.vif.bdk.vif.udk igaNzvdkY &om.cHvdkuf&&if raoawmif 'Pf&mNyif.udk "m.}} xdkvlu NyHK.mwpfckudk udkifxm.aomtBudrfyifNzpf\/ vif.wGif &yfaevdkuf\/ vif.eJY udk. teD. ]]'DrSm b.Nyma&mifESifY vlonf vnfacsmif.vif.farmaeav\/ xdkpOf &kwfw&uf Z&yfacgifrdk.w.iSufrsm.ygeJY}} [k owday. wifysOfacGvsuf NyHK. NyefvnfpdkufBunfYvdkufNyD.pOf.rd\/ tu. rif.taNymaBumifY rsufESmpdrf.usdK.udk qGJ.NymESifYvlurl acsmufcsm.wGifcsdwfxm.[ef ay:vGifaeaom vif.aomvlu Bum.vSrf. wpfqcefY azmif. "m.onf xdkvludk Nrifvdkuf&onfESifY vGefpGmtm.vif. ]]uJaNymprf.vdkufNyD.bl.Nzwfí ]]nDav. .f NymESiYf vlu vif.&JY toHk.rd\/ xdpk Of rsufEmS pdr.l&Hkrubl.wGif vif.mNzifY pGrf.cGef. &Sifu b.udkod&wmvJ?aNzprf. vkyfao.ESifY "m.yJ? 'if.folu rif. auseyfpGm &.usdK. t&m0w¬Kwpfck NyKwfusvm\/ xdkt&m0w¬Kudk tm.onfYolyif Nzpfyg\/ xdkolu NyHK.vdkufaom "m.\ cg. NrefNref}} vif.vGefbk&m.rS wukuk toHNrnfvm\/ xdktoHrSm wd&pämefodk.onf xdkoltm.NyD.\ rsufESmudkBunfY&if.vif.udk "m.udk uckefatmif wl&d. .\/ ]]uRefremrnf aumYvif.udk cdk.fN*dKvfu qif. Nrifzl.ayr.uav.fES.? uRefrudkvnf.wufoGm.vdkufonfudkom vif.ydkí wkefvIyfoGm.wpfoufwGif wpfcsufwnf.onf rsufESmpdrf.Nrifvdkuf&NyD.ndwfNy\/ trSefrl xdkolonf aus.xefxef&rSm aocsmw.Yfvkyf cGef.wpfaumif vnfacsmif.? uRefr&JY "m. .rSm þwpfBudrf yxrqHk.vif.fay:udkom wpfcsuftxdk. ]]olYvuftm.eifaomtoHrskdK.Edkif"m.fvkdac:ovJ}}[kar.emrnf b.fí xdkvlwdkufcdkufvmvQif tvGefNyif.wuúodkvf aevif.vif.ql taBumif.xefrnfrSm aocsmonf[k vif. wpfqufwnf.udk uRefrwpfoufrNrifzl.udk rrDao.vif.yg}} xkdolu .um.atmif e*g.Nyif.odkY ckefxGufvdkuf\/ oludk.wJY vlrsdK.aeonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ vif.lvdkufonf/ xdkol\ vIyf&Sm.vsuf acgif.vsufrS ]]rdef.fwkefvIyfoGm.fY aBumufp&mawmY aumif.vif.vmwJY ewfqdk.NyD. ]]igYemrnfuawmY [dkusL. atmfvm. . aygufuGJoGm. ]]&SifeJY bmqdkifvdkY ar. tcJrl rausEdkif/ xdkvlu atmfí . .vJ}} vif. .vif.rIrSm vGefpGmvsifNrefvSay&m vl&dyfwpfck vIyf&Sm. . vufwpfcsuf vIyf&Sm. .Nzpfae\/ xdkolonf BudK.Nyma&mif rsufESm&Sif a'golykefxoGm.&JY vuftm.? trSefqdk 'Dar.u csufcsif.vif. ]]&SifYvdk &rf.vif. bDvl.? rif. &SifvJ a&mufvmwmudk.BunfYvdkufBuaomf vlvwfydkif..fwdkifurl rsufESmpdrf.i.oHk.vif.atmif &dkufcsdK.vif.oGm.\/ ]]aBomf .raNz/ pdwfxJrSmvnf.&daS usmufw.vkcH&Ncif.}} vif. .f}} rsufESmpdrf.w.vif.odaomfvnf.tdrrf S qGx J w k v f u kd Nf yD.awmuf}} 20 .wyfwl&d.SOfEdkifrSef.vif.BuD. igu aBumuf&rSmwJYvm.av\/ vif. .onf/csufcsif. ]]'if.udk vdkcsifvdkYvJ aNymprf. igYudk acsmufwdkif.yifNzpf\/ xdktcsdefwGif xdkvl\ &ifbwfuvnf.u bdk.kH wpfw.vif.xdkolu "m.onf ynmydkif.vkdufonf/ NyD.qdkif&mwGif þolawGESifY r.vdkufNyD.\ vufudkqGJí cyfvSrf.pm. vif.av igu raNzavbJ}} odkYNzifY vif.um.f? 'Dvufacsmif.tdrfxJ NyefxnfY&if.í wufvm\/ qHyifvnf.Nyma&mifvl\ oGif[efudkNrif&aomf tenf.u igYudk 'Dvdkatmfaigufar.rd\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.aqmifEdkifaom vif.?aigufvm. .

.aBumifBunfYvdkufrd\/ twefBumrSyif . xGufaNy.oHk. ]]cGef.i.tNzpfudk awGYNrifae&aom vif.cwfvu kd \ f / ol\ nmvufu BudK.ql [kwfvm. .wnf. ar.fvufu nmvufaemufudk vdkufcsifaeao.udkudkif&if.maom aw. 21 .vif. BudK. aNymrdygovJ&Sif}} [k [dkusL.vif.\/ ]]cGef.onfudk pdwfraumif.favmifvm\/ .fvdkaBumifY NyefwufoGm. vGefpGm 0rf.qlu NrifwmeJY wpfcsdK. Nzpfae&ao. a&&Gwf[efNzifY .Buonf/ olwdkYu [dkusL. .udk pdefac:aewm}} [dkusL. txl.&wmvJ ? olwdkYawG apmapmuyJ a&Smifvifbk&m.\/ xdkolYrsufESm vGefpGm ndSK.BuNyef\/ vif. ]]awmuf . NzpfaerdNcif.fYESpfpdwf odkif.cwfaeav\/ wpfcPcsif.mudk wD.oGm.qef.ay:u qif. .fbufvufrS BudK.armYvdkY &ygNyD? bmNzpfvdkY pdwfraumif. .oHk.awmuftm.udk &yfvdkufNyD. . ay:vmoNzifY vif.ql .vsuf&dSNyD.\/ oluNywfawmufoGm.atmif e*g.wyfwl&d. OD.udk 'kef.a.oHk.oHk.wGifyif Nyif.oHwdkYNzifY xHkrTrf. NrifawGYvdkuf&\/ odkif.udk avYusifYaeNyD.if. ykdíydkí us.Nym.u xdktNzpfudkNrifaomf vGefpGm tHYBooGm.&wmv}}[k awG.vGefbk&m.\ "m. xefYceJ toHNrnfNywfxGufoGm.aemuf vif.wyfw&l .}} [dkusL.ay:odkY Nrif.qlu 'DvludkNrifwmeJY wpfcsdK.vif.aom BudK. . u [d k u sL.ausmif.rl xdkolonf wpfudk.uGufwpfuGufudk wdkufxkwfvdkuf&m b.wyfwl&d.awmufonf &kww f &uf BudK.cwfEdkifao.? igY&JY nmvufu &efoludk tNyif. Nyif.mufonf [dkusL.vif.ozG. . .? usefESpfa.vif.tqef. . .bl. .vGefbk&m. ]]&SifYudk [dk cGef.odkif.oHpOfrSmvnf.wuúodkvf aevif.qlNzpfrSmaygY? olwdkYu a&Smifvifbk&m.u [dkusL.ausmif. b.wnf. . d mudk wD. d matmufrS "m.vGefbk&m.enf.mufwnf. &Sif bk&m. . NyefvSnfYoGm.onf vGefpGm wkefvIyfoGm.nlae\/ trSefrl xdkolonf olavYusifYaeqJ odkif.\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.vif.xefaom "m.awmuftm.Nznf. .udk ypfcsum ae&mrS csmceJ vSnfYxGufum a&Smifvifbk&m.ql[kwfvm. . cGef.awmuf rsufESmrSm ydkí tHYBoaom t&dyfoP²mefrsm. .xefqHk. . .qlqdkwm igyJav}} ]]&Sif}} onf w pf c g tH Y BooG m . ]]&Sif .u olYpum. ]]bmNzpfvdkY cGef.awmufu wpfa.rd\/ vif.fai. vif . .}} EIwfrSvnf.ynmudk avYusifYaeaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ xdkpOf xdkvl\ nmvufu Nyif.odkif.xefvmovdk aw.yif ywf0ef.vmBuwm? tck b.fvufu BudK.monfvnf.qef.bl.awmuf &kwfw&uf a&mufvmonfudk Nrifaomf rsufESmysufoGm.usifonf om.Nym.w.BuwmyJ? &Sif odkif.oHk.aerd\/ xdpk Of [du k sL.uGufrsm.vsuf.udk qGJxkwfvdkufonf/ xdktcg nmbufvufrSm "m.Nzpf\/ vif.ynm rausnufao.xefaom "m.&ol r S m vif .awmuftm.fY b.wpfacsmif. wdkufcdkufEdkifayr.awmufu NyHK.oHk.a.wkef.f}}[k nnf.awmuf wkefvIyftHYBooGm.pGm Z&yfwGif a&muf&dSaeaom vloHk. wpfcsdefwnf.vGefbk&m. .vGefbk&m. pD.udkvnf.vsuf . ESpfodrfYaomavoHNzifY .mufaygY? olwdkY[m cGef. tcJrausaom tBunfYNzifY wpfcsufrQ BunfYNyD.wpfacsmif.Edkif"m.? b.\/taBumif.ae[ef ay:ae\/ olu oufNyif.pdkif.ausmif. vif . vTwfceJ ar. Nzpf \ / vif .wpfcsufcs&if.avmurSm acgif.vdkuf\/ [dkusL.oHk. ]]uRefr bmrsm. ]][dkvloHk.vGefbk&m.fvufurl BudK.udkrNywfatmif rwD.mufaum}} [dkusL.u NyHK.foGm. .uGuf wNznf. ckepfESpfwdwd usifYvmcJYwmawmif pdwfurwnfNidrfEdkifao.wyfw&l .awmuf t m.

NzpfvmBuNyD. oabmeJY tck cGef. olwdkYpD. 'Dtwdkif.Edkif"m.mufu toufiifaew.w.cJYw.mufpvHk.mufpvHk.awGyJ}} [dkusL.zdkY BudK.fu rdwfaqGawGu igYudk wl&d.ausmif.f? olu &DacgYwJY}} vif.vif. ukoay.ausmif.Ny&onf/ ]]tNzpftysufu 'Dvdkyg? rESpfu aqmif.mufwnf.cwfaewkef. aemufwpfa.oH k . ra&mufzl. .rsm.wuúodkvf aevif. aNcukefvufyef.frSm emrnfenf.}}[k ar.u &.? wpfa. vG e f a wmif r S m yJ aexd k i f a wmY igYud k cGef.a.mufudk 0ifzsOfvdkufwJY tcgrSm wpfa.fY olwYkdt0wftpm.mufr[kwfygbl.yawmYwmyJ? 'geJYyJ ESpfa. vlwpfa. olwdkYu a&Smifvifbk&m..owfykwfaewmudk awGY&w.mufu toufxGufoGm.muf r.udk wpfcgrS ra&mufzl.muf [ m aemufqHk. 'Pf&m tNyif.vdkuf\/ [dkusL.txef&NyD.aemuf .folawGvJ}} ]]olwdkYu 'D a&Smifvifbk&m.f&TifqdkwJY bkef. igYudk&ifzGifYoGm.udkrvnfbl.xefxef&xm. &kwfw&uf wpfpHkwpfckudk owd&[efNzifY . a&Smif&Srf.cJYw.udk rSmvdkufygwJY? bmvJ .enf.k 0 rwlygvm.zwfbl. .fY? olaocgeD.fYaBumifY olwdkY ESpfa..farmvsuf.u vlawGav}} ]]&Sif .NzpfaerSmaygY? [kwfvm.? igu taemufydkif.awGuvJ taemufydkif. rif. owfBuNyDudk.uG. .vmBuw.f qD.m? usm.awmufu qufaNym\/ ]]&DacgYu olaocgeD.vif.? 'gayr. ]]uRefru olwdkYESpfa.ausmif.mufu a&Smif&Srf. aemufwpfa. aorS m yJ v d k Y od B uw.fu tarT.u [kwfvm.xefawmY r&awmYbl.folYb.xJu BuG.eJY vH.mufvHk.mufudk odae&wmvJ}} vif. arm[d k u f N yD .vif.folrS t&ifray.wGw J JG vkyaf eBuw.AdkvfvkyJGusif.oHk.f? aemufNyD.wcsdKYaNymcJYw.udk aNymwmyg? oHk.rSm pum.pmtkyfwpftkyf cdk.a.f? bmvJqdkawmY .xm.rSm pdk.rsdK.qlvdkY emrnfay.&if a wmY q.muf[m b.OD.ynmrSm ydkawmfoGm.fYES.mufxufwpfa.rSm igYudk tultnDwpfck awmif.axG. usrf.f ? 'geJ Y ol w d k Y ES p f a .mufu b. ]][dk .wJY aNrNyefYydkif.}} vif. ]]cGef.awmufu vif.}} [dkusL.f & uf t wG i f . ql q d k w m vl o H k .vdkY olaNymw.vif.f? aemufqHk.f? igu olwdkYESpfa.fu vlawG0wfovdk 0wfpm.BuD.fY 'dNyifvu l vkyBf uHowfNzwfrmS pd.wJY Nrif.Buw.yJ v d k Y csD . cG e f . NzKef.uae usrf.ao.wJY tultnDudkvJ NznfYqnf. .f? 'gayr.&drfvdkYav? tJY'gaBumifY olwdkYu pm.oHk. qDwdke.e.f? aemufqHk. &cJYw.w. usL.w.ayguf&moDrSm igu cGef.xdyfrSm wl&d.u b.om quf o G m .ovJ rodbl.f? 'geJY toufiifaewJYvludk igYxJxJoGif. &DacgY toufxGufoGm.u ckrSyif &.eJY "m.fY aoaocsmcsm ar. .uaNym&if.? wpfa.&if.f? aeygOD.u aooGm.qlqdkwm vlwpfa.muf bmypönf. ]]'gayr.u qDrSm wJY? igu em. bk&m.NyD.Buw. 'Pf&m Nyif.vGefbk&m.udkvJ tvnfvm&if.rINyKcJYwmawGudk aemifw&NyD.fav? olwdkYu a&Smifvifbk&m.atmif e*g.muf & J Y vQdKY0Sufemrnfvm.Nyif. .fEdkifawmY\/ ]]vuf p owf a wmY 'D v d k u d k . a.f? olYudkvJ ru.f? 'gayr.NyD.mufudk awGYzl.awmaygY? olwdkYESpfa. &xm.awG vkdkufvmawmY olwdkYu taemufydkif.muf acsmif.fwJY? 'gayr.rSm olY&JYraumif.awmifxdyfa&mufawmY ESpfa.udkoGm.mufukd wpfa.ausmif.Hb k J wpfa.vif..odkif.NyD.r0if tdyrf aysmf NzpfcJY&w.w.fBuHwkef.u a&Smifvifb&k m. .oHk.vGefawmifay:uae ig qif. .f? aemufwpfa. .? &DacgYu toufxGufcgeD. ewfbk&m. vG e f b k & m.BuD.mufawmif.vGefawmif&JY ewfbk&m.muftvpf wpfa.mufu a&Smif&Srf.k vdYk pm.awmY aocgeD.vdkufBuwmyJ}} vif.csif. .u [mceJ tmar#dwfNyKNyD.BuD. ? uRef r xif w mu cG e f .NyD? 'geJYyJ igvJaNrNyefYydkif.f a v? aemuf i gu wpf E S p f y wf v H k .fudk xGufaNy.? olwYkdu taemufyikd .mufpvHk.ausmif.rSm bk & m.r.vmcJYwmyJ}} 22 .pm.muf odkif.awmufu tHYBooHNzifY ]][kwfw.oGm. a&Smifvifbk&m.&de.aeBuwm? tckawmY vufpowfawmY tcsif.ceJ igYwJtdrf&JY tNyifbufrSm vlESpfa.fY 'Pf&mu odyfNyif.ausmif.awmifukef.mwD.fEdkifcJYbl.vJtwl? tdyv f t J wl? wyl.&SnfNrif.vGef bk&m.aNrmif. a&Smifvifbkef.oHk.fav? tJ'De.fY olwdkYESpfa.udk &Sif.e.f? ESpfa.vdkYyg 'Dvdkqdk&if apmapmu tbdk.

]]a&Smifvifbk&m. vif.edrfYoGm. 'gu bmpnf.ausmif. ]]'Dvdkqdk&if &Sifu b. .&JY bm.? olwdkYu "m. rS m odkif.? wl&d.wJY? 'geJY igu olwdkYoHk.&JY vl 0 wf w ynf Y a wG a v? vl 0 wf w ynf Y q d k w mu ol w d k Y u bk e f .urf. ]]tdk.u yk*d¾KvfawGeJY igeJY wpfa.awG odyfrsm. .w.ausmif. .m? usm.f csKyfq&mBuD.Edkif"m.ausmif .ausmif.uGufudk b.ausmif. .ausmif. vufpowfawmY 'Dvdkudk.w. .c&D. ]]'Dudpöu apmapmu [dkvloHk.mufeJY .u pnf.ausmif.ausmif.ynmrSm oHk. .u&.fqdkNyD. .a&. pdefac:vdkufwmyJ}} xdktcg vif.u vlawG? olwdkY&JY q&mBuD.vif.mufpvHk.rSm olwdkY a&Smifvif*dkPf.mufwpfe.csKyf&dS&m vmzdkY pdefac:vdkufw.f aeBuwmwJY? 'gayr.av}} ]]xGD .ynmoifwmudk aNymwmuG.a&.aemuf .pvHk.wJY tultnDtwGuf 'Dudk vm&r.u *dP k .&de.vJ? vm igwdkY cyfwnfwnfwufoGm.fY? olwkdYu qD.fvsuf .ay.xdk.&wmvJ}} [dkusL.wm&SifY? rdef. [dk.}} vif.fuG.awG bk&m.aemuf .atmif e*g. .f*dkPf.rm"m.NyD.oHk.odkif.fY? igvJ &DacgY awmif.SOfNydKifawmY oHk.u pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf &Sif.rSm igeJYwdk.wuúodkvf aevif. igeJY twlwl vdkufcJYygvm.a.f? olwdkYoHk.vGefbk&m. odyfawmfvdkY cGef.fY? 'DawmY rif.a. r0wf b J e J Y a&S m if v if b k & m.ynmudkyg avYvmBunfYr.mufu a&Smifvifbk&m.f? olwdkY igwdkYudk owf&J&ifowf}} 23 .vif. ta&.}} ]][kwfw. rsufarSmifukyf pOf.udk em.r.uG.ynmcsif. .awGu 'D [dek efu a&Smifvifb&k m.ltquGv J Ykd wpfa.uav.eJY odkif.fY olwdkYuawmY olwdkY[m a&Smifvifbk&m.&JY odkif.qlvdkY emrnfay.f? 'gawmif olwdkYu rauseyfao.mufu vrf.f? igu "m.rsdK.a.mufu pwJYudpöyJ? 'DvloHk.vsuf . .mufrS rodbl. pma&. .fvdkaBumifY a&Smifvifbk&m.pm. .awmufpum.vif.bJ igYudkolwdkY&JY a&Smifvif*dkPf. .a.eJY t.ausmif.w.axmifNyD.lxm. BuD . .awmufu NyHK. .urS rrDbl.a.f? a&Smifvifbk&m. .Nyaom [dkusL.cH&wmudk olwdkY rauseyfbl.fu a&Smifvifbk&m. .uyJvdkY cH.ausmif.rsOf.xJ r0if&bl.fY twlwl a&Smifvifbk&m.SOfNydKifzdkY pma&.

tEdkif vif.enf.ausmif. ]]'Dvdkvkyfav? &Sifu &DacgYaocgeD.oHrsm.awmufu &kwfw&uf .atmif e*g.fawmfeJY pum.xuf ydkí ynm0g wpf0gBuD.odkY a&mufvmygNyD? BuG. .oGm.yg.uGm? 'Dtem.BuD.if.udk ac:cdkif.Nzpf\/ xdkbkef.rsm.wuúodkvf aevif.rSmvnf.rSm rSmcJYwmawG rSmBum.rmausmif.0if.BuD.rsm.onf/ txl.uyJ&yfNyD.ausmif. pG m avQmufwufcYJ Buonf/ olwYkd onf ausmif.f? NyD.wdkuf bkef.BuD. .awmuf a&Smifvif bk&m.ausmif.oNzifY olronf [lqufq&mawmfeSifY cifrif&if.awmuftm.Edkif"m.vmcJY? olwdkYeJY rNydKifygeJYawmY? [dak &Smifvif*P kd .rsm. tcef.ausmif .wdkuf\ wynfYrsm.NyDNzpf&m a&Smifvifbk&m. [dkusL. ]]igvJ ausmif. (3) t&IH. [dkrS onfrS rnf[nf.oGm.&if Nyefqif.kH a.wdkufrS bkef.cGJí avQmufxGufvm\/ tm.NyDy?J uRefru &SiYf ukd bk&m. [dkbkef.NzpfBu\/ .H NyD.awmufu toHudkNrSifYí ]]'DrSmAsdKY . .rodYk a&mufonfYwikd f vl&yd v f Nl cnf rawGY&acs/ [du k sL.BuD.wGif &kwfw&uf bk&m.wpf&mY&Spfyg.BuD.xJ r0ifawmYbl. onf a&S m if v if b k & m.ausmif.f [kwfvm.aNymp&m&dSvdkYygAsdKY}} xdktoH tqHk. nif .awmY [dk &DacgYrSmwJY pum.xdk.mufu &SiYf ukd &I.wHcg. bkef. enf.axmifzdkY oDcsif.Nyr.aemufwGif bkef.}} ]]aumif.yif Nzpfyg\/ 24 . NzpfBu\/ wm.xJrS acgif. .xJ r0ifawmYbl.ESifY ywfoufí cdkuf&efa'go rNzpfcsifawmYay/ odkYNzifY [dkusL.bkef.NyDav? 'DvdkyJ vkyfBuwmaygY? igwdkY tNyefusrS rif.em.0if.}} xd k Y a emuf w G i f ol w d k Y E S p f O D .f u vlo. yGifYoGm.wwfolav.udk aNymNyvdkufawmYr.NyD.rsm. wpf&mY&Spfyg.wpfyk'f wD.wHcg. b. wnf & d S & m awmif a y:od k Y Nznf . .NyD.onf vGefpGm aysmfyg.avif.f}} odkYNzifY [dkusL.BuD.BuD. tNyifbufuae apmifYaer.BuD.rsm. NyefxGufcJYaygY [kwfvm.? &Sif wpfa.vif.BuD.mufwnf.NyD.r.enf.vHk.rSm vdk[efY ausmif.ausmif.0if.aom bkef.f&Tif udk.onf vdk[efYausmif.rsm. xGufay:vm\/ ausmif.Nzpfonf/ aBumuf&GYHpdwfvnf. .ESD.rBuD. .fnmESpfwef.f? uRefr bk&m. xGufvmNyef\/ þbkef.

Nyif q if v d k u f & Ncif .em rNzpfygeJY? ausmif.wpfyg.fawmfNrwfBuD.ausmif.av. xif.kH a. 0gawmf B uD .em. usKyfwdkYudk bmrS tm. Nzpf o nf / .ud k y g yifYaqmifvmNcif.tBudrfyif Nzpfonf/ taBumif. \ ausmif.xdkifq&mawmf xif.&JY yg.pGm Nyifyvlrsm.? 'gayr.tm.if.vif. tm.&JY pum. bk e f ."r®rsm.tm.wmu bk&m.? bk&m.xdkifq&mawmf xif.awmufyg bk&m.? xdkbkef.pyfu pum.udk wnDwnmwpfaNy.if .aBumif .wdkufq&mawmf [l&SefY? vdk[efY ausmif.aemuf ]]wynfYawmfu [dkusL.oHk.rl tu.q.vdkufwJY tJ'Dvl&JY pum.wdkufq&mawmf [lqufwdkYyif Nzpfyg\/ bke. .fY q&mawmfBuD. rif u 0gawmf B uD .NyD.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.a.a&em.\ ausmif.vdkuf\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.usL.}} q&mawmfu vif.NzpfNyD.BuD.&Sif udk. oabmaygufygNyD? bkef.ay: wufomG .[m vlowå0gtaygif.BuD.&ayonf/ aemufqHk.udk od&dSeuf&dIif. ay:vGiaf e\/ xdYk aBumifY [du k sL.NyD.wHkYtm.emaeyHk&\/ xdkYaBumifY pum.0rwwfacs/ bk&m. .xJudk 0ifa&mufvmzdkY zdwfac:ygw.xdkifq&mawmf xif.vif.fausmf bkef. aNym&cuf? raNym&cuf trlt&mrsdK.? wynfYawmf 'DaeY 'Dausmif.awmuftm.bke.&Sifudk.udk.vJ bk&m.wuúodkvf aevif.aeNyD Nzpfaom oufawmfckepfq. rsm. .fí cGef. wcsdKYrl odkif.tm. t&dktaoay. ]]rif.awmufvnf.wdu k rf S 0gBuD.BuD. od & í þuJ Y od k Y txl .NyDav 'umrav.qltm.awmY .&de.ae&ifawmY bkef.udkyiftm.bk&m.udkBum.atmif e*g.u [dkusL.vGefbk&m.rudk xyfcGJNcm.onf rxrOD.awmfBuD.awmufu &kww f &uf &.vif.f ynmvGepf mG awmfNyD.oHk.rqufcJY? þrQom &yfvdkuf\/ q&mawmf\ rsufEmS wGif wu.xdik af usmif.ql xifyg&JY}} [kpwifí EIwfqufav\/ [dkusL.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.f? 'DawmY olY&JY twGif.&musrSmaygY? aumif.ud k r l a&S m if v if b k & m./ ausmif. . . ckepfyg.vGefbk&m.ausmif . .uyif &dkaoav.wmeJY wynfYawmfNyefrSmygbk&m.yJ ? NyD . awmY ol Y Bunf Y &wm touf o H k .xdkif q&mawmfBuD.f bk&m.aerd\/ 25 .BuD.xJwGif oufawmf udk.ausmif. q&mawmftm.vnfaom yk*¾dKvfBuD.u cGef.fausmfbkef.rSm a&Smifvifbk&m.? rdef.yJ? 'Dpmwwf aywwf yk*d¾KvfBuD.aom vlo.BuD. rsm.qHk.qlrSm vGefpGm od k i f .yg bk&m.udkawmif Edkifatmif aNymEdkifw.pGm em.ynmvHk.frS a&Smifvif*dkPf.wdkYu tckvdk a.favmufNrifYrm.aNymwwfom. q&mawmf ck e pf y g.f}} [k csD.\ ordkif.? rdef.us. aBumif Y vnf .xdkifq&mawmfBuD. ]]'umBuD.erfYcJYaomf þ0gawmfBuD.muf\ aNymNycsuft& cGef. taESmuft. ]]'umBuD.&awmYrnf r[kwfygvm.&dIif.mufsm.rdef. BuD .xJudk BuGNyD. ckepfyg.Npzfonf/ taBumif.f}} vif. BudKqdkNcif.f BuD.SOfNydKifí &IH.vH.om.vmaom bkef.rif\ pdwfxJrS ]]'D v l u trl t &m taNymtqd k &nf r G e f o m. awmf B uD .r.udkbkef.rSm pif.mufsm.rif? wm.? tckvdkvmNyD.f awmfBuD. xd k i f q &m xif .Nzpfí [dkusL.fwifapmifYa&Smufwmyg? 'gaBumifYrdkY ckvdk a. oHk.w&m. awGYaomf .u ]]'umBuD.rsm.fawmfNzpf&JY ynwfawmfeJY rudkufnDbl. .rcGJNcm.f a usmf av.rcGJNcm.ausmif.ckepfyg.awmfudk a&mufvmwmu vlwpfa.awmuf\ tNyKtrl aNymqdkyHk[efudk tuJcwfí ausmif. vif.awmuf\ pum.aemufwGifawmY yg. .awmufESifY vif.vsuf .wGif þuJYodkY BuD.EdkifrSmvJ}}[k awG.rsm.}} ausmif. . vufzuf&nfBurf.Edkif"m. yif Nzpf \ /.fcrf. a&S m if v if b k & m.vdkY xifygw.if.k \ aemufwiG rf l apmapmu a&Smifvifb&k m.vnf. u.pm. ao.? wynfYawmifudk rSmBum. \ ausmif .bke.u b.farmvsuf .rl qD. oHk.? 'Du 'umrav.om usifYBuHtm. wpfcsufrQBunfYí NyHK.wdkYu oabmxm. .vsuf w&m.udk aNymNyNyD.muf&JY tultnD awmif.tm.om udkif.ausmif .rmausmif.ausmif.rS BuGNref."r®rsm. q.wdkYtm.wdkYu a.rd\/ odkYNzifY ausmif. ]]ausmif.mufu vdkufygvm\/ a&Smifvifbk&m.rifonf w&m.BuD.}} [dkusL.f awmfBuD.xkwfaom bk e f .fvnf. qufqHwmudkawmY wynfYawmf rESpfoufygbk&m.aqmifygOD.if .vGefbk&m.ckepfyg.vwfaomf NyHK.rifonf [dkusL. wcsdKY odik .vif.a& wGefYvsuf Z&mcsOf.Sufay. bkef.q.ygav\/ .cHcsufeJY a&mufvmwmyg bk&m.favmufyJ&dSOD.oHk.wnf.awmfBuD.rdwm pdwfraumif.mufsm. ynmNrif Y rm.

aNymNyD. ar.fawmf\ bGJYtrnfudk todenf.em. pnf.atmif e*g.awmuftm. Nzpfonf/ ausmif.if.ol w d k i f .rSm wNcm. ]]'gawmY wynfYawmfvJ rodbl.muf&JY rSmBum.awmuf ? uRef r ausmif .aemuf ]]aBomf .onf/ [dkusL.? vlwpfa.q.wkdYu odcsifw. .awmufu acgif. bk&m. .BuNcif.fY}} [dkusL.xJ0ifNyD.awmufu igYtwGufeJY a&Smifvifbk&m.BuD.xJ w G i f rk e f w d k i f .awmuf wpfcsufrQ aBumifvsuf .vif. [dkusL. igYwpfouf pdwfaumif.vif. bkef.f&Tifq&mawmfrSm a&Smifvif bk&m.&JY ausmif.q&mawmfaygY? tckudpötwGuf wpfzufeJY wpfzuf pdwfrNidKNiifBuygeJYaemf}}[kqdk\/ [dkusL.odkY ac:&efNyKpOf &kwfw&uf xif.f&Tifq&mawmf}} trSefrl BuG.wdk.f&Tifudk.&drfylyefaom trlt&may:aeonfudk Nrifaomf pdwfxJwGif ]][lqufq&mawmfu pdwfoabmxm. bk&m.wpfcGef.fvdkY [dkusL.Edkif"m.rifq&mawmfu toHwdk. ]]BuG. .awmY r[kwfygbl.u bke. igeJYvJ odyf&if.xJwGifom arGYavsmfNyD.awmufESifY vif.BuD.rf.BuD.0emrnfr&dSaom tnw& udk.oGm.wuúodkvf aevif.awmuftm.f a&mufcu kd f odik .bk&m. [d k u sL. vufndSK.fawmfNzpf\/ BuG. ]]aBomf 'Dvdkvm. . .ftwGif.wJY usrf.0rcH.ausmif.fqdkwmudkawmY bkef.yg.NyD.ynm NrifYrm.EdkifawmYrSm r[kwfbl.rifq&mawmf\ eHab. tck olYudkvmawGYwmu [dk wmrmabmfwd q&mawmfa&.f&Tifudk ac:vmcJYprf.0if.NzifY a&&Gwfrd\/ ]]BuG. .wm? wu. qif o vk d w[kef.f&Tifudk.ig. ]]'umBuD.awG aNymvdkufaygY ? uJ &SifyJoGm.pmrsm. .rsm.r[kwf? wm.fbufuyJ &IH.pm.av.ap\/ twGif. [l&SefYyifNzpfyg\/ q&mawmf B uD .fY 'Dvdk pum.wdkYudk wpfuGufavmuf vufpGrf.ausmif. .udkom BudK.udk zsufodrf.usrf.0pdwfr0ifpm.}} [kkawG. \ toH r S m us. .riftm.vSaBumif.*efpmay tcef.u .Nyyg}} ydefydefyg.}} [k rdefYrSmvdkuf\/ ]]wifygY bk&m.&JY pum. .tusOf.u [lqufq&mawmf\ rsufESmwGif pdk. tJ'Dq&mawmfeJY pum.pOf [l&SefYq&mawmfu 0ifí ]]'umBuD. odomvS\/ vif. xif.fawmf vHk.rifu eHab.BuD.u a&SYwpfvSrf.f&Tifonf ESpfaygif. ygbl .wufvmNyD.lvdkygbl.ausmif.xJY yk*d¾KvfyJ? aemufNyD.vif.wdkuf\ q&mawmfBuD.wpfyg.wGif vHk.aBumifYvif. bk&mY}} xif.aNymwJYvlu b.awmfBuD.BuD.NyDyJ? wynfYawmfu t&Sifbk&m. xJ u d k vd k u f r oG m .aerd\/ .pmtkyfeJY ywfoufaevdkYvm. .udk BuHKawmifYBuHKcJ a&mufvmwmyJ? a&mufwek . .&vJ ta&.NyD.u xGufoGm. [dk .pNrnf tenf.favmuf tpGrf.wdkY&JY a&Smifvifbk&m.eJY wdkufcdkufrd&ifawmY b.tm. . [dkusL.tm. xdkYaemufwGif ausmif.aumif. 0if .f&TifqdkwJY q&mawmf&dSygovm.vkdufyg}} xdkodkY aNymNyD. .BuD.wdkY&JY tNidKtNiifudk vHk.yg.xdkifq&mawmfonf twefBum pOf.yrf.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.tp&dSw.? q&mawmfBuD. bkef.zdkYqdkwm rNzpfbl. ]]'Du rdef. aNymNyp&mpum.odkif.rsOf.vm.odkY a&Smifay.ESD. .rSm BuG.uG.tm. usrf. ]]tpf u d k B uD .ausmif.odrf.}} 26 .aom taBumif. [dkusL.rS ydefydefyg. usrf.? 'gayr. ]]ausmif.eJY bkef.cg . wpfyg. apmifYa&SmufwJYbkef. \ em.}} xdkbkef. ausmif.cJYacs? xdkYaBumifY BuG.csuft& 'DudkvmNyD. . twGif.rmausmif.ukwfavYvmzwf&IcJY\/ tNcm.cgvsuf .rBuD . .awmufu bkef.&IH.uav.vsuf .xdk.xdkifq&mawmf xif.f a vmif v S N yD .xdkifq&mawmfBuD. Bum.}} [k [kdusL.f? 'gaBumifY 'umBuD.f uGuf wpfuu G f ESpfuGufavmufNyygvm.awmufu acgif.wGif BuG.Nrnf[def.f BuD. .pmtkyfawGudk xdef.vsuf ]]'gu [lqufq&mawmfav? uRefr&JY tcifrifqHk.? 'umBuD. ? &SifyJausmif.rifq&mawmfu bkef.BuD.}} [k qdkNyD.aNymcsifvdkYyg}} xif.[kef.

.pGm BumcJYonfYwdkif vHk.}} [dkusL. tEdik af y.BuD.u BuG.rSmBum.fwpfa.yOöif.udk NyovdkufNcif.qef.Ncif.fwJY}} [k pwif qdkavonf/ BuG.wGif wpfcsufNcif.odkif. .mufudk tEdkif.aNymp&m&dSw.vTifYrSmaygY? 'Daumifudk omrefbkef.vsufavQmufvmonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ BuG.udk arYaysmufaeNcif.? igudk.BuD.BuD.awmuf\ euf&Idif.NyD. xif.&kHpl.mNydKif&ifvJ t&IH.lcJYNyD.muf bmrS NidKNiifaezdkY rvdkygbl.onf/ ]]'umBuD.ausmif.NyD..ynmcsif.xufw. .wpfyGJ xdk.&JY "m.mufudk wpfa.rifrl þausmif.u igwdkY a&Smifvif*dkPf. ]]'DrSm 'um? bkef.pHk&dS&m csufcsif.zkef. ]]"m.ygvmovm.yif Nzpfonf[k em. wpfcsuv f rS .Edkif"m.oHtqufrNywfBum. .? 'grSr[kwf 'D"m.udkom aumuf. BuG.&f iT u f [du k sL.ygw.awmYacs/ usm.wrf.cs. ]]'umBuD. .xm.awmufukd BuG.awmYvJ pdefac:ao.if. ESpfaygif.ygeJY}}[k rodrompdefac:vdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf wmrmausmif.a&SY&dS ausmufNyifcsyfBuD.0if.Bu&atmif}} [k qdkvdkuf\/ [dkusL.BuD.0 vdIufpm.bk&m.u odkif.aeoNzifY tNcm.a&.l? aNray:rS ausmufcJwpfvHk.0gaeNcif.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.Aef.f? wl&d.q&mawmfBuD. ]]rif.uGufrsOf.u bmrsm.Nzpfí tNcm.? 'umBuD.udk awGYvwfaomf xif. ES i f Y xd k a usmuf N yif c syf B uD .avmuudk igwdkY a&Smifvif*dkPf.yif "m.odkif.eJY vTwfvdkYawmY r&bl.vGef.[k trnfay.bmudkrQ pdwfr0ifpm.zkef.fwdkif xGufBuJrSyJ}} [k awG. zGiYf [aBunmrnfNyKpOf? &kwfw&uf oHBudK.eJY pum.vdkufBu\/ xif.a.fqdkwm BunfYBu&atmif}} a&Smifvifbk&m.ynmudk r.f&TifESifY usef.awmufu "m.avonf/ [dkusL.? igwdkYu "m. t&dktaoay.Aef.u BuG. odkYaomf [l&SefYq&mawmfonf tvdkvdk a'goxGufae\/ pdwfxJwGif .wGif vufeufrsdK.rSmvm.wdk.wpf v H k .ESpfyHk.f BunfYvu kd \ f / odYk aomf [du k sL.p&m &dSovJ}} [kar.fqdkwmu odyfNyD.yifNzpf\/ 27 .awmfxJ&Sd rnfolrqdk [dkusL.udk aemufrSyJ aNymygYr.udk &IIH.u 0goemyg&if usm.f&TifygyJ? 'umBuD.udkom xdk.rSm vGefpGmrmausmNyD.vdkufNcif.rif? [l&SefY? [lquf q&mawmfBuD.udk a&.BuD.f&Tiftm.rsm.aomusm.udk aNym&rnfYpum.wdkufrS bkef.xdk.awmuf\ twGiftm.yif ausmufNyifcsyfBuD.onf/ xdkausmufNyifcsyfBuD.tNyif 0gawmfBuD.wuúodkvf aevif.ausmif. ay:wG i f usm.b.NyD. rNiif.r&dSacs/ .qef.aBumif.a&SYodkY avQmufoGm. usef.wpfck a&.&ef tm.Nzpf\/olu ]]OD.rm.fol wynfYawmfeJY usm. q&mawmfBuD.awmufu rif.favmuftpGrf.awmuftm.Bu&\/ ausmif.f&TifrSm oHyHk.u igwdkYudk pma&.f tm.bk&m.wnfaqmufpOfu cif.f&TifaemufwGifrl vli.odkif.ar.tm.? 'gaBumifY bkef.rsm.acsmif.ynm.udk xrf. .rsm. a&.lxkwfvm\/ [l&SefYq&mawmfu oHk.atmif e*g. [dkusL.awmuftm.udk a&G.SOfNydKifwmyJ ? wpfa. usm.tEdkifNydKifvdkY r&bl.udk awGYcsifvdkYwJY rif.SONf ydKifEikd af Bumif.aBumifY olYudk usm. .wdkYyg rsufESmawmf ysufoGm.awGudkoHk.f? tckusawmY bmvdkY aemufqkwfcsifNyefNyDvJ? rif.vSaom twGif.cGJwynfYoHk.uGufBuD.&f iT rf od/ odYk aomf tvdkufoifYyif .&JY *dkPf.vnfvdkufBu\/ xdkpOf [dkusL.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.tm. .awmufrlum.ck [d k u sL.aom ausmufNyifBuD.lvdkufNyD. bk&m. ]]odkif.udpörsm.Nzpf\/ ausmufom.SOfNydKifw.rsm.rS tck rNydKifawmYbl. ]]"m.ygw.rvJ? xGufcJYyg}} [k pdefac:vdkuf\/ trSefrl [dkusL.f? tckb.awmufa&SY csxm.NcpfNyD.Ncpfaevdkuf\/ cPcsif.rSm a&Smifvifbk&m.udk .awmuf u trS w f r xif ausmuf c J a v.wGif BuD.rifq&mawmfBuD.w.onf ausmif.awmufonf odkif.ynm&yfudk xkwfazmfBuGm.bufodkY vSnfYum .fí [dkusL./ BuG. Burf.BuNcif.vdkuf&NyD.uvlu rif.rSm ol\ euf&Idif.NyvGef.fvdkY owif.a&mufae\/.rsm.rSm "m.&if.NcpfNyD.vdkuf\/ odkYNzifY [l&SefYq&mawmfonf a&SYwpfvSrf. . NzpfoGm. ckepfyg. odvu kd o f nfEiS Yf [du k sL.xdk.&ef qE´Nyif.ausmif.aBumif.lcJYprf.mufygvm\/olum. r[kwfyg/ usm.awmufu NyHK.vsuf .udkr.qdk&if rif.vSaom twGi.

csdefxm.eJY wpfyGJwpfvrf.ynmudk wynfYawmf r.vufp aNcvSrf.fa&SYrS umxm.ay.xufwGif xrf. }}ceJ toH E S i f Y twl [d k u sL.}} [k trsm.? BuG.fawmfBuD.aewmudk bkef.aq.Nyif.w.vsuf toufNyif.ay.auGYaumufvsuf BuG.f&Tif\ &if0odkY xdk. f Y ud k .f&Tiftm.at.[efonf ol\ euf&Idif.rifudk.udkqGJ\ cE¨mudk.rS m vG e f p G m xl .NyD. Nyovdkuf&m 0rf .fawmfu .&awmYrnfrSm aocsm\/ odYk aomf BuG.tm.odYk vma&mufí odik . ol w d k Y o nf BuG .Aef.w.vHk. ]]awmfygawmY udk. \ rsOf .f&Tif udk.vdkufygNyD? 'gayr. "m.awmufuvnf.ck trsm.f tm.&dS bkef.atmifatmfaNymvdkuf\/ [dkusL.ay:&dS usm. ]][kwfygw.matmufrS ]]csyfce}} "m.avmufatmif vsifNrefaomfvnf.apmif. uG u f r sd K . rNydKifygeJYawmY?wynfYawmf t&IH. odkif.omNcif.f? usrf.w.Aef .ygw.aomf ausmufNyifBuD.&dSonf[k rnfonfYudk. 0rf.NzifYyif olY&if0odkY Nyefíxdk.f&Tifudk.awmuftm.wpfvuf qGJxkwfvdkuf\/ NyD.BuD.fawmfonf xif.u w&m.ausmif.csif. .SOfNydKif csifygao.vSrf.xdk. tm.u tHYBobeef.f ud. qef .ud k aNctpH k w G i f pk p nf . f & T i f w G i f þtiftm. xkwfxm. "m.fí tNcm.rSmaBumufp&maumif.ESifY yGwfwdkufoGm.Bu&\/ trS e f r l xd k q &mawmf B uD r sm.ynm&Sifrsm.qkd&if.\/ 28 .wuúodkvf aevif.Bum.ausmif. ay:od k Y wd k .yif BudK.BuD.rsm.tiftm.BuD. yif Nzpf y g\/ NyD . BuG.vSaom twGif. aBumif .onf v nf .rsm.yGJvnf.yGwfwdkufavQmufoGm.f&Tifudk.fawmf&JY twGif. .wdkY 'DwpfcgyJawGYzl.fY wynfYawmfu udk.f? 'gaBumifY bkef. k yf gae\/ [du k sL.vnf.rifq&mawmfu .f&Tifonf [efrysufyif oHyHk.fawmfrQ rodcJYacs/ [dkusL.rS m wGefYvdrfauGYaumufoGm. rsm. ES p f a ygif .f}} [k BuG.aq.a&. f u d k owfaoawmYrnfYyrmyif/ BuG.udk ycHk. odvdkuf&\/ odkYNzifY BuG.NzifY xifaeBu\/ xif.awmuf\ "m. NzpfoGm.udk &yfí ]]'DNydKifyGJudk 'DwGifyJ &yfBuygawmYvm.\ tvsifEIef.rif? [l&SefY? [lquf q&mawmfBuD.awmuf \ "m.wyfwl&d.ygNyD}} [k rdefYqdkav\/ BuG. .pG m twl a ecJ Y a omf v nf . .tm. ]]'umBuD.awmufu BuG.f? odkif.pdkufcsvdkufav\/ tu.fawmftm. tm. xdk"m. aexdkifwwfaom udk.vSnf.NyD.aom odkif.orQNrifYrm. rd o G m .oG m . apmapmu olY&if0odkY csdefpdkufxm. pdefac:Nyef\/ [dkusL. rsm. aom tuG u f N zpf \ / rod v Qif ud k .ay.at.rSm csufcsif.BuD.aom "m. odkif.qDodkY tm&kaH &mufomG .aygaygESifY at. NyD .udk [dkusL.\/ þvd k "m.fawmftm.u oH y H k .aq.ynmawmY bmwpfckrSrwwfbl.usifYw.tm.atmif e*g.Bu\/ xdk&l. NyefvnfNyovdkufonf[k a&Smifvifbk&m.aq. .Hkacs/ odkYNzifY &kwfw&uf wpfcsufckefvdkufNyD.vdkuf\/ xdktcg BuG. twGif.ay:od k Y wpfvSrf. BuD .f&Tif\ pdwftm&kHrSm "m. xif.vnf.a&SYarSmufwGif tHYBoavmufatmif euf&Idif.f&Tifvnf.wpfcsuf &S L &I d u f N yD .vkdufonfESifY nmbufvufu csufcsif.\/ ]]xef .fawmf[k em.f? 'Dusm.NyD .SONf ydKifaom yk*¾dKvfNzpfrSef.pmtkyfawGudk aeylvSrf.SOfNydKifEdkifygbl.ynm. aumif . omwk e f v I y f r d N cif .f&Tifudk.aexdkifwwfaom udk.udkrl tNyifbufodkY cyfapmif.f? wHNrufpnf. rS tNcm.}}[k 0efcHvdkuf\/ xdktcdkufwGif BuG.awmufu r.fawmfu .f&Tifudk. Nzpf o G m .aom bkef.omqdkvQif þwpfuGufESifYyif t&IH.f ynm .ynm 'DavmufNrifYrm.yif oHykH.awmufonf aNym&if.NzpfrdonfESifY twl wkefvIyfNcif.&dk.onfvnf. "m.rsm. ol \ twG i f .udk Bum.rsm. usm.BuD.aygaygESifY at.vGepf mG NynfY0aeolNzpf&m olu pdwo f mG .ESpfyHk.fawmf\ aNcz0g. .od k i f .fawmf? udk. ? a&S m if v if a usmif .rsdK.xuf Nrefaeav\/ olpdwful.aumif.&dSaBumif.Edkif"m.vnfxm.&f iT rf mS twGi. NynfY0vSaom twGif.wdik .}} [kqdkav\/ odkYaomf [dkusL. &l. ]]bkef.wdkYu t&IH.fawmf\ pum.\/ xdt k cgusryS if þyk*K¾d vfrmS rdrw d Ykd a&Smifvifb&k m.

usrf.f\ vuf0g.awmuftm.ESpfcku [dkusL.0rod&SmBuay/ usef.wef r S vS n f Y y wf í vQyfwpfNyuftwGif.apmif.csufrsm.oGm.\ tNrifwGifrl BuG.aBumifYvnf.apmif.rS rwwfaom olvdkNrifae&\/ odkY&mwGif xl.zke.f&Tifudkom tEdkifwdkuf&ef tm&kHpl.f&Tifudk.qef.fNzifY ]]NrwfpGmbk&m.aewmudk.awG cdkatmif.uGuftNyif vGefcJYaom q.NyD.BuD.pOf aumYvif.pdkufaepOf &kwfw&ufckwfcsvdkufaom usef.wnfxdrSefaeawmY\/ eHab.buf a v.fuGufudk ckcHumuG.NyDa[Y csmwdwf? rif.m.vufum.vif.qef.NzifY yHkysufyef. vuf0g.f&Tif atmfus.f [pfus.xkwfí NyefEkwfaomfvnf.f ynm b.csuu f kd a&&SnfumuG.awmuftm.u.awmifodkY wufoGm.om igY&JYwkdufuGuf q.udk csufcsif.udk aumif.ck usef.onf xdkodkif.dkifyif NzpfoGm.&m tcef. tcGifYtcgBuHKBudKufíom Nzpfonf[k .zkef. "m. NzpfoGm.&m.rSm usef.ftm.zkef.aom aNcum.wuúodkvf aevif.ay.vHk.ay.ysuf NzpfaeNyD/ wu.BunfYaeaom bkef.atmif e*g.ceJtoHESifYtwl BuG.awmuf\ "m.awmufu "m.twGuf 0gqef.BuD.vsuf aemufwpfuGuf xdk.NyD.awmYbl. 'ku©a&mufawmYrnfY ta&.odkY tydkiftEdkif cHvdkuf&Ncif.u 'um&JY "m.udk nSmvdkufyg? bkef.\/ BuG.ftNzpf Nrifxm. odkif.rSm vGefpGm NynfY0vSNyD.cJY\/ .f 'Davmufav. '.awmuf\ vQyfwpfNyufwdkufcsuftm.NzifY pdkufcsvdkufNyef\/ BuG . ycHk.f&Tif\ tuÐspudkaomfrS rxdbJ BuG.fawmfonf aNcum.xJrSm wu.pkí awmifYcHvdkufNcif.fvufvufu oHyHk. aumYcsif. vIyf&Sm.a[Y}} xdktcsdefwGif [lqufESifY [l&SefYq&mawmfBuD.udk qGJxm.f y g}} [k wpf c suf a tmf N yD .vsuf BuG.udk Nrifaomf [dkusL.fawmif 'Davmufaumif.rSm olYq&m ta&.farmp&myif aumif.vnf.BuD.zkef.qef.&m.awGawmif w'dwf'dwfckefaeNyD}} [k oa&mfvdkuf\/ [dkusL.kH BuD.t. vuf0g.fyJ e*g.\ zcifodkif.\ vuf0g.apmif.onf usef.f&Tif\ &if0odkY "m.onfrSm [dkusL.qef.aeaom oHyHk. vHk.awmufu 'Dwpfouf aNrNyefYudk Nyefrqif.vkduf&m xef.pmxm. NynfYrnfr[kwf[k xifNyD. Nzpfonfudk q&mawmfrsm.if.NzifY tydkiftEdkif ckwfcsvdkufEdkifNcif. vuf E S p f b uf u d k tvsiftNrefpkpnf. oHyHk.fEdkifcJYonfudk awGY&aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ xdkpOf [dkusL.NyD.awmuf\ Nyif.awmufrSm BuG.udkom OD.awmuf a'goNzpfvm\/ ]]aBomf vufpowfawmY a&Smifvif bk&m.uGuf oHk.apmif.udkqGJí umuG.csufrsm.Nyef\/ [dkusL.u usef.? 'Dvdktoufi.qef. kd af wmf&YJ odik .aom vli.BuD.ESpfcefYu usef.csNyef\/ xef.tm.f&ufcefYu vif. "m.wJY odkif. [dkusL.awG? usm.csufaBumifY tonf. [dkusL.&m.rSmvnf.zkef.vHwYJ oHy.&m.vTwfNyD.xef.eJYig NydKif&atmif? rif.vufum.ud k av.D.fvdkufNyD. vkyfay.udk tvsiftNref&kyfodrf.zkef.f&TifrSmvufESpfbufNzifY oHyHk.&oNzifY Nyefvnf rckcHEdkifawmYacs/xdktcdkuf usef.pmtkyf Nyef&&dSa&. yif "m.uGuf oifBum.rI[efESifYtwl yg0ifvIyf&Sm. Nzpfyg\/ odkYaomf usef.uGuf oHk.uGufxJrS wpfuGufNzifY wdkufcdkufaeNcif.BuD.apmif.Edkif"m.fEdkif&if igqdkwJY usL.awmufu olY"m. vuf0g.qef.fao.fyif bmodkif.pGmcHvdkuf&\/ [dkusL.NzifY ycHk.fEdkifrSm r[kwfbl.onf BuG.cJYonfr[kwf/ apmapmu [dkusL.onf? tiftm.Nyef\/ [dkusL.BuD.udk ckwfcsvdkuf\/ [dkusL.a&.&dSaewmyJ? aumif.rS 0dkif. oHyHk.uGufoHk.edrfYNyD.favmifpGm nmoHay.ESifY awGYqHkNyD.qef.cJYaom vdk[efY oHrPd 29 .crsm wkwfwkwfrQ rvIyfawmY/ qGJEkwfav NrJavNzpf\/ xdkYaBumifY "m.udk nSyfxm.? bkef.u "m.apmif.aom usrf.q&mBuD. csufcsif.udk tvG.vif.f&Tif\ &.udk oefY&Sif.eJY igY'aD vmufNrefwYJ "m.qef. vuf0g. f & T i f u txd w f w vef Y Nzif Y ]]bk & m.ausmif.zkef.f pGr.odkif. onf E S i f Y csuf c sif .awmuf\ pdwfxJwGif ]]'Du. aNcmufcsufwdwdwdkufcdkufvdkuf\/ odkYaomf wxef.f&Tif\ b.HkBunfBu\/ trSefrl ukefvGefcJYaom oHk.wdkY q&mwynfYESpfa.wGifom tm.qef.aumYcsif. 'umBuD.tiftm.awmufonf .favmufyJ pGr.f&Tif\ rsufESmudk &dkufcsNyef\/ þwpfBudrfwGif BuG.awmufonf us.fwul umuG.ckeftkyfNyD.vdkuf&NyD.rsm.odkif. csuf N ref v suf NyD .xefoGufvufvSaom "m.rsm.csufaygif.udk tm. }} [k xifaeav\/ ol u pd w f u l .toHaNcmufcsufcefY Bum.zke.muf aysmufqHk.ynmoifzl.ceJtoHwpfcsuf NrnfoGm. NzpfoGm.f&G.ESpfbufNzifY BuG. [dkusL.onf vuf0g.fwJY vli.zkef.awmufcrsm '.qef. i.ESpfyg.

wu.zkef. odkif. oabmaygufoGm.rSmvnf.uyfvGef. uG u f wpf q .zkef.NynfY0aBumif.ygvm.awmuf\ cg.q&mwpfa.fYES.ynm\ taNccH wdkufuGufudkom oHk.xifouJYodkY NzpfrvmbJ vsifNrefaom vuf0g. tumtuG.SOfNydKifay.pl. . .f \ &ifbwfa&SYrS yGwfumoDum vGJoGm.rf.&drfruif.awmuf\ pdwfxJwGif. qef .awmufonf ycH. .fwdkif 0if. xifNrifouJYodkYyif bmodkif.awmuf\ vuf0g. aumif.ausmfaewJY yk*d¾Kvfu b.wdkY bk&m.NzifY [dkusL.qlvdkY emrnf [dk.aNy taysmfupm.wGif pl.wdkufq&mawmf [lquftm.cg.f qef.apmif.ynm\ taNccHvufodkif.cJY&mrS aumif.feJY wdkufcdkuf&wmvJ? 'umBuD. wpfcsufrQ BunfYí NyHK.f \ twGif.apmif.udk vsifNrefaom a&Smifwrd .qef.onf q&mawmfBuD.u b. ]]'Dvuf0g.oGm.apmif. wpfcsufpwif&dkufcsvdkuf\/ onfwdkufuGufrSm vGefpGm vsifNref&Hkru usef.zkef.zke.awmufu acgif.ck usef.pyfpyf vuf0g.awmufu ratmifYEdkifbJ vTwfceJ EIwfrSatmfí csD.if.&dS bkef.apmif.&awmY\/ .&de.tm. rsufvHk.? [lquf? [l&SefYq&mawmfBuD.oHk.vsuf . [l.pGm wwfuRrf.xm.f oabmuyfxm.qef.udk cg.rf.a[Y}} [l&SefY q&mawmfu vdk[efYausmif.&dkufcH0HYrvJ?uJ .uGufav.uGufrsm.SOfNydKifrnf[k qdkxm.BuD. usef. ]]'umBuD.rmeftNynfYEiS Yf wdu k cf u kd Ef ikd o f nfukd NrifawGYBuaomf tm.qef.lEdkifrnf[k wGufxm. trSefwu.qef.fY&SpfuGufudk tNyif. þodkY a&Smifvifb&k m.oGm.fay.f}} [k qdkvdkuf\/ [dkusL. vdk[efYvufoD.ESifYvnf.uGuf q.usL.yif rSdwfxm.f ay.aom toHNzifY 30 .fvdkrQ [muGufudk r&SmEdkifcJYacs/ xdkYaemuf [dkusL.apmif.f vdu k &f m [du k sL. rsufESm trlt&m vIyf&Sm.f Edik f rwdr.\ twGif.qef. .ynm vGefpGmNynfY0aBumif.fawmf}} [k aNym\/ [lqufq&mawmfu OD.f rINzifY usef.fYtuGufNzpf\/ ycHk.vkdufNyD.uGufpvHk.vGefpGmNynfY0\/ þbk&m.avmuf Nyif.wmudk.? *kPf. &kyfwkav.xJu wHNrufpnf.qdkNyefav\/ xd k p Of usef .tcdkuf usef.qef.wJY vuf0g.[dk.fwpfa.vdkufrd\/ ]]w.ouJYoYkd rxde.zkef.fvkyf bkef.OD.vdkufaomfvnf.zke.ESifY 0gawmfBuD.vdk cGef.k wGif use.ygYr.faumif.fuvm vli.muf&JY &dkufcsuf [kwfEdkifrSmvJ}} [k a&&Gwfaerd\/ [du k sL.apmif. tckwfcHvkduf&aom [dkusL.zkef.BuD.ceJvuf0g.pGmodvkdufNyD Nzpf\/ NyD.uGufq. .rsm.apmif.rSm usef.wuúodkvf aevif.wGif olBuHKcJY&aom qD.NyKvdkufNyef\/ odkif.tm.fudk.rJY oufouf b.xefaom wdkufuGufESifY wlae\/ b. þwpfuGufNzifY usef. wpfcsufudk wynfYawmfu taBumif. zk e f .uGufwpfckyifNzpf\/ þwpfuu G rf mS tm.zke.rsm. . nmvuf0g. wnfwJY tnw& vli.ygwGcJ w k af omf wmusdK.wdkYuvnf.tdk. onf vd k [ ef Y vuf o d k i f .uGuftm.vdkufBu\/ odkY&mwGif xdktcsdefwGif trsm.uvnf. .xHrSvnf.udk.f Edik f NzpfoGm. .qef.ausmif.zke. wpfcsuf tckwcf v H u kd &f oNzifY use.BuD. pdk.xefatmif wdkufcdkufEdkifol r&dSygay/ xifrif.D odik .muf\ Nyif.zkef. usef.apmif.f qef. csmwdwf pBupdkY? [dwf . .zkef.tm.rSm yHkpHwdusvSNyD.xefpGm&vdrfYrnf[k wpfxpfcs xifrSwfNyD.Edkif"m.? vufzuf&nfBurf. eD. r[kwfbl.qef.ynmrQ rwwfygacs/ [lqufq&mawmfu usef.frS a&Smifvif*dkPf.vHk.f Y &S p f u G u f x J r S av.fuGuf .rSm usef.xufydkí tiftm.qef. .f wdkufcdkufcsif&if bkef.taNccH odkif.}} [l tarmwBuD.vHk.vSnf. rrDawmYacs/ tm.vsuf }}r . vmNyDa[Y}} aNym&if.awmuftm.vsuf . tm.ausmif.atmif e*g.\/ xdkodkif.rS vGJí usef.onf .Edkifaom wu.uG u f u d k q uf í toHk.if.odkif.vHk. .qef.\ taNccHvufo.zkef.apmif.uGuf q.Bu\/ [l&SefY q&mawmfu pdwfvIyf&Sm. vrf. .acgif.qef.q&mawmf ckepfyg.f \ vuf0g.zkef.fwpfa.ausm.f ynmudk þrQtm. .lygw.qef. 'Pf&m Nyif.rsm.usef.cJY\/ þodkif.zkef.\/ odkYaomf olu odkif. .tm.udk tEdkif.zkef.u a&Smifvif odkif. .if.vdkuf\/ .fvufoD.folrS rodatmif 'DavmufawmfwJY wynfYi.awmfcg. nmvuf0g.vGef bk&m.uGufrSm a&Smifvif odkif.mufudk avYusifYay.qef.f u a&Smifwrd .udkckwfvdkuf\/ þodkif.fY odkif. usef.tm.Nzpfum [dkusL.vdkufaomfvnf. ]]udk.rmefveG pf mG NynfYNyD.wGif tumtuG.fawmfu b.fuGuftwGif.om.oNzifY [lquf? [l&SefY q&mawmfBuD.odkif. ]]'g b. r[kwfbl.oHk.

apmif.zkef.NzifY &dkufxkwfvdkufNyef\/ þwpfBudrf vufoD. .wpfuGufyJusefawmYw. wpfaumifudkawmif rEdkifEdkifbJeJYrsm.zkef.zkef.qef. . ]]a[Y . tNyD.NzifY usef.ausmif.onfYyrm xifvdkuf&\/ xdkcPrSmyif olwdkYESpfOD.\ ckcHumuG.wGif cGeftm. wpfcsufrQ wkef.rl apmapmuoHk.Nyef\/[dkusL.fenf.zkef.kH tqifYoYkd NrSiYf wifvu kd Nf yD.\/ odkYaomf [dkusL.pm.qef.ck v nf .zkef.uGufrsm.kH udv k nf.vkdufNcif.atmif e*g.tm. vlwdkif.udk toHk.vdkufvQif &efol\vufrSm rdrd\ cE¨mudk.onfvnf.rSmvnf.awmufu usef.cefY .udk &dkufxkwfvdkuf\/ Akef.Edkifatmif Nzpfae&\/ xdkYaBumifY olu &kwfw&uf vdk[efYvufoD.fY olY&JY twGif.i.NzpfaBumif.aemuf csucf si. usef.udk vuf0g./ usef.í vuf0g.tm. vSnfYywfum 0dkif.\ wpfudk..rSm tysufBuD.xdk.odkYyif roDEdkifatmif Nzpfae&\/ a&Smifvifbk&m.vdkuf\/ xdkpOfcdkufwGif [dkusL. pdefac:0YHao. k w f pfcv k .zkef.aemuf vufoD. ysuf&acsrnfr[kwfygvm.ceJ vufoD.wpfckvHk.qef.awmuf\ vufoD.avNyD/ oluvnf.awmufrSm rsufpdrsufESmysufvsuf&dS&mrS .yif Nzpfyg\/ 31 .í wpfzufESifYwpfzuf wdkufcdkufaeBuNcif. a&Smifvifbk&m.fvHk.fvHk.u [dkusL.zkef.awmufvnf.ovdk NzpfoGm.Nznf.uGufudk oHk.fvuf0g.pvHk.pvHk.NyKí xdk.\tem.\/ trSefpifppf usef. &ifqdkifrdpOf Akef.rS bkef.ESifY vuf0g.ifí oGm.onf usef.\/ taBumif.zkef.NyKvdkufaom vufoD.qdkaomf [dkusL.Edkif"m.wuúodkvf aevif.faemf? rif.fay:odkY b. rnfodkYrQ xdk.onf odkif. .Nyif.\ &if0odkY xdk. [dkusL.bufrS atmf[pfNyD.zkef.f a e&mrS y if wd k u f c d k u f wd k u f c d k u f usef .}} olua&&GwNf yD.rQ .tBudrf a&SmifviftaNccHodkif.awmuf\ vuf0g.qef.uGuf wpfq. qef . xdk.odaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ þwpfuGufNzifY usef. pdwfxJrS a&&Gwfaerd\/ ]]igu 'Dvdk csmwdwfav.uGufudkoHk.tydkifrEdkifcJYvQif [dkusL.dkifqkwfoGm. &kwfw&uf wdwfqdwfNidrfoufoGm.wpfvHk.vufodkif.NyD.uGufonf [dkusL. ]]olY&JYodkif.vTrf.fvufoD. zk e f .udkoHk.&INyD. [dkusL.f yif odik .awmufu [l.zkef.xkwfNyef\/ vufoD.taNrmuftrsm. \ uufaBu.uGufrSm &efol\ wdkufuGufudk &ifqdkif&ef oHk. wdkufcdkufvmawmYrnfudk rpOf.Nyef\/ usef.ftm.aumif.aumif.wwfxm.Nyef\/ [dkusL.drf.dkifxGufoGm.avmuwpfckvHk.tm.f tm.udk vmNyD.qef.fvkyf 'DavmufawmifNynfY0ae&wmvJ}} [k a&&Gwfaerd\/ xdkpOfrSmyif [dkusL.ceJ toHwpfcsufNrnfoGm.fY&SpfuGufxJrS wpfuGufNzpfaom uufaBu.vSrf.frIrsm. .awmufonf usef.ygawmY? 'gayr.awmuf\ wpfudk.xkwfvdkuf\/ xdkpOfcPwGif a&Smifvifbk&m.onf usef.ESifYvuf0g. ckcHayawmYa[Y .awmuf\ pBumodkif.fNyKBurSm qHk.qef.ol r[kwfacs/ olu þvdk cufcJeufeJaom wdkufuGufrsdK.\vufu uyfoGm.tm.NzifY wGef.zkef.\/ usef.qef.udk tNrifYq. .rl [dkusL.zkef.onf twGif. olYcE¨mudk.udk Nznf. igYudk Nyuf&. odkif.rSm r[kwfawmYbl.qef.udk zHk. cE¨mud.BuD.qef.tm.rl xdkvufoD.csvdkuf\/ trSefrl [dkusL.onf vnf.uGufaNcmufuGuf wdkufcdkufNyD.t&dyfrSm usef.u b.aom a&SmifviftaNccHodkif.zkef.udk awGYaomf tb.odkif.qef.NyD.f.aom vufoD.uGufudk wwd.apmif.oGif.wufum vufoD.rsm.omNzpfyg\/ usef.qef.vufodkif.awmuftwGuf toufru ta&.awmufu toufNyif.qef.rSm aemufodkY oHk.awmuftoHk.Nyif. pBumvdk csmcsmvnfapum usef.azmufí r&awmYay/ xdkYaBumifY pdwfr&SnfawmYonfYtqHk. .udk a&SYodkYwGef.Nzpfae\/ wpfenf.csif.tm.uGufu odyfwdusNrefqefaewm xm.BuD.ausmif. . [d k u sL.ausmif.awmuf b. . csmwdwf? aemufqHk.oGif.fNyD.onf aemufodkY tenf.uGufrsm.uGufu umuG.rcGJNcm.oGm.zkef.xdrdpOf toHNrnfxGufrvmawmY/ ESpfOD.qef.ESifYrQ usa&mufEdkifrnf r[kwfawmYay/ .qef.? tb.ukefxkwfNyD. .}}[k atmfaNymav\/ xdkYaemuf a&SYodkYESpfvSrf.owJY? 'Dvdkqdk&if odkif. aemufbufodkY wpfvSrf.oGif.vdkuf\/ þodkif.fYES.tm.ceJtoHNrnfoGm.dkifxGufoGm.awmuf\emrnfowif.uGufNzifYyif vuf0g.í 0ifvmaom vufoD.

.u cGef.urif.cGef.fol oifay.f ynmqdv k Ykd bmrS rwwfb.u þar.rSm yifv. f &d S v S \ / usef bkef.pGm tqufrNywf &dkufcwfEdkifavonf/ xdkYaBumifYvnf.pGm wwfuRrf.f? rif.udk ar.udk aNymNyD.frdrd tNypfwifa&&Gwfvdkuf\/ xdkYaemufwGifrl [dkusL.vGefbk&m.xdkifq&mawmfBuD. .\/ odkY&mwGif twGif.l ? 'gayr.Nyef\/ ]]'DrSm .vdkufNyD.awmfBuD.rQ aNymrxGufEdkifbJ Nzpfae\/ ausmif.pdkufBunfYvdkufBu\/ BuG.vnf.ynmudk b.rif rnfodkY NrGufBum.fol oifay.u þar.ckepfyg. odyftxifBuD.usL.&f iT u f .qef.wmvJ}} [kar.zkef.NyD.awmuf þrQ twGif.atmufodkY aNy. yif vS n f Y í ck e f x G u f o G m .rsm.ynmwGifrl usef.onf ausmif.&ef ar. wG e f . ig rif.ynm taNccHvufoD.BuD. ]]BuG.awmufonf xdkpum.awmuf xGufcGmoGm.awmfBuD.fwdkif NyKpka&.vSrf.vdkuf\/ bk e f .fYudk NrifYrm.u &kwfw&uf a&SYavQmufxGufvmNyD.'Pf&m Nyif.NzifY . xdkpl.wuúodkvf aevif.udk ar.vSw.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.aeNcif.trSmyg. pifppf odkif. &kwfw&uf bmpum.rsm.fY usef.mufu wynfYawmfukd pum.awmuftm.rSm xdkae&mrSmyif aBumifaeBuNyD.wdkYtm.wpfyg.odkYoGm. ]]BuG.wpfcsuftefoGm.awmufonf a&Smifvifbk&m.aew. bkef.zkef. q&mawmfBuD.udk b.foloifay.ausmif.NzifY [dkusL.aemufwGif bkef. tonf .zkef.ayr. rJYNyHK.awmfBuD.\ pdwfxJrSmrl ausmif.tm.udk usifYcJY&onf/ ol\ twGif.atmif e*g. BuG. . vsifNrefqJyif &dSao.}} [k rdrdudk.fawmfbufodkYvSnfYí . 'l.qif.awmufonf usef.xuf tqrsm. .vsuf .awmufu vufNzifY wm.Bu\/ [dkusL.udk b. tEkdifwdkufEdkifonfYtwGuf usef.BuD. vd k u f o nf E S i f Y [d k u sL. odygNyD}}[k 0efcHaNymqdkvdkuf\/ [d k u sL.odkif.rS bkef.tm.xJrS ydefydefyg. pl.ausmif.Edkif"m.f&TifwdkY q&m wynfYESpfOD.awmuftem.ynmt&qdkvQif [dkusL.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.folrS wkyvdkYr&Edkifbl.av\/ usef .BuD.awmuf ? rif.qef.udk ar.aemuf a&Smifvifbk&m. . aemuf csuf c sif .&JY odkif.f u odyaf umif.zkef. 0gawmfBuD.\ q&mtm. bkef. zk e f .bJ Nidrfaeaom usef. onf rd r d u twG i f .NyD.zkef.[k xifrSwfaeBu\/ xdkpOf ydefydefyg.qef.rsm.cGefrsdK.BuD.cJYaom usrf.f v nf .qef.&SvSaom toHBoZmaBumifY wkefvIyfoGm.f? b. aemufodkY wpfvSrf.xdkifq&mawmf xif.csifaeay&m BuG.yrm a&SYodkY t[kefNyif. &ufpufcufxefaom tBunfYNzifYBunfYí ar.f[efrSm twGif.odkif.awmY\/ cyfvSrf.udk raNzao.vdkufwmvJ}} a&Smifvifbk&m.awmufonf atmYceJ aoG.qkwfoGm. ]]a&Smifvifbk&m. cPrQtBumwGifyif [dkusL.uqDrmS wJY}} [dkusL.vdu k w f . csD.odik .? vlwpfa. xif.udk a&Smifvifodkif.ynm usifYpOfrsm.f&Tifudk. qef .riftm.ynm[m wu.rsm.&JY vdk[efY vufoD.xefxef cHpm.frif. ]][dkusL.ud k x k w f N yD .fY olu odik . at. kd af wmfBuD. .awmuf [dkusL.um xlrnfNyK\/ [dkusL. &S v S \ / wu.rnfudk apmifYaeBu\/ xdkpOfwGifyif 0gawmfBuD.rsm. .axmuf t&dktaoay.qdkwm 'DaeY wynfYawmf aumif.f tm. ausmif. .aeNcif. ]]'DwynfYav.pmtkyfxJrS twGif.cJYwmudk.'Pf&m&oGm.rifu .tm.tm.ae&aomfvnf.ausmif.zkef.Nyif.qltrnfcH [dkusL.om. .uwef.qef.pzG .f&TifESifY usef.onf vl0wfwynfY usef.odkif. \toH u vG e f p G m pl .onf olYq&mESifYtwl wmrmq&mawmfudk. xif. .f? bmwJY usrf.&JY odkif.avawmY\/ ol\ udk.rnf[krxifrSwfcJY/ xdkYaBumifY uref.ud k aNymNyD .&f iT &f YJ twGi.awmuf o nf xd k p um.qef.zkef.onfudkNrifaomf a&Smifvifbkef.aumif.xm.wmvJ}} 32 . tif t m.fvdIif.oHk. .ta&mufwGifrl olu &kwfw&uf &yfvdkufNyD.qef. awmf B uD .oGm.yg.Bu\/ [lquf? [l&SefY ESifY ausmif.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.l ?rodb.ausmif.onftar.yg. wkefvIyfoGm. odkif.udk.

vif.at.? rif. raNzao.odkif.odBu\/ 33 .nif. igYudk &Sif. vuf a qmif a y. xyfaNymprf. . u tar. vif .wmud k B unf Y N yD .atmif e*g.pufvGef.awmfBuD. zk e f .vSaBumif.xJu b.bJ ol Y tm.udk igwdkY a&Smifvifbk&m. ]]rif. . usef .\ toHu wdk.BuD.nif. qef .vHk. tm. .cJ Y aom vdk[efYoHrPd&kyfuav.u a&SYwpfvSrf.ausmif.udk xkwfvdkuf\/ NyD. avY u sif Y c J Y w myg?b.&JY vdk[efYvufoD.f o l u rS wynf Y a wmf u d k roifBum.ud k csuf c sif .wdk.folurS oifay. vif .at.wuúodkvf aevif.bmomrif.vsuf wdk.vif.&Sif.vdkY wwfwmr[kwfbJ? rif.bk&m. bkef.}} xdktcg 0gawmfBuD.aomtoHNzifY .Edkif"m.pufaomfvnf. . ]]wynf Y a wmf u 'D t &k y f E S p f c k upm. vGefpGm aBumufp&maumif.rS .bkef.cJYygbl. oifvdkYwwfwmyJvdkY}} xdk0gawmfBuD.

rvnfEdkifatmifNzpfae&\/ þ0gawmfBuD. od k i f . bkef. ? 'D vd k [ ef Y v uf o D .\ trlt&mu vGefpGm cufxefaeonfYwdkif olu pdk. ynmroif c J Y y gbl . tcef. f emBunf.aomtcef.om. vG e f p G m BuD . odrf.\ r[m tNzpftysufBuD.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.rQ raBumufacs/ ]]wynf Y a wmf u b. uG u f a wG u d k v J wynfYawmfbmom avYusifYcJYwmyg? trSm.tm.vnfxm.aomtBunfYNzifY tb.f&Tif\ tawG.&NyD. em.}} 0gawmfBuD.fYaBumifY pdkufBunfYvsuf&dSonfudkrl pOf.wpfckudk a&.\ rsufvHk.aBuG? yef.pOf. aom yk * d ¾ K vf N zpf \ / od k Y aomf .0if. bkef.\/ xdkYaBumifY 0gawmfBuD.r&atmif Nzpfae&&Smonf/ xdkpOf BuG. Nzpf\/ 0gawmfvnf.BuD. tm.qef. qef .wD.awmfBuD. bkef.*efpmayrsm.avonf/ 34 .zkef.yrm pm.yGifY usef.atmif e*g. usef.rkef.yg&if q&mawmfBuD.awmfBuD.xHrS xdktoHwpfcsufom Bum.0if. &efolBuD. rSwfwrf.rwwf 0g. zk e f .zkef.yg}} ]][if. NyKNyifay.pm. (4) yef.qnf.ck u d p ö w G i f usef .awmfBuD.awmufí 0if.f o l Y q D u rS od k i f .pmtkyfav.xJrS rSwfwrf.ausmif.f&Tif xdktNzpfudk BunfY&if.Edkif"m.wpftkyfudk zwfvdkuf\/ xdkrSwfwrf.rSm vuf&dS ausmif.\ q&mOD.tm&kHxJodkY tNzpftysufwpfcku ay:vm\/ owd&apvdkuf\/ ESpfumvudkawmY BuG. þrQ &ef o l o zG .wuúodkvf aevif.rwwfpdkufBunfYvdkufav\/ bkef.wifxm.f&Tifonf usrf.av.vufaeav\/ BuG.pmtkyfxJwGif a&Smifvifbk&m.qef.f&Tif rrSwfrdawmY/ xdkpOfu BuG.awmftpHkrSm rD.onf olYwGif bmtNypfrQr&dS[k em.

&m &dkufESufvdkufwdkif.f aNcusKd .wpfapYrSrusawmY wynfYawGuvJ toHk.rsm.Edkif"m.? xdkYaBumifY bkef.aBumifY wmrmq&mawmfu &kwfw&uf Nzpfay:vmaom a'gow&m.\ odkif.ESiYf 'Pf&mrsm. bmrQ od&Sdem.wdkuf q&mawmfBuD.vdkufav\/ xdkbkef.Nref.ppfyGJudk usif.rsm. vuf&nfprf.BuD.Bum. &kefY&if.BuD.aomcef.acsrnf[kvnf.u . wmrmausmif. cH&ol xdkbkef. clusD.onf odkif.oD. r[kwfbJ a&Smifvifausmif.BuD.rusbl.xGuf wkefvnf.BuD.ynmt&nftcsif.oifYoGm.xdkifq&mawmf\ q&mY q&m? odkYr[kwf q&mtbdk.wdkufq&mawmfBuD.rS rD.tm.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.f c ef Y u a&S m if v if b k & m. f tNzpf t ysuf w pf c k Nzpf y G m .zdkcef. NzpfaeaomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/ xdkYaBumifY wmrmausmif.rsm.BuD.BuD.xefpGm &&SdoGm. Nzpf\/ xdkESpf aqmif.ESpfumvtwGif.cJYaBumif.? odkif.f BuD. ]]b.ynmvnf.rSm a&Smifvifausmif.onf cef.ckvuf&dS ausmif.ynm&yfrsm. odkif.rSm 'Pf&m&pNrJyif Nzpf\/ xdkbkef. bmrQ toHk.aom rD. pdwfxJrS usdwfí aw.odrf.BuD.foifwm}} [k cyfrmrm NyefaNym\/ trSefrl þbkef. toHk.? vdktyfcsufrsm.ausmif.BuD.BuD.vnfonf r[kwfaBumif.fwdkif bk&m.aygY}} xdkodkYqdkNyD.? udk.cJ Y &\/ xd k a eYu wmrmausmif.&moDwGif a&Smifvifbk&m.aemuf bkef.rwefatmif &ifY&ifYoD.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.rSm rD.BudrftefcJY&\/ aemufqHk.SufNcif.onf oHk.\ odkif. trsm.Gif.& &dkufESufwwfaomtusifY &dSay\/ xdkYNyif odkif.u bkef.rv.arT. .tm.ausmif .rSm vGefpGma'goBuD.t&mrSm .aNymaomtaBumif.yg.aom odkif.avonf/ xd k a eYrS m yif rarQmf v if Y bJ &if e if Y pzG .rS rD.oHk.ynmppfaq.BuD.wdkufrS bkef.vsuf xdkbkef.t.ckrl xdkbkef.aemuf trSm.NyKoGm.wynfYudk.wynfY bkef.BuD.BuD.wGif xdkbkef.udk xdef.BuD.onf a'govnf.udk rnfolrQ rodatmif wdwfwqdwfcdk.BuavawmY\/ xdkbkef. . vufusKd .zdkacsmifpcef.udk ppfaq.*dkPf. ar.awmY\/ xdkYaBumifY wmrmausmif.BuD.tm.BuD.BuD.udkwpfOD.rS wrifoufouf vma&mufaESmifY.a0zefwwfaomol r[kwfaBumif.ynm t&nftcsif.yNrJNzpfaom wpfESpfwpfBudrf odkif.rsm.um .pGm &&SdoGm.pGm ykwfcwfaNymqdkav\/ usefbkef.arT.rSwfxm.Burf. pdwfydkif.tm.BuD.vnf.í oifBum. tkyfcsKyfol bkef.bkef.NyD.Bu\/ trSefpifppf þynmt&nftcsif.folYxHrSoifBum.\/ wpfcsufrQ tNrifrawmfonfESifY tm.ausmif. bkef.wuúodkvf aevif.fYaBumifYrl wmrmausmif.rsm.Nzwfum odkif. wynfYrsm. xd k i f q &mawmf r S m clcsefq&mawmfNzpf\/ .&dS wynfYom0ursm.wdkufrS bkef. EIwfwHkYrNyefrDcif wmrmausmif.bl.pGm rcHr&yfEdkifatmif atmf[pfBudrf.BuD.ynmudk ppfaq.ppf . wkefvIyfoGm.rQ 'Pf&mNyif.ynmyg wwfaNrmufxm. aemufrqkwfacs/raBumufr&GHYNzifYyif atmf[pfEIwfwHkYNyefae\/ ]]q&mu toHk.ynmrSm a&Smifvif*dkPf.xdkifq&mawmfwdkY udk.u vefYzsyfvsuf xdkbkef.avawmY\/ 35 .BuD.SONf ydKifwu kd cf u kd af om bke.udk axmufNy&mwGif &kwfw&uf bkef.BuD.aomtvkyfudk vkyf&olNzpf\/ olYudk tkyfcsKyfaom bkef.? tNcm.tm.rusaBumif.Buav\/ tb.udk uvJYpm.vHk.ynm upm. odkif.fodkY avQmufvmNyD.udk pdefac:aeawmY\/ odYk aomf xdb k ek .SOfNydKifyGJwGif odkif.Nycdkif.fYbmomudk.BuD.Nzpfí wpfaBumif.f BuD.BuD.\ odkif. ykwfcwfvdkufaom bkef.rSm vQyw f pfNyuftcsed t f wGi.BuD.ppfyGJwGif ausmif.&yg.armif.onf emBunf.atmif atmfaNymav\/ xdkbkef.folurS vmoifray.tm.ausmif.wrf. xGufvmNyD. \ ausmif . .u &ufpufcufxefpGm wdkufcdkufoNzifY wmrmausmif.wdkufrS odkif.onf wpfOD.SOfNydKIifwdkufcdkufBuonfYwdkif 'Pf&mtemw& &atmif rNyKvkyf&acs/ . vG e f c J Y aom ES p f a ygif .ycJY\/ xdkt&nftcsif. ck e pf q .ynmudk b. ESpfNym.wynfYrsm. .rsm.ESiYf .atmif e*g.wdkufq&mawmfBuD.aom tnw&bkef.wpfyg.wGif bmemrnfrS r&ao.OD.u OD.BuD.rodkY a&muf&dSvmNyD.\/ odkYaomf xdkbkef.\ &dkufESufcsufaBumifY aoG.vmNyD.BuD.vdkuf\/ wpfaeYaeY wpfcsdefcsdefwGif a&Smifvifbk&m.\ usif.ynmNzpfonfuwpfaBumif. BunfYvdkufaomf vGefpGm tHYtm.

SOfNydKifavawmY\/ wmrmausmif.aepOf xdkbkef.í roif. uG u f a ygif .ynmwwfaNrmufol vGefpGm rsm.wynfYNzpf&m olYq&m r&IrvS ysHvGefawmfrlcJY&onfY taBumif. av.usKd.udk csufcsif. usef .wdkufq&mawmfBuD.uvnf.vnf.fvHk.oifBum.usL.udk tNyD.udk arYaysmufír&Edkifatmif NzpfcJY\/ . um.BuD.ausmif.Nyef v mav\/ol u wkefvIyfacsmufcsm. 'Pf&mNyif. NrifYrm. ynmud k cd k . rsOf .ynm .fawmfwdkif cef. u xd k t cG i f Y aumif .a'goNzpfaeNcif.&m xdkbkef.ynmusqif. od & \/ xdktNzpftysufa[mif.BuD.rtv.eufeJaom odkif.owfacsrIef.BuD. 36 .BuavawmY\/ odkY&mwGif .onf wdkufvufpudk &kyfodrf.aygif. ck d i f . ppf y G J w G i f &k w f w &uf 0if a &muf í tpG r f .BuD.ck r S y if xd k t aBumif .um 'Pf&m Nyif.onf xGufaNy. rS m &I H .oHk.fESpfausmfcefY odkif. ud k .tm.ygw.fNyD. udk. q&mawmfBuD. qufvufíom BudK. avmuwpf c k v H k .acsmif.rSm xdkpOfu wmrmausmif. xdkbkef. ed r f Y v mavonf / xd k p Of wmrmausmif. aom tNypf'PfudkuscH&rnf? ao'Pf odkYr[kwf wpfudk.fausmfvmaomtcg rnfolrQ odkif.aumif. xkwfvdkuf\/ xd k p nf .q.vdkufNcif.BuD.Nym.tm. l c J Y aBumif .f u d k v T w f í bk e f .0ifvmNyD.fokdY BuGvmum xdkbkef.tm.l0YHawmYacs/ odkYNzifY &ifeifYpzG.rnf o l r qd k q&mr&d S b J o d k i f .pHkudk odaomf .wGif wif.? olESifY &efndI. BuD .odkif.ynmudk wwfaNrmufoGm. BuD .fESpfumvtwGif.oGm.BuD.NzpfawmY\/ wmrmausmif.l q vd k u f a wmY r S . tES H Y aNrvSef&SmazGonfYwdkif xdkbkef. Nyum uvJYpm.rSm q.wGif tkyfcsKyfol bkef.yg.rsm. ud k Ed k i f a csNyD [ k .wdkufq&mawmfBuD. emBunf.xefpGm &&dSoGm.BuD.acsNcif.wGif odkif.tm.NyoNzifY q.Nyefvnfowd&vmNyD. NzwfypfcH&rnf[líyifNzpfyg\/ xdktcsdefrS ESpfaygif.yrf. a&Smifvifbk&m. l u m vQyf w pf N yuf 0if a &muf w d k u f c d k u f a omf wmrmausmif.udk olu xdef0Sufxm. odkif.avawmYonf/ xdktcg a&Smifvifbk&m.tm.av.BuD.BuD.u rdrdqufí wdkufcdkufaevQif þbkef. ]] rif.tyg.vH k . . tm. u q&mr&d S b J E S i f Y rd r d b mom od k i f .aumif. qD .udkvnf. zk e f . wkefvIyfacsmufcsm.&mausmf wd k u f c d k u f N yD . &d S bk e f .0 &SmrawGYygawmYacs/ .if.vHk. .ausmif.tm. ud k &k w f w &uf owd & vmNyD . ol u bk & m. bkef.\ aemufqHk. BuD . 4if.ig. ayguf & moD od k i f .rsm.NyD.&dScJYaom tNcm.vnf.avawmY\/ odkYaomf xdktaBumif. 0dkif.0ef.rsOf.cJYav\/ xdknrSmyif wmrmausmif.pGmatmfí .xefpGm&rnfudk odxm.atmif e*g.vk d u f v H & S m azG z rf .fawmfwdkif okdif.BuD.BuD. .av\/ xdknüyif xdkbkef.wuúodkvf aevif. av.&ef vGefpGmpdwfNyif.ESifY odkif.ynmudk cdk.udk &yfcdkif. BuD . . csd e f w G i f xd k b k e f . qef .umuG.Nznf.bkef.uJYodkY 'Pf&mr&awmYacs/ aemuf q H k .odkY Nyefvnfcdk. .ynm. bkef.l oif c J Y vQif tBuD .q.avonf/ usef bkef.xefvGef.Nzpf\/ od k Y aomf xd k b k e f .í rdrdvufudkOD.yif Nzpfyg\/ BuG. ynmt&nf t csif .vdkuf\/ q&mawmfBuD. .usyfaom pnf.Edkif"m. .BuD.rSm 'Pf&m Nyif.SOfNydKifaepOf odkif.wpfckvHk.wdkuf q&mawmfu taBumif.if.bkef.atmif avYusifYEdkifcJYaom xdkbkef.ypf&ef ESaNrmvmav\/ od k i f .u &dkufESufonfYwdkif olu ikHYcHumomae\/ odkY&mwGif xdktcsdefü olYwGif twGif.wdkuf q&mawmfonf .faumif. \/ od k Y aomf od k i f .NyóemaBumifYvnf.u NyefvnfckcHonfYwdkif tcsdefrrDawmYacs/ eH&dk.&dS taBumrsm.&JYZGJvHkYvudkawmY csD.ck þ0gawmfBuD.ausmif.wukwf avYusifYvmcJY\/ xdktcsdefrsm.vGwfaNrmufoGm.fwifvdkuf&\/ xdkodkY taNctae&IyfaxG.aom xdktNzpftysufBuD.um csufcsif.clusD.ck v nf .ausmif. aZmacR.u csufcsif.u a&Smifvifbk&m.? owfNzwfNyD. f v H k . wpfpp arYaysmufoGm.BuD. a&Smifvifbk&m.qH k .ck u J Y o d k Y aqmif .pGm &kyfodrf.vGefpGmNynfY0ae&m cgwdkif.f}} [k qdkNyD. u.cJY&\/ aemufydkif. clusD.wdkuf q&mawmfBuD.rsm. OD .í ysHvGefawmfrloGm. tm. ynmoif .cifu ESdyfpufcJYaom tkyfcsKyfol bkef.BuD.orm.NyD. ig.wdkufq&mawmfclusD. wpf u d k .f&TifrSmvnf.BuD. Nyefvnf xGufaNy.ausmif .ynmtqifY þrQtxdNrifYrm.wNznf.odkY udk.

cefY xGufvmNyD.&efuif.wGif Nrif..wdkuf bkef.aom bkef.muf u 0if u .qef.kH wGif BuG.yOöif.wpfq.zkef. .om.vdkufNyef\/ usef. . 'ku©dwNzpfzdkY aocsmvS\/ BuG.qef.ESiYf a0.BuD.rSm eHab.rqHk.em. qGJxnfYvdkuf\/ wpfqufwnf.csKyfBuprf.ud k &S m azG v mcJ Y \/ xdkYaemufoHk.zkef. puf0dkif.rsm.qef.lpOf aumYvif.wGif ausmrDum tem.udo k .at.BuD.cJY&oNzifY BuG.tm.onfvnf.rsmu BuG.yif rodawmYac/ olu wkefvIyfaom toHNzifY .ESifY aemufrS qufvdkufvmaom Nrif. zk e f .qef. yvkyfyavmif.zkef.frQ Bumatmif aNy.bk&m.wGif wmrmausmif.zkef.usef.\/ towfrcH&vQifvnf.f&TifrSm vGefpGm arm[dkufvsuf&dS&Sm\/ olYycHk. Nrif.wdkufq&mawmf [l&SefYu atmfí .f v d k Y om a&S m if v if b k & m. f u d k wpf y wf v S n f Y vd k u f & m ol Y ycH k .twG i f .tzuJYodkY oHa.OD.r.rS BuG. &J Y odu©mruscJYwm?tckawmY olwdkYu OD.vif.zkef.qef. .f&Tif\ twGif.vif.zkef.onfyif vQif 0dkif.Bu\/ xdktcg tcGifYaumif.f tm.f&TifrSm &ifeifYoGm.&ma&mufNyDrSef. .aq.ql [dkusL.vGefbk&m. usefqef.aq.wdkufu wynfYawGtm.vdkufBu\/ usef.vnf.awmY ? wynfYawmfpm.wdkufrS bkef.Edkif"m.BuD.&f iT w f Ykd onf ttkyt f qdik . rS m &k w f w &uf apmif.u rauseyfoHNzifYqdkav\/ ]][dk cGef.ESifY q.wdkufrS bkef.ESifY aumYvif.faerdaeNyD/NyD.&Hxm. atmfNyef\/ ]][dwf .wpf&mY&Spfyg. yif awmtk y f r sm.S O f N yd K if 0 H Y Bubl .folurS olYudk r.xufrS oHyHk.zkef.rsm.avawmY\/ bkef.kH &dS twGi. kd v f . tb.&JY tNypfr[kwfygbl.Buao.í vdkufBuav\/ wmrmausmif.udk a&mufvmawmY b.odkY &SJoGm.í usef&pfcJYBu\/ aemufqHk.fbufoHyHk.NzifY vif.f&Tifu wynfYNzpfol\ BuHK&rnfY tNzpfqdk.wuúodkvf aevif.tm. 'g 'gu usef.cHvdkuf&vQif towfcH&zdkYrsm.atmif e*g.mZOfwG. BuG.vdkuf\/ vif.í aNy.uszdkYaumif.vnf.wdkufu wynfYawG bmvkyfaeBuwmvJ? 0dkif.}} q&mawmf trdefYtqHk. ab.rSm bmvkyfí bmudkif&rSef.xm.fpDNzifY vdkufvmBu\/ odYk aomfBuG. csufcsif.w. .wmyJ}} 37 .wdkYudk 0dkif.xJrS ckefxGufvdkufBu\/ NyD.NyD.udkyif rcsEdkifawmYay/ usef.&maemufodkY nmoHay. odonfESifY csufcsif. wu. xGufNyD.&Hxm. ]]q&mawmfBuD. rsm.yrm vnfywfoGm.uvnf.udk.cGmoHrsm.onf vGefpGmarm[dkufaeaom q&mNzpfoludk BunfY&if.vHk.rsm.fY&Spfyg.pGm tm.aeonfawmYrod/ wNznf.lvdkufBu\/ xdkokdY tem. ]]wmrmausmif.awmuf a&Smifvifbk&m.? vkdufawmif zrf. yOö i f . rBum.lvsuf BuG.f&TifonfþwynfYav.b.ausmif.kH í aNy.Zl. rsuf&nfrsm.rD vuf&dS wmrmausmif.udk rBunfY&ufawmY/ xd k Y aBumif Y csuf c sif .&\/ trSefrl BuG.zkef.ausmif .oHk.fESpfausmfrQ twlwuG aexdkifvmcJY&m om.av\/ BuG.qef. 0if í opf O opf o D .udk zrf.yif oHyHk.BuD.wGifyif udk.&f iT rf mS wpfu.Nznf.fY&Spfyg.wpfq.avmufatmif &Sdae\/ xdkYaBumifY 0ef.NzifY usef.lum nmbufoHyHk. ? OD . .NyD.BuD.udk .udk csay..f&TifaNy.vdkufygOD.rsm.aom awmtkyw f pfcx k o J Ykd a&mufvmBuav\/ odkY&mwGif em&Daygif.fYudk w&m.vif.Ncif.}} BuG.p&mawG oGm.f aumif.fudk ckepfywfcefY vSnfYywfvdkufoNzifY oHyHk. wd k Y q&mwynf Y ES p f a . cHvdkuf&\/ 0gawmfBuD.f}} usef .wdkYudk aus.&ygawmYacs/aemufq.oNzifY vSnfYywfEIef. ausmufwHk.fY&Spfaumifom aemufrS vdkufvmonfudk awGY&\/ em&Daygif.&SmvdkufygOD.om tzrf.Nznf.rSm aBumufp&maumif. qef . wpfq.u NynfY0vGef.f? [if.yif &Da0vm\/ ]]q&m at. bkef.rsm.f&Tifu xdkae&mrS wpfcsdK.udk qGJ.pm.oGm. u csuf c sif .f&Tif pum.xGufvmNyD.vif. vdk[efYausmif.qef.xGufaNy.ay:rS oHyHk. yif ud k .rwif&kH rubl.wnf. wNznf.vmcJY&m aemufrS vdu k v f molrsm.Buav}} xdktcg vdk[efYausmif.zrf.BuD.BuD. wpfxyf xyfí 0dkif.ukefpkpnf.f&Tif\ ycHk. xuf r S oH y H k .wdkYvnf. ]]q&m wynfYawmf}} BuG.f&TifESifY usef.

pmtkyf wpftkyfxJu aepBumusif Y pOf wpf y k ' f a &.f&Tifudk.twG u f avYusif Y wJ Y w&m. .ovdkESifY razsmY? tm.rSm azsmYxm.tESpfoabmw&m.pGm xkay.rS toHcsnfYeJYpGmNzifY . BuD .i.Nzpf&rnf/ tm.pGifYaxmifav ydkí em.fvJ rvIyf&Sm.avuG.f? avYvmw.csufrSm wdusrSefuef\/ vuf[ef aNc[efrSefuef\/ &efol\ [muGufudk csifYcsdef wGufqEdkif\/}} aumYvif.xJudk tvsifa&mufae&rnf/ vufEpS b f ufukd qefYwef.HkBunfEdkifavmufatmif twGif.f&Tifu pum.f . .k.oH.mufom.aeonfY Bum.vTm.aBumifY Nzpf\/}} aumYvif.}} vif.f[kwf&rSmvJ? tazeJY taru tNrJwrf.f? t[Gyf [Gyf? ig ig odyfarmaew.}} BuG.pmom.f[efrSmysufNym.vdkufESifY&dS&m BuG.f? usef.ydkif.pl.xm.BuD.f\ vIyf&Sm.vdu k \ f / NyD.f opf&u G af Ncmufrsm.f oabmw&m.ftm.wdkYuawmY 'Dbkef.yHek aH b.Gif.yJ? 'Dbkef.futvsifvufOD.fY 'Dbek .k a. .awGy?J 'gayr.rSm NywfrvdkESifY rNywf}} aumYvif.fvIyf&Sm.f&Tif\ wcsdkKYaom &GwfqdkoHrsm.vdiI .rIrSm NyD.pm.rSm rxkwfovdkESifY xkwfí? tm.ESifY aNzmifYaNzmifYBuD.rSm.&dS opfyifatmufwGifvSJavsmif.Edkif"m.vmaeNyD. ]][kwfw. ]]q&m . tm.fYudk.u udk..zkef.om.pm&GwfoHvdkvdk Bum.f BuD.ynm&JY twGif.tm.vif.ESifY aNcaxmuftaetxm.fudk vdkufavsmvQif aES.\/ pdwfxJrS ]]'Dbkef.fwdkif a&.om.vQif udk.\/ &efoludk vdkufavsmvQif oGufvufí &efolYudk vdkufavsmrS tm.BuD.pdkufpdkufzwfw.qef.jzpfaeawmhvJ olwdkU udkvJ tjypfawmh rqdkomygbl.NzifY rD.rowfEdkif? tarmazmufvmí &yfvdkuf\/ acsmif.f&TiftoH ay:vmNyef\/ ]]ol rvIyf&Sm.vif.fay:udk ra&mufcif udk. q&m ? reufNzefrS qufaNymwmaygYaemf}}[k em. ES i f Y wl \ / puf 0 d k i f .arT.ynmrS rwwfbl.udkrBum.. rodbl.&if.pdkufvdkufrd\/ ]]udk. rS m vS n f .aeap&rnf/ nmvuf tm.tm.vif.vif.rSm olodcJYaom oabmw&m. wpfcsufrQ &ifwkefoGm.avmuf twGif.f&Tifqdkaom odkif.vif.pm.fY&JYpdwfu &efol&JY t&dk. . rsufarSmifukwfvdkufrd\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.rSm em.&Nyef\/ ]]tm. usef. usifYBuHvdkufwm tckawmY r.vdvd NynfY0cJYw.zke.? tck ol&GwfqdkaewmvJ aepBum usifYpOfyJvm.fawmftm. ]]tJ'DvdkawmhvJ ajymvdkU r&bl.l&r.f}} xdYk aemuf usef. 'umrav.fYudk.udk zwfaeovdkyJ}} [k a&&Gwfaerd\/ BuG. aNy.udk tqHk.vif.&JU / 'gu a&Smifvifausmif.vdkuf&Smacs/ 38 .vdkuf&í tomt.u wmrmabmfwd q&mawmfBuD.f udk wpfqufwnf.pm &GwfzwfaewmrS r[kwfbJ? oluodkif.pdkufaxmifvdkuf? rdrdbmom pOf.u aBumufcref.usifYpOfoabmw&m. .rnf/ onfcRwf.aeNyD.uyfí wdk.vif.vnf.wmawG Y &awmY bk e f .aNymae&Sm\/ BuG.wuúodkvf aevif. .u w&m.qef. rD. igYudkaNymom.f&Tif\ toHudk qufvufBum. awGYvdkuf&\/ ]]&efoltm. w[Gyf[Gyf qdk. rNynfY0bl.f&Tifu acsmif. q&m odyfarmaeNyD? wpfa&. awG & J Y usef .fwJY? tck 'Dbkef.rsOf.pm &Gwfzwfaeaom BuG.u pOf.u em.xm.tm&HkxJodkY w&m.f&Tif\ aemufausmudkNznf.udk.em.f onf opfuikd .BuD..u xdktcsufudk pOf.axmifBunfYvdkuf&m EIwfrS w&m.w[Gyf[Gyfqdk.acgifcsdefwGif aumYvif.? olupmayudkawmY pl.vdkufonfESifY udk.aeNyD}} [k a&&GwfvdkufrdNyef\/ BuG.pm.zkef.rvnfavNzpfae\/ BuG.ae&mrSxí tm&kHpl.fuakd vQmY? b.usifYpOfawGvdkY xifNyD.rI .xkwv f Qif b. .uvnf.csufrSm cg.BuD. .wdk.vd I i f .rdNyef\/ ]][kwNf yD? 'gu odik . rma&.f usrf.f? taztareJY tbkd.yif vSJavsmif. bD . aNymaewmyJ? &efoleJY &ifqdkifwJYtcgrSm &efoludk udk.u bmodkif.pmtkyx f u J a&. uJ Y od k Y tquf r Nywf a 0S Y ywf E d k i f a om ae&m&d S v Qif udk.rdvdkufonfESifY csufcsif.\ em. qefYusifaeaomaBumifYyifNzpf\/ aumYvif. .wJY odik . tdyfpufvdkufBu\/ nOfYoef.xkwfvQif nmudkavQmY}} aumYvif.cJYwJY usrf.ESifY? oltenf. .u q&mNzpfol BuG.qef.NyD. ]]b.&JU pnf.m acgif.atmif e*g.wpfarmtdyfvdkufygvm.om.nif.

fudk oGm.wGif vHk.rSwfxm.f&Tif\ toHrSm wNznf.&JY twGif.udk rdrdu av.axG.\/ xdktcsdefxd BuG.aumif.tm.eJYig 'Dae&muyJ vrf.f&Tifu aepBumusifYpOfudk aZmufxdk.}} [lquf q&mawmfu vufumNyvsuf }}bk e f .r.yHkcefY olr odoGm.NzifY z.zkef.um usdwfí&dIufrd\/ [lqufq&mawmfrl bk&m.wuúodkvf aevif.rSm ylaqG.opfyifaemufuG.Sufyif wifysOfacGxdkifrysuf/ rsufvHk.f&TifrSmrl rsufpdudk pHkrSdwfí EIwfcrf. orm.f&Tifum.qef.vIyf&kH wdk.r[k w f y gbl .u ]]usef.&m ae&mwG i f y if wif y sOf a cG x d k i f & if .zdkY [l&SefYq&mawmfudk.pdkufaxmifaeonfudk vif.zkef. va&mif qrf .rkd.mufudk wu.Nznf.f? 'Dbkef. BuG.f rl csufcsif.atmif ususee aw.oN*ØK[fvdkufBuNyD. qef .frS xGufvmaom bkef. em.Ekdifr.fxkwfEdkif&rnf/}} BuG.arSmuf &GwfqdkonfYwdkif q.f&Tifu wkwfwkwfrQrvIyf/ usef.ESifY usef.nif.cGJ&r.u tHYBoNcif.vif.oGm.vSypGm uGeYfNrL.vnf.wpfrsdK. aEG.pufvsuf&adS eayNyD/ BuG.&IyfoGm.NzifY . u wpf u .u b.qef.? 0rf.f&Tifudkzrf..zkef.oyfBunfYvu kd &f m at. tcsd e f r S m yif usef . .wGifvnf. zk e f .pHk NyL.udk tHBooifYzG. ]]rrvif.fwdkif oynfYawGudk OD.vif.zkef.Buav&J Y ? 'D a wmY 'umrav.rrIacs/ rvIyfr.udk &efolxHrS iSm. f a wmf t m.f}} [k qdkum xdkifae&mrS xGufcGmoGm.vdkufr.f&Tifonf wifysOfacG xdkifrysuf&dSaeqJ? NidrfoufpGm&dSaeqJyif/ usef.aygufoGm.if.rzGifY/ usef.Nyef\/ ]]bmyJNzpfNzpf? igYtonf.aom aea&mifNcnfrsm. BuD .ESifY usef.f&Tifonf ta&. ]]tm. tawG.qef.f o d k i f . ]]uRefawmf tpmoGm.vif. .NyD Nzpfyg\/ usef.vif.vif. . f & T i f u d k .u BuG.wnfaNy. yuf x m.Nzpf&m BuG.udk prf.oGm.vsuf &dIufiifum idkaBuG.vif.odkYqdkvQif BuG. aemuf b uf u d k OD.&efNyK\/ xdktcdkuf cyfvSrf.&f iT \ f ezl. wdk.muf u d k ac:NyD .yufxm.\/ aemufqHk. wd k Y onf BuG . rD.f&Tiftem.uygyJ? uJ xm.awmYrSmvm.rSm vdk[efYausmif.NyGrf. ta&S Y b uf u d k OD . vif .zkef.acgifuwnf.Edkif"m.BuD.awmY\/ tdyfaysmfoGm. .qef. [lqufa&mufaeNyDq&m}} BuG. [dkwpfuGufonfwpfuGuf qrf. ysHvGefawmfrloGm.wpfyg.BuayawmY}} [lqufq&mawmf .awmYonf/ ra&S .tm. 'D a e&mud k a&muf w m nOfYoef. [lqufyifNzpfyg\/ aumYvif. tvsif. trD vdkufvmwmudk.u ol w d k Y E S p f a .ygawmY? BuG.rSm OmPfaumif.zke.awGYvdkuf&\/ aumYvif. aemufqHk.[efwlayonf/ xdktcsdefwGif aumYvif. .udkuyfí ]]q&m xawmYav? q&mawmfBuD.vif.onf rvIyf&Sm.rSmvJ}} 39 .qef.av\/ vif. raES m if .vSrf.wdk.axmif&if.&JBu/ olwdkYonf apmapmu Bum.aemuf vif.f&Tifu .pm&Gwfvdkuf? wpfcgwpf&H aepBumusifYpOfxJrS pmydk'fudk a&&GwfvdkufESifY/ aumYvif.zkef.vif.u 'DavmufNynfY0aeyHkaxmufawmY olY&JY usifYpOfu rSm.aqmifNyD.awmfBuD.xJ oHrdIESufovdk pGJoGm.NyD.0 toHaysmufoGm. bk&m.fzrf.xJwGif oHrIdpGJovdk pGJatmif rSwfom. bmvJ olwdkY q&m wynfYESpfa.f&m awGYvdkufBu&\/ xdkbkef.wdk.uawmY aumYvif.rSmvnf. wnf o G m .nifnif qufvuf&Gwfqdkae\/ wpfcgwpf&H bk&m.aom toHNzifY .f}} usef.Bu\/ odkYaomf aumYvif.ydómtm. xd k p Of usef .0dkif.u &DrdIif. uvnf .atmif e*g.&SmvdkufOD.aom tBunfYNzifY . ES i f Y aumYvif .cJYaom aepBumusifYpOfxJrS pmydk'fawGudkom acgif.omNcif.frxifbl.u csufcsif.zkef.uifwGif aea&mifNcnfrsm.qef.wdkufrS q&mawmfBuD. ? trS e f q d k & if bk e f .fyHkvQif oHk. ]]q&mawmfBuD.qef. . zk e f .a& rif. xdwv f efYomG . toHwdk. .}} BuG.wGif BuG.wdkYrSm em.l&rnf/avudk csufatmufu xkwf&rnf/ &efolu ydómwpf&mtav.aeBu\/ odkYNzifY ta&SYrdk. rsufvHk.olav. qef . .BuD.qef. BuD .NyD.vmNyDNzpf\/ awmtkyftwGif.pm&Gwfí xdkae&mrS xGufcGmoGm.acgif.vif.

rSmvJ? txifao.wnfY&m oGm.pm.wpfawmif\ taNcwGif xdkifí b0tyltwGuf awG.í OD.BuD.mufsm.? rif.foYkd use.aerd p Of &k w f w &uf ol x d k i f a e&meH a b.qef.uyfaeawmY &SiYf ukd b.vsuf tem*wfwGif b.aNyaysmufoGm.mufyJ? igYbmom igYb0udk xlaxmifvdkY bmvdkYrNzpf&rSmvJ? NzpfudkNzpf&r.aumif. vef&efNrdKYudk oGm.muf v H k .zke.fyHk aexdkifoGm.fvdkqufqHBurvJ? igu oefrmwJY vli.i.\/ vif r .um. .rQEIwfwkYHrNyef&J/ xdpk um.fqD.ayawmY usef.awmif rdef.qD oGm.awG b.rNzpfolu &kwfw&uf toHNrSifYí .fpw d rf sm.udk ycHk.pum.vmovdk xifrSwf&\/ olu csufcsif.onf NrifYrm. .fvHk.iHkYvsufae\/ wpfcGef.qef.aom txD.zke.awmY igYtazeJY tarudk &Smvdkufyg? olwdkYu rif.ysdKwpfa. .pdkae\/ olu awmif\vSyNcif.fenf.Edkif"m.f a&muf&v Sd m\/ xdek .udBk um.aomf usef.awm&if.foGm.awGu zrf. oGm. k rf cRefb. ay. awmtkyfrsm.f&maumif. .l ? tpfrqDrmS yJ uyfaecsifw.uG.rSm cspfol pGefYypfNcif. avQmuf o G m . ]]&S i f u vl y sif . k Yf '. tapmfum.Burf.wnf&mr&dSaom c&D.zkef.r.laevdkuf\/ xdkawmifBuD. tm.&if Y rmBuD .cH&í pdwfaNyvufaysmuf aNcOD.fig b.zkef.muf r S m vrf .eJ Y ud.pm. Nzpf v suf o m.mufsm. [lwef.rD vufaumufwpfzufudkcRwfí usef.om Nzpf&m ]]iguawmY c&D.zkef.? awm\ om.f? a&Smifvifbkef. .rSm emBunf.tm.vif.rS vif r .mNcif. csufcsif.vkyfolu acgif.? 'Dvdkvkyfyg usef.wuúodkvf aevif. .ES p f a . pOf.rqHk.f}} 40 .vdkY b.ouf o uf y J ? a.apmifYa&SmufvdrfYr.udk a&Smifvif bkef.NyD.qef.b. ]]'DvufaumufeJY rif.f &SmaeawmYum}} vif.vdkuf\/ ]]iguom aumYvif.qef.muf Nzpf a vQmuf o G m .aeolav.fou l txifBuD.&if olrsm.&oudk cH p m.frmS vef&efNrdKYEiS Yf tvSr.twnfwusr&Sdygbl.onf xdkae&mrS xGufcJYawmYonf/ usef..f? igYudk.ES p f a .f? 'Dvkd olrsm.awmif Nzpf\/ NrifYrm. a&omcd k o rm.ay:xrf.wdkYtdrfudkoGm.fa.r.?uJ .f rSm rsufpad &m em.qef.rmefopfNzifY NynfYNzdK.vif.f qdkwmvJ rod&ao. trSefrl aumYvif.vif.qef.\/ wpfudk.l ud.favmufyJ &ufpuf&ufpuf igwdkYtaztar a&SYrSm r&ufpuf&Jbl.cJY\/ txD.BuD.&rnfudkyif rpOf.qef.atmif e*g. tem.m.um aeBu\/ [lwef.m.ESpfvHk.muf s m.BuD.pdrf.fvmr.usefb0udk aBuuGJpGmydkufaxG.yJ[m? bmyJNzpfNzpf tvkyfvkyf&if xrif.aom awmifBuD.cH&awmYrSmaygY? uRefrwdkYrSm aNcvuftpHk oefoefrmrm&dSom.vdkufNyD.yg yGiYf omG .zkef.wpfeyfawmY pm.f qef.udk ESif&avawmY\/ v0ufcefYBum\/ [laye.udk aumif.}} xdkYaemuf vif.onf olYq&mBuG.&if .vif.NyD.zkef. tNrifao.usefb0twGuf tm. .wGif usef.zG.wwfatmif Nzpfae&Smyg\/ aemufqHk. wpf a . wwGwfwGwfESifY wGwfwdk.&rSmyJ&SifY}} a.f&Tif pGefYcJYaom oHyHk.f ruGmygawmYacs/ odkYESifY usef.u igYtay:b.NzifYndIYrdIif.bl.zkef.

qef . ES p f y H k . ql r S m vnf .qHk.ed r f Y o G m .udk wnfaxmifvdkufavonf/ cG e f .xdkifum pOf. odkif. usefqef. rwlBuoNzifY rSwfOmPfESifY em.f&Tifudk.rSm taNccHtm.usifYpOfudk [dkwpfydk'f 'Dwpfydk'f &GwfqdkcJY&m xdkpOfu aumYvif.? 0gar? cGef. xdkYaemufwGifrl odkif.zkef.OD. aemuf ol u olYEIwfuwdtwdkif.atmif e*g.um 0gar*dkPf.arG.f ynm oabmw&m. tESpfom&wGifrl rsm.fyif aNrNyefYodkY rqif. zk e f .oHa0*&um 0garawmifodkY wufa&mufí r.ESifY [lqufq&mawmfwdkY oHk.S O f N yd K if r I ta&.ud k avYusifYtm.oH k . vG e f bk & m.qef.vif.awmYacs/ cGef.tBudrfNzpfaom taysmYtm.wufvmavawmY\/ wpf a eY usef . emrnftausmfBum.av. NyKí [lwef.pvHk. ckepf&ufwdwd ur®Vmef.? usef. tdrf&mtNzpf aexdkifvdkufonf/ a&iwf v Qif awmif u sacsmif .zkef.onf oHrPdqHk. rwlBuacs/ xdYk aBumifY xdo k . wynfYwyef.topf u d k taBumif .ynmtopftqef.cJYNyD. ay:od k Y wuf c J Y avawmYonf / xd k Y aemuf vk H N cH K pd w f c s&aom ausmuf*lBuD. ol N zpf í aeYpOf r Nywf u sif Y BuH t m.qef.opfudk ydkifydkifEdkifEdkif wwfuRrf.cJY\/ xdkYaBumifY cGef. f & T i f u d k .rS ol r S w f r d a om pmyd k ' f r sm.wuúodkvf aevif.fNyefYvmonfYwdkif qufvuf wnf&dSaeavonf/ xdkYaemuf .wpfckudk&SmNyD. NzpfcJYavawmYonf/ aumYvif.vGef*dkPf. a&S m if v if a usmif .wGif w&m. rS m rl v xuf tqaygif .rm.aemuf oH y H k .awG. rS m OmPf & nf v nf . ud k q G J í [l w ef .*dkPf.axmifcJY&\/ odkYaomf xdkoHk.pD uGJxGufoGm.f E S p f c ef Y B umvwf a omf twG i f .vyf a om tcsd e f y d k i f .qHk.rm.rSm aNrNyefYtxd us.aom oabmyif/ 41 . onf awmif w d y f w pf a e&m BuD .Ncm.wGif olu odkif. iS u f w pf a umif ? .ynmwGif yxrOD. pm.ydkYcsay.SONf ydKifwu kd cf u kd af eonfukd pl.BuD. usef.xkwfcJYavonf/ usef .em. qef .NzifY wlaomfvnf.aomaNrG B uD . tm.vGef[lí *dkPf.aqmif q&mawmfBuD.tpav. wpf a umif E S i f Y od e f .rsm. . awmif r BuD .pm.\/ ol u ausmuf * l B uD .rsm.rl odkif.vmae&mrS aemufqHk. NzpfcJYavawmYonf/ BuG.yd k i f .pyfEdkifcJYNyD.ESifY aygif.wpfckudk wDxGifEdkifcJYavonf/ xd k t csd e f xd k u mvrS p í usef . ynmoabmw&m.ESiYf a&Smifvif*P kd . ay:vmNyD.vif. xJ o d k Y csuf c sif .avmuwGif aNcOD.avmu wpfcGifwGif a&Smifvif? [lwef.pdu k Bf unfYae&mrS olu odik .oufvmaom 0gar? [lwef. a&ud k a omuf í qmvQif r l opfoD.ynm oabmw&m.NyD .pGm uGJNym. w0g.fawmf ysHvGefawmfrrlrD aepBumodkif. rS m xd k o d k i f . Nyef v mNyD .f \ odik . f a wmf q D r S 0d k .OD.vnfrIvnf.odkif.em.kH OD.ynm[k trnfay.vGefawmifwGifyif wynfYwyef. olonfvnf. zk e f .Edkif"m.\/ tm.NzifY trmtm. vufcHNyD.wnfY&m vSnfYywfoGm. aumif . odkif.udk tEdkif. wG i f .\ acgif. xD.xD. qef .zkef.ynm&nfwpfrsdK.cJ Y &aom ]]aepBum}}usif Y pOf r sm.*dkPf.rS qif.onfESifY ]]aepBum}} usifYpOf tydkif.topfwpfckudk awGY&dSoGm.xk w f c J Y &m aemif q .onf OmPf&nfcsif.Nzwfcsufudk csNyD.pGm wdk.foDv&if 0wfvdkufonf/ xdkYaemuf 0garawmifwGif odkif.ynmudk qufvuf oifBum. Bum. . rm.ynmudk qufvufavYvm&if.f ynmrsm.lvdkufonfY okdif. wG i f r l ol u ol Y q&m BuG .Buavonf/ q&mwpfOD.opfOrsm. zk e f . [lwef.awmvdkuf\/ aemufqHk. wu. aNrmufNrm.

olwfoifcJY&ao. nSOf.\/ xdkvlrsm.w.f & G .[dk.faNrmuf &dSoGm. aevSrf.rsm.ydkif. cE¨mudk.wuúodkvf aevif.q. &S i f q &m&J Y tESpfudk.muf&Sd&m ti.tm.qHk.ausmfBum. xkwfvkyfaomae&mNzpf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf ywf0ef. ao.rSmvnf. rS m odkif.rsm. . aqmif B uD .aNcvrf. avQmufaepOf vlESpfq.fyif rNynfYao. ygyJ v m.rBuD.faNrmufarG.ckepfazmfwGif wwd.aomwm0efudk ausyGefatmif aqmif&GufNyD.rBuD.&kHru aumufuspfyg.f u rf .ufacwfumvysufBuD. [m od k i f .onfESifYyif .qkdawmY tNypfaNymp&mbmrSr&dSbl.ckaomf toufudk. q&may.ygacs/ olYwGif tm. tm.aeYrSm qkrGefaumif.rS txrf. ]][lwef.olNynfom.ay.vHk.f? vrf.\ wwd.Bu\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ pdwfxJwGif .aNrmuf odkif. yif v .f? 'D*dkPf.&ufa&mufzdkY q.&uf? av. olYwynfY tBuD.atmif e*g.&w.rSm toufav.mae\/ xdkae&mum. orm.pGmNzifY Nym.i.u w&kwfNynf wpfNynfvHk.om Nzpf[efwl\/ þonfrSm rxl.oGm.fcefYonf &kwfw&uf olYeHab. .ydk.rSm toufckepfq.q.qm.vuf&kH.zkef.Nzpf\/ onfYES. acsrI e f .avmuom.vnf.q.furf.f tmPmpufNyif. tqufrNywf xGufay:vsuf&dSaeav\/ .ay:wGif avQmufae&mrS vrf.BuD.udk odrf. acgif .qGJ ponfNzifY Nynfolvlxkudk trsdK.xJwGif e.l? Nyefay.rSm b.rsm.usiftm.ckepfazmfqdkwm emrnfausmf *dkPf. awmif &D & S i f a usmif .ESdyfpuf zdESdyfcsKyfcs.mufonf aNcvSrf.NzifY wpdkufpdkufavQmufae\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.om.ay:&dS xrf.tm.rsm.rsKd. usef.Zl .twdkif.Nzpfaom csdK&Tifacsmif. .aNrmif. wpfaeYaeY wpfcsdefcsdef wGef. &Dwdkuf&TifNzpf\/ olonf [lwef*dkPf. tuJcwf&if.BuJNzifY urf.qef.aqmif q&mawmfBuD.onf/ .f xl.fxm.uvlawGyJ Nzpf&r. acgif .ck &Dwdkuf&Tifum.Nznf.yifv.usdwfí pnf.vH k .furf.udk t"duxm.c&D.awG c snf . aqmif w pf O D . tcsdeftawmfyifBumatmif &SmazG&Sif.&ufyJ vkdawmYw.acgif.qef.BuJrsm.ydkufNyD.vSefEdkif&ef twGif.zkef.vHk.ynmwwfuRrf.uf? ypönf.udk xrf.Nzpf\/ olonf yifv. .0yfatmif csKyfcs. ]]'D v l a wG tm.awmfodkY tvsiftNref NyefvmcJYNcif.ck &Dwdkuf&Tifonf [lwef.udk.fodkY a&mufvmNyD.awmif. f B uaomf v nf .xm.onfu xkdolrsm. od k i f .wdkYonf aNcvSrf.xGufaNy.onf / xd k w ynf Y ck e pf a .muf r S m touf y if i.\nmbufwGifrl yifv.qef. &S i f .Nym.aNcNzpfí NyefYNyL. .yef. vk.aeYyGJtrD [lwef.f? 'DvlawG[m [dkifqm. vif .v ESpfq.ckESpfum.furf.ckdifrmBu\/ ycHk.aNcwpfae&mwGif Nzpf\/ toufoHk.f awmifYwif. .uyif olonf q&mYtrdefYt& zkusufe. avmuwG i f r l emrnf [dk. rGef*dkbk&if eef..aeayNyD/ odkif.? awmif y d k i f .NrJNrHNyD.aeí &Dwdkuf&Tifonf xdkoltm.rsm.qef.r[kwfbJ rnf. .xJwGif qm.ydk.f}} 42 .oumv wdkif.vsuf&dS\/ xdkoli.aNymifaom oHxrf.*dkPf.ydk.udk vufcHcJY\/ usef.fpDESifY avQmufxGufvmBuonfudk awGY&\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf &kwfw&ufrdkY wpfcsufwkefvIyfoGm.mufu.*dkPf. odkYaomf xdktcsdefumvonfum.fvdkY Bum. 0g.eyfolvnf.zkef. rGef*dkwyfrsm.aNcvrf.frSm vGefpGmpdwfapmae[efwl\/ olu aNcvSrf.fYav.onfESifY q&marG.aNrmufNzpf\/ .wpfck&dSw.EdkifrSm}} vli.aeaom vl q d k .qef.rsm.f ua.fNynfYaNrmufNyD Nzpfaomfvnf.wynfYrsm.fNynfYaomESpfwGif odkif.wufonfrSm tESpfaNcmufq.fonfum.ynmwwf tausmftarmfrsm. ukeful.ckESpf ESpfOD.rBuD.f ? 'grS aus.u [lwef.vHk.fcefY vlwpfa.ay/ trSefwu.vif. aqmif u d k trD a &muf r .fYav. tm.vmaom txrf.aeBuaom awmfvSefaom odkif.ckepfazmf[laom trnfudk Bum.í olu xdkESpfrSpum odkif. aNcrS m [dkifqm.aom tcsdefydkif.cyf wwfuRrf. avQmufvSrf.xrf. ypf c J Y \ / xd k vl q d k .}} .vm\/ vrf.f v k d r S rBuef Y BumrS [l w ef .onf . ]]'DaeY[m oHk.xrf.q.? *dkPf.ayNyD/ awmifydkif.rSm wNznf. 'k u © a y.wynfY Nzpfavonf/ usef.NyD.fausmfom &d S a o.vudk.rSm toufESpfq.armfukqef.Nzpf&m a&Smifwdrf.uvlawG[m qm.f usOf.fqHk.ynmudk wpfzufurf.fcsJYorm.Edkif"m.wynfY ckepfa.

fwifvYdk q&mBuD.BuD .Bu? [dkbufcef. om.f? 'DawmY igvufyu kd Nf yD.*dkPf.Bu\/ odkYNzifY ae0if&Dwa&mtcsdefwGif &Dwdkuf&Tifonf NrdKYav.aeYukd aemufusraS &muf&ifvJ q&mBuD.aepOf tNyifbufrS vlwpfodkufa&muf&dSvmaom toH r sm.avonf/ xkdvlodkufurl vGefpGm oGufvufvSaom &Dwdkuf&Tif\ aNcvSrf.ynmoifay.avmuwGif þrQ emrnfBuD.udk oHk.*dkPf.&oNzif Y wH c g.apeJY? awmfBum tvkyf&IyfaeOD.udkygoifay. qH k .udk ta&.rS tdyf&m0ifavonf/ oltdyfaysmfaepOf &kwfw&uf wpfzufcef.muf\toHudk Bum.pGm tultnDay.&\/ ]]tm.ud k Bum.vkyfaeovJrodbl.wuúodkvf aevif..yHkudk Nrif&aomtcg tHYBooGm.fae&m b.l ? wu.um twGif.wpfckwGif 0ifa&mufwnf.udk odkif.vm\/ olem.uvl rEdk.okdif.cdkcef.onf *dkPf. ckepfazmfwkdYonf odkif.zkef.wpfNrdKYodkY a&mufvmav\/ xdkYaemuf wnf.rpdkufcsifyg/ odkYaomf xdkvl\ pum.onf olYwynfYrsm.cdkvdkuf\/ ol npmpm.vQdKY0SufNyD. aNcazmYNyD.rsm.\/ b.f}} xdkYaemuf wHcg.rpdkufbJ ckwifay:wGif wufí ur®Vmef. &Dwdkuf&Tifonf [kdifqm. wG i f ol a wG Y cJ Y aom vlodkufNzpfaeavonf/ &Dwdkuf&Tifurl xdkolrsm.r.&\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu vefYEdk. tNyifbufodkYwGufíoGm.rS a'gufceJtoHwpfcsufBum.aumif.&rnf/ u.? 'kp&dkufrIwpfckckyJ Nzpf&r.&kHru vlrIa&.pD.wpfck r[kwfrSef.atmif e*g. rS m ol Y q &m\ arG . c&D .awGukd u.arG.od\/ odkYaomf olYtzdkY . ]]'D [dkifqm.&\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif trSefpifppf xdkvlawGudk ta&.Budrfwdwd avYusifYvdkufNyD.fvYkd vlaumif.pGifYvkdufaomtcg vlwpfa. awmif o d k Y Nyef & ef o m Nzpf í xd k * d k P f . aeY t rD [l w ef .oGm.tm.zGifYoHBum.fwif&rnf[lí Bo0g'ay.uvlawG bmawGrsm.vHk.qef.ud k ol u NzwfausmfavQmufwufoGm.u igYudk cGifYvTwfrSmyg}} usef.ayguf r S vS r f .avY&dSonf/ xdkYaBumifY [lwef.Nzpf\/ 43 .&Ncif.&aomtcg pdwfxJwGif.cktcsdefwGif ta&.fa'oa&mufa&muf 'ku©a&mufaeoludk OD. í Bunf Y vk d u f a omtcg vrf .udk Bum..oHudkyg Bum.Nzef. rBunfYEikd af wmYb.Edkif"m.&NyD.

vS\/ xdkpOf [dkifqm. tarSmifxJrS vlwpfa. .&yfwm? rif.vdkY usKyfwdkYtck Nyefvk.muf vrf.0rodacs/ xdkpOfwGif a&SYrSOD.aqmifu wkefvIyfoGm.om.*dkPf.lzdkYvmBuwmyJ}} ydk.avonf/ 44 .*dkPf.foHrSm xdwfvefYzG. .fvkdufonf/ .if.eJYywfoufvdkY rif. udkifxm.xJrS tzGJYacgif.fu rdwfaqGvJ}} [k ar.awGom vrf.fay:wGif 0wfxm.uvm.aomtoHNzifY &.aqmifoGm. vJusoGm.wGif ydefydefoG.aom tuÐsrSm va&mifrSdefrSdefxJwGifyif ta&mifawmufaeonfudk awGY&\/ ydk.\aemufokdY qufvkdufoGm.qdk. .z.om.[efwlonf/ xdkpOf [dkifqm.f? aemifBuD.*dkPf.\/ [dkifqm.&\/ tzGJYacgif. . a&SYokdYomavmí oGm.tuÐsESifYvlu w[m.foG.fayprf.rsm.oH Bum.*dkPf.rsm.uvJ e*g.f&maumif.zG.NyD.f}} tzGJYacgif.NzifY avSmif&.aeoNzifY olwdkYaemufrS &Dwdkuf&Tif vkdufvmonfudk vHk.Edkif"m.rS tzGJYacgif.tcdkuf [dkifqm.aqmifaemufrS vlwpfa.pufacsmufcsm. ]][kwfw.wpfacsmif.? acG.om. . .*dkPf.*dkPf.wuúodkvf aevif.mufu a&SYxGufvmNyD.u b.uaocsifvdkY.onf &kwfw&uf &yfvdkuf\/ &Dwdkuf&TifrSmvnf. .Edkif"m.yJ? tJ'D"m.wdkY0ifrpGufzdkY igu aNymcsifw.onf ta&.folvJ}} ]]e*g.wBuD.om.rqHk. opfyifwpfyifaemufwGif vsifNrefpGm 0ifa&mufykef.mufu ]][dkifqm. (5) e*g.oHBum.udk rormolawGu cdk.atmif e*g.&NyD.}} xdkol pum.\ a&SYcyfvSrf.aqmifu .csnftuÐs 0wfxm. .&JY &wemwpfyg.cifwGifyif &kwfw&uf tm.oGm. tzGJYacgif.aeaom [dkifqm.Edkif"m.onfudkyg awGY&\/ xdkol\ udk.[m.ceJwpfcsufatmfNyD.}} wpfzufrS toH&Sifu at. taNctaeudk acsmif.fvdkufNyD. ]]aemifBuD.Edkif"m.ydwfNyD.[m usKyfwdkY*dkPf.twGufeJYyJ vmwmyJvm.vSrf.ydwf&yfaeonfudk awGY&um vufxJwGif awmifa0S.aqmifNzpfolu ]]b.BunfYaevdkuf\/ [dkifqm.rsm.f aumif.aqmifu .f&.Edkif"m.fvdkuf\/ ol\&.f vlwpfa. okdYNzifY&Dwdkuf&Tifonf xdkolrsm. tcef. ]]a[Yvl vrf.*dkPf.uG.}}[k Nyefar. .rsm. ]]e*g.

\ taemufbufokdY auGYywfcsOf.\/ xdktcsdefwGif [dkifqm.r.f0ef.wGifom yufNzL.xm.Nzpf\/ 45 .vdu k \ f / xdkolrSm wpfudk.foGm.vHk. cd k .fpDxrf.aygif. tzGJYacgif.eH&Hudk ckefausmfí tdrf0if.tm.udkrl twGif.&mwGif owdBuD.aumif.*dkPf. wd k i f r S rD .ygyJvm.aom tqdyfoifYcH&aBumif.onf csufcsif.yif eHab.udk.*dkPf. olu vufrvIyf udk.awGu 'DtdrfBuD.aerd\/ td r f B uD .rsm.NyD.om.uvlyg? aNymp&m&dSvdkY 0ifvmcJYwmyg? usKyfudk bmrSoHo.NzifY NznfYqnf. rvSrf.onf txrf. tHYBoaeonf/ ]]ydk.vdkufaomt&mrSm NzLazG. ta0.í tavmif.acs/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf tdrfaemufbufokdY a&mufonfESifY 0if.vdkpdwf Nzpfay:vm\/ odkYESifY olu tdrfBuD.xm.*dkPf.tm.NyD.fBunfY&if.f A [d k & d S acgif .f? 'DtdrfxJrSmrsm.*dP k .aemufodkY qufí vdkufoGm.udkqGJxkwfNcif.dkif.&Hí csOf.yHkaxmufawmY 'DtdrfxJu vlawGudk vkyfBuHzdkYyJ Nzpf&r.rSm us.uyfoGm. om.fvHk.pGm 0dkif.udk olwdkYyufNzL.odkYNzefYNyD.tzGJYacgif.? b.rsm.udk cyfxkwfvdkufonfrod/ ab.yDyD raBumufr&GYH yif twGi.qufBuNyefav\/ apmapmu tavmif.vdkuf? igwdkY&JYtvkyfu ydkNyD.rdkifrQ c&D.uG.f? NyefvmawmYrS tavmif.odYk a&mufryS if aoqH.onf ycHk.fay:okdY zdwfpOfusrnfudk txl.f}} &Dwdkuf&Tif xdkokdYpOf.udkawmYrl vrf. csnf t uÐ s ES i f Y v l o nf tarS m if x J o k d Y aNy.aeao.wl nDtpfudkawGudk aNymNy&ifawmif olwdkY.f cef.aomfvnf.fcef.pm.rsm.*dkPf.rurf.avonf/ [dkifqm.qufcJYBuNyD. a&SYbuf&dS tdrfwpftdrfokdY Nznf.udk ab.rdonfESifY csufcsif.*dkPf. wGefYvdrfaeNyD.NyD. &dSovm.rsm.&JYtavmif.f? &efolu b.pdk.om. wpfudk.[m xl. rNyKao.aerd\/ xdkpOf [dkifqm.csnftuÐseJYvl[m tqdyfNyif.fqm.fvHk.fqm.om.udkodrf.atmif e*g.aom yifv.vdkuf\/ rD.f/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu us.rSm vl&dS&r. wvl v l v G i f Y wuf a eonf u d k awG Y &\/ xd k p Of [dkifqm.vdkufonf/ &Dwu dk &f iT o f nf xdo k rl sm.wuúodkvf aevif.? xdkqm.Nzpf&r.f om.aemuf &kwfw&uf [dkifqm.u tqdyfqm.}}[k awG.rsm.awGY&\/ xdkYaBumifY &Dwdkuf&Tif csufcsif.aocsmae\/ olu tqdyful.vdkY aNymaeoH Bum.f? 'DvlawGtdrfBuD.&JY tv.av.fvQdKY0SufvufeufeJY ypfvdkufovJrodbl.wpfae&mrSm csxm.&w.rsm.f}} &Dwdkuf&Tifonf [dkifqm.ab. yufNzL.\ vIyf&Sm.ywfywfvnfrSm NzL.favmifaom toHNzifY ]]usKyfu [lwef.aqmifu ]]avmifpD.BupOf yd k .*dkPf.pm.rsm.xifw. 'Pf&mudk ppfaq.fqm.pm.ywfvnfokdY yufNzL. tJ'D"m.rsm. yufNzL.&drfaeBuonfudkvnf.rsm.*dkPf.rItm.opfwpfyifatmufwGif csxm.rSm rnf.frvIyfbJ &efoludk aoapEdkifwmvJ}} [k awG.yif.vH k . Nzpfaeonfudk awGY&\/ pdwfxJwGif ]]'DaeY igawGYwJY udpöawGtm.om.rnfpdk.om.fYES.HkrSm r[kwfbl.uyfvdkufBu\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ pdwfxJwGif ]]olwdkYu bmvJ? e*g.Nyef\/ oHk.NyD.rsm.*dkPf.*dkPf.rS xdktNzpfudkykef.udkcsí txrf.rsm.Edkif"m. rNzpfBuygeJY}} odYk aomfwpfbufrS bmwHYk NyefrrI Q r&d/S &Dwu kd &f iT o f nf [lwef.cdk.faumifu xGufvmw.Edkif"m.BuD.arSmifae\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu pOf.fYvkyfNyD.nif.bufoYdk qufí avQmuf0ifoGm.pGmxm.vHk.vsuf c&D.? igY&JY*dkPf.pGm &dS\/ odkYaomf tcef.vsuf&dSonfudkvnf.wmawGcsnf.udk *&kwpdkuf BunfYaevkduf&m yifv. udk.wJY b. toifYtaetxm.folqdkwmvJ aemufawmY od&rSmyJ}} xdkYaemufwGifrl [dkifqm.vdkufonfudk awGY&\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu aocsmpGm BunfYvdkufaomf [dkifqm.a&mufNyD.xJodkY0ifvdkuf\/ tdrfBuD.odYk oGm.fvHk.om.*dkPf.aumif.0if aysmufuG.rdvdkuf\/ ]]'Dyifv. tcef. xd w f v ef Y o G m .&m tdrf\taemufbufokdY a&mufrvmao.\/ olu "m.om.udkrl rudkif0YHacs/ xkdYaemuf [dkifqm.fqdkawmY tv. toufr&dSawmYacs/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf eHab.rsm.yGifYrsm. [d k i f q m.pOf.k ol\tem.qef.*d k P f .ta&.aqmifonf vuf[efaNc[ef wpfcsufNyvdkuf\/ [dkifqm.aom xdkoludk 0dkif.om. vGefpGmNyif. \ tv.xJrScGufNzifY bmypönf. Nyifxm.u vJusoGm.w.onf tdrfa&SYydkif.ay:rS txrf.BunfYBu&m xdkolrSm wpfudk. wGefYvdrfaeNyD.*dkPf.yif ulnD.

oHk. aBumufp&maumif.BuD.}}[k aNymNyD.orm.\/ tb.awGY&NyD.pufaom avoHNzifY ]]cGefayawmifu odkif.-[m.EdkifawmY/ xdkrQylNyif. csnf t uÐ s ES i f Y vl \ oG i f [ ef u d k aumif .odkY a&mufvmNyef\/xdktcef.cifAsm.awmufBum.rBuD.arT.mufpvHk. tvGefNynfY0aBumif.frylNyif.rm.vdkuf\/ ]]'DtdrfBuD.aumif. &Dwdkuf&Tif twGif.wpfcef. pG m Nrif & awmY\/ toufo. wGefYvdrfvsuf rsufESmrSmvnf. odEdkifonf/ &D w d k u f & T i f r S m tcef .wpfvufudk zsufqD.wuúodkvf aevif.xJ&dS tcsif.wkdYtm.wGif vlBuD.fvHk.ndSvdkufonf/ rD.faBumifYrl xdktcef.csnftuÐsESifYvl\ OD.atmif e*g. xdktavmif. a&SYwpfvSrf. vufxJ&dS vufeufrsm.u &kwfw&uf vufacsmif.nif. xdkoloHk.ay:wGif wifxm.wpfvufNzpf\/ xdkpOf &kwfw&uf tdrfacgifrdk. t&S d e f N yif .odkY a&Smifvdkuf\/ NyD.udk vk. odw.NyD.csnftuÐsESifY vl\rsufESmudk ukwfcsvdkuf\/ ydk.Nyef&m tcef.onf wpfOD.a.fvdkaBumifY 'DrSmvmNyD.aewmudkawmY usKyfuBunfYraeEdkifbl.udkzsufqD.rIwfaeonfudk awGY&onf/ xdkrD.wkwf\ tvif.vnf. td k u rD .\tv.pm.onfudk awGY&oNzifY &Dwdkuf&TifrSmydkNyD.aumif.}} [k avSmif&.csnftuÐsESifYvl\toHNzpfaeaomaBumifYyif/ xdkvloHk.fvHk.ceJydk.rSm w[kef.aom "m.odkY a&mufonfESifY &kwfw&ufaNcvSrf.vd k u f o nf E S i f Y pd w f v I y f & S m .\udk.0ifvdkuf\/ xk d t cg ta&S Y buf w G i f & yf a eaom tbd k .NymrdIif. rD .a.orm.rSm rD. twGif.a.fcef.aom oH w l B uD .NzifY wpfOD.tem. awmuf r S v nf .rSm vGefpGmarSmifaomaBumifYolu rD.oHk. xoGm.BuD.ygawmY? tck cifAsm.\ A[dkwGif BuD.fcefY&SdBuNyD.rSm wu.mufudk awGY&onf/ olwdkYonf rD.zdkab. l í [l.wdkYu 'D"m. tHYBoae\/ trSefrl þ"m. zd k B uD . a. ab.pGmNzifY qufíoGm.OD.fNyD.OD.aom rD. BuufoD.xGef.ysufNzpfae\/ olu qufavQmufoGm. wG i f &yf a eaomf v nf .rpdkufyg/ yg.wm[m raumif.Nznf.odkY avQmufvmavonf/ xdkpOf taemufbufwGif &yfaeaom tbdk.oG m .em.? cifAsm.u olYrsufESmtm.wdkYu 'D"m.awmufBuD.zdkY BudK. olwdkYwpfudk. aeonf u d k od & onf / xdkrD.f Y a Bumif Y r l xd k t oH r S m ydk.rSmvnf.muf u avud k tquf r Nywf r I w f a e\/ rD .f? 'DvlawG&JY vufeufawGudkBunfY&kHeJY xdyfoD.zdkBuD.f&.? xdk"m.fcef.vdrfYrnfudkawmY rpOf.udk BunfY&kHESifYyif xdkvloHk.wkwfudkxkwfí rD.mufrSm toufaNcmufq.r&dS/ olu at.wGif rD.t&mrsm.buftcef.[l.ay:wGif "m.aom rD. &dSvnf. pG m awmuf a e\/ olwdkYrIwfaeaomavtm.awGrSef.BuD. &ky&f nfrmS vGepf mG BunfYaumif.0 raysmfacs/ xdkvloHk.a.odkif.Edkif"m.\/ taBumif. ud k .wpfck&dS\/ rD.wG i f axmif x m.xJwGifvnf.pyfNzifY w[l.mufrl xdktoHudkta&.vdkuf&onf/ trSefpifppf tv.udk xkcsvdkuf\/ 46 .onf/ tb. ydkufaxG.awmufBuD.ay:rS ckefqif.fxJodkY wpfOD.ízGifYvdkufonfESifY ylavmifaom avaiGYrsm.cdk.pm.odkYa&mufvmavonf/ tcef.udk Nrif&aomtcg &Dwdkuf&Tifonf owåd&dSol NzpfvifYupm.fyif "m. bmrQrNzpfao. NzLvm\/ odkYaomf t&nfvHk. teD .udk yg.xJwGif vlaoESpfavmif.f/ olwdkYwpfawG[m b. &kwfw&uf acgifrdk. wkdufcwfvdkufonfudk cHpm.tm.csnftuÐsESifYvlu eHab.cJYwmaocsmw.[kef.wdk.udk wGef.udkwpfOD.vHk.xJwGifb.xm.ay:rS vlrSm ]][m.-[m.pm.wHcg.NzifY ydk. \t&d S e f r S m tvG e f y l N yif .vdkuf\/ xd k t cgrS y if &D w d k u f & T i f o nf yd k .wdkYNzifY ayusHae\/ xd k v l o H k .\/ rsufEmS url NzLa&mfa&mf&aSd e\/ xdo k o l nf vufxw J iG f bmvufeufrQ udkifrxm.onfudk awGY&\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu pOf.NyD.wpfvufuefYvefYNzwf wifxm.awmufae\/ xdkrD. tavmif.ay:rS toHwpfoH xGufvm\/ ]]"m.pyfNzifY avudkom qufumqufum rIwfxkwfae\/ acgifrdk.tkdwpfOD.BuD.a&mifaBumifY tcef.Nyef&m tdrfBuD.zdkBuD.acgif.wefY&yfoGm.u xdk.rsm.fausmfcefY&NSd yD.xJrSm {&mrwdkufyGJwpfck NzpfyGm. &yfBuyg}} &D w d k u f & T i f u xd k t oH u d k Bum.kH q.BuD.rSm xdktcef.lwmawmYxm.avmufatmif &kyfysufqif.wGif eD&JpGm awmufyae&mrS wNznf.ESufxm.ESpfavmif.\ wpfudk. aoaeBuovJ}} &Dwdkuf&Tifonf owdBuD.wJY tvkyfyJ? cifAsm.

k [ f efu aygYyg. nS y f u d k q G J í "m.êuwfaom olrsm.lum tbkd.Edkifavonf/ þ udk.f\ ud.l&efûyvdkuf\/ wwd.f\[efrSm vGefpGmxl.avmutwGif. &kww f &uf ud.txef wdkufcdkufaeaomfvnf.f u ol Y xuf v sif \ / yg.ynmrsm.csnfvli.nSyfNzifY nSyfxm.rSaeíBunfYae&m þolrsm. wkefvIyfae\/ pdwfxJurl ]]'DvlawG[m wpfa.0 pdwfrul.fazmYodkif.tkdu ]]rif. l & ef N yif v d k u f \ / od k Y aomf v l i .cJYacs/ odkYaom .xm.\/ þ udk.csnftuÐsESifY vli.wpfae&modYk aygYyg. l & ef N yif o nf u d k Nrif & \/ ol u &k w f w &uf NcpfNcpfawmufylaeaom "m.vm.rNyKacs/ xdkpOf oHwludkifaom tbdk.ck a omf tbd k .ck ydk.k tdt k m.wpfcsuf ûyH.ftvm.fu xufBuyfvdkufvmNyD.Asm? [m.avmurSm emrnfBuD.awGY&í oluyg0if&ef vHk.wuúodkvf aevif.mufonf &Dwdkuf&Tifa&mufaeonfudk odNyD.xuf ydkí cufcJeufeJavonf/ trSefrl tbdk.fazmYodkif.NyD. nS y f N zif Y "m.k csnfvil .rsm. Nyefvnf ckcH wdkufcdkufNcif.oGm.tdktm.\/ yd.tdkonf rD.&dSvkdY 'Davmufawmif &uf&ufpufpuf wdkufcdkufaeBuygvdrfY}}[k awG.tdkonf tNyifbufodkY twif.rsufqefNyL.0ef.foGm.}} vli.muf bm&efNidK.odYk a&Smifwrd .fu &kwfw&uf rckcH&JbJ tbdk.EdkifawmYbJ &kwfw&uf xckefvdkufNyD. yd. xkdae&mrS ckefxGufvdkuf\/ usefolrsm.f\ odkif.zdkxJodkY ypfoGif.xJrS qGJxkwfvdkufavonf/ NyD.rD.orm.fuaumifvJ}} [kar. k w f pfcsuf vIy&f mS .d td\ k vufudk olYvuf0g. qG. rD .fu rsufawmifwpfcsufrQyifYí ]]'gu odkif.fudk.zdkBuD.tdk\ vufaumuf0wf usdK.tdkESpfOD.NyD.atmif e*g.pGm usa&mufomG .oNzifY tcGifYta&.oGuv f ufv\ S / olu eHab.f vdu k Nf yef&m oHwrl mS aNrBuD.&dS tNcm.fazmYodkif.awmY\/ okdYESifY oHwludkifaom tbdk.udk.tdk\aemufausmudk qGJukwfvdkuf\/ tbdk.fpm.ra&mufrD ylavmifaom avvdIif. 0dkif.fudkvnf.csnftuÐsESifYvli.feJY &EdkifygYrvm.fazmYodkif.aom udk.Nzpf\/ odkYaomf olYudk ta&. ukd.awGrsm.ud k v k .udk rD.ynmudk awGY&aomf rsufvHk.udknSyf.u b.vHk.udk vTJckwfvkdufonf/ "m.tbdk. a0SYywfa&GYvsm. vQdKY0SufvufeufNzifYypf&ef tcGifYta&.aemuf xdktbdk.ud k n S y f .u ydk.fu ceJYûyH.ynmu rdrdwdkYodkif.tdkonf vli.qkyfudkifxm.*dkPf. odrfYodrfYwkefoGm. vQifNrefoGufvufvS\/ tbdk.avawmY\/ vli.rSBunfY&if.pm.avxJrmS yif wpfywfuRrf.NzpfaeaBumif.ynmNzpfí avxJwGif tNrifYckefEdkif&kHru udk.nSyfudktwif.k csnftuÐsESiYf vil .tdkoHk.avonf/ xdktuGufrSm [lwef.ae\/ csuf c sif .fvG. J v l u kd \ f / NyD. td k w pf O D .nSyfwpfckNzifYnSyfum "m.NzifY &ifqdkif&dkufcwfvdkuf\/ ]]csvGrf}} [laom toHESifYtwl oHwludkifaom tbdk. avxJrSmyif tbd.ynmudk ]]pGef0Judk.rSm xdktcsif.}}[kar. eHab.udkazmufí ta0.qHk.fu aNymaNymqdkqdk vufacsmif.aewJY pGef0Judk.NyD.0ef.xJokdY vGifYxGufoGm.rSm vGefpGmNyif.ynmxuf omvGefaBumif.csnfvli.avonf/ xdkYaemufwGifrl xdktbkd. vQdKY0Sufvufeufykef. r&vdkufacs/ .xGufaNy.aerd\/ odkY&mwGif ydk. acgifrdk. u rD .}} [k trnfay.Nzpf\/ vli.rrlcJYacs/ odkY&mwGif .tdkESpfOD.aomvufudk a&SYodkYqGJí ypfvdkuf\/ xdktcg tbdk.a.rSm &ufpufBurf.qkyfudkifxm. olu a&Smifwdrf.ck &Dwdkuf&Tif\ pGef0Judk.ae\/ okdYaomf vli. ydk.mufeJYwpfa.u &dkufcwfoNzifY vli. rD.fazmYodkif.tdkuvnf.tkdrlum.NyD.NyD.ftm.u 0dkif.aBumifaeBu\/ xdktcGifYaumif.NyNyD.f\ vIyf&Sm. oHwlrSmvnf.aom"m. &ufpufvSayonf/wpfcsufxdrSef&kHESifY aoEdkifaom wdkufuGufrsm.t&mudkNrifaomf ai. [m.NzifY tbdk.vdu k \ f / oHwu l ikd af om tbk.fu tbdk.yifNzpf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu eHab.odoNzifY "m.ypfum eHab.\ taumif.í tNyif.udk tNcm.av\/ 47 .fazmYodkif. iSufi.qef.Edkif"m.us.&dk.csnfvli.av\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf wpfcsdefvHk.ftm.vdkufonfudk awGY&aomf olurpOf.okdY vGifYxGufoGm.[efu vsifNrefvGef.tm.a&mvlyg rD.&kHoma&Smifwdrf.xefvSNyD.udkacsmif. vufxJrS rD.ynmrSm odkif. [m. wpftdrfvHk.tdkrSm "m.\/ ydk.tdk\ aemufausmtm.fazmYodkif.udkom &dkufrdoGm. ceJYoHNzifYqdk\/ ]]'DavmufvG.wdkufcdkufavawmY\/ olwdkY\ wdkufuGufrsm.

OD.NyD.aom avoHrsdK.ud k w 0D 0 D a 0S Y .tdktem.rsm.aomtcsdefwGif tbdk.pGm usvmavawmY\/"m. "m.udk trnfemr xkwfazmfNyzdkY vdkr.avmurSm 'DavmufemrnfBuD.ckwfaeav&m ydk.&JYemrnfudk rod&bl.aeygvdrfY}} [kawG.om.0g.aNcaxmufESifY aNrBuD. aom tqd y f w uf v mEd k i f a om aBumufp&mtqdyfqm.ayguftNyifodkY ckefxGufoGm.0g.om. ]][dkudpö olodoGm.usK.vdSrfYae\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu xdktcsif.wpfa.pvHk.Nzpfí wpfcsufrQvJusoGm.ESifYay\/ xdkpOf tbdk.rSm t&dSefNyif. Nyif.tkdu "m.xefpGm &&dSoGm.ygvm.rsm.xm.Ncif.at. wHcg.0g.a.avawmY\/ cGefayawmifrS tbdk.rSm olYudk.awmYbJ wpfcsdK.? useftbdk.u vrf.fay/ odkYaom &Dwdkuf&Tifu tbdk.\/ pdwfxJwGifvnf.aomtoHNzifYyif ]]aemifBuD.frxifygbl. kd u l m wHwm.aom tbd k .fazmYynmu odkif. 4if . aNrGayG.*dkPf.\/xdck w kH ef.rf.rS m ud k .pyfrSvnf.frqdk..tdk ESpfOD.xGufoGm.? usKyf&JYrNzpfpavmufwJY 'Dodkif. f c E¨ m ta&Nym.om.aom 'Pf&mNyif.vSrf.f? [lwef.u rdrdxuf0gEkaom vlwpfa.Nf zpfatmif tNyifbufoYkd csd e f q ypf x k w f v d k u f N yD .yDyD a'goudkcsKyfwD.mufudk wpfcsufwnf.0g.csnfvli.ynm&SifwpfOD.okdY t&ifa&mufoGm. 0ef.pl.&SnEf pS cf u k kd awGYvu kd &f oNzifY tBuHwpfc&k oGm.OD.rsm.qHk.tdkoHk.wGif &dSae&m "m.ynmtaumif.vSdrfYvsuf&dS\/ tvGeftcH&cufaom a0'emudk cHpm.OD.udk vufESpfbufNzifY pHkudkifí a0SY.*dkPf.csnfvli.atmif e*g.&JY udk. xdvdkufonfESifY pl.? olb.onfESifY &kwfw&uf .f\avoHu txufpD.oNzifY &Dwdkuf&TifrSm olY"m.xm.rSm aNray:wGif vl.Edkif"m. tNyifbufodkY rxGufEdkifawmYacs/ olu tcef. xef v G e f .eHab.ud k xd & k H E S i f Y y if Nyif . ae&mtESYH yufNzL. rod ? oHk.fESifY useftbdk. tbdk.fonfvnf. ckefa&Smifvdkuf&\/ tbdk.\/ xd k t qd y f q m.ay:odkY aNcusoGm.vsuf avmoHat.ynmu xdkolrsm.ae&ovdkyif/ 48 .ud k i f x m.tdkESpfOD.aumif.pl.rsm.aewm wu.udk yufNzL.vGef. tay:ok d Y ck e f w uf u m tNyif o k d Y avQmuf x G u f a vawmYonf / olavQmufxGufoGm.wuúodkvf aevif.vSvdkYbJaygY}} vli.eJY owfypfvdkufwJY ynmudkvJ csD.aerd\/ xd k p Of "m.Nzpf&m &Dwdkuf&Tifvnf.av\/ trSefrl tbdk.wGif ydk. &Dwdkuf&Tifu av.onfvnf.NzifY NyefvnfrckcHbJ aemufokdYcsufcsif. atmfNyD. pl.fu ]]aumif.ynmudk csD. rf .c&D.fu wpfcsufrQwkefvIyfoGm.csnfvli. vsuf wpf c suf c k w f v d k u f N yD .wnf.usvS\/ 0g&ifYodkif.tdktem. vJusoGm.usifudk BunfYvdkuf\/ &kwfw&uf cHw k ef.rf.BuD.w.*dkPf.vdkufavonf/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ udk.pm.wufomae&molu aemufrSvkdufí ckefxGufaomfvnf.l&efrêud.udka0SY.NyD.vdkuf&\/ odkYaomf &Dwdkuf&TifrSm *dkPf.onf &Dwdkuf&Tifudk &k w f w &uf N zwf a usmf í tNyif o k d Y ck e f x G u f N yD . csufcsif.onf/ odkYaomfaNrBuD.rSm [dkifqm.&dSefudk aBumuf&GYHNyD.yif ckefxum "m.uyfqHk.ovdkyif/ ydk.drf.f aumif.tdkESifY teD.ck [dkifqm.ud k û yd i f w l vk B uav\/od k Y a omf bmaBumif Y r S e f .t&mudkNrifaomf &kwfw&uf owd&vdkuf\/ cPpOfu [dkifqm.onf tNyifbufwGif tqdyfqm.taygufcH&ovdkNzpfoGm.tdkaemuf cyfvSrf.}} [k NyeffaNymav\/ ydk.ozG.ynmav.okdY ruyf0YHBuacs/ olwdkYu atmf[pfNyD tbdk.w.fazmYodkif.onf &kwfw&uf xl.qef. tbdk. tNyifokdY aNy.OD.udk.f}} vli. td k u &k w f w &uf " m.BuD.NyD.usL.rS aNy.rsm. Nzpf\/ .aygufokdYxGufaNy.? iguolYudk rawGYvdkufbl. *dkPf.[k &Dwdkuf&Tif cHpm.pm.muf\ odkif.rSm rnfolYudkrQ ckwf&efr&nf&G.\/ yg.fay:odkY a&S.atmfae\/ tbdk.mufrSmrl aNray:wGif vl.&Snu f .fae&mrSm ykef.onf tdrfBuD.om.frSm odkif.tdku "m.vm.dkifoGm.csnf vli.rsm.NzifY Nyefuvdvkdufonf/ ]]cifAsm.Bu\/ xdkol oHk.ywfvnfwGif tqdyfqm.aumif.oGm.udkudkifvsuf wHcg.rsm.xefaom "m.ygw.tdk oHk.tdku "m.

xm.eJY tvJtvS.om.qHk.pifay:rS za.ausmif.vdkuf\/ tbdk.&JYvm. . r&dSaom ta&SYbuf t&yfokdY OD. ]]usKyftouf aocsifao? "m.. vS r f .tdku xdkpum.ywfvnfwGif tEÅ&m.? zl.fvdkaeovJ}}[k tbdk.&JY tqdyfaq.vSdrfYaeaom tbdk.tdk\ tuÐspudk qGJudkif r.f o d k Y û y&rnf r od Nzpf a eonf / cyf v S r f .axmif? e*g.vufeufawGukd tm.i.wk&kyf wpfqlom&dS\/ olonf tbdk.eJY}} [k atmfaNymav\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu ]]tbu toufudk.&awmYaum ESaNrmp&mvm.xm.Bum.í vkdufvmBuavonf/ &D w d k u f & T i f aNrNyif a y: pd w f c svuf c s aNccsEd k i f a om tcsd e f w G i f a wmY r l ol Y u d k r D a tmif rnf o l r Q rvkdufEdkifygawmYacs/ [dkifqm. aNzaq. "m.udk xGef.tdku nnf.}} [k atmfaNymNyD. ? 'gayr.wnfum ckefxGufoGm.vTm.lrSmvm.udkayGYzufvsuf vl. .f}} [k awG.tdk\ oGif[efudkNrifaomf &.vdkuf\/ olYvufudkawmYrl yifv.&Sif? ray:vQif? b.Edkifbl. vHk. odkif. 'DtqdyfaNzaq. ]]uRefawmf [lwef.*dkPf.tdktm.wpfacsmif. wpfvHk.tkdtm.f&vmonfESifY vl.NyD .om.&m tbdk.NymaeNyDNzpfaom tbdk.awmYonf/ xdktcsufudk [dkifqm. ]]b. wpf a qmif a wG Y &oNzif Y xd k a e&mok d Y tbd k .udk vkzdkY pdwfrul.bl.wG i f bk & m. wNznf.r.orm.vnf.vdkuf&if aumif.wmrS r[kww f m? 'Dvkd "m.ndSvdkuf\/ xdktcg pdrf. ud k quf&efpdwful.rS . tbdk.SOfrwk wJY? 'DpmcsdK.fa& txdrcHacs/ cPtBum tbdk.wpfcGef.lvdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf xdkaNcwH&SnfcHkay:rS tqdyfqm.nLíom ae\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ pdwfxJwGif .ae&mrS &kwfw&uf xckefvdkufNyD.foltefwk? .udk rif.wGif ywfvdkufNyD.fY&JY udk. ol Y rl v c&D .xJwGif bk&m. .ausmif .vJxvdkuf\/ &D w d k u f & T i f u tbd k .udk [dkifqm.qif. .avmY/ wdrfvTm"m.ESifY aemufwGif rsufNcnfNywfusef&pfcJYBuNyDNzpf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf aNy. b. bk&m.vdYk aumif.awGqD Nyef.tdku wkef.raeawmY/ olYtuÐspudk vsufNrefpGmqGJNzJum vufz0g.udk xkwfum . ar.udk rpm. *dkPf.&if. atmfum .odoNzifY tcsdefûzef.vdkuf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu tbdk. .Ed k i f v d r f Y r . .NyD.Nznf.rd\/ odkYNzifY &Dwdkuf&Tifonf urf.Edkif"m.í "m. bk&m.fcsifpdwfyif ay:aygufvm\/ ]]odkif.aomf vSJavSmif.ausmif.Edkif"m. ]]'Dvlu tqdyfqm.tdku a'gooHNzifY . .NyD.aNrmfuefawmY? &Sdcdk.*dkPf.vdkufyg}} tbdk. awmif u k e f . .tdku owdtenf. .rxifrSwfBuacs/ odkYaomf vufxJodkY a&mufvkqJqJusrSyif &Dwdkuf&Tifu olwdkYvdkcsifaom ypönf.Edkif"m.f v d k Y x if y gw.tdku &kwfw&uf rsufpdzGifYNyD. ]]rif. . .ifaom toHNzifY .f vkyfvdkufyg? 'grStb touf&SifvdrfYr.folurS igY&JY e*g. qGJum bk&m.udk.tdktm.zl.*dkPf.qdkwm udk. .tdk\ rsufESmudk awGYvdkuf&\/ tqdyfrSm vGefpGmwufaeNyDNzpf\/ olu tdwfxJrS tqdyfaNzaq.udkod&JYvm.? tck uRefawmfY&JYaq. .tdktm.udkrvkygbl.atmif e*g.uvJ tb&J Y t qd y f u d k tNyD . td k t m.f Y cPawmY xd e f .uawmY tb vufxJu "m.uG a[}} 49 . ]]tb . a&xJwGif pdrfxm. ac:oG m .xdyfxm.udk pm. ]] igu rif.vdkufNyD.Bu\/ xdkYaBumifY &Dwdkuf&Tif\ aemufodkY nmoHay.f? vuf? aNcaxmufeJY &efoludk ckcHwdkufcdkufEdkifatmif t"du avYusifY&wmyJ? "m.}} [k Niif.udkBum.rsm.? OD. ]]tb b.udkawmY b.udk vkoGm.wdkifrD.udkayGYzufum rsufESmNzifYtyfxm.fa&xJrSm ESpfpdrfxm.0r&dyfrdBu/ xifvnf.mif. &Dwdkuf&Tifonf eHab.wuúodkvf aevif.vdkuf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf tbdk. td k t m. tyd k i f raNyEd k i f y gbl . a[mif . .pifa&SY&dS uGufvyfwGifcsxm. tcwfcHae&awmY olYudk yifv.loGm.avmurSm aNymprSwfûyae&wJY pum.fudkudkif.f tb}} tbdk.lrSmvm.xJokdY a&mufvmav\/ bk&m. .f ? taumif.folYrS ray.uyg tb? uRefawmfu tb&JY "m. udk.oNzifY vGefpGm rausreyfNzpfoGm.vufvw G o f mG .aNcokdYoGm. tb}} tbdk.f&dSaBumif.aeav\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu pdwf&SnfpGmNzifY .? "m. .uG? 'DrSmem.om. av.rsm. .}} [k ar..

wmaygY}} &Dwdkuf&Tifu acgif.fvkdY b.f ? vuf0g.&JY qdkvdk&if.pm. ]]'DpmcsdK.eJY b.BunfYvdkufaomf ydóm ig.usrf.xJrSm vQdKY0SufeufeJwJY odkif.usifYpOfrSmrl emrnfom Bum.tdku a'go ydkxGufvmum . . ? wu.rSm &ufpufNyD. ]]aeygOD.cJY\/ vpBum odkif.u bmvJqdkawmY 'De*g.fyx J m.yJ&dSawmYwmudk..usifYpOf usrf.fvYkd "m.ay.rSm nDtpfudk odkif.udk t&nfaysmfatmifvkyfNyD.usifYpOfrSmrl odkif.odik .pm.u bmudk owdxm. . . .u av. .&ifawmY okdif.OD.fvHk.vHk.fY 'Davmuf av.&k H w if b.pmtkyf wpftkyfxnfYxm.aeygvdrfYvdkY}} tbdk.udk t"duOD.fuG? wpfcsdKYaNymawmY aepBum odkif.uG}} [k atmfaNymawmY\/ 50 .fuG? olYudk b.loGm.q.wmyJ}} ]]'D " m.aom odik .zl.zkef.ynm usifYpOfawGudk usifYBuHtm.pmtky&f w Sd .fcefYom av.ao. .pmtkyfudk a&Smif&Srf. ]]tck rif. vQdKY0SufeufeJ\/ wdkufcdkufrIudk OD.foluaNymvJ tb}} tbdk.xl. .}} tbdk.tdku . .f avmurSm txGwt f xdyyf ?J tmPm&Siyf u J ?G 'Dv&l YJ pum. .wJY}} &Dwdkuf&Tifu tHYBooHNzifY . qdkwm'D"m. ray:rcsif.paysmufoGm.ud k & wmeJ Y odkif.fvkdY xifaeBuwmuG? b.SOfûydifwkyEdkifr.f tm.igYudk.pm. .u bmrsm. ]]uRefawmf tHYBoaew.vdkuf\/ ]]rif.xHrS aumif.aom wmrmabmfwd q&mawmfudk.pmtkyf ESpftkyf\ odkif.onfudk awGY&\/ xdktcgusrS &Dwdkuf&Tif oabmaygufoGm.aemuf vrf.fudk rBunfYprf.udk b.ynm ESpfrsdK.usifYpOfESifY vpBumodkif.f u rvJ ? vl a wG u vJ pmcsd K .vsuf .Edkif"m.ay.usifYpOfrSm a&Smifvifbk&m.wGif csxm.uG? 'D"m.csufESifY rdrd&dSaeBu\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf xdkusrf.yJ[m}} tbdk.avmuacgif. .usrf.pmtkyfxJu odkif.wmudk.usifYpOf? wcsdKYaNymawmY vpBum odkif.Edkif"m.w.fY "m.aqmifNzpfr.xJ u twd k i f .NyD.fvsuf . ]]'Denf.Nyif. 'D " m.tdku "m.tdku pdwfr&SnfawmY[efNzifY .uGufrsm. ]]rNzpfEikd yf gbl. ]]igwdkYu owif.apmif.\/ ]]vufpowfawmY 'D"m.udk r&dSbl. .fu[kwf&rSmvJuGm? trSefu 'D"m. &Dwdkuf&Tifu &.&NyD. tb? tck 'De*g.om.uGufudk OD. .pmtkyfwGif yg&dSonfY odkif.vdkufNyD.csuf&dSvdkYvJ}} [k ar.pGmBum. . k cf t H m.wuúodkvf aevif.HkBunf[efNzifY . Nzpf\/ okdYaomf olu r.mufu ckd.? tawmfxl.rf.Ncm.odkif. .yifNzpf\/ aepBumodkif.avmufawmY uRefawmf Bum.Edkif"m.ESifY &DacgYqdkolESpfa.udk .usrf.rSm usrf.u odyfrmausmw.ausmif.lzdkY êud.folurS olYudk ckcHr.fES.fudk r.Edik "f m.pmtkyf ESpftkyf taBumif. rnfolYvufxJwGif &dSonfudk rodacs/ aepBumodik .xkwfvkdY atmifNrifoGm. apmapmu igYudk qGJr vmwkef.wpfvuf? 'DpmcsdK.udk aNrBuD.ay. . odkif.xJrmS usrf.u aemufxyf"m.eJY t&nfaysmfatmif vkyv f u dk &f if txJu pm&GufawGvJ NymNzpfukefa&maygY}} tbdk.pm.fwkdif a&. .qef.&NyD.cg.forl qdk emcH&r.rSm rdrdaumif.ay.wmaygYtb? 'guvGefcJYwJY ESpfwpfaxmifavmufu pmcsdK.usifYpOfwJY? 'Dusrf.f usifYpOfrmS ud.pm. ponfY udk.udk t"du OD. .atmif e*g. ]]'D"m.rdvdkufovJ}} &Dwdkuf&Tifu cPpOf.udk &wJYv[ l m odik .usifYpOfyifNzpf\/xdkodkif.NyD ? 'gaBumifY 'D"m.\/ vpBum odkif.f? tb&JY udk.usifYpOfrsm.f usifYpOfNzpf\/ twGi.cJYzl.u ao.\/odkif. .tdk\ udk.NyD.yJuG? wdrfvTm"m.aom ynm&yfNzpfavonf/ xdkusrf.fcHynmrsm.vkdY igaNymwm}} trSefpifppf aepBumodkif.pmtkyfudk xkwf.f ? ckeyf sHoidk .ûypkcJYaom usrf.vdkufNyD.SOfûydifEdkifawmYbl.xm.favmuf cRefxufwJY oHcRefeJYaygufvJ t&mrxifEdkifbl.pm.? 'Dvkd rD. ]]e*g.avmurSm b.udk olYq&m usef.u av.oGm.rS aysmufqHk.fwYJ ? wdrfvTm"m.qef.av.pmtkyf&dSw.Edkif"m.awmY e*g.

Edkif"m.k bk&m. .wktaemufbufrS taygufazmufí qif. rif.af eNyD.oHBum.awmraeawmYbJ tbd.vTm. aNrusoHudk taotcsm em.tdk\ udk.udyk u kd af xG.vdkuf\/ olu toHwdk.qGx J m.wGif xdkykyfñSDaomt&m0w¬Krsm.NyD.wuúodkvf aevif.u vlawGyJNzpf&r.aNymaepOf &Dwdkuf&Tifonf &kwfw&uf rsufESmysufoGm.f xd.xJodkY ypfpdkufvdkufum vl.tdku &GYH&GHYaBumufaBumufNzifY . vufwpfzufNzifY za.\ aemufoYkd 0ifa&mufyek .rsm.udkawmif.vmaom aNcoHrsm.eJYvJvdkufaygY? uRefawmfuawmY 'Dudpx ö JrSm 0ifrygcsifbl.taemufbufuvJ vlawGvmaeNyD}} ]][kwf&JYvm.vdkuf\/ tbd.k tdk zrf.acs/ xdYk aBumifY &Dwu kd &f iT af NymNyD. .awmif.wdk.qif.vQdK.\/ wpfcsdKY acgifrdk.xJoYdk ykyn f aSD om teHYtoufrsm.qGJum wkefaomtoHNzifY .twGif. .f tm.aygufrS ypf0ifvm\/ tbdk. .f? tbtwGuf tcGifYaumif.f uG.udk aNrBuD.aemufbufu aNy.vsuf . .tdku aBumufvefYvefYNzifY &Dwdkuf&Tif\ vufESpfbufudk zrf.faevdkuf&\/ twefBumawmYrS tNyifbufrS pum.Nzpf\/ tbd.rsm.fay:odkY usa&mufvmBu\/ xdktcsdefwGif &Dwdkuf&TifrSm bk&m. .udk ypfoiG .onfYBum. "m.f Bu\/ &Dwu kd &f iT rf mS rwwfomonfYtqH. . twefBumrSyif vltrsm. &kww f &uf ESmacgif. (6) aoG.wGifyif t&m0w¬KtcsdKYu tbkd.aqmifYziG Yf vu kd o f BH um.ausmif.NyD.okid . xdkae&mwGif pum.fawmYbl.pdkufaxmifvkdufawmYrSyif tqdyfqm.tdkonf wpfcsufrQom atmfNyD. owday. 0ifvmav\/ &Dwu kd &f iT rf mS qufvuf awG.vSdrfYaeavawmY\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu xdkt&m0w¬Krsm.mif.ausmif. odvkduf&awmY\/ wpfcPtwGif.wdkifrD.&\/ 51 .NzifY .uG. .cJYygeJYuGm}} [k wdk. ]]&efolawG vkdufvmBuNyD? igwdkY bk&m.&\/ tbdk. igY igYudk ypfrxm.fwdkif tbqHk.tdktm.ausmif. tb? bk&m. .k .? tbudk. tcef.&NyD. ]]vlawG vmaeNyD}} [k tbdk.rSmyif bk&m.rsm.f xd.vuf0g. ]]rif.dr.f? tckvmaewJY vlawG[m [dkifqm. tqdyfqm.mufu aNcNzifY wHcg.NzifY NynfYESufoGm. NzpfaBumif. &GufavS olwdkYESpfOD. . aNy.BuygpdkY}} ]]rvG.udk Nidrf.k NzifY tNyifodkYxGuf&efûyae\/ wpfcsdefwnf.f xGuv f u kd \ f / wpfcsdefwnf.ay:wufí taygufazmufum tqdyq f m. .u qufwdkufyif wHcg.yJ tb? olwdkYqDu aNzaq.atmif e*g.wkxJwGif 0ifa&muf ykef. "m.f ynmraumif.k tdrk mS &Dwu kd &f iT af vmuf twGi. .udk Bum.dr.NzwfayawmY}} tbdk.yefaeav\/ xdpk OfwiG yf if vlwpfa.uGm}} ]][kwfygw.*dkPf.Edik "f m.rS &kww f &uf &ke.k tdrk mS e*g.pifBuD.

&\/ pum.Bu}} pum.onfESifY &kwfw&uf vlwpfa.yif . BuD .*dkPf. u b. .Edkif"m.aom owå0gwpfaumif 0ifa&mufvm[efwl\/ [dkifqm.&dí S tqdyfqm. . . .wGiyf if vlq. vl w pf a . f u d k vSefavSm&SmazGaeoHudk Bum.fu awmfawmfÚmPfrsm.oHrSm vGefpGmom.rsm.xJoYkd vGepf mG aBumufp&maumif. .fa.Ed k i f " m.NzL? tm.Edkif"m. .mufu wkef. *dkPf. .ESifY xGufawGY&aumif.frSmvJwJY? xkwfay. ]]*dkPf.ftrQtxdaBumuf&GYHwkefvIyfaeaBumif.frSm bmrS r&dSygbl.om. El.qkcsrmS aocsmw. .qif.wktwGif.aqmifNzpf[efwlol\toHudk Bum.mufatmf[pfí . . ykefatmif.u igwdYk ukd aumif.*dkPf.f? rif.kH NzL[m bmvJ? odyaf Bumufp&maumif.rDrSmyif &kwfw&uf toH&yf oGm.}} [k vlwpfa. vuf x J r S m &d S a ewmyJ ? tck bmNzpf v d k Y &S m rawG Y & wmvJ ? "m.*dkPf.aecdkuf &kwfw&uf tNyifbufcyfvSrf.rsm. .fa&mufoGm.wkdYudk ñSmwmygYr.ap&bl.vdkufyg? *dkPf.\/ ol\ pdwfxJrSvnf. od&dSEdkif\/ xdkokdY aBumuf&GHYwkefvIyfaomtoHudk Bum.om.csKyfBuD. vGefpGm tHYBoae\/ pdwfxJrSvnf. . ]]*dkPf.*dkPf. vlwpfa. .? rsufcHk.vSr..&\/ csufcsif.&Nyef\/ ]]a[.&awmYbl.aqmifBuD. ]]rsufc.&pOf &Dwdkuf&Tifonfyif bk&m.muf\ pum. ]]txJu taumifawGtoHrBum. .wJYowå0gvm. BuufoD. 'Dvlu ckd.*dkPf.xJrS vlwpfa. &kwfw&uf EIwfqdwfNidrfoufoGm. td k \ ud k .vJ e*g.pm.rS tzGJYacgif.vnf. .xGufcJYprf.oGm.wJYaumifuG? cPapmifYBunfYvdkufOD. .yif xrdao.}} wpfcsdew f nf.xJ&dS [dkifqm.&NyD.wkdYtoufrqHk. ]]'D .csKyfBuD.mEl.om.rqHk.ausmif.muf u vJ u saoqH k .udk 'Dvlu ckd.csKyfBuD.udk. ? 'D"m.f? e*g.aeaomfvnf.&\/ ]]*dkPf. .Edk. . . aeNyD N zpf a om tbk d . twefBumaomtcg [dkifqm.u rif. pGufzufwJYaumif vdrfvdrfrmrmav.vHk.lr.u tbd k .xJoYkd 0ifvmBu\/ olwYkd u.&SaomtBunfYudk b.csKyfBuD.Edkif"m.\ cufxefpl. udk.NzL}} pum.wuúodkvf aevif. .NzLqdkwmudk bmNzpfvdkY 'Davmufawmif aBumufaeBuygvdrfY}} xdkpOf .ceJ vlwpfa.&eftcsdefrrDawmYbJ ae&mwGifyif rwkefrvIyf ausmuf&kyfyrm &yfaeBuav\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifvnf.f? uRefawmfwdkYu vkduf.mufausmfcefY bk&m.}} xdkvl\ wkef. .lrvdkYbJ *dkPf.ausmif.bufodkY vSrf.? odyfravmBueJYuGm}} ]]'DwpfcgawmY igwdYk &YJ r[matmifyyJG aJ [Y? acgif.csKyfBuD. . [dke*g. .ausmif.Edk.vd k u f & NyD .ausmif.aerdonf/ 52 . xGufaNy.}}[k aNzoHBum.BuNyDxifw.NzL .ESifY tNyifbuf&dS [dkifqm.feJYrqdkifwJYudpörSm 0ifNyD.oH rqH.ausmif.ifaomtoHudkBum.nYHaomtoHudk Bum.om.&Saom avcRefoHBum.rsm.BuD .&IH. . tJ'Dvl&JYudk.csKyfBuD.wJYvv l m. pOf.mufu . .&NyD. .vdkuf&\/ vQyfwpfNyuftwGif.Edkif"m.k cifyif xdo k \ l toHrmS wdw&f yfomG . *dkPf.muf\ vJusoH Bum.csKyfBuD.? 'DvlawGu rsufcHk.xGufay.? arYvJoGm. ]]e*g.udk raBumuf&GHYBu/ &Dwdkuf&TifrSmrl xdkolrsm.cJYwmtrSefyJ?uRefawmfwkdYu rxdefcsef&Jygbl.f}} ]][dkvli.nHYBuifem\/ odkYaomf xdktoHxJwGif tmPmoHygae\/ xdktcg [dkifqm.csKyfBuD.rSmyif xdkavcRefoHrSm bk&m.b. rsufckH.f}} xdkpOf vlwpfa. kd pf w D iG f aNzaq.w.Bu\/ xdkpOf Akef.nif.aew.tNyifbufrSaeí twGif.&Ncif. ]]cifAsm.BuD.NyDvJ}} [kawG.NzifY xdkvlrSm *dkPf.a&SYokdY a&mufvmav\/ avcRefoH&yfoGm.atmif e*g.\/ bk&m.mNyD.aNymoHBum.wdkYudkar. .arG.}} om.loGm. cifAsm.? 'grSr[kw?f odyaf Bumufp&maumif. .atmfaNymvdkuf\/ ]][dwf .Nyef\/ bk&m.u rif.ifaom toHNzifY ]]rsufcHk.fqDrS pl.aumif.f [kwfvm.mufu bk&m. . .uaum}} xd k p Of aNcoH B um.vnf.

rS Bum.if.\/ aemufxyfrBum. EIwrf S nnf.ausmif.d oGm.ausmif.vHk.*dP k .onf w'*FtcsdeftwGif. .aemuf bk&m.*dkPf.vsuf&NSd yD.qef. .}} pum.tNyifokdY ckefxGufoGm. .wdkYr.xGef.faemf? uJ b.*dkPf. pHkprf. ]]igwdkY e*g.rsm.wdkYeJY taocHNyD.oHBum. wpfa.aBumifY toufcsrf. ]]apmapmwkef. uRefawmfwdkYu wu.*dkPf.udk tJ'Dvli. xdktoHudk Bum.om.ceJ oufNyif.wdYk aNymawmY "m.? tif.? uRef .r. .BunfYaomf ydkí rsufvHk. tyfusoHBum./ &Dwdkuf&Tifu wpfa. .yga&mvm.mufwnf.frodwmyg? 'gayr.mufrmS rl aNrBuD.wpfckvHk.fqdkwm tHYBowkefvIyfp&myJ? 'DvlawG&JY vufuNrefvScsnfvm. .ckvnf.om&may.muf tem.ñlaeoH Bum.f towfcv H u kd &f [efw\ l / xdpk Of [dik q f m.&\/ xdo k rl mS cPpOfu rsufc.qif.f &yfaeBuonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ olwdkY\ trlt&mrSmvnf. .aNymaom [dkifqm.oGm.NzLu 'DvlawG wpfa.f? 'Dvdkvkyfav? b.ausmif.rodawmYbl.folaNymrvJ}} twefBumonftxd rnfolrQ toHrûyBu? Nidrfoufvsuf &dS\/ xdkpOf vlwpfa.wmyJ? tckawmY tJ'Dvli.awGbufu 0ifuOl . tyfusoHBum.f om. csKyf B uD .rSef.l ? [dik q f m.aqmifxif&olu .udk prf. .aBumifY wkefvIyfvm\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.yif Nzpf\/ .cef.f}} [k aNymonf/ xdktcg *dkPf.vH k .f b.vdkuf\/ NyD.wdkifrD.fxkwfcJYw. rwfrwf&yfaevsufESifY taBumydwfNcif.om.loGm.Nyef\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ pdwfxJrSrl .aeBuNyD r[kwfygvm. êud.wmyJNzpf&r.mufrusefowfNzwfzdkYaNymoGm. .rwkefrvIyfESifY ausmufqpf&kyfES.Hk&if tvGefqHk.[efwlyg\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu xdk aBumufrufzG. pl.nHYnifomaomtoH&Sifu .aom NrifuGif.ES p f q .D rSy}J } odYk NzifY &Dwu kd &f iT o f nf bk&m. wpfa.vHk.odkYuyfí ESvHk.*dP k . . xdkpOf El.í BunfYvkdufaomtcg &kwfw&uf xdwfvefYoGm.f .*dkPf.u [if. touf&SifEdkifr. .folu tNzpfrSefudk OD. .udk 'Dvu l ck.ODzsm.r.tm.pum. om. ‘}} toHu onfwGif &yfoGm.&yg\/ taBumif.&avonf/ &Dwdkuf&Tifrl tHBobeef.avmufatmif wdwq f w d o f mG . qd k w J Y vl xG u f o G m . xk x J u xG u f v mwmyJ ? 'Davmuftcsdefav.vHk. xd w f v ef Y p &myif / [d k i f q m.omay.ausmif.*dkPf.udk u.*d k P f .f? 'Dvli.&\/ rS e f y gonf / xd w f v ef Y r nf q d k v Qif v nf .qef.faumif.mif. .rSm olwdkYu [dkifqm.fa&mufoGm.f rS xGucf YJ onf/ tNyifoYdk a&mufonfEiS Yf bk&m.f? rif.NyDxifw.rl olwdkYtm.rsm.w.om&m &oGm.&awmYrnfr[kwfacs/ xdkYaemuf El. ig 'Dtwdik ./ &Dwdkuf&Tifu vGefpGm pdwfraumif. ]]rsufcHk.om.}} [k awG. .&avmufatmif wdwfqdwfNidrfoufoGm.fazmYodkif. Nyefwdkuf . . cHae&onfr[kwfygvm. . aoaBumudk xdk.vkdufrd\/ 53 .oHrmS &kww f &uf &yfomG .mufu us. .q.Edkif"m.favmuf&dSwJY vlwpfa.pm.favmifaom toHNzifY .&/ b.folt&ifaNymrvJ}} bk&m.aNymrvJ? aNymwJYvludk toufcsrf.f? tckvJ aBumufp&maumif.mufu a[m'Dtbdk. vGefpGm xl.qif .f a usmf r S m tm.ynm[m odyfudkaumif.mufu .kH NzLESiYf aemufqHk.om.wdYk 0u S x f m.Edkif"m.zsm.wdkYxJu wpfa. .folrSefwmt&ifaNymrvJ? aNymwJYvludk toufcsrf. .fawmYrSvnf.udk owfypfEdkifw.f&JY udk.csKyfBuD.NyD.rQ Nidrfoufvsuf&dSae\/ twefBumrSyif [dkifqm.ESvHk.f om.ydwfcHvdkuf&Ncif.udk&SmaewmBumNyD? rawGYwmawmYtrSefyJ? rif.twGif.faemf? uJ b.rsufqefNyL.aBumifY &Dwdkuf&Tifonf taNctaerSefudk csufcsif.Nzpfae&\/ . igwdkY ao&kHyJaygY? 'DaeY igwdkYu rif.vdkuf}} [k trdefYay.BuD.atmif e*g.*dkPf.0dkif.ay:wGif vJavsmif.nHYnifomaomtoHu xGufay:vmNyef\/ ]]uJ b.tm. rsufpdwpfrSdwf vQyfwpfNyuftcsdeftwGif.Nzpfrd\/ [dkifqm. . ]]'Dvl&JYtoufudkcsefxm.wuúodkvf aevif.wkawmftwGi.wmeJ Y igvJ bk & m. . .\/ vQyfwpfNyuftwGi.f BunfYaevkYd rNzpfawmYb. ]]*dkPf.yif Nzpfyg\/ [dkifqm. .w.fY uRefawmfwdkY twwfEdkifqHk.om.ae\/ xdkxl.wpfckvHk.rckefawmY/ aoqHk.Edkif"m. .udk vSnfYywfBunfYvdkuf\/ xdktcg [dkifqm.od&ef za.csNyD. .\ tzGJYacgif. .aom NrifuGif. ]]rif.csKyfBuD.? e*g. bk&m.f? tckbmvdYk &mS vdYk rawGY&wmvJ? {uEÅ rif.utoufoHk. ]][d k *d k P f .&Saom avcRefoHudkyg ta0.vdkuf&NyD.

rd\/ xd k Y aemuf &D w d k u f & T i f o nf "m. tvG e f x uf N ruf v S a omaBumif Y aNrBuD .bufqDrS wdkufavS wpfpif.Edkif"m.NzL*dkPf.udkudkifvsuf bmvkyf&rSef.onf apmapmpOfu tbdk.ESifY rnfonfYenf.om aNrBuD.NyD.NzL*dkPf.pm.fay:rSm bmrS rygbl.acgif.tem.aytuGm aNrBuD.rS *dkPf.[k pOf.vJuG? vlawGudk 'Davmufawmif &ufpuf&ovm. rsufcHk. ar. t&l.ausmif .udk a&.l rl.cwfa&muf&dSvm\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu avSOD. txl.udk &SmrawGYNcif.fudku av.udk prf.rS m vG e f p G m av.aBumifaBumifNzifY NyefBunfYíom ae\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu xdkvl\ vufaumuf0wf aoG. ]]tm.vuf0g.u aNrBuD.rsm. bmyJ NzpfNzpf 'D"m.Nyrnf/ NyD.f? NyD.owdxm.pGmrvsuf e*g.apmif. tpfudkav.wpf a csmif . tusdK.wlnDtpfudkckepfazmfpvHk.favmufrsm.vd k u f N yD . .ukex f w k í f "m.Edkif"m. rxdrdatmifvnf.oenf.aeoNzifY &SmazG&ef rvG.ESifY wdkufcdkufrnf[k &Dwdkuf&Tif pOf.aerdNyef\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf csufcsif.Ed k i f " m.&wmvJAs}} [k ar. .pm.csKyfBuD.u bm*dkPf.avS? aoG.ay: ay:vsuf&dSaeonfudk awGY&\/ apmapmurl tqdyfqm. qHk. . . ]]'D"m.onf tbdk.S O f û yd i f E d k i f r nf r [k w f a Bumif .&Sif.rodatmif Nzpfae\/ pdwfxJrSrl .nif.tdk\ tavmif.rSm &kwfw&ufwpfzufodkY wdrf.u b.0g.mufwnf.uG? igY&JY udk.rrSefruefNzpfaeonfudk awGY&\/ trSefpifppf rsufcHk.udkvnf.Nyr.\ odkif. awmifay:rSqif.NzifYzHk.fY edrdwfaumif.oGm.rSmyif e*g.fav.u odkif.onf Nrpfv.ynmrSm vGefpGmNrifYrm.om. l í tqd y f q m.ckaom &Dwdkuf&Tifonf "m.awmY bmqufvkyf&r.ud k & S m rawG Y acs/ xd k Y aBumif Y teD .udk &SmBunfY\/ xdkokdY&SmpOf tqdyfqm.ay:odkY vsifNrefpGm ckefwufvdkuf\/ xdktcg avSuav. vH k .vdkYyg}} [k &Dwdkuf&Tifu NyefaNzavonf/ odkYaomf avSxdk.\/ ]]awmuf . ok d Y c&D.NzL*dkPf. .ud k txk y f x J w G i f xk y f x m.fqdkwmudk ar.nnf.vdkufaomtcgrS tNzpfrSefudk awGY&avawmY\/ trSefrl e*g.? 'D"m. rS a[mif .armBunfY&IaepOf &kwfw&uf Nrpfzsm.Edkif"m.av. aNrmuf y d k i f .}} 54 .rm.cJYNcif./ bmaBumifY aNrvSef&Smaomfvnf. .BunfYaeav\/ odkYESifYyif avSi.rsm. EG r f . ud k .fokdY ul.BudrfrQ ar.pm.BuD. ab.vufrtxlcefYxd zHk.k tHYr.om.qufvufESifvmcJYavawmYonf/ rBumvSaom tcsdefwGif &Dwdkuf&Tifonf Nrpfurf. aeNyD N zpf a om wH N ruf p nf . ol owd&vkduf\/ e*g.atmif e*g.yif tbdk.udk aNz.ay: oHk.tt NzpfatmifawmYrl taBumtcsdKYudk NzwfawmufypfcJY\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif axmif.BunfY&r.ESifYrQ .&JYudk.aemuf rsufcHk.NyD.BunfYvdkufaomtcg aoG.u bm*dkPf.ae&\/ odkYaomf tbk d . wG i f e*g.awmYr[kwfbl. rawGYoenf.rsm.aomaoG. tk d t avmif .ceJ a'goxGufoGm.rSm tqdyfqm. q&mYtm.NzL*dkPf.xJwGif pdkuf0ifepfûryfaeNcif.NzL*dkPf. .odkY a&mufawmYrSyif avSxdk.\/ avSxdk.NzL*dkPf. tem. .Nzpfayr.vsufae&m "m.avmu&JY &wemwpfyg.tdk\a&SY ig.fulvSygacs/ &D w d k u f & T i f o nf bk & m.cJY&NyDvJ? tkd .yif Nzpf\/ pifppf tbd. odkYNzifY &Dwdkuf&Gifu vJavsmif.k tdv k u J saoqH.Edkif"m. epfûryfpdkuf0ifoGm. NyD .fa&mufoGm.vmaeonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ xdkavS\ &GufxnfzsifwGif BuD.ckefEIef. .wuúodkvf aevif.taBumif.rsm. awmif o k d Y tNref N yef N yD .om. od v d k u f \ / xd k Y aBumif Y [l w ef .udk a&SYwiG &f Sd aNrBuD. xJ o d k Y "m. . rsufcHk.twGufeJY vlYtoufaygif.qGJxm.&IH.um tavmif.}} [k a&&Gwfrd\/ odkY&mwGif rsufcHk.\/ xdkavSBuD.vuf0g.ñlaeaomvludk ayGYxlNyD.av\/ ]]rsufcHk.\ ZmpfNrpfudk pHkprf.vH v G e f . vSnfYywf&SmazGBunfYvkduf\/ aNrBuD.em.Nzpf\/ "m.onfYwdkif xdkolxHrs taNzr&/ xdkolrSm rsufNzLvefvsuf ai.odkYoGm.rdvkduf\/ wpfcsdefwnf.tdk\ vufwGif &dSaeygvsuf .ckefEIef.av\/ ]]igYudk.u r.wGifxdkifvsuf Nrpfa&Nyifudk ai.frSm bmawGygvdkY 'Davmufawmifav.wpD.wpfae&mwGif pkyHkae&ef vSnf. b. *dkPf.udk igYq&mqD.vJ? olwdkY&JY *dkPf. .uNrifí &kwfw&uf pl.xJoYdk ypfaygufvu kd &f m "m.pGm xatmfavawmY\/ ]]aoG.vSí rdrdwpfa.folvJ}} olu oHk.yif Nzpfavonf/ .wJY "m.Edkif"m.ck b.f}} [k pOf.av.wG i f awG Y vd k a wG Y Nim.wpfae&modkY a&muf&dSvm\/ avSav.loGm.vuf0g.\ tzsm.Hkacs/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ aemufausm&Sd txkyfudkom rouFmaomtBunfYNzifY vSrf. tcsdew f iG f tm.aqmif Nzpfolonf xdkvl\ toufudk raNcGcJYaomfvnf.u xdwfvefYaom toHNzifY .

tm.u vufcgNyNyD.odvdkuf&\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu vufESpfbufwGif tiftm.wHcg.ay. 0ifwdkufpOfwGifyif &kwfw&uf avSBuD. nY H v S \ / bk & m. .avmu&JY txGwftxdyf &wemwpfyg. usdK.bJ tud k u f c H & aomae&mrsm. aom rsufcHk.?tif.NzL*dkPf.}} [laNym\/ xd k t cg El .ftm.ud k vuf N zif Y wpfcsufpDykwfyGwfvkdufNyD.vdkuf&m ]]0kef. .u cifAsm.wdkYudk bmvdkY tvum.fvdkvkyf odygvdrfY}}[k pOf.fav.wdk.ay:ckefwufNyD.As}} ]]'guawmY r[kwfygbl.ay:rS 0ke.? 'gaBumifY [dkavSxkd.fwdkif xGufrawGYwmvJ}} El. aqmifYwdkufvdkufawmY\/ avSi.NyD.kd om.f}} xd k o l \ pum.ygw.xHrS aNzoHrBum. vd k u f \ / avS 0 rf .fom.frSm csufcsif. &Dwdkuf&Tifu tHYBovGef.oNzifY Bum. ]]vufpowfawmY 'DaoG.cJ Y z l . &GufavSu rsufcHk.atmif e*g.Edkif"m.u usKyfwdkYu odNyD.fawmY cifAsm. atmif .ay:a&mufatmif ydkYay.rSmvJ yJYudkifrnfYol r&dSawmYoNzifY Nrpfv. . ]][lwef.u udk. ]]cifAsm.&wmudk.om.k &SnNf zifYvrS .yJudk. Nzpfae\/ avSBuD.*dkPf.&JY rlydkifrdkYvkdYvm.f ceJNrpfxo J Ykd xd.ud k vuf N zif Y wG e f .usdK. ûywfxGufoGm. ]]aoG.&JY emrnf b.u odyfaBumufoGm.vuf0g.NzpfaeaBumif.u e*g.fxJudk pNyD.avawmY\/ avSuav.}} ceJ toHESifYtwl oHwHcg.aBumifY rausreyfNzpfoGm. ]]&Dwdkuf&Tif cifAsm.fwGifyif csmcsmvnfaeawmY\/ xdktcsdefrSmyif aoG. &kwfw&ufa&xJokdY ikyfvQdK.yJYoGm.NzL*dkPf.rSm avS0rf.fYvkyfodaeygvdrfY? igYaemufausmrSm e*g. wH c g.? usKyfwdkYu b. avSxdk.abmifrsm.om.onf t&dSefNyif.ynmeJY vuf0g.u odkif.ausmif .BuD. 'DaumifawG igYemrnf b. a&rsm.f? uJ cifAsm.udk urf.? 'DrSm &Dwdkuf&Tif? cifAsm.fES.apmif. cifAsm. aemufausmxJu e*g.r&Sif.twGufeJY owfcJYwJYvlaygif. ]]usKyfwdkY rsufcHk.rdkY b.&if usKyfwdkYu urf. .? 'D"m.rBum. .folrqdk vkdcsifwmaygY}} ]]'Dvkdqdk&if tJ'D"m.&rSmvJ}} xdkpOf El.ygNyD}} &Dwdkuf&Tifu .mufu .\/ &D w d k u f & T i f u owd r xm.aysmufuG.ywfay:wGif rNrif&acs/ &D w d k u f & T i f u rausreyf N zif Y avS 0 rf .? 'gaBumifY rawGYBuwmbJ aumif. bmaNymvdkufwmvJ? usKyf aumif.f}} &Dwdkuf&Tifu xdkpum. aepOf u Bum.Edkif"m.yJYukefav\/ aemufxyfwpfcgwGef.tm. aNymvdkuf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu em.fYudk ûydifpH&Sm.tHYBoaeovm.aNccsuwnf. ]]cifAsm. w&a[m 0ifvmavawmY\/ &Dwdkuf&GifrSmrl &GufavSBuD. .apvdkufNyD.u wu.pm.&JYavSudk.wdkY*dkPf.k csvu kd o f nfuo kd m awGY&\/ &Dwu kd &f iT u f 0g. .rSmcsxm.awmYbl.ukefwGef.&bJ avSi.BuD.u usKyfvufxJrSma&mufNyD? usKyfu cifAsm.Edkif"m.Edkif"m.tm.ydwfxm.\ toHyifNzpf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ pdwfxJwGif .As}} 55 . .fazmYodkif.aumif.f&efûyygaomfvnf.wkdY [lwef. 'De.oNzifY .vdkufrnfqdkvQif wHcg.udk usKyfwdkYudkay.r.wuúodkvf aevif.renf.pdkufaxmifvdkuf\/ xdkpOf &kwfw&uf ol\ &ifbwfESifYaygifwGif Ncif u d k u f c H & ouJ Y o d k Y e musif o G m .nHYnifomaomtoHu .nHYaom toH&Sifu .vdkuf\/ odkYaomf avSxdk. .Edkif"m.udk avSOD. nH Y a om toH & S i f avS 0 rf .Nzwfí . . wH c g.ESifY qufpyfaeaom opfom. wpfpHkwpfckudk rBum.nHYnifomaom toH&Sifu &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.í em.fvdkvkyfNyD.&JY emrnfudk odaew.aerd\/ xdkpOf El. wd k .NyD.xJrS vlwpfa.fqdkwm? wu. .vdkuf&ifawmY usKyfwkdYu cifAsm.eJY bmrS qufpyfrIr&dSygbl.xkwfay.\ vufatmufi. xJ r S v l u xyf r H í wd k .oH r S m nif o mEl . u. ]]cifAsm.wkdYu 'D"m.&GufavSBuD.pGmNzifY &Dwdkuf&TifwdkY\ avSi.&GufavSu bmNzpfovJ}} [k ar. . aNymvd k u f N yef \ / &D w d k u f & T i f u bmaNymvkdYaNymrSef.ay:a&mufatmif ydkYay. .r.csyfwpfckvHk.mufwavrQ avS\ ukef.fvdkac:ovJ? bmNzpfvdkY vludk.*dkPf. &dSaew.NzL*dkPf.&bl.csKyfBuD. .vuf0g. vlwpfa.vH. . . wG i f yk e f .rnfrSm aocsm\/ xdktcsdefwGif avS0rf.rodoNzifY a&SYESpfvSrf.pkpnf.rS m oHNym.u cifAsm.fqdkwmaum b.om.vuf0g. .\/ ]]e*g.f í avSx.foGm.wBum.

pdu k af xmifvu kd pf Of qHarT.aemuf atmf[pfí .wJY cifAsm.om.fyif xufNrufvS\/ &D w d k u f & T i f o nf aemuf x yf ck e pf c suf r Q vT J .xJodkY aNcrcsrDrSyif vlwpfa.udk vufNzifY zdESdyfBunfY&m xHkusOfvsuf&dSonfudk cHpm.}} [laomtoHESifYtwl ausmufql. .wJYoHpl.rSm ñSyfxm.NzifY xkd.onf E S i f Y uref .NzifY ypfvu kd Nf cif.vnf.Edkif"m.farmaeav\/ olYoGif[efu &.cdkraeEdkifawmYbJ ukef.u taumif.cg.rS"m.&ouJYodkYyif/ 56 .rsm.f? [dk[dkifqm.apmif.fp&maumif.awG[m wu. a&SYodkY wdk. .\/ pifppf vuf0g.. xdkvl\ toHrSm Nyefus. .frS xufydkif. yif apmapmu jcifudkufcHvdkuf&onf[kxif&aom ae&mrsm.vmatmif wrif y&d.rSmvnf. .pdkufNcif. Nzpfonf/ wu.ud k ol r wG . xdkvl\ tar.dk í em. .m.wdkY [lwef. &dkufcwfcsdefwGif &efolonf vuf0g.ESifY wdk. Nzif Y wk d u f x k w f v d k u f & m bk e f .f}} &Dwd kuf&Tifu xdkvl b.NzifYom xdkol\cg.NyD.vkwJYvlqkd.NzL*dkPf.csvdkuf\/ okdYaomf xdkvlu ausmufql. f w m rruf a rmawmY / csuf c sif .udk qGJxkwfNyD.vdkuf&\/ xkdtcgrSyif &Dwdkuf&Tif oabmaygufawmY\/ apmapmu xkdvlpum.wpfcGef.Ncif.wdk.rSm tqdyfESpfrsdK.udk cHvdkuf&Ncif.vHk.tm. [m. ol cH p m.udk awmif.}} [laomtoHESifYtwl avS0rf.aNymNcif.aBumifY a'gotrsufacsmif. aBumufp&maumif. ceJ us.rSm &Dwdkuf&Tif\ vuf0g.NzL*dkPf. .f &Dwdkuf&Tif}} &Dwdkuf&Tifonf xkdpum.udk &dkufcsdK.cRef&JYtqdyfu ydkNyD.f\ ab.acsmif.[kef. aBumufp&maumif.vdkuf&m ]][kef. vufOD. tv.udk ydkif.uom e*g.usKyf cifAsm.xJokdY ckef0ifvkduf\/ avS0rf.ckwfydkif. xJ w G i f ykef.? cifAsm.udk "m.awmif cHae&wmaemf? 'gawmif wdkufcdkuf&Jao.Edkif"m.awGyg? cifAsm. . pvH k .apmif.atmif tvsiftNrefzrf. . [m.rf.udk Bum.av\/ e*g.v. vGefpGm&ufpufNyD.&JY owådudkcsD. .udk qHarT.udk ay.tqdk.tyfacsmif.fqifí aNymNcif.u usKyfudk aNzaq.odkY ckefa&SmifvdkufNyD.NyD .wHcg.csif.oGm.wGif cRefxufaom oHpl. uwef .udk wpfcsufrQBunfYvdkufNyD.udk rBum.&JY tqdyfaNzaq.Bum.wwfygw.bJ &dk. vuf0g.tm.rSm rdrdtm.tm.Bum.aBumufp&maumif.[m.ay.vSrnfrmS aocsmayonf/ xdYk aBumifY xdkoltm.lrSmvm.NyD? cifAsm.om.aemuf w[m.udkay. ab.? rdru d a&SYw.ay. . wdkufcdkufvQifvnf.u touf.wpfzufwpfcsufu xufydkif.csKyfNyD. .wBum.udk cGJNcm.w.aBumifY olYvuf0g.wpfzufwpfcsufokdY vTJ.tyfacsmif.vk d u f & \/xk d Y a Bumif Y e*g. .? "m.ay.aom pum. .aBumif.yg? usKyfu cifAsm. rf .\/ xkYd aBumifY olwYkd \ qHarT.vdkufNyD.fYvlowf? ypönf.nHYnifompGmNzifYyif . .usL.f}} &D w d k u f & T i f o nf qH a rT .usdK.udk qGJí umvdkuf&m ]]cRrf.ywfay:okdY ckefwufvm&avawmY\/ ]]&Dwdkuf&Tif cifAsm.om. ar. wpfcsufrQ pl.u usKyfudk tqdyfaNzaq.fvmNyD. vk d u f N yef & m xd k v l r S m avS 0 rf .cRefrsm. odxm. wdkufcdkufvkdufonfudk odvdkuf\/ ol u vuf 0 g.f a vmif a omtoH N rnf o G m .&SpGm emusifoGm.pdkufraxmifawmYacs/ vufxJrS"m.xuf rnYHacs/ ÚmPfeDÚmPfeufroHk.apmif . ]]cifAsm. [l a om trnf u d k B um.ywfay: Nyefa&mufoGm. . wdk. &Dwdkuf&Tifonf xdkvltm.vdkuf\/ okdYNzifY olu &kwfw&uf avS0rf.}} [k &Dwdkuf&Tiftm. avS0rf.avonf/ &Dwdkuf&Tifu "m. ]]usKyfwdkY&JY rsufcHk.odkY ypfcsay.fawmY xdkol\ vuf0g.wdk.tqdyrf mS vnf.om.ayawmY}} ]][m.fodkYyifqdkqdk em.? cifAsm. ES p f O D .vdkuf\/ ]]uJ .wGif oHpl.}} xdkvlu aNcaxmufem.uvlqdk usKyfwkdYrowf&ufygbl.&ifawmY usKyfwdkYu cifAsm.udk ñSyfxm. tyf a csmif .*dkPf.wuúodkvf aevif.fwulNzifY Edkifrnfr[kwfacs/ xdkpOfcdkuf? xdkvlonf El.r.&rnf[k pdwful.t&dSefudk &yfwefYvdkufNyD.ay.&dk. ck w f y d k i f .Bu\/ &Dwdkuf&TifrSm avSukef.mufu arSmifxJrSaeí olYtm.atmif e*g. .NzpfNyD.xGufvmonf/ olu e*g.*dkPf.Edkif"m.ud k xdkvlYaNcaxmufem.f}} rSefygonf/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ &ifbwfESifY aygifwdkYwGif xHkusOfvmNyDNzpf&m tqdyfwufaeNyDNzpfaBumif.r. ]]usKyf&JY vuf0g. aemufokdYvGifYxGufoGm.Edkif"m.Ed k i f " m.NywfoGm. tvG. . aNzaq.rSm wu. yif ol Y v uf r S " m.av\/ xdkvlonf eHab.tyfacsmif.yif Nzpfyg\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf rsufcHk.lrSmvm.NyD.udk NyefaNzonf/ ]]aumif.&.udk "m.ygw.

}} xdkvlu vufraxmifum .rS ûzHp&mrvdkbl.êud. .fYudk csD.om Nzpfyg\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf xdkolNrpfxJodkY usoGm.udk r. . . .fí .l 0dik .f Y vuf a wG Y tav. ausmufql.csKyfBuD.f u usKyfwYkd rsucf .fEdkifawmYbJ vufNzifYom ausmufql.vsuf w[D. t&mwpf c k u &k w f w &uf a y:vmyg\/ xd k v l Nrpf a &xJ o k d Y epf v k e pf c if N zpf a epOf w G i f y if tNzLa&mif w ef .wpf a .awmif.xuf q. . ]]a.fqdk&ifvJ usKyfwdkY&JY *dkPf. .vm. . uRwf . u wu.[m.lvkdufaomfvJ "m. wmtrS e f y J ? Bunf Y prf .udk umuG.frQ BuGwufvmNyD. . . .vdk vl. .Edkif"m.f &JY vufcsufvdkY b.Nl yD.fY Nrpfa&xJrSmyJ epfao&rSmyg}}[k a&&Gwfvdkufrd\/ od k Y aomf &D w d k u f & T i f rxif r S w f a om tcsif . NzL*d k P f .fYvl?usKyfu &.ceJ Nrpf x J o d k Y xd k .udk"m.r.[m. *d k P f . &J Y tnw& ygrT m .aeoNzifY qGJír.acscsifw.}} &Dwdkuf&Tif\ rsufESmrSm wpfckvHk. . .&if.fp&maNymaewm r[kwfbl. xkdvltm.ckESpfazmfu wu.i.f Y tcsd e f r S m awmif 'D a vmuf p d w f u d k wnf N id r f a tmif xdef.awmYr[kwfyg/ "m.Edkif"m.faeNyef\/ NyD.i. w[m.emrnfaNymrNyEdkifbl. . .rSmvnf.aewmAs? bmvdkY 'Davmuf&.udk umvkduf&m? vQyfwpfNyuftwGif.xm. ]]usKyf u rsuf c H k .udk rvTwfbJ qkyfudkifxm. .lNyD. [D.&r. NzLqGwfoGm.fao wdkufcdkufvdkufNcif. .u &pfywfvdkufNyD.rS .aom tav.? cifAsm.kH NzL*dP k . .usL.OD.ygOD.vufxJrSm "m.usoGm. use. .? [lwef.EdkifwJYvlrsdK.f wpf0ikd . uRwf. csufcsif. awmif. ]]rif.r&dSawmY usKyfu bmay.mufsm. tawmfudk csD. wpf c k bG m .ukefypfaygufvdkuf\/ xdkolu xdwfvef.udk&oGm. .faewmvJ? aNymprf.wBum.f&efûyvdkuf\/ okdYaomf e*g. [J .f? tck cifAsm.av\/ trSefrl xdkolonf "m. ]]aBomf .udk aumuf.frQ BuGwufvmNyD. .yefNcif.wpfaeYyJaygY? usKyf&JY wpfoufrSm rw&m. .ayr.frl &Dwdkuf&Tifonf rdrdao&awmYrnf[kxifNyD.f v d k Y uvJYpm.bl. avsmYenf.udk aumuf.atmif e*g.NzifY rumuG. .rEdkifNcif. [m.fqrQ av. 'Davmufawmif nHY&ovm.av. tm.rpdkuf/ olodcsifonfudk ar.fvdkrS xifEdkifp&mtaBumif.ay.p&maumif.aeav\/ xdkYaBumifY "m. Asm? ao&awmYr. aeonf Nzpf & m ol Y vuf x J r S xkwfvdkufaomtm.yif e*g. .\/ 57 .lpOfwGif olcefYrSef.rSmyif xkdvlonf "m.f csKyfq&mBuD.cifAsm.wmudk bmwpfckrS rvkyfcJYbl.[D.ao. . wpfcsufatmfNyD. &efoltm.wdYk *P kd . .rSm omref"m.u "m. NyefusoGm.udk usKyfwpfoufrNrifzl.yif Nzpfonf/ okdYNzifY xkdvlonf ausmufql.fYtwGuu f akd wmY cifAsm.udk ta&.udk.&auseyfvsuf&pSd Of &Dwu kd &f iT o f nf ausmufq. ]][J .f udk aumuf.wpfacsmif.onfYwdkif "m.ceJ xdk.usL.fY cifAsm.rûybJolao udk.rSm tenf.\/ odkYaomf pdwfudk wnfNidrfpGmxdef.}} xdkvlu NyefraNz/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ rsufESmudkom vufñdlI.kwfrmvufcsufeJYao&&ifvJusKyfu wpfapYav. &Dwdkuf&Tifu a'gooHNzifY atmf[pfum aNymav\/ ]]'DrSm udk.fwdkif xGufNyD.vdkufonf/ ]]cifAsm. .vsuf awGY&aomf pdwfxJwGif . r&dSygbl. usvmNyD .&ifqdkifrSmaygY? 'gayr.? 'gaBumifY tckcsufcsif.&if ay. &Dwdkuf&Tif}} xdo k u l wwGww f w G af Nym&if. .csd e f x uf vG e f p G m avsmYenf .}} xdkvlu&.zdkYrS rvdkawmYbl. &Dwdkuf&Tif.f qef.qDu aNzaq. .rSm tenf.Edkif"m. tm.avawmY\/ wu. NzpfoGm. &Dwdkuf&Tif? cifAsm.Ncif.wmygyJvm.? cifAsm.tm.}} &Dwdkuf&Tifu xdkol\ pum.zke.av? [m.p&m aumif .[m 'DaeYrSmyJ bkrodbrodbeJ YJ aooGm. xd k v l \ vnfyif.&dSae&ifom usKyfaNzaq.csd e f r S m wu. . . . NyefusoGm.vufxJrSm "m.xm. &.xdk.muf y gAsm?[l w ef .udkifvsufESifY NrpfxJokdY bkef.yJ? aowpfaeY arG. .? [D.wuúodkvf aevif.Asm? uRwf . .

bmrQ rvk y f E d k i f a wmYbJ &k w f w &uf rsuf v k H .f\ avSay:okdY csufcsif.fu wpfcsuftrdeYf ay. wpf a csmif .em.avawmY\/ xdYk aemuf avSxyd w f iG f &yfaeaom tuÐsNzL0wfvil . rwf w wf & yf a eonf u d k y g awG Y vk d u f & \/ xd k Y Nyif vl i .a&muf&o Sd mG .odkY csufcsif. xdkêud.f w pf O D .udkifvsuf ûryfvkûryfcif NzpfaeaomvlrSm vli.lvkdufonfESifYtwl "m.NyD .avawmY\/ 58 .atmif e*g. uyfvmavawmY\/ xdt k csdew f iG f &Dwu kd &f iT w f pfu. xd k a vS \ xd y f w G i f tuÐ s NzL0wf vl i .udkNyefqGJ.fonf &Dwdkuf&Tif\ avSBuD.Edkif"m. pH k rd k u f c eJ N zpf v suf arYarsmoGm.vdu k &f m avSi.f \ vuf x J w G i f êud . rurf . &d S a eonf u d k a wG Y &NyD . aysmYacGaeNyDNzpf&m tuÐsNzL0wfvil . ud k i f x m. &D w d k u f & T i f o nf tH Y Bowk e f v I y f p G m Nzif Y pl . wG i f a vS i . \ rvS r f . pd k u f B unf Y vk d u f a omf rd r d & d S & m avS B uD .f w pf p D .wuúodkvf aevif.kH tqdyw f ufaeNyD. kd v f .fu olYavSay:okYd wuf v monf u d k awG Y &aomf v nf .

pNrnf aNymoH Bum.onfudkvnf. tmrcHXme&JY tvHyJ}} 0dk.rdawmY\/ ]]tif. . vufpowfawmY igYrSm [dkvl&JY qHarT.favmifus.fnm0ef.fu a&Tig. .av\/ xdktcgusrSyif &Dwdkuf&Gifu tNzpfrSefudk NyefvnfpOf. pif t m. &d S a eouJ Y od k Y vH k .udk ar. ]]cifAsm. vl E S p f a .muf u a&S Y a emuf xrf. 59 .? .wpfaumif a&. .aewmAs? 'Dtvkyfudk vufcHrvm.eJY vuf0g. aeonf u d k vnf . . ? xd k x rf . rsuf v H k . .onf cE¨ m ud k .f r Qtxd B umatmif &D w d k u f & T i f arY a rsmoG m .pGifYvdkufaomf toH us.aumif.qGJxm.vm.atmif e*g.}} xdkpOf vlESpfa. .onf r od / ol Nyef v nf o wd & NyD .pGmowd0ifvmNyD Nzpfonf/rdrdonf xrf .ckaomf &Dwdkuf&Tif aumif. tpH k zGifYvdkufcsdefwGifrl tvHwpfckudk awGYvdkuf&\/ tvHay:wGif a&Tig.aumif. aNcvuf r sm. aumif . usKyfemrnfudk rar. . vufrcHbl. .wpfck\ tv.tyfacsmif. 'DtvH[m viftef. .csifawmYNyDudk vnf.wuúodkvf aevif. aumufcsufcsaerd\/ xyfrH em.favmifus. od&aomf vGefpGm wkefvIyfacsmufcsm.usifodkY vSnfYywfBunfY&ef ûyvdkufaomtcgwGifawmYrl rdrd vnfyif.cRef&JY tqdyfawG oifYaewmudk. 0pd w f N zif Y ck d i f . 'gyJaNz}} &Dwdkuf&Tif tHYBo&Nyef\/ NyD. .aumif.fvdkac:ovJ}} tar.rSm wkwfaxmufxm.xm.favmifESifYvlu rausreyfNzifY .&JYemrnfu b.ovdk wif.vdkuf&\/ us. tmrcHXme tb.muf pum.onf/ &Dwdkuf&Tif &kwfw&uf owd&vdkufNyD Nzpf\/ ]]tif.pdwfESifY rBunfrvif Nzpfae&mrS .toHeJY wlaeygvm.ck tcef.oGm.aeNyD.fwGif a&mufaeonfudkvnf. ]]aemufrSaNymwJYvl&JY toHu rdef.Edkif"m.}}[kvnf. &Dwdkuf&Tif BunfBunfvifvifyif odvdkufyg\/ okdYaomf b. (7) a&Tig.aumif.pm. ]]cifAsm. tcef.? xrf. f E S i f Y woD .e.pifay:rS vl. wNcm.uav.w0g. apí r&awmYonfudkvnf.vJx&ef ûypOf w G i f v nf .ñSyf oHpl. . .ygeJY? usKyfu tck cifAsm.cH&olu . pif w pf c k a y:wG i f vJ a vsmif .favmifESifY vlu . rvIyf&Sm.

wmusif. t&Iyft&Sif.rsOf.f? rsdK. usKyf&JY pnf.f uawmY t&Iyt f &Si.yGcJ u kH kd bke.f}} xdpk Of wd.u a&Tig.u ypönf. ]]aBomf .foG.&JY pnf. Bum.Gif.qdkawmY wpfNcm.ynmwGif emrnfausmfcJYol Nzpf\/ xdkpOf rsdK.wkdY&JY acgif.? uJ . ]]usKyf u vJ cif A sm.atmifyif em.? aemufNyD.toHESifY wlolu .\/ wdk.i.aomif. vd k Y & rS e f .bl.? a[m .tmrcHXme wpfckvHk.fAsm}} xdkpum.u pm.nnf.}} &Dwdkuf&Tifvnf.? 'D[mu omrn yg.acsmif.um .zl.&d.eJY? pnf.fwdkif acgif.favmifESifYvl ydkí a'goxGufvm[ef wl\/ olu . .NyD.rS cRwfacsmfvdkY r&bl.ae&ygw.f auseyfoGm.favmufBuD.fbl.ud k . .Nzpf\/ xdkpOf csifvli.NzwfEdkif&if cifAsm.raxmifbJ olYpnf.u .?usKyfwkdY a&Tig.ygbl.rsOf.udk vufrcHbl.om&Hkru cifAsm.fYudk. ]]usKyfwdkY a&Tig.fu .NyefygawmY}} rdef. . cifAsm.uav. . wdk.udk vHk. bmypönf.vdkYudkr&bl. . ta&mufydkY&r.favmifus.udk cifAsm. .fudk r&yfrem.udk acwåNzwfxm.f Y pnf.f}} wdk. .aqmif wdk.onf csifvli. .\ emrnfudk Bum.wmusif.rS qufí .udpö &dSao.enf. ydkY&r. ]]usKyfu a&Tig.pD qufwdkufypfvTwfEdkifaom odkif.? aemufwpfcku ig. ckavmavmvwfvwf rqHk.emrnf csifqdkolu ûyH.toHvdkvdkvl? okdYr[kwf csif rsdK.tmrcHXme\acgif.NzpfNyD. .f vif.f&uftwGif.wmusif.favmif toHNzifY ]]cifAsm. . a[. ]]usKyfu 'Da&Tig.aEG. .csKyfwnf.roHvdkvdk toH&Sifu .fausmfoGm.urf.}} 60 . ]]cifAsm.fbl.eJY Nym. .wdkY&JY a&Tig.w. oH k .udk t&ifar.f &kyf&nf oem.wmusif.aqmifyJ? usKyf tck tNcm.fvdkY trSm.u tenf.? cifAsm.eJYurf. wdk.r.&dSwJY ypönf.aqmifBuD.udk tvsOfpvdk &Sif.aBumifY toH us. ]]usKyfu cifAsm.wk d Y a&T i g.aNy vmaemufaewmvm.&dk.As}} xdkpum.eJYAs? a[m .u usKyfudk oufouf tysif. acgif.udk qHk.favmifus.f? q. e.enf.e.NyD? b.tmrcH X mewpf c k y J enf .aqmifBuD.uvem.u 'Dtvkyfudk wm0ef. . . wu.ovdkESifY .udk. ]]'D vif t ef .ausmif.rdkYvdkY onf.ZpfNrpfudk rodwJY ypönf.&OD.rSm a&Smifvifbk&m.k ZpfNrpfvJ r&Si. xifaeovJ[if? usKyfu cifAsm.\ vli.eJY udkufnDzdkYrvG.emrnfuawmY csifyg}} okdYNzifY us.lEdkifygYrvm.tmrcHXmeudkyJ oGm.tmrcHXmeudk bmrsm. av. vd k Y &wmAs? useftmrcHXmeawGuoHk.rsOf.w.cHaewm? EdkYrdkY&if wpfcsufwnf.w.&JYemrnfudk usKyf tNrJwrf.As}} wdk.tmrcHXme&JY acgif.fwpfOD. . ]]usKyf&YJ ypön.fwJY tvkyfrsdK.tvkyfr[kwfbl.us.f em.f? cifAsm.&dk.&dk.tyfrvdkYvJ}} rdef.EG.awmY vkdufydkY&r. ]]usKyfwkdYuvJ pnf.wmusif.NyaeNcif. . . . .wd k Y & J Y a&T i g.f0ifuvnf.Edkif"m.r.f? a[m 'kwd. .0 vufrcHbl.favmifavmifESifYvl?odkYr[kwf a&Tig.udk vHk.csufoHk. .aqmifNyD.&dw S . us.r. vufpowfawmY cifAsm.tmrcH X meud k tm. .u a'goudk renf.}} pum. odkif.&JYtouf rcsrf.&dSwJY ypönf.tmrcHXmeu tvkyfr&dSwmrS r[kwfbJAs? cifAsm.f? usKyf&JY rsdK.uvJ rvG.udk ydefydefoG.yg. cifAsm. .0 vufrcHbl.udk.aqmifBuD.udk wpfacsmif.cifAs? a[m yxrtcsuf 'Dypönf.k wmusif.f? wpfcgrSvJ rcRwfacsmfcJYzl.csuf owfrSwfxm. .rsOf. od v d k Y vmtyf w myg? 'gayr.oNzifY vSHwdkav. . .vnfvm.tcsuf viftef.f enf.f r S m cif A sm.udk BuufiSufrusef tukefowfypfr.ynmvnf.q.vsuf .udk ac:vTwfvkdufyg? usKyf oleJY aqG. ]]cifAsm.csyfoGm.f? aemufqHk.udkrqdk vkyfzl.fuae [laye.yg.? enf.atmif e*g.uav.wmusif. . .f? emrnfudkvJ raNymbl. . .atmuf wefzdk.f ceJ xkvu kd af omtoH xGuv f m\/NyD.udkvJtyfr.wuúodkvf aevif.rTm.f\ pum. enf .&dk. tcRwftacsmf wpfckckNzpfcJY&if a[.ygawmYAsm}} rdef.urm.wmusif. . racvSacs/ txl. rsdK.tmrcHXme&JY acgif. .aBumifY wdk.tmrcHXmeudk zGifYvmwm tESpfESpfq.f? cifAsm.t.

wefzdk. .pyf[í ]]usKyf .qdk cifAsm.BuD.urf.fu [lwef. .fnm vSnfYywfí rBunfYEdkifoNzifY olYa&SYwnfYwnfYudkom Nrifae&\/ odkYaomf . .k wmusi.Edkif"m.yH k a y: a&mufoGm. . .rsm. vHk.awmifudk ta&mufoGm.u pum. .udkNrifuwnf.csufudk cifAsm. .&JY tvkyfudk usKyfwdkY vufcHvdkufNyD}} xdktcg csifvli.zkef. vkdufemEdkifrSmvm.u wpfcsuf wGefYoGm.wmusif. .f aoaocsmcsmBunf Y ? 'gu a&T ' *F * g.NzifY bmrQr&dSaomfvnf.fY wpfzufeJYwpfzuf tquftqH toGm.cktcsdefwGif tcef.u olYudk udk.fNyD.fodef.f? vrf.wpfcsuf rIwfvdkufrd\/ &ifrSmvnf.wmusif.cJY/ .f&uftwGif. wpf&mrSmrS av.f}} csif v l i . ]]aumif.vQif .faNymyg? rcH&if rcHbl.csufoHk.rS udk.bJ oGm.pD.0r&dSygbl.um . wpfpHkwpfck bkef.ESifY vuf0g.udk tmrcHcdkif.fYaygifudk wpfcsufykwfvdkuf\/ NyD.}} wdk.wmusif.f \ Nyif.&JY vufxJudk ta&muftyfay. .wmusif.f}} csifvli.}} a&Ta&mifw0if.wpfavQmufvHk.&SifqDuae ypönf. ]]usKyf cifAsm.0rûyEdkifawmYacs/ xdktcgusrSyif qHarT. &Dwdkuf&TiftzdkY cefhrSef. .}}[k csifvli.fav? usKyf&JY pnf.wpfcsufndwfvdkufonfESifY 'Da&T'*Fg.rS a wmY usKyf u q&mav. pdwfrvIyf&Sm.wdkY tvkyfvkyfwmawmif&rSm r[kwfbl.oGm.\/NyD.roHvdkvdkNzifYyif .NyD? q&mav.cRef\ tqdyfu Nyif.cktcsdefwGif olu em.Nym. b.awGu [lwef.NyD. pm. \ rsuf v H k .qufNyefonf/ ]][lwef.aBumifaBumifNzifY ai.t*Fg&yfrsm. aygYyg.lvmrSmvJ}} xdktcg csifvli.vJNyD.0if.rsm.vdkuf&aomf [l.ae&\/ xdYk aBumifY tNriftm.bJ raeEdkifygawmY/ &Dwdkuf&Tifrl vnfyif.ceJ oufNyif. oifYoGm.fu ûyH.ñSyfoHpl.&Nyef\/ ]]'D . vufxaeaom a&T'*Fg.csifw.usyfyJ&wmyJ? 'D aiGq.wmusif.wdkY tmrcHXmeu ypönf. rvIyf&Sm.udk b.\/ rSefonf/ tmrcHXme pwifzGifYonfrSpí apmapmu tcsdefxd þrQ rsm. *dkPf.fwdkifapmifYa&SmufNyD.fu .f? cifAsm.aemuf rdef.wGif wd.fu ceJY&.tBum.pifay:uvlyJ}} ]]cifAsm}} wdk.&JYypönf. .u us.fu .NyL.aNymyg? vdk&if.Edkif&kHru toHvnf. .qef.eJY nDrQw. ]]at.wmusif.uawmY a[m'Dxrf.awGeJY bm&efprS r&dScJYayr. at.}} ]]'DrSm vufcH&if cHr.\ trlt&maNymif. .&dS tNcm.tyfacsmif. .frQyif tm.&r.udk rsufvHk.aemuf . r&yfrem.toH qufBum.u a&T'*Fg.wuúodkvf aevif.ceJ ypfwifvdkuf\/ NyD.wmusif. . .wJY ypönf.twG u f touf p G e f Y &pG e f Y & wm0ef. NzpfoGm. [laye.f &. ]]usKyfu cifAsm.xefvSaBumif.om.u 'D a vmuf a wmif aiG y H k a y. .tvm vHk.f? q.f u pd w f r &S n f o Nzif Y aNymonf / wd k .EdkifawmY/ xdktcdkuf wdk.&r.xkwfapumrl olYwpfudk.rSm tvdktavsmuf rdrdydkif Nzpf&awmYrnf[k awG.rsm. tBunf Y u a&T ' *F g .ydkY&r. tHYtm. . ]]q&mav.f\ pum.udk &Dwdkuf&Tif Bum. usef.BunfYaeonfrSm aocsmvS\/ xdktcsdefwGif csifvli.xefaom touf&o I u H o kd m Bum.udk t&ifar. &Dwdkuf&Tif od&awmY\/.? usKyfwdkY a&Smifvif*dkPf.}} ]][kwfw.ftcsdef .l&awmYrSmaygY? q&mav.f? cifAsm.*dkPf. usKyf}} odkYaomf &Dwdkuf&Tif\ EIwfrS usKyf[laom toHom xGufvmEdkif\/ tdyfrufxJwGif bDvl. yuwd Nidrfoufvsuf&dSaeonfudk awGY&\/ xdw k w d q f w d rf BI uD.favmif wdk.yJ Bum.aom a&Tudk rdrd rNrifbl. 61 .atmif e*g.fvHk.NyD.\/ &Dwdkuf&TifrSm ydkíyif tYHBooGm. rvIyf&Sm.*dkPf.vdkufrdaomtcg wdk.fodef.csKyfq&mBuD.&r.wpfckvHk. . ]]'D r .ck rdrdu acgif.írl odEdkifyg\/ wdk.toifYBuD.\/ wdk.favmifus. wmusif . 'DvlyJvm.ESpfaxmif[m ydkufqH q.? 'g.fvHk. .wd k Y &J Y tmrcH & J Y tctwG u f y J ? 'Da&T'*Fg.cHae&olyrm b. ES p f a xmif cif A sm.om.yGJay:odkY ypönf.? rsufpdtNrifu vGJvQif wpfudk.\/ olu vTwfceJ yg.

mufwdwd &dSaBumif.aom wm0efrausyGefvQif olwdkY a&Tig.rSm wu.pHkrSdwfí ta&. . tawG. vlvTwfí oufBuD. .fYudk.wmusif.i.aom aBuGtdk.v udk.OD.ESpaf xmifEiS Yf vlwpfa.BuNcif.rSm uGJNyD.onf þ a&Tig. &Dwdkuf&Tiftem. Nrif.vdu k &f m &T.cdkif.? b.wmusif.wGif aNymoGm.f}} xdpk Of &kww f &uf csiv f il .fYwpfa.tmrcHXme wpfckvHk.apvkdufNyD.f[m &kyfvJacsm? toufvJi.aEG. wdww f qdwf aqG.mufonf xrf.puav.onf a&T'*Fg.vHk. .r[kwf/ csifvli.wpfcef.fYwpfa.wmusif.&\/ xdkYaemuf csifvli.fyif aBumufp&maumif.&dS vlrsm.? rdef.f xGufumeD. .mufrsufESmwpfa.wmusif.pGm 0ifaerd\/ 62 . ]]'DaeY[m oHk.tmrcHXmerSm &dSwJY vlaygif.wmusif.mufukd tmrcHNyD.pxGuf&ef Nyifqifvdkufonf/ wpfcsdew f nf.f}} wdk.D toHEiS Yf twl ao. owfypfrnf[laompum.txkwfudk olYtcef.a&Smifae&ef apvTwfvdkufavonf/ xdkYaemufwGifawmYrl olwdkYonf &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.NyDxifw.fESifYtwl xGufoGm.aom taBumif.rQ rêuHcJYbl.rsm.udk wpfcgzl. b.ay:wGif vJavsmif.vdkufNyD.ftzGJYuvJAs}} wdk.r? uav.NyD.wmusif.rsm. tvHpdkufxm. apmifYa&Smuf ydkYaqmifcdkifonfY tNzpfrsdK.l NyDNzpf\/ odYk &mwGif .vSnf.pifudk csxm.mufaBumifí BunfYaerdBuav\/ vufaxmufwpfa.xJodkY odrf.t&mum.mufudk wpfa.mufu .rf. ]]'Du q&mBuD.pwif xGufBuawmY\/ &Dwdkuf&TifrSmrl Nrif.wdkY 'Da&Tig.D &T.acs/ wdk.roD &efrcbJeJY [lwef. taBumif.}} &Dwdkuf&Tif bmrSraNymEdkif/ wdk. tcef. rsufvHk.EIwfrS ]][m}}ceJ tvefYwBum. .acs/ .xm.? rD.wGif tm.onf csufcsif.fausmfvmcJYNyDNzpf&m tNzpftysurf sKd .faom tyfacsmif.Nzpfonf/ olwdkY tmrcHXmewGif vlaygif.vdkuf\/ NyD.aom vlESpfa. vQyfwpfNyufxGufvmNyD.&ufaeYrSm cifAsm.f? b. .oli. csifvli.ckuYJ oYkd a&T'*Fg.tm.atmif e*g. 'D v l u d k [lwef.fu vufwpfcsuf a0SY.u 'Dvlukd ab.wuúodkvf aevif. ]]'Dtvkyfudk vufcHrdwmawmY rSm.xm. xrf.awmifudk ta&mufrydkYEdkifcJY&if cifAsm.aEG.wmusif.*dkPf.vdu k af o.vS\/ wdk.wmusif.wGifpdkufoGm.vSnf.&JYemrnfudk b.fESpfa.í BunfYae\/ wdk.&uf? av.veJY ESpfq.wdkY oHk.avonf/ þokdYES.zdkacsmifrS tvkyform.aeonf/ &Dwdkuf&Tifrl bmrQ raNzEdkif/ aemufqHk. . . ab.t&mudk aqG.f*dkPf.udk &GmxJ ydkYcdkif.aEG.qnf.BupdkY}}[k qdkvdkufvQif &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.u .wmusif.vQif csufcsif.mufEiS Yf vnf. &iftckefNrefoGm.odkY vGifYpifoGm.&if. uav.ck taotcsm wGufBunfYrSyif wdk.onf rdrdtbGm.tmrcHXmeudk zGifYvSpfwnfaxmifcJYonfrSm tESpf ESpfq. c&D.u owdNyef&vmNyD.u qufí . .pifNzifY xrf.Bu\/ xdktcg aBuGtdk.&rSmaygY? ck igwdkYu XmerSm&dSwJY toufBuD.yif olYtzGJYom.*dkPf.raNymEdkifawmYbJ wpfa.uom qufwdkufar.udkac:í viftef.om.wGif xnfYxm. tar!dwfûyrdouJYokdY &Dwdkuf&Tifvnf. tygt0if vlaygif. ]]apmapmu [dk csifvli.wmusif.udk pka0. tygt0if arG.vdkufr.Edkif"m. ]]ck u d p ö u 'D x d a wmif & d S a erS a wmY bmwwf E d k i f a wmYrS m vJ ? igwd k Y u tm.f tm.oli.\/ aqG.udka&mufatmif ydkYay.rsm.mufrusef owfypf&vdrfYr.pHu k kd êuHcYJ z. . ckepfq.fu .NzifYwifí c&D. ]]oGm.fvdkac:ovJ? [lwef.&aom vufaxmufEpS af .rpdkufovdk aevdkuf&av\/ wdk.vHk.odkY avQmufvmum .wmusif.ynmuvJ tawmfYudkawmfw.udkom ai.f vQdKY0Sufvufeufypfaom ynmrsdK. tNcm. ckepfq.f? odkif.f tm. od&awmYonf/ xdktcg wdk.ûrdY\ taemufawm&Gm wpf&GmwGif acwå ykef.uvm.aemuf &Dwdkuf&Tifudkvnf.Buavonf/ twefBumrSyif wdk.f? 'gu toifYNyifqifwJYoabmaygY}} odkYNzifY wdk.muf&dSonfudk olwdkY twdtus rwGufcJYzl.uk e f x k w f N yD .rSm pum.

fYES.f r[kwfvm. [lwef.aew.awGa&m? uav.wkdYudk apmifYa&SmufNyD. ]]acgif.fvdkufwJY [dkcsifvli.avmurSm emrnf [dk.u olwdkYbufokdY 'kef. tvJtvS.qufcJY&m [lwef. wpfa.\toHu .k &ufww d d c&D.fûyum toHk.aqmifBuD. .foGm.a.mufBunfYum &ifrSm aygYyg.wGif vSrf.eD.csEdkifBu\/ wpfa.f oHrsm. [kwfuJY}} xdkYaemuf wdk.aewm? aemufNyD.odkY a&mufvmBu\/ wdk. .folvJ? olYtoHu rdef.frQ yifyef.udkvnf.Zl.av.pdwfxJwGif ]]vrf.xdk.vmonfudk awGYvdkuf&onf/olwdkYESifY rvSrf. Bum. .oufi.tmrcHXmeu vlBuD.&bl.wdkY b.? aemufNyD.vSn.vm.vrf.wmusif. ae&modkYyif a&mufvmayNyD/ aemufwpf&uf c&D.wpfavQmufvHk. .BuD. ]]igYudk u. qHk.fudkrS roGm.&IH.ûyae&onf/ olwdkYonf c&D.}} vlwpfa.pGiYf axmifaepOf wdk.wnfaxmifwm odyfrS rBumao.okdY wufrnfY awmifaNcvrf. . uRefawmfwdkY em.yg b.u ESpfaygif.oGm.awmifyJ? 'De.vdkufwJY vludk a&mufatmifrydkY&if tm. &ifrSm w'dwf'dwfckefae&onf/ tu.}} wdk.wmusif.rS Nrif. .&GufawGudk b.bJ? a&Smifvif*dkPf.f? wu.udk &yfvdkuf\/ xdk trSwfrxiftNzpfaBumifY wdk.csvdkufonf/ olwdkYtm.ESifNcif.fvkyf 'DvdkyHkawG Nzpfvm&wmvJ? rif.rsm.mufu . ]][lwef.toHeJY wlaeygvm. xdkolrsm. . bmwpfckrS rNzpfcJYorQ a[m'D [lwef.qufvdkufvQif [lwef.atmif e*g.wmusif.vHk. ]]rif.ckqdkvQif [lwef. odkif.}} ]][kwf .*dkPf. oufNyif.wuúodkvf aevif.mufu . c&D. ûrdYNyifudk xGufvmBuawmY rBumcifbJ vlwpfodkufu uRefawmfwdkYudk wm.wmusif. .rd\/ 63 .cGmoHrsm.fvdkY olwdkY tydkYcdkif.fu b.awmif raNymvdkuf&bl.uav. ..qDudk vmtaNymcdkif.awmifaNca&mufrS NyóemNzpf&awmYrSmvm./ olwdkYonf c&Dvrf.SOfvdkY &rvJ}} odkYNzifY pum.awmifodkY a&mufvkeD.Nyif.rsm.yJ? cufwmu olYrsufESmudk rNrif&wmbJ? olYudk aus.vdkufw.bGm.aumif.qufcJYBuonf/ aeYa&mnyg r&yfrem.wdkYudk b. Nzpfonf/ odYk aomf ud. .[m [lwef.fí wpfpHkwpfck cRwfacsmfcJYaomf rdrdwdkY toufrsm.&ayNyD/ okdYNzifY rBumrDyif awmifrBuD.wdkY c&D. .fawGrSm [lwef.BuNyD.wJY? uRefawmfwdkYu olwdkYeJY pum.fY tawmfYudk ausmfBum.\ taNcokdY a&mufvmBu\/ xdkpOf &kwfw&uf taemufbufawmifBum.&Gufudk NzwfvdkufawmYwmyJ? aemufNyD.rurf.Edkif"m.ûrdYxJudk rvmygeJYvdkY aNymxm.wdkY XmeudkyJ NyefoGm.f? olwdkYu a&Tig.u a'gooHESifY xdwfvefYoH a&mvsuf . wpfaxmifausmf &dSvmNyDyJ? b.&kHru XmewGif&dSorQ oufBuD. .wmusif. rBumrDyif Nrif.vdu k &f onf/ &Dwu kd &f iT f em. .Nzpfí Nrif.vdkufNyD.Nrifae&NyDNzpfaom awmifwef.mufrusef owfypfr.&JY emrnf[m tawmf ausmfBum. ]]rif.ynmuvJ tawmf awmfom. ]]tJ[dkawmifBuD.yif ESif&aomfNim.qufcYJ onfYwikd f bmtEÅ&m. . rif.wpfavQmufwiG f tb.ae? udpör&dSbJ tNyifudk rxGufBueJY? Bum. . Bum.ygrusef towfcH&rnf r[kwfygvm.pdkif.waNymaNymESifY c&D.mufrsufESmwpfa. ckepfazmfqdkwmvJ odkif.frsm.aqmifBuD.ausmfyJ}} vufaxmufwpfa.wmusif.fawmYrS viftef.}} olwYkd ûrdYNyifoYdk a&mufonfEiS Yf a&SYbufqrD S Nrif.}}[k awG.u wdwfwqdwf apmifYBunfYaeavNyD/ ]]uJ .w.[dk.wdkY oHk.udk vufñdSK.awmifokdY a&mufNyDNzpfonf/ xdkYaBumifY olwdkY oufNyif.aNcmufpD.fwJY}} wdk.awmifrBuD. uRefawmfwdkYudk acgif.f? olwdkYu igwdkY&JY a&Smifvif*dkPf.fESifYrQ rêuHcJYBuacs/ .wGif Nrif.&Guf .vdkufw.*dkPf.u ta0.Ny&if.wifpum.wdkY bmNzpfvdkY Nyefvm&wmvJ? igu rif. .fol NzwfvdkufwmvJ}} ]]uRefawmfwdkY bGm.ayr.avmuf emrnfrBuD.rnfukd wGux f m.aNy.muf&JY em.BuawmY olwdkYu uRefawmfwdkY&JY em.BuawmY? aumif.

. . . ]]bm? e*g. ]]'DavmufvJ r[kwfygbl.um .wmusif. .ay:rS vTm.Edkif"m.pGm&dcS YJ \/ þodkY aNymvdkufNcif.qD vmydkYwmyg}} rSJYeufBuD. xdkrSJYBuD.wmusif. pum.muf&JY apcdkif.&dS&if cGifYvTwfyg}} wdk.csuft& 'Pf&m Nyif. . .av.ynm tvGefaumif.cdkif.wdkY&JY e. usef.f csufeYJ 'Pf&m&aewJY vlwpfa.vSnf.wufvdkufNyD.ckepfazmfxJuvm. .mufxJrS tv.? usKyfu 'DavmufvJ emrnfrBuD. .qkwfí t&dktao wpfcsufay. . .wmusif.\ tzHk.vQif .rS olYvlESpfa.aom Nrif. ESpfa. twGif.rSm vufeufudk.wmudkyJ vdkufvkyf&wmaygY}} wd.vm.rsm. .wGif rSJYBuD.mufudk BunfYvdkufNyD.? odkif.vdkY rNzpfbl.vQif .avmurSm qdkpum.ESifYvlu .Gif. trSm.fwpfa.f csKyfq&mBuD.mufNzpfNyD.NyD.wmusif.u &ifwcsuf ckefoGm.folYvufxJrSmvJ}} wdk. . xnfYxm.[efwl\/ olu wdk.aewJY [lwef.f}} xdkpOf aNcmufa.k wmusif.atmif e*g. t&dktao wpfcsufay.wuúodkvf aevif. ]]e*g. .rmefw0ifY0ifYNzpfaeBu\/ wdk. OD. ]]'Dvl aNcmufa.ESifYvltm.*dP k .wmusif.xefaew.muf[m [lwef.wyfom.u b.tmrcHXme\ tvHudk tvHwdkifwGif &pfywfvdkufNyD. pum.ckepfazmfxJu aNcmufa.udkpD.udk wnfaxmifcYJ onfrmS tESpf ESpq f .fausmfNyDNzpf&m tawGYtêuHrsm.\/ rSJYBuD.wJYvlqdkawmY olrsm.ESifYNzpf\/ usefav.vHk.fpDESifY tm.fwdkif Nrif.trQifrsm.f? tcsdefûzef. csifqdkwJYvlu b. ]]Nrif. ]]cifAsm.ygbl. olu eHab.wdkYu odkif.fvdkyHkpHrsdK. .tmrcHXmeu cifAsm. .udk owdxm. .f u *dP k .u [lwef.Edkif"m.}} wdk.&dk.qHk. . . .a.vm.vHk. .ydwfpudk qwfceJ qGJvSefvdkufNyD.faNrudk a&mufvmcJYwmeJYywfowfNyD. . .*dkPf.vm.aerd\/ odkYNzifY olu a&SYodkYwdk.pufaom avoHNzifY .tqHk.vnfxm.aemuf . .wmusif.wmyg? 'Dvlu b. rodbl. at.mufrl omref vlt0wftpm. oludk.ESifY Nzpfav\/ tm.folvJ}} ]]usKyfwdkYu rsdK.mufxJwGif nmbuf tpGefqHk.aBum&Snfaeonfudk pdwfr&Snf[efNzifY &kwfw&uf Nrif.bl.vl\ b.u xdkvlodkufudk tuJcwfvdkuf\/ tm.u tHYBovsuf . ]][dk .? igwdkY t&ifvufcHxm.aom vluvSnfYí rSYJBuD.aq.onf xdkvl\ odkif.fbufyg.? tBuD.u tck b.wGif rSJYBuD.Edkif"m.um &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.tm.NyD.Nyif. apmifYa&Smufvdkuf}}[k rSmBum.&dScJYwJY e*g.NzifY &Dwdkuf&Tifonf [lwef. .&dSNyD.xdyfxm.ceJ ckefqif. aygufaeav\/ xdkolu wdk.folvJ? usKyfwdkYu emrnfom Bum.awmifudk bmudpöeJYvmwmvJ}} ]]usKyfwYdk u vlwpfa.vdkufr.wmusif.zkef. csdK&Tifacsmif.u a&Tig.muf&YJ apcdik . ]]usKyfwdkY&JY a&Tig.&dS vufaxmufNzpfoltm.? usKyfwdkYu tmrcHXmezGifYxm.wpfvHk.fvlu a&SYodkY wpfvSrf. .pGm qkdonf/ xdktcdkuf &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.vdkufNyD.}} xdkolu pdwfBuD.ESifYvlu .wdkY&JY trnfudk rod&bl.avmurSm emrnfBuD.qdkwJY "m.f}} 64 .}} aNcmufa.mufrsm.ESifYvlu eHab. ]]olY'Pf&mu odyfNyif.}}[k at.rGefaBumif.Edkif"m. awGY&aomf &ifxJwGif oHo. vlaNcmufa.zl. ]]rdwfaqG wdk.qef.t. r&dSawmYbJ .\ rdwfaqGyifNzpfap? &efolyifNzpfap? olwdkYESifY bmrQ rywfoufEdkifawmY[k em.onf þvkyif ef.udk a&mufatmif ydkYay. BunfYNyD.vSnf.wm?vludkawmY wpfcgrS rawGYzl.xefxef&aewJYvludk [lwef.wmusif.í a&SYodkY xGufoGm. .*dkPf.folvJqdkwmawmY usKyfwdkY rodygbl. .}}[k awG.vJ}} ]]&kyfacsmwJY vli.mufyJ? vQdKY0Sufvufeufynm odyfawmfw. ]]'Pf&m&wm b.mufukd [lwef.bufodkY BunfYvdkuf\/ wdk. . ]]usKyfwdkYu a&Tig.vsuf vufoD.tmrcHXmeuyg?aemifBuD.emrnf csifqdkwJY vlwpfa.NyD. . BunfYNyD. vdkuf\/ xdktcsdefwGif a&SYaNy.ay:wGif tarT.mufrSm &aoY t0wftpm.

NyD. a&Tacsmif.í .udk tNynfYt0 &NyDvm.wmusif.u igYudk. acgif.uaeNyD.yJ? 'Davmuf .vSnf. ]]rdwfaqGu tckvdk yifyifyef.}} rSJYBuD. .BuavawmY\/ wdk.fvdkY igom [dkwkef.om.wm tvum.u t&dktaoay.rsufESm romr.vHk.aumif.wmusif.vSnfYí BunfYvdkufaomtcg aNcwH&Snf Nrif. ]]ta&.mufu wdk.tm..udk vltyfvdkufawmYr.ESifYvluyif . wifaqmifxm. ]]acgif.u igYudk aemufxyf ig.uvlawGudk rausreyf Nzpfaewkef.ckepfazmf emrnfBuD.rcHcsifawmYbl.? 'geJY ig bk&m.\/ 65 .onf a&Tacsmif.f}} rSJYeufBuD. ]]aumif.zdkYtwGufaygYAsm}}[k qdkum a&Tacsmif. .aNrmuf0rf.odkif.wpfaumifaemufrS aNy.ckepfazmfudk bmrSrIaezdkY rvdkawmYbl.fYudk vlrIa&. .vrf.foGm.Edkif"m.aBumifaeonfudk awGYaomf . . ]]rdwfaqGwdkYu tcaBu. ]]olY'Pf&mu odyfNyif.acsmif. qkcsawmYrnf[k awG.vmwmyJ? wu.wmusif. .? tm.ygNyD}} odkYaomf rSJYBuD.vdkYrNzpfbl. .ESifYvlu wdk..ESpfavmufwkef. ]]ig tckrS aemifw&w.ay:u qif.aqmifBuD.wuúodkvf aevif.rS bk&m.u [lwef. . .u olwdkYtm.udkBunfYNyD.lvsuf . . uRefawmfwdkYu 'Davmufa0.ESpfaeNyD.xefawmY tcsdefaESmifYaES.uG}} xdkpOf &kwfw&uf taemufbufrS Nrif.wmaygY? EdkYrdkY a&Smifvif*dkPf. aumif.loGm.wmusif.rSmqdk&if &G.wmusif..xkwf. csufcsif.udk wwfatmif oifBum.f}}[k ar.ausmif.lzdkYawmif rzdwfac:bl. .*dkPf.av? 'gaBumifY usKyfwdkYu t&if.atmif e*g.wmusif.cGmoHrsm. ypfay.wmusif.fig odyf[kwfaeNyDvdkY xifNyD.u vGefpGm oGufvufvSNyD.ygbl. aemufxyf tyifyef. NyefvSnfYvmBuavawmY\/ olwdkYtm.u igu a&Smifvifbk&m.vHwJY c&D.wkdY vlodkufonf vmvrf.yef.vdkuf&oNzifY wdk. pdwfxJwGif þudpöudk rausreyfNzpfaeolNzpf\/odkYaomf olu raNym0HYoNzifY ûyH.acsmif.[m odkif.? aemufNyD.\/ wdk. xdkrSJYBuD. ]]'gu rdwfaqGwdkY tao.rSmvnf.vnfum csufcsif.wmaygY}} xdkYaemufwGif wdk.fY tJ'Dwkef.fYESpfESpfBumoifvdkY ynmpHkcJYw.f}} wdk.xJodkY 0ifa&mufaysmufuG.fYig.ESifYvlu &ifbwfxJrS a&Tacsmif.u oufNyif.r[kwfbl.Zl.NzpfaewmyJuG? tckawmY awmfao.avmu u vlawGtcsif.yif &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.faNrxJudk 0ifvm&wmudku uoduatmifYBuD.yif .rBuD.ûyH.}} ]]&NyD.odkif. qif.rSm odkif.vltzGJYrSm awmifBum. .yJxifw.aom Nrif.NyD.&dSEdkifwm}} vufaxmufwpfa.wpfcsufndwfí .udk avYusifYwJY q&mawmfawGrSmom 'DvdkoGifNyifrsdK. .aumif. .awGvdk oHrPd vufacsmif.zdkY aNymcJYwm? 'gayr. rSJYBuD. .uae yifyifyef.*dkPf.ausmif. . rBumrDyif olwdkYab. .em.wmudk aus.&ef pdwful.NyDav? 'Dvdkqdk&if usKyfwdkYu 'DrSmyJ [lwef. vmwmawmif uRefawmfwdkYudk olwdkY*dkPf.aqmifBuD. .rvnfBubl.u oHrPdvufig.ausmif.rS NzwfausmfoGm.om NzpfaeBuav\/ vufaxmufwpfa.mNzpfaeonfudk awGY&í .ynmoifawmY q.Bum.f}} wdk.wifygw.udk oifcJY&if 'DaeY 'D[lwef.u [lwef.f? ig&JYq&m &G.ESifYvlu .*dkPf.wmaygYuGm? wdkY oufomoGm.\ aNcvSrf.f? vGefcJYwJY ESpfq. tem.wpfacsmif.yef. ai.e. oHrPdvufig.udkqGJí xGufcGmoGm.wmusif.u NrefNreftyfvQif NrefNref wm0efat.? [lwef.csvsuf . ydkYaqmifay.}} wdk.wmusif.csif.u vlawG[m wu.vdkufvmonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ xdkNrif.udk Nyefay.tm.BuD.twdkif.wmusif.aqmifBuD.vHk.vsuf vGefpGm 0rf.mufu acgif.avNyD/ ]][lwef.udk wdk.odkif.onf[k em. awmifay:rSm 'Pf&maysmufatmif ukovdkuf&r.qDudkwufNyD.vdkufaomfvnf.wdkY acgif.f&ufq&mawmfBuD. .aqmifBuD.*dkPf.? igwdkY a&Smifvif*dkPf.rSm wm0efausyGefNyDNzpfí þwpfcgwGif olwdkY\ acgif.f&uf? &Tifpif.vdkufNyD.tzGJ okH. ]]acgif. q&mawmfBuD.ESifYyif/ ]]'DvkdqdkawmYvJ wpfrsdK.

cJYbl.u Nrif.wdkY awmifay:wufNyD.qef.[m [dak Ncmufa.i.u bmar.wdkYudk ar. aomufoGm. usef.}} xdkvli.udkvTwfNyD.ae&ygw.f\ . ]]usKyfwdkYu viftef.f? vludkawmY wpfcgrS rawGYzl.faNrmufarG.wdkY tmrcHXme&JY emrnfudk tNrJwrf.u vlawGqdkawmYusKyfwkdYu tdrf&SifyDyD {nfY0wf ausyGef&rSmaygYAsm? usKyf&JY *dkPf.tmrcHXmeuxifw.ckrsufNrif xdkvli. ]]{uEÅ apmapmu aNcmuf a .eJY wNcm.f\ pum.udk awGYzdkYygyJ? 'gayr.wl tpfudkawGeJY nDav.fu &Suf[efaESmvsuf .Nyd.cifAsm}} usef. .ygOD.u odkif.csdwf oHrPdpkwfwH usef.f? 'gaBumifY usef. ]]aemifBuD.f}} ]][kwfygw.udk Bum.í . wzGzGaNymcJYBu\/ odkY&mwGif .usawmY vdIufvSJazmfa&Gwm vGefyga&mvm.bmav. r. .wJYudpör&dS&if awmifay:wufvmNyD.acR.qef.mufusawmY odyfarmufrmwmyJ? 'Dvli.lvdkufBuaygY}} wdk. wdk.? xm.Ofaus. .acR.od\/ ol\odkif.ckepfazmfwGif eHygwfig.aomf wdk.wmusif.f}} vli.fY vufzGJYvufaqmifypönf. . ]]pdwfr&dSygeJY? aemifBuD.qef. .ynmwGif vGefpGmawmfonfqdkaom tBum.ay:rSvludk tuJcwfBunfYvdkuf\/ toufrSm ESpfq.acR.f Nzpfaeav\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.pDygvm. .qef. ]]aemifBuD.p&m&dSvdkYyg}}[k at. ]]od k i f . . &kyf&nfrSm EkysdKacsmarmvS\/ odkYaomf tenf.oifYovdkESifY Nrif.ygyJ? aemifBuD. r[kwfygbl.udkBum.muf&YJ pdwo f abmxm.fu olYemrnfudk zGifY[aNymaomtcg wdk.qef.vnf. .Nzpf\/ odkif.&yf a 0.}} odkYNzifY wkd.fYESpfESpfcefY&dSNyD. .av\/ vli.acR.wmusif. ]][lwef.wmusif.vm.ynm vGefpGmaumif.q.í .aq.f}} [k awG. t&ufav.atmif e*g.SOfaomf tHYBopzG. ]]usKyfu wdk.qef.foG.fu cyfvSrf. ygrvmawmY rwuf0hHbl.xifrd\/ 66 .f&YJ pdwo f abmxm.fu wdk.fu a&Tig.udk tvnftywf r0ifvmcJY&wmvJ? 'DaeY[m usKyfwdkY q&mBuD. .wmusif. ]]usKyfemrnfu usef.wmusif.um.ûrdYuae vef&efûrdYudk vmwmuvJ wu. NyefvSnfYvmav\/ vli. Nyefí t&dktaoay.armif.u Nrif.wdkYtzGJYESifYwuG tvHudkyg awGY&aomtcg wpfcsuf tHYtm.wmusif. . .avmu u aNymaNymaewJY aiGql. igwdkY pdwfauseyfatmif wrifoufouf vmzdwfac:wmNzpf&r.Edkif"m.fonf okdif. cifAsm}} &dk.NyD.Bum. .udk &kwfw&uf &yfvdkufNyD.aomf pdwfxJwGif ..tmrcHXmetvHudk wpfcsufrQ BunfYvdkufNyD.? [dk aNcmufa.orQ vdIufvSJrIvnf.Hkwpf0uf . usef. ]]usKyf emrnfBuD. ? cif A sm.wm Nzpf&r.wmusif.awmifudk a&mufvsufeJY bmNzpfvdkY usKyfwdkY&JY*dkPf.wd k Y u e.wmusif.wdkYu [lwef.rSyif vufESpfbufudk pkí t&dktaoay.om. .aeYyJ? wu. EGJYaESmif.awGuvJ odyfcifrifwwfygw.muf [ m igwd k Y u d k rxD r J Y N rif q uf q H w m ol w d k Y q &mBuD . . avmuom. .vm.f N cm.wdkYvlodkuf &ifckefoGm.vSrf. .aBumif.qef.acR.BuD.wdkYu a&Tig.wmusif.\ pdwfxJwGif .f? aemifBuD.fu Nrif.yg? aemifBuD.ygawmYav? aemifBuD.}} vli.pGm qdk\/ wdk.u vli.csif .u ûyH.ay:rSqif.aemuf .&JY tESpfudk. .Bu\/ taBumif. .aomvli.f usef.Hkwpf0ufNzpfae\/ wdk.odrfarGY[ef&dSvSaom oGif[efudkNrifaomf oluvnf. wpfnavmuf tem.fNzpfaeonfudk awGY&&m xdkvli. ckepfazmfxu J 'Dvil .u xdkpum.wdkYu ta&.wuúodkvf aevif.fudk awGY&aomtcg tvGefw&m acsmarmNyD.avmuwGif olYemrnfudk vlwdkif..onf a&SYwdk. awG y J cif A s? 'D [ mawG rvd k y gbl . . .&dSaom vli.ay:rSqif.todESifY EIdif. u od v d k Y qlylBudrf.zkef.í avQmufvmNyD.NyD.fvdkY aemifBuD.acR.csifvdkYvJ}} [k ar.fvs\/ xdkvli.fawmY q&mBuD.rSm [lwef.

/olu xl.f}} usef.wmusif.qef.f .mufvJAs}} xdkar.NyD. . &d S N yD .f [kwv f m. f o l w d k Y [l w ef .qef.u tpfudkoHk.ygvm. ]]wu.rS m rS J Y BuD .xifrdonfESifY wdk.? bmvm.qef.fAs? wpfaeYxJrSmyJ usKyfwdkY tifrwef Nrifzl.awmifay:udk a&mufNyDAs}} usef. 'DaumifvJ wu. ]]aNymNyD.vdkY usKyfudk awmifatmufqif. .f yvm.udkBum. .r[kwfbl. ûyH.ae\/ ]]'Dr.wmusif. ck e pf a zmf v d k Y aNymwmyJ A s? NyD .vsuf . .? usKyf&JY tpfudkBud.}} usef.aom tNzpftysufudkom pdwf0ifpm. xdkokdY awG.eJY usefwJYolawGu q&mBuD. [d k aNcmuf a .yg ygao.fES.acR. ]]cufygAsm? 'DrmS usKyfwpfa.qef.w.}} usef.udk reufuwnf. .ford vJAs? usKyfu aNcmufa. [d k b. ]]usKyfwdkYq&mBuD.f cifAsm.f [kwfvm.fvYkd cifAsm.rSm rJSYrygbl.atmif e*g.mufpvHk. &Dwdkuf&Tifvm.acR.folwdkY [lwef. .rSm vGefpGmyDwdNzpfvsuf ûyH.}} 67 . .avmuf azmfa&Gr.awmifaNcuae xGufvmBuwm? olwdkYxJrSm &aoYESpfyg.fvdkY qkd&r.NyD. rS Y J B uD .u &aoY0wfayr.}} [k aumufcsufcsrd\/ wpfqufwnf.u acgif.awGYwmr[kwb f .awGYzl.f b uf y g. . &Dwdkuf&TifudkvJ awGYvdkufw.fvkyf odcGifY&rSmvJ cifAsm}} wdk.rf. .Edkif"m.favmuf? b.wmusif.uvdkY aNymovm. .csifwJY [lwef.mufvJAsm}} wdk.fv?kd aemifBuD. .ygvm. ]]b.fenf.pufoGm. &aoYr0wfBubl.mufa.*dkPf.a&m.f wltpfuekd YJ nDawGukd awGYvu kd w f .wGif wdk.&JY *dP k . .acR. .fxl.f[efaqmifaumif. . .foel yH gwfb. .mufpvHk.wuúodkvf aevif.u pdwfr&SnfoHNzifY .}} ]]eHygwfoHk. . .aom avoHNzifY . b.foNl zifY &Dwu kd &f iT q f w kd mrSe.wl nDtpfudkawGxJrSm b. ]]'gawmY b. [kwfvm.u ceJYûyH. .u tHYBooHESifY . ]]'DuaeY usKyfwdkY uHaumif.? w.Sufae\/ odkYaomf usef.acR. BuD . wu. . .fY usKyfwdkY wynfY ckepfa. .aemuf .fawGYvdkufvm.u .mufpvHk.qef.Asm? olwdkYu uRefawmfwdkYudk emrnfawmif aNymNycsifyrkH ay:bl. wpfcsufrQ aBumifoGm.wmAs? b.ydkí thHBooGm.}} usef.fq&kd if usKyfwYkd u tckavmufqkd [lwef. . ]][d k .f uvJ? b.wdkYudk awGYEdkifygYrvJ}} wkd.\ &ifxJwGif .f b.NyDaumAsm? cifAsm.um &. .l cifAsm? usKyfwYkd wpfzYJG v.fYES.acR.aomf &ifxJwGif &kwfw&ufat.aBumifY wdk.acR.vsuf .muf u ol w d k Y u d k .ckepfazmfpvHk. . &Dwdkuf&Tif 'DaeYxdawmif Nyefrvmao.csdK&Tifacsmif.eJYrS rNzpfEdkifbl.u awGawGa0a0 NzpfoGm. awmY olwdkY[lwef.wmusif.fwek .qef. . ]]tif.vsuf .\ avoHwGif ceJYaom oa&mfaom avoHrsdK. .faNcmufa. .aemuf .qef. ]] usKyf&JY *dkPf.cg.fYvkyf cifAsm.onf xdkt&mudk ta&.wdkYu tpfudkBuD.qef. .folrSyg. awG a yguf a ewJ Y vl [ m csdK&Tifacsmif.udk twlwlawGY&wmqdkawmY &Dwdkuf&Tifqdkwm wpfa.cGef.udk awGYvdkuf&w.mufawmY NzpfrSmaygYAsm}} ]]aNcmufa.vm.? b.? 'gaBumifY usKyfwYkd u b.\/ ]][if}}ceJ tmar!dwfoHwpfcsuf ûyNyD.w.f wl tpfuekd YJ naD wGuom cifAsm.u usKyfwYkd *P kd .fumNzifY . .fESpfa.awmif rodvdkuf&bl. ]]usKyf&JY tpfudkeHygwfoHk.wmusif.wmusif.eJY tpfudkBuD.u ûyH.\/ ]][d k .rpdkuftm.wl tpfudkawG nDawGu emrnfawmif aNymrNyawmYvJ usKyfwkdYu b.}} wdk.onf xdkpum. ay:rS m tarT . . apmifYBunfYcdkif.rS qif.kH u awGYwmAsdKY? &Si.fAs? usKyfwkdYu .mufwnf. . .csdefr&bl.wmusif.? [dkvlawGu olwdkYudk.u 0wfûyaewmAs? awmifay:uae wpfvSrf.As}} wdk.Asm? q&mBuD.? b.wmusif.&JY*dkPf.

acR.vkyfwmvJAs}} xdt k cgwd. csufcsif.bufodkY 'kef.qef.f aNy.foYkd b. . .fvufNzifY wdk. .mufu wrifoufouf usKyfwdkY&JY emrnfudk bmvdkY tvGJoHk.awmifrBuD.qef.k wmusif. .wGif csufcsif.NzpfrdNyD. wdk.u[k xifaeNcif.awmifodkY ta&mufydkYcdkif.xefpmG &NyD. &Dwdkuf&TifyJAs}} usef.aNymNyav\/ usef.*dkPf.wuúodkvf aevif.raNym? vIyfvnf.udk tptqHk.NzpfNyD.vdkufyHkrsm. [lwef.udk qGJvdkufavawmYonf/ 68 .yif wnfNidrfatmifûyvsuf b.favmufyJ &dSvdrfYr.oGm.mufudk [lwef.ES.fykH a&mufvmcJYy?kH 'Pf&mNyif. ]]olYemrnf b.u vlyHkyef.Edkifaom vlwpfa. Nrif.wmusif.ay:ckefwufNyD.rdaomfvnf.u .onf tvm.As? toufawmY oHk.qef.fvkdac:vJawmY rodbl.\ Nrm.u Nrif.wmusif.aeaom Nrif.NyDbJ? wdkY NrefNrefvdkufrSyJa[Y}} wdk.acR. rqdkygacs/ xdktNzpfudk owd&rdaom wdk.vQif wkd.avawmY\/ usef.folvJ? touft&G.SOfvdkuf&if.qef.f}} NyD.wmusif.ay:ckefwufNyD.mufudk [lwef.vQif .qdk&if igwdkYudk [dkvlawG ywfoGm.wGif usef.\ pum.acR.u pum. ]][dk 'Pf&m&wJYvlu b.f eJY &kyf&nfuaum}} wdk.\ Zufêud.udkyg qufvufaNymNyav\/ wdk. ]]'DyHktwdkif.atmif e*g.wmusif.wl Nrif.Edkif"m.pm.acR. .onf olYvufaxmuf ESpfa. þt&yfukd b. xdktcgusrSyif wdk. . .raNym? r[kwf[kvnf.mufudk BunfYvkdufNyD. xdkvlrsm.pdkif.vnf.u vGefpGm tHYBoNcif.tqHk. rvIyf&Sm.udk 'ke.onf apmapmu Nzpf&yfudk Nyefvnf owdxm.u bmrQraNymacs/ xdkvlawGu [kwfonfvnf.tqHk.\Nrif. .&if.rdawmY\/ trSefrl olwdkYuom xdkvl aNcmufa. pD.f pD.q.f pdik .wmusif. pum.wmusif. .EIwfrS [mceJ tmar!dwfoH ûyvdkufrd\/ ]]'g tpfudkoHk.wmusif. ]][dkvlaNcmufa.onf vGefpGm pdwfvIyf&Sm.wmusif.ESifY. .wpfpif.

rl Nrif. txifrvGJygeJYAsm? cifAsm.\ csdKNraom rsufESmrSm ñdkarSmifoGm.qef.pdkif. tcef.rSm use. .acR. .onfudk Bum.ckvnf.oP²mefudk aNymNyvdkuf\/ usef. "m.rSm Nrif.udk "m.avawmY\/ Nrif.muf&JY yHkyef.vrf.ay:rS vsifNrefpGm ckefqif.wdkYudk vmydkYcdkif.wmusif.cGef.ynmoifBum.aeaom Nrif.folvJ? b. ]]tJ'Dvl aNcmufa.od&aomf vGefpGm ylyefaomu Nzpfrd&Sm\/ usef.qef. csufcsif.acR.qef.udkyg &Trf.atmif e*g.f qGv J u kd o f nfEiS Yf aNcESpaf csmif.uae wm0ef. êuwfvdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf .txef&NyD.Nzpf&m wpfOD. rsufarSmifvnf.yif Nrif.aES.wmusif.acR.u .acR.u 'Davmuf a0.axmif ywwf&yfNyD.Edkif"m.qef. usef. &Dwdkuf&Tifwpfa.wuúodkvf aevif.wmusif.Nyef\/ xdktcg wdk.rIwfNyD.avawmY\/ wdk.udk 'kef.aumif.u &kww f &uf vSr.fYaBumifY 'Pf&m&cJYwmvJ? &efolu b. &if.NyD.aemuf wHkYceJ &yfoGm. (8) [lwef.cGJodkY a&mufonfESifY taemufbuf awmifBum.acR. nDtpfudk&if.muf\ yHkyef. .acR.tdrfxJokdY NyefxnfYvdkuf\/ odkYaomf "m.acR. aoG. raNzEdkifacs/ usef.u .udkwpfOD.&dk.&if.f acR.wl tpfudkoHk. usKyfwdkY&JY tpfudkoHk.wifvdkY rqHk.vHwJY c&D.Nzpfí tvGef vsifNref\/ [lwef.qef.&if.qef.udk apmifYa&Smuf ac:vmwmudkyJ usKyfu aus. ESifoGm.wmvJ}} usef.qef.onf awmifaNcvrf.onf arm[dkufvmNyD.onf ol\ *dkPf. ]]usKyf&JY tpfudkoHk. .Nrpfrodaom vlwpfpk\ vufxJodkY a&mufoGm.odkY qufESifvdkuf\/ wpfem&DausmftcsdefrQ 'kef.udk wdk.u .pdkif.vdkufr.u xdkvl aNcmufa.yrm cspfcifwG.muf 'Pf&m tNyif.cGef.ygbl.ckepfazmf t&deS t f [keNf yif.udkawmYrl vufNzifY zdxm.auG.f}}[k aNymNyD.folu aemifBuD.om.vmav\/ 69 . aNcvSrf.NyD.ceJ qGJxkwfvdkuf\/ usef.u b.qJyifNzpf\/ usef. .aomf Nrif.oP²mefu b. .u [l. ]]aemifBuD.ovdk xif&NyD.ceJ oufNyif.fwmBu\/ .fvdkvJ}} [k ar.aom ar.lNyD. "m.Zl.fYES.pGm aNy.wmusif.Asm}} wdk.ckepfazmfrSm twlwuG odkif.qef. .\ oHk. ]]'Dvdkqdk&if usKyf t&ifoGm. . avYusifYvmolrsm.

D uwnf.f udk uefawmYBu\/ wynfYckepfa.Ncm.w.ckefEIef.pGmNzifY &Dwdkuf&Tif\ rsufESmudk prf.\/ arG.u rsuf&nfrqnfEdkif? idk&SdKufoHwpf0ufNzifY .\ touf ud.vSnf.w.rSm ckefaeao.wdkY eSpfa.vSn.fcif.wdkifatmifvnf.vS\/ vGefpGm&ufpufBurf. wpfpHkwpfck xl.vHk.Edkif"m.acR.qef.u &kwfw&uf [DoHay.om.D udk awGY&NyD.qef.kH u odik .fvdkaBumifY ckvdkNzpfvm&wmvJ? tckar.NyD.zke.k rSm apmifYpm.vdkufaomtcgwGifvnf.qef. ]]tpfuo kd .qef.f aEG .mufwGif wwd.qef.acR.csdef aea&mifatmufwGif &Dwdkuf&Tif\ rsufESmwpfckvHk. ûzef.twdkif. xGe.qef.xefaeawmY olYtoufudk t&ifu. Nrif.ok d Y aNy. wpdrfYpdrfY .xJodkY pOf.? q.aeYyifNzpf\/ eHeufO./ &if 0 ok d Y vuf u av.f wpfp. oGm.fBunfYvdkuf\/ awmf y gao.qef.NzifY &efolrSm &Dwdkuf&Tif\ t&dk.? vufaumuf0wf t&dk.xefxef &cJYygvdrYf }} xdkpOf olYNrif.qef.fESpfumvusrSacsacs &ygao.vHk.av\/ olYNrif.acR.acR. odvdkuf&\/ usef.\/ tm.vdkufNcif.w.&if.qef.oyf udkifwG.mufom vkdae\/ q&mBuD. tm.ESpaf umif vJus aoqH.NzpfaBumif.vmBuavNyD/ eHygwfaNcmufwynfY csifv&d eS Ef iS Yf wynfYeHygwfckepf armfukqef.acR.onf &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.f}} olu Nrif.&dk.vdkuf\/ odkYaomf usef. tvsiftNref ayGYxlvdkuf\/ naecif.csKyfq&mBuD.fvakd BumifY 'Davmuf 'Pf&m Nyif.BuD.f ynm 'DavmufawmfvsufeYJ b.zkef.udk pwif onfaxmifaom *dkPf.f acR.Nzpf\/ za. pdwv f yI &f mS .wuúodkvf aevif.mufukd awGYvu kd &f \/xdo k l arSmufvaJ eaom yHo k P²mefu vlaotavmif.u rsuf&nfrqnfEdkif/ &Dwdkuf&Tiftm. awG.rsm.*dkPf.\/ olu &eforl sm.ESiYf wv l \ S / usef. tygt0if olYwynfYrsm.bufwGif vlwpfa.av\/ odkY&mwGif ESvHk.aeY aeYv.usaeonfudk awGY&\/ trSefpifppf &Dwdkuf&Tif\ aNc? vuf t&dk.acR. ESvHk.ukef&kHru vufacsmif.aewm tpfudk&JY nDav.yif/ use.BurnfqdkvQif &Dwdkuf&Tif\ cE¨mudk.0 toufr&dSawmYouJYodkY Nzpfae\/ usef.xm.NyD.Nzif Y tomzd í prf.fzdkY ta&.qef.onfrmS rBumao.NyD.oG m .rsm. wGufqxm.aBumif.dkxGufaeavNyD/ .rudkcGJí awmtkyfxJokdY vSnfY0ifvkdufaBumif.&Dwdkuf&TifNzpfaBumif.od\/ rdrd\Nrif.f xm.aomfvnf.mufrSm tayguf0wGif 0ifvdkufxGufvdkuf &yfaeonfrSm tBudrfBudrf tcgcg? 70 . xif&Sm. ayGYzufxm.apmifYcdkif.rsm.Nznf.onf vGepf mG a'goxGuo f mG . odvdkuf\/ olu &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.fEpS af Nrmuf arG.uyif wynfYaNcmufa.HkBunfxm. .onf &if w 'd w f ' d w f N zif Y xd k v l Y tem.êuwfaom vlrsm. Nrif.wpfpHkwpf&m Nyefay:rvmacs/ naecif. vHk.vdkufNyD. b. xGucf mG oGm.\ tvdkus awmvrf.if.onf csufcsif. [lwef.acR.usdK.mufrQ rawGY&acs/ olu ab. vrf.tm.zG.Edkifaom taNctae&dS\/ usef.? vufarmif.rSm rrSefcsifawmY/ ckefwpfcsuf &yfwpfcsuNfzifY tcsdefra&G.udkvTwfí awmifaNcodkY oGm.ckqdkvQif {nfYcef.wkid rf sm.Nzpfíaeav\/ .rSm olYocifaemufrS cyfrSefrSefvdkufvmae\/ þaeYonfum.&JY 'Pf&mu odyfNyif.ceJ &yfoGm.NyD.k aeonfuv kd nf.rBum.? aygif&dk.wufoGm.atmif e*g.rsm.wdkif? tarT.aoG.f? &efNidK.vH.aqmif tv.pD.pm. Bunf Y vd k u f & m aemuf a usmud k Bunf Y &k H E S i f Y yif ol \ tpfudkoHk.qef.qef.NyD[k odvdkufonfESifY Nrif.Bu\/ odkY&mwGif .fA[dkwGif pm. owif.NyD .av}} usef. awmifay:okdY wNznf.yGJrsm. NzLa&mfaeNyD.acR. axG . oGm.wGif rnfonfYNyóemrQ NzpfyGm.k q. vlrvm owif.c&D.mufu usef. i.usef. .ywfvnfoYdk BunfY&v I u kd af omtcgwGirf l NrufawmwGif arSmufvsufvaJ eaom vlwpfa.fvdkY r&dSygbl.frsm. vsuf & d S o nf r[k w f y gvm.udk pdefaNyeaNy csdK. ]]tpfudkoHk.onf/ xdkYaBumifY &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.udk zGifYBunfYvdkuf&m twGif.zkef.vnf.om xGufoGm.aeYtrD ol a&mufvmvdrfYrnf[kvnf.tNzpfudk BunfYNcif. usef.ay:rS ckefqif.vdkuf&\/ usef.udk wnfcif.onf wkefvIyfacsmufcsm.\/ tenf .f vIyfcgNyD. usef.ESifY tNrefvdkufvQif rDEdkifayonf/ okdY&mwGif olYacgif. nifompGm ayGYxlvdkuf\/ &Dwdkuf&Tif\ vufESpfbufrSm aysmYacGvsuf atmufbufokdY wGJavsmif.t&dk.qdkwm a[mif. Nrif.mif. 'Pf&m ydkqdk.apvdkuf\/ awmtkyx f o J Ydk 0ifvu kd o f nfEiS Yf vJûydaeaom Nrif.acR.wdkifatmif olNyefvmonfudk rawGY&aomtcg usef. 0ifvm\/ ]]tpfudkoHk.Nyif.wynfY &Dwdkuf&Tifwpfa. vGefpGm pdwfcsBu\/ &Dwdkuf&Tifonf tvkyf vkyf&mwGif aocsm\/ apYpyf\/ xdkYaBumifY vrf.qef.vnf.vdrfYrnfr[kwf[k .rnfpdk.

awmY odyfarmwmaygYuGm}}[k aNymvdkuf&m wynfY ig. qef . &Dwu kd &f iT rf mS vH.rSm arY&kHom arYvJusNcif.wmaygY? 'gayr. . .qef.NyD. vJusoGm. .zkef.a.Nzif Y &D w d k u f & T i f \ em.u NzLqGwfaeaom rkwfqdwfarT. usef. .wkdYu tawGYtêuH&dSolrsm. ]]tif. ylaqG.rSm *dkPf.wl nDtpfudkrsm. .rS aq.udk rzGifYEdkifawmYbJ vufNzifYyif tzHk. &Dwdkuf&TifrSmrl aoa&.acR.&dk.mufpvHk.vm&NyD.xJudk ckefcsNyD.NzpfNyD.onf ykvif. &Dwu kd &f iT rf mS tvdt k avsmuf aq.lvdkufonf/ odkif.q&mBuD. .vH.vHk.[m. &Dwdkuf&Tifvm.Nzif Y Ed S y f v d k u f a v\/ ol \ Nynf Y 0 vS a om twGif.wdkifudkBunfYNyD. vlwpfa. acR.qef. yg.atmif rsdKrcsEdkifay/ 71 . tpfudkoHk. wpfudk.q&mBuD. vGefpGm emBunf.mufudk ayGYzufxm.NzifYqdkygvQif b. zk e f .f u rwwfEdkifonfYtqHk. taetxdkif yGifYvif.vH.NyD. .fNynfYwJYaeYwkef.rsm.rwpfa.vHk.aom ykvif.ckrl q.f? olwdkYu q&mYarG. ]]nDav.\ NyefaNzoH ay:xGufvm\/olYtoHwGif idk&SdKufoH a&maESmvsufae\/ olYvufxJwGifvnf. w[m.vHk.fY q.fvHk.buftcef.xefaeaBumif.udk rrsdKcsEdkif/ usef . . k w f pfcsuf a&SYiu kd u f soGm.farmBuavawmY\/ trSefpifppf odkif.xefpGm &&dSaomvl\ toufudkyif qufay.k udk rsdKcsvdu k \ f / okYd &mwGif &Dwu kd &f iT \ f vnfrsdKrSm awmifYwif. aq. aNymwwfavonf/ xdktcdkuf wynfYBuD. ]]q&m? nDav.lvdkuf\/ xkdykvif.um .atmif e*g.ESifY wynfY eHygwfESpf &Dvifwef.vHk.ES i f Y vuf r ud k p í xd y f r sm. .k vH.c&D.k 0rvIy/f odik .&Sifa&.mufudk u.favmufyif 'Pf&mNyifxefí arYaNrmaeol Nzpfaprl cPpOftwGif.ESifY &Dvifwef.fESpfNynfYrSm aumif.qef.\ a&SYwGif 'l.vkH.udk usoGm.q&mBuD. &Dwdkuf&TifeJY usef.oHk.qef. .u rif.fcsufausmfrQ zdEySd yf gaomfvnf.odvdkuf\/ xdkpOfwGifyif wynfYBuD.qef. vkyfBuHcH& . u vuf E S p f b uf r S vuf ñ d S K .}} ]]uRef .onfudk od&\/ ta&.zkef.pyfu yGifYvmawmY\/ xdktcg aq.rSm 'Pf&mNyif.fp&m &Tifp&m [mo&o pum.Ncif.BuD.ygayusHvsuf rsufESmwpfckvHk.acR. odvdkuf\/ xkdYaBumifY twGif. .ck xdkwynfY ESpfa.rsm.qef.xJrS aq.bJ aNy.aom aq. csdK&Tifacsmif.xnfYxm..vHk.wuúodkvf aevif.u yg.rsm.vnf.xGufoGm.zkef.rIwpfckck ûyBuwmawmY [kwfyg&JY? olrsm.EdkifpGrf.NzifY &TJepfae\/ olu tcef. csdK&Tifacsmif.NzpfomG .q&mBuD.Edkif"m.qD.ESpfbufudk ESdyfvdkuf&m &Dwdkuf&Tif\ yg. usef.wdkY[m {uEÅ ta&.yif Nzpfyg\/ odkif.0ifNyD. atmfí .udk xkwf. .qef.udk xkwf. .zkef. Nzpf\/ usef.f}} usef.mufpvHk.k tvefYwBum.qef.pyfxo J Ykd 0ifomG . .rsm. odkif. wpfavQmufvHk.0 arYarsmaeolNzpf&m aq.HkBunf\/ .axmufum .qef.acR.aom udpöwpfckESifY &ifqdkifae&NyDNzpfaBumif. usef. rsufESmcsdKaoG. aoG.acR.BuD.udk . aoaBumif.vHk.wJY udpöwpfckckeJY êuHaeNyDxifw. Nyefa&mufcsdefwefvsuf Nyefrvmao. r&yfrem.u &kwfw&uf tNyifbufodkY aNy.rSm wpfcsufBunfY&kHESifYyif &dwdkuf&TifrSm vGefpGm 'Pf&mNyif.odkY csufcsif.udk yGwfoyf&if.yif Nzpf\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.Nzpfaeí olwdkYu &Dwdkuf&Tifudkom zrf. twGif. .vHk.vHk.csKyfq&mBuD. .qef. &.NyD. usef. usef. . ]]q&m .pyfxJodkY xnfYvdkuf\/ odkYaom &Dwdkuf&TifrSm owdvHk.orm.fcJYw. &.zke.txuf v uf r 0uf c ef Y a e&mud k z d í twG i f .q&mESifY *dkPf. uRefawmfyg}} usef.f q&mBuD.? ig touf&Spfq.rsm.rsm.k oH. Nzpfaomfvnf.NyD.BuHwJY rkqdk.Nzpfí pdwftpOfrSm wnfNidrfae\/ olu olYwynfY ESpfa.oHk.vHaom awmifwufvrf.rsm. &.rSmvnf.udkaNcGvdkufNyD.rsm.tm.xJodkY aNy.pOf usef.zkef. pdwfESvHk.rl w&m.awGu vnfwqefYqefYeJY apmifYarQmfae&wmrsdK.mif.vHk. Nyefvnf owd&vmEdkif\/ odYk &mwGif .aeaomaBumifY aemufqHk.}} tm.zkef.mufpvHk. q&mYudk uefawmYwm Nzpf&r.&G u f x d y f r sm.qef.NyD.aeYrSm aumif. usef.lum &Dwdkuf&Tif\ yg. tm.rIwpfckckûyNyD. csufcsif.u a&wGif.av\/ trSerf l olonf a0.rSm ud. a&SYarSmufodkY a&mufaomf arYvJoGm.aeoNzifY aq. tif.\ t&nftcsif.f? odyfaumif.0ifvmNyD.u za.fvsuf .

aeNyD. taBumif.u .Edkif"m.acR.mufudk ukwfrSqGJí tcef. .wmusif. &kwfw&uf rwfwwf&yfvdkufNyD. .ESifYrQ 'Pf&m&atmif rûyEdkifaBumif. .Nref.ay:wGif taBumydwfcHvdkuf&í vJavsmif. .qef.eJY awGYcsifvdkYwJY? viftef.\ eHygwfav.wmusif. aNrBuD.qef.\ odkif. aNrBuD.mufu . ]]'DaumifYaBumifYaygY q&m}}[k aNymNyD.qef.qef. avmurSm aoNcif.ESifY awGYqHkcJYyHk tqHk.rsm.f ud.acR.tm.w&m. csufcsif.rS pum aemufqHk. .rSmvnf.Nznf.}}[k atmfaNymav\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.u olwdkYq&mrSm b. ]]cifAsm. owdNyef&vm\/ olu aumufumiifum . .aeaom wdk.wynfY usef.aNym? nDav.ynmavmufESifY &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.NzifY &Dwdkuf&Tif\ 'Pf&mrSm tvGefYtvGefNyif.av\/ wdk.vnf. . ]]tNyifbufrSm tmrcHXmeu vlwpfodkuf a&mufaeygw.fvdkNzpfEdkifao.wmusif.if.xGufvm\/ wd.ckepfazmfwGif pdwftNrefqHk. .fwpfa.wdkYuvnf. .fol wkûydifEdkifvdkY &rSmvJ}}[k NyefaNzvdkuf\/ xdktcdkuf tdrfapwpfa.vJq&m}} usef.oHrsm.qef.tm.yif aNray:odkY "m. tckvdkNzpf&wm}} csefvd&SefrSm [lwef.usoGm.fvdkaBumifY 'Pf&m tNyif.mufu xdt k oHukd Bum. a'goNzifY . usef.qef.wJY}} usef.pHkzGifY[ aNymNyvm&ef csdKomaomtoHNzifY azsmif. ]]'DaumifBuD.qef. .qef. taNctae b.od\/ xdkYaBumifY wdk.? rif.udk ulnD&efNyifvdkuf\/ xdkpOf usef.acR.wdkYrSmrl *dkPf. rodrom wkef&Dvsuf&dSonfudk awGY&\/ . ]]q&m tpfudkoHk.NyD.Nzpf\/ xdkpum.wuúodkvf aevif. csifvd&Sef? rvkyfeJYOD.udk tqufrNywf Bum.qHkusD.xefaeaBumif.BuD. usef. ]]usef. . .udk Bum.acR.av\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.&av\/ eHygwfaNcmuf csifvd&SefESifY eHygwfckepf armfukqef.&aomtcg odik .f q&mBuD. wpfvHk.zkef.um.ygYr. . &Dwdkuf&Tifu b.ESifY &Dvifwef.BuD. . usef.udk ESdyfES.xJokdY 0ifvmNyD.udk b.xJodkY p0ifuwnf. .*dkPf.awGYwmAs? cifAsm.eJY? Nznf.uyif qufí .u .atmfvdkuf\/xdkpOf tNyifbufrS vlwpfa.mufu vmtyfcJYaBumif.fenf.u rsufarSmiftomukwfvdkufNyD. twGif. ckefxGufNyD. tNyifbufodkY ckefxGufoGm.acR.atmif e*g.wmusif.zs ar.Nzwfay. ckefxGufí aNcaxmufNzifY xdkvludkuef&ef ûyvdkuf\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.vnf.acR.u wdk.csifwmvm. vGefpGmNynfY0ay&m toHrSm [def.vkyfvdkY tpfudkoHk.k wmusif.ûrdYu a&Tig.u vlwpfa. b.\ vufaxmufEpS af .? usKyfwdkYu apwemoefYoefYeJY cifAsm.f}} xdkavoHrSm vGefpGm rmefygNyD.wdkY [lwef.ay:odkY csvdkuf\/ usef. ]]nDav.aqmifBud.muf 0ifvmNyD. . k w f ikd f aNymvdkufonf[kxifrSwfum NidrfoufoGm.wdkYudk vmNyD. xdktcg okdif.vQif . tmrcHXmeu acgif.txef&cJYwmvJ}} csdK&Tifacsmif. .wdkYu oufouf tEdkifusifY apmfum.zke.udk BunfYNcif.wmusif.wmvm.u 'DvdkyJ &rf. ]]nDav. rsdK. wdk.Buav\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.acR.f? q&mBuD.q&mBuD.fay. ]]tNyifbufu rdwfaqGwdkY qlqlnHnH rvkyfBuygeJY? cPavmuf apmifYaeyg?usKyfu tNzpfrSefukd qHk.\/ csufcsif.rusef zGifY[aNymNyavawmY\/ 72 .udk taBumaNzay.u &Dwdkuf&Tif\ vnfrsdKBuGufom.aomf csufcsif.emrnf ]]csif}} qdkaom vli. . vufacsmif.&dk. .qef.}}[k vSrf. usef.cktBudrfwGifrl olwdkYq&m\ rsufESm trlt&mrSm vGefpGm vIyf&Sm.vnf.frQyif ta&. odomvS\/ tcsdeftwefBumaomf usef. cufcJaom Nyóemrqdk [efrysuf wnfNidrfpGmNzifY vkyfudkifEdkifonfudk awGYcJY&\/ odkYaomf .qef.zkef.u a'gooHNzifY . tpfudkig. avmrBuD. &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.

ypö .wmusif.vdu k &f \/ olu vufEpS zf ufukd pkí odik .a&muf apmifYa&Smuf&ef apcdkif.udk ta0.av\/ &Dvifwef.fí þudpu ö dk aqmif&Guf&mwGif cRwfacsmfcJYaomf a&Tig.tmrcHXSme&dS vlaygif.cHpm.wl nDav.k wmusi.u xnfYrwGufbl.ynma&m touft&G. ]]q&m? olwdkYaBumifY tpfudkoHk.f u rdrw d Ykd rdom.rsm.vHk.kH wdwq f w d Nf idro f ufaeNyD.xm.um ESdyfvsuf&dS\/ xdktcdkuf wkd. 'Dn 'DrSmyJ tem.xJwGif wynfYBuD. .vQif odik .BuavawmY\/ xdt k csdew f iG f cef. qef .wdkY vlodkufrSm rwwfomonfY tqHk.uaeNyD.u olYudk vGefpGm av.wlnDav.NzifYuyfí twGif.oHk.wuúodkvf aevif.f}} olYavoHrSm nifom wdk. wd k Y o nf csuf c sif . ]]nDav.ckepfq. ]]&Dvifwef. . uRefawmfwdkY&JY udpt ö wGufeJY q&mBuD.tm. 'DvkdNzpf&wm}} usef.fYwpfa.armfukqef.atmif e*g.wdwfaomfvnf.atmfvdkufonfESifY bmrQ qufvufí raNym0HYawmYacs/ csdK&Tifacsmif.BuD.qef.ûrdYudk vkdufoGm. wpf c suf B unf Y v d k u f N yD . rif.pm.xGufaeonf[k xifvkduf&\/ em&D0ufcefY Bumvwfaomf &Dwdkuf&TifrSm ]]tm.mufudk oGm.u nDav.vdkuf? a&Tig.awmif rodbl.uyif qufí .aew.udk Bum.rm. bmvkdY oabmxm.Nzwfí .udk odvdkuf\/ ]]csif}}vli. rod a tmif Nzpf o G m . wdk. usef.zkef. .f \ touf&LS oHEiS Yf ouf N yif .u .fu wdk.udk ac:NyD.f x d y f a y:rS taiGYwaxmif.vSrf. rI w f x k w f o H u d k Bum.&JY tpfudkoHk.zke.qef. ]]cifAsm.\/ xdkYaBumifYvnf.yJ vdkufoGm.*dP k ..if . yif ypö n f .fyg usef*dkPf.\/ xdkYaBumifY usef.\/ &if x J w G i f v nf .Ncif. rsuf&nfa0YvnfpGmESifYyif xGufcGmoGm.qef.wGif olu aBuuGJaqG.u Bum. wd k Y ES p f a .Nzpf\/ usef.onf odkif.lvdkufBuyg? usKyfwkdYu cifAsm.p&mawG &dSygao.fBuD.qHk. . tckvdk Nzpf&wmyg? 'gu usKyfwdkY&JY tNypfyg? usKyfwdkY a&Tig. .&JYnDav.ao.awGudk apmifYa&Smufvdkuf}}[k trdefYay.yif olYq&m\ Buifemwwfaom pdwfaeoabmxm. .NzpfoGm. .zke. BoZmtmPmoHaESmae\/ wpfzufom.acR. t&dt k ao wpfcsufay.wGif 0ifxdkifvkdufBu\/ &D v if w ef .f? cGifYûyygOD.rsm.tmrcHXmeu vlawGtm. .qef.\ pum.f o d k Y x m.vm. csdK&Tifacsmif.aqmifBuD.ae&\/ .r? uav.rSm BoZm t&dSeft0g tBuD.vdkvkdyif &Dwdkuf&Tif\ aemufaBum&dS taBumr ESpfckudk vuf0g.csufrsdK.Nzpf\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.f tm. .ckvnf.aNrYaomtoHNzifY .ygeJY? uRefawmfwdkY NyefygawmYr.? usKyfwdkYu 'Dudpöudk aqmif&Gufwm cRwfacsmfoGm. usef.eJY rdef.af pmifYa&Smuf&ef Nyifqifaeonfukd Nrif&aomf rsuf E S m b.wpfcv k . tcd k u f usef .f rSmrl [lwef.udk ac:NyD.wmusif.Bu\/.wmusif.zkef.ud k odrf. ]]nDav. rNiif.\/ odkYaomf csufcsif. ]]tpfudkav.&G.xuf BuD.om.qef. ES i f Y armf u k q ef .qefEdkifatmif BoZmoufa&mufrI&dS\/ xdkYaBumifY wdk.wdkYudk ar.[if}} [lwef. csufcsif. arY a rsmaeaom &D w d k u f & T i f t m. tu.vdkY cifAsm. q&mu olwdkY ESpfa. trsd K .rBuD.*dkPf.aomf &kwfw&uf . ES i f Y armf u k q ef .wdkYtm. rif.vJ tcktcsdefavmufqdk towfcH&NyDvm.tmrcHXmeu oufBuD.mufudk owfypfrnf[k owday. csdK&Tifacsmif.qnf.*dkPf.&wmvJuG? acgif.u .&rnf r S e f .w.f q&mBuD. rsm. viftef.ES i f Y vuf e uf r sm.vkH.f q&mBuD. tckcsufcsif. ab.wmusif.}}ceJ wpfcsufatmfvdkuf\/ 73 . &Dvifwef.Asm}} usef.u rif.tm. zk e f .pktwGuf umuG. \ i. apmifYa&SmufcJYwmudkawmY rif.wynfYawGudk 'ku©ray.u wpfcsufrQ aBumiftrf.u wpfcGef.vQif ]]q&mBuD.trnf razmf N yEd k i f a om cHpm.avawmY\/ wd.Nyifqif&ef xGufcGmoGm.rSm wpfcsdefvHk. .cgNy\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.u acgif.axmif. .NyD.trf.}} csdK&Tifacsmif. .muf u m.Edkif"m.? taNctaeu odyfta&.f? q&m trdefY&dSovdk rif. aemufqHk. csdK&Tifacsmif.u armfukqef.awmY}} od k Y N zif Y &D v if w ef .

ynmawG usefEdkifao.udk b. atmfí .tzGJYurQ þrQavmuftxd rusifYEdkifcJY/ usef.bufodkY 0ifoGm.odkif.rSefyg\/ þuJYodkY vGefpGmcufcJ eufeJaom odkif.aqmifaeaom *dkPf.? vufoD.avmuwpfcGifrSm b.avmuudk OD.ovm.qef.&JY oHrPdvufacsmif. wkd.atmif e*g.um.? zaemifYponfNzifY avYusifYEdkifBuaomfvnf.aNrus&ayawmYrnf/ usef.eSifYrQ ausat.udk xkwfí Nyvdkuf\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.zkef.qef.vH k .fEdkifqdkwmudk aemufwpfvavmufBumrS od&vdrfYr.f&Tifudk.fawmfESifYtwl aexdkifcJY&yHk? cGef.? 0g.acR.vGefbk&m.usifYaom ynmudkom t"duxm.favmifpGmNzifY.aom a&Tacsmif.vnfvkduf\/ olu qufíar.fvdkrS NyefqufvdkY r&EdkifawmYbl. u rd r d i .í ausmufcGJNcif.aeNyDNzpf\/ xdktar.f p Of u a&S m if v if b k & m.ESifY rsufvHk. ponf ponf tm.u oufNyif.fvkd*dkPf. usef .rsm.udk wpfcsuf cdk.qHkusD.u nifompGmNzifY .zkef. .\ rsufESmwGif bmtrlt&mrQ rNrif&ay/ usef.}}[k ar.zGJYum aoG.fEdkif ru.cef.ESifYvl ay. wpfcsufqHkí BunfYvkdufBu\/ odkYaomf EIwfrS bmrS raNym? usef. .udk b.. cG J N cif .vHk. ]]tpfudkBuD.*dkPf.udk q&mBuD.fenf.vdkufí toufvkum aNy.lcJYyHk? aemuf a&Smifvifbkef.rl olwdkY trlt&mudkBunfYNyD. 'DwoufawmY . aBuysufaeawmY b. .ynmrSef.em.\/ pum.&JY odkif. vdr®myg.xJ ac:oGm.? 'DwpfoufawmY .tzGJY? b.tzGJY? odkif. ayGYcsDNyD.aNcmufq. q&mBuD . .zkef.eSpf*dkPf.ynmtzGJYurQ ravYusifYEdkif/ rdrdwdkY [lwef.onf rSJYBuD.qef. ]]q&m 'g a&Smifvif*dkPf.vdkY q&mudk.acR. yef.acgif.Nyefonf/ 74 .? rsufESmwpfcsuf ysufoGm.eyfolyDyD olYq&m\ qdwfaeyHkudk NrifonfESifYyif olxifxm.vnf.orm.tm.wdkYrSm vefYzsyfoGm. zGifY[aNymvdkufygvQif olYwynfYrsm.qef.wGifawmYrl b.u xdka&Tacsmif. qef .qef.zkef.f r[kwfvm. ay:rS oG i f N yif v u© P mrsm.fY aNcawGvufawGu t&dk. twGif.csif.xefrmausmaom vuf0g.cg.qludk tEdkif.oGm.mifvdkY vmav\/ þa&T a csmif . &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.odkif.qef.uom a&Tacsmif.ausmif.? 'gu .qef.rf. rSefuefaBumif. xdkoGifNyifvu©Pmudk Nrifaomf &kwfw&uf us.odkif. zk e f .vnf.vHk.udk ayGYNyD. ud k usif Y a om od k i f .}} aNymNyD. q&m}} xd k c PpOf w G i f y if od k i f .BuD.wdkY ESpfa.acR.csDum.vdkuf}} usef. 'gu a&Smifvif*dkPf.fodkif.f? 'gayr. .EdkifbJ ar.zkef.csif. .acR.enf.zkef.acR. .um.ynmrsdK.Bu\/ csefvd&Sefu NyefxGufvmaomtcg ratmifYtnf.? vufarmif.ynmyJ r[kwfvm.vdkuf\/ csifvd&SefrSmrl 0rf.qef.ESifY csifvd&SefwdkYvnf.Bu\/ olu usef.vGef. \ oHrPdvufacsmif.wdkY&JY tpfudkoHk.? csifvd&Sef rif.apmif.f*dkPf.ynmyJ? odkif. olu aBuuGJpGm acgif. tzG J Y w d k Y w G i f Nyif.f pdwfvIyf&Sm.av\/ ]]q&m tpfudkoHk. paom trmcH e nf .oHk.pGm &dSaeaom oGifNyifvu©PmudkBunfYNyD.ae\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.&Snfwpfcsuf csvdkuf\/ twefBumrSyif .u a&Smifvif bk&m.csyfyrmES.qef.wuúodkvf aevif.Edkif"m.? aNcueftm. tESpfav.ig. ar.fwdkifyJ aNymcJYw.}} usef.ynmrsdK.f Nrifa. .ausmif .odkY ay. ud k ravY u sif Y a cs/ tNcm.onfYtwdkif. tqifYodkY a&mufaeNyDNzpfonfYwdkif olu [lwef. tcef.usef.awGeJY taBumawGtm.qef.f*dkPf.ay:wGif xifusefcJUaom oGifNyifvu©Pmudk BunfYNyD.csufcsif. .? wHawmifqpf? 'l. vufacsmif.fu tNzpftysufrsm.BunfYvkduf\/ odkYaomf usef. wpfar.oNzifY &kwfw&uf idkcsvdkufrdav\/ csefvd&SefrSm xdyfoD.odkif.Edkifrnf r[kwfawmYacs/ okdYqdkvQif odkif.wnf.vQif csdK&Tifacsmif.tzGJY odkif. .mufu rif.ud k Bunf Y vk d u f o nf E S i f Y a&S m if v if * d k P f .udk usifYvdkY r&bl.vsifyif rsuf&nfuswwfolNzpf\/ xdkpOf wdk.xdkifNyD.? acgif.cJY&yHk? aemufNyD. .wmusif.ur®Xmef.qef.vQif twGif.udk tNzpftrSeftwdkif.qHkusD. ]]olYtoufudk u.. wG i f BuG.vdkuf\/ usef.odvdkuf\/ usef.ckepfazmfxJwGif pdwftaysmYqHk.rSm w&m.Nzpf\/ tenf.rSm tcsif.u raNz? xdka&Tacsmif.wmusif. trmcH e nf . raNymbJ wdwfNidrfpGmae\/ usef.tzGJYurS 'Dodkif. ]]usef.BuD. &efûid.i.&JY oHrPdvufacsmif.tm.tm. aNymonfrSmvnf.ay:wGif xif&Sm. .

aumif.qH.qef.u acgif. ]]tpfudkoHk.u tvkyfvkyfwJYae&mrSm aooyfw.aqG.aNrmufatmif vkyfavY&dS\/ olonf cgwdkif.ynmudk avYusifYwJYenf.pm.qdkvQif vGefpGm pum. rmatmif avYusifYEdkifBuw.yif Nzpfavonf/ .f? apYpyfw.zkef.fvdkvkyfNyD.qef. csifvd&Sef? rif.ynmroifcJY&bl.atmif e*g.rf. .udk 'Dvdk &uf&ufpufpuf vkyfBuHrSm r[kwfbl.qef.avmurSm vlxl.}} pum. b.qef.vHk.f a vmuf y J ÓPfaumif. oli.f? aemufNyD.cg.&if.udk pOf.qHkusD.oif.aewJY vlyJ? 'DvlYtwGufeJYawmY a&Smifvif*dkPf. .xJ ydkYay.pm. . &GH&Smrkef.\/ odkYaomf olaNymaom pum.u bmrQraNymbJ qdwfqdwfae&mrS . . .f avYusifY&ifum 'DoHrPd vufacsmif.ESifY csifvd&SefwdkYESpfa. ]]q&m? 'Dodkif. .Nref.a&SY xdkifaeonfudk awGY&oNzifYolvnf.wwfw.pm.okwo f ifvu kd w f YJ vlqdk.url.u acgif. .usvmNyef\/ wdk.vdkufwmyJ}} csifvd&SefrSm xdkpum.&yfwdkif.pm. .}} xdkpOf csdK&Tifacsmif.odkif. pOf. tmzrfudk aoaocsmcsmrSmvdkuf? {nfYonfawGudk aumif.oyfae\/ .f? 'gaBumifY awmf&w Hk ef&Hk udpeö YJ olrsm. usef. twefBum acgif.&JY tESpfwpfaxmifausmf pkaqmif.vufoGm.u wpfESpf? ESpfESpf? q.u odkif.fY? usef. xdktaBumif.wmusif.acR.fupd u ö rkd qdk aocsmpGm pOf.Nzpfonfudk awGYaomf wkefvIyfoGm. .rsm odkif.aemuf qufvufí . ? vl w pf a .cgum .}} usef.? q&mu tcktcsdefxd 'Dvkd omref aoG.fcsif.ynmrsdK.ynmeJYyJ csdK.BuD. ]]'Dynmu a&Smifvif*dkPf.f&cufwJY udpöyJuG.vmNyDNzpf&m olu ..xefpGm&atmif ûyvdkufolrSm a&Smifvif*dkPf.rSmvnf.ynmudk q.odkif.axmif&if.k Nzpf\/ olonf b.udk ar.ckepfazmfxw J iG f usef.rdwfaqGvJ aygif.u 'DvdkaNymw.av\/ csifvd&Sef NyefxGufvmaomtcsdefwGif cef. rSefonfcsnf. ]]nDav.avmuu vlawGtm. acgif.om.aeygap? 'D oHrPdvufacsmif.wGif uyfí xdkifcsvdkuf\/ usef.fqdkwm pOf.\/ olu xpfxpfaigYaigYNzifY .vdkYudk r&Edkifbl. usef.eJY &efûid.mufu udk.rGefrGef {nfYcHygvdkY}} xdktcg csifvd&Sefu wdk. ]]'g .u 'Pf&mtNyif.wD.wuúodkvf aevif.qef.fqdkawmY taBumif.zkef..udk rwDxGifEdkifygbl. .u tNyifbuf&dS opfyifudk ai.cktcg q&mu olYxifNrifcsufESifY oabmxm.u .NyD xifw.ndwfNyvdkuf\/ usef.u qufqdkNyef\/ 75 . .muf\ EIwfrS ]][m}}ceJ tmar!dwfûyrdvdkufBu\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.f a vmuf e J Y wD x G i f avY u sif Y v d k Y & wJ Y ynmrsd K .\ rsufvHk.rS NyD.om.l ? tpfuo kd . wdk. &Edkifygovm. .vmcJY&wJY tawGYtêuHxJuae ppfxkwfvdkufwJY tqDtESpfawGyJ? 'gaBumifY 'Dvdk eufeJcufcJwJY odkif.acR.eHab.}} usef.wmusif.fESpfausmf oifvmcJYwm? 'Dvludk wpfcgrS rawGYzl.NyD.wmusif.}} csdK&Tifacsmif.udkifwG.&vmcJYwm? 'DynmrsdK.ckwpfcgvnf.zkef.dkpD.vdkufyg? aemufNyD. ]]nDav.? e*g.wdkYu q&mBuD.fvdkoabm&vJ}} pifppf [lwef.rSm aewkef.udk {nfYcef.rxJü csdK&Tifacsmif.vQif . .rsdK. &Dwdkuf&Tif&JY aNcvufawGudk 'D oHrPdvufacsmif.bl..qef. .qHu k sD.aom ta&mifwpfcsuf 0if.u vlawGu tpfudkoHk.qHkusD..udk om tEkvHk y#dvHk oHk.ausmif.qef. r[kwfbl.onf ÓPftaumif. ]]uRefawmfYtaeeJY xifwmuawmY wu.udk acwå&yfNyD. ]]q&m a&Smifvifbk&m.vsuf .qdkwmvJ odkif.acR.aqmifNyD.yg}} usef. rif.vHk.odkif.txef &aeaom &Dwu kd &f iT u f kd ayGYcsDvmonfuNkd rifaomtcg olonf vGefpGm pdwfxdcdkufoGm.BunfYBu&wmaygY}} usef.fYbmomudk.wdkY vlodkufudk ac:oGm. ]]nDav.\/ odkYaomf olu qdwfqdwfaevsuf wpfcsdefvHk.aBumifY ]][m}}ceJ atmfí rsuf&nf .muf u b.u aocsmpGm em.awGudk b.Edkif"m.fESpf? tES p f E S p f q .? usKyf a&Smifvifbk&m. 'g rNzpfEdkifbl.NyD.kH oGm. .t&dk.r[k w f b l .aEG.qHkusD.ausmif.wGif xl.fYZpfNrpfu a&Smifvif*dkPf. wGufcsufNyD. &uf&ufpufpuf 'Pf&mNyif. &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.enf.armBunfYvdkufNyD.zGYJ rrd mS r[kwb f . . ]]'Dudpöu tawmfYudk aNz&Sif.f? aNymyg? zGifYaNymyg? tm.Edkif"m.vlcRefwpfa.

zkef.wmu e*g.? olYvuf0g. 'Dudpöudk aNymNyvd k u f a ygY? ol Y ud k y J pD p Of c k d i f .vkdufw.orm.f &JY odik .fenf.wJY vQdKY0SufvufeufeJY ypfygYrvJ}} xdkpum.f? tudkoHk. ]]'Dudpu ö wu.awGusawmY b.f BuD. .wJY xdyfoD.onf [lwef. r[kwfygbl. .Edkifbl. usef. odkif.u .qHkusD.udk ol wpfcgwnf.zkef.qef.ao.qef. .fY wu. u pnf.fxJu tqdyf[m odyfxl.fYudk xl.Edkif"m.wmusif.&JY aNcvufawGudk csdK. av.f raumif.f? 'gaBumifY tudik t f wG.qef.zkef.u acgif.bl.&JY aNcvuft&dk.ûrdYudk a&mufaeuwnf.aBumifY tm.f ynmeJY tpfuo kd . .i.wuúodkvf aevif.xdyfxm.u vGefcJYwJY ESpfaygif.f? 'gaBumifY q&mBuD.NyD.pHkprf.f? usef.qHkusD. xGufay:vmNyDvm.u tqdyfoifYaeNyD? 'gaBumifY uRefawmfY&JY oabmuawmY t&ifqHk.rSmvJ? 'gu &Sif.fvdkY tpfudkoHk.f? ckefESpfq.rSm tv.&dS&ifvJyJ tpfudkoHk.ygvdrfYr.ûrdYudk vdu k o f mG .wJYausmif.zkef. ]]aumif.u raeomawmYí .udk q&m rawGYzl.fyxrwef. ]]uJ rif.ausmif.rSm taygufao.ESyd pf ufcYJ wYJ vludkvJ uRefawmfwdkY vufrvTwfEdkifbl.? tvGefqHk. taNzrSef pOf.uom aocsmpGm pDpOfaqmif&Guf\/ .Edkif"m. viftef.aNrmfuefawmY? &dScdk. owfypfvdkufrSmyJ? bmNzpfvkdY 'Davmuf oHo&m&Snfatmif vkyfaeOD.folu 'Dvdk &ufpuf.viftef.eJYvlu bmNzpfvdkY tpfudkoHk.f tzGYJ *dP k .f eJYvJ ywfoufvmEdik w f .wGif odkif. pHkprf.mufwnf. ? a&S m if v if b k & m..xefwJY tqdyfrsdK.f oHk.q&mBuD.udk 'ku©ay.f? [dkvlaNcmufa.&mu pmcsdK.atmif e*g.aom udpö&yfrsm.wmyJ? omrefyJpOf.\ udpöt00udk wynfYBuD.pm.? emrnfBuD.Edkif"m.tqifYa&mufwJY odkif.qdkawmY olu 'Dudpöudk aumif.f tzGYJ *dP k . [kefyg. b.rSmyg}} usef.u .Edkif"m.pm.vHk. oHk.? q&m i. ]]tpfudkav. .qef.f? 'gayr.ndwfvsuf.yJ tpDtpOf pDrHay. a&Smifvifbk&m.fuG. ]]e*g.fY? odkif.fwJY? e*g.acR.aumif. ]]&Dwdkuf&Tif&JY udk.u aNymcJYw.kwfrmwJY tqdyfvl.fuwpfa.? uRefawmfwdkY t&ifqHk.favmufyJ &dSOD.qef.NyD? rif.fY ol viftef. NyefaNymwkef.udk csdK&Tifacsmif.onf olYq&maNymaom pum.aomf rwfwwf&yfí &dkaopGmNzifY .wpfcsufndwfvsuf .r.fqdkwmudk yxrqHk. .urf.avmY qdkwJY pmcsdK.odyfBuD. csdK&Tifacsmif.f BuD.f y#dyu©NzpfvmEdkifygw.ûrdYudkoGm. &Dwdkuf&Tif vufwHkYNyefwJYudpö Nzpf&kHrubl.zkef.aew.? zl.orm.udk oGm. .u csdK&Tifacsmif. pHpk rf.mufu igYpmudk.Edkif"m. &Dwdkuf&Tifvdk vluvJ ra&Smif&Sm.eJYawGYNyD.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.fi.lNyD.f? csifvd&Sef&. vk d u f ? igwd k Y 0if p G u f z uf p &m rvd k b l .eJY taBumawGudk acszsufypf&wmvJ? olu wu. ]]ESpfaygif. usef.&ao. ]]tpfudkoHk.vHk.f? wdk.Edkif"m. . tESpfaNcmufq. .aewmyJ? olwdkY bmar. q&m? 'Dudpöu omrefudpör[kwfbl.&if odik .f? olwdkYu tpfudkoHk.tqifYa&mufaeNyDyJ? 'gayr.q&mBuD.fwkef.aNymwm rSefw.&.fwJY vQdKY0SufvufeufeJYypfNyD.ESp*f P kd .}} usef.fY [dk a&Smifvif*P kd .kH udk &uf&ufpufpuf ñSi.qef.EdkifovJ? uRefawmfYtxifawmY [dk e*g.*dkPf.eJY &efûid.}} csdK&Tifacsmif. .uawmif rBum. odik .f}} 76 . . .&.f}} odkif.f 'De*g. tck b.f yef.ay.NyD. .udk wpfpHkwpfck ppfar.Bu\/ olwdkY tm.u rwfwyf&yfvsuf .udk Bum.ír&atmif Nzpfae\/ twefBumrS usef. . ckepfayguf? aygifeJY &ifbwfrSm taygufESpfck&dSw.wmyJ? q&m tckxufxd 'Dtqdyf bmtqdyfqdkwmudk a0cGJvdkYr&ao.r.bl.Nzpfol csdK&Tifacsmif. NidrfoufoGm. a&Smifvifbk&m.yg}} usef.udk wpfcsufrQ BunfYNyD.fvdkpDpOfrvJ}} rSefygonf/ þESpf umvrsm.qef.okdYom vTJtyfxm.ausmif.oifYw.wmu tNyif'Pf&m? 'gayr.? OD..a.av.mufu ar.qef.&mavmufu xGufay:cJYwmr[kwfvm.&JY ausmif.vHk. ]][dk yg.qdk&if tJ'Dvl&JY odkif.frSmvJwJY}} csdK&Tifacsmif.avmurSm 'Dvdk &ufpufNyif.ckvnf. . . .rSm rSJYBuD.fqdk&if 'Davmufao.u acgif.u .}} usef.bl.vdkuf? a&mufa&mufcsif.udkoHk.? 'Dudpöu nDav.? tck wu.b.vdkuf\/ tm.yJ Nzpf&r. tpfudkoHk.ausmif .ESp*f P kd .b.ynm[m yxrwef.fyHk tqdyfoifYcJY&w.

.*dkPf.vmwJ Y vl ? 'D E S p f a wG r S m awmY igu tbk d .prf.qef.ae[efw\ l / olu oGm.yGJudk usif. tzsm.qef.wmusif. qufqHaNymqdk&r. ]]'DnawmY igwdkY&JY npmpm.muf a&Smifvif*dkPf.Bubl.acR.wdkY oHk.f ynmomru pmayynmwGiyf g xl.cJY\/ xdkYaBumifYvnf.om.enf. usef. BuD . .zkef.pm.&if.a&.rSm 0rf.a&mufraESmifY.awmY &dSwmyJ? 'gaBumifYvJ rif.&if ausmif.a.ausmif.acR.udk.yg.rsm. .ydkYcdkif.qef. tdyfí raysmfoNzifY tcef.avmuwGif þrQ emrnfBuD.qDodkY toD.OD.? [dkudka&muf&if rif.oyfaerdav\/ rSefonf/ use.pm. usef.fY igwdkY [lwef.wuúodkvf aevif.qef.zkef.Buav\/ usef.wdkYoHk.qef.oD.udk a&.fwkdif oGm.aemuf &kww f &uf nmvufuq kd efYí avxJwGif wpfpHkwpfck a&.udkawmY &kd&dkaoao av.vdkY igwdkYudk taNctaet& BunfYcdkif. acguf w H k Y acguf N yef a vQmuf v suf & d S a eonf u d k awG Y &\/ aocsmpG m BunfYvdkufaomtcgwGifrS olYq&mNzpfaeonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ olYq&monf wpfpHkwpfckudk tav.atmif e*g.vdkuf\/ xdktcg tm.wmNzpf&r.BuD. . aNyaysmufoGm.f ? wu.u bkef. txl.av.rSm oHpkwfwHNzpfNyd.ay. 'DrSm Nyef v mpk B ur.u rif. csifvd&Sefukd oGm.acR.vkH. &J Y B um.acR.Edkif"m.f? q&mu a&Smifvifbk&m.pm.u qufvufí . usef.f v d k Y &D w d k u f & T i f u d k u.pm.? aemufwpfvusrSyJ igwdkYtm.wmaygYuGm}} odkif.tNyifbufodkY qufavQmufxGufvmav\/ xdktcg cef.u od y f x l .zdkY udpöeJYyJqdk&if nDav.usvsuf&dS\/ odkif.ausmif .rSm vGefpGm pdwfraumif.wpfckck &dSvdkYyJNzpfrSmaocsmw. u xG u f a Ny. ]]uJ tm.wGif wpfrsdK. wmyJ u G .zke.cRef wwfyeG o f Nl zpf&m tNrJwrf.udkvnf.\ vufeuf ESpfrsdK. ]]igwd k Y [l w ef .NyD . viftef.zkef.q. ]]wu.u S &f b J J tcef. wd k Y u ol Y u d k aemuf q H k .rf. acgif.xJodkY Nyefa&mufonfYwdkif tdyfíraysmf&Smacs/ wdk.um .NyD.qef. .acR. 'Dpmudkay.0ifaom vufeufwpfrsdK.u usef.mufu vuf E S p f z uf u d k aemuf y pf x m.yg.f}} usef.fqdkawmY 'g taBumif.cRefum taBumxdk.0&dS wdik v f .vdkuf? 'Dudpö&JY ZpfNrpfudk aoaocsmcsm pHkprf. .? igYudkyg twlxnfYvdkufw.awmifay:wufNyD.q&mBuD.\ pdwfxJwGif .zkef.f qef.rxJü vlwpfa.zke.a. NyefoGm.? 'gaBumifY igwdkY *dkPf.Nzpfí odkif.mufu rwfwwf&yfí trdefYudk emcHvdkufBu\/ usef.vmcJYNyD. vmrzrf.f q&mBuD.qef.&JY tpfudk&JYpum.rS m quf q H a &.f onf twefBumatmif acgufwYkHacgufNyef avQmufNyD.onf pmayudk 0goemtygqHk. ]]usef.q&mBuD. tBud r f NrifcGifY&Buao.&if NzpfNyDyJ? tckawmY q&mu tpfudkBuD.rSm wpfûydifwnf.tdyfBuawmY}}[k trdefYay.&kHrubl. reufNzefus&if csufcsif. oifBum.awG olYvlawGbuf wpfzufowf vdkufrSmpdk.axmifvdkuf\/ odkif.u vuf. .oifBum. qef . toufudk. Nzpf a eNyD r d k Y vd k Y igYud k [lwef.udk qif.tdyfaomfvnf.ndwfNyvdkuf\/ usef.q&mBuD.ûrdYudk oGm.Nzpf\/ 77 .u olYudk uAsmpmayrsm.fYtcef.f? 'gayr.Nzpfae\/ odkif.qHkusD.fqef.vHk.cdkif.u em. usef. &ifxrJ S cHpm.&JY odu©mudkvJ rusapeJYaygY{{ csdK&Tifacsmif.ay. *d k P f . usef.? rif.q&mBuD. .acR.avY&\ Sd / . eJ Y a&S m if v if * d k P f .qef.oGm.ckepfazmfxJwGif usef.wkdY vlodkuftay: tcJraus Nzpfaeav\/ tcsdefwpfem&DcefY Bumvwfaomf usef.kH wGif tom&yfí Nidro f ufpmG BunfYaevdu k \ f / odik .eJY trsm.awmifydkif.cJY\/ pkwfwHa&.yvdkY r&awmYbl.csufrsm.f w if v d k Y r&&if v J rif .qef. ESifY csifvd&SefwdkY oHk.qHkusD.zkef.axmif&r. oGm.? usef.qef.u .f rSm odik .ukdem.qef. f Y ? igu a&S m if v if b k & m.onf olYtcef.[efuBkd unfY&if.rSm tenf.enf.acR.onf b.fodkYrQ êud.Ncpfvdkufonfudk awGY&\/ odik .pyfaeNyD[k odí NidrfoufpGmyif BunfYaevdkuf\/ [lwef.&ef uAsmrsm.qef.onf olYq&m\ vIy&f mS . wdkufcdkuf&mwGif vGefpGm toHk.udkoGm.qef.ckvnf.f q&mBuD.acR. .xdkifq&mawmf [kefyg. usef. use.aBuuGJaom toGifNzifY udk.zkef.f}} [k oHk.fwrf. csdK&Tifacsmif.aBumifY vGefpGm pdwfxdcdkufae&Sm\/ csifvd&SefrSm pdwfaysmYolyDyD rsuf&nfwpdrfYpdrfYpD.enf.fNynfYaeYwGifrS cspfwynfYwpfa.ESpf*dkPf. usef.buf vSnfYí .teuf pOf.ESifY êuHawGYcJY&Ncif.muf þuJYodkY tNzpfqdk.vdv k kd uAsmrsm. . y#dyu© enf.vHk.qef.

zk e f .Ed k i f " m. usef.SOfrwk}}[laom odkif.u þpmcsdK. NzpfoGm.udk a&.wGif olu odkif.auG.rI aES.vdkufNyD.rf.&if.vdk[ef wlyg\/ olu pmcsdK.a&.rSm &Snfvsm.Nznf. tvdktavsmuf odkif. u ]]e*g.udk wpfxyfNyD.avmu\ pmcsdK.í a&.fyHk 'Pf&m&cJYonfudk pOf. vIyf&Sm.uGuf wpfyk'fudk upm.vm\/ aemufqHk.atmif e*g.rSmrl avxJwGif a0SY.vdkuf&m wNznf.&if.zkef.fNyefYvm\/ vufrSmvnf.Nzpf\/ pifppf odkif.opfaom odkif. f c J Y a y/ od k Y & mwG i f a&.fwGif tcsdeftwefBumatmif &yfvdkuf\/ NyD. xd y f x m.av\/ xdktcg q&mwynfYESpfOD.rS aemufwpfBudrf a&. zk e f . avmY / wdrfvTm"m.wpfxyf a&. uG u f w pf y k ' f u d k wD x G i f & ef r&nf & G .vJ upm.om. qef .Nyaeovdk Nzpfae\/ trS e f a omf usef .? zl .foltefûy .vm\/ us.&Sifray:vQif? b.NcpfNyefonf/ þwpf B ud r f w G i f r l usef .q&mBuD.&if.om.udk a&. &Dwdkuf&Tifonf b.&if.uGufwpfyk'f tNzpfodkY aNymif.pm.&Snfwpfcsufcsvdkuf\/ NyD.qef.? OD . oufNyif.wuúodkvf aevif.vQif cef. onf þod k i f .om.vdkufNcif.ESifY vufa&.Edkif"m.uGufxJwGif epfarsmaeBuavawmY\/ 78 .ESifYyif pdwftm&kH 0ifvmNyD.fodkYb.om. qef .rtv.rSm vGefpGm qef. aNrmf u ef a wmY ? &d S c d k .a[mif.

.\/ NyD.rl olYtcef. .Edkif"m.friJYygbJvsuf rdrda&muf&dSaerSef.aumif.í rtdyf0YHygawmY/ tb.uGufrSm vGefpGm eufeJ&kHru tm.frSm &yfumaecJY\/ q&monf acgif.av\/ usef.vnf.acR. ]]wynfY 'DaeY q&m&JY aNymifaNrmufeufeJwJY odkif.qnf.atmif e*g.&drfaeaomaBumifYyif/ xdkYaBumifY csufcsif.faBumifYrl þqef. awGY&aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ odkYNzifY olu wdkifuG. wkefvIyfoGm.wuúodkvf aevif.uifodkY BunfYum .oGm. olwdkYwpfawGu pkwfwHa&.tm.wdkYudkac:NyD.xdkifum tptqHk.onfESifY csufcsif. .q&m}} usef.xJodkY 0ifoGm. tcef.udk odrf.rsm. twGif.rnf pdk. upm. ]]usef.qHkusD. vGefpGmNyif.acR. BunfYcdkif.tmrcHXme þvufodkif.acR. 'Pf&m ukay.NyD? aemufNyD.BunfYvdkufav\/ xdktcgrSyif odkif. ESpf&mwdwd upm. odvdkuf&\/ aemufwpfaeYwGifrl usef.BunfYaomtcg csdK&Tifacsmif.xefaBumif.u tacgufacguf tcgcg xyfrem.aumif.qef. usef.uGuf wpfyk'fudkyif odkif.cgvdkuf\/ ]]ig pdwftm&kHenf.w.zkef.csufudk rif.xGufoGm.vQif .qef. oloGm.u acgif.rvnfawmY 'Dodkif.xJokdY avQmufoGm.? usef.BuNyDNzpfaBumif.yif ypönf.uGuf&JY tESpfom&udkvJyJ odrSmr[kwfbl.vdkufNyD.opfeufeJvSaom odkif.ynmudk arYavsmYoGm.vdkuf\/ NyD.onfESifY olYq&mudk EIwfqufívnf.qef.\/ rdrdonf wpfcsdefvHk.vQif acgif.fvdk oabm&ovJ}} usef.frSxGufí tcef.qef.q&mBuD.ynmudk Nrif&wm odyfNyD.vdkvdk wdkif\ aemufuG.onf tdyf&mrSEdk.aenf.pm.acR. apmapmuyif odaeaBumif. ar. (9) a&Tig.qDodkY aNy.pGmNzifY xdkae&mrS xGufcGmvmcJYawmY\/ 79 . wpfacguf taotcsm pOf.csufudk em.rS &kwfw&uf vufudk &kyfodrf.vdkuf\/ tacgufaygif.&rvm.uG.rvSnfY? udk.cef.oGm.\/ xdktcsdefwGif olYq&mBuD.zkef. aBuuGJ0rf.ESifY csifvd&SefwdkY eHeufapmapmuyif c&D.qef.aNrYNcif.yif &Dwdkuf&Tif tcef.u &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.aom tBunfYNzifY wpfcsufrQ BunfYNyD. uHaumif.udkarmYvsuf tNyifbuf&dS rdk. b.vQif pdwfrcsrf.qef. NyifqifNyD.rsm. odvdkuf&\/ olonf tcsdefqGJraeawmYacs/ csufcsif.? 'D pkwfwHa&.NyD.? &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.fvdkY qkd&rSmygq&m? uRefawmf tpfudkBuD. rwfwwf&yfí vufawGY upm.aeonfudk odvkduf&\/ q&mBuD.fY}} xdkokdYaNymNyD. .

.axG. apwemaumif. .xefpGm &GmoGef. Nzpfaeaom nyifNzpf\/ xdknwGifyif usef. qHk.ay:rS ckefqif.arSmifusvsuf 0ef.udkifvsuf . .xm. ausmfwufí a&SYrS wm.qef.D xufomay&m Nrif.Nzwfxm. atmYceJ aoG.vdkuf&kH&dSao.um. .}} wdk.wmusif.udk qGJxkwfvdkufNyD. vJusoGm.? 'ku©onfawG 'Davmufrsm.0YHBuawmYacs/ trSefrl usef.rSm wpfnvHk.\/ Nrif. wG i f a&vQH í vG w f & mvG w f a Bumif .wpfyGuftefoGm.&NyD.tm. aysmYacGvmum aNrBuD.acR.onf csufcsif. 'ku©onfawGudk ulnDEdkifrSmvJ}} usef.qef .acR.okdif. ]]'gNzifY&if cifAsm. Nzpfrdao.fenf.vQif . onf awmif y d k i f .0dkif.onf usef.vmBuaom a&ab.í Nyefvnf wdkufcdkufvdkuf\/ vufaxmufESpfa.qef.u rsufpdrsufESm ysufoGm. pdwful.om 'Da&T'*Fg.rSwfxm.wmusif.wpfvHk.xefpGm &GmoGef. aEG. 'ku©onfrsm.xGufNyD. usef. .u ceJYoHNzifY .acR.qef.vnf. arSmifESifYrnf.acR. ]]acgif.vSdrfYNyD.aqmifBuD. toufarG. rdk.eJYrS rvTwfbl.ûyae&wJY vlawGAs? usKyfwdkYu b.rSm a&ab.muf rxEdkifatmif NzpfoGm.um.wdkY rNrifbl. .wmusif.\ vufoD.ESpfvufpvHk.vdkuf&NyD.&efvnf.\/ usef tmrcHXmerS vlrsm.acR.pOf vloHk.&dk.Edkif"m.SOfûydifwkdufcdkufvm\/ xkdtcdkuf vnfrsdKrS csdKovdk t&om cHpm.uGufudkoHk.onf þvlodkuftay:wGif tcJraus/ wrif aw.u ûyH.vm.bkef.ay:rSrl rusay/ olu a'goNzifY Nrif. ]]usKyfwdkYu "m.f? cifAsm.udk awGY&\/ usef.NyL.tcsdefwGif wdk.0rf.wmusif.cJY\/ qHk&mae&mwGif êuHovdk wdkufcdkufrnf[kvnf./ odYk aomf ol\ odik .aewmvJ}} ]]'Dvrf.\/ pifppf 80 .atmif e*g.yif raeYnurS ylylaEG.udk csufcsif.a.acR. a&ab.ESifY . 'PfaBumifY aoG.qef. 'ku©onfawGudk a&T'*Fg.acR. wwfuRrf. acR. pwif wdkufcdkufvm\/ usef.qef. ulnD rpvdkufygvm.rSm vl. xGufaNy.\ Nyif.muf wbkef.xm. ESpfaxmifuaum}} wdk. aNcaxmufrsm.NyD. .pHk NyL.wpfavQmufvHk.mufu "m.í Nrifvdkuf&\/ olwdkYonf a&SYrS wpdkufpdkuf oGm.wmusif. bmudpö&dSvdkY usKyfwdkYudk wm.xefaom usef.NyD.oGm.acR.vdkuf\/ odkYaomf xdkpdwful.onf wpfckaom pm.vnf. vrf .wm cifAsm.onfxuf ysufvsuf . .usoGm. 'ku©onfawGudk rulnD&ifawmY cifAsm.rnf.tefNcif.cdkaevdkuf\/ rdk.u em. .ynmudk Nrifaomf rsufvHk.? 'gyJ}} .NyD.qufESifvm&m rBumrDaom tcsdefwGif a&Tig.NyD tJ'D a&ab.oGm. aESmif.u ol\ aemufausmNyiftm. csufcsif.onfudk awGY&aomf 0rf.\ vufaxmufESpfa.vnf.acR. ]]'DrSm usef. tdwfxJu a&T'*Fg.qJyifNzpfae\/ usef .qef.aEG.aomufqdkifwGif 0ifa&mufwnf. onf.wuúodkvf aevif.rQ rwdk. xGufaNy. q&mBuD.acR.qef.om tHYBoNcif.\/ .xefvSaom vufoD. vlvnf.u "m.vsuf .cJYaom pmcsdK.ay: vJusoGm. usef.0rf. a&ab. rsufESmysufoGm.? 'DaeY usKyfudk oufouf vm&SmwmaygY [kwfvm. ]]usef. .tmrcHXmerS vlodkufudk vSrf.f ynmu vufaxmufEpS Of .qef.a.wmusif. vmcJ Y \ / c&D .mufrSm "m.vsuf a&SYodkY wpfvSrf.u pdwfaumif.awGudk xkwfNyD.qef.oHk.&kH vIyf&Sm.xdk.yif/ wdk.n rdk.onfudkNrifaomf rsufvHk.}} ]][kwfw.rvnf[efNzifY .udk taemufodkY twif.qef.qef. od k Y qif . .zsm.onf xdkvlokdufudk NrifonfESifY olwdkYtm.vdkuf\/ xdktcg wdk.wdkYudk usKyfu b.As}} wdk.rSm a&SYodkYom c&D.fu aiGaBu. vGifYxGufoGm.\/ pifppf Nyif.qef.if.\ xufNrufvSaom vufodkif.acR.ay:rS xdk.\/ wdk.awGxkwfNyD.aeBu\/ usef.&kHru eHeufvif.ckrl rdrdu aNcvufuav.ausmif.NyD r[kwfygvm.qef. ]]tJ'g bmNzpfvJ}} usef.acR. .acR.acR.wmusif.onfYwdkif Nyif.NyDNzpf\/ usef.qef.usifwpfckvHk. xdrSefoGm. Nrif.

&acs/ 81 .wGif&dSaBumif. vSrf.aeaom tcsd e f N zpf \ / vif t ef .xm.yfawmifwpfacsmif.orm.yG J x d k .ay:wGif xdkifaeaom vlwpfa.udkifxm. rulnDcJY&ifawmY usKyfuvJ wdwfwqdwfpHkprf.NyD .NyD.udkifum cyfwnfwnf cyfBuGBuG xGufvmvdkuf\/ ol\ oGif[efu olaX. vQif pm.frSm oabmrwl0HYbJ aeygrnfenf.vGef.wGif xdkifaeonfudkvnf.udk vTwfvdkufr.quf eef.cdk&if.mufrusef owfypfr. ûy&onfyif/ usef.Nzpf&m BuufoD.\ ñSif.ae&mokdY aNymif.SOfEdkifaBumif.acR.qef.uGufrSm þrQ BuD.xJodkY vlwpfa.wGif tNcm.cJYaom pmcsdK.tmrcHXmeodkY avQmufoGm.tmrcHXmeudk ig oGm.Nyef\/ xdkpOf &kwfw&uf olYem.vdkuf&Ncif.odkY a&mufaomf a&Tig.om.f? [dk wdk.um.pdkif.ESpfaxmifudk twd'ku©a&mufaewJY a&ab.acR. .&cufae\/ aemufqHk.aom pGrf.tmrcHXmebufodkY xGufcGmvmav\/ qD.NyD . av.udk odrf.yum.qef.Budrf vSrf.muf\ oufNyif.faemf? cifAsm.aom rD.? tpfudkESpfeJY nDav.xGufoGm.BuD.udk cHpm.wmusif.rSmvnf. rIef0g.u avSay:rSvltm.qef. aemuf vufxJwGifvnf.mufudkrQ rawGY&acs/ uefawmfBuD.om Nzpfyg\/ wdk./ olu acgif.aom t0wf t pm.vSrf.um.&SnfcsoHudk Bum.rSm rGef*dkppfom.acR.qef.rsdK.u wpfNynfvHk.rSm rGef*dkppfom.pHkprf.tdwfxJu a&T'*Fg.yHk.wmusif. wdwfpJoGm.BunfYvdkuf\/ ol tYHBord&onf/ taBumif.wdkY vlodkufuaum olwdkY tmrcHXmeudk Nyefa&mufBuNyDvm.tm. tuste NzD .rSm onf.rm.ckepfwdkYvJ b.[ef raygufawmYacs/ xdktcsdef xdkumvonfum.vHk. Nyif q if 0wf p m.qef.acR.qef.NyD.ESifY wlvSawmY\/ b.acgufoHrSm vGefpGmus.odkif.wpfavQmufvHk.a&GYoGm.rBuD.topf w pf p H k 0wf N yD .fqDb. a&Tig.rSm rD.Nrifvdkuf&\/ usef.Nidrf.rlum.yef.í vrf.tmrcHXme\ wHcg.av.udk 'kef.0g.oHrQ rBum.ESpfvHk.udk a&Smifwdrf. rGef*dkrif.qef.qef.av\/ ûrdYaevltrsm.tNym. acR.rBuD.BunfYrSyJ}} ol u npm pm.NyD.xpzG.favmifvS\/ odkY&mwGif tdrfBuD.[luefawmfBuD. .xJ&dS avSwpfpif.yG J x d k .aomufqdkifwpfckwGif a&muf&dSwnf.aNcmufvdkufNcif.tmrcH X merS m qD. wl a eNyD .ud k tcsd e f r Nywf c sxm. vuf x J w G i f v nf . xdkvl0wfxm.\ taemufbufurf. ar. ûrd Y rS m ta&.Bu\/ xdkYaBumifY ûrdYrSm aNcmufuyfuyfNzpfaeonfudk awGY&\/ usef. b.xkwfNyD.Bunf Y v d k u f \ / pm.csoHrSm wdwfqdwfNidrfoufaom tumv ntcsdefwGif Bum.odkY uyfvdkufcsdefwGif tdrfa&SYcyfvSrf. aNymNyav\/ usef .ae&í rcHEdkifonfYtqHk.muf avSOD. .rBuD.onf[k rawGY&/ woJoJ &GmoGef.ndwfí oabmwlaBumif.mufrSwpfyg.í pD.\/ olu wkd.wdkY tmrcHXmeu vltm.rS m rd r d 0wf x m.BunfYNyD. odí tb.tem. usef.aemuf pdwfxJwGif pOfpm.tm.onfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ odkYaomf xdkvl\ rsufESmudkrl taotcsmrNrif&ay/ usef.udk wpfa.aom t0wf t pm. pmaytEkynm&SifwpfOD.frSm aNccsaeBuygvdrfY? bmyJNzpfNzpf 'DnawmY a&Tig. ]]wdk.omNcif.vsuf&dSNyD.um wHcg. auseyftm.tmrcHXmeudk awGY&\/ ol teD.wGifrl olonf xdkvludk arYvdkufNyD. uefawmfBuD.? 'DaeY cifAsm.udk NyvdrfYrnf[k rxifcJYacs/ olu thHBo0rf.vdkuf\/ wHcg.qef .u aemufbufodkY zswfceJ vSnfYvdkuf\/ okdYaomf rnfol wpfpHkwpfa.aBumifY xdkvlokduftay: NidK.usNyD.Edkif"m.[luefawmfBuD. wHcg.xJü bmvIyf&Sm.rSm xdkvludk oHk.acR.BunfYNyD. u a&T i g.aom pdwfwdkYuvnf.vsufyif&dSaeyg\/ xdktcsdefwGif usef.\ taemufurf.'ku©onfawGtwGuf tm.onf pm. aom ûrd Y Nzpf í rG e f * d k p pf w yf r sm. odcJY&if cifAsm.atmif e*g.okdY avQmufoGm. qdkufuyfvsuf&dSonfudk awGYvkduf&\/ vlwpfa.udk acgufvdkuf\/ arSmifrdkufwdwfqdwfaom nwGif wHcg.acR.wmusif.&aom trlt&mNzifY Nrif. pOf.fvdkrS odkif.wmusif.rsm.acR.rwGif csdwfqGJxm.qef. csdKrif. rdrd topfwwfuRrf.vHk.qDodkY avQmufoGm.acR.av\/ rdk.tm. vd r f . a&Tig.yfawmifwpfacsmif.vdkuf\/ ]]ig 'Da&mufwm odyfaemufusw.rsm.ydkuftkyfpdk. .acR.wuúodkvf aevif.ES i f Y wpf y H k p H w nf .BuD . pl. aNyavsmYoGm.f}} trSefrl xdkvlodkuftm.xJwGif avSwpfpif.pm. u t0wf t pm. a&Tig.u Ncdrf.fodkYrS r.vdkuf&\/ xdkoufNyif.onf xdkavSudk wpfcsufrQom vSrf. b.f? wpfckawmY&dSw. ydwfvsufawGY&\/ olu wHcg.folYudkrQ rawGY&ygacs/ usef.? trsdK. usef.EdSyfpufNcif.fyif Nzpf\/ usef.pdkufBunfYvsuf .

\/ odkYaomf þtcef.apmif. ]]usKyfom wu. .rsm.qyfvdkY r&Edkifao.aomtBunfYNzifY BunfYaeonfudk awGY&\/ usef.fyJ [lwef.vm.k 0r&d/S usef. b.u tvG. .a.udk 'DaeY ay.\ rsufESmwGif aoG.*dkPf. usef./ 82 .xJodkY 0ifvdkuf\/ EIwfrSvnf.? nmbufwiG f oHpw k w f w H pfacsmif. tdrfrSm &dSovm.oHudkvnf.acR. . wHcg.wpfvHk.ydwfrdNyD.bl.acR.f Y E S .0ef.ckepfazmfxJu eHygwfig.BupdkY}} pum.0g.mufrSmrl t0ga&mifouFef. .acR. ]]a[.u 'kwd.udk ckwfrdNyD.xJwGif vl&dSaBumif. usef. .}} odkYaomf bkef.wuúodkvf aevif.\/ rIef0g.acR.vdkuf&onfESifYtwl vlESpfa.mifrQ rNrif&awmYygacs/ usef.odvdkuf\/ olu .rBuD. awmfawmf&ufpufwJYvlyJ? owåd&dS&if emrnfaNymygvm. Bum.qef.BuD.qef. ol\ Nyif.apmif. ]]wdk. . ûyvd k u f \ / od k Y a omf taNzu xG u f a y:rvmacs/ b.NzifYyif ckwfvGJcsvdkufNyef\/ odkYaomf rdrd wdkufcdkufvdkufaom &efolonf rnfolrnf0grSef.&efaBuG.acR.}} ar. .dkifxd.fbufwGif aiGa&mifq. wdkufcdkuf&ygoenf. .acR.v.Bu\/ usef.u .yg. ]]OD.bdkif.fwul yGifYoGm. Nzpfae\/ bkef.}} usef.yg.yif Nzpfyg\/usef. .\/ cef.acR. ]]cifAsm.aemuf tHYBoovdkESifY .vJ bk&m.qef.qef.}}[k ceJY&. f a Bumif Y a&T i g. wpfcsufrQ aBumifoGm.BuD.acR.vQif raBumufr&GYH rwGefYrqkwfyif a&SYqufavQmuf 0ifvmcJY\/ xdkpOf olYeHab.dkifwdkifNzifY tcef. .wdkY tckvdktouf&SifaeOD.Ncif.fuvJ}}[k ar.yHk wpfyHkomxkwfí wdkufcdkufvdkuf&m &efolav.qef.onf rwGefYrqkwfyif cef.Ncif .acR.ESpfzufrS vufeufwpfckudk xkwfNyvdkuf\/ b. .wJYAs odyvm.onfESifY .wpfyg.aom tNzpfESifY êuH&ay&m tcef.BuD. toHûyvsuf . usef.rSm rD.rSm tHYBovmNyD.qef.NzpfaomaBumifYyifNzpf\/ wpfqufwnf.wGef.url tHYBopGmNzifY . .vdkufNyD.qef.favmifaom toHNzifY .acR.ckdNyD. .vm.}}ceJNrnfatmif &dkufcwfNyvdkufao.? aiGql. .ceJ toHESifYtwl olYaemufbufrS wHcg.vdkuf\/ xdkpOf bkef.qef.u atmfí .mufu us.yg.qef.\/ usef.&Nyef\/ taBumif.u wpfBudrf xyfacgufvu kd Nf yef\/ okYd aomf twGi.xm.fvdkufNyD.yOöif.? bmaoG.\ t&dyfta.qef. .xifaBumrudk xdk.onf þn aAGaqmfOD.oHBum. qufí0ifoGm.f &.udk tukefxkwfí rwdkufcdkufacs/ oHk.ceJ toHESifYtwl &efolwpfa. .l csdww f pfacsmif.OD.f&ufpufwJY vlqdk&if cifAsm. bmraNym nmraNymESifY rdrdtm.acR.wdkufcdkufavawmY\/ olu vufESpfzufudk vsifNrefpGm vIyf&Sm.ol\ EIwfrS [ifceJ toHxGufvmNyD. .f bufrS wHYk NyefoH vH.uG}} usef.u yxrvl\ em.wGifyif olu aemufxyf &efolESpfa.av.wkdYu b. wkdY oGm. .BuD.Nym.rBuD.acR.u tomykef.mufvJusoGm. &kwfw&uf tvdkvdk ydwfoGm.av\/ pifppf wHcg.NzifY ayusHaeNyD.u ûyH.um.rSm r[kwfawmYbl.udik x f m.vHk.wdkY cPaeygOD.ceJ aemufwpfa. ESpfzufrS &kwfw&uf avwdk.udk uefYvefYrxdk.yOöif.qHk. a[.qef.zGifYvdkuf&m wHcg.wmusif. ]]OD.acR.u usef. vGefpGm &GHrkef. .xefvSaom nmvufoD.av.atmif e*g.fvsuf .onf wbdkif.BuD.csdwf oHpkwfwH usef. ]]'DaoG. .muf vJusoGm.yif bdkif.rBuD.mufudk vuf0g.a&mifatmufwGif vJusaeaom &efolav.\/ olu vufeufEpS cf u k kd ]]cRrf.u wu.tmrcH X mexJ w G i f bkef. av. csufcsif. a[.}} olu toHûy&if.yif qef.Edkif"m.pvHk.0r&dS/ xdkYaBumifY yuwd arSmifrdkufae\/ xdkpOf bkef. pm.muff olYudk 0dkif.tm. .aom bkef. .qef. ]]rif.qef.fwGif &yfí pOf .ESpfyg.? usKyfu [lwef.vQif cg.raeSmif.? uJ .vsuf NyefvnfckcH wdkufcdkufvdkuf\/ bkef. rodoNzifY tm.&efaBuG. tvif.fbuf vuf0g.BuD.0wfxm.xJrS aNy.&efol\ cg.onfYwdkuf 'Pf&mr&acs/ xdkpOf &efolwpfa.u &.xGufoGm. . vJsusoGm.\/ ra&S. .

\/ ]]'ku©yJ? [dkbkef. tdrfrSm&dSovm.Bum.mufudk awGY&\/ olu atmfí .u vkckepfq.ayrnf/ þbkef.aeBuwmrsm. ]]'DvlawGtm. tdrfrSm&dSovm. .&efaBuG. .ESpfyg.yg.vdkuf\/ nmvufwGifrl rD.NzJNzJNzpfae\/ okdYaomf wpfudk. ]]vufpowfawmY 'DvlawGtm.}} &kwfw&uf olYwpfukd. umuG.yg.wGif touf&Sifaeolwpfa.ao.av. .fYwpfa.acR. }}vrf.ckepfwdkY b.vHk.u cg.mufrQ rawGY&awmY/ usef . .wdkYtm.buftcef.Nzpfí 'ku©a&mufaeonfudk a&Smifvifbk&m.acR.wdkYu b.? wdk.\ odkif.ckyif oabmaygufawmY\/ pdwfxJrSvnf. .olrsm.av. ]]'Dudpöudk a&Tig.wmusif. . . . olwdkYuyif rdrdtm.mufudk tukefowfypfr.onfrSm twefBumNyDNzpf\/ wdwfqdwfaom ntarSmifxJwfi rsufESmûyH.\ pdwfxJwGif .rsm. .csdwfudk t&HoifYxkwfí udkifxm.fudk vSnfYvdkufaomf wpfcsuf vTwfceJ atmfvdkufrd\/ taBumif.pm. aemufNyD.NzJNzJESifY vlaoaumifudk awGY&oNzifY usef.aerdNyef\/ okdYNzifY tdyfxJrS rD.BuD. . b.f}}[k aNymcJYonfudk usef.acR.pufoGm.BuD.faBumudk txdk.av.NyefBum.vHk.bkef.u igYudk aoG. aNymNyaom pum.[m &. acR.ausmif.tmrcHXme wpfckvHk. tNcm.acR.acR.NzifY a&Smifvifbk&m. ]]OD. ]]tpfrBuD.}}[k awG.fvdkNzpfwmvJ}} xdkrdef.okdY vlvTwf taBumif. tNyif tcef .fvHk.ñdSvdkufNyD.qkwfvsuf .rrsufESmrSm ûyH.taBumif. umuG.vdkufrd\/ odkYESifYolu toHudkNrSifYí . BuufoD. wmusif .rS od&awmYrSmyg}}[k pOf. ar.acR.[k xifae\/ usef.rl xdkrdef. awmifYwif.BunfYvdkuf\/ rnfonfY'Pf&mrQ rawGY&acs/ odYk &mwGif cg.Nzpf\/ .qef.vnf.cJY&onfrSmvnf.a.ud k csufcsif.fvdkNzpfwmvJ}} [k ar.\/ xdktcg tcef.xJ w G i f vl a oaumif r sm.acR.om.axmifYwGif vlwpfa.&/ olYpdwfxJwGif .BuD.cH&NyD. vlowform.u xdkrdef.vdkuf\/ odkYaomf wpfzufrS bmrQNyefraNymacs/ xdktcgusrSyif þbkef.Bum. b.fapmifYa&Smuf&ef q&mu vTwfvdkufNcif.vHk.Bum. .Edkif"m.rS aiGpl. qyfr. wk e f v I y f o G m .fvHk.xGef. .tm. ûyH.fwJY}} pifppf xdkbkef.atmif e*g.xoGm.u usef.yg.u tusdK.ESpfyg.ywf v nf o k d Y vS n f Y ywf B unf Y vd k u f \ / xk d t cg twG i f .aBumifYyif Nzpfayrnf/ xdkpOf eH&HrSDí xdkifaeaom bkef.qyf&rnf[k aNymoGm.a&SYwGif vJusaeaom rdef./ trSefrl olwdkYESpfOD.ESpfyg.aom tdrfBuD.yOöif.yg.acR. bmrQrod&cif rdrdemrnfudk zGifY[ aNymNy&kHru rdrd\ vufeufudkvnf. xkwfNycJY\/ . aoG.vdkufNyef\/ odkYaomf wpfzufrS wHkYNyefoH rBum.BuD.BuD.fudk aocsmpGm ppfaq. . aocJYBuwmudk.acR.\/ olu rwfwwf&yfí BunfYvdkufaomtcg tcef.tmrcHXmeu vlawGeJY awGYNyD. od&awmY\/ olu bkef.wdkifudk udkifí ab.uJYodkY toufxGufaeNyDNzpfaBumif.Nzpf\/ 83 .r\ udk. rsufESmrSmvnf.u rdrdtm.&efaBuG.BuD.NyD.fodkY a&mufaeoenf.rm.f apmifYa&Smuf&ef a&muf&dSvmNcif.rwpfa. aoqHk.qef.onf olYtm.wdkifudk xkwfí rD. at.rSNzpfaBumif. .&dS BuGufom. .taBumif. twk e f v I y f B uD .qef. .ckvwfrSm wpfckck NzpfcJY&ifawmY cifAsm.ru rvIyf/ usef.odkY avQmuf0ifoGm.qef.ynmudk BunfYNcif.fu wdk.if.&dS vlukd &. rsm.qef .\ udk.wuúodkvf aevif. ulnDapmifYa&Smuf&ef tultnDawmif.rsm. Nzpfayrnf/ odkYqdkvQif tudkESpfESifY nDav.wmusif.\/ ol u wk d .aeavNyD/ toufxGufoGm.wmusif.mufvJusaeonfudk awGY&\/ xdkolrSm tdrfapNzpf[efwlNyD.farmapaom taBumwGirf l teDa&mif tuGuw f pfuu G u f kd awGY&\/ usef.fa&mufaeBuwmygvdrfY? igYudkaBumufvdkY ykef.BuD.mifae\/ ]]csif}}vli.AsdKY}}[k [pfatmf ar.wmusif. twGif.qef.u aemufESpfvSrf.onf a&Smifvif*dkPf.udk a&Tig.vm.tmrcHXmetm.qef. odom\/ odkYqdkvQif wkd.wkdY&JY a&Tig. NyefYBuJvsuf&dSonfudk awGYvdkuf&av\/ þrQ BuD.if. Nyefvnf owd&vdkufNcif.av.qef.NzJNzJESifY toufxGufae\/ usef.\/ odkYaomf usef.NzJNzJNzifY BunfYaeonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ usef. ûyH.qef.ausmif. .qef.ck þvlrsm. ]]wdk. .

\/ odkYaomfolu udk.Nzpf\/ xdYk aBumifY olu raygYq&Jacs/ usef.onf/ þbkef.usd K . oHpkwfwHNzifY wpfcsufvTJ&dkuf&m ]]xef.tm.wmqd k a wmY od k i f .qef.csdwfNzifY awmifa0S.udk &dk&dkaoao av. 'Pf & mNyif .odkY qGJcsdwfvdkufNyD.wdkufrS odkif.pm.tm.wdkufcdkufvkdY &vmwmvm.f aumif. &ifxJwGif vGefpGm a'goNzpfae\/ tu. xHkusOfoGm.vQif tNyifodkY 0&HwmrSwpfqifY ckefausmfxGufvdkuf\/ olYaNctpHk aNrokdY rusrDyif &kwfw&uf avwdk.f í apmapmu &d k u f c suf u d k ol o m ra&S m if w d r f .fY&Spfyg.pGm Nyefckefwufvdkufavonf/ usef.kd vkypf Ofvm. usef.ovdk cHpm.u odik .aNrmif.pGm a&Smifwdrf. ta&mifwvufvuf awmufyaeaom oHk./ odkYaomf usef.fY&Spfyg.BuD.? a&Smifvifb&k m.qef.vQif . bmNzpfvdkY 'Davmufawmif vlrqefatmif &ufpufBurf.acR. wdkufcdkufvdkufaom vlrSmvnf.rSm vufwpfzufvHk./ usef.acR.r oGefoifcJYonf r[kwfvm.}}[k rSwfcsufcsrd\/ usef.u ouF e f . Ed k i f c J Y v Qif cg.x&Htay:odkY aygYyg. .av.\/ xkdtcg bkef.BuD. . acR.qef .uG y f x m.ynm txl.vdkufNyD.wdkifrD. ol odNyD.u wpfbufvludk tuJcwfBunfYvkduf\/ ol&ifxdwfoGm.u ol\ Nyif. &yfvsuf&dS\/ t0ga&mifouFef.acR.&dkufvmaomvufeufwGif wpfcsufzdí t&dSef.vkduf&NyD. f a wmf E S p f y g.taBumif.udk ab. vufxHkusOfoGm.um.wuúodkvf aevif.u ydkí a'goxGufvm\/ olu at.wGif wpfcsufaqmifYvdkufNyD.acR.u odrSmygav? avmavmq.xef av.pufpGmNzifY .vufrywfvnf&dS oHrPdawmifa0S.BuD.cRefqHk.yifNzpf\/ xdkpOf bkef. . ]]OD.avmurSm emrnfBuD.Edkif"m. wwfxm.uGyfxm.qef.NyD.aNrmif.BuD. &kwfw&uf 0if./ igY u d k o m ES p f a .\ vuf a rmif . Nyefí ckefwufoGm.EdkifcJY\/ ol\ pdwfxJwGif tawmfyif wkefvIyfoGm.qef.vQif eH&Hay:wGif r&yfEdkifawmYbJ atmufodkY tNrefckefqif.qef. ]]'D u d k .x&Hay:okdY a&mufonfESifY olYvufESpfzufpvHk.fYudk wpfuGufaumif.BuD.wGif teDa&mif tem.mif.ESpfyg.qHk.qef.vHaom vufeufwpfcku olYcg.acR.xJrS xGufí cef.u a'goNzifY wpfcsufrQatmfNyD.ckepfazmfu odkif.acR.}}ceJ toHNrnfoGm.Nzpf&wmu 'Dvdk olwpfyg.êuwf&wmvJ}} usef.wdkufcdkufvmolrSm omrefvlr[kwfbJ bkef.fY&efoltppfu b. bkef. . wpfq.u wu.x&Hay:odkY ckefwufum awmifa0S.\/ usef. ]]usef.vdkufNyef\/ wu.qef.rSm NrifYrm. Nyif.}} xdkbkef. acsmif. ]]tif.acR. u odrfYodrfYwkefatmif emrnfBuD.? rif. wd k u f c d k u f v Qif a wmY ig ckcHEdkifr.aNrmif.u awmifa0S. 'Daumifu wu.u qufí pOf.\ vkd[efYausmif.acR.qef.f tm.udk wddwfwqdwf acsmif.BuD.udk qdkvdkNcif.fYaBumifYrl olYtm.oHwpfcsuf Bum.acR.aom &dkufcsufudk aygYyg.udk aNrBuD.axmifvu kd o f nfEiS Yf &efo\ l odik .BuD.\ pdwfxJwGif .acR.vdkuf&NyD. csd w f N zif Y ydkif.NzifY usef. NzpfaeaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ eH&HatmufwGif bkef.qef.BuD.teuf b.acR.wkdY [lwef.qef.acR. wpfq. vufeufudk t&efoifY udkifxm.&SmrSyJ/ okdYNzifY usef.frxifbl. bmrS rar. .awG&YJ vky&f .BuD.u olYq&monf odkif. acsmif. wpfq. 0if.aewJY vdk[efYewfrif.wmudk.&dkufvdkufaBumif.}}[k pOf. t0grS m teD t em.qef.f avmurSm emrnftBuD. .udk udkifxm.fY&Spfyg. .ygvm.ausmif.u ql.fbufrS bkef.vdkuf\/ 84 .aewJY vlawGyJ? 'geJYrsm. odvdkuf\/ usef .qef. wynfYawmfukd wdu k cf u kd w f muawmY vlprG .rSm a&Smifvifbk&m.aNrmif. .qef. 0if.rd\/ vdk[efYewfrif. qufqH&rnf[k rSmBum.ESpfyg.f tpfudkESpfeJY nDav.BuD.NyD.r&dS za.qef.&yg\/ tb.ESpfyg.aBumif. bkef. ESpfuGufaumif. vTJ&dkufvdkuf\/ usef.xefvGef.pm.Edkifonfudk Nrif&aomf ]][if}}ceJ tmar!dwfûyrdNyD.qef.awGrsm.pm.vdkuf\/ apmapmu&efo\ l &du k cf suu f ekd m.yOöif.folvJqdkwm aemufusawmY a&Smifvif*dkPf.acR.f[efudk xdef.udk rIwfNidrf. usef.pm. tm.qHk.avmurS vlwkdif.bJ bkrodbrodeJY eH&Hatmufuae acsmif.udk ydkif. xef p G m &&dSaeNyDr[kwfygvm.lNyD. avmuwpf c k v H k .\/ vufxJwGifvnf.ausmif. .acR.NyD .vnf. usef.onf tcef.f r ao.vm. Ed k i f a wmY/ ol u csuf c sif .vdkuf&\/ usef.BuD.muf 0d k i f . yif ql .wdkYu tusdK.atmif e*g.muf w pf a . rS m avxJ w G i f N zpf í ra&S m if w d r f .u atmfar.ckepfudk oGm.acR.

acR.odkY uyfvkduf\/ a0Yzkef.yOöif.atmif e*g.fvdkY wpfzufowf pGyfpGJaewmudk. .acR. olYemrnfudk ar.wpfyg.uawmY OD.tmrcHXmetwGif.qef.\/ a0Yzkef.yOöif.? a0YuG.yOöif.yOöif.? 'gayr.yOöif. . a&Tig. .BuD.awGudk. xyf0ifvmNyefw.favmifpGmNzifY .fvkdaNymcsifovJ}} usef.fqdkwmudk qHk.axmifae\/ olu at.rSm apmapmu usef.tmrcHXmeu vlawG tm. b.u emBunf.auG.rSm yg0ifaewJYvlawGqdkayr.0raNym&bl.xGufvmNyD. . ]]a0Yzkef.kwfrmwJY vlqdk.pufpGmNzifY . pum.f&ufyJ}} usef.? [lwef.[m 'umav.a.&JY {&mrNyóemBuD.vdkufw.u bk&m.ygw. .muf&.*dkPf.}} a0Yzkef. .acgufNyD.Hkcsifbl.Xmeu vlawG b.acR.fawmfu toHus.fY odyfrBumbl.f? 'DBum.pGmNzifY .u NidrfoufpGmom em. ]]aBomf . .aES.? bmudpö&dSvdkY wynfYawmfudk vmawGYwmvJ}} &G. . aNymNyprf.[kac:aom bkef.? wu.f&ifudk.fY 'DaeYudpu ö dk OD.uvkdY udkd.acR. ]]tckudpu ö a&Smifvif*dkPf. .eJY xdk.BuD. . ]]rif.u 'l.vHk.? udkif.a.}} ]]'Dvkdqdk&if rif. t&JpGefYNyD.r. ]]wynfYawmfu bk&m.onf eH&Hay:rS ckefqif.f&if? [kd OD.f}} &G.&JY vdk[efYewfrif.qdkawmY rkom.f/ 'gayr. ûyH.ESpfyg.yOöif.f? olu wdk.f bk&m.rvnfEdkifatmif Nzpfae&ygw.qef. vufpowfawmY a&Smifvifbk&m.xJrS wpfyg.nif.}} xdkpOf usef.udk a[m'D usef.cJY&w.mufeJY aqG.acR.BuD. .fvdkqufvkyfr.Nzwfcdkif.wmusif.orm.fwdkY ESpfa.vsuf .vHk. 'Du 'umBuD.qef. .udk wdkifwnfNyD. .fqdkwm wynfYawmfudk. OD.f? tm. ]]q&mawmf usef.wdkYeJY ywfowfaeawmY rkom.yg.f? q&mawmfwdkY a&mufvmawmYrSyJ b.acR.qdkNyD.}} &G.axmufí vuftkyfcsDum .xJ OD.&if wynfYawmfwYkd vJ 'Dvq l .eJY [lwef.eJY [lwef.wdkY udk.fY bmrS aNymydkifcGifYr&dSbl.acR.pum. ]]OD.vdkufao.odkY 0ifpOf 0dkif.ygw.&JY *dkPf.f? OD.BuD. ]]'D a&Tig.yOöif.&.eJY aNymprf.xJu OD. .wl wlav. .0rSm apmifYaeBuw.udk ar.\/ Nznf.fvdkaBumifY towfcH&w. . aNym&Jygw. ]]OD.? [lwef.u wynfYawmf owfw.fwdkifzGifYaNymygw.Nzpfaew.wdkufcdkufaom bkef.aEG.qef. .Nzpf\/ xdka0Yzkef.u wHcg.tmrcHXmexJu vlawG&. w&m. . olwdkY tem. . . usef.f? tm. 'gNzifY wynfYawmf owfwmudk udk.kd vufcsufeYJ ao&rSm aocsmygw. ]]q&mawmf a&Tig.}} ]]rSeyf gYb&k m.xGufvm\/ xkdbkef.f? aemufawmYrS olu eH&Hay:uae ckefxGufoGm.fwkdifNrifvdkYvm.wdkYu a&Smifvif*dkPf.f&ifu .}} xdkpOf csKHykwfwpfck\aemufrS bkef.wlnD &G.f? 'Da&Tig.f? wynfYawmfu odyfr.qef.raNym&bll.udk awGYrvdkYwJY? wynfYawmfu ao&ifvJ rxl.0ef. vHk. wpfq.wuúodkvf aevif.vHk.pGmNzifY .wkdY&JY *dkPf.yOöif.ay.*dkPf.fY&Spfyg. ]]aemufawmY wynfYawmfu usefoHk. .f? 'Dudpt ö wGuf 'umav.mufom taNy. .u pwifí .Edkif"m.nif. ]]aemufawmYaum}}[k pum.qdkwJY vlqdk.wdkYudk.NyD.*dkPf.u vufESpfbufudk pkí .u .eJY a0YxHk.ausmif. .csifw. .u ceJYûyH.u Nznf. ]]rif.fwkdif em.qef.ckepfazmfu 85 .f? olu olYemrnf usef.udk vufñdSK.acR.fvYkd wynfYawmfwYkd av.yif aBumif.vufcsufeJY aoqHk.acR.? rif.f bk&m. .f&ifu qufí .wkdY&JYbGJYu bmvJ}} nmbufbkef.aNym&mwGif vGefpGm aES. .u vlawGtm.? a[m'D &ufpuf.fwdkif vmêuHawGYae&awmY OD.u &G.fvkdY ? 'geJY wynfYawmfwdkYu tcef. .BuD.owfvkdufw.f&ifudk.yOöif.vkH. awGYcJYwmudk tptqHk.qef.xdk.aemf? 'Dudpöu igwkdY a&Smifvif*dkPf.qef.qef.BuD.wdkY 'umav.fwdkifNrifvdkYvm.f? OD.bl.av.yOöif.fawmfonf pum. .yOöif.}} usef. .u owfvdkufwmyJ}} &G.pGm wpfcsufBunfYNyD.

í usef .qef .BuD. ]]rif. rif.u . \ rsuf E S m ud k pl .wkdifudk xkwfí rD.? wynfYawmf&JY rsufESmudk aoaocsmcsmBunfYygOD.acR. f & if E S i f Y &G .0dkif. pd k u f B unf Y NyD . ayGYxlvdkuf\/ odkYaomf a0Yzkef. vufñdSK.u olYudk owfypfvdkufw. .vdkYaygY? 'gayr.vQif rD.aemuf .vsuf rSifoufaerdawmY\/ 86 .wGif &kwfw&uf vJusoGm.av\/ &G. rif. f & uf b k e f .tm. rsufvHk. . rif.f&ifESifY &G.u a0Yzkef.aigufaigufxdk. csufcsif.f? 'gayr. ]]aoaocsmcsmNrifvdkY aNymwmaygY}} usef.}} a0Yzkef.rJY . ]]OD.yOöif.Nzwfí . .&kHru usef. acR.f&ufbkef.yJ? [if . 'Dvdk &ufpuf.ESpfyg.f&ifrSm wpfcsufrQ aBumifoGm. ]]rif.yOöif.? wynfYawmfu [dk vlowform.qef.f}} tNzpf t ysuf u Nref q ef v G e f .f}} usef.fwkdifvnf. . ]]wynfYawmfu emrnfaNymNyD.ñdSNyD.tqHk. f a wmf u a&S Y od k Y wpf v S r f . . .udk vkyfrSm r[kwfbl. vufeufxkwfNywmrSefygw. .vsufESifYyif toufxGufvsuf &dSonfudk awGY&av\/ &G.wkdYu wynfYawmf vlawGudkowfwm taotcsm Nrifyg&JYvm. .HkawmYw.Edkif"m.rS m vG e f p G m xdwfvefYwkefvIyfoGm.tpHk NyL.acR. wd k .fY aemufusawmY olu olYvufeufawGudkyg xkwfNyvmawmYrS wynfYawmf tBuGif. .udk.NyD.}} a0Yzkef. ud k .qef. . .atmif e*g.kwfrmwJY tvkyfrsdK. .fawmfu pum. ES p f y g. BuD .}} a0Yzk e f . .wuúodkvf aevif. .qef. . .fY OD.acR. . .rSmrl rsufESm ûyH. onf N zpf & m &G .um .u a'goxGufvmNyD.vm. atmfí .u Bum. udk.

u vkyfBuHol w&m.frsm.aomfvnf.f&if\ atmfoHudk Bum.qef.acR. atmfoHudk Bum. ]]vlqdk.pm. . . .}}[k atmfaNym\/ usef.acR.fazmYokdif. ]]nDav.udk ydkif.fenf. .zdkYawmY rêud. ql.f&ifESifY&G.eJY}}[k atmf[pf&if.acR.aom pGJcsufudk aNz&Sif.ynmu olwdkYxufomaeoNzifY rBumrD rsufNcnfNywfoGm. . .f&uf bkef. tcef. usef.folu vQdKY0SufvufeufeJY ypfvdkufwmvJ? b. rBum.pOf aemufbufrS awmifa0S.(10) rdef.csdwfNzifY &dkufvmaom awmifa0S.kH wpfzufpw D iG f vQdKY0u S v f ufeufNzifY ypfcwfcv H u kd &f NyDNzpf\/ xdt k cdu k f &G.folu igYudk ulnDwmvJ}} olu xdkokdY wpfcsufrQ pOf.BuD.rSmyif bkef. odyg\/okdYaomf olYtay: pGyfpGJxm.&ef ta&.&dkufvdkufaBumif.acR. .\ udk.av\/ &G.awG&JY rsufvHk.BuD. ydkí tHYBooGm.NzifY zHk. b.fwdkifyg csHKykwfqDokdY vTm.vm.tkyfxm.oGm.onfudk awGYvdkuf&oNzifY olu .racsmav.pm.avawmY\/ xdkpOf aemufwGif usefcJYNyDNzpfaom &G.rSm vGefpGm tEÅ&m.Buonfudk awGY&\/ rSeo f nf/ bke.&G.qef.? rif.f&ifwdkYuvnf. odvdkuf\/ wpfcsdefwnf.[efûy&if.acR.BuD.eSifYrQ cGifYvTwfrnf r[kwfacs/ okdY&mwGif ol avxJwGif a&muf&dS&kHom &Sdao.pl.BuD.aeoNzifY olu tEÅ&m.f BuD.onf rsufv.0g. vludk.fudkyif *&krûyEdkifawmYacs/ vkyfBuHoludk &SmrawGYvQif a&Smifvif*dkPf.BuD.\/ ]]'D bkef. aemufrS qufvkdufvm\/ odkYaomf usef.acR.u ig&JY nmzufrsufpdudkvJ ypfvdkufygOD.ESpyf g.fbufrsufpdwpfzufudk vuf0g.0g.eYJaemf}} usef.ceJ ckeftkyfvdkuf\/ þokdY ûyrlNcif. xGufaNy.u olYudk b.udk b.u aemufokdY zsufceJ vSnfYBunfYvdkuf\/ xdkpOf taemufbuf csHKykwfxJwGif wpfcsufrQ vIyf&Sm. .ESpfyg.vHk. ]]raNy.qef. ]]usef.BuD.udk umí t&dSefNzifY a&SYokdY ckefxGufoGm.f&ifu .cHtppfudkom rdap&ef pdwfapmaeonfNzpf&m &G.qef.ESpfacsmif.u olYcg.&\/ olu aemufodkY BunfYvdkufaomf bkef.aBumif.atmif e*g.NyD. armfukqef.qef. usef.frSmvJ}} 87 .f&ifu atmfoHNzifY .ESpfyg.qef.\ pl.Edkif"m.aemuf atmf[pfí . b.wuúodkvf aevif.? rif.

rf.rSm ol vH k .um usef. .onfudk Nrifaomf csufcsif.NyD.acR.muf Nzpfaeav\/ wdk. pdwfxJwGifrl . .udkNrifaomf emBunf.u armfukqef. rdef.? ESmwHay:ay:? ûyH. bmawGaNymaewmvJ}}[k Nyefatmfvdkuf\/ xdkpOf wdk. Nzpf a eonf r[k w f y gvm.vH k . "m.qef. BuD .yg? aemifBuD.\/ usef.cwfaeNcif.rd\/ xdktcg avSBuD.f? ig oluwpfqifY pHkprf.tuÐst0wftpm.xm.\/ pif p pf xd k v l r S m a.Nref. NzpfaeNyef\/ olYeHab.qef. aNcNzifY uefvdkuf&m "m. ud k &uf & uf p uf p uf owfypfvdkufwmaygYav? [kwfvm.rSm vGifYxGufoGm. .awmY\/ a&Smifvifbkef. .vHk.fqdkawmY olu wu.pdwfxJrS vGefpGm tHYBoaerd\/ ]]tarSmifxJuae igYudk tultnDay.muftoHESifY wlaeaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ avSBuD.av.oH k .tm. ]]cifAsm. r[kwfygvm. bDvl.acR.wmusif.ay: vTm.rsm.ESifYwuG avSay:rS vli.cwfoH Bum.t&nfrSm NzL0if. rsufESmrSmvnf.qef.a&mifatmufwGif xdkvl\ tom. odonfESifY Nyefvnf xGufcGmoGm.fudkyg awGYvdkuf&yg\/ xdkvli.udk ar.qef .a./ ol o nf rnf r QBumatmif ai.acR.p&m&dSvdkY avSay:udk wufcGifYûyyg}} xdkvlu usef.mudk wD. ]]wufcJYyg}}[k qdkvdkuf\/ usef .BuD.f Y aBumif Y rl xd l o l Y toH u csd K vG i f N yD . qifNref.armawG. 0 taNz&S m r&aom tNzpf t ysuf r sm.aESmuf vGefpGmaemufusdaeNyDNzpf\/ .acR. [lwef.Nzpf\/ usef.rSmvnf.wpfa.BuavawmY\/ usef.rsm.ay:u aemifBuD.tqHk. .aemuf .mufrSmrl toufr&dSawmYacs/ wdk.muf vJavsmif.&JY vIyf&Sm.qef.od k Y wpfcsufa&SmifvdkufNyD.yif Nzpfyg\/ odkYaomf wpfzufrS Nyefxl.wuúodkvf aevif.vdkuf\/ xkdtcdkuf a&SYbufem. ckepfazmfxJwGif ti. taNz&Smr& Nzpfaeav\/ olu aNy.onfudk BunfY&if.vdkufaom cPwG i f v nf .acR./ 88 .yg? q&mawmfudk oGm. acR.foG.BuD.uvnf. u igwd k Y tm.? 'Dvlu vlowform. .fu avSay:rSaeí wl&d. ckeftkyfvdkufav\/ &k w f w &uf vl w pf a .awmaerdonfrod/ &kwfw&uf uefa&NyifqDrS wl&d.wGif acgif. avSBuD. .fqHk.vdkvdk 'DuefawmfBuD.rS yg.}}[k atmfaNymae\/ usef.folygvdrfY}}[kvnf.BuD.fYvlowform.wmusif.eHab. &GHY&GHYaBumufaBumufNzifY tvsiftNref xGufcGmoGm.odkY qdkufuyfvm\/ usef. xdkifcdkif.? usKyfu usef. ]]bD v l .udk &kwfw&uf owd&NyD.Nzif Y c k w f y d k i f . armfukqef.qef.rSmrl OD.\/ xdkvludk BunfYvdkufaomf bkef.mif rawGY&acs/ xdt k csed w f iG f &G.*dkPf.onf vQdKY0Sufvufeuf ypfcwf&mwGif tawmfqHk.acR.ckn olêuHawGYcJY&aom tNzpftysuftm.f? rsufvHk.BuD.acR.ceJ ckefwufvdkuf\/ xdkolu rwfwwf&yfíûyH.qef.rS m xif .onf toufiifaeNyDNzpf\/ wkd.aom toHNzifY . avQmufwifvkdufyg}} olu pum.sOûf ydiEf ikd af wmYrnf r[kwfaBumif.ae\/ taotcsm BunfYaomf wkd.qDokdY vSrf.rSm &dSaew.u bkef.tNyif vSnfYywf &SmazGonfYwdkif vl&dyfvla. ]]'Dvlu wpfcsdefvHk.vdkuf\/ rD.qef.acR. &m csef x m. u tH Y Boovd k Nzpf o G m .&acs/ olu uefpyf&dS csHKykwftwGif.rSm urf.qef. u ab.wm b.qef. vIyf. .acR.0dkif.Nzpf\/ xdkYaBumifYyif usef.yOöif.mufsm.yJ? olu [lwef. toufxGufoGm.Edkif"m. .wpfyg.acR. atmfac:vdkufrdNcif.oH rBum.atmif e*g. ceJ a y:vmwwf a o. vGefpGm vSyae\/ rsufcHk.u avSBuD. NrefNrefxGufaNy.qef.&f ifwYkdonf rsuv f .m wD.kH wGif vQKd Y0u S v f ufeuf xdreS cf &H í use.csd K if Y av.NyD.tmrcHXmea&SYwGif awGYcJYaomavSBuD.f b uf y g. NyefBuGoGm.rIudk awGYcsifawGYEdkifw.cJ Y wmeJ Y rif . .wmusif.aeNyD.ESifY olYvufaxmufESpfa.oGm.uav.aom rdef.f acR.? OD.armYí BunfYvdkufaomtcg apmapmpOfu a&Tig. vm\/ usef .í atmfaNymvdkuf\/ ]]AsdKY .wmusif.u usef.racsmav.qef .\ vufaxmufESpfa. ? igu a&T ' *F g .muf u ck e f x G u f v mNyD . csHKykwfav.vdkuf&oNzifY acgif.0dkif.acR.qef.u toHukef[pfí ]]OD.BunfYrSyJ}}[k awG. .u usef.qef.yOöif.bufodkY wpfcsufrQ vSnfYBunfYNyD.wpfOD.&\/ tb.wmusif.oG. b.&dS csHKykwfwGif vloHk.idkufpdkufusoGm. . acR.tm.

wGif rvif.acR.uav.av\/ avSay:rS rdef. .onfESifY &ifwpfcsuf ckefoGm.acR. twl .&dk.vsufvm\/ avSay:rSvnf.acR. uspûyvm\/ rdef.ESifY uAsmudkBunfY&if. .rSmvnf.vQif rsufESmNyifwpfckvHk.\/ usef.rysdKu vJYvJYrQ ûyH. .trf.qkwfvdkuf&m udk.trnfu csifyg? aemifwpfcsdefNyefawGYrSyJ pum.onf avSudk &GufvTifYvdkuf\/ avSrSm Nrefonfxuf Nrefvmav\/ usef. rS m urf .onf avSxJrS NyefxGufvm\/vufxJwGifvnf.rS ckefxGufNyD.av\/ twefBumaomf rdef.xl. eDNref. ]]usKyfrSm r&Sif. uif x uf o k d Y armYBunfYvdkufaomtcsdefwGifrl rdk.uav.uav.rysdKav. wdrfñdkrsm.&\/ xdkYaBumifY EIwfrS vTwfceJ atmfaNymrdav\/ ]]rdef.qif.udk ar. rdef.f}} rdef.rSm a&SYokdY vsifNrefpGm xGufcGmoGm.csvdkufrdav\/ omref v l q d k v Qif r l aNrmif . .zGJuav.wpfckxJodkY eif. usKyftpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk odvm. bmrQ NyefraNymacs/ avSav.okdY ypfay.f&YJ rsdK.qef.onf axGaxGxl.mufsm.f uav.f? rdrt d pfukd &Dwu kd &f iT u f kd apmifYa&Smuf ydYk aqmifcikd . .qef.&dk.um. odvQifodcsif.uav. bmaBumifY oufNyif.SOfrdoGm. wpfcsufrQ aBumiftrf.acR. NzpfoGm.D ESiYf þuJYodkY rae0YHacs/ olu rdef. .uav..vdkuf&\/ xdkpOf avSxJrS rdef.qef.wD.uav.uav.rvnf/ olu qufí.acR.csonfudkrl olem.0ifoGm.Bum.}} rdef.udk usef.rGrf. ]]w.p b.acR.u [mceJ tmar!d w f o H û yvsuf owd & [ef N zif Y csuf c sif . usef.vdkufrd\/ EIwfrSvnf.aerdav\/ olu xD.aom avSudkBunfY&if.qGx J m.rsm.pm.uav.emrnf csifyg[k Bum.acR. vnf .rysdKrSm olYtNzpfudkNrifaomf vufckyfvuf0g.qef.\ tBum.aomfvnf.csoHvkdvdk Bum. .uav.raeawmY/ a.rS xGufcJYvQifrl cRef[efûrdYodkY a&muf\/ usef . usoG m .udk awGYae&í tHYBooGm.csifwmvJ}}[k Nyefar.frSmvnf.onf xdkqDpdrfxD.rnf r S m aocsmyg\/ ol u rl csufcsif.csyfukd a&.&d. Nzpfaeovm. pdwfxJrS csD. .yaeaom aiG v pE´ m ud k armYBunf Y aeav\/ usef .mvSaom a&aNrawmawmif yef.w.xJwiG f rde. 89 .rysdKu toHrSefNzifY .av\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.NzifY zHk.acR.qef.f [mceJ cHpm.}}[k qdkav\/ xdkYaemufwGifrl rdef. wdrfrsm. a.onfukd awGYvu kd \ f / NyD.wGif xdkifvsufyif &dSaeav\/ usef. a&.wpfvufygvm\/ rdef.k wmusif.uav.u rsdK.qef.csDum.tm.wJYtcsufawG&dSaevdkY rdef.uav.wGifyif xdkifaeqJNzpfaom rdef.aumif.vSrf.rdonfESifYtwl usef.Ncif.av\/ usef. pOf.NyD.pyftwGif. .vnf. ûyraeawmYbJ avSBuD.wmvJ}} xd k t cgrS y if rd e f .fodkY&Sm&rnfrodatmif Nzpfae&Sm\/ rdef.k emrnfuvJ csifyJwJY? 'gNzifY 'Drdef.rSmrl avSOD.vdkuf\/ usef.acR.wuúodkvf aevif.uav.aNymav\/ usef.fazmYynmygvm.qef. ]]usKyfu cifAsm.rSef. &ky&f nfacsmarmNyD.u aNymzl. taetxdik yf iG Yf vif.rysdKu raNymrqdkyif xdkqDpdrfxD. S O f í avQmuf a eav\/ ol u pum.qef .rS avSxJokdY r0ifbJ avSOD.vdkuf&yg\/ rdef.\/ olu atmfí .csDum.\/ xdkuefawmfBuD. acR.uifwpfckvHk. &ifxJ0.Nznf. atmufbufokdY wNznf.wpfO.ao. qDpdrfpuúLxD.ceJ a&aNrmif.pm.acR.vsuf .rSef.tm&kHwGif oufNyif. .t&Gufudkom ai. rD&ef wtm.wGif xdkif&if. ]]bmNzpfvdkY ar.u vSnfYBunfY&kHBunfYvdkuf\/ bmrQawmY NyefraNz/ odkYaomf usef. Nyefckefqif. ]]cifAsm. í aumif .f wJY vli. ]]wd.csifygw. .mif .udk rdef.rSm uGif.uav.tcsufudk pOf. vTm. vHk.armBunfYvm&m &kwfw&uf a&aNrmif.atmif e*g.rysdKav.udk zGifYvdkufaomtcgwGifrl xD.aemuf uAsmwpfy'k v f nf.rS . pD. NzpfoGm.}} .rSmrl avSOD.cdkp&mew¬dNzpfae\/ odkY&mwGif rdk.qef .qef.NyifokdY a&mufae&m rdk.zGJzGJusaeonfYBum.pyfxm. . .u . urf.u cyfvSrf. pyf r S y if avS a rsm&mtwd k i f .qef.qef. avS x J o d k Y taNy.0rodvdkYavSay: wufcJYrdwmudk cGifYvTwfygAsm}} rdef.tkyfvsuf &dSaeyg\/ xdkpOf rdk. uav.rSm vGefpGm pmay0goemygolNzpf&m xdk yef.wpf0uf vif.Edkif"m.wpf0uf vif.oGm.okwfaNcwifí vkdufavawmY\/ rBumrDyif avSESifY .if.rysdKav. acR. rf .faumif.[m tJ'Dvlrsm. ]]uRefr&JY rsdK.aNcudkvSrf. avSwpfpif.. .t&Gufay:wGif vGefpGm om.vif.aomfvnf.wJY udk. .pNrnf aNymBuwmaygY}}[k vSrf.r[laom vdifcGJNcm. .? bmvdkY avSxJ r0ifao. xJ o d k Y wpf v d r f Y aumuf a uG .

&Sm\/ þtaNctaersdK.onf pum. .NyD.wpfyifudk vuf0g.acR.vsuf.vm.eJY apmfum.\/ odkYNzifY usef.}} ]][kwfygw.fvkdY &Dwdkuf&Tif wpfckck NzpfoGm.BuD.rysdKu wpfcsufrQ ûyH. rnfrQ NynfY0aBumif. ydkNrefvm\/ usef.vdkufonf/ opfudkif.udk aoaocsmcsm aNymwmyJ? wu.&efom pdwaf pmaeav\/ avSuvnf.Nznf.mufBum.folYudkrS tNypfwifzdkY rvdkygbl.u usKyf&JYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk a&Tig. .qef.? olwdkYu usKyfudk txifvGJatmif cifAsm.ovdk cHpm.Nyef\/ ]]uRefr wdk.aemuf ckefxGufvdkuf\/ xdkYaemufwGifrl a&ay:wGif ay:aeaom opfudkif.acR.vm.rSm [kef. ]]usKyfu cifAsm. odygovm.&if. .aumif. .rzGJYcsifygbl.\/ NyD.Zl.tmrcH X meu vl a wG t m.wpfa.pvHk. .u a'gooHaESmvsuf . .onf &kwfw&uf eHab.atmif e*g.rS &dSwmrS r[kwfbJAs? bmNzpfvdkY tckvdk vkyf&wmvJ? aNymprf.qef.um.rsm.apmif.eJY bm&efñdSK.u .url urf.odovm. ydkoGufae\/ ESpfOD.tm. ]]'D a eY n ? a&T i g. . &ifwpfcsuf at. towf c H v d k u f & wmu b. wpfOD. usKyfudk olwdkYu bmNzpfvdkY pGyfpGJae&wmvJAs}} rdef. .qef.tpDtpOfaBumifY [kwfvm. .wJY vli.\ aNcvSrf.ceJ em.awmifudka&mufawmY vlwpfpk&JYvkyfBuHwmudk cHvkduf&w.qef.vnf.ESiYf udu k o f . . [lwef.wpfckudk a&xJodkY wpftm.vsuf .mufu þrQ &ufpufBurf.qef.ausmif. avSay:odkY a&mufvmav\/ avSay:a&mufa&mufcsif. onf. .? 'gayr.ESpfudkif.vHk. wpfa.ESpfyg. cifAsm.Edkif"m.udk cifAsm.u bkef.u avSxJwGifNzpfNyD.udk csdK.acR.aeao.}}[k ar. opfudkif.f}} usef.uav. ]][dk a&Smifvif bk&m.êuwfaom vlowform.? &efaBuG.vkyfvkdufwm [kwfvm.f o l Y v uf c suf v J q d k w m cifAsm.fY olwdkYu uRefrudk pum.}} olwdkYESpfOD.fysdKrspfaom rdef.}} ]]uRefr pdwfraumif.ygOD.fr[kwfvm. .BuD. ESpfudkif.acR.atmif tm&kHpdkufEdkifNcif.tmrcHXmeuvludk apmifYa&Smufcdkif.BuD. . .awmifudk NyefydkYcdkif. odEdkifyg\/ xkdYNyif avSonf cRef[efûrdYokdYyifa&mufvkeD.qdkwm cGJ&cufygw.xefae\/ odkYaomf olwdkYESpfOD.fyJvm.vH k .Zl.acR.wGif qufí ar. .wmusif.udk BunfYNcif.\/ usef.fcefY uGma0.NzifY &dkufNyD.tm.qef. ]]'guawmY uRefr&JY tpDtpOfaBumifYyg}} ]]bm? cifAsm.eD.ypfvdkufNyD. .acR.uav.udk uRefawmf rarYygbl.qef. tmrcHXmeu vlawG 'Davmufrsm.rSmvnf.f/ 'gudk rdef.f}} usef. .f? oltck &Ddwdkuf&Tifudk aumif.NzifY twGif.0 rxifcJYrday/ twefBumawmYrSyif olu .}} ]][kwfw.rysdKu bmrQNyefraNz/ avS0rf.ceJ NzpfoGm.rl uoduatmifY NzpfoGm.eJY &efñdSK.fvdkY aNymw.rS . .&dS opfyifav.rysdKu vSypGmûyH.&dSvm\/ usef. .}} ]][kwfw. .ygbl.ay:wGifNzpf\/ xdktcsdefwGif rdk.qef.&if. urf. .ausmif.wuúodkvf aevif.ykwfcwfvdkY olwdkYudk owfypfvkduf&w.? aNymEdkifNcif.? 'gu olYtNypfeJYol? olYuwdeJYolyJ? b. wpfOD.mufpum.}} rdef.u .f? uRefr owfvkdufw.? [kwf&if 'Daus.kH q.rS tqifYqifY ckeful.f}} ]]usKyftpfudk [lwef.f}} ]]'geJYrsm. 90 .rapmifYa&SmufEdkifcJYbl.uaum}} ]]'gvJ uRefrowfwmyJ? trSefaNym&&if uRefr a&Smifvifbk&m.}} rdef.}} ]]cifAsm.acR. usef.acR.xJodkYom 0ifoGm.u tmrcHXmeu vlawGtm. wpfa.}} xdktaNzaBumifY usef. NzpfvdrfYrnf[k ol vHk.wpfcsuf tloGm. ]]a&Tig.ukd rNywfwrf.uav. . aNymaeBuav\/ avSu wNznf.vdkuf&\/ þrQ acsmarmvSyaom Eke. ]]aus. ]]rdef.udk owfypfw. .

vSaom tcsdeftwGif.rysdK\ taNzudk usef.u odkif.qef .pGm oabmaygufoGm.rSm NzLazG. tHYBooGm.ESifY cGJNcm. ra&S.rysdKonf wdkawmif. bmaBumifY rdrdtm.rsm.acR.i.? b. oG m .qef.}} rdef.[if}} usef .vQif &dkif.onf u d k awG Y &\/ . csufcsif.qef. u vQd K Y0S u f v uf e uf [ k l a om toH u d k B um.rl avS0rf.0YH a wmY/ twef B umrS y if ratmifYtnf.rd&rSm? [lwef.mufwnf. ud k Nrif a omf usef .qef.av}} ol awG .pdkufBunfYvkduf\/ rSefonf/ rdef. acR. a.ckepfazmf[m &kyf&nfacsmarm cHYnm. ]]rvkdygbl.okdif.onf E S i f Y rd e f .acR.tNyifbufodkYom vSrf. &dSygw.&JY twGif. vlowform.xJrS rD.0ifa&mufoGm.BunfYaevdkuf\/ rdef.onf uydkuoDEdkifvSaom tuÐsudk oyfoyf&yf&yfûyNyD.&kHwifrubl. .oHk.vHk.udk BunfY&if.wuúodkvf aevif. . toHAvHrsm.NcpfNcpfoH Bum.qef.om. acsmaBumif.qef.aeaomfvnf.uav. .feJYvkyf [dk vlqdk.yif rD.udkacgufvsuf avS0rf.? uRefrvJ tidkufrdoGm.r&atmif wlvGef.u acgif.avmurSm taumif.folYvufcsufeJY 'Pf&m&cJYwmvJ? odygovm.muf xdkifaeNyD.mufsm.wwfatmif NzpfoGm. .wGif avS0rf. b.aeNyD.mufsm. ud k pl.qef.f? trSefudk uRefr pOf.u b.rsm.udk Nyvm\/ ]]&Sifaum 'D vQdKY0Sufvufeufudk odovm.vsuf qdkyg\/ ]]wdk.[k xifBurnfrSm rqef.acR.acR. csD. oluJYodkYyif . ]]usKyf&JYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tif[m b.\ t0wftpm. rsufpd &Sef.vQif vJYvJYûyH.vmav\/ NyD.vdkY aNymoHBum. acR.pm.faom teufa&mif vSHwdkav.vdkuf&\/ ol owd&vdkufaom taBumif. NzLazG.acR.fbufvufarmif.rysdKNzpfaeí rdrdu þtcsdefrsdK.xJwGif olYvkd t0wftpm. vJvS.rysdK\ vufarmif.olcdk.[k pGyfpGJaeBuNcif.aom vufarmif.EdkifoNzifY . .acR.rysdKu NyefraNz/ Nywif. . em.trf.&ef ûyvkduf\/okdYaomf csufcsif.fvdkufNcif.&Sm\/ usef.qef .a&NzifY pdk&GJaeaom usef.w.ESifY vlwpfa. ]]cifAsm.fvkd pDpOfvdkufwmvJ}}[k ar.f}} rdef.yif owd&vdkufoNzifY pdwfudk csKyfwnf.oGm.w. .rysdKonf rdk.udk odvdkufNyDNzpfyg\/ rnfolyifNzpfap tarSmifxJwGif olESifY rdef.&kyfrsdK.qef. quf r ar.EG r f .wpfa.NzpfoGm.atmif e*g.acsmif.vnf. 91 .\/ NyD. ]]uRefrrSm a.&musrnf[k owd&vkdufNcif.wm BumygNyD? 'gayr. aepOf rd e f .tm.\EIwfrS rnfonfYpum.awmY\/ a&Smifvifbkef.NyD.av.xJodkY twif.rSm wpfzufwGif rdef.\/ vGefpGmvnf.rsm.udk Nrifaomf .fqdkwmav? b.yfawmifwpfacsmif.}} usef. vufxJwGifvnf.rsdK.rysdKoGifNyiftm.muf aumif.\/ ]]rdef.yif Nzpfyg\/ xdkpOf avS0rf. wpfa. rysd K \ vuf a rmif .rysdKu b.aom usef.Nyef\/ okdYaomf avS0rf.ckrl rdef.onf usef.rS tomxdkifvdkuf\/ rdef. puúLxD. udkifxm.*dkPf.rS xGufrvmrD rdef.rodatmifNzpfoGm.rysdKuvnf.rysdK\ rsufESmrSmvnf.t0wftpm.qef.Edkif"m. rdef.acR.f*dkPf.av.ftzGJYuvJ}} rdef.wpfckvkH.vdkuf&NyD.f? &SiftaemufbufrSm oGm.acs/ ]]xdkifygOD.? cHYnm. aNcmufoGm.Nznf.rysdK\ b.raESmif.qHk. ]]0ifvmcJYyg}}[k zdwfac:ae\/ usef.BuD.pdkufvsuf&dSonfudk awGYvkduf&yg\/ rdef.wmusif. Nidrfouf wdwfqdwfae\/ olu a'goNzifY avS0rf.rysdK zswfceJ olYbufudk vSnfYBunfYvkduf\/ NyD.vif. .\ t0wftpm.aBumif.fbuftuÐsvufpudk vSefvdkufNyD.cgvdkuf\/ EIwfrSvnf.rysdKwdkYtm.acR.rGrf.tdrfrS rD.vJvdkufygvm. ñd S K .t0wftpm.fY 'DuaeYrSyJ vufawGYNrif&awmYw.qef.aeonf[k xifum rsufESmrxm.xJodkY 0ifvkduf\/ ol aBumiftrf.if . rysd K u csd K vG i f p G m qd k v m\/ ol u &k w f w &uf r d k Y bmvk y f í bmudkif&rnfrSef.\/ taBumif.yif Nzpfyg\/ .av\/ trSefrl rdef.acR.}}[k aNym\/ ]][lwef.xJodkY ckefqif.wGif vGefpGmao.rysdKu wNznf.url olodcsifonfudkom ar. &dSEkdifrSmvJ}} rdef. .rvnfvdkufacs/ olYudk a&SYwGifxm.aeav\/ xdktcgusrSyif usef. arSmifrnf. aNymaeNyef\/ usef. .

yg/ rdef.qef.uav.eufaevsuf &daS e\/ vSw H akd v.u tifrwef rSefuefaNzmifYrwfwJY *dkPf. vSHwdkav. .rsm.rf.rS &Sif aemifwawG &aeygOD. . ]][kwfygw.udk ulncD iG Yf êuHvYkd ulnw D m[m usKyftwGuf aemifw&p&m&dSr.EGrf.urS wwfwmrS r[kwfwmbJ&Sif}} usef.vsuf .aerd\/ odkY&mwGif ol BumBum rpOf.bJ raeEdkifatmif Nzpfrd&\/ usef. tm.r.xm.atmif acsoGm. wpfvufrcefY tom.acR.av? 'gayr. .fY b. tm. .? tckvJ wu.ynmeJYyJ qdkwmav? 'Dynmudk wNcm.NyD.? &SifYrSm r.tqHk.f uav.f r[kwfygbl.aumif.vm\/ tûyH. .onfYwkdif þrQ t&nftcsif.acR.qef.fY vSHwdkav.f rysdKu olYtm. tHYBooNzifY . odwmygvdrfY}}[k awG.onf touf ESpfq. aus.u wnfNidrfpGmNzifY .aNymovdak ygYav? &SiYf tpfukd &Dwu kd &f iT &f YJ t&d.fvdkvkyfNyD. xifusefcJY&awmYr.qef.xefaom tqdyfwpfckudk tNcm.acR.fY tqdyfaNzaq.avmuom.Edkifr.\/ pdwfxJwGifvnf.favmufBumNyDv?J tqdyaf wGukd NrefNrefaNzvku d af wmYav}} olYtoHwiG f vGepf mG pd.atmif wm.f? uRerf vJ 'gudk tHYBoaewmyJ? &SiYf q&mBuD.&JY oHrPdvufacsmif.aNrYaom toHNzifY wdk.f r[kwfvm.acR.acR.fYaBumifY trnf. csufcsif.yif Nyefvnfvef.}} ]][kwyf gw.&dS&rnfNzpfouJYodkY NynfY0aom twGif. . êud.rSm pdk.acR. ]]twd'ku©a&mufaewJY vlwpfa.fvdkY usKyfxifw.oH.wuúodkvf aevif.&eftwGuf aq.awG ol b.k &draf eoH aESm.&JY vQdKY0SufvufeufyJav? 'gayr. rwfwyf&yfum EIwfrSvnf.ae&modkY rysYHoGm. vQdKY0u S v f ufeuf pdu k af eaom ae&mwGirf l rnf. H k o vm.f*dkPf. rde.ay:rS tqdyfvl.f? 'gu a&Smifvif*dkPf. ]]rde.u od y f r Nynf Y 0 ayr.f}} rdef. pdwfylyefaom avoHNzifY . .qef. ]]'gu a&Smifvif*dkPf.f}} usef.acR. 'gayr. odkif. .rd\/ &kwfw&uf pdwfaZmNzifY .yJ &dSaew.rysdKu pum. usKyf u d k .&Sif}} usef.qef.? rd e f .ynm&dS&ayrnf/ þrdef.qef.u êudwifaNymxm.&awmYr.uav.aoG.faemf}} rdef.xJokdY pdkuf0ifaeonfudk awGY&\/ usef. .udk &SmvdkYrawGYcJYbl.wJYwdkifatmif tom.BuD.fausmfcJYygNyD? uRefru tqdyfrwwfatmif aq. .qef. b. vGefpGm pdwfxdcdkufoGm.fausmfNyDqdkawmY ukvdkY aysmufoGm.Edkif"m.rSm pdwfxJrS rcsD.wmyJ ? 'gayr.&SifY? Ekwfvdkuf&if tqdyfawGu csufcsif. .}} 92 . .wdk.vHk.atmif e*g.&JY vufeufyJAs? 'g .qef.rysdK\ rsufESmrl ñdSK. ]]tif.udk BunfY&if.rysdKu .ausmif.tm.f uav.f uav.f xifyg&JY&Sif}} rdef.? usKyf & J Y t wG i f .xkwfay. .u vQdKY0u S v f ufeuf tpdu k cf &H wm b.Suaf e&mrde.&dSonfudk awGY&aomtcg usef.rysdKu rsuf&nf&pf0Jvm\/ ]]uRefrawmY twwfEdkifqHk.pm.fvHk. ]]a&Smifvifbk&m. ]]rd e f .qef.w.vufarmif.u ydkí tHYBooGm. .fcefYom &dSao.eJY zdxm. .rsm. . ]]'DrSm usef.fawmYrS vQdKY0SufvufeufrSm tckvdk tqdyfcyfrSm r[kwfbl.vdkYygyJ}} trSefpifppf tvGefNyif.f Y a[m'D cifAsm.wifaomtBunfYNzifY BunfYvu dk \ f / ]]'Dtqdyfvufeuf trSefcH&wm &ufaygif.tm.xJu tqdyfawGudkawmY wGef. .wGif tuÐsvufpudk Nyefcsvdkuf\/ usef. .udk ysHYoGm. . .f? 'gaBumifY tqdyfu &kwfw&uf wNcm. .qD.awGYvm&\/ odkY&mwGif .u acgif.qdk\/ ]]'D vQdKY0Sufvufeuf trSefcH&wm &ufESpfq. igYq&maNymwJY pum.ygw.eJYtwl wpfudk.fY vSHwdkav.yef.HkouFmwmawG trsm.f twd'u k a© &mufaewJY rde.awGudkawmY uRefr rEkwf&Jbl.mufudk ulnDwm[m usKyfwdkY odkif.k acsmif.cg.Zl.u pdwfrcsrf.xJrSm trm&GwfBuD.k awGukd aBurGoGm.wpfckyJAs? olwdkYu b.rSm tqdyfvl.faemf? awmfBum uRefrudk ulnDvdkufNyD.? uRefr&JY vufwpfzufawmY qHk.ae&mawGudk rysYHEdkifbl.pm.rSm ESpv f ufrcefY &Snv f sm. odkif.ae&mrS &kwfNcif. .&JY t"duwm0efyJ r[kwv f m.fYES.usL.rysdK\ vufarmif.acR.? uRefr &SifYudk ckuwnf.ESpfq. uav.a&mifNzpfae&wmvJ}} rdef.BuD.wm[m a&Smifvif*dkPf. uav.

f? uRefru &SifYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk a&Tig.frNzpfyGm.? 'gayr.udk qufNyef\/ ]]uRerf wpfvrf. vkdufyg apmifYa&SmufcJYygw.vdu k v f Ydk tJ't D zGYJ awG xGufaNy. wpfcsurf Q aBumiftrf. aus.f? 'gayr. wd.rsKd . aNymNyr. trsKd . .cJYbl.kH av.fY uRefruyJ wdww f qdwf aNz&Si.f wdYk aemufu xyfBuyfruGm vkdufygcJYw.tmrcHXmeudk tyfvdkufNyD.rsKd .wmusif.acR.f? vrf.vHk. .fwif apmifYa&SmufwJYtwGuf [lwef. . [lwef.oD.udk trsm.Nzwfí . rdef.fpm.r.f? 'gayr.rSm tzGYJ o. . ]]&Sif uRefrudk aus.awmifaNca&mufawmYrS rxifrSwfbJ NyóemNzpfawmYwmygyJ&Sif}} 93 .qHkaomf wpfzufokdY toD.wuúodkvf aevif. NzpfomG .k wmusi. ]]aumif.awGudk wdk.ukefBuw. Nzpfaerd&\/ rdef.f? wpfvrf.k t0wftpm.wifygw.fuaeNyD. ]]tckvkd usKyftpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk u.u Bum.wdkY vHk. .BuD.uav.Zl.rysdKu &Tef.rysdKu wnfNidrfaom avoHNzifY .vJ? &kyaf wG trsKd .zGYJ u &Dwu kd &f iT u f kd vkzYkd êud. .fBumrSyif rdef. .f rysKd \ trlt&mudk em.\/ olu rde.yJ olwdkY aemufuG.pm.Buw.qef.rysdKu cPpOfu pum.trf. rsufESmvTJvdkufBu\/ twefi.zsuNf yD.c&D.NyDav? uRefr &SifYudk tptqHk. rdef.? awmfBum &Sifu uRefrudk rkef.0 rodBuygbl.wJYaemuf wpfcsdefvHk.Edkif"m.f}} use.ckepfazmfudk.}} usef.&if.Zl.f}} rdef.wifzdkY rvkdygbl.atmif e*g.fY 'DtaBumif.f ay.zdkYawmif tcsdefr&bl.vufpGm BunfYvm\/ tBunfYcsif.rSm bmrS tEÅ&m.rvnfEikd af tmifvnf.qef. NzpfaeygOD.rysdKu vJYvJYûyH.f acR.fY aemufqHk.vH.

u bmrS a&a&&m&m aNymroGm.bl.acR.Nref. vd k cspf c if B uw.zl .wdkYvufxJuae.HkBunfoGm.rS qufí .uav. .mufwnf.udk acwå&yfNyD. EIwfqufvdkufawmY uRefrvJ . xm.onf rdef.omvHk.ndwfí . tHuav.f&SifY? 'gayr.fY &kwfw&uf rouF m wJ Y tcsuf w pf c suf u d k uRef r awG Y vd k u f r d w .? wdk.muf&JY rsufESmuvJ pdwfraumif.vdkY usKyfwdkYu tJ'D vlaNcmufa.muftaBumif. ]]uRefru olwdkY aNcmufa.uav. usefwJYvlawGu udk. rdef.[ef rNywJYtNyif 0rf.muf u d k w pf a .qdkYoGm.w.mufudk rdef.BunfY&IBurSmyJvdkY uRefr xifaewm? tckawmY olwdkYxJu wpfa. .feJY rywfowfovdk aeaeBuw.wmudk awGYawmY uRefrvJ pdwfat.u tawmfudk apYpyfwmyJ}} 94 .&Sif}} pum. ]]ol w d k Y u [l w ef .Edkif"m.wuúodkvf aevif.udk wdk.uqdkwm rodvdkuf&ygbl.As}} rdef.qef.wJY rsufESmrsdK.wmusif.fY ollwdkYwpfawG b. uRefr Nrifvdkuf&w.f&SifY}} usef.atmif e*g.muf nD t pf u d k t &if .vSnf.u acgif. .ftzGJY? b.uav. usef.rysdKaNymorQ em. xGufvmNyD.uav.wmaygY? 'gayr.f? 'gwif ruao. ck e pf a zmf u wpf a .? [dkvlaNcmufa.rysdKu oufNyif.oGm.f*dkPf.txef&vmwmudNk rif&if wpfcgwnf.f & S i f Y ? aemuf N yD .axmif&if.0 rodvdkuf&bl. tcef. ]]tif. xGufoGm. wmusif .f ? 'gu bmvJ q d k a wmY [l w ef . aNy.wmusif.lNyD.acR.udk vHk. taotcsm Nrifvdkufvm.qef.f a v? tck v J [lwef. awmif u ae qif . rdef. wd k .kH &Dwu kd &f iT f 'Pf&m tNyif. .Budwfvdkufrd\/ ]]aeygOD.ckepfazmfxu J olwYkdtpfukd eHygwfo.furvJ? olwdkYeJYawmif wdkufcdkufvdkuf&ao.? tJ'D xGufBunfYwJY vlwpfa.wmaygY? aemufqHk.f v d k Y uRef r Bum. .vmNyD. 0dkif. (11) ya[Vdqefaom rdef.w.mufudk Nrif&Hkwif b. uvJ ol w d k Y ud k [lwef.ckepfazmfxifrSwfNyD. vmw.tHk ar.wpfcsufcsvsuf . olwdkYu Nrif. .

. ]]'D v l a wG t m.fausmfxd wdkufcdkufvdkufwmawmif olYudk rEdkif Edkifao. .wmudk.f&SifY? vli. ynmud k y J toH k .Asm}} rdef.rysdKu NyefraNz/ aNymvufp pum.&aoY[efaqmifaewmrsm.vdkY od&w.uav.? 'geJY uRefrvufarmif.w.wdkYeJYyJtwl awmifay:u qif.. .wmusif.acR.qef. a&ab.u vQdKY0SufvufeufvdkY aNymBuw. [lwef.uvGJNyD.fawmY wdk. uRefrudk t&Sifzrf.rysdK\ rsufESmrSm eDNref. .f? 'geJY olwdkYudk wm.'kuo © nfawGukd vªcikd .cku bmrBum.xJ pdkuf0ifoGm.muf u d k a wmif rEd k i f E d k i f a wmY ol w d k Y aemuf u d k qufrvdkuf&JawmYbl.? bmNzpfvdkY [lwef.atmif e*g.f q d k a wmY ol w d k Y u bkef.f? usefwJYav.oHk.qef.eJYrS ukvdkYr&bl.rysdKu aNym&if.rS Nyefydwfvdkuf\/ tBunfYvQifaom rdef.pyf[ vkdufNyD.mufxJu toufESpfq.awmYw.acR.f? onf. .axmifae&mrS Bum.fav}} 95 .muf x J u wpf a .awmifay:udk wufvmNyD.aNymawmY wrifoufouf usKyfudk txifvGJatmif vkyfwmqdk}} rdef. raNymNy&wmvJvdkY? r[kwfbl.udk a&T'*Fg.qef.rysdKav.acR.aNymaewm awGYvdkuf&w..&k H w if r ubl .fpm.vH k .'ku©onfawGudk.eJY pum.fu uRefr vQdKY0Sufvufeuf trSefcHvdkuf&wmudk awGYwmeJY uRefrudk apmfum.f? &Siu f wu. 0wfBunfYvdkufrdw.udkom qufí aNymaeav\/ ]]uRef r u ol w d k Y aNcmuf a .wdkufcdkufawmYwmyJ}} usef.? aemufolu &kwfw&uf b. tJ'Dvli. &J Y od k i f .f&JY odkif. ]]uRef r u &S i f t0wf t pm..awmif.awmifay:udk wufEdkifvkdY&dS&if uRefr &SifYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk udk.awGu trSefawmY uRefr ypönf.0wf w m od y f Bunf Y v d k Y a umif . ]]usKyfu a&ab. &J Y aygY&S i f ? 'gayr.m. ]]apmapmu rdef.qef. tEdkifusifY&ef t&Sifzrf.f}}[k qdkvdkufav\/ rdef.awGxw k Nf yD. vk d Y uRef r .uav.NyD.fNyD.f&Sif? 'geJY uRefrvJ tmrcHXmeudk vdkufoGm.&mudk xdefcsefxm.rSm usOfceJ wpfcsufcHpm.zdkY êud. ûyaew. uRef r uvJ &S i f Y v d k t0wftpm.? uRefruom [lwef.ray. xHkusifvmNyD.uGuf oHk. vlwpfa. ]]&Sifu uRefrudk ar.fausmf ydefydefyg. avSmifaNymifBuw. nmrBum.vdkufw. pum.fbufvufudk aNrSmufvdkufawmY uRefr&JY vufarmif.vSnf.pm.yJ olwdkYaemufudk aNy.tom.av rlrrSefwmawGYav NzpfaeqdkawmY csufcsif.fY olwdkYu uRefrudk rdef. usef.wpfpHk0.vdkuf&w.pm.Ncif. uRefreJY wdkufcdkufw.rSm &Sifu wd.u pdwf0ifpm.f? aemuf uRefrvJ wkd.f? 'gaBumifYvJ uRefru &SifYq&mBuD.awmifudk vdkufwufoGm.fav? aemufqHk.eJY ypfvdkufawmYrS uRefr xGufaNy. uRefrvJ olYudk tyfacsmif.u wpfpHkwpfckaNym&ef yg.fav? uRefr 'DudkNyefa&mufawmYrS uRefrvufarmif.uav.vdkufoGm.acsmif.udk armif.wmusif.mifcsmcsm Nzpfaewkef.f? eHab.csifaew.vm.í .&SifY}} usef.yJ&SifY}} usef.Edkif"m.f? 'gayr.Zl. uRefr rvkyfwwf rudkifwwfeJY a. xGufoGm.rSef.Nzef.armfum.NyD. .faq.f wmudk awGY&w. aus. .oGm.a.mufu apmifYBunfYaew. ]]uRefr pOf.eJY uRefr&JY vufarmif.f r[kwfvm.mufxGufvmNyD.rvdkYygyJ? olwdkYu a&Smifvif*dkPf.rcHEdkifwJYtqHk.u a&T'*Fg.acR.pGm em.rysdKu.f? olwdkYqDuae aNzaq.rsdK.fwdkif vdkufydkYawmYrSmaygY? tJ .oGm.qef.vJ csufcsif.f Y ol w d k Y u uRef r ud k aNzaq. .u taotcsm em. .iHkY rsufvTmcsvsufrS .aNymNyD.u vQdKY0Sufvufeufudk NyBunfYawmY olwdkYuvJ 'g[m a&Smifvif*dkPf.Nzwfí .uqdkawmY aNzaq. . rsufESmay:wGif &SufaoG.w. [m a&S m if v if * d k P f .wifygw. .taBumif.rSm &aoYvdk0wfxm.wmusif.vmcJYw.Hvmw.mufuawmY Nrif.odawmY 0dkif.fav? vQdKY0Sufvufeuf oHk.wmusif.udk txl.wJY vlwpfa.\/ acgif. &d S E d k i f a umif .av&JY tif. emrnfar. rdef.vdkufw. .rysdKu qufí aNymNyNyef\/ ]]wu. .bl.um eDNref.axmifvdkufNyD. okH.wuúodkvf aevif.BuD.wm&SifY? uRefru odkif.ynmuvJ odyfaumif. b.f? 'Dtqdyfudk olwdkY&JY rlydkif tqdyfaNzaq.w.yg.aNymwmudk Bum. &SifwdkYudk tusdK.f? vrf.&wmaygY&Sif? aemufwpfaeYvJ uRefr wdk.vm.rSm uRefr olwdkYeJY wkdufcdkufawmYwmyJ? olwdkY aNcmufa.NyD.f}} rdef. . .rSm &SifeJY wdk.fonf vGefpGm acsmarmaom rdef.wdkY vlodkufxJ a&m0ifvdkufNyD. ? uRef r ud k 0dkif.tm.acR.q.u ûyH.fyJ &ufa&mwmud.ayguf &EdkifawmYw. .k ? 'Da&T'*Fg.Nzpf[efwlyg\/ usef.aemuf .&Sm\/ pifppf xdkvli.k wmusif.

? 'DtmrcHXmeu vlawGu rdef.rysdK\ rsufESmrSm csufcsif.pm.NyD. rvGefvGef.mufeJY taygif.fvdkY aNymwmudku &SifYtrSm. wdkif.csDNyD.u wm.Edkif raNymEdkifonfESifYyif rdrdudk.uav.NyD.acR.rysdKu rnfodkYrQ NyefraNymawmY / aNymvQifvnf.avawmY\/ trSepf ifppf usef.fYvkyfNyD.f? uRefrudk &SifukzdkYrvdkbl. .uav. .tuÐspudk yifYwifvdkufprf.u xdkpum.tzmf rvkyf0HYygbl. .acR.fYudk.NyD? b.qef.ñSpfxkwfay.rSm vdk&mqGJaqmifaom pum.udk owfawmYrSmvm.rS tqdyfudk wGef.aygY? [dk a&Smifvifbkef.ygaomfvnf.wdkY vlodkufawG tm. ]]'DrSm usef.f&dSefukd owfvsuf. tNzpfu NrefvSav&m rrDvdkufacs/ ]]rdef. cg.u 'Pf&mu &ufodyfBumaeNyD? aemufxyf tcsdefqGJae&if cifAsm.rnf[k pd.vm. *d k P f . .uav.uav.xm. OD.acgif.vmcJY&if uRefr 'Dvdkb.bl.wmusif. .qef. .udk &dkufcsvdkuf\/ rdef.udk owfvdkuf&wmvJ? 'gu enf.rysdK&dkufcsvdkufaom ae&mrSm vQdKY0Sufvufeuf oHk.eJY bm&efNidK.Zl. Nyefvnfwif.vHk. rdef.uav.Nzpfí udk.wdkifatmif epf0ifoGm.\/ ]]bmAs? cifAsm./ usef.? 'DvQdKY0Sufvufeufu a&Smifvif*dkPf.rcsifw.&rSmuvJ aus. EdkifEdkifrnfr[kwf/ xdkYaBumifY &kwfw&uf nmvufudk qwfceJ aNrSmufNyD.ygvm.acR.&dSvdkYv}} rdef.acR.rQ rxifay/ .om.}} rdef.udk a&Smifvif*dkPf. raNym0YHbl. .qef.wmawmif usKyf w k d Y [l w ef .? uRefr tckqdk&if touf q. ]]&Sifu olrsm.rsdK. .}} ]]usKyf bmtrSm. ]]rSefygw. usef.acR.wif.f rysdKav.k pOf.Nynf ae&mtESHYrSm &dSaewmAs? rdef. bmvdkY 'Dvkdvkyfvdkuf&wmvJ[if}} 96 .Nyef\/ ]]&Sifu uRefr xif&mNrif&m &rf.vufarmif.Nzwfí ..a&m aooifYwJY vlawGyJ}} þwpfBudrf usef.? &Sif NyefawmY? uRefrvdk &ufpuf.onf rde.qyfwJY oabmygAsm}} rdef.orf.xNyD.folurS uRefrudk 'Dpum.}} ]]a&Smifvif*dkPf.ck pdkufaeaom ae&mwGif Nzpfyg\/ odkYNzifY vQdKY0SufvufeufoHk.kwfrmwJYvlu &SifYvdk vlBuD.qef. .qef.Nzpfaomfvnf.wpfcsufûyH. tmrcHXmeu vlawGuaum a&Smifvif*dkPf.qef.vm. avoHrmrmNzifY .udk ukoay.? &Sifu uRefrudk qHk.? &Sifuom [kdaeYwkef.eJY 'Davmuf vlrsm.armfBunfY&if. wpf0ufwpfysufawmY rSefaeyg\/ xdkYaBumifY usef.raewmvm.BuD.qef.vlaumif.}} usef.}} rdef.toufyg ygoGm.acR.fbufvufarmif.rmoGm.rysdKu qwfceJ acgif.rsm. b.fAsm? usKyf tck rdef.aomf a'goNzifY xdkif&mrS csufcsif. ]]uJ rdef. 0efcH&rSmvJAsm}} ]]uRefrudk &ufpufw. 'gxm. ]]uJ .fYvlowform. wpfcgwnf.\/ ceJYûyH.ckrSm rlvu wpfvufrcefY tNyifwGif usefao.Edkif"m.Asm.vHk.rsm.qef.fNzpfrvJ? &Sif pOf.aemuf .? cifAsm.ckrl tqHk.tppfudk r&&atmif &Sm&rSmyJ? awGY&mvludkawmY owfvdkYrNzpfbl.uav.}} ]]cifAsm.f v d k Y uk r &vk d Y aooG m .acR.awGu axmifaomif.rysdKrsufESm csufcsif.om.uav. tm.&ef uwday.udkBum.wuúodkvf aevif.qef.wif.rmoGm.fYES. owfaew.tm. þrQ pdwBf uD.? 'Da&Tig.rf.NyD. . .qJ0HYolav.u Bum. tHYBooGm.awGa&m? wdk. wpfa. usef. u wu.&JY vufarmif.u 'DvQdKY0SufvufeufoHk.&ef [efNyifvkduf\/ odkY&mwGif rdef.u .ESpfNynfYoGm.u vQdKY0Sufvufeuf r[kwfbl.}} rdef.ay&m .rSmAs}} ]]toufygvJ ygyavYap? &SifYaBumifYyJ}} usef.BunfYyg}} þpum.f rysdKonf pum.udk odyfqHk. usef. .tm. .fvdkY aNymaewm r[kwfvm.rsm.acR.atmif e*g.qef.vdkuf\/ ]]usKyf t pf u d k &D w d k u f & T i f wu.ck trSefcHvdkuf&&kHeJY a&Smifvif*dkPf.ckrl rde.u b.uyJ r[kwfvm.wif. ]]&SiftrSm.rysdKu rsufESmxm.fudkrdrd ñSif.u awmifay:u apmapmqif. xGufcGmoGm.ygawmY? rdef.acR. 0efcHNyDvm.rysdK\ vufarmif.uvlawG ypfwJYOpöm bmvdkY usKyfaBumifY Nzpf&NyefwmvJ}} ]]uRefru &SifYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&TiftwGuf vkdufrydkY&if uRefr 'DvkdNzpfrSmvm.enf.acR.rsm.

awmY\/ rdef.udk vTwfcsvdkuf\/ rdef. tckae ig qif.oGm.wpfcsuf t&dkufcHvdkuf&NyDNzpf\/ xdkYaBumifY a.xGufvkdufavawmY\/ ]]rdef.um.qef.om.onf ysOfNym.acR.ûyH. .EdkifawmYaBumif. .&Suf? a'govn. Nrpfurf. .Nycsdef r&awmYay/ xdkYaBumifY aNcNzifY aemufNyefuefvkduf&m avSxdk.}}[k atmf[pfum aNymaeNyef\/ usef.? pdwfvJ b. odvdkuf\/ xdkYaBumifY rdef.av.f r[kwfvm.muf\ atmfoHudk Bum. usef. ]]&SifYtrSm.uav.\/ tqdyfwufvmNcif. pdrYf í xGuv f mNyDNzpf\/ 'Pf&mrSm tvGef Nyif.od\/ odkY&mwGif aoa&.acR.udk usKyf NyefqyfzdkY wm0ef&dSw.? 'DrSm rdef.vdk rdef.Zl. .r. .NzifY usef. .atmif e*g. ]]rdef.rysdKu EGJYqdk.om.acR.u usKyftpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk tyifyef. .qef.vdkufygawmYvm.tm. udk.BuD.NyD.acR. . .&Sifa&. 'Davmuf&dkif. apmifYa&SmufcJYw.ygw.vnf.rSm wpfcsufrQ wkef&DoGm.ceJ vuf0g. .acR.qdk.rmpGmûyvsuf .}} rdef. .qef.qef.rsm.r&dkif.ceJ "m.f xGufvmrd\/ xdkYaBumifY olu .[if}} rdef. .rSef.rysdK\ vufarmif. vufarmif.rysKdu ceJYûyH. ]]uRefrbmom uRefr aoao? &SifeJY bmqdkifvkdYvJ}} ]]qdkifwmaygYAsm}} ]]&Sif . 'DvkdvJ r[kwfygbl.rysdKuvnf.r[kwfygbl.qef.udk NrefNrefr vdkufyg? rdef.ckwfvdkuf\/ ckwfvmolrSm avSxdk.aom toHNzifY .? tJ'D aus.oH tqHk.qef.? uRefrbmom aocsifao? &SifeJY bmrSrqdkifbl.fraESmaNrmbJudk.f rBuHeJYuG}} pum.Asm}} xdkpOf rdef.NzifYtqdyfudk rxdef.acR.? aus.}} 97 . .&awmYrSm rvGJygvm. .NyD? usKyf oGm.vsuf .od&if &Sif tck avSay:u qif. avS0rf.xJodkY Nyef0ifvmav\/ ]]rdef.Zl.rysdKu avS0rf.u wpfcsufrQ idkifoGm.qef.faewmudk.udk &dkufvdkufav\/ usef.? cifAsm.vm. ]][m .&JcHNyD.uav.f rysdK\ tuÐsvufarmif.\ yg.&dkufayr. rarQmfvifYbJ yg. ]]aumif.tNyifokdY vGifYxGufoGm.}} rdef.u pdwfylyefaomtoHNzifY . .aom aoG.? oGm.t&dkufcHvkduf&oNzifY &Sufvnf.eJYvJ 'Dwpfouf rawGYyg&apeJYvdkY usKyf qkawmif. tuÐspudk qkwfNzJvdkufav\/ xkdpOf aemufbufrS vlwpfa.r&dkif. avS0rf.rysdK\ vufarmif.NyD.NzpfaBumif.ûyNyD.wrQ ta&. .}} usef. ]]aBomf .Edkif"m. ydwpf ay:wGif ñdrk nf. .tuÐsuav. . vufarmif.udk &Sif 0efrcH&if uRefr &SifYudk ukcGifYrûybl. tqif.fY vlpm. .lygbl. bmaNymw.uav. .&if olYtouf qHk.mif.rnfûyqJrSmyif acgif.udk qkwfudkifNyD.uav.? wu.xJodkY tawG.fav}} rdef.acR.lNyD. . .qef.NzifY usef.fvdkY uRefru &SifYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk rapmifYa&SmufcJY&if &Sifu uRefrudk vSnfYawmifBunfYr.rS .aecsdefwGif Nyef&Sif.fY usKyfaAGr.atmfae\/ usef.u udk.fawmYrS rNrifcsifawmYbl.acR.tNyifbufodkY vSrf. .}} [kqdkum Nzef. usef.rSm rxifrSwfrD yg.f rESaNrmbl.rysdKu tqdyf'Pfudk tHBudwfcH&if.fYtoufudk udk.u usKyfudk yg.acR.wuúodkvf aevif. . tuÐsvufarmif.\ aemufausmudk vSrf.uav.qef.xJrSaeí vSrf.wpfck 0ifvmav\/ ]]tif.}} xdktawG. aBomf vufpowfawmY &Sifu &SifYtpfudktwGuf uRefrudk u.í rdef.bufodkY ypfvdkuf\/ avSay:rS qif.wpfcsyfudk qGJ.f? cifAsm.NzifY usef.rysdK\ udk.fvHk.fYtoufudkawmif udk.rf.rsdK.acR. csufcsif. .qef. ]]&Sif tckxGufoGm. xdt k cdu k f rde.rysdKu rsufESmudk wif.fvdkrS rNzpfrdygbl.&IH.yg? &SifYudk uRefru b.udk yifYwifvkdufygaemf? tif.rD 0SD.r. avS0rf. 'Dvdkav? rdef.yif Nzpfyg\/ usef. ]]&Sif uRefrudk ukzdkY rvdkbl. .f}} ]]aBomf .vdkuf&\/ ]]a[Yaumif? apmfum.fvkdY usKyf rxifcJYbl.u a'goESifY t&Sufudk xdef.xefvmNyDNzpf&m twGif.f}}[k aNymNyD.vdrfYr.

ygawmYvJ? NyD.vnf.udk pdwfa&mudk.rysdKav.pGm wufvmNyef&m csifwl. 'Davmuf tonf.vsuf ]]cd}}ceJ toHxGufatmif &.u cyfwnfwnfNzifY qufí .acR.ír&aBumif. .qef.Asm.wGifrl usef.rSm tBunfYcsif.rS usef. ]]uRefrukd aoaeovdkyJ aecdkif.wdk.NzifY aNymvdkufonfudk awGY&aomtcg ydkí *&kPmoufp&m? cspfp&m aumif. twlwlyifNzpfyg\/ xkdYaemufwGifrl csifwl.wpf0ufcefYrSm ndKrnf. y&d.\ rsufESm eD&JaeNyD. .uav. pdwfcsyg? wpfudk.ae [kwfvm. .acR.f rysdK\ toufuu kd .pm.acR.NyD.rBuD.xdkifwGif acGusoGm.Edkif"m.eJYaemf}}[k qdkNyefyg\/ 98 .acR.oumv csifwl.0efcHwm r[kwfbl. usef.0efcHcdkif.qef. oHk.vJ[if}}[k wdk. pdwfxJrS pOf.udk &dyfrdoGm. wNznf.qef. ]]tck b. .qdkwmudk NywmyJ&SifY}} usef.vdu k \ f /NyD.ovm.&if aemifwpfaeY olY&JY a.acR.wuúodkvf aevif.acR. bmrsm.uav. .&ifawmY &SifYwm0efyJ}} usef. usef. ukvm.qef.wJYAsm}} ]][ifYtif.fvdkY uRefrom aooGm.rl þtaNctaea&mufrSawmY rdef.w.awGudkom avQmYxm.onf rdef.rysdKav. ]]tpfudk uRefr aNymwmqdkwm trSm.\ tuÐsvufarmif.atmif e*g.m.ol\ tawG.NzifY . .\/ xdktcg NzLa&mfaeaom csifwl.eJYaemf? tdyfaysmfaewJYtwdkif.trf. qdk.u tqdyf'Pf cHae&onfYBum.wdk.acR.0 rawmifYxm.&drfpdwfNzifYvnf.wl.u avoHav. tqdyfaiGYrsm.vnf.tm. ar. .pyfxx J nfYum auR.qkwfvsuf &dSaeNyDNzpf\/ xdkBum.f&ef vGepf mG ta&.rod Nzpfaeav\/ xdkYaBumifY rdef.u oufNyif.qef.pm.fvdkYyJ xm.\ yg.wl. rodrom wdwfwcdk.ygawmYvm.0efcHygw. .f cifAsm}}[k qdkvdkufav\/ csifwl.vdkufygawmY? rdef.ygbl.toef NzpfaecsdefrSmawmif 'Dvkd EGJYqdk. . vlowfwm rrSm. .vnfum .fvHk.fY pdwfausauseyfeyfeJY trSm.\ udk.ao.vkyfwJYvl[m ol&JY EGJYqdk. ]]&if0rSm usyfaeovdkyJ&Sif? aBomf .vHk.Nznf.l wl.wl.fvdkaeao.ap&ef aNym&awmY\/ ]]aumif.wl.onf tvsifpvdk &ifcGifxJrS [lwef.wmvJ? wu.BuD.rysdK\ rsufESmrSm aoG.vsuf&dSNyD.wkd. .oHuav.xJwGif EGJYqdk.wl.rysdKav.\ emrnfudkrodoNzifY bmquf&rnfrSef.*dkPf.\ vufarmif. BunfYvdkufrdao.? 'Dvkd r&bl.pvHk.wl.rSm&dSwJY BuGufom. bmrS pum.omoGm.qHkvsuf wpfûydifeufwnf.pm. &Suftrf.wJY 'Pfudk cHae&awmYrSmyJ}} xdkokdY pOf.ESifY tay:odkYwufaeonfudk awGY&\/ usef.w.rdpOf &kwfw&uf &ifckefoGm.frdav\/ xdkpOf tqdyfuNyif.NzifY . csif}} olu rdef. .fNzifY vSnfYpm. aumif. þrde.vdkufyg? tm.vdkuf\/ usef.wl.fqdk rSm.qdk.rdavonf roday/ ESpfOD. pOf.[k pdk.vHk.ygNyDcifAsm .\ vufarmif. rsufvTmcsvdkufrdBu\/ NyD.foluNrefNref trSm.oumv csif . . rsufapmif.onf bk&m. 'geJY &SifYudk b.wl. 0rf.mufsm.f rysdKESiYf qufí pum.aeNyDNzpf&m rde.fvdkYyJ xm.ygNyD? uRefawmfrsdK.faygY? bmvJ usKyfrSm.tacstwif raNymvdkawmYay/ xdkYaBumifYrdef.udkxkwfí csifwl.av\/ usef.onf bk&m.rd\/ csifwl.qef.Nzpfaeaom trlt&m ay:vGifaeonfudk awGY&\/ csifwl.udk wdkifwnfNyD.awmY &Sif bmvdkY oufNyif. .fyg trSm.pudk yifYwifvu kd \ f / xkt d csed w f iG f csiw f .ay.qef.rysdKtm.\ tqdyfaNzaq.udk qkyfudkifxm. tomav.ygbl.udkwdkifwnfNyD. qdk.vdkufrd\/ ]]'Drdef.}}[k aNymav\/ usef.rysKdav.rysdKu ]]csifwl.ygNyDAsm? usKyf rSm.}}[k axmufay.cs&if.av? rSm. pdwfauseyfoGm.rSm þrdef.wdk.u toHwkd.yg&dS&if uRefrudk cGifYvTwfygaemf? pdwfvJ rqdk. qufí ESpfodrfY&kHom &dSawmYonf[k em.csdwf BunfY&if.wl.wl.wpfzufodkY rodrom vSnfYvdkufrd&mrSmvnf.}} csifwl.vQif csiw f .qef. t&HI. vHk.frSmaysmYacGoGm.&if.aeNyefonf/ aemufqHk.qef.tm. ]]ta&. .tm. .cs&wmvJ? 'gqdk wu.acR. . odvkduf&\/ wpfzufwiG v f nf.w.wl.vdkufawmY\/ ]]aumif. ]]uRefawmfrsdK.acR.wl.acR.vdkuf\/ csifwl.u csifwl.qef.w. rdef.l wl.

. 'kwd.qef.acR.aomenf.tm.rnf.rS eD&JaomaoG.udk vlqdk.qef.wl. rlv olYemrnfudk ac:ae&mrS . tYHBooGm.wl.fay.wl.? quf&ufiSuftzGJY acgif. *&kwpdkufNzifY .qef.acR. odvkduf\/ odkYaomf olu NyefrckcHacs/ oufNyif.tm.qef.acR.BuD.rSm csifwl.xJodkY ckef0ifvkdufcsdefwGifrl usef.aom taetxm. bmrS rNzpfbl.acR.qef.l&ef tm.udk "m.aom twGif. yef. .vIdif. usef.fvHk.? avSxJrSm &dSygovm.wGifyif 'Pf&mrS aoG.om.aom tcsdefNzpfí *&krûyEdkiftm.í ESdyfe. vuf0g. usef. vQdKY0Sufvufeuf xGufvmNyD. pdkuf0ifoGm.BuifempGm ukoay.vdkufav\/ 99 .cJYolNzpf&m ol\tm. apmfum.xGufvmav\/ aoG.\ vufarmif.qDodkY oGm.fAsdKY? tzGJYacgif.\/ odkYaomf vGefpGm ta&. .atmif vkyfrd&if? rif.udk vTJaNymif. csifwl.xkwfaomfvnf. ]]rrav. usef.vQdKY0Sufvufeufonf yxrvufeuftwdkif.u avoHudk Bum.NyD.\ opfom.udk &kyfodrf.udk awGYcsifaeygw.mufu Avuúm&vkyfzdkY êud. ]]b.xJodkY teufqHk. aNymif.qef.aeaom usef.ay:rS vlwpfa.xkwf&Nyef\/ rBumyg/ 'kwd.qef.cJY[ef wl\/ usef.xJrS aemufqkH. cyfzGzG yGwfoyf EdSyfe.pm.í atmfaNymoH Bum.k.qef.aemf}}[k atmfar.acR.tm.\ rsufESmudk wpfcsuf wpfcsuf wdww f cd.wl. 'Pf&m0ef.yif Nzpf\/ xdktcsdefwGifyif azmufceJtoHESifY csifwl.vdkufNyD.acs/ xdkvlu aemufwpfcg atmfvdkufNyef\/ xdktcg csifwl. tNrefvmyg}}[k NyefatmfaNymav\/ urf.qef.qef.NzifY wtm.aqmifBuD.u twGif.vJxGufvmaomtcsdefwGif usef. 'Pfudk wif.usiftm .\ ausmNyifudk vuf0g.aumif.mufu olwdkYavSay:okdY ckefwufvmonfudk vnf.vdIif.wpfudk.acR.tBudrf ckwfcs&ef &nf&G.f}}[k Budrf. ]]rrav.acR.NzifY Nrif&aomf usef. .NyD.um vufESpfzufuvnf.rSm tm&kH rysHYviG Yf atmif xdef.0g.mufu .pGm usifYxm.NzifY ckwfvkdufNyDNzpfaBumif.pdkufaeav\/ xdkvlu xdktcsif.í csifwl.? rif.axG.aeygw.apmif. ûyvkyfaeonf[k xifNyD. ukoaecsdefNzpfí EIwfNzifYrl csifwl.odkY avSmfcwfa&muf&dSvmonfudk vnf.Edkif"m.vQdKY0Sufvufeufudk xkwf.k BunfY&if.acR.acR.acR.wpfcsuf &dSLufvsuf vuf0g.aiGYaiGY&SdLufvsuf vIyf&Sm.udk rSJYwpfaygufpGef.vnf.armfum.eJYrTef.onf 'kwd.atmif e*g.fxm. ]]rrav.\ twGif.wl.ESpfbufqDodkY ydkYvdkufNcif.qef.apmif.odrf. .xJrS ckefxGufvm\/ wpfcsdefwnf.wl.\ vufarmif.u .\ avSay:rS avSxdk.udkoHk.aeav\/ csifwl.wifaerdav\/ odYk &mwGif usef.&\/ usef.? vlwpfa.Zl.&aomtcg &ifrSm ydkí ckefvmav\/ oufNyif. owfypfr.ay/ xdktcdkuf avSwpfpif.t&mudk Nrifaomf usef.tm.onfY vuf0g.qef. odkif. &ifxrJ mS vGepf mG aus.onf olYtm.aeNyef\/ wwd.qef.acR.wl.\ vufarmif.rsm.acR.onf [lwef. vQdKY0SufvufeufrSm tom.apmif.apmif. .wpfa.u olwdkYavSem. odvkduf\/ xdkvl avS0rf.wl.*dkPf.\ vufarmif.onf wu. .wl.tm. .qkyfudkifxm. ausmay.apmif.onf olYtm.f wGef.onfESifYyif rdrdtm.usifYpOfudk eufeJNrifYrm.aumif.aeaom pdwftpOfudk wnfNidrfatmif ûyvdkuf\/ xdkYaemufwGifrl aEG.NzifY xdkvl\ vuf0g.udk tBudrfBudrf oHk. xGufvmav\/ xdktcsdefwGif Nrpfurf.rsm.acR. ckwfcsvdkufawmY\/ usef.aqmifu rrav.cHvkdufav\/ usef.cktcg ]]tpfudk}}[k ac:vdkufonfudk Bum. xGufrvmao.fyif csifwl.ñdkykyfrsm.ay:rS vlu .om igwdkY&JY rrav.f cifAsm}}[k vSrf. avS0rf.faumifvJuG? twifY&JvScsnfvm. zGifY[raNym&Smay/ xdkpOf azmufceJtoHESifYtwl tqdyfvQdKY0Suf vufeufwpfckonf csifwl.udk twif.wuúodkvf aevif. .

wpfcsufrJYí .tnGwf awmif. bmrQ raNymbJ csifwl. yef.NyD.vmovm.acR.acR.wl. acR. csufcsif. rsd K .\/ csifw. vufudkifyk0gNzifY pnf.í Niif.ESpfzufrSm .rS ñdkrnf.NyefYum.*dkPf.vsuf BunfYaeav\/ csifwl.u rsufESmwpfcsufwif.&JY vuf0g.zef\ toufrSm ig.yg.udk vsifNrefpGmxkwfNyD. .'PfaBumifY aoqHk.tm.apmif.wl.wl.wl.\ pdwx f w J iG f vGepf mG tHYBooGm.ygOD.u emrnfBuD. usef.fausmfcefY &dSNyDNzpf\/ rsufESmoGifNyif Burf.? rif.\ vufarmif.wl. NynfYarmufaeav\/ pifppf csefusif. . xGufvmonfudk awGYaomtcgrSyif olYvufEpS zf ufukd vTwv f u kd \ f / olu acgif. tûyH.aemuf csifwl.rsm. txifvGJí &dkufvdkufrdNyDNzpfaBumif.aom vufudkifyk0gudk .tm.rsufqefNyL.\/ vuf0g.cJYaom odkif.furl vuf0g.ESvHk.vdkufNyD.apmif.acR.ynm vGefpGmNrifYrm.apmif.rm. &dSaewmudk. . EIwfqufNyD. 'PfaBuaq.qef.tm.fY tck rrav. .aESmifvkduf\/ NyD.íyif cHvdkufonfYwdkif bmrQrNzpfonfudk awGY&aomaBumifY Nzpfyg\/ xdkvlu wkefwkef.rdwmudk tEl.q. usef.bk&if*dkPf. .qef.cg.Ncif.tm.acR.wpfcsufom ndwNf yav\/ usef.aom aoG. ]][dkifqm. ]]quf&ufiSufacgif.&kHom ûyH. .\ vufarmif.rSyif . 'Pf&mrS aoG.acR. .ck þvli.ra&Smif&kHru wif.f rrav.u wu. 'l. tHYzG.qef.fYaBumifYrl olY vuf0g.vsuf .*dP k .tm.fvdkY Bum.f u vlawGukd zdwfNyD.wmyJ}} xdkvl vGefpGm wkefvIyfoGm.}}[kom [dkra&muf onfra&muf qdkEdkifav\/ usef.rf.ol Nzpf\/ csefusif.ck usef .aom 'PfaBuaq.*dkPf.y. odvu dk af v\/ odYk oo d nfEiS Yf trQ pdwrf aumif.qef.udk acgif.xGufvmonfudk awGY&Nyefaomf &ifYusufaom odkif. ]]usm.udk qwfceJvn S Yf í xkv d t l m. vufpowfawmY [lwef.f? [dkrSm "m.? a0vig.faBumifY usdK.zefonf csifwl.&dkufcsufudk wif.fu vufo. ]]csifwl.*dkPf.fvkduf\/ ol\ pdwftm&kHurl csifwl. .*dP k .apmif.? vufoD.acR.í cHvdkuf&m tonf.aya&mYrnf[k xifvkduf\/ xkdYaBumifY twGif.ûydif.bk&if*dkPf. . .tm.&JY rdwfaqGeJY rdwfqufay.url xdkvludk ûyH. . vufoD.qef.wl. cifAsm.ûyH.u EIwfcrf. rsufESmwGifa&m vuf? ycHk. reufNzefreuf csefxefNrpf0&JY 0rfzefuRef.vdkuf\/ usef.D bk&if*P kd .orm.? ukwfom.ifNzifY ]]cifAsm.? tif.yefygw.zefonf trmcH odkif.udk EIwfqufvdkufav}} xdktcgrSyif xdkvlrSm owdNyef0ifvm\/ csufcsif.url acgif.wuúodkvf aevif.fAsm}} csefusif.aom csefusif.Edkif"m.if.axmufí t&dt k aoay.wl.rSm ausmufNyifBuD.csKyf aumYqef.zefonf usef. .vnf.tm. . wpfqufwnf. .acR.rsm.}} ]]oludk.opftzGJY acgif.&w.qef.EGHpGm qufqHae&oenf.fbeef. .Nzpf \ / . . 100 .&JY udpöuawmY usm. odkif.ay.wl. .aqmif bmaBumifaewmvJ? [lwef.wl. .yDyD usef.vsuf .? 'gaBumifYrdkYvkdYvJ 'DavmufNynfY0wJY twGif.ykyfrsm.acR.f}} csifwl.yif usef.}}[k qdkav\/ xdkvlrSmrl .acR.rSm qHkzdkY aNymvdkufw.tm.fav? 0rfzefuRef. urf.wGifyif xdkvlonf csifwl.apmif.fNyif.\/ tb.acR.NyNyD. u ol \ vuf0g.pGm Nzpfrad v\/ ol\ vuf0g.udk OD. renf. t&dktaoay. ]]aBomf .aqmifvmw. rsufvHk.aqmifu [dik q f m.zefu. t&dktaoay.qef .\/ odkif.xnfYNyD.wl.qef.awmY/ . .orm.tm.cktcsdefxd usef.qef. tzkzk? tûydif.fwdkif olY*dkPf.yg.apmif .lí 'Pf&mudkaq.l wl. .atmif e*g.\ vufarmif. tb.&dkufcsufudk rwdrf.u xdkvlay.aBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ xdkpOf csefusif.zefyg? apmapmu apmfum. [laom tawG.enf.orm.udk.qef.qDokdYom a&muf&dSae\/ csifwl.aqmifeJY uRefawmf&dS&ifawmY &EdkifNyDxifygw.f eJY zkusufe.u 'Pf&m enf.ynmudk tqifYNrifYpGm avYusifYxm. aomufcsvkduf&ef ay.As? usKyfu csefusif.u usef.yif aBurGoGm.NzifY BunfYvu kd \ f / ]]aemifBuD.eDrsm.rsm.NyyGJvkyfrvdkYwJY? 'gayr.u rJYûyH.wGifyg BuGufom.}} csifwl. .yfawmifESpfckyrm BuD.f ? a0vig.wrf.udyk if tpd y f p d y f t NrG m NrG m uG J a tmif &d k u f E k d i f a om vuf 0 g.wpfOD.&JY *dkPf.udk uifwnfûrdYudk uRefawmf t&if NyefydkYvdkufr.*dkPf.qef.&aeawmY rrav.opftzGYJ acgif.

qef.? aemufb.}} ]][kwfuJY rrav.u qufí .NyD. usef.oGm.NyyGo J Ydk &Dwdkuf&Tiftm.udk acsypfaom vlqdk.u vli.vHk. ]]aumYqef.ifum rvm0HY0HY Nzpfae&Ncif.opftzGJYacgif.om.fY usm.Edik "f m.ndwfí oabmwlvkduf\/ csifwl. .f? cGef. .awG ay:xGufvmw.vdkY rNzpfbl.aygY}} csifwl.xJodkY rvm0HY0HY vm0HY0HY Nzpfae&Sm\/ tb.avmurSm tawmfYudk xl.fbufem.ckvkd e*g. 'DESpfawGrSm odkif.tay: qufqHyHkrSm tdrfapu tdrf&Siftay: vGefpGm usdK.wl.rvJ}} csefusif.}} avSxdk.aqmifudkvJ ulnD&if.rûyyJ t&rf.EGHpGm qufqHonfudk awGY&\/ xdkYaemuf csifwl. ]]cGef. .prf.acR.udkif. ]]tif.&yfNyD.opftzGJY acgif. . csufcsif.om.wl.wGif usef.wl. .zef\ csifwl.}}[laom toHudk Bum.aqmifudkawmY rEdkifEdkifbl.vdkufrd\/ xdkYaBumifY csifwl.wl.f}} ]][kwfuJY rrav.aemuf .axmifYuyf BunfYvdkuf\/ csifwl.uma&m atmf[pfí {nfYonfudk apmfum.u uwkeu f . . .Edik "f m. wkef.rdcJYaom tNzpfudk odaomaBumifY wpfudk. .udk vdkufoGm.cRefwJY vli.kd om.lvdkuf\/ 101 . .&JY em.}} csefusif.rsm. wpfcsufrQ rsufvHk.Edkif"m.rsm.u vli. .eJYrsufpd &dSvsufom.udk vk.udk BunfYcsifowJYvm.fvHk.fodkif.txef&cJY&m .u 0rf.vef.&JYavS a&SYuae vrf.}} csefusif.pm.rsufESmrSm &kwfNcnf. .wl.qef. .wl. ESpfa.om.tm.NzifY pdkufBunfY&if.yifNzpf\/ ]]ig ac:aew.wl.aom tm.bl.aBumifY olYtpfukd &Dwu kd &f iT f 'Pf&mtNyif.wuúodkvf aevif.acR.orm.\ rsufEmS trlt&m vH.Ncif.udk wef.? 'DawmY igwdkYtm.yif csefusif. BunfY&wmaygY}}[k qdkav\/ usef.mufudk txifao.\ zdwfac:csufudk acgif.rSm avS0rf.acR. csifw.vGef*dkPf.\/ csufcsif. .orm.í wpfcsufBunfYvdkuf\/ usef.qef.udk.}} avSxdk.qef. a&mufaumif.pufpGmNzifY . &ufpufpGm t&dk.zefu pOf. atmf[pf tultnD awmif. .u at.vGef*dkPf.Edkif"m.oNzifY uwkefu.omaom trlt&may:vmNyD.tm.bufodkYvSnfYí ûyH.qef.? igYvufarmif. ]]rif.xJrS cg.om.aemuf nmbufem. .f"m. ]]'D avSxdk. ]]olwdkYuvJ e*g.wmyg? tck 'DavSxdk. yGJBunfYBuwmaygY? usm.fESpfa. .pufaom rsufvHk.Edkif"m.if Nzpfaeaom avSxdk. . e*g.udk ol bmrsm.aom tBunfYNzifY vSrf. .BunfY&if.rd\/ xdkpOf csifwl.wl.u trSefrSm olYtwGuf pdwfylNyD. .NyD. . NywfoGm.ayr.&Gufudk Nzwfvkduf\/ b.fYaBumifYrl olonf apmapmpOfu taNctaeudk aocsmpGm pl.fu okdif. uRefawmf rodvdkY}} avSx. at.atmif e*g.rSm e*g.rSm em.zefu avS0rf.udk qGJxkwfí olYem. ]]uJ? rif.om. .r.tausmftarmf vmOD.k 0 at.qef.? yGJBuD.av\/ csefusif.u "m. 0rfzefuRef.acR.pufaeonfukd Nrifaomf usef.udk Nzwf&ef ûyvdkufcsdefwGif usef.yGJaumif.u pum.acR.rus&wmvJ? 'DawmY rif.qef.zefu pum.tm. ]]tpfudkvJ uRefrwdkYeJYtwl vdkufcJYygvm.EGHouJYodkY usdK.u 'Pf&mu ta&. e*g.acR. .yfac:vdkuf\/ ]][dwf? 'DudkvmcJYprf. .vnf. .acR.onf aBumufvefYvGef. tultnDawmif.a&mufvmrnf[k awG.zefbufodkY vSnfYí .u avSxdk. .ifNzifY 0ifvm&if.mufvJvmw.rBuD.vufoGm. vuf.f? olwdkYuvJ 'D .\/ csifwl. 0if. pdwfxJwGifrl .eJY bmvdkY 'Davmufawmif toHk. awmfBum awGYvkdufvdkY avmb&ruf wufaeBuOD. .onfESifY &ifwpfcsuf ckefoGm. .&JY emrnfu odkif.tm.avmurSm BuD.eJY rsufpdudk bmvkyfypfzdkYoifYovJ aNymprf.f}} usef.? [ifY . "m.tqHk.í aemufqkwf aemufqkwfNzifY xGufcGmoGm.fvdkY Bum.vkyfrSmrdkY 'Davmufawmif aBumufaeygvdrfY}}[k awG.? uRefawmf .rl ]]e*g.l wl.NyNyD.NyD. .&w.om.

u &SifeJY uRefr wu.? [dk a0Yzkef.ESifY tNrefqHk.wnf.axmifaewmudk. qef .BuD.NzifY BunfY&if.acR.&SifY? 'Dbkef. . awmif.fyHkb. tpfudkuvJ ? uRefrvuf&m raumif.av\/ avSxdk.u Niif.om.ck r l ol Y t pf u d k &D w d k u f & T i f u d k taBumif .onf tm.qdkwJY bkef. wl .ygNyDwJY&Sif? &SifYoabmtwdkif. .acR.f &Sif}} usef.qefíom ae\/ taBumif.aom tBunfYuav.favmufrsm.\ pum.rwlrSef.odvdkY zGifYaNymr. EGJYqdk.em.&\/ olYoGif[efu ao&GmrSNyefvmonfYyrm wufBuGaeav\/ usef.[m &kyfacsmoavmuf pdwfusawmY w.acR.NywfvQifrl csifwl.oNzifY emusif&rSef.vsuf&dSonfudk NrifonfESifYyif bmawG pOf.zef\ vuf0g.uJYodkY vltaNrmuftNrm. 'DvkdvkyfvdkufawmY a&Smifvif*dkPf. ]]tpfudk? tpfudkYtuÐs cRwfvdkufav? uRefr csKyfay.yif avSxdk. ]]eif usef.pm. ]]tckvdk csD. ]]'DrSmtpfudk? uRefrav wdk.ay:rSmyJ &SmBuawmY b.w.? olYvufatmufu vlawG olYudk 'Davmufawmif aBumufaewmudkaxmuf&if cgwkdif.usL.xl . NzpfaeNyD.bufokdY vSnfYum .yuwd usefao.Zl. NyD.fqdkwmom usKyf rodwm}} ]]'gu bmrsm.fpm.Zl.av\/ ra&S.aemuf csifwl. b.onf csifwl.wl. .u oufNyif.qef.iJYBunfYvdkuf\/ pdwfxJwGifrl .vQif avSyJYydkif. wpfcsufrQ apmif.u usKyfowfw. .qef.Nzwfvdkuf\/ csifwl.qef.qef.wJYtBuHyJ}} usef.ae&\/ okdYaomf 0rfzefuRef.cs uefawmYav\/ NyD.tm. . avSmfcwfaeonfudk Bum.udk owfwmvJuRefrygyJ}} ]][kwfygw.wmudk trsm.rS r&dSbJeJY bmvkdYusKyfudk acsmufwGef. ES i f Y t wl wpf a vS w nf .NzifY .ygyJ}}[k qdk\/ NyD.pyfxJ tyfacsmif.vnf.vQif avSxdk. pD .fwrf.tpHk taumif. .acR. .em.acR.vdkYvm. .rSm pdk.acR.aNymaewmud k acsmif.wl.omaeav\/ xdkYaBumifY usef.wpfzufESifY rsufvHk.atmif e*g.f tvkyfrSm uRefru olYyg.qdk.[if}} ]]r[kwfygbll.axmufvsuf OD.rl csifwl.url usef.qef.om.xJwGif rauscsrf.pufaom toHNzifY .qef.eJY bm&efNidK.yefygw.ypfxnfYvkdufwmaygY? &SifwdkYu ukef.udkyg uefawmYNyD. 'PfaBumifY pkwfNyJaBurGvsuf &dSonfudkyg awGY&av\/ xdktcg csdKvGifaom toHav. usKyf apmapmuwnf.f? odyfaumif.wl. . aus.raESmif.apmif. ]]'DrSm csifwl.aeonfudk odvdkuf\/ xdkYaBumifY at. usef.BuD.? usKyfu olYudk.f tpfudk&JY}} ]]rvdkygbl. .oGm.b.rSm em. ]]aumif.wl.vnfvdkuf\/ ok d Y & mwG i f .wpfzuf NywfoGm.om.&wmvJ}} 102 . .qDokdY xGufoGm.qef.[ef ygaeav\/ csifwl. wpfc&D.qef.u a'goNzifY .fawGYygYrvJ}} ]]cifAsm.udk &ufpufpGm owfcJYaom oltm. owfw.f? 'Dvkd Nypf'PfrsdK. cufxefygvm.qef.om.rSudpörsm. . tNcm.f? aemufausmrSm NyJaew.}} csifwl.}}[k trdefYay.a&SY0. okwfoifypfoifYonf[k ol em. .\ rsufESmtrlt&m ñdSK.vrf. .rmeftNynfYNzifY atmf[pfum avSudk r&yfrem.acR. .wl.wl.}} usef.fY cifAsm.acR.yg? 'gayr.wifvkdufprf. . ]]usKyfu cifAsm. &kyfcsif.aomfvnf.\ tuÐsaemufausmwGif apmapmu csefusif.onf olYtm.rodatmif 0rf. ray.xkdifvdkufonfudk awGYNyD.wl.cGJrnf[k ydkif. vGefpGmvsif\/ yg.eyf\/ usef.Edkif"m. . vd k Y vJ ? uRef r u uef p yf r S m tom0yf N yD .&if.wl.wifygw.uav. wpfcsdefwnf.tm.ygeJY}} csifwl.wGifyif usef. ûyí csif w l .fenf.acR. &S i f w d k Y pum.f cifAsm.wl.wuúodkvf aevif.fNyD.}} ]]aBomf .r.u oHo.fvdkYyJ xifwmaygYAs? aumif. .owfwmrSef.BuD. ausmay.url rod[efûyvsuf vJYvJYûyH.wmusif.f 'l.udk aus.acR.wdkYvlodkufudk owf&Hkwifrubl.cs\/ NyD. ]]'Drdef.qef.awmif &ufpufcJYovJrodbl.

atmif uyfvmav\/ tem.*dkPf.Nzwfcsufudk rNyifbl.}} NrpfNyifwiG f avBurf.aom xdkavSBuD.*dkPf. rsufvHk.}}[k Nywfawmif.bl.vkonfY 'kp&dkufrIrsm.fY a&ay:rSmawmY cifAsm.rSmvnf.a[Y? avSay:rSm b.yg}} a0vig.*dkPf.f? 'DNyifvlawGqdk&ifawmY aemufqkwfay.f? 0rfzefuRef.fawmfav.udk oGm.wuúodkvf aevif.onf NrpfNyifodkY acgif.ay:wGif a0vig.*dkPf.qef.BuD. avSay:rS vlu NyefatmfNyef\/ ]]a0vig.Edkif"m.Edkif"m.? BuD.qef. . ]]udk.&dSw.0ef.f uGmaeNyD/ xdYk aBumifY csefusif.acR.u bm*dkPf.vsuf . .wpfaumif a&.aeaom yifv. tvSr.}} xdkpOf csefusif.zefu e*g.opftzGJYacgif. .&NyD.atmif e*g.? aemufNyD.}} usef.udk usKyfwdkY tavsmYay.url csefusif.faNrwpf0dkufwGif usufpm. . . ]]csefusif. .zef cifAsm.}} rsufcHk.zef\ a&SYaNy.u qHk. wpf*dkPf.pGm rBum. 'DrSm&Sdaew.fawmfav.aqmif 'DrSm&dSw.zefonf avSxdyfwGif &yfNyD. wdkufcdkufBu&if b.ygw.f \ avSay:okYd ypfwifvu kd \ f / xkt d cg a0vig.u *dkPf.qdkaom pum. .rSm þteD.vm.eJYygvm.ay:rSmawmY cifAsm.udk ESpfBudrfrQ aNymonfudkom Bum.csKyfBuD.vJ? q&mYaNymoHvJ wpfcgrS rBum.muf ta&.? usKyfwdkY&JY rrav. .*dkPf.u udk. ]]rrav.vnf.usif e.qef.u aemufxyf &Gufxnfwpfck wyfvdkufNyef&m avSrSm Nrefonfxuf NrefvmNyD.u ûyH.rvdkY}} xdktcg csefusif. .zefwpfa.*dkPf.zefonf &kwfw&uf ausmufq.k xefvsuf&\ Sd / avSEpS pf if.rdvdkufbl.u udk.muf\ atmfaNymoHudk Bum.zef bmaNymonfudk a0vig. 0kef. avS0rf.acR.*dkPf.pl. tJ'D *dkPf.udk Bum.qdkawmY wu.\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.p&m rvdkygbl.\/ trSefpifppf a0vig.BuD.D \ pl.aom pum.awGuvJ Nywfawmif. csifwl. ]]uRefru &Sif acsmufxJusatmif wrifoufoufvkyfwm r[kwfygbl.}} a0vig.acR.zefavSay:rS vlu .f? cifAsm. .fY a&Smifvif*dkPf.udk aNymaeNyD[k wGufum olYavSudk acgif.mufuvnf.\/ wkefvIyfNcif.}} xdkokdY&dSpOf a0vig.*dkPf.*dkPf.[m odkif.oHudkyg Bum. atmfaNymvkduf\/ ]]a0vig.vdiI .avmurSm xdyfoD.vdkuf&\/ 103 .kd om.zefu oHukef[pfí atmfNyef\/ ]]a0vig.0g.vSrf.fol&dSovJ}} nmbuf cyfvSrf.fwdkif&dS&if usKyfwkdY aemufqkwfay. .Nywfawmif.zefu .ESpf*dkPf. e*g.wkdYu usKyfwkdYudk vdkufavsm&rSmyJ}} xdkYaemuf a0vig. a&SYrSwpf&dyf&dyfaNy.rm. ]]vufpowfawmY 'D&nf&G.*dkPf.wdkY&JY rsufcHk.NyLum BunfYvkduf\/ nmbuf cyfvSrf.Nywfawmif.fvdkYrsm. . usL.zefwdkY avSESifY eD.wpfcu k kd qGí J a0vig.f"m.yif/ xdktcdkuf csefusif.í atmfaNymae\/ ]]ukef. tHYBooGm.rS aumif. a0vig.eJY [lwef.l BuD. Nrpfa&Nyifay:wGif avSBuD.Ny*dkPf.wdkYavS aemufqkwfay.NzL*dkPf.us.acR.aqmif e*g.Nzwfxm.vSnfYí csefusif.? e*g.&JY ukd.avSay:rS vlu NyefatmfNyef\/ ]]wu.ESpf*dkPf.uvm.f xef rd.rl vGefpGm tHYBoae\/ ]]'DvlawG bmawGaNymaeygvdrfY? pum.\ avSu olwdkYavSESifY eD.wpfpif.*dP k .odkYa&mufaomf olu atmfí .NzL*dkPf.? 'gudk ig vHk. wpfcsufûyH.Edkif"m.qGJxm.wl.0 r&dyfpm.NzL*dkPf.rsufqef NyL. Nzpfrd\/ pdwfxJrSrl .wdkYavSay:rSm rsufcHk.vdkuf\/ csefusif.Edkif"m.eJY quf&uftzGJYacgif.avSrS vlwpfa.*dkPf.&acs/ odkYaomf a0vig.aeav\/ trDvdkuf&efyif rvG.qef.*dkPf.vSrf.vGefaeaom *dkPf.? 'gayr.fcsufeJYudk.omvQifNzpf\/ vlowf? ypönf.zdkY qHk.uyfpGm a&mufvmav\/ csefusif.? usm.fawmYacs/ xdkpOf csefusif. ceJYûyH.aomf usef.*dkPf.vdkuf\/ ]]a0vig.BuD.av\/ csefusif. .0g. ]]'D*dkPf.bmaNymaewmvJ}}[k ar.&rSmaygY? 'gayr.f? cifAsm.foGm.xJrS xGufvmNyD.*dP k .udk.cJYygvm.folEdkifrvJqkdwm uRefr odcsifvdkY vkyfvdkufwmyg}} usef.rS vlwpfa.f rS avSx. y#dyu©NzpfNyD.fawmfav. atmfoHudk Bum.ceJ a&xJodkY usoGm.fawmfav. atmfaNymae\/ usef.fvkdY cifAsm.*dkPf.ESpOf .Edkif"m.

atmif e*g. oP²mef t&m0w¬KBuD.zefu ta&.NyD.aqmifYqGJvdkuf&m avSBuD.rS udk.aq.xGuo f mG .wl.wpfck ysHxGufoGm.udk u.udk qufoG.acR.? [lwef.rSm wNznf. bmvkyfwmvJ}}[k atmfar.êud.? ÓPfvJ tawmfaumif. toufqHk.*dkPf.NyD.udk Nyef&kyfodrf.atmif atmfaNymav\/ ]][kwfuJYyg rrav.l BuD.vQif atmfaNymav\/ ]]rsufcHk.ESifY csefusif.uG? b.f rBuHeJYa[Y}} pum.zef cifAsm.rS udk.BuD.onf at.u xdktNzpfudkNrifaomf rBunfY&ufatmif Nzpfrdav\/ odkY&mwGif csifwl. ypfvu kd Nf yef\/ xkt d cg ausmufq.*dkPf.taemufbuf &Gufwdkifyg aNAmif.u rif.rf.zef\ vufpGrf.tqHk.NyD.zef\ avSbufodkY ul.u oem.frSwfyg? rif.NzL*dkPf.ESpfvHk.fawmYrS ausmr.rl usef.qef.\/ . avSudk &yfcdkif.\ avSwGif csdwfrdoGm.avonf/ usef.Zl.onf olYxufig toufvkí csefusif./ usef. .tm.fxm.}} a0vig.at.\/ a0vig.awmY\/ usef.vdkYwJY? [dk a0vig. csefusif.wl.vsuf &kwfw&uf csefusif.\/ aemufxyfwpfzef ausmufq.wGif olu ausmufql.wdkY a0vig. ]]csefusif. Nzpfvsuf avSESpfpif.udk Bum.u txdwfwvefYNzifY .mufrSmrl tpD.awmY\/ pifppf z&Jo.at.fwifvdkufprf.NyD.wdkY raocsifao.oNzifY usef.u tm.0rNzpfEdkifaBumif.acR.&bl.zefwdkYESpfOD.axmifBuprf.&JY trdefYtwdkif.euf awmufaNymifaeaom z&JoD.zefu olYoHvHk.\/csefusif.tygt0if vl&Spfa.NzifY qufo. . G x f m.oufompGmNzifY avSudk a&SYokdY qufvuf avSmfcwfoGm.*dkPf.f \ avSukd qGcJ sdwx f m. Nzpf&ygapYr.fwifcdkif.fbufoHvHk.cwfvmBuav\/ rBumrD a0vig.ovdk at.NzifY pl.f}}[k csifwl. ]]aus. epfNrKyfvsuf &dSaeNyDr[kwfygvm. .fawmYrS a&SYuae roGm.om.aBumifY a0vig.Bum.tm.\ trlt&mudk wpfcsufrQ tuJcwfvdkufNyD.kH NzifY ûyvkyx f m.í xdkvlrsm.acR.qef.wl.rsm.fwifvdkufEdkifav\/ usefaNcmufa.\ avSay:rS vlrsm.\/ xdktcg avSBuD.udk Bum. tvdktavQmuf vkdufxGufoGm.u vlawGudk avSay: u.*dkPf.\/ nmbufoHvkH.*dkPf.*dkPf.f zef\ vufpaJG wmf vufeufwpfrsdK.&if igYavSbufudk ul.zefudk atmfaNymvdkufav\/ ]]csefusif.qef.rSm a0vig.*dkPf.fNyifrS a0vig.\ avS&u G w f ikd Bf uD.oHrsm.rd\/ ]]'DvlBuD.Nznf.wJYvlBuD.om.\/ csefusif.fawmfav.om.yg}} rarQmfvifYaom pum.vdkuf\/ xdktcg rnf. atmf[pfí .*dkPf. vSnfYBunfYvdkuf\/ csifwl. vHk.\ rsufESmay:wGif bmrQ rxl.\ avSBuD.vnf.yJ}}[k aumufcsufcsrdav\/ xdkYaemuf csifwl. .*dP k .*dkPf.zef ypfvdkufaom ausmufql.ceJ usdK.avawmY\/ xdkYaBumifY a0vig.fawmfav. toGif ay:vGifae\/ þtNzpf þtawGYtêuHrsm.zefu olYavSay:rSaeí csifwl.eD.r&awmYacs/ xdktcgrSyif csefusif. olod\/ xkdYaBumifY olu bmrQraNymbJ Nidrfaevdkuf\/ csifwl.rrl/ olYnmbufvufudkom wpfcsuf a0SY.f&w.zefa&? uRefrwdkY {nfYonfawmfBuD.acR.rSm ukefywfwpfNcrf. pdkufBunfYum aNymav\/ 104 .aeNyD Nzpf[ef wlyg\/ xdkpOf yifv.u csefusif.udkNrifaomf &ifxJwGif wkefvIyfoGm.if.rsm.f ceJreS u f m &Guw f ikd rf mS usKd .\ atmf[pf tultnDawmif.odYk bke. ESpcf rk mS a0vig.wll.yif Nzpf\/ oHrPdv.&dSwJYae&mrSm rif. .wl.ESpfacsmif.*dkPf.eD.l BuD.oGm.rSm rnfodkYrQ oHk.tm. wpfcNk zifYvnf. atmfBu\/ csefusif.wuúodkvf aevif. .? {nfYonfawmfBuD.f}} xdkYaemuf olYavSudk NyefauGYvdkufNyD.vmBuprf.u .aq. a0vig.fcdkif.*dkPf.u b.rsm.&IH.&efuvnf.qef.udk wtm.oef&kHrubl.NyD.qef.acR.*dkPf.vdkY igu u.mufcefYudk u.udk ypfvTwfvdkufonfESifY b.oefaom a&vdIif.wdkY&JY toufudk u.ovdk NzpfoGm.vQif ûyH.pl. ]][dwf? a0vig.0g.vdkuf&\/ olwdkYavSBuD.usoGm.0g.qef.zefwdkY\ avSxdk. taemufbufwiG f oHêud.uvlawG em. tHYBooGm.wifygw.pif.D oP²mef t&m0w¬KrSm cseu f si.Edkif"m. tufuGJoGm.u aBumufvefYwBum.wl.onf olrtwGuf &dk.ESifYtwl ygoGm.

acR.fNyD. . cHpm. 'Da0vig.\ &ifxJwGif þtwdkif. i.NyawG&SifY? &Sifu olwdkYudku.}} usef.qef.acR.ud k tqdyf'Pf&maysmufatmif ukay.f r[kwfvm. 'D r d e f . uav. .ygw.? usKyf cifAsm.atmif e*g.*dkPf. .ae&onf r[kwfygvm.NzifY .wl. ]]wu.qef.acR.wif.? ig 'D v d k rd e f .vHk. bmvkyfrSmvJ}} usef. .f? [if.aNymwwfwmudk.u &SufûyH.NzifY .u qufí .u rsufESm eD&JoGm.\/ tb. rpm.vkaeBuwJY yifv.wuúodkvf aevif.fYaBumifYrl apmapmpOfu usef.[m vlowf ypönf.u vlawGtm. csifwl. . ]]cifAsm.f i .wl.wmyJvdkY? [kwfw.f"m.fvkdY olwdkYudk ru.u touf u av.ay.fAsm}} 105 . .u odyfpum.Edkif"m. ]][if.rdwm rSm.acR.udk t&HI.qef. .f e J Y 'D a vmuf a wmif &uf p uf y gvm. .url rsufESmxm. .qef.wif.u bmrQ NyefraNymEdkif/ csifwl. [if.f&if &Sif uRefrudk pdwfxJu tNypfwifaerSm aocsmw./ usef.rsd K .

fusyfae\/ okdYaomf arT.xJodkY 0ifNyD. csd K u rrav. cRwfcdkif.vm\/ olwdkYvdkufygvmaom avSrSmvnf.a0. rBunfY&JawmYay/ okdYaomf vIyf&Sm.\ rsufESmudkyif 0HY0HYpm.cJYaaom a.vQif usef.opfwpfaumif\yHk a&.qef. íaNym\/ tbd k .okdYa&mufaomf tuÐst0wftpm.qGJxm. 0wfcdkif.? us.oufoufrQomNzpfaom usef.wl.mufsm.i.qef.qef.frod/ csifwl.udk Nyefvnfa0SYNyae\/ avSonf uRef.onf avS0rf.vdkuf&onf/ xdktcg csefusif. xifouJYokdY r[kwfbJ apmapmpOfu olr 0wfxm.bufrS Nrifomatmif tvHeuf ESpfacsmif.tm&kPfbufodkY ul.wuúodkvf aevif.onf/ usef.tdkwpfOD.wl.qef.ud k vI d u f v S J p G m êud q d k y gw.oNzifYom 0wfvdkuf&\/ olr tuÐsu olYudk. wHcg.acR.vnf.ap\/ t&G.NyyGJ xdkYaemufwGifrl csifwl.tdku ]]usm.aeaom pdwfudk t&dkif.qef.arQmfBunfYvsuf tm&kHaNymif.f } }[k vS r f .onf bmaBumifY&.acR.onfudk awGY&awmY\/ tvHESpfck\ tv.\ ESm0okdY 0ifa&mufvsuf &ifudk wkefcgap\/ pdwfudk axGNym.acR.rf.acR.acR.\ twGif.0wf tuÐsudk usef.aqmif ayauG .qef.udkvnf.pm.rSyif Bum.acR.ay:rS c&mrIwfoH Bum.acR.\ pkwfNyJaeaom tuÐsudk taemufbuf tcef.Ncif. NrpfNyifus. 0rfzefuRef.ae&aom oHrSefrsdK.ay:rS vSnfY.fodkY ai. r&dS/ odkYaomf cyfa0.a&mufae\/ xdktbdk.atmif e*g.bufcef.ay.r[kwf/ wdk.tpyfokdY a&mufvkvk &dSoGm. vuf. tcef.wl.qef.apvdkuf&\/ okdYESifY eHeufvif.rnf xifae\/ odkYaomf usef.u Budwfí rsdKodyfae&\/ tvsiftNref wnfNidrfapNcif.fxnfESifYqdkvQif tenf. td k t oH u tm.xk w f í zspfñSpfatmfvdkufaom toHrsdK.qef.qef.fA[dkwGifawmYrl tbdk.zefwdkYavSrSm tvHeufESpfckudk xkwfvsuf uRef.yfac:ae\/ usef.fysdK t&dkif.yif Nzpf\/ 106 .onf/ usef.tm.iSmvnf.odkY wa&GYa&GYuyfívmNyDNzpf\/ xdktcsdefwGif uRef.fNcif.rt0wftpm.acR. 0wfapNyef\/ NyD.uav.NyDNzpf\/ xdktcgrSyif uRef.ydwfvdkuf\/ twefBumaomf NyefxGufvmae\/ onfwpfBudrfwGifrl csifwl.Edkif"m.ysYHaom&eHYwdkYNzifY xHkrTef.omawmY/ csufcsif.onf rdef.acR.ap\/ vIyf&Sm.xJokdY Nyef.qef.ESifY NyefxGufvm\/ usef. (12) "m.acR.&eHYu usef. olYtem.ae\/ xdk arT. usef. rNiif.opftzGJYacgif.Nyaeaom tvHESpfckwGif usm. tuÐsudk cRwfvdkuf\/ pdwfxJrSrl ol\ pkwfNyJaeaom tuÐsudk zmax.loGm.rSm csifwl.wl.

aygifcif.l[efNzifYvnf.f usef.qef. usef.f? a0vig.l ta&.mufpvHk.OD. aewmu wpf r sd K .url csifwl..f ynmudyk g csD.csdKonf þvli.wl.rSef.wl.orm.\/ ayauG.aNymif.wl. }}[k ar.qef. ynm[m tawmfudktqifYNrifYrm.0tzufrvkyfcsifbl.omoGm. . &.\/ .? apmapmu ta0.acR.qef. a&SYrS OD.oGrf.fwkef.odkY qdkufuyfavawmYonf/ usm.csdK tHYBoae\/ csifw.f rrav.u vlawG&.tm.muf wkd.aomf csifwl.vsuf &dSaBumif.fY&ifxJu wu.f? aemufNyD.wl.ckepfazmfxJu q&mav. ]]aBomf . rddwfqufay.rysuf NyefaNym&w.muf &kww f &uf avQmufxu G v f monfukd awGYvdkuf&NyD.farm&if.udk raNymbJ [efaqmifyefaqmif aNymaeBuwmudk.odkY ul.acR.csdKu csifwl.favmufrsm.oHNzifY .av\/ ayauG.íyif Nzpf\/ NyD.ynmudk csD.aemufrSmawmY usef. rif.vmNyefNyDaygYcifAsmvdkY aNymcsifwm? NyD.ay. ]]&SifwdkY ESpfa. ]]r[k w f y gbl .[m.&m? [lwef.udk tazmfûyNyD.csdKeSifY rdwfqufay.wl.avmufatmif aNymEdkifwmudkBunfY&if usKyf tuJcwfrdwmaygYAs? uJ .ygvm. ta&.wl. .cJYbl.*dkPf.udkvkzdkY vHk.qef.a0vsuf aysmYaysmif.aeNcif.ESpfa.yg? a[m'D q&mBuD . .qufqHaeonfudk awGYvkduf&aomaBumifYyifNzpfyg\/ odkYaomf ayauG.fEpS af . .wl.csdK Bum&SnfBumarsm tHYBo raevdkuf&yg/ tb.udkom odvdkuf\/ tb.aerdw.fy&k o d a.f? wu.tay: tvdktavsmuf cifrifvdkpdwf Nzpfay:oGm.uvlawGeJY igu vHk.ygw.ay. ayauG.aom t&dyfta&mifrSm yGifYvef.qef.u usef.wl. .f&ifxJrSm aNymcsifaewmu tJ'gr[kwfbl.aewJY 'kp&dkuf*dkPf. .wdkYvkd emrnfodyfBuD.csdKbufodkY vSnfYí NyefaNymNyefonf/ xdkpum.? 0ifY0ifYBuGm.wl.wpfNym.&JY odkif.\/ taBumif.? tif. . ? usKyf a wG .t&efoifY a&mufaeBuNyD? NyD.atmif e*g.aomufcsdefwGif avSonf 0rfzefuRef.}} xdpk Of wpfcak om ausmufaqmifBuD.qufpum.qef./ urf. av.mufyg? "m.? bmaNymcsifvJqdkawmY 'ku©ygyJ rrav.w. .usL.acR.vdkuf\/ xkdtcg avSay:rS rsufESmxm.qef. q&mBuD. csifwl. .wl.? tJ'Dvdk awG.wl Nyefvnf aNymvdkuf&onf/ xdktcg olwdkYESpfOD.oGrf.csdKu w[m. .Edkif"m. tvm.fYES.acR.wdkYvkd odu©mr&dS qdk. ysLiSmpGm NyefvnfqufqNH cif.El. tuJcwfaeaom csifwl.*dkPf.tm.qufpum.acs/ xdYk Nyif vli. vufpowfawmY [lwef. csd K &J Y od k i f .? uGmw.fYaBumifY qdkonfudkrl em.wuúodkvf aevif.oGm.? [dkifqm.fwkdif opfNym.aewmu bmvJqdkawmY [if.wpfa.tm.mufu EIwfcGef.acR.? wpfa.\ pdw"f muf rmausm cufxefvo S nf[k ol em. . ]]rrav. b.f uRefawmf vIdufvIdufvSJvSJ *kPf.awmif b0ifcdkufaer.? olY odik .acR./ csifwl.pm.csdKudk.muf usef.? tckvkd odcGifY&wm uRefawmfYudk.rsufESmay:wGif ûyH. ol odxm.wl.[m udk.f? wu.vmolu csifwl.vmaom vli. toHrSefavmufeJY usKyfwdkY Bum.awmY cGef.*dkPf.? vufoD. usef. .uaeNyD.udkrS b.fY vlawGxJrSm vlawmfwpfa.qef.om aNym&w.wl. tb.qef.? q&mBuD. rsufESmomray. ayauG .orm.qef.acR. qdk.Ncif.u olYtm.udk.aBumif.ckrl usef.frSm [lwef.l wl.f usef. . .opftzGJYacgif.csifwkdif.fYvJ uRefraNymwm rSef&JYvm.nHYNcif.yif/ ayauG.farmvdkuf\/ usef.uvnf. .rvnfao. vGefpGm ta&. .udk Bum.vnfxm.bl.f rodbl.NyD.f? 'gayr.av\/ ayauG.\ aemufbufrS vli.rsdK.u rsufESmomay.NyyGJudk vmaeygvm.tm.u csdKvGifaomtoHNzifY &. rdk. odvkdufaomaBumifY &ifwpfcsufrQ wkefoGm.vGef*dkPf. . .*dkPf.lrdygw.? uJ .\ tpOfwif..u vlawG&.wa0a0 NzpfoGm.csdK vGefpGm tHYBooGm.lí ukef.f "m. aemufwpfa.aNray:odkY aNccsrdonfESifY csifwl. .ESifYusawmY csifwl.om 0wå&m.eJY odyfudk b0ifNrifYaew.tm.rl csifwl.f? q&mav.fawG. .acR. .fcifAsm}} usef. .faNymcsifwJYpum.qef.u vli.mufsm. yGJBunfYzdkY oufouf vmwJY vlwpfa.fYaBumifYrl csifwl. .rS eHygwfig.f r[kwfvm.vHk.*dkPf.acR.acR.qkd&if 'D"m.mufuvJyJ EIwfcGef.acR. .tm.vsuf&dSonfudk awGY&aomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/ ayauG.yef.rdygbl.w. vSnfYBunfYNyD.om&dyfNzifY &Tef.rm cufxefaeaom rsufESmonf 0rf.f? tm. axmifYrusKd.usL. usKyf'Dudk vmwm[mvJ csifwl. 107 .udyk if awGY&aomf usef.&ifawmY b. okdif.fY ESpfaumifpvHk.\/ vGefpGm 0rf.aqmif ayauG.urSvnf.mufvJ a&mufvmBuw.udk vkBur.aqmifavQmufapNyD.f? NyefaNymcsifaew. .uvJ 'D"m.0 pdwfrul. cifAsm}}[k ayauG. wnfwnfNzifY cyfBuGBuG qif.BuGm. 'Dtwdkif.

&olrsm.\ tvSuyif olwdkY\ pdwfESvHk. .ES. . toufESpfq. wpfcsufwpfcsuf 0ifYí0ifYí BunfYvdkufaom tBunfYwGif arwåma&mifrsm. tausmftarmfawGaygY cifAsm? 'DwpfBudrf olwdkY aNrNyefYudk qif.vGef*dkPf.f? vmBu}} trSefrl cGef. wdkYrsm.r.wvD? acsmif.yif Nzpfyg\/ csifwl.onf xdktNzpfudkBunfYvsuf &.qef.ynmrSm odyfudkxl.csdK\ pum.fESpfa.*dkPf.fudkrl . taotcsm xyfrí H pdu k Bf unfYawmYryS if tNzpfreS u f kd NrifawGY&awmY\/ wu.vmwm[m olwdYk&JY eufeJwJY odkif.a0atmif vSvGef.aeíyif Nzpfyg\/ ayauG.fxm.\ tvS&kyfvTmay:wGif csufcsif. .wdkoGm.rdav[efyif/ use.vsuf yg.wl.wdkYeJY rdwfqufay.mufrSm ydefydefoG.wl.foG.fESpfa.wl.fESpfa.wpf*dkPf.xm.wpfvSnfYNzifY tñdSKYcHxm.atmfar.xm.rl.ESpfa.u wtHYwBoBuD.acR.\ pdwfxJwGifrl ayauG.armBunf Y N yD .NyzdkYvdkYygyJ}} ayauG.f&. vli.oHxJwGif ceJY[ef aESmaeav\/ usef. rsufESmvTJvkduf\/ wpfzef wdwfwcdk.csdKuvnf.Ncif.u vGefpGmoabmusae\/ usef.aBumifoGm.NzpfvsufeJY 'DwynfYESpfa.udkyif rBum.qef.aqmif csefusif.rS xdkvli. ai.ynmudk tpGrf.f ESpfa.qef. .atmif e*g.tm.qdk&if.wdkY oHk. ]]a[m .if.udk ñdSKY.usaeygvm.armBunf Y a eNyD .fESpfa.csKdwdkYudk &efûy&ef xGufvmNcif.aBumifY xdkvli. u rsuf a wmif r cwf w rf .mufrSm b0ifNrifYonf? armufrmonfuvGJí atmufwef.mufu NyefNyD.vdkufNcif.okdif.aemufuG.orm.? aNym&if.aBumifaBumifNzpfaeaom vli.mufawmY r[kwfyg/ csifwl.usvSaom vli.muftm. ]]cGef. atmufwef.vdkuf&\/ pdwfxJrSrl .yg? 'guawmY csifwl. wpf a .odkY vli. BunfYprf.mufrSm ayauG.vsuf .fYxdyfoD.acR.csdK okH. r&dSbJ omref emrnfudkom aNymNy rdwfqufvkduf\/ þonfrSm usef.odkif.wl.mufudk Nrifaomf csufcsif.xdk.? a[m'D vli.f rdef.mufESifY usef.wl.mufpvHk. &lyumtm. .mufxHrS pum.fcsifpdwfudk xdef.wuúodkvf aevif.mufygyJ? cGef.fNyD.fESpfa.farmarmNzifY . ay:vmBuwmudk. ]]oluawmY csefcsdKwJY cifAsm? olwdkY ESpfa.NzifY ai.csdK\ aNympum.&OD.orm. .í &. .acR.rnfNzpfonf/ olwdkY\ aemufausmwGifrl "m.rl.tm.NzifY xdv k El pS af .usufcsef}}wJY/ wpfzef uGufBunfYuGufBunfYESifY wdwfwcdk.csdKu xdkvlESpfa.vGef*dkPf.orm.ysuf ai.pdkufNcif.&JY tm.wl. rsufESmudk tcsKdqHk.wJY? 'Dyk*¾dKvfuawmY usKyfwdkY*dkPf.csdK .u usef.Nrifvdkuf&aom csifwl.? tawmfyJ? cifAsm.a0ae\/ cGef.}}[k a&&Gufvkdufrd\/ trSefrl þvli. . .aomoltNzpf oabmxm.qef.qef.xm. &.acR.mufusawmY w.avonf/ xdkvli.armoGm.f acR.wpfvufpD vG.aNrmif.frSm bmawG aNymaewmvJ}}[k vSrf.BunfYNyef\/ ayauG.armvsuf BunfYaepOf csifwl.fcsifpdwfudk xdef.acR.csKdu yHkysufyef.[m "m. .wJY *dkPf.bufokdY vSnfYí pdkufBunfYvsuf &dSonfudkNrifaomf tvdkvdk uRJNrD.wl. &Tef.onf/ 108 .\/ ayauG. ceJYvmOD. t[rf.udk olESifY vGefpGm &ifESD.fESpfa.OD.Edkif"m.om.rS "m. .&m wu.[m okdif.mufonf csifwl.fNzpfNyD.&mwGif bm*kPfrQ azmfusL.udk rdwfqufay. ai. rdef. ]]a[Y .fESpfa.vGef*dkPf. . .NyefaNymoH qdwfNidrfae&kHru acgif.fwGif xdkvli.avmurSm "m. aumif.zefyJ}} ayauG.&JY quf&uftzGJYacgif. ai.usufcsefrSm pdwfBuD.í rdwfqufaeNyef\/ ]]t[rf.acR.vdkufaom pum.qef.lvdkufovdk vIyfcgapvsuf rdef. ]]oluawmY aumif.fausmfcefYom &dSOD.aerdonf r[kwfygvm.pyf ta[mif.qef. .Buav\/ wpf O D .[efNzifY acsmif.f "m.ynmeJY emrnfodyfBuD.cRefBuwJY vli.yifNzpf\/ odkYaomf trSwfrxif &kwfcsnf.acR.muf r l wpf c suf r Q ai.Ncif.qef.vGef*dkPf.fuawmY [lwef.rnf[k wGufvdkuf\/ odkYaomf xdkvli. .fudk vufñdSK.\ vSyaom &kyfqif.u usef.olNzpf\/ olu csifwl.udkom auseyf[ef wGifwGifndwfaeonfudk awGYvkduf&\/olwdkY trlt&mudk BunfY&onfrSm ayauG./ usef.

xdk.f? tif.ay:rsm {nfYonfawmfawGNzpfwJY cifAsm.reyfvlawGeSifY cdkuf&efNzpfaeívnf.onfYtvm.vmEdkifygw. .mufwnf.0ifBunfYaomf awmtkyfxJwGif cGef. . [m. ]]csifw. awG.ay:wGif ausmufaqmifrsm. .Edkif"m.awmaerd\/wpfcgcgwGif . "m. .axmufaomf þuJYokdY okdif.0ta&. ûyH.rQom Nzpf\/ uRef. [m.vdkY r[kwfvm.udk &d&k akd oao qufqaH ewm awGY&w.t&mrsm.*d k P f .aNymif.vnfvdkufíyif Nzpfyg\/ xkdYaBumifY olu ûyH.csKyfawmY rNzpfEdkifbl.wJYyk*d¾KvfawGudk zdwfac:xm.ay.qef.acR.rSm omref uRef.NzL*dkPf.csif.f acR.csif.vdkuf&\/ tb. rmef a xmif yvT m . ]][kwfw. em.taBumif.[m rsufc.okdY vmNcif.wuúodkvf aevif.f? aeYv.acR.wl.&Tifaom trlt&mNzifY &.zd k Y t wG u f [d k i f q m.ukd vSD. twdkiftazmufnDpGm wrif apmif. . *kPo f u d m© ydik .acR. .NzL*dkPf.bk&if*dkPf. NzL*d k P f .usufcefeSifY csefcsdKwdkYESpfa.mufwnf.ckwfoH Bum.i.}} olwdkYESpfOD.qHk.tm. .\ &kyfyHkvTmu olYrsuf0ef.NyyGJudk BunfY&I tm.qef.usufcsefu qufí .xGufcJY\/ 0rfzefuRef. csifwl. . .f vGeaf wmifrmS aewke. tckqdk&if {nfYonfawmfawGvJ tm.f? Bum.vdkuf&\/ usef. .vHk. .f u [lwef.udk pOf. . xkdYaBumifY usef.f [m tifrwef aNzmifYrwfwYJ *dP k . . twdkiftazmuf vkyfxm.uG}} ]]bmNzpfvdkYvJ}} ]]aBomf . 109 .wkdY pdwfêuduf oGm. ]]tckawmY wdkYBum.awGuta&.wpfcv k Ykd aNymoHBum.l wl. a'goaxmif.fvsufBunfYaeonfudk vnf.aumif.muftaeeJYvmwmyg}}[k pum.wl. [m 'D w pf c g e*g.kH NzL*dP k . csefcsdK? igwdYk cGe.f? olwdkYawGudk rsucf . wpfuRef. .? 'gqdk&if rsufcHk. .qef.u bmvJ}} usef.pHkvifaeNyD? 'DuRef.l wl.qef.qef. aNy.atmif e*g.SOfckwfaeBuonfudkvnf.fY csiw f .? yGJBunfYy&dwfowf wpfa.rS "m.rS "m. .u csifwl.ESifY ywfouf qufEG. remvdkpdwfNzifY pdkufBunfYNyD.u vHk.vQif .qef.vdkufovdkyJ}} aumif.r&dSaBumif.aqmif wpfa.rSm usef.pdkufxm.f u usm. ]]usKyfu e*g. wpfa. .kH NzL*dP k .rS csufcsif.[m rsufcHk.rSm olYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&TiftwGuf pHkprf.acR.udk ol pGefYcGmroGm.Edkif"m.fuav. .&uf/ bmaBumifYawmYrod/ csifwl.u ayauG. csiw f .wl.Ed k i f " m.f rSm tawmf tqifYNrifYwYJ ae&mudk &xm.\ pdwfxJwGif .vGJ vrf.ceJxGufoGm.f BuD. . . awGYvkduf&yg\/ usef.f w.faeaom taBumif.acR.tm.vkduf\/ ]]udkif.ovdkyJuG}} csefcsdKuvnf. tJ'yD *k K¾d vfawGukd rsufcHk.qef.rl thHBowpfBuD.wGif &pf0Jae\/ wpf&Hrvyfvnf. .rpdkufovdkbJ}} usef. ? vufoD. .wm NzpfrmS ygyJ/ bmYaBumifYvq J akd wmY ayauG. .? olwdkYteD.avmuwGif tawGYtêuH r&dSaom rEl.ESifY qufpyfí tawG.f wpfem&DusrSyJ uRef.csKd eJY cseu f si.orm.yif Nyefxdef.f bmrQr&dS/ uRef.f u vlawGeJY aygif.BuygcifAsm}} usef.acR.vGef*dkPf.l wl.ud k NyNyD . ..vsuf .ESifY opfyifrSvGJí BunfYpzG.f cGJ tzGYJ acgif.vdu k rf \ d / xdt k cg csiw f .wl.\ wpfae&m ta&mufwGifawmYrl olYta&SYbufawmtkyftwGif.NzL*dkPf.rSm csifwl.? aNratmuf 'kp&du k *f P kd .onf wpfa.l wl.? tJ'D*dkPf.pm.0rESpfouf/ vufrcHEdkif Nzpfrd\/ odkYwkdifatmif csifwl.f? 'gayr.facgifudk vmNyD.\/ okdYaomf olYpdwfol csufcsif.acR. .tm.udk vkzdkYvmwm r[kwfygbl.Bu\/ use. xGuv f m&if. tusdK.muf "m.qef. . ]]nDav.ay.csdK pum.f u tckawmY BunfYprf.awG.csdwfaNymaeBuNcif.yif Nzpfyg\/ usef.f rSm 'Davmuf emrnfBuD.f? &IpzG.*dP k .wJY*P kd .opf*P kd . csifwl.\ vuf&JZuf&JEdkifvSaom vlowf0g' tûytrludk olvHk.onfESifY xdkvltkyftem.wl.uG? [m.acR.qufrdaerd Nyef\/ ]]rsuf c H k . avQmufvmNcif.f zefwYkdvkd vluawmif csiw f .BuD.wl.awm&if.wm rrSefbl.v.Nzpf\/ uRef.fYaBumifYrl þuRef.mufuo kd m tkycf sKyfxm. .l wl.udkom awG.wl.wm NzpfvdrfYr.NzifY xdkawmtkyftwGif.wGif csifwl.cdik .\ ta&SYbufaxmifYwGifawmY avSrsm.aumif.qef. aumif.zl.&efom Nzpfíyif/ wpfaBumif.

atmif e*g.? vufpowfawmY tpfudkvkyfwJYvlu wu.}}ceJ wpfcsuf atmfvsuf xdk.avmu\ pnf. Nyefvnf ckcHwdkufcdkufaeav\/ .csufudk wpfa.qef.[kd.rS &kwfw&uf vTwfceJ atmfaNymvdkufrd\/ ]][ .rSm rdrd*dkPf.acR.Nzpfae\/ xdkYaBumifY olvSnfYxGuf&efûypOf vuf.vkdufonfudk awGYvdkuf&Nyef\/ xdktcgusrSyif usef.f vGe*f P kd . .qef.acR. wif.okdif.SOfûydifcJY&zl.foHNzifY .xHrS ynmoifBum.&drf\/ wpfzef 0ifBunfYNyefuvnf. tckrS xkwfoHk.vHk. ]][m .qDodkY OD.xJrS NyefvSnfYxGuf&ef ûyvkdufav\/okdYaomf olawmtkyfuav.qef.urf.vdkuf&í usef.teD.vmBuolcsif.aBumifYvnf. oabmaygufoGm.usufcsefu &kwfw&uf "m. urf .D ? "m.usufcsef\ wkdufppfudk a&Smifwdrf.ESpOf .f u w.f w J Y ? q&mi.xifw.aNymif.&JY "m.aNrmif.ynmavYusifYaeonfudk rBunfYawmYbJ awmtkyfuav.wl.As? wNcm.vdkufrd\/ xdt k awG.? wu.? BunfYprf. tNcm.csufudk &yfNyD. .ynmavYusifYaepOftcsdefwGif BunfYcGifYr&dSacs/ usef .csufwpfcsuf xdoGm.f? cGef. .pGmodae\/ aumif.okdif. csefcsdK\ ta&.avmuwGif pnf.uGufwpfrsdK.wD.mufpvHk.u vufckyfvuf0g.aom cE¨mudk. vG e f * d k P f . .[m 'dNyif *dkPf.wJY "m. ]]'DyBJG unfY&wm tpfuv kd yk w f YJ vu l nDukd Edik rf . acR.u olYudkNrifawGYNyD.Ncm. NyefvSnfYxGufvkdufygu wrifvmí acsmif.if.tacsmif.w.awmYw. .&if.csufwdwd a'gESifYarmESifY Nyefí xkd.ynm avYusifYupm.odkY avQmuf0ifvmcJY\/ odkYaomf usef. csuf u d k owd & vd k u f o nf E S i f Y cG e f .NzifY .u "m. uawmif cG e f . pD.onfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ okdYaomf usef.qef. vG e f b k & m.usufcsefudk BunfYvdkufaomf rsufESmxm. csefcsdK\ &if0odkY oHk. ]]q&m tNrJwrf.mufu aumif.awGudk csdKxm.rS okdif.ud k cgí cgí wkdufppfqifawmY\/ csufcsif. .cktcg olwdkY ESpfOD.aNymavY&dSw.f}}[k aNrSmufyifY aNymvdkuf\/ csefcsdKu aumif.\/.&\/ tb.acR.odkYa&mufonfESifY toHwdk.wJY tuGufawG &dSygw.wnf.qef. "m. ql q d k w J Y vl e J Y .acR. .wmudk.ud k B um.vdkuf&m csefcsdK\ aygifwGif &JceJ aoG. rawmfwq xdrdNcif.usufcsef\ vufarmif.}}[k a&&Gwfrdvsuf tHYBooGm.qdkovdkyif olY"m.om Nzpfrnf[k xifvkduf\/ okdYaomf aumif.rsm.f wdkufcdkufaeBuwmudk.oH k .&ef xdkifcsvdkuf\/ odkYaomf aumif.fYaBumifYrl csufcsif.xGufvmonfudk awGY&\/ xdkpOf csifwl.BuD.eS p f O D .u BunfYae&if. .k }}[k aNymvdkuf\/ aumif .aom*dkPf.rmvmvsuf "m. vufpowfawmY 'DaumifESpfaumifu "m.fAs}}[k atmfNyD.qef. . wpfacsmif. a'goNzifY BunfYvuf csifwl. . aNrmufNrm.f? csefcsdK&JY "m.wl.vsuf .fwJY}}[k awG. rtHYBordacs/ avYusifYupm. ]]tdk.bl.aeBuwmrS r[kwfygbJvm. ]]usKyfrSmvJ csdKxm.wGif cyfwnfwnfyif olwkdY okdif. .vJwdkufcdkufvmaom "m.qef.rnf pdk.yfac:vkdufonf/ ]]tpfudk usef.}} xdktcsdefwGif csefcsdKu aumif.fYyrkH ay:bl.fou G o f ud.csufudk a&Smifwdrf.avYusifYcsdefrSm usKyfwdkY ravYvmaumif.okid .vGef*dkPf.acR.wuúodkvf aevif. .faumif.&awmY\/ xdktcdkuf csifwl.BunfY&Ionf[k xifoGm.vm\/ 110 .rSwpfyg.\/ usef.&if. . usuf c sef u xd k p um.okid .usufcseftm.w.BupdkY&JY}} xkdpOf tm.f tpdwftydkif.onf csifwl. odkif.aomf tH w pf c suf B ud w f v suf &k w f w &uf "m. vG e f a wmif u cG e f .Edkif"m.pGm NzmxGufoGm.muf\ "m.f avYusiYf aeonfukd avYvmvdpk w d f Nzpfy:vm\/odkYaomf odkif.rSm q&mwpfOD.Bum.rsm.usufcsefonf csefcsdK\ aNymif.wkd.qef .okdif.muf okdif.í wdkufcdkufav\/ odkY&mwGif olwdkY ESpfa.fY tuGufaumif.udk azmufzsuf&ma&mufrnf pdk.\ wdkufuGufawGu ydkí Burf.&drf\/ okdYaomf rwwfomonfYtqHk.wnfoGm.ynmxuf wrl x l . .acR.f om.wnf. w.u &.wl.wpfae&mudkyJ oGm.xJodkY 0ifvmpOfuyif csifwl.f p Of w k e f . .urf.wl. Ncm.ceJ toHwpfcsuf Bum. om.wGif csefcsdK\ "m.Nzpfí wpfa.csufudkvnf.csufygvm.awmYonf/ pdwfxJrS .atmif . ]]olwdkYESpfa.m. odkif.wpfck &dSxm.wl.êuHcu kd f cGe.acR. 'Dudkvmav}} usef. onf xd k p nf . tcufêuHoGm.NyD.u "m. . tcGiYf ta&.avYusifYae&m teD. ]]. . BunfYvkdufaomf aumif.

qef. ]][kwfygw.rS vli.rsm.omodkY a&mufonfYwkdif csifwl.vGef*dkPf.fESpfa. uRrf.acR.f? 'gayr.vsuf ycHk.m.wuúodkvf aevif.rl ynm&dSBuD.[m tBuD.BuD. olYq&mESifYwuG? *dkPf. csifwl.wlnDtpfudk ckepfazmftm.f&m .f? 'Dynm&SdBuD.vGef*dkPf. tNrifus. ."r® usifYBuHtm.f&.SOfûydifwdkufcdkufapaom tûytrlrsdK.u usef.\ rsufESmudk BunfYaerd&mrS .awGyJ}}[kvnf. .\ rsufESmay:wGif wpfpHkwpfOD.\ rsufESmudk pdkufBunfYvkduf\/ usef.u 0rf.bl.vnf.yJ? NrpfawG? acsmif.acR.rmef y gvm\/ &uf p uf v m\/ *d k P f .wl.fNyif&JY &ifcGifxJudk pkNyD.okdY&dSpOf csifwl. wpf O D .NyD.\ rsufeSmomay.awG oGm.xJrSm&dSwJY oHyGifYav.u.vif.wl nDtpfudkESpfOD.fwJY tpfudk? 'DavmurSm yifv.aNcqDodkY wokefokef okwfNzL.oNzifY apmapmpOfu cGef. Nzpf\/ odkYaBumifYvnf.laom trlt&m ay:aeav\/ xdkYaBumifY .wl. yifv.fESpfa.pmtkyfrSm w&m.uvnf.aom vufuav. usef.vnf.qef.abmifbifcwfvsuf/ usef.vHk.\/ yifv.wl.acR.udk trSwf&aerdaomfvnf.csif. ]]wpfcgwkef.wl.\ EIwzf sm.rS xl.aeNyef & m yd k í taNctae qd k .f}}[k NyefaNymavonf/ csifwl.qHk.wrf.í [dkvlYaNrSmufvkduf? 'DvlYaNrSmufvdkuf aNrS m uf x d k . tpfudk?uRefrwdkY urf.rxGuf&ufay/ vef.ae&rSef. wzsyfzsyf ykwfcwfae&m &Icif.fBuD.vm\/ odYk aomf use.acR. eHab.wl.okid .\ b.qef.u ]][if tvum.[m NynfYvQHvkdYoGm.udk Bum.yJ? wpfcgvmvJ 'D"m.onf urf.wlnDtpfudk ESpfa.fbufvufudkqGJí xdkae&mrS xGufcJYavawmY\/ csifwl.ck rarQmfvifYbJ csifw.fNyifBuD.\ a&SYwGif rsufESmyef. pdwfxJrS aumufcsufcsvdkufrdonf/ .aNcbufudkoGm.wl.yif trsdK.NyD.\/ NyD.yif rodwwfatmif Nzpfae\/ &ifxJu ylovkdvkd at. tzHkzHk pum.SOfum avQmufvmBu\/ usef.fvdk cHpm. vGefpGm av.f acR. cGef.yif Nzpf\/ odYk aomf .fu bmNyefaNymovJqdkawmY usKyfu pBum0VmBuD..l wl.l wl. csifwl.Buonfudkyif rrIbJ þodkY taotaBu .f r&dSygbl.? rmefrme raxmifvTm.fYE.qef.f .acR. &Sif.qef.a&? olwYkd &YJ cGe.fpOfuyif olYq&mBuD.aomf ai.l wl.qef.udk aoG.acR.atmif e*g.acR.ygw.wl. onf x uf qd k . .\ vufrS &kef.yifYaumfvkyfNyD.udk Bum. S Yf v[ J if? tqifYNrifY&YJ vm.fwJY tpfudk? 'Dpmudk a&..acR. usef.SOfûydifaeBuNyD Nzpf\/ csifwl.omtm.wl.&oHNzifY ]]tpfukd usef.uGuf? wpfcgvmvJ 'D"m.muf\ taNctaerSefudk odoGm.aBumif&if.aBumifomG .awmY b0ifrNrifYbl. .lcsifBuaom cGef.fvHk.Edkif"m. taotaBu owfawmYrnfYtvm. tm. onf 'Pf&m&xm.wJY tpfudk? yifv. csufcsif. wpfudk.udk\ eDwdusrf. .rsdK.fYudk oabmxm.qef. Nzpfrdav\/ taBumif.fNyifudk aNymw. zdef. ud k w pf O D .[m wu.udo k m rsuaf rSmifêuwfí pdu k Bf unfYaeav\/ xkt d cg csiw f .yGifY&ef tm. .csufrsdK.\ tûytrludk rESpfoufay/ txl. .tm.qef.? vm .wJY uRrf.? r0ifYBuGm. trSefwu.udkzwfNyD.zkef.wl.zG. vmav\/ ol w d k Y E S p f O D .BunfY&atmif}}[k aNymNyD.\ vufpGJusrf.uvnf.aom yifv. .qef.uwJY? vlwpfa.yif Nzpf\/ usef.pdkufBunfYaerdav\/ trSefrl usef.rS vli.foGm.}}[k ar.u raNz/ csiw f .onf csifwl.&dkaoaom Bunfñdk*kPf.acR. wl n D t pf u d k Nzpf a omf v nf .awGrSeforQ yifv.w.f vGe"f m.vsuf &dS\/ yifv.bl.oHk.u wu.vnf.favoefYat.wl.f ynmu b.NzifY vJíyif cH.\tpGef. vdIif.if.vGef*dkPf.axG.muf rcHcsifatmif wrifyif usef.uav.NycJYavonf/ usef.\ vufudk qkyfudkifxm.vGifYNy.\ aEG.bl.wl nDtpfudkrsm. tHYBooGm.fYudk taNrmftNrifBuD. usef.qef.acR.&dSef. 111 .qef.xkwfaeBuNcif.rS rem.vQif wynfYNzpfol olwdkY*dkPf.av? yifv. .fNymudk vdIif.wpfusrf. &ifckefvsuf/ xdkpOf csifwl.\/ ]]vufpowfawmY 'DESpfaumifu Nrm&l.SOfûydif wdkufcdkufaeNcif.ckrS þ*dkPf. a&muf&dSvmBu&w. cHpm.uGuf? bmrS BunfYvkdYvJ raumif.\ tvSrsufESmudkom ai. i.ovdkvdk/ okdYaomf csifwl.wpfyGifYavmufom &dSygw..aom pum.qef. .xkwfaom awmrSD&aoYrsm.vsuf b.vSvSav.pm.acR.Ncif.rSm csifwl.qef.onf ai. yif Y a umf vk y f a y.qef.fNymonfvnf.mufu yifv.mufrl rcHcsd rcHomNzifY aBumifpDpD usef&pfcJYavawmYonf/ uRef.udk aNrSmufxdk.fNymtvSudk BunfY&if.qef. &Icif.qef.u 'Dpum.fY yifv.udkqdkwJY ynm&dSBuD.onf xdkusrf.acR.fBuD.rdav\/ thHBoNcif. tonf.wl.fwmyJaemf}}[k qdkav\/ usef.

]]tpfudkav.NyD.qef. ]]tpfudk? nDr t&ifoGm.Ncm.wmyJ}}[k csD.qef.oGm.wl.mufwnf.xl.ay:wGif ycHk.pmwwfaom vlBuD.vm\/ xdkpOfcdkuf aNcoHcyfNyif.&dyfwpfck xif[yfvsuf&dSyg\/ olYtrlt&m oGif[efudkBunfYaomf vGefpGmBuifemNyD.wpfa.muf\ acsmif. ..vm\ usef.qef. vSnfYBunfYvdkufaomf .SOfum xdkifaeBuaom csifwl. aygwmESpfa.vnf. .}} ]]tJ'D yk*d¾Kvf[mav tpfudkY&JYq&m q&mBuD.[efNzifY rsufESmxm.vdkufrd\/ odkYaomf csifwl.ESD.onf a&SYrS oGm. . armuf r mpG m quf q H a vY &d S w wf a omf v nf .aNymvsuf &dSaeBu\/ odkYNzifY tcsdefwa&GYa&GY ukefqHk.acR.Ncm.vQif yDwdaomreó NzpfaeyHkrsdK. tm.zkef.zefrSm olwdkYESifY cyfvSrf.NyyGJudk oGm.loGm. . olu bmrQ NyefraNymrd/ acgif.? odyfÓPfaumif..ckvnf.qef.ae&wmudk b.l wl. . usef.ESifY usef. olwYkd EpS Of .abmifbifcwfvsuf&dS\/ yifv.zefyif Nzpfyg\/ csefusif. ]]usKyf&ifxJu cHpm.NzL*dkPf.tm. rqkd.wnfwnfxm.[efNzifY acgif.wl.\ *dkPf.qkwfvkduf&if.\ têud u f u d k vk d u f í aNymwwfolav. .qef.pm. olr\ vufatmufi. &kww f &uf rnfoYkd rQ rcHpm.Nyif.pyf uRef.farmoHNzifY csefusif.[if}}[k ar.uav.av\/ ]]tif. wpfwHk.vdkuf&\/ ESpfOD.eyf a om vd r ® m a&.cifuqdkvQif csefusif.yJaygY tpfudk}} usef.acR.uyfí ESpfudk.aqmif csefusif.udk rvTwfwrf.f avoefYat.D \ xl.Nyd.fNymonf tpOfrNywf vIdif.acR. uRrf. usef. .[efYoHudkyg Bum.eJY rrav.qef.yif Nzpfyg\/ yifv.qef.av\/ odkYaomf csefusif.wGif&yfvsuf av.av\/ ]]tpfudk&JY rsufESmtrlt&mudk BunfYNyD.vnf.csif.rvnfEdkifatmif NzpfoGm.vJ}} 112 .mufudk BunfYNyD.folvJ odvm.\ &ifxJwGif wpfcsufrQ wkef.k csif.}} ]]aNymygOD.zeftm.vSrf.fvdkaeao.BuD.rdwmyg? 'DavmurSm ynm&dSBuD. nmvufNzifY csifwl.Ncm.SOf avQmufae\/ xdpk Of csifw.Bu&atmif}}[k aNymvmolrSm rsufcHk.iHkYxm.uav.zefukd trDvu kd í f ycH. .\ vufuav. . cifAsm. ar.vmum &SufpdwfNzifYraewwf rxdkifwwfatmif NzpfoGm.rdaomfvnf.wl.l wl.Ncm.acR.wl.rSef. .atmif e*g. .têuduf aNymaeNcif.yifNzpf\/ csifwl.í aNymvdkufNcif.&d S v S a om rd e f .faemf? tpfudk uRefreJYtwl vdkufrvmeJYaemf}}[k qdk\/ usef.wl.qef.onf . olrtay: cifrifonfxuf cifrif &if.rdav\/ usef.axmifYae&mwGifrl tûyH.cGJ quf&uftzGJYacgif. cefYrSef.vufpGm pdkufBunfY&if. .Edkif"m.ck t csd e f w G i f a wmYrl ol r \ rsuf E S m u yuwdoGif[efay:vsuf &SufaoG.avonf/ ]][dk .furf.wnfYcsdef a&mufaeygNyD? "m.. csifwl. ]]cifAsm.fcsif.aeaom csefusif.wuúodkvf aevif.? rGef.w& tvsOfrNywf pum.vdkufavonf/ xdktcsdefESifY wpfûydifwnf. wokefokef okwfNzL.fom.&dSw.aom trlt&mudk Nrifaomf rsufESmeDNref.\ rsufESmudk &Tef. qkyfudkifxm.\ vufuav.Nzpf & m wpf z uf o m.fvkdvkyf odwmvJ[if}}[k Nyefar.avonf/ xdt k cg csifw.r.u olYq&mtwGuf vGefpGm 0rf.Nzmum &SufpEdk.uav.rSmyif usef. .vmap&ef usef.u &.fBum.vmoHESifYtwl vlwpfa.zeftm.qef.acR.acR.bl.uav.l wl.om *kPf.acR.wpfzufudk &kwfw&uf zrf.rod ukefqHk.qef.acR.ifoGm.f tpfudk? tJ'Dyk*d¾Kvfu b. ]]tpfudk? tpfudku tpfudkY&JYq&mudk owd&aeNyDvm.muftNzpfom oabmxm.udkavmuf ÓPftaNrmftNrifBuD.om ndwfNyvkdufav\/ csifw.u &kww f &uf usef. . em.onf vG e f p G m yg.NyD .mufu vGefpGm vkdufzufaom cspfolESpfa. .yif/ odkYaomf ol\ EIwfcrf.u tckrS xl. &Sufae&ygvdrfY}}[k awG. avoHNzifY .em. udk.qef.onf csifwl. 'Drdef. uav.muf b.zefu tvkdufodpGmyif xdak e&mrS csmceJvn S Yf í tvsifxu G cf mG oGm.acR.om.vsuf&dS\/ yifv. .rd\/ NyD.wdkYrSmvnf.acR.wJYvl[m wpfa.usL.yg. eif.u aBumifwufwuf NzpfoGm.wl.wpfa.\/ pdwfxJurl em.Nzpf\/ .wl.rdonfudk owd&um rsufESm eDNref. &kwfw&uf vufudk vTwfvkdufrd\/ trSefrl csifwl.\ tpGefausmufwHk. usef.

oefY pm.yg}}[k ayauG.tm.qef.tBum.\ t0wGif &yfí udk. avQmuf v monf u d k Nrif o nf e S i f Y &k w f N cnf .aqmif ayauG. vl&dyfaysmufuG.u vufrcHygacs/ tb.onfudk awGY&NyD.ypfaygufvkdufavonf/ olwdkYESpfa.rSmyJ ae&mcsxm.ravY&dS\/ ]]wynfYwdkY b.qef.NzL*dkPf.&JY emrnf t&dSeft0gudk .om csxm. êudqdkaBumif.okdY vSnfYywfBunfYvkduf\/ xkdtcg tcsdKYaom 0dkif.csdKu usef.muf xdkifaeaom pm.rS y&dowfrsm.oD.em. usef.csdKonf 0ifvrf. a&mufvmpOfu rsufc.usufcsefwdkY *dkPf.yGJ0dkif. 'Pf & muav.acR.u olYwynfYrsm.w.onfudk awGY&\/ pm.usufcsefESifY csefcsdKwdkYom xdkifaeonfudk awGY&\/ odkYNzifY usef.muf rsuf&dyfNyvdkufBu\/ xdktcg csefcsdKonf olYxkdifcHkudk &kwfw&uf rí usef.ay.wl.? usKyfudk 'DNyif0dkif. enf .mufu wpfa. r0ifYBuGm. xdkxdkifcHkwGif oD.ay:rS tomt.*dkPf. usef.rsm.mufudkwpfa. a&mufvmygNyD}}[k aBuNimNyD. tNrJvdkyif þokdY qHk.yg.qef.qef.tm.acR.wpfrnf cHpm.yGJ0dkif. rûyaomfvnf. ]]ta&Nym.*dP k .yGJ0dkif.ae&\/ &ifrmS wke.av\/ trSefrl [kid q f m. êudqdk\/ olwdkY\aemuf wpfzufwpfcsufwGifrl tzGJYom.wGif xdkifaeBuaom tNcm.qef. a&SYtpGefqHk.foGm.wpfa.f ? vufo.f rodaom cHpm. 113 .qef.\/ cE¨mudk.&S y f N yD .aomaBumifY Nzpfonf/ usef.ck usef.mufpD vkdufygoGm.ESifY csefusif.faomtcgrS rdrd*dkPf.rsm.yGJ0dkif.*dkPf. omref *dkPf.acR.f}} csifwl.f ? a0vig.rSyif ausmufwHk.\ tv.*dP k .csKu d xdk xdik cf w kH iG o f m xdik &f ef wdu k w f eG .Nyifay:wGif cHk0dkif.cktcsdefwdkif ausmufwHk. .uGmvS\/ Bum.&JY *dkPf.rSm tvSrf.udk t&dktao ay.onf oD.zkef.Ncif.fYaBumifYrl q&mBuD.av&m [l.cefY cif.rcJYonf r[kwfygvm. ckepf0dkif.BuD.um avQmuf0ifvmaom usef.vnf.\/ csefusif.u .wlnDtpfudkESpfa.yGJeHygwf aNcmufwGifrl cGef.cGJ usm. rsufcHk.atmif e*g.Ncif.ESifY}}[k qHk.Edkif"m.vHk. arwåm&yfcHvkduf\/ ayauG. toD. NyovdkufNcif.fudkudkif.acR./ xdkpOf aumif.f tzGYJ rsm.acR. ]]'DrSm cifAsm? usKyfu odkif.cJY\/ .url . .qef.mxvsuf avQmufvmcJY\/ ol uRef.acR.fcrf. &oG m .oefY {nfYonfawmf xdkifcHkwGif xdkif&if. rûycJYacs/ þyifvQif olwdkYtm.xm.yGJ0dkif.wGif vlrNynfYao. ta&SYbuf tpGefqHk.tm.opftzGJYacgif.ay.tm. aBuNimNyef\/ ]]rsufcHk. xdkifcHkrS xí eHab.qef.wGif&yfum êudqdkvdkuf\/ usef. pm.vnfvdkufaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ ayauG.oD.ceJ toHwpfcsufom Bum. f ifvsuf bmrSe.wGif xdkifcdkif.BuD.f}}[k NyefaNzonf/ usef.wGif pm.csKdtm.odkY usa&mufvm\/ odkY&mwGif xdkifcHkrSm aNrBuD.rS aumif.f aomfvnf.oefY {nfYonfawmfom xdkifcGifYûyxm.okdY cyfwnfwnf avQmuf0ifvm\/ xdktcg pm.f onf olwYkd tm.qef .ay:wGif NidrfoufpGmxdkifvsuf &dSao.u usef.ESifY? ryvTm.qef.acR. yg.rsm.um.vGef*dkPf.tm. use.qef.rSm vGefpGmNyif.0dkif.xJrS txl.rvnfEdkifatmif NzpfoGm.qef.tm.u txifao.a.kH NzL*dP k .yGJ0dkif. ig.qef.wl. êudqdkNcif.vQif usm. ol\ &ifxu J rl wpfrsdK.acR.zefESifY ayauG.avmurSm 0gEkwJYvlyg? 'Dvdk txl.&dS oD.aqmif csefusif.rSm vlawG xdkifaeBuonfudk awGY&\/ csef u sif .url 0ifvrf.f paom *dP k .csdKESifY twl avQmufxGufvmNyD.0rS usef.fA[dkokdY a&mufcsdefwGifrl Nrufcif.ay:odkY vJusoGm.pGm êudqdkNcif.zefwdkY opfyifrsm.vdkuf\/ xdkpm. .Buwmyg? 'D a vmuf aygwJ Y a umif a wG cH&wmyJaumif.rSm xdkifcHkwpfvHk.u olYudk remvkd 0efwdk[efNzifY BunfYaeBuonfudk usef. usef. êudqdkouJYodkY BuD. zef o nf usef . tuJcwfvdkufrdonfwGif pdwfxJrS em.zefu tpfudkav.f acR.cH&aom oD.aBumif.D bk&if*P kd .yifNzpfonf[k em. ig.acR.csuf a0'emwpfrsdK.yGJqDokdY wtm.favmifaomtoHNzifY .NzL*dkPf.em.usif.opftzGJYacgif.acR.oefYa&muf&dSvmaom {nfYonfawmfrsm.oefY {nfYonfawmfae&mrSm rxdkif0HYygbl.yif Nzpfyg\/ olonf csifwl.NyD.fuom Nidro f ufaeaomfvnf. usef0dkif.udk êudqdkygw.om.ae\/ okdYaomf csefcsdKypfvdkufaom tm.tav.xdkifcJY&m a&SYpm.acR.0dkif.&NyD.tay:rSNzwfí ta&SYbufpGef.us.rQ Ncm.wuúodkvf aevif.qef.acR. rwf w wf x &yf í us.aqmif ayauG. acR.\/ taBumif.rSvGJvQif usef0dkif.csdKeJY quf&uftzGJYacgif. .rsm. tm.qef.qef. enf .yGJ0dkif.acR. cHkrSm pm.mufudkom vTwfí êudqdkae&mcsay.BuD.lNyD. twGif. ]][lwef.

mufu cHkudk rí xdkae&modkY vmcsvdkufouJYodkY aeom. .Edkif"m.wl.uyfpGm ycHk. olreHab.&ef [efNyifvdkufonf/ usef.u &kwfw&uf vuf.\/ 0ifYBuGm.u olwdkYESpfOD.wl.fqdk&if odyf oifYawmfwmaygYAsm? usKyf [dkbuf0dkif.u csifwl.tem.tay: raygufu&JG yJ J usef.BuGm.qef. .twGufyif Nzpf\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.wl. .? olrxdkif&J&if usKyfwdkY nDtpfudk vmxdkifr.odkY avQmufoGm.acR.rSm oGm.udk cHvkduf&aBumif.oefYpm.fodkY .[ef csufcsif.[laom tawG. ûyH. t&SufcGJ&ef vlyHktv.okid .r&dSbJ vlwpfa.ESD. ]][if. xif&Sm.onf apmapmpOfu csifwl. &kwfNcif.bufqDodkY NyefavQmufoGm.wGif ae&m&vkdufaomfvnf.*dkPf. ]]tpfudk uRefrtem.SOfum vlyHktv.url bmrSrNzpfovdk avoH at.oefY0dkif.f u emrnfausmf "m.qef.qef.rnf/ okYd NzifY use.rl usef.tm.acR.xdkifae&m 0dkif.rsm.wGif xdkifcdkif.udk vufNzifY yGwfoyfí zkefcgay.fwGif rdrdtm.qef.qef.ay:vm\/ ayauG.usufcsefwdkY xdkifcJY&m pm.u axGaxGxl.oudk.f&rvJuGm? 'DwpfcgawmY [lwef.onf pdwrf oufromNzifYyif csifwl. .vsuf .aeonfudk awGY&\/ NyD.atmif e*g.wl.0HYrnf[k rxifrSwfcJYívnf.f vGe*f P kd .NyD .yif xdkifcHkay:okdY ûydifwl xdkifcsvdkuf\/ 114 .qef.}} usef.yg.\/ rsuEf mS tvSay:wGif yDw&d yd w f Ykd vQr. .uyfrQxdkifonfudk vGefpGm &Tifvef.yfvSrf.fwGif xdkifygvQif trsm.&dS usOfaBumudkxdk.olyDyD olwdkY ESpfOD.bmaNymrnfudk odvdkí tem.qef.aom {nfYy&dowfrsm.f yif use.at.qDodkY avQmufvmavonf/ trSefrl olwdkYESpfOD.ESifY usef.f acR.lí usef.yGJ0dkif.acR.usufcsefwdkY nDtpfudk ESpfOD.u emrnfwufoGm.xdkifvkdufr.D u oD.acR.wus &dSaeav\/ þwpfuGufudk BunfYvkdufvQifyif olwdkY\ okdif.zef\ wHawmifauG.vdkuf\/ odkYaomf aumif.udk 0ifYBunfYNyD. cifAsm. [m.uRrf..acR. ]]cGe.vQiv f nf.NyDav? 'DyGJrSm igwdkY cGef. .\/ NyD.yGJ0dkif.wl. ]][m .lqrnfenf.csif.? 'Dudk cPvmygOD. csufcsif. .onf þtcGifYta&.rSm txl.vS\/ xdkpOf aumif.avonf/ wpfzufwGif aumif.NzifY pdefac:vkdufNcif.vkdufav\/ xdktcdkuf csifwl. .yifNzpfav\/ csefusif. .rS ûyH. .vGef*dkPf.acR.xl. tcufêuH&awmY\/ csifwl. ]][m.acR.fqakd wmY odyfukd avQmfuefvSygw.ynmu racvSaBumif..NzifY .ESpOf .uvnf.&Sd xdkifcHkudk vufNzifY ykwfNy&if.udk tcGifYaumif. olwdkYESpfa.usufcsefu vufacsmif. aBumiftrf.qef.ay:vdkYvm\/ okdYaomf csifwl.wGif uyfí rxdkifbJ wpfae&mokYd xGuo f mG .uvlu w.[efYwm.f acR. raNymbJ olYeHab.f}}[k aNymNyD.csdKvdk yk*d¾Kvfuyif ol w d k Y xd k i f & m xd k i f c H k u d k vuf N zif Y &d k a opG m zk e f c gay.wdkY\ vGefpGm &if.wl.ac:vdkufonf/ ]]tpfudk usef.l wl.? b.udk pkí csefusif.? [lwef. usoGm. .tm.SOf vlcsif.\ eHab.BuD.fwGif þenf.fvJ owådenf. csifwl.trf.ESifY uyfvsufcHkwGif xdkifvkdufav\/ csifwl. .wGif xdkifcs&ef pdwfrvHkrvJ Nzpfae\/ vlyHktv.*dkPf. .f orm.í .csif.bufodkY avQmufoGm. od&í vGefpGm a'goxGuaf eBu\/ okYd &mwGif olwYkd \ a'goudk csifw. yl.NyD}}[k xifrSwfae\/ okdYNzifY olwdkY nDtpfudkonf wpfcsufrQ tNcm.muf oD. .qef. olESifY ycHk.tm.av\/ okdYaomf csifwl. tvsOf.av\/ aumif.wl. . [m.\/ olrESifY eD.csdKu {nfYonfawmfxdkif&ef xdkifcHkwpfvHk. csucf si.muf xdkifr.\ vSnfYpm. t&Suu f aJG eavOD.0ifyHk&aom taNctaeudk Nrifvwfaomf pdwfxJrS uRJNrD. wG i f xd k i f & ef zdwfrEÅuûyNcif.zefu tuif.oGm. tb. xk d u f w ef a om ae&mxd k i f c if .wl.usufcsefonf &kwfw&uf ae&mrSxí us.farmvsuf . olwdkYeSpfOD.acR.{nfYonfawmf0ikd .fav? BuGyg .l wl.usufcsefwdkY rsufESmrSm armfoGm.rSmyJxdkif}}[líom aNymav\/ usef.aemuf [efESifYyefESifY cyfBuGm. apmapmu aumif.vQif usefvlrsm..qef.f oGm. csiw f .Ncif.u r[modu©mawmY tusBuD.oD. .NzpfoGm.twGuf t&ufwpfcu G f iSYJ ay. .wdkonfxuf wdkum aerxd xdkifrom NzpfaeBuav\/ xdkpOfwGif ayauG.f rSm xdik rf .wl. .ESifY csefcsdK ypfaygufvdkufaom xdkifcHkwpfvHk.wuúodkvf aevif.favmifpGm &. BuGyg}}[k aNymNyD.oefY txl.wdkY nDtpfudkESpfa.fAsm? xdkifyg? xdkifyg}} zdwfrEÅuûyNyD.uko d m rJaeBuav\/ xdkYaBumifYvnf.

vdkuf&m ayauG. olwdkY *dkPf. . ]]0kef. .[m.muf\ odkif.rm.usufcsefwdkYESpfOD.rsm. .vHk.kH udk zrf.u vlwGifus.yg.aom aumif. ]][k w f u J Y ? a[m'D xd k i f c H k E S p f v H k .rsm. NzpfaeBuav\/ xdktcg {nfYy&dowfrsm. .vdkuf&avawmY\/ odkYaomf olYtzGJYom. Nyefcsvdkufyg}}[k atmfaNymav\/ odkYaomf vl oefESpfa. tvsOf.bufodkY rsufESmrlí .oNzifY aumif.muf\ vufarmif.Nzpfí aNrBuD.rm.fxdkifNyvdkufaomfvnf. odaomf ratmifYtnf.ygvSaom twGif.aom vl oefBuD.rSm rsufcHk.yif Nzpfyg\/ . ]]r .csdK\ tzGJYom. tckvdk tpGrf.muf Nzpfyg\/ xdkvlESpfa.fvkyfvGef.r&dSbJ ûyH.}} usef0ikd . vlpGmvkyfaeNcif.tm.ysuf NzpfomG .awGvdk xdkifcHkusdK.vHk. &SufoGm.NzD.ckrl tvGeaf v.vQif olwdkYESpfOD.BuD.ovdkESifY twGif.rSmvnf.atmifxdkifEdkifwJY okdif.rm. .csdKu pum. aumif.onf xdkifcHkrsm.oD.yif Nzpfyg\/ þvkd Nyif.f rsm.rSmrl arG.vJ xEdkifvdkufav\/ odkYaomf .ckrl txifESifYtNrif vGefpGm uGmNcm.NyD.Buygw.&rnfqakd omf b.avmufuawmY 'DvlawGtm.cJY\/ xdkYaBumifYvnf. [m.wGif vGefpGmemrnfBuD.usufcsefwdkYuJYokdY aNrBuD.Ncif.ESiYf &. .ESpfckudk ab.wl nDtpfudkESpfOD.wdkYvJ [dkvlpGrf. tHYBopGmNzifY awGYvkduf&av\/ okdYaomf olwdkYESpfOD.&JbJ rsufpdysuf rsufESmysuf NzpfoGm.tm.pGm odvdkuf\/ trSefrl ayauG. .NzL*dkPf.vHBuD.ynmrsdK.atmif xdkifNyoGm.csdKonf olwdkYxdkif&ef cHkrsm. ]]cGef. . .tNzpfom txifao.ESifY ausmNyifrxdrD vufNzifY aNrBuD. csvGrf}} xdktcdkuf toHESpfcsuf Bum.udk olwdkY b. xdkifae&m 0dkif.vGef*dkPf.vnf xm. olYtzGJYom.ck olwdkYonf pum.u olwYkd \ yHyk sufyef.? 'Dvkd xdkifcHkawG usdK. xdkifcHkusdK.pGm em.orm.usufcsefwdkY rsufESmrxm. odkif.f}} ayauG.ynmrSm NrifYrm. [m.xm.u vGefpGm BuD.av\/ xdkYaemuf ckHusdK.í aNrBuD.Buygw.udk vufNzifY zkefokwfay.NzifY .Buav\/ xdkpOf ayauG.pvHk.tqHk. .ay: ûywfusoGm.Edkif"m.vkvkeD.udk acwå&yfNyD.vHk. zrf. ]]0g.odkY vkdufvmNyD.onfudk tm.atmif e*g.ay: yHkysufyef.om.ovdk xdkifNyvdkufprf. .pm.usufcsefwdkY ESpfOD. ..omNzpfí "m.rsm. [m.\/ .mufu ]]a[.qDrS xdkifcHkusdK.odkif. .csdKu at.wpf*dkPf.vGefaeaom omref aNratmuf*dkPf.wd k Y & J Y tav. ]]uJ .tm.rSm þ0rfzefuRef.fodkYrQ r.orm.EdkifawmYbJ 0g.aumif.usdK.pD r.}}[k ûydifwlatmfí ausmufwHk.usufcsefonf rsufcHk.xufodkY r wifvdkufNyD.aom ausmufwHk.ysuf usoGm. udk.vdkuf&NyD.SOfûydifEdkif/ .ynmrSm tqifYr&SdvSaomfvnf.qDodkY avQmufoGm.okdY uefxkwfvdkufNyD.xH ypfvTwf&ef [efNyifvkduf\/ 115 .vSonfudk awGY&aomf rarmfBuGm.lvmNyD. ESpfa.rm.udkaxmufum wGef.\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.wwfatmif t&SufBuD. rypfeJY? atmufudk Nyef .oH waNzmif. .NzifY xdkifcHkudk usdK.\/ .rsm.Ncif.vsufeJY xdkifcHkESpfckudk . qufwdkufyif Bum.usufcsefu aBumufvefYwBuD.farmvdkufBuNyefav\/ &.wpfwHk. tm.acgif.rSm "m.udk 'kp&dkufrI usL. .yHu k kd BunfYí w[m.usoG m . odkif.xefNyD. .aom ausmufwHk.ESpfa.ESiYf rQ rwwfprG .rS y&dowfrsm.fqdkwmudk BuGa&mufvmBuwJY {nfYy&dowf tm.udk OD.kH ESpw f . xrif.ESpfwHk.csd e f u d k rcH E d k i f v d k Y usd K .rsm. trlt&mNzifY [efrysufyif rwfwwf&yfvsuf taetxm.Nzpfatmif ydyd&d&d vkyfxm.f? 'Dvdk odxm.fenf.wGif aumif.wuúodkvf aevif.fudk xdef.oefY {nfYonfawmf0dkif.rD aemufxyf rsufcHk.NzL*dkPf. .aNzmif.udk ayauG.vHk.farmBuav\/ aumif. xdyfoD.cifurl aumif. .}}[k trdefYay. olwdkYESpfa.farmrI rqHk.usufcsefwdkY ESpfOD.xyfNyzdkY roifYygbl. u cif A sm.vJ odxm.usufcsefwdkYxHodkY BuD.f Edik af cs/ xdkYaBumifY aumif.uwnf.udk ypfay. [m.ay:rSmyJ xdkifvkdufBuaygYAsm}}[k qdkav\/ trSefrl þol ESpfOD.aom ausmufw.atmif wu. .}} ]][m.lNyD.í vl.NzD.NzL*dkPf.csdKu wrift&SufcGJaeaBumif.pufpGmNzifY .twwfynmwGifom aumif.ynmrsdK.w. [m. aumif.mufonf BuD.u odkif.a&aomuf oabmavmufom xm. rif.NyD q d k a wmY 'DausmufwHk.uGJ&. .lap&ef ûyvkdufav\/ aumif. txl.

rS m a&S Y q if Y a emuf q if Y qd k o vd k usef . tNzpfrcHEdkif/ ol odu©musNcif.xm. .\/ ayauG.NyD.rSm csifwl.BuD.qef . ckepfazmf\ owif.acR.aom ausmufwHk. &kwfw&uf BuD.omBum. ESpfwHk.muf NzpfaeNcif.? rrav.qef.udk BunfYí us.ESifYrQ csifwl.vdkufOD.u igYtay: rausreyf Nzpf&kHwifrubl.uvnf.qef.&if usef.uvJ igYudk a'goNzpfrSm aocsmw.acR.acR.*dkPf. olu pOf.rS aumif.ck usef. .tus.wl.onf olwdkY [lwef.qef.aemuf olu xdkif&mrS &kwfNcnf.ckrl .f usoGm.tus.tm.xm.\ NidKNiifNcif. vGefpGmaumif.vHk.ckrl olYvl oef ESpfa.acR.rSm aocsmw.\/ tu.vdkyif rwfwwf x&yfvkdufrdBuonf/ ayauG.Ncm.vkdufNcif.NzifY a&SYqifYaemufqifY ypfvTwfvdkufonfudk &kwfw&uf awGY&aomtcg tBuD. 'ku©ygyJ}} olu .udk rcHEdkif/ usef.acR. .acR.csdKu olYemrnfudkwyfí aNymoHBum. cGef.f wkefvIyfoGm. tb.vefYtm.qef.&if olYodu©m tBuD.acR. usef.pvHk. t&dk.udk r.rQ qkwfí a&Smifwdrf. . rûycJYorQ . Bum. . .f? tif.fwGif tqHk.Ncif.om.ESpfa.rSm txdwfwvefYNzifY aemufodkY ESpfvSrf.csdKac:oH Bum.fí usef. odu©musayawmYrnf/ onftNzpfrsdK.ynm&yf wpfckckawmY &dS&rnf[k wGufxm.cktcsdefwGif vufawGYprf.ESpfwHk.favmifaomtoHNzifY .&mrS usef.wl.vm.qef. ai. .odkY pdk. tpfudkav.pm. f a y:od k Y usa&mufvmav\/ BunfY&Iaeaom odkif.u BuD.tm.fenf.om xdrSefygu olwdkYESpfOD.mufudk rsuf&dyfNyvkdufrd&m .aBumifoGm. ESpfwHk. vl oefESpfOD.fodkYaom a.qef.acR.BuD.aNymNyD.acR.rSm odkif.zl. xdktNzpfudk BunfY&if. vl oefESpfOD.muf? udk.frxdkif&JBuawmYbl.rSm El. olYtem.qef.av\/ xdkYaBumifY olY*dkPf.vnf.? olom aumif.u odkif.ay.xí ayauG. ]]uJ . &oGm.wuúodkvf aevif.vGef*dkPf.Edkif"m. Nzpfae\/ tb.BuD.ck olNrifawGYae&aom usef.fYaBumifYqkdaomf xdkausmufwHk. .qef.vSrf.udk usef. .acR.acR.acR.fí aBumuftm.csdKvnf.\/ odkYaomf olu þodkYwGuf\/ tu.usufcsefwdkY nDtpfudkESifYrNcm.NzifY ypfvdkufNyDNzpfonfudk Nrifaomf aemifwBuD.zef\ aNymNycsuft& okdif.yJ Nyefxdkifvkdufyg}}[k qdkonf/ xdktcsdefwGif usef.avmuwGif ausmfBum.odkY ckefxGufNyD.? 'Dvkdqdk csufcsif.qef.ESpfwHk.ysuf Nzpfaeaom olwdkYESpfOD.fYcHkay:awmif udk.BuD. .ysuf odu©muswmrsdK.usufcsefwdkY ESpfOD.fEdkifw.fxm.aom ausmufwHk. ESpfOD. ta&.? t&SufuGJNcif. \ ud k .f? usef.\ odu©mudkyg xdcdkufEdkifonfudk wGufxm.oyf&ef tcGifYta&. .rm.íom olu ae&mrS xí avQmufvmaeNcif. a&Smifwdrf.tom. BuD .orm.xl.onf ausmufwHk.oyfvdkaom oabmNzifYom Nzpf\/ wrifwum taumufBuHvdkí r[kwfay/ [lwef. rsuf&dyfNyvkduf\/ vl oefESpfOD.atmif e*g.acR.u 'DausmufwHk.odkY a&mufcsdefwGifyif vl oefBuD. aumif.fawmY vloefwpfa. .qef.csdKxHavQmufoGm.vdkufvQif cGef.NzifY eHab.mufudkom olu ypfcdkif. wdkYaBumifY usef.usrSyif xl. .u owday. r xm.BuD. NzpfoGm.fwpfa.url tvefYwxdwf Nzpfay:aeaom taNctaetm.fom.okdY a&mufonfESifY vl oefESpfOD.\ odkif. ]]'ku©awmY NzpfNyDxifw.rdvdkuf\/ 116 .tay: vTJí tNypfyHkcsrnf/ i.Ncm.vHk.ayawmY}}[k aNymNyD.aBumif.ynmudk vufawGYprf. xdkif&mrS vefYzsyfum 0kef. ES p f w H k .ESifY uyfvsufxdkif&if.&drfaemifw NzpfrdouJYodkY wpfzufuvnf.qef.\/ trSefrl olonf usef.mufpvHk. ]]a[Y .nYHodrfarGYaom vli. oHk.xm.qef.acR.NzpfoGm.Nyefxvdkufprf. {nfYy&dowfrsm.? usef.qef. vlyHktv.aom odkif.tNyif csifwl.qef. tm&kH ysHYvGifYvsufaeay&m &kwfw&uf ayauG.ao.ynmwGif usef.pD&ifvdkufrnf/ b.tm.vS\/ .rS vl oefESpfa.a& owdomxm.olNzpf&m .rm. .f? 'Dvkd yHkysufyef.Nzpf\/ .qef.mufvdk aemufqkwfNyD.awmYrS owdNyef0ifvm\/ NyD.udkvnf.wl.wGif xl.Ncm.orm. acR.udk bmrQrod/ ayauG.pum.udkrQ tav.\/ odkYNzifY usef.mufsm.fom.l qufqHaeonfudk awGYNrif&Ncif. aBumufvefYwBum.acR.vGef*dkPf.udk umuG. taNctae rvS&if olYtNypfudk olYatmufi.yif &Smí&rnf r[kwfawmYacs/ ayauG.ceJ wpfûydifwnf.usufcsefwdkY nDtpfudkESpfa.if.Nzpf\/ okdYaomf tem.w.pGm &vkdufrdav\/ wu.qD ypfvkdufavonf/ xd k t cg ausmuf w H k .aom ausmufwHk.csdKonf csefusif.csdKu yHkysufyef.

NyD.muf vufarmif.qef .u BuD.qef. .udkyif vufckyfBobmay.ckepfazmf&JY aNymifaNrmufwJY odkif.aumif.acR.f? "m.wl.Edkif"m.rSm BuD.ynmNzifY vl oefBuD.ay:wGif xdkifaeaom usef.tm.xJodkY wpf0ufeD.rSm vl oefESpfOD.udkvnf.ceJ}} us.bufodkY vSnfYí . url aNrBuD .ynmudk Nrif&awmYw.Ncif.acR.wm? 'DaeYrSyJ vufawGY rsufawGY [lwef. 117 .BuD.\/ taBumif .BuD.}} {nfYy&dowfxJrS ]]e*g.Edkif"m.y&dowftNrifwGifrl usef.ESpfwHk. ol BumBumpOf.\ odkif.ckepfazmf&JY *kPfowif.udk Nyefí toHk.vnf. iSJYí ausmufwHk. \ cuf c J e uf e J a om odkif.udk vufESpfzufNzifY tvG. vGefpGm 0rf.rm. .rSm bmrQ NyefraNymrd/ usef.oGm.BuD. epf0ifoGm.ay. usvm&m ]]tkef.ygw.atmif e*g.í BunfYaerdavonf/ twefBumawmYrSyif uRef.udkom aBumifai.ESpOf . aomufvdkuf\/ xkdpOf ayauG.fYukd csD.ESpfwHk. csifwl.ay.BuD.rm.onftxd NzpfoGm.rSmrl xdkausmufwHk.fwul tay:odkY aNrSmufwifvkdufonf[k xifaeBuav\/ xdkYaBumifY y&dowfrsm.onf/ NyD.ynmNzpfí olu . yDwd a0NzmapEdkifcJYonf r[kwfygvm.usL.BuD.qef. }}ceJ oufNyif.NyD.f}}[k usef. ESpfOD.}} ]]e*g.tm.udk olu t&SdefNzifY vrf.udk NyefvnftoHk.csdKonf t&ufwpfcGufudk uref.acR.ESpfwHk.\ vufarmif.rSm a&SYqifYaemufqifY Nyefusvm\/ausmufwHk.f [m tckwavmrSm "m.u wu. . ESpfwHk./ odkYNzifY ayauG. rS usef .&ef owdvpfoGm.}}[laom tHYBoa&&GwfoHrsm.ynmrsm.EIwfrS ]][m ceJ? [if ceJ}} NzpfoGm. qlnHoGm. ]]{nfYy&dowfrsm.qef. acR.tm.Edkif"m.wl. ayauG.qef.aom ausmufwHk.\ rsuf E S m ay:ü auseyf y D w d N zmvsuf &d S a eonf u d k awG Y vd k u f & yg\/ ayauG .av\/ aemuf a usmuf w H k . tay:odkY tvG.acR.&if.wpfvuf&cJYygw.axmifBuyg cifAsm.csEdkifawmYonf/ olvnf.acR.? usKyfwYkd &YJ *dP k . wpf w H k .aBumif. tvdktavsmuf xGufay:vmav\/ &kwfw&uf OD.. wpfcsufrQ rsufapmif. BuD .p&m aumif.onfomru usef.pGm usa&mufvmaom ausmufwHk.acR.awmYonf/ xdkpOf csifwl.Buukef\/ xdktcdkuf ausmufwHk.ynmrSm &efoltm. rûybJ t&ufcGufudkom vSrf.\ tm. csd K rS m .ck r S y if ]][if .uwrf.zl. .yg. aNrBuD.qef.rS vloefBuD.tm.ynmaBumifY rdrd oufomcGifY &oGm. BunfYvsuf ]]cifAsm. vSypGmwifaeav\/ usef.lNyD.qef.wuúodkvf aevif. vufckyfBobmay.Edkif"m.NyD .av.qef.csdKu {nfYy&dowfrsm.BunfYvdkuf\/ odkY&mwGif csifwl.csNcif.wl.êuHcdkufwGif xdkcufcJeufeJaom odkif.udk vufESpfzufNzifY rí r&Edkif/ odkYaomf [lwef.usaeaom olYodkif.}} ]]e*g.vnf. urf. csD.qef. xGufay:vmyg\/ ayauG.ESpfwHk.usL.BuD. rl ol o nf trS m .qef.csdKtm. .fwul wufoGm.aom odkif. nmbufvufNzifY vTJí tay:okdY yifYwifvdkufavonf/ usef.yif Nzpf\/ trSefrl ausmufwHk.udkvnf.emrnfuawmY e*g.Edkif"m. rnfrQyif oefapumrl xdkausmufwHk.vTJí ydkYvdkufNcif. thHBooGm.fAsm}}[k qdkav\/ vloefBuD.ûyum tay:odkY vrf.*dkPf.csdKu qufí wnfNidrfaomtoHNzifY .udk t"duxm.omoGm.acR.u bmrQ EIwfwHkYNyefNcif.oHrsm.ESpfa.csdefr&vdkufyg/ ausmufwHk.aNymif.aBumif.&kHru tNrifYay:rSvnf. ]]usKyfwkdYu [lwef. em. emrnf ausmfBum.fay:odkY usa&mufvmavNyDNzpf\/ xdkYaBumifY avYusifYom.yifvGef.udk Bum. xJ wpf 0 uf r Q epf 0 if a eaom ausmuf w H k .favmifpGm toHwpfcsuf NrnfoGm.usL.cR.Bu&av\/ usef.wpfckvHk.avonf/ usef.xdk.D tm. .aBumifYom Nzpfyg\/ odkYaomf ab.vdkuf\/ wpfzef aemufwpfvHk.ay: vSypGm ckefwufNyD.pm. .vG e f a wmY r vd k Nzpf o G m .muf ypfvTwfvkdufaomtm. ay:od k Y wnfNidrfnDnmpGmusNyD.u olYudk.ckuJYodkY ta&. rmefygygNzifY wifysOfacGí xdkifaevkdufavonf/ odYk rmefygyg xkid &f if.wkYd ESpaf .acR.

xkwfvmBu&\/ olwdkYonf oHrD.oGm.ud k tay:od k Y vS e f í wif x m.tcdkufwGif csefusef.om.BuD.\/ trSefrl e*g.usif.0kef.udkom xrf.if. tvsOf.oGm.f}}[k us.D NyefxGufvmBu\/ odkYaomf olwkdYonf ]]e*g.aom ausmfBum.udk qlnHpGm Bum. ]]'Davmufaumif. &dkufcsdK.udk pl. ]]tJ'D e*g.atmifvnf.udk w0kef.u wu.om.rsm.csdKu pum.tqHk.m wpfcsufwGef.csufuvnf.udk vQdKí xrf.udk olYeHab.qef.u xufydkif.&JY xl. .vSrf.lvkdufNyD.rsdK.zefonf e*g. xkNyvkdufNyef\/ ]]csvGrf}} xufydkif.ay:okdY wtm.&SpfOD.udk cHpm.rf.\ rsufESmodkY vma&muf &dkufcwfNcif.rsm.vkdufBuonf/ {nfYy&dowftm. awmufavmifaeNyD.BuD.vnf.aeaom toHrsdK.Edik "f m. xD.&SpOf .Bum.Edkif"m.faumif.BunfYr.udk acgif.ûydvJoGm.zefu "m.usdK.rS oHwlBuD.if.Ncif.zefurl y&dowfzufodkY vSnfYí wpfcsuf&.zdkrS [kef.NyyGJ cif. ay. vGefpGm tm.vHk.zefonf wpfcsufrQ &.Edkif"m.oGm.oG m . w'dkif. r[kwfbJ oHrD.mufu oHwlBuD.[kef.wdkYonf csufcsif.vQif *dkPf.om.\/ {nfYy&dowfrsm. today.aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ xdktcg .rSm wpf z uf o G m .w.vSaom e*g.r&dS/ ndKnpfnpf ta&mifNzifY rcHYnm.yoGm.wpfa.? "m.atmif NrefvGef."m.&dSvlwpfzufpmrQ&dSaom opfyifBuD.udk "m.rSm aNymifvufawmufyNcif.}} opfyifBuD.om.u oHxnfBuD.udk rD[ek .Buav\/ taBumif. þwpfBudrfom tHYzG.Edkif"m.oGm.orm./ odkYNzifY odkif.vHk.xkwfvmNyefonf/ oHwlESifYtwl oHñSyfvnf.ukefBu\/ csefusif.0uif.xGufoGm.u "m. aBumiftrf.BuD.om. wpfuRef.udk xkaom {&mr oHwlBuD.f? tckyJ oHwlBuD.\ *lxJokdY 0ifoGm.favmifpGm xkNyvdkuf\/ NyD.csdKa&m 118 . &kwfw&uf ab.? csefusif.orm.f cifAsm.0ef.odkY avQmufoGm.\ ta&SYbufü wpfpHkwpfa.u y&dowftm. tHYzG. f v l mBurnf[k xifaeBupOf xd*k P kd .vkduf\/ xkdtcg oHrD.&dS *dkPf.vHk.zdkBuD.vH.eJY prf.vdkufBuaom toHrsm.udk oHwHk.vdkuf&\/ xdkpOf *dkPf. {nfYy&dwfowftm.vHk.vkduf\/ tm. ]]quf&uftzGJYacgif.vufxJrS Nyef.vHk..zdkBuD.om Nzpfyg\/ xdYk aemufwiG rf l csefusif.\ pdwfxJwGif ]]'D"m.Edkif"m.udk oHxnfxkaom oHwHk.f om.awmY 'D"m.vHk.pum.uw[kef.\ pdwfxJrSvnf. 'DwpfcgyJ Nrifzl.udk *dkPf.foGm.aqmif e*g.csufudk NyygYr.muf opfom.vdkuf&m olY*dkPf.}} ayauG.0dkif.ao.t&dSefvdIif.tpHk NyL.atmif e*g.Edik "f m.Ncm.Edkif"m.NyD.f om.xkwfvmonfudk awGY&\/ xdkoHrD.f awmufavmifaeaom rD.*dkPf.ay:wGif wifvkduf\/ e*g.lvmNyD.pdwf vHk.vHk. .fvkdufNyD.fbeef.pdkuf tuJcwfBunfYvkduf\/ odkYaomf xdk"m.\ pdwfxJrS ]]e*g. .&SpOf .um vufNzifY tomt.wpfa.rS [kwf&JYvm.wGif vufwpfcsufrQ a0SY. aBunmygw.uvnf.}}udk o.Edkif"m.vdkufav\/ ]]0kef. e*g.Edkif"m.fY e*g.zef\ ckwftm.vdkufBu&\/ &kwfw&ufNzpfí ayauG.muftm.acR.wGif "m.Edkif"m.udk ckwfvdkufav\/ odkYaomf opfyifBuD.yif "m.udk xrf.zdkBuD.tm.NyD.oNzifY opfyifBuD.Nyif\ tv. zHk.}}[laom oHo.tqHk.vQif xdkopfyifem.rsdK.vkduf\/ y&dowftm.Bu\/ .pdwfrsm.aomfvnf.om.ay:odkY aNrSmufí wifxm.Edkif"m.awmufavmifaeaom rD.avawmY\/ usef.k u *dP k .ay:wpfcsufrQ us.fxkwfvmNcif.D ]]e*g.Edkif"m.xJodkY ypfwifvkdufavonf/ xdktcsdefrSmyif uRef.uyif aemufxyf oHwltopfwpfacsmif.rSm wdceJ NywfoGm.OD.Nyo&m taemufbuf&dS ausmufawmifBuD. . .ygvSoNzifY wpfaBumif.rSm tvGefxufNrdaomaBumifY wpfaBumif.'dkif. awGYzl.u oHwkwft&SnfBuD.&onf/ xdktcg odkif.awGudk zdwfac:NyoNyD.om.favmifaom toHNzifY qdkonf/ xdktcg *dkPf.wuúodkvf aevif.f}}[k a&&Gwfvdkufrd\/ xdkYaemufwGifrl csefusif. wpfvHk.BuD.um.udk tck BuGa&mufvmBuwJY {nfYonfawmf aemifBuD.wnf.ygvm\/ ayauG. wpfacsmif.av.f [ke.csdKu toHudkNrSifYí . vQif aemuf x yf *dkPf.}}[k oHo. rsufvkH.rSm wkwfwkwfrQrvIyf/ yuwdtwdkif.fA[kdwGif csxm.rSm oHo.om. &SpfOD.wJY"m.Nzpf í xd k v l u "m.zdkBuD. &kwfw&uf ûydvJrusoGm.NyefNyD wlwpfacsmif.[kef. ]]e*g.farmvku d Nf yD. 0dkif.vd k u f o nf / NyD .yif &dSae\/ {nfYy&dowfrsm.udk usKyfwdkY*dkPf. tm&kHpdkufBunfYaepOfrSmyif olonf cyfvSrf.rS [kwf&JYvm.Edkif"m.vSacs/ xdktcg y&dowftm.udk xkwfNycsdefwefNyD}}[k trdefYay.xJwGifrl rD.udk Nrufcif. Bobmay.xkcsvdkufavawmYonf/ ]]csvGrf.}}[laom toHwpfcsuf Bum. olwdkY wpfoufwmwGif þrQrmausmaom "m.u tNyD. xdkBuDrm.}}udk xkw.tydkif&vkdufNyDNzpfwJYtaBumif.0ifoGm.bufodkY aNy. vGifYNy.

í .rsm.csif ûyH.f &kwf&kwfoJoJtaNctaeaBumifY tm. rS avS r sm.fom.fom.wpfOD. usdK.fom.\ &G u f w d k i f r sm.udkrl tqufrNywf Bum.\ avSonfvnf.? wpfa.\/ ayauG.rsm.ae&qJyif Nzpfyg\/ &kwfw&uf BunfYvdkufvQifrl xkduRef.fom.BunfYcdkif. aemufqHk. epfNrKyfoGm.vHk.onf vnf.? wkefvIyfNcif.udk &dkufcsdK.rsm.D usaeav\/ xdkol &&dSvmaom 'Pf&mrsm.pGm atmfvkdufaomf atmfoHwpfcsufudk Bum.f ? vufo.av\/ xkdYaBumifY tm.u toHudkñSpfí atmfaNymavonf/ ]]a&TNcaoFYrif.\/ olYvufacsmif.tm. oGm.NzL*dkPf. oD .cH&onfodkY cHpm.rod/ xdktcdkuf av.rIudk usdwfrSdwf rsdKodyf&if.ftm.a[Y}} ]][kwfuJY}} xdkvlu rqdkif.*dP k .at. t&ufuav.rSmudk.rSm vlyHktv.usvsuf&dSonfudk awGYvkduf&\/ xdck Pcsif. w'dkif.\ vufcsufaBumifYaomf vnf.cktcsdefxd rnfolrQ taNzrSef rodao.Ncif.om.f&m &dSavonf/ odkYaomf bmrSef.*d k P f .Edkif"m. xdkif&mrS x&yfvkdufrdBu\/ wpfcsdKYvnf.usysufpD. wpfpHkwpfOD.csdKu 'Pf&m&vmol vli.csdKESifY csefusif.wdkYNzifY *dkPf.us ysufpD. zsufqD.om Nzpfonf[k wGufxm. avSBuD. toD .mufudk vufñdSK.Ncif.rsm.oGm.&m uRef. ]][dwf? rif.zefwdkYurl xdk pl.NyD.&Jwd&pämef&dkif.aNcodkY BunfYvkdufaomtcgwGifrl qd k u f u yf x m.udk vTwfí taNctaerSefudkod&ef oGm.\/ wpfcsdKYrl aBumifpDpD/ ayauG.? acsmufcsm. a&a&&m&m rodrDrSmyif avSBuD.NzifY xdk.&drfp&m r&dSygbl.Nyif&dS {nfYy&dowfrsm.wpfpif.ckdif.\ ta&SYbufurf.om xdkifaeBuyg? {uEÅ yifv.aom ol w d k Y avS E S i f Y wuG tNcm. {nfYonfrsm.wpf c k N yD .rS aoG.wpfOD.csdKu olYvufaxmufwpfa.fxJrSm &moDOwk azmufNyefvmwm Nzpf&r. vufxJrS t&ufcGufrsm. Nzpfaeav\/ thHBoNcif.? a&GNcaoFYrif.aom w0kef.rsm. wpdrYf prd Yf .rsm.aumif.vHk.aomtm.\ aNcoHNzpfaeonf/ xdo k o l nf vufEpS zf ufNzifY rsufEmS udk tkyx f m.aq.u wrif tuGufqifí ûyvkyfNcif.appGrf.oifYoGm.zefyg thHtm.fqdkwm csufcsif.xGufoGm.Nzpfonf[k xifzG.? bmawGNzpfw.udk BunfYNcif. csufcsif. wpfckrusefatmifyif usdK.atmif e*g.aomfvnf.í qdkyg\/ ]]rpdk.udk cH&ouJYodkYyif xifrSwf&\/ ayauG.vHaom aNcoHrsm.wGif rsufcHk.\ atmfoHrSef.vHk.D bk&if*P kd .f \ avSBuD.rS acgif.&drfBuygeJY? udk.onfvnf.}}ceJ usuGJoGm.Nyef\/ odkYaomf yxrtokwfrS *dkPf.rsm.csif ûyH.}} 119 . ydkí ydkí acsmufcsm. ayGYxl&ef [efNyifvdkuf\/ xdkpOf i.vHk.0g. udkif. toHrsm.aeaom taNctaeudkom taBumifom.aNcbufqDrS pl.tokwfvlvTwfí pHkprf.NyD.BuNyD Nzpfyg\/ Nrufcif. ai. Nrifraumif.kH NzL*dP k .oD. aomufvkdufBu&atmif}} odkif.NzifY rûyH. wpfpif.BunfYvdkufprf.NzifY vGefpGm &ufpufBurf.NzL*dkPf.csdKu taNctaerSefudk od&ef 'kwd.rsm.\ ta&SYbufwGif rkefwdkif.toD. aBumifaeBuavonf/ tpuawmYrl rsufcHk.cH&onfudk Nrifaomf tNcm.0g.NzifY wkdufcdkuf ukwfzJYNcif. wpfaumif\ vufonf.xdk.f ? a0vig.? usKyfwdkYawG azmifzGJYNyD.fvHk.vmaomaBumifYaomfvnf.rusef ysufpD.êuwfaom om.&drfylyefrI? wkefvIyfacsmufcsm.vdkufonf/ okdYaomf opfom.Nyefowif.? rkefwdkif.oGm.aumif.f at.udk Bum.csdKu taNctae wnfNidrfatmif xdef.udk aemufausmudk "m.rwGyif aNy.bJ &IyfaxG.aq.fwGif rdrdwdkYodu©musrnfpdk.wpfck Nzpfay:aeNyD.í awGaerdavonf/ ayauG.fY0dkif. .mufrQ NyefrvmawmYacs/ okdYNzifY tm.aumif. csefusif.fpD udkifí aomuf&ef Nyifvkdufav\/ xdkpOf &kwfw&uf uRef.atmif aoG.aom atmfoHrSm olwdkY vTwfvdkufaom i.vdkufBu&\/ xdkatmfoHrSm odkif.\ ta&SYbuf urf.tokwfrS *dkPf.orm.Bu\/ toHBum.vn.*dP k .0kef. [efrysufatmif t&ufcGuf udk.onf olwdkY i. NyefEdkifBuwmyJ? udkif.orm.&ifvJ usKyfwdkY bmrS pdk.\ &Gufwdkifrsm.'dkif.wuúodkvf aevif.Nzpfrnf[k xifvkdufNyef\/ odkYaomf .vdkuf&Nyef\/ trSefrl wpfudk. ayusHaeaom olwdkY i. .í pdk.f? pdwfrylBuygeJY? 'DavSawG wpfpD.ydkY? [kwfvm.rSmyif rsufc. wpf c k usdK.aumif. odvdkufyg\/ odkYaomf bmvkyfí bmudkif&rSef. ]]cRrf.BuD.oGm.rS &Guw f ikd rf sm.om.f ? [kid q f m.ESufNcif.? 'kwd.aqmifrsm.vmBuNyDNzpf\/ ayauG.dpk . tavmwBuD.

aerd\/ ayauG.BunfYr.vsuf a&SYwpfvSrf.fvHk.fY pum.csdKurl tm.csdKvnf.f csefusif.&JY emrnfudk rod&bl.ayr.f? olu b.f apmifYa&Smuf&ef csefusif.rsm. &SufpGef.onf ol\ cHYnm.rnf q d k u wk e f v I y f a csmuf c sm.vnf.? q&mBuD.aom t0wfudk 0wfxm.om ar.vdkuf&\/ wpfqufwnf.u wpfcsufûyH.l wl.wef.fav}} ]]rvdkufeJYuGm? rif.od\/ xkdYaBumifY ta&.orQ ta&mifvufvuf xoGm.? usKyf a&TNcaoFYrif.rDrSmyif vlwpfa.Nyif. xGufoGm. ay:vm\/ olu ayauG.êudif.vH k .vH.}} ]]usKyfemrnfu &SufpGef.ygyJvm. f & myif Nzpf y g\/ xd k v l r S m udk. }}ceJ avwdk.vdkuf&onfESifY wpfûydufeuf ausmufaqmifwpfck\ aemufuG. odkYr[kwf a&TNcaoFYrif.wuúodkvf aevif.udk udik x f m.BuNyD . .csdKu oabmraygufoNzifY .rom Nzpf&kHru a'govnf.? vl .Bu\/ csifw.vdkuf\/ 120 .yif wd&pämefom. umuG. .csdKonf a&TNcaoFYrif.csdKu pdwfrcsrf.zdkY rvkdawmYygbl.oHNyif.rS qHyifrsm. aBumufrufzG. qdwfNidrfvsuf &dSaeBu\/ ayauG.wufvmav\/ ]]aBomf .udk raNz/ ar. .ceJ wpfcsufatmf&if.BuD.a&NzifY csKyfxm.udk êud. teufa&miftpm.vHk.\/ ycHk.us. a&Ta&mifNzpfvsuf ycHk.rSm wpfudk.qef.qef.\/ odkif.NyD.muf\ acsmif.oGm.NyD.f wGirf l oHql.oHudkyg Bum. q&mBuD.frS vlwpfa.taBumif.wif.rSm xdk vlxGm.rusef NrSKyfypfcHvkduf&NyD}} xdki. .tm. ]]NcaoFY [kwfvm. .wdk.ESifY csifwl.qef.yif Nzpfyg\/ xkdodkY aNymírS rqHk.wdkYuJYokdYyif oabmaygufum tm.vSaBumif. ]]oGm.atmif e*g.u bmudpö bmtaBumif.fom.xdatmif Nzmusae\/ rsufvHk.tm. 'DrSmyJaeNyD.tpHkrSm pdrf.ygbl.NzifY NynfYESufae\/ usef.mufBunfYvdkufrdBu\/ olwdkYawG\ pdwfxJwGif.udk a&mufvm&wmvJ cifAsm}} &SufpGef.vnf. . ..k tvGew f ek v f yI af csmufcsm.u acgif.Ofaus. vlwpfa. acgif.oGm.? tif.folvJ? q&maNymzl.zeftm.yif raNym0HYBuawmY/ tm.aNymawmY . ac:wJYemrnfyJ Nzpf&r.&JY [efyefuom aBumufp&maumif. .rm.cGef. ]]'DvlBuD. zufrwwf yl. .aus.rsm.acR.ynmrSm vGefpGm NrifYrm.wl.acR.}}[k awG.BuD.acR.ay:u a&Ta&mifqHyifudk trSwfonmûyNyD.pOf NzLazG. .vnf.qef.qdkol\ odkif.fNyD. wpfa.wGif vJusaoqHk.tqHk. aNymvdkufNcif.faumif.zefYzefYESifY ta&mifwzdwfzdwf awmufaeav\/ vufxw J iG rf l ckepfaycefY&n S af om wkwBf uD. .wJY}} usef.acR. txdww f vefYNzifY tm.ywf v nf o d k Y tavmwBuD . .. ]]r[kwfbl.muf? 'dNyifvlawG wpfa.av\/ ayauG.zG .[efYoHudk Bum. 'Demrnfu olYacgif.zef}} ]]igvJ vdkufr.vdkuf&\/ tm.wGif . .BuD. ayauG.}} xdki.\/ wkwBf uD. usef.}}[k pdwfxJrS awG. rrav.fvHk.fom.pm.wJY emrnfawGxJrSm 'DemrnfwpfcgrS rBum.Edkif"m. &if w k e f o G m .vm. . {nfYonftm.mufrusef towfcHvdkuf&NyD? avSawGvJ wpfpif.yg? tNyifemrnfuawmY a&TNcaoFYrif.mufudk wpfa.vkduf\/ odkYûyH.wpfacsmif. ]]a&TNcaoFYrif.udk BunfYNyD.wpfcsuf Bum. . usef. ]]q&mBuD. .\/ ]]ig oGm.udk.&dSvdkY 'DuRef. .BuD.ay:aygufvmaomf csifwl.u 'DrSm a&mufaeygNyD}}[laom pum.uyfaevkdufrd\/ rS e f o nf / wk e f v I y f a csmuf c sm.rsm.muf ckefxGufvmonfudkyg awGYvkduf&yg\/ xkv d u l Nkd rifBuaomf tm. eH a b.orm.udk apmifYa&Smuf&pfyg}}[k NyefaNymav\/ trSefrl ayauG.cg. Bunf Y vd k u f r d B u\/ xd k t cg ]][l .aom oGm.rf.wl.aom vGefpGmvnf.\ ESpzf ufpeG .awmaerdav\/ vlxGm.u pum.wkwfcdkif&kHomru omrefvlxuf wpfaycefY ydkíNrifYrm.zl. .csdK\ tar.vHk. . .aom [efyeftrlt&mudk Nrifaomf pum.Of.

]]rif.wpfvufrSef. ]]usKyf w k d Y rsuf c H k .rl &Supf eG .rsm.acR.f ? tJ ' D " m.NyyGJusif. ]]aeygOD.f A [d k & d S rD .awmY aemufNyD.ceJ ypfvTwfvdkuf&m &SufpGef.f tm.wdkY olrsm.l&ef vufvSrf. NzL*d k P f . u tck w avm "m.rodatmif NzpfoGm.u oa&mfûyH.uG.vkdufonfudk Nrifaomf us.&JY "m. wpfqifY wkdufckdufvdkufaomaBumifY Nzpfyg\/ 121 . .\ vIyf&Sm.urrI/ xdkYNyif csefusif.dk. . awmufaeonfY Bum.wGif "m.qufNyef\/ ]]rif.udk .wdkufcdkuf&if? NyD.rwfpGm vGifYaNy. . 'DawmY bJpm.vdkuf\/ csefusif.fxm.yg? cifAsm.zefu toHudkNrSifYí .vufxJuvkvmwJY "m.wmvm..onfESifY rD.fuGm? uJ . .[m rif.&.dkifoGm.Gif.ynmu b.wdkYvufxJuae Nyefvkw.udk vSrf.avmurdwfaqGawGudk zdwfac:NyD.zefu olYcg.csdKu b.Edkif"m. ûyH.fxm.&.ygw.zeftm.Edkif"m.vkyfwmvm.qef.aumif . zd k B uD . usef.ckwdkif rysufpD.if..u usKyfwdkY rsufcHk. ]]bmvkyfzdkYvJ}}[k wnfNidrfpGm ar.aumif.l wkwBf uD.lvkdufonf/ xdktcdkuf csefusif.udk rif.f? rrav.udk wkdufcdkuf&vdrfYr.\ aemufausmqDodkY wef. Nruf c if .avawmY\/ odkYaomf &SufpGef.rIudk rsufNcnfrysuf BunfYae&mrS &SufpGef.u aNymNyD. . ]]'Dudpöudk 'DvlYudk zHk.BunfYvkduf\/ rD.uG? 'D"m.wufvmaomtoHNzifY.oGm.fu wpfcsuf .NyD.fokdY paNz&rSef.zefonf &SufpGef.wdkY*dkPf.zdkay:rS e*g.kH xJoYdk a&mufomG .vsuf . "m.}} csefusif. rvk y f tJ r vk y f cyf w nf w nf y if a eNyD .Nrpfvdkuf\/ &SufpGef.vQif atmfaNymav\/ ]]rdwfaqG cifAsm.zef taNz&Smr&rD &SufpGef. .okdY atmfaNymonfESifYtwl oHvHk.avawmY\/ taBumif.ud k tck odkif.[kef.NyD. .f}}[k awG.ypfEdkifrSm aocsmw.vdkufrd\/ odkYNzifY ayauG.wuúodkvf aevif.\/ odkYESifYolu rD.usJNzifY avQmufoGm.? 'gayr. Nyif tv.qDodkY aNcvSrf.? 'grSr[kwf rif.fY 'Dvl&JY odkif.wdkYudk.udk ig BunfYcsifovdk BunfYvkdY&w. .oGm.csdKu tm.NyD.yaewmyg}} &S u f p G e f . ud k vSrf.vQif &kwfw&uf aoG.f? igYoabmyJaygY}} &SufpGef. ]]'D"m.wkdYu 'D"m.f \ twGi.mufwnf. . ûyH.f}} olu ..&JY"m.zef aygif.? iguvJ tck rif.favmufyJawmfaeae olu wpfa.tefum vJus aoqHk.f 0iful&if 'DvlYudk &Sif.u rD.\/ pdwfxJwGifrl .avonf/ csefusif. .vkdY bmvdkYaNym0HY&wmvJuG? 'D"m.u olYoq H .aom oHvHk.[kef.zef\ udk. csefusif.udk rif.ysHudkyg0SD.rSwpfqifY oHv.bJ &dSonfudkNrifaomf trSefyif "m.uyif pum.onf . .zdkBuD.atmif e*g. u tif .favmifaom toHNzifY .wGif csnfxm. ]]&yfvkduf}}[k atmfvkdufav\/ &SufpGef.wpfvufudk awGY&\/ xkd"m.uaeyJ BunfYyg? rudkifygeJY}}[k wm. .NzL*dkPf. Nyef&kyfvkdufyg? Nyefr&kyf&ifawmY usKyfu rvTJra&Smifom cifAsm.vsuf . wpf v uf &xm.yJ? igeJY csefusif.u aemufodkY vSnfYBunfYNyD.a&maygY? 'DawmYuGm 'D"m. odoGm.f? vkyfcsifovdk vkyfvkdY&w.vdkY&rSm r[kwfbl.vufudk ckcsufcsif.bJacs NzpfoGm. BunfYcsif&ifvJ ta0.wdkY 0.fwkdif oGef.wkdYuaum bmudpö 'Dudk vmBu&wmvJ}} ayauG.r.ysHudk ûzwfvdkufNyD.zdkbufodkY zswfceJ vSnfYí "m.

.

. . . . . . (2*) a&TjcaoFhrif. . . .awmifarsmufBuD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 a&cJrD. . .pGef. . . (21) tcef. 187 opömESifh &efaBuG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rmwdum tcef. . . (26) tcef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (23) tcef. . (13) tcef. . . . . . . . . . . . . .ukd aoG.awmif . (16) tcef. . . . . . . . . . . . 216 [lwef. . . . . .awmifay: . . . . . (20) tcef. . . 214 [lwef. . . . 148 rD. 229 a&cJvuf0g. . . . . . . . (15) tcef. . . . . . . . 156 ajrjyefhokdh tjyef . . 221 arG. . . . . . . . 236 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 ausmufaumif. . . . . . . . . .NyD . . . . . (17) tcef. . . . 137 ajrmuf0if½dk. . . . . . . . . . . . (22) tcef. . (14) tcef. .f . . . . . . . . . . .ckESpfazmf jyefqHkNyD . . . . . 131 yifv. . . . . .aeh . (24) tcef. . . . . . . . . . (18) tcef. . .awmifxdyfay:0. (27) tcef. . . . . .aeh {nfhonfrsm. . . . . . 200 ESpfwpf&m arG. 169 twdwf\ a0'em t&dyfrsm. (19) tcef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 pdefac:yGJBuD. . .frkefwkdif. (25) tcef. . . . . 206 [lwef. . . . .

orm.udk.qef.fwdkif awmifay:uqif.. xGufvdkYvm\/ &SufpGef.u e*g.awGeJY êuHawGYcJY&aygif.mufudk vSdrfYí owfypfvdkufNyD.uGuf wpfcsufwnf. (13) a&TNcaoFYrif.NzifY wpfcsuf awmufvkduf\/ "m.l wkwBf uD. &SufpGef.zefonf a0vig. ]]ig 'DvlYudk b.aeav\/ NyD.aomfvnf.armYBunfYvkduf&m ayauG.r[kwf/ opfom.oHvnf.pufoGm. at. ESpfa.pdkufaxmifvkdufNyD. .wuúodkvf aevif.a.w.aBumifY wpfudk.ESifY toufxGufoGm.onfudk awGYvkdufoNzifY . udk.lí vufacsmif. igwdkY [lwef. tcef.zkef.ckrl &SufpGef.wGiyf if nmbufvufrS udik x f m. . &SufpGef.qef.}} [k csD.Edkif"m.}}[k pdwfxJrS awG.awmY rawGYcJYzl.rmefaumif.fvHk.rSm ..udk wdkufcdkufpOfu tb.rodaom toHwpfrsdK.vdk tm.a.ayr.ygbl. wkdufcdkufav\/ &SufpGef.? tpfudkBuD.udk wdkufcdkufvmaom quf&uf*dkPf.? 'Dodkif.muf &kwfw&ufckefxGufvmNyD.f}}[k awG.? 'DvlxGm. . usef.avmurSm&dSwJY xdyfwef.w.\ avSBuD.? tdk . ûyH.u olwYkd ukd BunfYNyD.vQif olu acgif. . wdkufcdkufrSyJ EdkifEdkifr.f? 'grS wu.tm.wndwfndwfNzifY . ESpfa.&NyD Nzpfyg\/ xdktcg quf&uftzGJYom.fpD qGJxkwfvkdufNyD. odkif.\/ usef.aevdu k \ f / wpfcsdew f nf. .vHk.rGrf.awmYygbl. ig. &SufpGef.avmurSm igwdkY q&mBuD.*dkPf.rsm.tvGefoefNyD.r[kwf/ bmoHrSef.mufudkyg vSdrfYí owfvkdufavawmY\/ usefvltm.fY odkif. tpfudkESpfvJ olYudk EdkifrSmr[kwfbl.aumif. renf.tdrftm.&dS cHkay:wGif "m.u xkdtoHudk em. .fxnfrS xGufvmaom toHu oHtoHvnf.zef\ tavmif.eJYrS wkdufcdkufvdkY rEdkifEdkifbl.BuD.olYudk wdkufcdkuf&ifawmif EdkifrSm r[kwfbl.rSm xdkNrifuGif.a. . .f? odyfudkaumif.NyD.onf aNrmufwufoGm.aom oHq.ckepfazmfu 0dkif.Edkif"m.om.NyD.acR.aerd\/ qufívnf.NzifY rD.0ef.csdK\ eHab. csefusif.zdkBuD.oHk.\ odkif.mufu csefusif. ]]ig toufrBuD.aemuf acgif.fvkdenf.fY "m.zdak tmufrS vQdKí txufokdY vSefwifvkdufonf/ xdktcg {&mrrD.orm. ]]aumif.udk .wJY odkif.rdNyef\/ xdktcsdefwGif &SufpGef. . 122 . .frQ tm.NyD.ukd ayGYxlvkduf\/ usefoHk. aBumufp&m aumif.Nzpfovdk quf&uftzGJYom.atmif e*g. csxm.mufurl vufeufudk.

faygrSm txpftaigY NzpfoGm.rdavonf/ xdkYaBumifYolu .mufxí . ]]cifAsm.f}} usef.u "m.NzL*dkPf. .u [kdifqm.rSm thHBovGef.u pum.ygOD. .awmYr[kwfbl. &Dwdkuf&Tif&JY vufxJu vk.f}}[k qdkav\/ &SufpGef.xifxif awGYvkduf&aom odkif.orm.u ÓPfeDÓPfeufoHk.udk aumif.eJY ywfoufcJYwmudk. a[.fí "m.fenf.rd\/ ]]þvdk taNctaersdK.avmurSm bmaumif.Edkifbl.f? aemufawmYum [lwef.ygOD.w.udk rsuf0g.av\/ xdkpOf &SufpGef.}} [k awG.f? uRefawmfwdkYtm.fayg xifw. .lwmudk oabmwl&awmYrSmaygYuGm? 'DrSm uG.atmif ESpfBudrfwdkifwdkif ar.fYowådcJygyJvm.u xdkar.csdKtm. ]]'DrSm? NzD.aomNrifuGif.\/ ]]vufpowfawmY tpfudkoHk.? usKyfu owådaBumifwJY vlpm.loGm.eJYrS ray.rsdK.vkdufrd\/ xdkpOf &SufpGef. ]]aeprf. y&dowftm.aewJY vlrsdK.tdrfu 'De*g.awmufaom tBunfYNzifY BunfYvdkuf\/ ]]a[Y .f? aemufawmY csefayawmifu tbdk.xnfYvdkufNyD.Edkif"m. .vsuf .odkY a&Smifwdrf.u igY*kPfowif.Bum.wdkY [dkifqm.udk tm. rnfolrQ EIwfwHkYNyefNcif.lvdkufwmeJYywfoufNyD.u &Dwdkuf&Tif&JY vufxJudk a&mufoGm.udk wpfa.[m odkif.*dkPf.tdrfudkawmY b.f? rif.qef.}} 123 .udkrS r&EdkifawmYwJYaemufawmY ig.om. 'gawmY . .yg}}[k ayauG. aNymvdkuf\/ ayauG. . .f? a[.}} ]][kwfygw.vJ}} &SufpGef.oNzifY yg.fayg? rif. .qufaeNyef\/ ]]rsufcHk.pyfta[mif.NyD.rS .wdkY bmaNymcsifBuao.mufu Nzwfvkw.wufoGm.Edkif"m.? 'DrSm &SufpGef.u wu. ûycJYovJ? aNymprf.orm. .[m wu.vkd taNctaeBunfYNyD. .\/ trSefvnf.vHk. .wmzsef.om.w.u oa&mfûyH.csdKxH ypfaygufvdkufav\/ ayauG.udk cg. r&dSacs/odkY&mwGif &kwfw&uf [kdifqm.taBumif.udk ig trkef.BuD. .? rif.oHk.xJrSm vlawmfawG &dSom.qHk.? rif.lvmcJYprf.u 'D"m.vHk. ]]q&mBuD.&JY "m.onf wpfcsdefvHk.? igYtaBumif.Edkif"m.csdKu &kwfw&uf wkd.f? q&mBuD. . uJ Y o k d Y od k i f . bmwpfckrS odwmr[kwfbJeJY bmvdkY odovkdvdk aNym&wmvJuG? 'DawmY igaNymr.aumif.vdkufvQifvJ odu©mus&kHrSwpfyg.tm.aewmyJ? 'D"m.mufcsif. .}}[k NyefaNymNyD.*dkPf.udkBum. oabmwlygw.NzL*dkPf.axmif? a[m'D "m.tdrfyJr[kwfvm. awG. em. igYqD xGufvmcJYprf.wpfcsufûyH.wGif ol b. .wkdY [dkifqm.u ceJYûyH. NidrfoufpGm tuJcwfae&mrS xdkpum.aqmif uG. ]]ig 'D"m.atmif e*g.u &vkdufw.udk ayauG.w.onf "m.yJ &xdkufygw. &kwfw&uf vufxJrS "m. ]]"m. tausmf t armf u od o nf [ k od & aomf vG e f p G m tm.udk tomt.udk rif. rif.wm ig rêudufbl.BuD. BunfYvdkufNyD.ywfvnf&dS odkif.*dkPf.vdkufaomfvnf.acR. tusdK.uG}} ]]'g .m zrf.fyJ 'De*g.vHk. usKyfudk owfcsifowfyg? "m. .? rsufcHk.rS tacsmifvdkufzm.}} xd k v l u rd r d \ emrnf u d k &S u f p G e f .fqdkawmY igu odkif.cGef.udk ol odonfr[kwfay/ &SufpGef.vdkuf\/ odkY&mwGif xl.xnfYvdkufav\/ xdkNrifuGif.Bum.f? [kwfvm.rl olu þokYd awG.wuúodkvf aevif. .rS vlwpfa.xJ xdk.u .yJudk.&JY acgif. . ab. NzpfoGm.Suf xkid v f suf aeav\/ taBumif.aomf &ifckefrdoGm. &Tef.cg.Bum.rIawGrsm.tdrfudk ay. ûyH.}} uG.}}[kvnf.fenf.a. .? . ]]aBomf cifAsm. .avmurSm tvGefausmfBum.csdKu rvIyrf . rif. .0ifvmaom "m. rwfwwf&yfNyD. &SufpGef.yJuG? uJ .vsuf .udk yxrOD.*dkPf.qHk. Bum.udk .u [dkifqm. a[.&JbJ eHab.lNyD..*dkPf.*dkPf. rif.udkvJ q&mBuD.&JY *kPfowif.? xGufcJYprf. . . .rsm.zl.ESifYrQ touf&SifcGifY &Edkifrnfr[kwf? tu. .Buavonf/ &SufpGef.rxl.As}} [k NyefaNymav\/ &SufpGef.xJ xkd.udk vufNzifYrzrf.qef.u ay:vmyg\/ xdktcg &SufpGef. .

ESifY ta&Nym. wpfcGufvHk.ESifYwuG olYrdom.muf r usef owf o G m .wynfYukd tqdyfqm.muf wpfa.rS m [dkifqm. usef.pyfudk NyefrydwfEdkifatmif vkyfvkdufNyD. pl . pl .BuD.muftm.ynmu bmrS toHk. &SufpGef.rSmyif tqdyfqm. tm.f? uJ rif.BuD.b.aBumifYyifavm raNymwwf NzLa&mfvsuf&dS\/ &SufpGef.av\/ ]][dwf uG.f}} usef . pd r f .qufNyef\/ ]]rif.fwpf0dkuf&Sd qif.\ acgif. rnfolrQ rodBu/ xdkYaBumifY xdke.u olYbmomol tqdyfqm.fayg\ AdkufxJokdY 0ifa&mufoGm. .fayg? rif.fwaBum&dS qif.onf touf&Snf&Snf rae&&kHru olYrdom.lw. wpfûydifwnf.ifaeonf/ usef.u us.frS olaX. aumif.ESpfcGuf.udk ûzwfcsvdkuf\/ NyD.\/ ûrdcs&efrqdkxm.rsm.faygtm.pm. acR. ESpfcGufudk udkifí ESmacgif.acsaomtm.ck &SufpGef.f yJu?G 'DrmS uG.u ÓPfeDÓPfeufokH.cHpm.wdkY*dkPf.wif.mifae\/ ]]rsufcHk.rSNzpfaBumif.u vlyHktv. uG.? rif. \ rsuf E S m rS m vnf . aBumuf&GYHpdwfNzifY wkef.&JY tqdyfqm.&dk.udk NyefapYay.yif Nzpf\/ olwdkY\ tqdyfqm.\ u.aemuf &kwfw&uf wpfcGufudkarmYí olYyg.? rif.cJYprf. ES i f Y wuG ol Y rd o m.u uvJYpm.f uJYoYdk 0rf.awmY\/ xdktcsdefrSmyif &SufpGef.fudk qwfceJ qGJ.u vGefpGm tqdyfNyif.url .yg.&JY rdom.lcJYBuw.&onfYtNyif auseyf0rf.pktwGufyg &ifxkrem NzpfcJY&av\/ . tqdyfNyif.ESpfcGuf . tqdyfqm. odBuNyDNzpf&m [kdifqm.fwif&Sifvnf. yg.NzifY xd&kHESifYyif tqdyw f ufí aoEdik af om tqdyrf sKd .onf uG.udk oGefxnfYNyD.a.vkduf\/ &SufpGef.twGuf odkif.fyHk odygoenf.w& 0g.udk [vkdufrnf ûypOfrSmyif &SufpGef.rdNyD.vnf.vkduf&\/ taBumif.lvkdufNyD.Ncif.u b. ]]igwdkYESpfa.*dkPf. tqdyfqm.fvHk.af yg? rESpw f ek .av.lckdif. Bunf Y v d k u f \ / csif w l . .rl &SufpGef.rS vQdKY0Sufxm. a&T? aiG? OpömawGudk t"r®vl.wif. wl .wdYk &Dxekd .NzifY &SLBunfYvdkuf\/ NyD.rl apmapmpOfu pum.u usef.Bu&r. xif .fayg &GYHaBumufpGm awG.Nzpfay&m &Supf eG .f uG. tm.NyD.rsdKckdif.\/ trSefrl þudpöudk olwdkY*dkPf.f wif.qef .aqmifNzpfol uG.pk wpfckvHk.onf oludk.fwdkif vlyHktv.Edkif"m.uav.rSef. 0rf.aepOfyif &SufpGef.fwGif azmfxkwfNyaeNyD/ ol b.fY 'kp½du k *f P kd .udkom xyfwvJvJ Bum.omBuNcif.f u rif.yg ukefvGefcJYaomESpfu &ufpufpGm towfcHvdkuf&\/ odkYaomf rnfolrnf0g owfoGm.udk aomufcsvdkufonfudk Nrif&í 0rf.u olYudk. xdke.yJ Nzpf\/ aBumuf&GHYaom taBumif.om? aBumufvnf.fYaBumifYrl .yg. .csufESpfrsdK.vnf.faygrSm &SufpGef.omrdNcif.fayg\ yg.lvmcdkif.iHkYum avQmufxGufvm\/ olYwpfudk.wpfa.*dkPf.pyfxJodkY oGefcsavonf/ tcsdefcPi.faygtm.omvltrsm.faygu olYwynfYwpfa.wif.udk twif. u csif w l . .ck r l usef .olNzpfNyD. use.uswmr[kwfygbl.udk uG. .*dkPf.vQif tqdyfqm.\ Nyif.&Jcsrf.pk u d k y g wpf a .Adu k t f a&muf aomufrsKd csaomf raobJ cHEikd t f YH avm[k awG.vdkuf&\/ &SufpGef.tvSnfYyJ}}[k qdk\/ uG.pGm xdwfvefYoGm.vQif .rsdKcscdkif.aomudpö Nzpf\/ .&JEGrf.bJ rdrdudkyg aoazmfñdSovkd tqdyfqm.fenf.fu olaX.favmifaomtoHNzifY trdefYay. &Dwdkuf&TifvufxJuae vk. aBumufaom cHpm. wl .wdkY [dkifqm. pd r f .muf þodkY þES.faygrSm vGefrif.faygrSm 0rf.yif Nzpfyg\/ 124 .pyfxJodkY tqdyfqm.pkwpfckvHk.onfudk Nrif&í auseyf0rf.omíyif NzpfaeBu\/ tb.NzifY tqdyfqm. .udk tqdyfcwfowfNyD.onf tqdyfqm.acR.ovJqdkwm ig vufawGYprf.fwGif tqdyfudk aomuf&kHNzifY rNyD. xdkpum.aeaomaBumifY Nzpfyg\/ xkdYaBumifY olu taBumuftuef Niif. Nzpf\/ odkY&mwGif usef. . &Dxdke.ckuJYodkY &SufpGef.yg.vdkufav\/ NyD.f twGif.olrsm.rSm vGefpGm oabmouúm.atmif e*g.NzL*dkPf.qef.fayg\ yg.oyfBunfYrvkdY}} uG.wpfcGef.wuúodkvf aevif.xefaom avoHudk rvGefqef0HYbJ acgif.pyfNzJí rsdKcscdkif.f r[kwfvm.u pum.favmufrsm.&dk.onf uG.wdkYu tqdyfawGeJYyJ vlawGudk vkyBf uHowfNzwfaewJY wu.ao.mufwpfcGufpD pm.rnf[k EIwfcrf.&JY odkif.omrdNcif. *RwfceJolYyg.aom ol r sm.uG [if}} uG.orm./ uG. rnfodkYrQ rcHpm.

f? w&m.qef.u ûyH.wpfvHk.*dkPf.onf/ &SufpGef.ceJ rIwfxkwfvdkuf\/ 125 .fupd u ö rkd qdk rQwwmudyk J êudww f . .u NidrfoufraeawmYbJ pwif pum.? 'Dvkdqdk&if q&mBuD. t&ufu&m.&wmvJ cifAsm}} &SufpGef.rS t&uftNynfYudk wpfpufrusefatmif w*Gyf*Gyf armYcsvdkufonf/ trS e f r l & S u f p G e f .wpfa. . q&mBuD. tNynfY &SufpGef.fYudk &ufpuf.uG a[}} usef.rS t&ufaomuf&w.wpfcsufxdk.acR. .vdkpdwfrsm.qef.? uRefawmf 'DuRef. . xdktcdkuf &SufpGef.Edkif"m.csdKtm.u usef. ]]q&mBuD.*dkPf. .w& rsdKcs&if.xHrS taNzr&rD uG.aBumvkdufNyD.u 'Davmufawmif wGefYwdk&ovm. ]]rvkdygbl.lvmay. atmfoHwpfcsufBum.rSm olYtawG. . ]][dwf? rif.}} rsufcHk.yg q&mBuD.udk.yif tpmtdrfxJwGif tenf.qef.ESD. ]]tdk .BuD. rsufapmif.pm.NyD. onf t&uf u d k t0tNyJ a omuf N yD .u t&ufu&m.rsm.yif t&uftdk.vJ 'De*g.ovdkygyJvm.NzL*dkPf.ESifY vufawGY vkyf&yfudk Nrif&aomf pdwfxJrS .fqdkwmudk pHkprf.ay: a&mufaewmyJvm. bufawmfom.mufu csufcsif.cg. .BunfYvkduf\/ usef.? apmapmu q&mBuD.vQif tpmtdrfudk ñSpfí tqdyft&ufudk yef.\/ xkdYaBumifY . .acR.twGuf vGefpGmpdk. .ESifYol &dSae&mrS &SufpGef.? NyD.faygtm.rsm.vsuf .u olvkyfzG.lvmcJY&aom t&uftdk.}} ]]aBomf? rif.kwfrmawG? 'kp&dkuftrdIufo&dkufaumifawGudk owfypfzdkYtwGufeJY q&mBuD.acR.onf ayauG.u acgif. uRefawmYfudk aNymNyEdkifrvm.udk.acR.pyfxJrS tqdyfqm.udk tm. &SufpGef.w.BuD.NzL*dkPf.aemuf csufcsif.acR.fvkdY? tHYa&m}} odkYaomf &SufpGef.vkdufav}}[k owday.w.pnf&m tqdyfqm.0g.eJY igu bmvkyf&rSmvJ? tdk.&if iguvJ wpfcGufpm. ]]rif.csdK pdwfxJwGif . . .rdNyD.\ pum. oef Y p if a tmif aq.acR.rsm.f}} [k uG. tpmtd r f x J r S tqd y f q m.mufrenf.cifAsm.atmif e*g. . rsufcHk.xkwfvdkufNcif.êuwfw.qdkwJYvl[m &ufpuf Burf.yg.f&dSonfudk vkyfae\/ wpfa.a&SYa&mufvm\/ ayauG.vdSrfYvsuf wGefYvdrfaeNyD.onf &SufpGef.BuD.onfudk awGYvkduf&av\/ xdktNzpfudkNrifaomf usef.[? 'Du&m.uG? igYtwGuf t&ufom .u xefrmaom avoHNzifY .awmY NrefNrefaozdkYom Nyifxm.? 'Dvdk vl.f [m b.u raBumufr&GHY ûyH. .f usefaeao.fYvJ BuHBuD.fY olYrsufESmu tifrwef wnfBunfaNzmifYrwfyHk ay:aeygvm. xdkifae&m pm.*dkPf. ]]r[kwf&ygbl.udk vkzdkY 'DuRef.udk a0vig. . 'Pf&m&cJYw.fwdkif tckvdk bmNzpfvkdY pGefYpm. b.udk BunfYNyD.íyif Nyvdkufav\/ xkdtcg &SufpGef. .? NrefNref aNzaq.f? rif.kwfrmwJY 'kp&dkufaumif awGudkom &uf&ufpufpuf NyefNyD. xdkokdY ûyNyD.qef.tay:wGif cifrif&if.fayg\ pl.0g.Edkif"m.lvmcJYprf.acR.? b.tm.vsuf . ]]ig &Supf eG .zdkY xGufvmwmyg q&mBuD.? bmvJ? rif.u usef.u [lwef.qef. wpfcu G pf m.yGJbufodkY zl.folvJuG}} ]]uRefawmf [lwef.acR.rQwrIuykd J vkv d m.rS odkif. .udk pm. Nzpfay:vmavawmY\/ xdkYaBumifY usef.onf ol\ yg.ayawmY &SufpGef. aNymaeav\/ usef.qef.i.fyHkb. .awmY ol &ufpufBurf.aemuf toufaysmufoGm.êuwfayr.qef.avmuf o.wuúodkvf aevif.av. &SufpGef.vQif aNrNyifay:vl.&drfoGm.wpftdk.rsm.udk a&mufvm&wmu uRefawmfY&JYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tif b. . ]]'D&SufpGef.orm.fYES.rf.pum. .cifAsm.\/ &SufpGef.vdkuf&NyD. . 'PfcwfaewmyJ}} [k awG.aom tqdyfqm.qef.cifAsm}} &SufpGef. .pl.qdkav\/ ]]q&mBuD.yif yifY.xJrSm uRefawmfY&JYtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tif&JY udpöawGudk pHkpHkvifvif odxm.fvmcJY}} csufcsif.vQif &SufpGef.yif Nzpfyg\/ &SufpGef.f qdkwmrSmvJ wu.u usef.fenf.

.cH&onfudk Nrifaomf xkdif&mrS qwfceJ rwfwwf x&yf\/ okdYaomf bmpOf.? 'DrmS rdu k u f si.tqHk.wdkY*dkPf.0 rygygbl.aqmif r[kwfvm.fausmfudkyg yifv.acgif. om.vGefaewmudk rif. xdktcg a0vig. . ]]'g .fxJ ypfcsNyD. r&Sufbl.wpfcGef.? ig pum.frSmNzpfwJY udpöyg? usKyf vHk.qef? [lvdkY rif.onf ai.f tNypf&zdYk &dw S .ay: yHkusaeNyD/ xdkYaBumifY olvw G v f rf.vkdufwJY tûytrluG? 'gudkawmY ig b. . 'guawmY usKyf&JYi.eJYrS cGifYrvTwfEdkifbl.f rdkufusif. olwdkYacgif.? rywfoufbl.fom.vufyu kd Bf unfYaewm[m rif. *d k P f . .bJ tJ'D avSBuD.*dkPf. rif.aqmifvm. [kwfuJY cifAs}} ]]'gayr.awG 'Davmuf pnf.[m rif.\/ xdktcg i.f r[kwfvm.rdonf rod csufcsif.wdYk *P kd .t&mu olYacgif.rSm ydNk yD.u oHk. rdkufusif.fudkoGm.*dkPf.fvdk touf&Sif aexdkifEdkifrSmvJuG? 'gudk igu tNypfrwifygbl. .}} rdkufusif. .f cifAsm}} ]]aumif.av\/ rdkufusif.f ynm&Siaf wGukd apmfum.rsm. ]]csmpD? csif.acgif.uf.liif&kH rauseyfao.? rif. [kwfygw.*dP k .if wpfaigYaom toHNzifY .f &JY tûytrl[m igwdYk okid .yg}} ]]usKyf acgif.ceJ vJustoufaysmufoGm. .Edkif"m. .kd rJow k v f u dk w f YJ tûytrl? wu.f? rif.BuD.f cifAsm}} ]][kwf&if rif.f"m. csuf c sif .wJY avSBuD. ûyaewJY taumifawGqdkawmY "m.fY .f csufcsif.fvHk.atmif e*g.mufrSm iSufaysmyif ckwfvSJcH&ovdk pum.a&Smifvm.a[Y}} pum.f aNymr.vnf.ysufoGm.vkduf&\/ wkef.? 'gayr.? odik . tm. taBumif.rsm.uf&&if b.&JY i.}} ]][kwf .kH udk tk. bm 'gayr.uma&m usL.rSmydNk yD.uav.rS "m. .\/ txpftaigYNzifYvnf.? aNzprf.eJY rqdkifbl.r&daS wmYreS .ausmif.fenf.wuúodkvf aevif.rsufESm csufcsif.NytvkyfeJY toufarG. .aNymaew. . .EGJYwJY rdef.fom.Opömwif vk.wpfpif.wJYtxd t"r® ûyusiYf cYJ w.\/ 126 .om.? uJ . [kwfygw.ay: usa&mufvsufpdk&TJukefavawmY\/ tqdyft&uf\ teHYrSm vGefpGm cH&cufaom teHYrsdK.fY rif.rQyif NyefraNymEdkifrD wkef.f orm.? rif.rsm.bufoYkd csmceJ vSnfYí .om.[m rif.Ekdifvkovdk NzwfaNymwmwkdYudk vHk. wpfudk. .rJYurf. usOfceJ cHpm.? bmaNymOD.vnf .armBunfYaepOfNzpf&m tqdyfqm.ceJ qGx J w k v f u kd \ f / NyD.}} [k ar. tapmfum.ufcJYw.wdkYawG [dkaeYu udpörSm ygBuw. ]][dwf rdkufusif.u axmif.&JY acgif.aqmif rdkufusif. .aqmifyg}} ]]at. .csufrQ vIyf&Sm.mufudkvJyJ toufqHk.ceJ a'goNzpfoGm.vdu k w f YJ tûytrl? wdYk rsufEmS udk aNcaxmufeYJ uefvu dk w f YJ tûytrlyJuG? 'geJYrsm.NyD rdkufusif. BuD.? rif.fqw kd m em.f ynm&Sif wpfpv k .Nywdkufrvk.f avmu wpfcv k .fom.wkdYu ypönf.wynfYawG&JY vufcsufyg? usKyf aemufuG.fYvJ cifAsm}} ]]wdwfaeprf.Nzpf\/ xkdteHYudk trIrJY &SL&dSKufrd&kHavmufESifYyif atmYtef a p\/ a0vig.vm. .vQif olYa0vig.ay:rSmygwJY tNypfrJYwJY ukefonfESpfq.Nrpf0rSm ta&SYyifv.u *emrNidrf Nzpfaeaom a0vig. .udk vk. .acgif. . NyefxdkifcsvkdufNyef\/ &SufpGef. ]][kwf .kH &JY odum© udk apmfum.rS *dkPf.udk BunfY&if. . .0rf.fom.q.aqmif rdkufusif.Asm}} ]]'DrSm rdkufusif.f? NzwfaNymwmwdkY? pum.vnfyg? uJ . armf v suf wa0gYa0gY watYatYNzif Y atmYtefvsuf&SdaeBuav\/ a0vig. bmrSraNymawmY/ aNym&efvnf.vydkif.rsm.awG t&rf. cg. .f om. aNym0HY&atmif rif. rdkufusif.wynfYawG&JY OD.fa.f? tJ'D tûytrl[m igwdYk okid .f ? ig &Si.&JY i.? 'DESpf ig.us. .oHk.a. .rJY 'kp&dkufNypfrIBuD. .aqmifq&kd if tNypfusp&m&d&S if rif.0 rvkyfygeJY}} ]][kwf . olYvufxJrS "m.udk cRrf.wdkYu yifv. tNypfr&dv S m.f r[kwfvm.onf olY*dkPf.? acgif.OD.}} ]]bm .t&ufrsm.aqmifwJYtzGJYu [ifukef.pm.? acgif.oGm. rif.f &Si.BuawmY\/ &SufpGef. bmapm'uwufrvJ? wufEdkifw. . yif rl .pD.odNyD.rSm rif.fYoidk .u f s.rvJ}} rdkufusif.*dkPf.

fYenf.f? rif. a&xJrSmqdk&ifawmY igYurÇm? igYpdwfêudufae&myJ? ig olYudk r.aemuf .udk.acR.udk EdIuf.usvm\/ ]]AsmawG bmawG vkyfraeeJY? uJ .NyD.rsm.? tJ .usrQ ap. 'D.rS &kwfw&uf aNcvSrf. .ay:rSmomqdk&if ig olYudk b.SOfûydifcsifygw. .vkdufBu&\/ tm.uG a[? rif.yifpGmcsonf/ &SufpGef. .[m tqifYNrifY odkif.oD. .? udkif.wynfYawGudk xdef.wpfa.xJ tawG.eyef.pl.wynfYawGudk aoavmufatmif qHk.rsm. vm}} &SufpGef.aygufrsm. . rdkufusif.vdkufBu&atmif? rif.cJYbl.ay.Edkif"m.u rdkufusif.wdYk uo k v kd af ygYumG }} &SufpGef. vkyfcJYwJYol rSeforQudk wpfa.? tukefvHk. .prf. ûydif&ifvJ usKyf q&mBuD.&if rif.? acsmufcsm. igYa&SYrSmwif rif.vHk. av.udk ol owfrvdkYeJYwlw.? rif.f? 'DawmY rif. . em.[m wpfzufom. at.udk ig vm&SmzdkYawmif rvkdawmYbl.yefoHNzifY qdkav\/ &SufpGef.? usKyf 'Dukef.twmNzifY toD. &SufpGef.qHk.wpfck csufcsif.NyD.NyifrS acR. .eJYrS .NyD. .xJodkY tawG.favmifay&m tm.f? rif.f}}[k awG.eJY owfaoNyayawmY}} ]]Asm}} rdkufusif. cHpm.oGm. odkif. &SufpGef.f? odkif.ygbl.ay:rSm q&mBuD.xJrS &THYap.f}} [k c.xm.ESpfwHk.NyDuG? t&ifuom 'Dvkd rif.wdYk Eikd &f if rif.NzifYqwfqwf Bum.xdkif. . ]]a[Y .? ESv.ynm ûydifwmav.um. .ay&m olacgif.fenf. oluigwdkY xGufaNy.mufrS touf&Sifvsufrxm.SOfEdkifrSmr[kwfbl. &SufpGef.Ncif.udk &yfypfvdkuf\/ taBumif.? 'DawmY rif.uGufawGudk oHk.f ynmeJY igYuw kd u kd cf u kd Ef ikd w f .vSrf.wuúodkvf aevif.fcifAs}} ]]rif. .f}} odkYNzifY ]]q&mBuD.cifAsm? yifv.tqHk.udk .vkdaumifu igYvkdvleJY odkif.odrf.fvGwf&kef.udk. wefovm.udk rEdkifEdkifygbl.vufxJrSm "m.frif.pufoGm.? 'DawmY usKyf t&IH.oGm.ynmcsif.wdYk &YJ pdwêf uduf odik . . ]]uRef.f? usKyf &SufpGef.f? 'grSvJ usKyf&JYpdwfBuKduf odkif.uGufeJY igYudk wdkufprf.Bu&av\/ xdt k cg &ifwek Nf cif.&if 'DxJu vlawGtm. .u tcGifYta&.orm. oufNyif. wdwfqdkwdwfawmY? 'DrSm rif.NyDqdk&if yifv.lum tavmwBuD.u pum.? tckae ig 'DuxGufoGm.vdkvdk\ pdwfxJrSvnf.\/ ezl.f? tJ'gudk odxm.f? wu. .SOfEdkifwmawmif udk. .eJY owfao&r.bufokdY tm&HkvTifYvdkufNyef\/ olonf aNrBuD.SOfûydifzdkYxuf a&atmufrSm .wlovm.lí t&ufNzifYa&mNyD.fodkYrQ a&Smifwdrf.fvYdk igYukd rif. . rif.olig omref pum. awmif.u ydkYypfr.? rif. .Bur.rdBu\/ rdkufusif.atmif wpfcgwnf.\ a&&GwfoHu trsm.w.BuD. .uGuf taumif.&dSw. aNy. pdwfBuKdufa&G.vHk.tay: rawmfrw&m. qwfqwfwek u f m aoG.qHk.prf.f}} vlxGm.NyD.oabmyJ rdkufusif. wpfcsufBunfYNyD.atmif vkyfNyD.zdkYvmwm? 'DrSm tm.uGm}} rdkufusif.fwJY? 'Dvkdqdk&if 'DrSm&dSwJY vlawGtm. ay.NyDav? rif.&JY pdwfBuKduf odkif. .Nzwf&wmY\/ odkY&mwGif olYpdwfêuduf ûyrlEdkifonf[k &SufpGef.todu odyfaemufusoGm. .onf udk. i&Judk Nzwfvrf. .Bum.fao &ifqkdif&efom olqHk. rdkufusif.pm.vufrS b.fqkd&if rif.? rNzpfbl. 0ifvmav\/ xdktawG.í r&awmYrSef. ûydifBuwmaygYuGm? uJ .fxJoGm. 127 . .wGif oHk. BudKuf&menf.fqdkwm}} ]]a[Y . ydkí acgif.fYtwdkif. vkyfp&m&dSvkyfawmYav}} ]]r .uGuf? taumif.acgif.toufudk awmif.0ifvmaomaBumifY þodkY a&&Gwfrd\/ ]]rNzpfbl. r[kwfao.eJY . ]]aumif.rQ avQmufxGufvdkufNyD.vHk.udk pl.u tckrS igYa&SYrSm rif. ]]tif.Ncif.vHk.kH rNidrNf cif.eJYig wdkwdkNywfNywfyJ &Sif. . q&mBuD.BuyfrwffcJY&if 'DaeY rif.aNymoHxuf us. .oD.wpfck aNy.? tom.BuD.? rif.rSmudk aBumufw. .fxJoGm.u rdkufusif.mufvJ Nzpfw.ay.wdkYNzifY vltrsm. ol odNyD/ xdkYaBumifY olaoudk.oGm. igYudk t&SHK. .'D. .ygw.rSm .rdkYvdkYrpOf.atmif e*g.qdk\/ ]]q&mBuD.rNyaezdkY rvdkygbl.vHk. xGufaNy.vQif anmifap.Edkifr.wdYk u rif.EdkifrSm aocsmw.fY[ef udk.ûydif&atmif tqifYcsif. aNymvdkufr. &SufpGef.u þtcGifYta&.odkif.rdw.&.

f? ESmacgif.atmif e*g.fqykd gawmY? tJ't D cg ta&.ynm pwif oifBum.pyfydwfxm.tm.yGJcHkwGif pmvHk.f ? tJ ' g wu.eJYig a&atmufrmS .wdkY\ udpörSm ukefvGefcJYaom tESpf ESpfq.udk ]]0SD.zsef.f Y t csuf y J ? tck wdkYESpfa.wwfatmif NzpfoGm.ceJ}}ypfvdkuf&m olYtm.\ yg.f? 'gyJ rdkufusif.tzGJYa&SYokdY a&mufaomtcg vufoD.0ifvmav\/ ]]&SufpGef.q&m\ wpfO.f? olu igYudk NyefNyD.avY & d S \ / aemuf y d k i f . olrpOf.f? NyD.? rif.zef.wpf O D .csKyf aumYoef.om. \trnf Nzpf a eonf u d k awG Y &\/ od k Y aomf ol w d k Y tm.ck oludk.yg.f q d k w J Y t ay:rS m wnf w .udk tNrpfuvSefNyD.udk EdkifoGm.rsm. wpfcsufrQ pdkufBunfYvdkuf\/ aumYoef.bk&if*dkPf.Nyif.&if.pyfESifY ESmacgif.cefYaeEdkifcJYonf/ xdkYaBumifY . upm.pdrf.qGJcs tqHk. y&dowftm.aemuf &ufpufpGm pGefYypfvkdufav\/ ol pGefYypfvdkufcsdefwGif acR.onf/ NyD. qD .BuD.aom tBunYfaBumifY BuufoD.pyfESifYwuG ESmacgif. .oHk.NzifY olYyg.awmY igYudk tNypfay.rsm.xuf &.&.csKyfq&mxHwGif wynfYcHvdkuf\/ aemufqHk.rzdEdkifaom taNctaeodkY a&mufaomf acR.fwGif xdktaBumif.vQif olYudk.rvSav. wifysOfacGxikd í f aevku d \ f / onf Y E S .u vlyHktv.fwGif aumYoef.udk.tm. NzpfoGm.rSm aocsmw. a[m'D &THYap. ]]uJ .onfurkd l em.av\/ okdif.arG.udk xnfYESpfvdkufNyD.rSm ol\ pl.f ydu k Nf yD.rnfudk vHk.rvnfBuacs/ trSefrl rdef.zef.0raBumufonfYtNyif ydkí BumNrifYpGm toufatmifYEdkifavonf/ &SufpGef.aygufyg ydwfvsufom.ftm.onf &TYH ap.onf xkdpmvkH. .pyfrSm ydwfxm. onf ol w d k Y *d k P f .yJ&dSw.olyDyD &SKH.fukd ydwfxm.\ *dkPf.tydwfcHEdkifrvJ? 'grSr[kwf rGef.rSmawmYrl b.f a vmuf B umBum aeEd k i f w .k uawmY bmvJa[Y? a&atmuf r S m b.oHk.csKyfNzpfvmcJYonf/ wu.zef. olYudk wkdufcdkufr. t&dktaoay.NyD? rvG.frdrd BudK. a&.wnf. igYtaBumif.vdkY &THYap.vH k .fol tBumBuD.aBumifawmif wapä ol&J taNcmufcH&olES. NzLzyfNzLa&mf NzpfoGm.ay.udk zGifYcsaya&mYrnf/ &SufpGef. uav.u xdktNzpfudk BunfY&if.fawmYbl.u yg.wkH. b.pD&ifvdkuf&Smavonf/ aumYoef.fol rdwfqufav\/ ]]q&mBuD.\ *dkPf.NyD.NzifY yg. yg. rdu k u f sif.oGm.zef. xrd\/ csufcsif. .wuúodkvf aevif. Nzpfay:vm\/ okdYaomf rnfolrQ r&. wdkufcdkuf&if rdkufusif.bk&if*dkPf. wzsef.yg}} &SufpGef.f}} 128 .fwdkif xdk*dkPf.&JY *dkPf.nif.vHk.udk ydwfvkduf\/ usefaom &THYap.udk tydwcf &H aomtcg csufcsif. usKyfuawmY vufoD.ckrl rxifrSwfbJ &SufpGef. acR.u Nzpfap cGmrd&if tJ'Dvl[m t&SKH.f0ef &dSaeayNyD/ aemufqHk.vdkufwJY tcsdefrSm b.D wnf.csKyf aumYoef.vdkufr.vHk.u aNymNyD. rsm. xkdifaeBuaom olYwynfY*dkPf.ysKdNzpfonf/ vufO.NzifY aBumifíBunfYaeaom rdkufusif.folaoao iawrmNyD.onfESifY rdkufusif.aom vufOD.f rsufESmwpfckvHk.a&moabmNzifY aemufNyef vSnfYrBunfYawmY/ olonf vufoD. csKyf u þrde.tBuD. odoGm.fcsifpdwfrsm.raNymEdkif/ odkYaomf aumYoef.u xdkpmvHk.yJ? &SKH.ud k zrf .&if.vmaomtcgrl olonf a&atmufwGif em&D0ufeD.wGifrl rzHk.tm.pyf&.zef.om.f a wmY ol \ vuf p G J y nmyif N zpf y g\/ rd k u f u sif .wHk.pyfta[mif. odkif.pyfEiS Yf ESmacgif.fcefYu udpöNzpfí rnfolrQ rodBuacs/ odkY&mwGif .f uav. vkyfae\/ olonf vufoD.wGif udk.udk NrifvdkufonfESifY aeYcif.lNyD.vHk. idktm.emrnfukd awGYvu kd &f NHk zifY tb.zef.oefqdkovkd &.í pum.bk&if *kdPf.tm.vsuf rsufEmS NzLzyfNzLa&mf NzpfomG .mufpvHk.bk&if*dkPf. ol BuD.onf aumYoef.f? tJ'Dvdk ydwfxm.Edkif"m.SOûf ydirf .xJodkY tawG. i.&NyD.udk BunfYvkdufaomf acR.&if olYyg.&if. pm.aemuf aumYoef.\/ olESifYtwl wpf0dkif.wJY &THYawGudkcGmNyd.&if. rwfwwf&yfívnf.fEdkifacs/ rdu k u f sif.onf t&SufudktoufNzifY vJí rdrdudk.ESifY acR.oabmwlonf rwlonfudk rapmifYawmY/ oluyif OD. &SufpGef.wmeJY aozdkYwpfvrf.faBumifY wkev f yI af csmufcsm.rSmvJ trSefyJ? 'DawmY tckyJ ig 'DtcGifYta&.&Sm.orm.a&SYrS t&ufcGufxJokdY vufñdSK.}} &SufpGef.aom orD. zGifYcsrSm aocsmw.pm. f touf a tmif Y í aewwf a om twwf y nmrS m wu.&if.csvdkuf\/ aumYoef.D q&m aoqH. aNy.eJYolûydifwJY toufatmifYyGJrSm ol&SKH.? awmfBum ol rdkufusif.vQif olYacgif.&if.fyHk odonfudkvnf.eJY yg.onf acR. [laom rd e f .ck þyPmrûydifyGJ[k qdk&rnfY aNray:toufatmifYûydifyGJwGifrl olu usifYom.onf wkefvIyfacsmufcsm.pGm &THYap.rl oluJYodkY NidrfoufpGm wifysOfacG xdkifraeyg/ [dkavQmuf 'DavQmufESifY vIyfvIyf&Sm.k NyD.f p Of u yif a&atmuf o d k Y ik H Y í yk p G e f ? uPef .onf/ xkdYaBumifY aumYoef. odr.udk iguNzpfap? rif.rsm.qH.

f0eft&ifYtrmNzifY t&Sufudk toufNzifYvJí êud. .\ vufo./ xkdYodkY NyefvnfNrifa.cscJYpOfu taorD rcsdrqHY cH&yHkrsm. wHkYceJ NzpfoGm. ]]usKyfu vufoD.udk xGif.uefaeyHkrsm.wGif xd k i f a e&mrS ck e f x G u f & ef [ef N yif v k d u f \ / &S u f p G e f .f xHra&mufrD &Supf eG . eD&Jwufvmvsuf&dS\/ rsufvHk.f u vSpcf eJNrifNyD. rNyif.\ vufoD.rdkufvm\/ toufudk b. ausmufw.u aumYoef. 'kwd. zvS.D uvnf.&\/ taBumif.\om.\ rsuf0ef.vkduf\/ vufoD.pyfodkY ypfaygufvkduf\/ xdkokdY ypfaygufvkdufNcif.ynmudkyJ pdkufvkdufrwfwwf avYusifYcJYygw.rsm.onf olYzcif taNctaeqdk. pd r f .udk csnfvkdufavonf/ aumYoef. xHkusifoGm.NyD.BuD.rsm.rsm.zef.ceJ vSJodyfapEdkifaom vufoD.aom vufoD.d vku d Nf cif.rSm uRJ&dkif.kH rSm olYwpfu.uef&if. 129 .rSm vufoD.f&Sm.rl olypfvkdufaom qHxkd.onf xkdif&mrS ûzef.fenf.rmeftNynfYNzifY xk.ESifYrQ emvHrxlEdkifawmY[k xifvkdufav\/ xkdYaBumifY xdkvufoD.u olYvufoD.í tm. pl .f tdyfrufqdk.\ yg. touf&SL usyfvmavawmY\/ .onf rdu k u f si.fbufvufNzifY aumYoef. ol \ tvG e f N yif .Nznf.dk udk wdwfwqdwf. ydwfqdkYaeaom &THYap.tm.tcsdefwGif aumYoef.NzifY aumYoef. u xk d E S p f a .EdkifawmYacs/ xdktcdkuf rdkufusif.EdkifNyD.rSmr&IrvS toufxGufoGm.&m vrf. wNznf.vQif . tm.vufoD.udk 0SD.u &SufpGef.orm.uvnf.mifpOf olonf wpfcsufrQom csnfYeJYpGm &kef. q&mBuD. .rSm aemufNyefvGifYoGm.qdkaomf wpfcsufwnf.tm.csufudk rnfodkYrQ rckcHEdkifacs/ xd k Y aBumif Y &S u f p G e f .? aeYv. rsufpdwpfzufü xd.xufwGif vl.pyfESifY ESmacgif. qwfceJ NyefxdkifvdkufBu&\/ xdkYaemuf &SufpGef. t&dSefNyif.onf/ xkdYaBumifY olu wpfcsufatmfNyD.udk z.onf aumYoef. onftawG.\ cg.Nzpf\/ omref odkif. vufwpfzufvHk.muf\ qHx.\ wynfY odkif.udk pkpnf.ESifYwwd. taygufwpfaygufyGifYoGm. csufatmufae&modkYyif Nzpfyg\/ wpfenf.aBumif.uefNyD. rdkufusif.wpfcsyfudk xdk.xefvSay&m aumYoef.NyD Nzpfyg\/ &SufpGef.pyfwGif 'Pf&m &Edkifaomfvnf.rsm.w& [m.&JY *dkPf.\ vnfyif.fyg&ap}}[k &SufpGef.pnf.udk ûzwf.csufu vGefpGmNyif.\ om.atmif e*g. kd v f . .\ ckcHvufoD.NyDudk odonfESifY pm.qGJcs aoqHk.yg.eJY ynmcsif.yif Nzpfonf/ olY*dkPf.ud.uwnf.f wdYk wku d cf u dk af eaom tcGiYf aumif.vS[k xifoGm.odkif.onf xkdtcgusrSyif olYyg.\ &kyfyHkvTmudk Nrifvmav\/ acR.D ESpv f . .Edkif"m.u b.lvkdufNyD. aumYoef.vQif av0ifavxGuf tenf.tpHkü udk. wpfcsufBunfYvdkuf&m ESpfa.wGif cg.awmY\/ xdktaNctaeaBumifY olu vufoD.wpfa.mufonf olwdkYq&m taNctaeqdk.mufpvHk.&ef ûyvkduf\/ odkYaomf aemufusoGm.\/ odkYaomf olxifouJYodkY r[kwfbJ olYvufoD.NyD.oGm.mufqkdvQifrl olwdkY\ vufoD. &pfywfcsnfaESmifvkdufav\/ aemuf &kwfw&uf ckefxGufvkdufNyD.i.ESiYf &u S pf eG .rsdK.NzifY opfudkif.NzifY rdkufusif.[k emrnfay. a00g.udk Nrifaomf wpfbufwGif aumYoef. qGJêud.azmufNyD.rsm. Nzif Y ol u OD .vQif opfyifwpfyif\ tudkif. pl .0ifoGm. wGJavmif.wGif ydwfqdkYxm.\ pdwfxJü þwpfcsDwGif &SufpGef.ypfvkduf\/ NyD.udk tNrefqHk.Adu k u f kd rdr&d & xdreS o f mG .av\/ wpfûydief ufwnf.vdkuf\/ aumYoef.u tvGefNyif.tBunfYuvnf.fenf.udkxdrSefoGm.&if.rSm xlxJaom oHNym. Nyef&kyfodrf.frQ &Ncif.vSdrfY&kef.yGJ0dkif.farmNyD.pyfa&m ESmacgif.vQif tm.yif Nzpf\/ xdktcsdefwGif yg.if.onf rSef.bk&if*dkPf. NyL. rnfodkYrQ taNzray.bk&if*dkPf.lum olYzcif\ yg.favmifaom toHNzifY .fay.ceJxvmNyD.kH u qHxdk.wdkuf&.oGm.orm.\ cg.kH udk aNcNzifY qwfceJ yifYuefvu dk &f m xkad usmufw.udk prf.wuúodkvf aevif.zef.kH wpfw. aom vQyf w pf N yuf v uf o D .onf wGJavmif.aom &THYap.f Nyef\/ xkv d ufo.k pdu k o f mG . k v l suf olwYkd *P kd .f \ 0rf.? &kef.ESpfa.pnf.ceJaeatmif ypfoGif.\ rsufESmwpfckvHk.\/ odkYNzifY qHxkd.toufatmifYaeaom rdkufusif. b.vQif toufxGufoGm.vkduf\/ aumYoef.rDrSmyif aumYoef.ESifYrQ qufí atmifYrxm.f uav.rdouJYodkY cHpm.\ om.xm.csufrudkufNzpfoGm. vGefpGm0rf.wpfa.udk vufoD.\/ vufoD. pdefac:vkduf\/ &SufpGef.f? tck êuHwkef.aemuf us.&if.NyJ í pd r f .kH &dS tm.csdefwGif aumYoef.&&Smaom acR.avawmYonf/ wpfzufwGifvnf.wpfvHk.udk w&pyf ypfoiG .pGmNzifY rdkufusif.udk tomyif vTJz.vdkuf&NyD.NyD Nzpfyg\/ xdktcg &SufpGef.aygufawGudkyg ydwfNyD.f xJrS rde.ESifY tNywfvkyfNcif.om oGm.rS cg. &Supf eG .muf u d k rsuf v H k .rSmyif aumYoef.csKyfyg? usKyfwpfoufvHk.vsuf rl.NzifYyif olYzcif touf raoEdkifawmY[k xifrd\/ odkY&mwGif rdkufusif. atmif pwifwdkifckdufvdkuf\/ odkYaomf &SufpGef.wpfaumifudkyif Adkif.

acR.[m. .qHk.? vlqdkwm trSm. aumif. &SufpGef.rSmygyJ? uJ . yg.awGudk owfvkdowf? ypönf.f vku d rf mS yJ? olwYkd u rif.qef.? tJ'DawmY rif. ]]bmxl.awmYrSmvJ cifAsm}}[k qdk\/ csifwl.vGef*dkPf.í .awmYrSmvJ}} &SufpGef.f? udkif.vQif cGef.muf .u w[m.owf&if q&mBuD.wmaygYuG? bmNzpfvkdYvJqdkawmY igu olwdkYxuf odkif.\ EIwrf S þpum.m.aBumf&if tJ'D igqdkwJYvl[m wd&pämefeJY bmxl.Edkif"m.awmifay:udk wufNyD.wwfwYJ ÓPfycJ ifAs? tJ'D pnf.tm.? o.awGawmif olwYkd om.fyJ trSm.rS "m.BuwJY vlawGeJY bmxl.qef. .fY q&mBuD. Nyefí pdkufBunfYvkdufonf/ xkdtcdkuf usef.&JY q&mBuD.odkif.ygbl.tm.fvkdYom tm.uG}} usef.f? wdkYvlrsdK.zkef. usef. xkwfNyprf.qef. .êudi.zkef.vHk. ]]q&mBuD.fvkdY aBuG. .? odyfxl.wuúodkvf aevif.tm.Nrpf&ef Nyifvkduf\/ xdkpOf &SufpGef.onf/ onfvBl urf.? wpfaeYus&if igvJ [lwef. [efrysufatmif vufNzifY "m.aemuf .*dkPf. &SufpGef.ckrl olyifvQif bmqufí aNym&rnfrSef.eJY ynmcsif.trSefrcGJNcm. rcGJNcm.aNymovdk vlawG[m wu. rif.kH ukeu f ek af Nymr. qufvufraNym&ef vufNzifY vSrf.usufcsefESifY csefcsdKwdkY ESpfOD.ynm ydkawmfawmY igBudKufovkd vkyfEkdifwmaygYuG? olwdkYuom igYxuf odkif.eJY olwYkd ydik . odkif. .}} usef.f? rif.f BuD.f? wdYk vrl sdK.trSef taumif.xJrSm 'kp&dkufrIawGeJY NynfYaewJY vlawGuG? 'DESpfaumif tck aowmawmif aemufusvSNyD}}[k qdk\/ NyD.awGudkyJBunfY? olwdkYu igwkdY vlrsdK.NyD.u [lwef. 'dNyifrBunfYeJY? tckwdkYEkdifiHudk rw&m.atmif e*g.acR.wJYvlu tm.vlqdk.oNzifY tEdkif.? 'gayr.NyD.f rom.vHk.rl usef.? apmapmu q&mBuD. NzpfoGm.wwfrS vlvkdY ac:ygw.qGJvkdufí wm.OD.vJ usef.cg.Opöm rw&m.u acgif. .pyf ta[mif. odrf.rsdK. .ovJ? [kwfvm.aerSmr[kwfbl.uGm}} 130 .qef.acR.udk qufNyD.udk "m.udk wnfaxmifcJYwJYvlqdkawmY olY&JYodkif.owfvkdufwJY vlawGtm. bk&ifwufvkyfaewJY rGef*dkvlrsdK.xGuv f mEkid v f rd Yf rnf[k ol rxifrw S cf YJ / . Ncm.HZmwawGukd o.onf xkdif&mrS rwfwwf&yfí .? cGJNcm.f cifAs? vl&. ]]'DavmurSm rif.acR.rS wpfcsuf ûyH.apwm[mvJ tJ'D trSet f rSm. ]]'DrSm q&mBuD.wJY taumif. &SufpGef.bJ 'DrSm&dSwJYvltm.wpfa.udkzdudkifxm. .om.uav.fav? igwkdY okdif.aEG.onf/ xdkpOf &SufpGef.qef.&JY wynfYaumif. pdkufBunfYNyD.&dk. cGJNcm.orm.k aqG.bJ rw&m. ESpfa.vdkodrf. odrf.acR.qef.lNyD.wwfxm.u usef.fvYkd uGmNcm.uG? rif.trSeftaumif. &. .udk cGNJ cm. .qef.eJY trSm.? vlxmG .pvHk.BuD.vQif .uGufudk tckyJ ig BunfYcsifw.ydkuftkyfcsKyfNyD.acR.usef.trSefqkdwm tJ'DaumifawG cGJNcm.NyD.wmygyJ? wu. vkyfaeovm. rodatmif NzpfoGm.avmuqkdwmvJ Edkifolu bk&ifyJ r[kwfvm.acR. vkyfvkdvkyf? Nzpfcsifwkdif.fOD.aeBuw.f? 'guvJ rqef.rf.wl. rde.fNyD. . ]]rif.f? bk&ifvkyfaew.mufukd pdkufBunfYvdkufNyef\/ "m.fY olwdkYu vuf&dS wkdYEkdifiHudk tkyfcsKyfaew. NzpfaewmyJ r[kwfvm.zkef. .uom vlaumif.yDyD rif. . usef.cifAsm.qef. igomvQif bk&ifNzpfw. zvS.fxw k ?f aemufq.orm.tqd.NyD.NyD.tm.f wd&pämef&.fwJYvludk trSm.u usef. .awGudk olwdkY vufckyfxJua&vkd oabmxm.aNymwJY trSm.fvHk.fxw k v f dk o.ynmawmf&if igYudkvJ olwdkYBudKufovdk vkyfEkdifw.u rauseyfvYkd tNrifrawmfvYdk 0ifaNymBunfY? rif. usef.odkif. . .ynm[m igYxuf omcsifomr.trSefcGJNcm. vkyfBuvkdYvm.xm.qef.qef.ckuJYokdY ½kwfw&uf xaNymaeonfudk awGYaomf vGefpGm xdwfvefYoGm.aeovm. ]]'DESpfaumif&JY wpfudk.qef.i. taotcsm tuJcwfBunfYNyD.acR.tqdk.[m ckeu aooGm. rsufESm NzLa&mfvsuf &dSaomfvnf.[m aooifYwJYvlawGygyJ? 'gayr.r.

wdkY oHk.*dkPf.wuúodkvf aevif. aevkYd &rSm r[kwaf wmYb.tm.ygw.ckwkdif owdarYaeao.pm. (14) a&cJrD.vHk.0ef? [lwef.BuD.zkef.aemuf e*g.u cPav.vQif aerxd xdkifrom xdwfxdwfysmysm Nzpfae&Sm\/ csifwl.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk azmfxkwfzdkY pdwu f .&JY vufxJudk a&mufaeNyDyJ? tm.uvJ wu. &Sif? 'gawmif q&mBuD.wdkY rsufcHk. ]]tif.fenf. zswfceJ pdkufBunfYvdkuf\/ NyD.mufuawmY a&SYoGm.onf t&JpGefYí .OD. .onf b.fY iguvJ igYtpGr.qef.fYtNzpfrsdK.atmif e*g. usef.awmif csifwl.Edkif"m. em.tvSnfYokdY a&mufvmNyefNyD/ usef. .? tck e*g.tm.? rowfcsifayr. wpfaeukef wpfaecef.rl olr rsufarSmufrSmyif csefusif. 'D"m.a&mufaerSe.&JY vQdKY0u S cf sufuv kd J azmfxkwfEdkifzdkY &r.f? wdYk okid .\/ taBumif.at. qdkvdkwmwlyg&JY? t[J .ESifYaumYoef.vHk.uvJ odkif.Edkif"m. qufvkyfcsifygao.q&mawG tm.ovJ}} &SufpGef.onf &SufpGef. ayauG. b.Edkif"m.l qdak wmY 'D"m.aq.rS .f qkw d mudk odygw.fY wNcm.? aemufNyD. bmrsm. ]]'D e*g.NyD.l xm. êuH&rSm aocsmw.wl.f tp b. pum. pdefac:vdkufNyDudk odaomf aerxd xdkifrom NzpfoGm. .csKyfq&mBuD.&JY ausmif.f avmurSmqd&k if a&Smifvif*dkPf. rif.qef.fY rif.csvkdufNyef\/ NyD.uvJ q&mBuD.\/ xdkYaBumifY csifwl. &SufpGef.acR.odkif.udk &NyDqdkawmY vlolr&dSwJYae&mrSmoGm.csdKvnf.rS &kwfw&uf .bJ .SOfûydifEdkifrnf r[kwf[k csifwl.? 'D"m.acR.u usef.fodkYb.awmY rif.onf rarQmfvifYbJ .aemufvdkuf tifrwefnDwJY pHkwGJygyJ? a&TeJYNr aeeJYvqdkwm rif.aq. ]]igu e*g.u csifwl. .ckuJYodkY &SufpGef.favmuf&w Sd . cHk.NzL*dkPf.zef? rdkufusif.\ &ifwpfckvHk.udk wpfcsufrQ BunfYí .Edkif"m. vufcsufNzifY r&IrvS aoqHk.ynmrSm pHxm.qef. .f}} &SufpGef.SOfûydifEdkifr.vlawGvJ vdkcsifBurSm trSefyJ? 'DawmY tJ'DvlawGu tckvdk igYvufxrJ mS "m.wl.av\/ .udk ydkufNyD.eJY .&JY odkif. .avmufatmif awmfwJY yk*d¾Kvfwpfa. &ifwrreJY ae&r. .wdkY ESpfa.onfYES.fYvlvJ 'DrSm r&dSygbl.cJYNyD.wl. BudrfrD.fyHk taNctae zefwD. .wl. .f? 'gayr.vmrnfudk rodao. 0gar*dkPf.vGef*dkPf. .awGyJav? aemufNyD.Edkif"m.cJYvdkYrNzpfbl. .xdkif q&mawmfBuD.csKyfBuD.f cHpm.f od&if ig at.wdkYpHkwGJudkrsm. .ynm&SifBuD.&JY *dkPf.ESifYrQ &SufpGef. .wdkY pHkwGJudkvJ igxm.vnfxm. tcef. .fY owf&rSmygyJ? rvTJomvdkY owf&wJY oabmaygYuGm}} 131 .&kHru q&mBuD.tm.&yfvkdufNyD.qef.u oufNyif.tHk.fY odkif.u 0gBuD.ynmudk av.udk &vkdufayr.[J? 'gayr.mufygyJ]} &SufpGef.ckwpfzef usef.vdkuf&NyD.&JY *dkPf.eJY cGef.wl.u q&mBuD.f rxifawmYbl.acR. ]]q&mBuD.

udk a&.? wpfuGufrSm.cJYaom pum.onf bmrod nmrodESifY &kwfw&uf olwdkY ESpfOD.SOfEkdifw.aumufESifY pkwfwHcRefudk qwfceJ qGJxkwfvdkufNyD.r&.u olYtm.ûy&if.&SifY}} &SufpGef.xdk.f wpfckvHk.tm.vdkufNyefonf/ þokdYNzifY olYcE¨mudk.udk EkdifoGm.qef.ynmudk &kwfw&uf owd&vkdufNcif.? ig vHk.vHk.ynmeJYom ywfoufygap? tukefcGifYûyw. uRefawmf&SKH.u ûyH.f}} usef.avmY wdrfvTm"m.? OD.aom ql. rsuf0ef.fvkdYrsm.ceJ ckefwufNyD. [m.pm.yif Nzpfyg\/ xkdYaBumifY &SufpGef. usef.aewmYvJ rûydifcsifayr.muf &Surf sufEmS NzifY BunfYvu kd rf Bd u\/ usef.qef.awmY r[kwfyg/ olYq&m usef.udk zswfceJ zswfceJ tkyfrdk.fES.mufukd wpfa.acR.fYES. wG.u &.cJY&ifawmY q&mBuD.cHaevdkY rNzpfawmYygbl. ]]q&mBuD.u t&Suu f rkd sdKodyí f &kww f &uf &SufpGef.aemuf .fqdkwmom rif.udk b.wl.zkef.rSm wpfa.aumufudk tm.fNyef\/ ]]tkd .aNrmfuefawmY? &dSckd.pdkufBunfYvsuf .EdkifrSmvJ uav.faevdkuf\/ xkdpOf nmbufvufrS pkwfwHcRefNzifY ]]e*g.qef.qef.rsm.acR.ay:rlwnfwmyJ r[kwfvm.tEdkifudkawmY b. . 'Daumifav.u wdk. aemufqHk.iHkYvnfpif.BudK.&.eJYrS r&SHK. .fvdkY tpfudkusef. ai.f? odkif.fNyD.rdk.u olwdkYESpfOD.wl.&ifaum}} &SufpGef. .qef.ceJ ûzwfvkduf&m awmifeH&HatmufodkY axG.f EIid .vkdufrd\/ tNcm.Ekdifbl.udk q&mBuD.f}} usef. .vkduf wufvkdufNzifY olYq&m oifBum.\ rsufawmifaumYuav.}} &SufpGef. tck b.xdyfxm.udkawmY ig b. ]]e*g.acR. . ]]aumif.Edkif"m.fvdkrS êudraNymEdkifbl.ynmcsif.0 . .fvdkYrsm.vnf.fY ûydifudk ûydif&ygawmYr. .f? b.&if uRefawmfYbmom uRefawmf owfaoygYr.udk a&.wGifyif b. .fY tpGef.fqdkwm wpfuGufaumif.aom toHNzifY ar.aumufNzifY aemufwpfzef awmifeH&Hudk a'gufceJ csdwfvkdufNyD.if.fyHkb.kH NzifY usef.f? olYqE´twdkif.fqdkwJY taNzudk êudwifwGufxm.u xdkpum.Bum.l wl.l wl.fenf. &HSK.fYvJ q&mBuD. .udk ar.oGm.ay.acR.Nzpf\/ ]]wu.u &. . csifwl.\ u&kPmoufaom rsuf0ef.udk a&.f &SHK.qef.NyD? ig oabmwlw.aumufNzifY csdwfwG.vkdufavonf/ 132 .u . tpfudk&.NzifY ]]tif.vSonfY odkif.\/ &SufpGef.armBunfY&if.ukef êud.nif.odkYaNymNyD.fbufawmifeH&Hay:odkY vTm.acR.l wl.atmif e*g.&Smavonf/ ]]tpfudk oleJYûydifr.Ncpfvkduf\/ NyD.fvkdenf.? [m.uGufudk azmfvkdufaom euf&dSKif.cifAsm? q&mBuD. &kwfw&uf wpfpHkwpfckudk pOf.fqkdawmY [kwfygNyD? ydkifydkifEkdifEdkifNzpfygYrvm.u csifwl. .BunfY&rSmaygYav}} usef.aemufvkdufnDaom pHkwGJ? a&TeYJ Nryrm vku d zf ufvaS om pHw k [ JG k cdik .axmif&if.tBudrf oifBum.cJYaom .NyD.}} csifwl.udk ql.wdk.udk a&SYoGm.f? 'gayr.aemuf cg.acR. pl.? Edkifr.f? rif.k &dryf yl efro d u l csifw.vSvSuav. &kwfw&uf ckefxGufvdkufonf/ wpfûydifwnf.tm.ceJ usvmav\/ odkYaomf atmufaNcokdY a&mufvka&mufcifrSmyif ql.fcsdwfxm.&Sif? ray:vQif ûydif.? rsuf&nfa0Yvnfaom rsufv.wl.ceJ qif.wuúodkvf aevif.f? wu. ûydifw.udk at.}} ]]e*g.udk rauseyf/ ]]odkif. nifomvGef.vQif ]]Edkif}}aom } pvHk.acR.Nidrf.NyD.SOftHwk? olrrI/}} [laom pmcsdK. [m.fY wu.&if cH&pNrJyJ r[kwfvm.farmvsuf .ESiYf csifw.ynmeJY .u uRefawmfY&JY awmif.rS odkif.oGm.oGm. .BudKufwJY odkif. .HkBunfpdwfcsw. ql.u uRefawmfYudk t"r® ûydifckdif.pdwfêuduf aNymyg}} xdt k cg vGepf mG pd. ûydifcsifw.r.xJrS ol\ ql. &SufpGef.fY uRefawmf acgif. awmifeH&Hay: wufvkduf vTm.}}qdkaom pmvHk. tacstwif aNymaeonfudk em. t&HSK.fYvkyf &SKH.qdkcsuf wpfckudk vufcH&r.? rûydifcsifayr.Edkif"m.aumufudk ûzef. uRefawmfu trSwfrxif q&mBuD.f vku d af omaBumifY Nzpfygonf/ csifw.vdkY &Edkifrvm.ay.? 'gayr.qef.f? Bum.pm. zl.qef. ]]igu 'Diwdav.om. toHwdk. rsufESmueDNref.pGm pdkufBunfY&if.

rif.csdefwGif usef.qdkcsifovJ? aNymyg}}[k qdkav\/ &SufpGef. avQmYvkduf[efwlyg\/ NyD. .vdkufaom vGefpGm cufcJeufeJonfY odkif. .oGm.udk tNyifukd vH.Bum.vkdufBu\/ vufESpfzufNzifYvnf.? udkif.}} csifwl.u ûyH.wuúodkvf aevif. ]]ig rif. usef.Edkif"m. pum.ynm wpfrsdK.u toH & S n f a tmf v d k u f [ ef w l y gonf / xk d c PwG i f usef .wGif pmvHk.tm.usyfpGm zdtkyfxm.&cufaoma0'emwpf&yfudk cHpm.*dP k .&bl. igYudk bmaNymcsifovJ bmawmif.udk a&.acR.wD.vQif aNray:odkY aemufuRrf.f &if NyD.aumif. Nyefr&kyfodrf.NyD.f? rif.acR. ud.f ? [dik q f m.ñSif.NyD? q&mMuD. &SKH.wl.fYtuÐspudk. ]]rif.wJY taBumif.ol\ pum.onf &SufpGef.oNzifY vufckyfvuf0g.wkd.ay.ud k twef B umrQ ai. rsm.vm\/ pdwf"mwftiftm.pyf[vsuf olwdkY\ rsufESmudk. usef. acR.u vdIufvSJpGm 0rf. bmrQ pOf.muf aNrNyifay: wzkwfzkwf vJusoGm.Nzwfí . ]]uRefawmf q&mBuD.Nzpfí &SufpGef.ae&bdodkY xif&yg\/ twefi. rsufESmtrlt&mu aysmYaysmif.f wdYk rS *dP k . . k Yf em.qef. yg. wpfcsufrQ pdkufBunfYvsuf . .acR.wpfa. þodkY wpfyg.vkYd rNzpfb.onfudkvnf.}}[k ar.f vsifNrefpGm qkwfNzJNyD.vnf.xl.aemuf oufNyif.qef.wmygyJ q&mBuD.wdkYvnf. .Nzpfonf/ usef.udk axGaxGxl.qef.vkdufyg? enf.xm.}} ]][JY .wnf.pdkufBunfYaevkduf\/ NyD.udk a&.k yg.acR. xd k .csrf.csvsuf . .pum.wdkY ESpfOD. cJ Y aom pmvH k .? wpfzef xkdxlqef. k f qkwNf zJNyD.rS toHr0ifapeJYaemf? touf raocsif&if igaNymovdkvkyf? 'gyJ}} &SufpGef.&if.udk t&SHK.BuavawmY\/ cGef.D bk&if*P kd .f ? a0vig.u Bum.pm.muf&JY toufudkawmY ig csrf.fay.f om.fY 'dNyifvlawGudkawmY vlYavmurSm csex f m.pGm usvmavonf/ &S u f p G e f . wd k Y onf em.rSm odkif. atmf[pfaNymavonf/ ]]q&mBuD.raeawmY/ udk.l ? uJ . xG i f . tck e*g.fpDwGif vGefpGm xl. .onf awmifeH&Hudk aNcNzifY wpfcsufuefNyD.vdk ra&.zdYk uwday.qef . aBumuf&GYH wkefvIyfvmaom trlt&may:vmNyef\/ olwdkYudk BunfY&onfrSm vGefpGm cHpm.rS aumif.acR. wifysOfacGxkdifum olwdkY\ twGif.í vJyGifYyrm aygYyg.*dP k .udk q&mBuD.uG? ig qdkwJYaumifu uwdpum.Edkifrnf r[kwfygacs/ csifwl. ]]'gNzifY q&mBuD.enf.udk usef. k Yf tuÐspud.av\/ &SufpGef.fawmYrS r.vdkufygawmYvkdY aNymcsifwmyg? olwYkd uv kd J 'DrmS NzpfysufomG .xJukd qdkYydwfxm.Edkifbl.aomaBumifY bmtoHrQ rBum.acR. xyfwlxyfrQNzpfatmif a&.NyD.tHYBoaom trlt&mNzpfay:oGm. .om.vH.mufNyD.qef. vQyfwpfNyuf psmef0ifckduf a&.atmif wdk.xdk.acR. raNymcsifygbl.qef. olYwpfoufwGif êuHcJY&zl.f ? vufo.u usef. .wl.\ atmfoHudk ckcH wGef.mufu ckcsucf si. tcsed Bf umw. .apí .omcGifY ay.wJY uwdudk zsufawmYrSmaygY [kwfvm.Hkcsifbl.wdYk ESpaf .ynm tb.atmif e*g.u toHudk wdk.omay.yifpGm qdkavonf/ trSefrl þpmcsdK.rSm okdif.qef .ygw.qef.NyD usef. ]]ig rif.qef.q&mBuD. acR.tm.NzifY &SufpGef. . ydkí wif. tHYBoaom trlt&mrS wNznf. &dS[efrwlaomaBumifY pdwf"mwfusoGm. . cifAsm? uRefawmf aNymcsifwmu q&mBuD.udk em.udk b.k 0 raygufBum.wdkY ESpfa.om.? 'DawmY rif.aemf}} &SufpGef. aNymNcif.zkef.? ig 'DavmufrEkHbl.fBumaomtcgwGifawmYrl olwdkYonf wpfa.qef.axmif&awmYrnfY tNzpfrsdK.&/ xkYd Nyif rsucf . aemufqHk.ay: csufcsif. ESpfOD.pyf[í atmfvdkufaomyHkudk Nrifvkduf&yg\/ &SufpGef.acR.kH NzL*dP k .xdk. aNrBuD.udk&SHK.f}}[k av.Ncif.Edkif"m.ñSif.Nznf.vdkufonf/ xdktcdkuf usef.qef.qef.ES p f b uf u d k vH k û cH a tmif ydwfqdkYxm.f ud. .omvGef. .vsuf .xJokdY ydwfqdkYxm.vJ udk.cdik . .tm.enf. em.wl.ESifY csifwl. .usufcsefESifY csefcsdKwdkYrl wpfcsufrQom wkefvIyfoGm.vGef*dkPf.rSmyguGm? 'gayr.u aemufqHk.udk &NyDqdkawmY 'DrSm&dSwJY vlawG&JY toufudk rowfygeJYawmY? vGwfNidrf.yHk &yg\/ usef. onf awmif e H & H a y:wG i f usef .frQyif awmfaeaprl þyHkpHtwdkif.&SufpGef.avoHu rmvsuf&dSaomfvnf.vSefaeBuav\/ 133 . .

onf ol ûyzG.om. vGefpGm pdwfrcsrf. vufNyí .wdkY\ em.rsm.rdkYvkdY wpfyg.olcsif.qef.udk tm.f? bmrSvJ owdr&Edik af wmYb. NyD.onfudk awGY&onf/ &SufpGef.ypf&ef aNymvdkuf\/ NyD.? 'gayr. ]]b. ig owfrypfbl.onf olwdkYESpfa. tqufrNywf wkef.onfudk vnf.awG NzpfoGm.awG uef.rsm.u wu.acR.uom rdrdwdkYESpfa. usef. avSay:a&mufBuNyD.}} usef.u cyfûyH.qef.mufonf &kwfw&uf wifysOfacG xkdifae&mrS xckefNyD.oifYvsuf .&tHYwum.wpfcsufcsdwfvsuf .&JY vQdKY0SufcsufawG olwdkYbufu b.EdkifawmYrSmvJ? odyfpdwfcsoGm. .xl.fY 'DvlawG&JYb0[m aowmeJY bmrsm.? pum. ]]uJ? igwdkY oGm.rSm &SufpGef.fY 'DvlawGtm.&JYawmif.rBum. . q.qef.fydkifwJY tBuHygvm.mufcefY&dS\/ tm.vHk.u avSxkd. NidrfoufoGm.f}}[k &if.wl.Nyvkduf\/ xkdtcg avSxdk.aom avSBuD.onf/ pdwfxJrSvnf.vJuef.atmif e*g. trlt&mrSm ttrsm.qef.wdkif wyfqifxm.rSmvJ}} xdkYaemuf &SufpGef.acR.aomf wpfudk.acR.qdkcsuftwkdif.u .ifvsuf &dSaeonfudk vnf.kd om.u 'DvlawGudk rowfayr.yJ}}[k csD.ygu olwdkYvnf.fEdkif&ufw.aemuf &SufpGef.NyDyJ? qufaevkdY bmtusdK.[k awG. ]]cifAsm.f yHrk rSeaf wmYbJ ysuNf ym.foGm. trlt&mNzifY .\ trlt&mudk tuJcwfNyD.? wpfckrusef Nrifae&avonf/ &SufpGef.acR.udk Bum.odkY ac:vmcJY\/ xdkae&mwGif &GufwdkifoHk. . pum.ESD. aNrBuD.onfESifY vuf[efaNc[efNzifY usef.u csifwl.aumif. ]]csifwl.vnf. . bmrS toHk.frsm.wGif xdkESpfa. ]]NyefrSmaygYuG? 'Du udpö0dpöawG NyD.oD.Ncif.rS ydwfpudk z. . 0ifvmyg\/ taBumif.aNrSmufvkyfae&wmvJ? 'gu b.BupdkY}}[k qdkonf/ usef. ]]avSay:udk BuGyg}}[k ûyH.pufoGm.ûyH.rS pwifcGmvkdufavawmY\/ avSBuD.oGm. .wl.raNymBu/ vuf[efaNc[efNzifYom NyaeBuonfudk awGY&\/ olwdkYtm.? 'Davmufrsm.u vufwpfcsuf a0SY&rf. qdkufuyfxm. . ay:vmonf/ csifwl.oGm.wJY em.aemuf . emBunf.rusawmYwJYb0yJAs}} [k awG.tem. [m.onf/ &SufpGef.muf NzpfvsufeJY bmvdkY 'Davmuf &ufpufwmrsdK.ovdkESifY &GJYaNymvdkuf\/ &SufpGef.udk Ekwfí avSBuD.ay. .l }} usef.u avSBuD.? rsufESmay:&dS BuGufom.muf\ ezl.wkdufvdkufawmY ckvdk yHkrsdK.wD. usvsuf&dSonfudk vnf.aumif.ol idkaecsdefrSm &.rl tu.udk urf.aumif.rdaomaBumifY Nzpfyg\/ xdkpOf &SufpGef. olwYkd &YJ em.í qdkonf/ olwdkYoHk.BuvdrYf r. w.ay:odkY NyeftuswGif wpfcgwnf. .udk a&mufaomf olwdkYtm.OD.? aemufqHk.ESifYtwl &kwfNcnf.NyifrS acR.udk ûy\/ 134 .mufudk êudêudwifwif taBumif.? olwdkYawG em. ]]'DvlawGudk rif.om.&aomfvnf.u thHtm.vsuf .ay:wGif avSxdk.acR. aBumuf&GYHpdwfrsm.u .vsuf .cufvYkd vu J ?G igu bmpmrS rwwfwhJ avSx.Edkif"m.vHk.u rdef. [m. .pGm tNypfwif a0zefNcif.wl.rsm. rif.rdNyD.fudkawmfygvm.aygufrsm. .f}} usef.wpfa. .awGukd &SmNyD.f? wpfcgwnf.at. [m.pum.aom trlt&m &kwfNcnf.acR.acR.f&Sm.wD.vJ? rif. xl.atmifvJ aq.fí &SufpGef. .awmYrSmvJAsm? touf&SifNyD.rGrf.vHk.favmuf &ufpufwJY tvkyfrsdK. ttawGudk &SmEdkifom. . cHpm. uRef.muftm. .ESifY csifwl. ]]tdk . .rom NzpfoGm.atmif azmufvkdufw.wl. yGifYvif.wpfpif.ESifYyif wlaeawmYonf/ csifwl.wmaygY? ydkifvkdufwm q&mBuD.usufcsefwdkY ESpfa.qef.ukefwmaygY? [m. .u ûyH.oGm. tm. ]]q&mBuD.wuúodkvf aevif.fvHk.udk rsufapmif.onfY tcsdefwGif &SufpGef.rSmvJ}}[k Nyefar.fYckepfa.wdkYrSm atmfoHudk vHk.raumif.\/ olYrsufESmay:wGif &GH&Sm rkef.faygufBum.0rBum. ttNzpfoGm.uef.u ausmufql.\taemufbufurf.vJ raNymqdkEdkifawmY q&mBuD. þvlawG\ b0ESifYrNcm. .qef.wl. . aumif.url vufckyfvuf0g.om. .&. ]]'gu bmrsm. . owdNyef&vmwJY tcgrSmawmY olwYkd pdwt f m&kaH wG[m rlvtwdik .

\ trlt&mudk taotcsm tuJcwfNyD. ]]q&mBuD.rSm.u e*g. .wpfuRef.rvJuG? rSefwmaygY}} &SufpGef.fuG}}[k qkdonf/ usef. .aq.wdkYu aNrNyefYudk NyefoGm.u &Si. .fvkdY q&mBuD.vdk pdwf"mwfrsdK.udk csufcsif. ]]rif. . ]]q&mBuD.f? tJ . b.u xdkpum. ]]q&mBuD.qef.muf igeJYtwl uRef. ]]w.yif t&ufudkxkwfí aomufae\/ olwdkYudkvnf.fYvkyf aeBuD.vsuf&dSonfudk awGY&awmYrS &ifxJ 'dwfceJNzpfoGm.rSmvJ}} &SufpGef.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk ig azmfxkwfEdkifatmif êud.ay:rSm q.&JY? tck uRefrwdkY b. .NzifY .onf/ &SufpGef. .acR. iHkYvQdK.wJYtwdkif.oGm. avSBuD.wl.aemuf . &kwfodrf.fYES.u avS&JY taemufbufudk iHkYvQdK. 'dwfceJ &ifckefoGm. aNymapcsif&if odyf&Sif. . aexkdifzdkY pdwful.u olwdkYESpfOD.wJY wpfaeYusrSyJ iga&m? rif.url .ay:rSmuwnf.at.xm. .Edkif"m.í xdkifaeay\/ tb.tpHk 0dkif.u NyefatmfaNymonf/ csifwl. .acR.qef.rav. .fNyifyJ &dSawmYwm q&mBuD.aeNyD xifw.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk azmfrvdkYqdkwmav? 'gaBumifY tck igu vlol vHk.aNrY[ef ay:aeaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ &SufpGef.pm.fESpfausmf Bumwmawmif azmfxkwfvkdY r&&ifaum &Sif}} &SufpGef.vsuf . .udkom wpfvpfxkwfNyNyD.\/ ]][m . ig vHk. . .aBumifY &kwfcsnf. csifwl.f? 'gygyJ usef.xm.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk q.0 azmfxkwfvkdY &oGm.aemuf ûyH.r. .wl.f? uRefawmfwkdY avSBuD.aemuf ûyH.acR. ]]vm vm? at.\ taemufbufokdY wNznf.u EIwfwHkYrNyefyg/ vQmuav. aomufBu&atmif}}[k ac:aeonf/ csifwl. .BuD. &.qdk&ifvJ rif.frSm. .ygvdrfY}} olonf zswfceJvSnfYí &SufpGef.vdkuf\/ taBumif.aq.fav? rif.&Sif.wnfae&wmvJcifAs}} ]]avSBuD.udk oGm.rS êudkufw.bl.vif.onf vGefpGm pdwfxdckdufoGm. bmvkyf&rSef.? uRefrwkdYudk t&ifNyefydkYay.vnf.wl.atmif e*g. ]]'Dvdkqdk&ifvJ rif. wpfae&mwGifoGm.aq.fES.fvkyf ta&SYbuft&yfudk OD.wl.vm. avSBuD.foGm.rl usef.wkHYwkHY trlt&mNzifY .pufoGm.aBumif.u at.[? igu rif.u a'grmefuav.rS ûzef.f &Si.u w[m.awmY vrf.vsuf .wdkYu igeJY tJ'DuRef. .Nznf.at.frQBumatmif xdkifaerdonfrod/ tBunfYtm&kHxJwGif aerif.\/ xdkYaBumifY olwdkYESpfa. taumiftxnf pazmfaewmav}} csifwl.wdYk ukd 0rfzefuRef.vkdY r&bl.xkwfBuzdkYyJ &dSwmaygY}} csifwl.acR. rsuf&nfa0YNyD/ usef. 'D"m.fESpfausmfwJYtxd aevdkuf&kHyJaygU? iguom wpfoufvHk.\/ ]]wu. 135 .[m.u ta&SYbufudk OD.Edkif"m. .\ rsufESm trlt&mwGif þrQ &ufpufaom tûytrltwGuf vGefpGm pdwfrcsrf.NyD.NyD. rsufvHk. . aNymrnfYpum.udk NyefrvSnfYckdif.aygufBum. aNymNyD. ]]ta&SYbuft&yfu yifv.NyD r[kwv f m.NyD.f? tJ'DrSm 'D"m. q&mBuD.vnf. .0r&dSwJY uRef.farmvkduf\/ NyD.0r&dSwJY wpfae&mudk oGm.u ûyH.&if igYowif.rSmaygYuG}} usef.aq. .? NywfNywfaNymyg? uRefawmfwdkYudk bmvkyfzkdYpdwful. .ao.acR. .qef.qef.wkdYa&m aNrNyefYudk twlwlNyefr.wpfuRef.? ig e*g.ceJ xNyD. .? azmfxkwfvkdY r&bl.qef.f vif. . x&yfvsuf .ay:rSmyJ t&dk. .wl.yg}} &SufpGef.&drfoHNzifY . .}} csifwl. .fcufBuygvm.muftem.tm.u avSBuD.ovJqdkwm}} ]]&Sif.Edkif"m. b.wdkYvJ igeJY twlwuG tJ'D uRef. pOf.pm.u t&ufwpfusdKuf armYcsNyD.wuúodkvf aevif.usoGm.udk &NyD.wnfae&ifawmY b.wdkYESpfa.u pdk.rod/ pdwf"mwfawmY vGefpGmusoGm.&if vlol vHk. . ]][m? 'DvkdawmY rNzpfbl.}} &SufpGef. ]]iguawmY uav.wl.atmif aNymNyr.udk vkdufcJY&r.

u pum.&if.ay.fuG? 'DrSm usef.awG xGef.rdonf/ xdkodkY awG.wpfacsmif.awmY oHa.\ b.Edkif"m.uav.xGufoGm.qef.wdkYu vSrf.uav.um.acR.muf em.vdkYuawmY igYpdwfudk xdef.ckepfazmfxJu wpfa.acR.ocifudk usdefqdkcJYzl. vHk.onf/ csifw.mZOf zGJYaESmifaeBuwJY cspfolarmifESHyJ[m? tJ'DawmY uRef. .Hkyg? tckvJ uRefawmf xyfNyD.}} [k awG.BunfYvkdufBuaomf &SufpGef.u bk&m.acR.acR. vlysdK? rdef.qef. qufoGm.muf tygt0ifqdkawmY rif.vnf. &ifckefoGm.r[kwfbl.? 'gayr.}} ]]rif.udk ig .ESifY csifwl. uRefawmfYpum.yJ? rif. vGepf mG rsufEmS ylomG . &Suv f eG .Bu&kHyJaygY? tJ .fY igav ig touf ESpfq.vnfEdkifwJY bmompum.wkdY ESpfa.qdkwm. igY&JY vufacsmif.&if b.uvJAsm? bmawG avQmufaNymaewmvJ}} ]]igaNymwm &Sif.wl.rsdK.0 r&dSawmYonfudk awGYvkduf&ygavawmY\/ 136 .u &kwfw&uf xatmfonf/ ]]q&mBuD.tNzpf aeoGm. uwday.mufvHk.qef. [m.fawmYrS ysufwwfwJY vlpm.rsm.ygw.l wl.atmif e*g. . aysmfp&m aumif. pdk.fYig.rysdKawGyJ? NyD.wdkY ESpfa.vm&ifvJyJ uRef.iHkYae&Smavonf/ usef.qef. .acR.ay:rSm vufxyfNyD.udk .EdkifrSm r[kwfbl.muftwGuf bmrsm. ]]tif.tqHk.awG orD.f íxifY? rsufESmeD&Jvsuf rsufvTmcs acgif.iJYp&m &dSwmrSwfvkdYuGm? ESpfa.udk a0YBunfYvu dk af omf csifw. 'DyHktwdkif.ESpf t&G. .qef. rif.folYudkrS uRefawmf raNymygbl.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk b. wpfoufwmywfvHk.&drfp&m aemufaBumif. tBuifvifr.u [lwef.NzefYí axmifNyvdkufonf/ usef.Nzwfvkduf\/ odkYNzifY olu a'goudk xdef.fbuf vufacsmif.fwkef. [m.f? q&mBuD.wGif vuf0g.Hkyg? uRefawmfu uwdwpfcGef.m. om.uav. .l wl. .rS Nzpfrnf[k qHk. ]]rif.&JYpum.wuúodkvf aevif.teuf vufoef.HkBunfcsifygw.qef.NyD.onf/ pdwfxJrSvnf.}} usef.w.ay:rSm b.acR.&Sif.favmufrsm. ]]q&mBuD.f usef.}} &SufpGef.awGudk BunfYprf. .vdkufrvJuGm? [m.eJY aNymaewmyJuG}} usef.vnf. .rdonfESifYtrQ xdkae&mrSm tNrefqHk.

xdktBunfYudk rcHEdkif/ ]][m./ usef.wl.u a[mY'D vufoef.pdwf0ifoGm.awGYNyD}}[laom tBunfYNzifY BunfYvdkufrdBuonf/ wpfzufwGifvnf.mufudk wpfa.wdkY pdwf0ifwpm.qef. pdkufBunfYae\/ csifwl. &SufpGef.\ rsufESmu aoolrsufESmvdk trlt&m vHk.\ &.wpfzHk em.bl.wJYvlu igYudk b0ysufatmif vdrfnmvSnfYzsm.wdkY ESpfOD.? NyD.pdrf.&GufyJ pm.foHrsdK.ESifY csifwl.acR.mufvnf.wl. .u igY&JY wpfoufrSm ig t.vGef.udkrQ r.zG. [m. rnfol wpfpHkwpfOD.f xifvJ? wd&pämefawG&JY tom.rl xdk&.Bu\/ wpfa.atmif e*g.tay:wGif wpfrsdK. em.frkefwkdif. .acR.fY .ftwGif.0uif.foHu [def. (15) yifv.qef.ESifY csifwl.oD.awmY igYrdbeJY wpf*dkPf.xm.q.aumif.u toHudk NrSifYí .ysuf? tdrfysuf? emrnfvJ ysufcJY&w. Nrwfbk&m.qefatmif vkyfoGm.HkawmYyg? r.\ pum.rdum oem.r.fY[k aNymNyD.qHk.wuúodkvf aevif. .udk pl.uawmY tJ'Dwkef.pl.foHaBumifY ausmpdrfYoGm.f? tJ'Duwnf.pdrf.a&SYrSm opöm usdefqdkvdkufygw.cJYwmuG? olY peufaBumifY igYrSm tdk.u raeEdkifawmY/ usef.ESpf &dSNyD? tESpfESpfq. ]]igY vufoef.Edkif"m.pm. .w.av\/ 137 .udk ig Nzwfypfvdkuf&wJY taBumif.? ig tav.onfY Bur®mudk pOf.\ emBunf.}} onfwpfBudrf &SufpGef.oGm.us.axmifaerdBuonf/ &SufpGef.fyJYwif[nf.acR.rJYae\/ olu qufí .qef.wnf.wJYvl &dScJYNyDudk.pm.}} 'gayr./ xkdpOf &SufpGef. [m.oGm.0g.f? oufoufvGwf oabmaygYuGm}} usef.[if.wl.? [if.udk igtckNzwfNyD. ]]'gayr.m.wl.\/ aBumufp&m aumif.HkBunfqHk.qef.fuGm? a[m tck igYtouf av.rSm ig bmvkyfw.f Nzpf&ygvdk\vdkYvJ qkawmif. usef.f? b.acR. vdkufrdygw.ygaom &.fvdkvJqdkawmY wynfYawmfonf vlYb0wGif touf&Sifvsuf &dSaeaom umvywfvHk. tcef.HkEdkifaom udk. .? ig t&dkaoqHk.vnfvdkuf&awmY rvkdvdk/ olYb0udkawmif aNAmif.f? igY&JYrdb? igY&JY om.awGvJ towfcHvdkuf&w. ]]'ku©awmY aumif.? ig tcspf&qHk.vnf.ESifY csifwl.fYig. .&SufpGef.udk rpm.vSaom qdk.f aumif.

u tHYBowBuD. odyf .wJY tcsdefus&ifawmY igav rif.avmufa&maygYaemf}} [k ar.f&ufyg/ usef. .}} csifwl.qef.om tat.udk Nyefvnf uvJYpm. ]]tpfudkawmY odyfcsrf. cdkufcdkufwkefaeNyD r[kwfvm.u u&kPmoufaom avoHNzifY .aNymouJYoYkd yif tuÐsudk ûcHvkduf\/ xdktcsdefwGif csifwl.wl.av\/ n/ yifv.NyD. ]]racs&ao.vdkufaemf? [kwfvm.f}} usef.csOfqDtwGif.? 'gNzif Y ol b. .fay:rSm ûcHxm.wdkY ESpfa.uav.aeovm.qef. vQdKY0Sufcsuf &dSaeOD.aerSmaygYaemf .csvsuf .uav. tpfudk&.vkduf\/ ]]tcsrf. igav rif. 'kua© y.onf tuÐsudk . csrf.qef.Bu&kHaygYuGm}} usef. ydkxuf&kHuvGJvdkY bmrsm. . EIwfrS ]][if}}ceJ tmar!dwfoH ûyvdkufrdBuyg\/ xdkYaBumifY usef.? 'D"m.oGm.onf usef.bl. .yg.rsdK.cGufudk rIwfNidrf. .u Bum. ay.rSmvJ&Sif}} &SufpGef. . ûcHxm.oGm.u tHwpfcsuf Budwfvsuf .if.0 raNymcsifawmYbl.u ]]q&mBuD.mufpvHk. .wl.acR.pGm wkdufcwfae\/ tat. .f [k w f v m.qef.vdkufaemf}} csifwl.wif. usef. . wl .ESifY csifwl.lvkdufNyD.Edkif"m.udk awGYawGYcsif. . 'DNyif"m.wl.EGrf.}} usef.bl. ]]uJ .f o l v J ? b. odvkduf\/ csifwl.oGm.qef.uvJ cufaeyga&mvm.Edkif"m.wuúodkvf aevif.}}[k ar.? ig . ]]tdk.axG. . onf tuÐ s yg.fodkYb. . .'Pf cHEdkifygw.fvHk.rf. aemf}} ]]tat.tûyH.favonf t[kefNyif. wkefcsrf. 0 rcH E d k i f a wmY a cs/ usef.cg.wl. a0'emaBumifYawmY r[kwfyg/ vGwfaNrmufa&. pdrfY0ifum wpfudk. pdwftvGef vIyf&Sm./ olu olYtuÐs&Snfudk cRwfvdkufonf/ NyD.u oufNyif.yg twefBumatmif Nidrfoufvsuf&dSBu\/ xdkYaemufrSyif usef.qef. .wl.fY uRef. .vdkuf\/ ]]ol b.a&m csifwl. xuf a wmif od k i f .f0g? emrnfu b.fYES. aEG.acR.awmfaew. .aeonfY Bum.wl.fodkY &Sm&ygvdrfY/ tcuftcJrS b.[if}} ]]odyf . tdyfBuawmY}}[k trdefYay.fuG? ig olYudk . .acR.f? 'gayr.atmif e*g.\ apwemudk rNiif.fYqdkwm vHk.fvHk. usef. ]]'D v l u q&mBuD .tcsdefrSmyif &SufpGef.NzifY . . .onf/ &SufpGef.vQif wpfudk.\ &ifxJwGif yDwdt[kefNzifY NynfYvQrf.wJYvu l igYxuf odik .l wl.0ifí .u &kwfw&uf rD.&JY b0wpfckvHk.fYudk tvdkvdk cifrifrdygw.ay:rSmyJ aeoGm.av\/ &SufpGef.qef."mwfonf &dk.acR.wl. vlr&dSwJY uRef.i.\ aBuuGJtm.qef.fol b. 0wf x m. .pk? igY&YJ pdw"f mwfawGukd vSvBS uD.wl.ae\/ ESvHk.u csifwl.acR.yifpGm acgif.aomaBumif Y tat.'Pfu vHkatmif wif.wl.tm.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk odoGm.vmouJYodkY cHpm. .wGif.wJY r[m&efaBuG.fcYJ yg/ rNiif. acsNyD. igYpdwfxJrSm wu.vrf.om.vJ[if q&mBuD.rSyif &kwfNcnf.y.udk wkefcgaponf/ csif w l . .wl.acR.acR.ay:udka&mufvdkY a[m'D e*g. .&\/ csifwl.uG? igYb0? igYro d m.acR.u av.qef.xuf ydkav.'Pf u d k vH k .foGm.wkdYudk owfudk owf&vdrfYr.f usef.\ wdwfwcdk.acR.w.\/ cdkufcdkufwkefrQ at.acR.wl.pudk b.u 0if.ae&Smaom csifwl.oufomatmif udk. .udk zsufqD.rl rsufESmñdSK.SOfEkdifwJY taNctae r&dSao.vkdufNyD.onfY trlt&m Nrifaomf ESpfodrfYvdkvS\/ odkYaomf .qef.oGm. .acR. ]]rif.y.\/ tarSmifxJwGif csifwl.ygbl. .fvdkvlpm.vufaeonf/ odkYaomf usef. . r . .qef.fyHk 138 . aNymovdkomqdk&ifawmY igwdkY wpfoufvHk.qef. ynm awmf a o.f? csifwl.}} csifw. ]]odyfcsrf. .acR.f ynm tyHkBuD.vQif . q&mBuD. .

em. usef. &ifxJ0.&ygvdrfY [laom tawG.vQif csifwl.rdonf/ xdkvrf.fvdkyJNzpfNzpf iguawmY vGwfvrf. .tm.pyfu rdrd em. \ xG u f o uf 0if o uf o H u av.&kHom toHuav. NzpfoGm.qef.arG.ay\/ usef.fvHk.rIwdkYNzifY xHkrTef.oGm. 0ifvmNyD.acR.onf csifwl. \ &if x J r S yG i f Y x G u f v maom pum. b.\ yg.Bum. ]]tpfudk}} ]]cifAsm}} ]]tpfukd uRefrudk cspfESpfoufrSef. f B um.Nycsif\/ odkYaomf olYEIwfrS qGYHtonfYES.qef.wl.eJY wpfoufvHk.l wl.acR.ay:rSm olaNymovdk wpfoufvHk.ae&modkY csOf.&if vlolr&dSwJY uRef.uyfí ESpfudk.um.wl.f Nzpfae\/ csifwl.\ yg.NzifYom aNymí&aom tcsdefrdkY csifwl.&onf/ NyD. r[kwfygaBumif.&vdrfYr. þvdk tcGifYtcgrsdK. ausmfvTm.\/ tu.mufudk wpfa.wpfa. &SufvkdufonfrSmvnf.kH tNrJ wnf&aSd eap&efvnf.vH rSefuefvmaomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/ usef.vkdufonf/ xkdtcsdefwGif tarSmifu vTrf.wl.qef.wpfvrf.acR.acR.oGm.udk bGm.oNzifY wpfa.acR.rl usef. Budwí f qkawmif. .em.qíom csOf.wdk. acR.NyD[k odvdkuf\/ xdktcsdefwGif olYacgif.emoGm.onf xkdtawG.vrf.udk owfrS NzpfawmYr.fBum.Nyiftm. tNcm.rqHk. tqufNywfoGm. &ifuydkí tckefNrefygbdNcif.u 'Dwpfvrf.Edkif"m. &Sif.vkduf&Nyef\/ odkYaomf tysdK&dkif.eJYaemf}} csifwl.udk usef. pdwfrqdk.odkY zGzGrQ a&GYuyfvmNyD.awG u csif w l . .vJavsmif.wkefoGm. zdrdvsufom.yg\/ xkdYaBumifY EIwfrS r0HYr&JoHNzifY .ceJ oGm.wl.av\/ xdkYaBumifYvnf.qef.f}} usef.onf td y f a ysmf í aeNyD [ k xif & \/ tb.yG i f Y u av. vJavsmif.omwmyJ&Sif}} onf p um.vQifNyD. Eknufnifomaom tawGYtxdaBumifY&ifrSm Aavmifqlvsuf rsufESm eDNref.rsm. wpfoufwmywfv.ouf nifomaom toHNzifY .r[kwf/ ]]&SufpGef.rdkY &ifvIdif.fírsm. tdyfaysmfoGm.qef.pm. . qd k & aomf tysdK&dkif. pum.wl.f? vlYavmuBuD. NzpfoGm.rS cHpm. em.vsuf eifYeifYarmarm cHpm.uyfoGm.twGuf wrifoufouf zefwD.f}}[laom vGwfvyfa&.uav.qef. t&JpGefYí &ifxJrS pum.vQif usef.qdkvQif oltb.\ taNctaeudk tarSmifxJrS tvpfray.wpfck0ifvmonf/ ]]'Dyk*d¾Kvfu igwdkY ESpfa.fodkY rsufESmxm.awG.ESifY qefYusifpGm cHpm.wl. .mufrNrif&bJ pum.f Y aBumif Y qd k a omf &S u f p G e f . usef .pGm a&GYí csifwl..vrf.wuúodkvf aevif.vdkuf&&Sm\/ trIrJYNzpfrdonfudk wrif ûyonf[kxifum &if0.xufwGif tomt.aerd&mS avonf/ csifw.acR.aeNyD/ ylxlaeNyD/ 139 .\ Eknufaom yg.qef.uav.muf vHk.&dSef.pudk pOf.oH wdk.udk EIwfzsm.atmif e*g.qef.&aom &ifzGifYpum.\/ BuufoD.pyifwnf.muf rd r d b uf o d k Y vS n f Y í td y f a eaBumif . 0rod / rNrif a cs/ xd k Y aBumif Y ES p f u d k .onf usef. wpfudk. wl .qef . vH k .qef.om&dSawmY t&JpGefY&awmYrSmyJ? tJ'DvkdrS rpGefYpm.pyf[vkdufonf/ odkY&mwGif xdktcsdefü csifwl.xJwGif tawG.om aeYcif.wl.acR./ tdk .xum zdef.NzifY aNym&ef yg.\/ þtcGifYta&. . rnfodkYrQ &Sif.wrf.yif Nzpfyg\/ trSefrl wpfa. ]]csifwl.acgif./ wenf .m apmif.NzifY &ifxJrSm AavmifqlaeNcif.mufudkwpfa.acR. aeoGm. vGefpGm oltm.acR.vdrfYr.&rnfyif odrnf r[kwfacs/ NyD.ae&mrS udk.aomfvnf.aerdonf/ NyD.rlckefvGef.\ trIrJY tûytrlxJwGif epfarsmvsuf &dSaeygavNyD/ xdkpOf usef.fNzpfaNrmufEidk af om vrf.onf/ tarSmifxJrdkYom awmfao.rdkY &SufpEdk.rQom Nzpfyg\/ olonf xdkodkY vGwaf Nrmufa&.uyfoGm.av NidrfoufaeoNzifY wdwfqdwfvS\/ avSay: tarSmifxJwGifrl &SufpGef. .rdk.\/ NyD.acR.\ &ifxJü azmfrNyEdkifaom om. eDNref.wl.pyfrSm csifwl.wl.em.nif.qef.onf &SufpGef. od&vkdY uRefr odyf0rf.vsuf&pSd Of trSew f u. . Nzpf\/ aNymNyD.wl.rNyEkdifrD olr\ OD.udk cHpm.pGifYaxmifae&mrS &SufpGef.lNcif.mrI? BunfEl.csif.nif.0rNrif&acs/ rSef.\ ycHk.f at.fudk Nznf.rawmfwq xdrd? ckdufrd Nim.fNym\ nonf vdIif.muf &dSaewmawmif pdwfcsvufcs warmwacg tdyfae0HYygvm.í tvdkufoifY rSDvdkuf\/ xkdcPwGif csifwl.xm.vQif wdk.NrcsdKNrdefaom t&omwpfrsdK.rS zGifY[vkdufNcif.? tdk .f BunfEl./ yifv.aNym&ef[vkdufaom usef. tvGefYtvGef/ rsufESmvnf.awmYvnf.

usL.Ncif .vufeufeJY olYaemufausmudk ypfvdkufayawmY? [kwfvm.p&mawmY aumif .u rif.acR.qef.udk Bum.f? udk. vuf0g.wl.awGudk rypfao.ynm tm.cHxm.udk atmfí owday.fEdI.wl. wd k Y &J Y vGwfaNrmufa&.wl.pu wpfvrf.u aysmYusoGm.r.onf/ xkdtcg usef.\ EIwfrS rarQmfvifYaom pum.acR.\ezl.ud.ckrl ESpOf .qef.xJusyfxJ aowpfyGJ &SifwpfyGJ pGefYpm. .u csifwl.acR.wl.ypf&vdrfYr.f? tdyfarmusaeyHkay:w.yJ&w Sd . .qHk.acR.tm. wpfcsufrQ wkefcgoGm.qef.wl. &.l ? odik .NzifY &ifbwfudk wpftm.avmu pnf.yrm NzpfoGm.wl. &dkufrdcsdefwGif usef.apumrl &kwfw&ufawmY usef.pm.f orm.f csifwl.&Smonf/ rSefonf/ olYtNzpfu ckwf&mwNcm.wl.acR.aBumif.\ t&dk.qGwfysYHzG.qef. rif.aomf zsm.atmif e*g.fwkdY &SufpGef.yif NzpfoGm.twGuf arQmfvifYcsuf b.fuG? igeJY rif.aomaBumifY &SufpGef. Bum. &kwfNcnf.tm.*dkPf.pG m Nzpf & ygonf / a0'emwpfrsdK.aeNyD.f xJusyx f J umvwGif zGiYf BuavNyDaum/ xd k t cg usef .NzifY &efoludk NyeffvnfwkHYNyefaom enf. csufcsif.rSmyif .qef.? rif.qef.uyfí .D pvH.muf[m 'grsdK.r& Nzpfaerd\/ csifwl.wkefNzpfoGm.}} olu pum.f? 'gaBumifY tdyfarmusaewJY &SufpGef.udk t&ifqHk. od&awmYonf/ xdYk aBumifY usef.aNrmif. vkyBf uHwm[m roifYawmfb.tNym.u bmvkdYckxufxd olY vQdKY0Suftyfacsmif. xifaom &SufpGef.wl. od r f .qef. .\ twGif.acR. Nrifpuyif rodpdwfNzifY apwodwfu NrwfEdk.wl.rSm&dSwJY vQdKY0Suftyfacsmif.wpfa. .\/ xdktcgrSyif &SufpGef. rnfodkYrQ Nyefvnf taNzray.acR.wdk.qef.fudkrwfí toHwdk./ odkYqdkvQif usef.rvdt k m.vnf.qef.[m.acR.onf olY&ifudk vIdufvdIufarmarm NzpfaponfawmY trSefyif Nzpfyg\/ odkYaomf &kwfw&ufqdkovkd usOf.f? igu tJ'D tcGiYf aumif.f u G m ? 'gayr. . usvmNyD. .fwdkY odkif.acR. olYukd csufcsif.tay:wGif vHk.wdkY [lwef.udk ckcHae&oNzifY yg.fudk em. csifwl.\ twGif.&av\/ wpfqufwnf.udk wpfrsdK. [m.owfNzwfrSyJ arQmfvifYcsuf &dSwefoavmuf &dSOD.u odkif.fvdkrS r&dSEkdifawmYbl. . usef.f udk owfvu dk zf Ykdy?J 'gayr.qef.ESpfbufNzifY wGef.? 'grS igwdkY vGwfaNrmufrSm}} csifwl. Bum.qef.&atmifuvnf.oD.qef . k w f Ykd vGwaf NrmufzYkd vrf.lEdkifacs/ cPrQ BumoGm. acR.rdNyefaomf usef.Ncif. [m. rsm.cHpum.vnf.\ udk.acR.acR.tm.u csifwl.}} usef.pHu k kd wGef.qef. .l wl.mufukd wdww f qdwf acsmif. wm csD .acR.farmvkdufoH Bum. t"dyÜg.fY tck &SufpGef.? usef.í aNym\/ odkYaomf csifwl.tm.f Y rif .k &ifrmS rsKd odycf YJ orQ usO. zd&dkufvdkufavonf/ usef.\ pum. &SufpGef.urf.acR.avmu pnf.NzifY . .tm.qef. k Nl yD.trf.faom tdyfrufurÇmrS &kwfw&uf vefYzsyfEdk.&kH toHukd wdk.0OókH oHa.udk a&SmifBuOf&r. Nyefwu kd &f yHk }J }[k pdwx f rJ S tm.qef.rDrSmyif avS0rf.acR.vrf. odkif.tm. ]][m.qef.r&dSíavm/ r[kwfyg/ trSefqdkaomf usef.f? oleJY vuf0g.eJY aNAmifomwdkufcdkuf&ifawmY [if. NzpfcJY\/ odYk aomf zGiYf [azmfxw k Nf cif.EdkiforQ wdk. .pyfr[0HYacs/ 140 .vkduf\/ vuf0g. .rvnfvkduf/ aBumiftrf.wuúodkvf aevif.em. csifwl.onf csifwl.füuvnf.apmif. &Sif.u wdu k pf pfqifNcif. usef.\/ ]]tpfudk bmaNymwmvJ[if}} usef.fwmNrwfEkd.acR.awGudk usOf.u rnfrQyif Nyif.fqrQ ydí k NrifYrm.cHxm.t& 'Dvdk tdyaf ysmfaewJY vlwpfa.Edkif"m.qef.aNrmif. .? tJ'gu bmvJq&kd if &Supf eG . ygw.wl.vmolES.qef.rûyawmYbJ cHppfNzifYom vuf0g.udk udk.cJYonf r[kwfygvm.ûydifr.ckeftkyfNyD.u tdyfaew.xJusyfxJ a&muf a ewJ Y tcsd e f r S m awmif xd e f .twGufigYudk acsmif.tm.f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm rif.yif vuf0g.onf csifwl.rSm BunfEl.acR.ynmrSm &efol\tm.f &kwfw&ufaomf usef.onfESifY usef.csifavmufatmif &ifwkefyef.acR.&rnfY vuf&dStaNctaeudk pOf. &S&mwvGJ qdkbdodkYyif/ trSefrl usef.twGif.aygufrsm.csif. &if r S m yD w d N zpf & ygonf / pd w f v I y f & S m .wl.aemufbufwGif tdyfarmusaeNyD[k usef.\ twGif.u rddrdxuf q.rl rûycJY/ .wmvJ? csifwl.acR. ]]ud.wpfzHk tqef.om ckae ypfvdkuf&if olYvuf0g.&\/ usef.qef.\ ycHk.vkdufr. vnf . ]]udk.&kH em.rS acR.xHrS &kwfw&uf w[m.r.f csiw f .wGif tomrSDae&mrS qwfceJ udk.wl.vQif ]]csifwl.mZOf r&dSíavm/ wG.pepfudkom t"duxm.urf.udk tEdkifr.acR.

wpfcku avSxJodkY vdSrfY0ifvmNyD.onfudk awGYvkduf&\/ trSefrl Nyif. qefpaumxJ tvSdrfYcH&ouJYodkY vl.udk pdwfr0ifpm.vdu k \ f / xdt k cdu k f avSxrJ S t&dyfrnf.vS\/ csifwl.l wl.fwJY? rif.\ toHu w[l.awmY/ csufcsif. ]]rif.vku d &f if.vHk.f}} csifw. BunfYvkdufonf/ usef.acR.tm. wl . pdwx f rJ S tNypfwifaerd\/ odkYaomf .Edkifrnf r[kwf/ xkdtcg oHk.qdkwm odxm.rSm ]]avSarSmufNyD}} [laom tawG.acs/ xdt k cg tcGiYf ta&.k ac:ae&Smonf/ NyD.ESifY &SufpGef.oD.acR.at. ayGYxm.\/ xkdYaBumifY rD. acR.u ]]q&mBuD.r&a&&Gwfaerdonf/ trSerf l avS0rf.wl.qef.OD.rSm ao.om.acR.\ us.onf usef.vQif vufuikd yf 0gNzifY usef. arSmif\/ vQKd Y0u S t f yfacsmif.aygufrsm.avawmY\/ tb.aq.uom ypfvkdufvQif &SufpGef.&m.l wl.xJwGifvnf.acR.\ taNzudk rapmifYawmY/ ]]aumif. vIyv f u kd w f meJY igu igYtm. wpfBudryf pfvQif tyfacsmif. avSxJrS tNyifbuf yifv.wl.l wl.uav.aq.wdkY\ atmfoHudkyg Bum.? tJ'DtcgrSm rif. xGef.qef.eJYat.aomfvnf.wl.u usef.acR.ckuJYodkY rdrdtay:wGif pdk. .wl.a[Y}} &SufpGef.pm.fí þtcsdefwGif csifwl.qef.&drfvGef.? olYem.rSmyif [l.? rif. .xm. NzifY .qef.rsm.aq.udk igNyef&kyf&rSmaygY}}[k qdkNyD. Nrnf[nf. rsufESmrSm NzLa&mfvsuf &dSaeNyD/ NyD.av\/ csifwl.acR.favmifaom toHudk Bum.rm. acR.onf/ usef.acR.fNyD.&JY a[m'D cspfol[m aemufxyf wpfem&Dawmif touf&SifcHEdkifrSm r[kwfawmYygbl.onf use.atmif e*g.fviId .&m.acR.[l.drf.vkduf&av\/ xdktcg olYacgif.rSm wpfudk.Edkif"m.aq.vsuf &dSonfudk od&Nyefaomf csif w l .wpfcku tNyifodkY vGifYxGufoGm. cspfoluawmY igYoabmtwdkif.onf tm. tawG.Nyefvnf owd&awmY\/ wpfqufwnf. odyfcspfwJY rif. vGefpGmpdk.pGmNzifY ûypk.tm.Nywfyrm aysmYacGusoGm.aq.acR.aNcmufvkduf\/ csifwl. Nyef&kyfonf/ xdktcg usef.rvdk tm.u xkdpum.? w0kef.at. wpfvHk.f odvm.u avSxdk.&aomtcgrSyif &kwfNcif.ypfEdkif\/ tu.aq.rkefwdkif.NyD.udk .acR. b.nifompGm okwfay.uwef. tvGef wkd. vdkufcJYygYr.onfudkyg cHpm. vkdufr.uaumuGm}}[k ar.k.wuúodkvf aevif.frQBumatmif owdvpf arYarsmaeonfrod/ avSBuD. ac:&mvkdufr.yif avStaemufbufoYkd taNy.vSdrfYaeNyD. wdkufcwfaeaom avNyif.udk wpfqifY ydkxkwfvkdufr.rkefwkdif.aygufusaecsdef rsufuvJqefNym NzpfaecsdefrSmyif at.r? rif.qef.wl.BuD. tm. pOf.&zG.rsm.f}}[k aNymum tm.muf igeJY at.raetm.aom vIdif.acR.oD.pvHk.qef. pdk&TJatmif &dkufykwfoGm.yif Nzpf\/ &SufpGef.[l.xJwiG f ae&musO. csdefq&if.&.Bum.wl.bufokdY vSnfYí .qef.vsuf .onf pdk.qef. ]][dwu f av.wl.vufuav.k rcsaom csifw. usef.&JY vuf0g.rnfukd vGepf mG pd.Nywfum t&kyfêud.k.vHk.acs/ olYpdwfxJrS ]]NrefNrefypfvkdufygawmYvm.yif/ olu tHudkBudwfí avS0rf.fvHk.fom &dS\/ xkdYaBumifY csifwl.&drfylyefNcif. . uRefrwdkY q&mBuD.nif.acR. touf&SLoHrSmvnf.aq.acR.at.wpfckvHk.yif pD.xefaom vdIif.d wd.tm.NyD.f tke.qef .wdkY ESpfa.vm&Nyef\/ wpfcsdew f nf.vufukd NidrNf idru f av.wGiyf if BuD.0kef.&ygvsuf toH. at.&m. oGm. wk.tm.wpfpw kH pfck NzpfomG . avSyJYudk udkifvkdufprf.vdkuf&\/ usef. aoqHk. &SufpGef.k &draf e&Smonf/ &SufpGef.xJrS avQmufxGufvm\/ avSBuD. csifwl.vkduf&\/ ]]usef.qef.acR.yefoNH zifY qd&k mS onf/ trSerf l csiw f .qef.acR.Nywfvsuf aysmYacGusoGm.rSm ykcwfvTJbdodkY b.wdkifudk uref.wl.rS xif&Sm.fvnf.udk Nyef&kyfvkdufyg}}[k awmif.f usvm&Smonf/ ]]tpfudk? tpfudk&. owdrl rvpfao.f &du k cf wfvmaom yifv. wtke.om Nzpfyg\/ 141 .rSmrl usef.oG.aemf? rif.pGm Bum.í rsuf&nfrsm. w&m.NyifxufrS acR.wdkufcwfoHrsm.xJodkY aNy.f? q&mBuD.fnmwdrf.pG m auseyf N yef o nf / xd k Y aemuf cPrS m yif usef . csifwl. olYwpfukd.prf.ae\/ usef.qef. aemufbufudk oGm.qef. arSmufawmYrnfY taNctae/ xdkpOf usef.\ ezl.udyk g qufwu kd f Bum.aeaom avNyif.wl.fvHk.f \/ arSmifvnf. rypfNzpfbJ &dSaeNcif.}} [k csif.rl usef.udk csufcsif. olYvuf0g.0ifvmaomaAGaqmfOD. .f oHrsm.aq.f acR.acR.&drfoGm. tawmfrsm. tay:wG i f rsm.qef.u &SufpGef.fxJodkY &kdufykwfvdkufNcif.i.fqdk&if igYvuf0g.udk vSnfYí Ncdrf.fodkYrQ a&Smifwdrf.ae\/ taNctaerSm wu.qef.wpfOD.qef.NyD usef.at. onf vS p f c eJ owdvpfoGm.

l wl.qef. avSaemufydkif.rsm.\ &ifxJu wu.qef. b.wpfvHk.udk odik .k nif. ]]tpfudk? uRefrwdkY ao&ifawmif rcGJrcGm twlaor.ypfvdkuf\/ &GufwdkifBuD.uGJvkbeef.wl.a&? rif. wif.wGif avQmufvSrf.yrm vGifYxGufoGm.uG}} odkYaomf avu Nyif.pGm wdkufcwfae\/ yifv.atmif e*g. &ifxJu qE´rSefudk zGifY[ae&Smaom csifwl.yrm BuD.ykwfoH? a&wa0ga0g 0ifvmoHrsm. NzpfoGm. . kd o f l od&awmY\/ csifw.Ncif.\ toH/ vdIif. ]]bk&m.ovm.usyfpGm Nyefzufxm.NyD.u csifwl.rm.Nyifay:rSm oHrdIxm. ab.ae&aom tcsdefusrSyif usef. vGefpGm 0rf.a&GYvsm.wdkufoH? vdIif. Nyif. raysmufaumif. usef. Nyefvnf Bum.&ovm.vHk.udkzufvmolrSm rnfolrnf0grSef.rSm xdkvIdif.acR.Nznf.acR.wl.wuúodkvf aevif.ESifY a&rsufESmNyifNzifY xduyfvkeD.vdkuf&\/ xdktckduf BuD./ 142 ./ ]]at..u olYoHql.rSm .\/ avNyif.av.xkd.rS vGwfaNrmufrSyif olonf avSaemufbufodkY csufcsif.pm.frQ BumvQifrl avSBuD.rsm.xkd.favmifaom toHNzifY rdk.rSm a&eH&HBuD.qef.xefpGm wdkufcwfvm\/ .BudrfrQ atmfonfYwdkif Nyefvnfxl.i.yrmyif &ifxJu qE´udk zGifYxkwfNyae\/ vdIif.acR.aom vdIif.u wd.apmif.wGif aemufqHk.acR.qef.acR.udk wif.omoGm.faemf}} vnfwdkifuav. ]]csifwl.oGm.yif rBunfYvu dk Ef ikd af cs/ xkv d iId . zufNcif.qef. a&atmufodkY a&muf&ayawmYrnf/ &SufpGef.ceJ}}toHESifYtwl avS0rf.rSm olY udk. wNznf.udk csdK.\/ csifwl.drf.onf rwwfomonfYtqHk.favmifpGm atmfar.xdk.frQyif vIyf&Sm.rm..vnf.wl.aemufodkY pGefuav.onfYwdkif olYcE¨mudk.aeav\/ &SufpGef.BuD.? csifwl.vkduf\/ xdkpOfrSmyif &SufpGef. . ol\ atmfoHxJwGif idkoHyif a&maESmygvm&Sm\/ ]]csifwl.u &dkufcwfvmNyef&m usef. b.u us.rsm.l wl.ae\/ odkYaomf avSrSm . .ae&Sm\/ ol oHk.\/ NyD. rayvkdYomyJuGm? rif.wdkufcwf&mokdY ygoGm.wkwfBuD.Nyif.ae&av\/ aemufqHk.vQif avSyJYBuD.&drfoGm.pGm odik .tm.Edkif"m.qef.ypfvkduf&avonf/ avNyif.f olYu.vnf.BuD.f vH.tm.f NcKHrrd eS . usef&dSaom &Gufwdkifudk &dkufcsdK.wl.BuD.qef.fay:okdY t&dSefNyif.frSmvJ}}[k us. wdrf.eD.tay:wGif rsm.usyfpGm zufxm.drf.oH vHk.zJY zsufqD.pGm &dkufykwfae\/ avonf Nyif.drf.fonf tarSmifvTrf. nifomaom toHNzifY .u .Edkif rodrf.acR.&if.onf csifw.yif Nzpf\/ xdktcg vdIif.i.\ toHyif Nzpfyg\/ usef.k BuD. r&dSacs/ xdk{&mr vdIif.NyefckefxGufoGm.\ tNzpfrSm a&atmufodkY NrKyfvkNrKyfcifNzifY &dSaeavNyD/usef.vHk.Bum. .wl.onf qufvufwdkufcwfaeqJyif Nzpf\/ ydkí ydkívnf. Bum.cJYaom odkif.BuD.usyfusyf vlcsif.NzifY &Gufwdkifwpfwdkifudk &dkufcsdK.rdk.EkdifNzpfum avNyif.rm.onf avNyif.aomtcgrSyif xdv k u l ol\ vnfyif. .\/ onfwpfBudrf rcGJwrf.udk xdef.&/ avNyif.rSm &Gufxnfwpfckom usefawmY\/ xdkYaBumifY rxdef.frSmvJ}} xdkpOf &kwfw&uf vlwpfa.onf olYcg.f zufNyD.uyfvsuf .aom vdIif.xm. ]]tpfukd uRefrtwGuf odyfpdk.oGm.vHk. ]]tkef.\ 'PfudkcHEdkif&ef ol avYusifYxm.wpfckvHk.&ygaom csifwl. avBum.D. rif.wl.wif.vsuf urÇmysufawmYrnfYtvm.\ EIwfcrf.pGm &dkufcwfoGm.wl.wl.NzifY vkdufygoGm.? rif.onf Nyif.wGif &GufrygawmYaom avSBuD.cktcg olwdkYavSBuD. .xdk.xJrS opfom. .fu tenf.rS raoaumif.vkH.mufu olYcg.aom toHNzifY .udk usdefqJae\/ ]]awmuf? acG. [if}} xdktoHrSm csifwl.fYarwåmrsm.rsdK.}} onfodkY aorif.ckd&if.? 'Dvkd avStpkwftyJYudkrS wdkufckdif.vHk.tm. bmrSrNzpfbl. .0rBum.odkY ra&mufrD BuD.aygY? aotwl &SifruGm xm0&}} usef.rom.av.wdkuf&mqDodkYom .vHk.u olYa&SYrS vSdrfY0ifvmonfudk awGY&\/ xdk vdIif.aemf csifwl.udk azmfxkwf&avawmY\/ olu aNcESpfzufudk avS\ Burf.wl.Bum.xefpGm wdkufqJyif/ &SufpGef.drf.\/ xdktcsdefwGif usef.vkdufonfudk cHpm.wpfvHk.NzifY avNyif.NzifY wif.onf aemufbuf&Gufxnfudk ûzwfcs&ef êud.bdokdY NrJNrHatmif twGif. ausmfvmT .ESifY vdIif.vmav\/ tcsdeftenf.udkom em.NzifY awmifYcHaevkdufNcif.acR.vSNyD.oGm. rcGmwrf.

.aumif.a.\ rsu0f ef.fwdkY aNrNyefYudk Nyefa&mufrSmaocsmw.wl..? 'Dwpfouf aemufwpfouf xm0& twlwlaeoGm.f}}[k qdkonf/ usef.qef.tpHw k iG f rsu&f nf0v J su&f o Sd nfukd awGYvu dk &f yg\/ NyD. ]]tpfudka&? wu.? vS y aom cspfpum. aoyGJ0ifBu&rSm aocsmw.fNyif\ obm0onf vSyvm&Nyef\/ avwokefokef NrL. ckepfem&DausmfrQ arTcsifwdkif.qef.muf rvGwfwrf.wl.vdkufNyD.fwdkYESpfa. qGwfysHYzG. Nzpfaeaom avS0rf.? wu.aumif.rsm.onf usef.Nznf. ]]wu. wpfa.fyGifYuav.acR. EIwfrSrl wpfcGef.l wl.ESifY csifwl.onf acgif. vif.aeavonf/ avSay:&dS avSxdk. .Zl. . cspf&nf&Tef.wdkY ESpfOD.'PfaBumifY ysufpD.acR.uawmYrl vl.onf/ csifwl.uifxufrS Bu.aom tBunfYNzifY BunfYvkduf\/ xdt k cg bmaBumifY&.oGm.uav.\ &ifcGifxJrSaeí toHwdk.vufcGifY&NyD/ xkda&mtcg olwdkY avSonfvnf.NyD.wdkYtm.enf.fvkdYom taemufbufudk a&GY&ifawmY odyfaumif.rsm.iHkYí csifwl.tm.wl.&if.f? tJ'Dvkdom taemufbufudk a&GY&ifav udk. NidrfoufpûyvmNyD/ usef.&JY vufxJrSmuG}} usef.acR.wdkY avS0rf.wl. tpfudkeJY twlaer. avSyYJ uikd af eaom usef.[if}} ]][kwfw.wl.qef.vnf.usifudk arYvsuf/ avSBuD. aus.\ vufudkqGJí .Bu\/ aotwl &Siftwl cspfolESpfOD.tem.fa&NyifwGif vSypGm xif[yfae\/ aBumufrufzG.&m avwdkuf&mtwdkif.xJyJ oGm.vnf.NynfYvQrf.vnf.rif.&ifaum tpfudk}} ]]ta&SYbufudk OD.u vGwfNyDAs}}[k 0rf.ESifY usef.tpm.acR. wpfcsufrQBunfYNyD.Suforf.BuD.aemuf oGm.azG.&Smonf/ cPBumrSyif .vkeD.vnf. .qef. .rQom &dkufcwfae\/ NymvGifaom rdk.rsm.f&mrS cspfpzG.atmif e*g. ]]tif. aumif . .xJwGif csifwl.onf avS\ aemufbufqDodkY avQmufoGm.r.vsuf&dS\/ csifwl.frod/ csiw f .fvkdY ta&SYbufudk OD..f wl.acR.ukefNyD/ xdkpOf &SufpGef.qef.\ ezl.onf wdrf.f nodkY ul. ]]pum. a&GYvsm. pdwfvIyf&Sm.wl.vnf.onf ywf0ef.drf.acR.acR.rsm.rSm ywf0ef.qef.wG i f x k d i f & if .qef.oGm.faemf}} usef.fxJrSmrao&if uRefr wpfoufvHk. &SufpGef.faom tcspf & oud k cH p m.odYk a&mufvmonf/ usef.u .qef.aeaomfNim. cspfp? Buifp? ork'.ckrl wNznf.vnf.NyD. xkdBum.dk.u oufNyif.avvnf. t&dSefavsmYpûyvm\/ w0kef.muf&JY toufu rdk.tem. trdk.mOfaBum0.\ taemufbufodkY avQmufvmNyD.tm.qef. wdkufae&mrS .wl.arSmufvkvk &dSaeygaom avSBuD.rsm.r& odrf. av'Pf vdIif.? udk.u oufNyif.a&muf tem. .wufoHNzifY qdkonf/ &SufpGef.vnf.mufudkwpfa.arT? wkdufcsifwkdif.omtm.csonf/ NyD.l wl.muf b. . .wl.wl.lBuygawmY ig yJYudkifay.acR.vsufESifY aNrmufbufodkY wa&GYa&GY OD.onf rdk.fawmYrS rcGJbl. csiw f .ab.NzifY . NidrfoufoGm. 0ifa&muf yJYudkifay. ûyH.wl.qef.wl.fav}} rkefwdkif. udk.BuD. .aeBu\/ ol w d k Y ol w d k Y \ &if x J w G i f Bunf E l .wnfoGm. rif.eD.wl.wnfaeygvm. eH a b.fY}} csifwl.rsm.acR.vQif &SufpGef.aNymif. uif t m.ESifY usef.fvdkY uRefrwdkYom yifv. ]]tpfudk avSBuD. csufcsif.wif[efNzifY wpfcsufrQ ûyH.fwkdY ckepf&uf &Spf&ufavmufom ckvkdtwdkif.qef.wazG.\ rsufESmay:wGif vGefpGm 0rf.fa&atmufokdY usa&mufukefavNyD/ avS0rf.vsuf ]]usef.Gif.acR. .qef.rQ rzGifY[BubJ cspfa&. pJNyDNzpfí vIdif.r.}} csifwl. usef.qef.? igwdkY oHk.udk arYxm. uif o nf NymvG i f p ûyNyD / Bu.fuav.r&awmYacs/ a&pD.om.dkifysufpD. tm.vsuf vdIif.rsm.xJokdY 0ifvdkufav\/ xkdYaemufwGif csifwl.0kef.acR.rSmyJuG.vHk.u aNrmufbufudk OD.tm.\ vufudk udkifum nifompGm yGwfoyfaevkduf\/ rkefwkdif.vsuf? vdrfYvsuf xdef.acR.lavonf/ xdt k csdew f iG f csifw. zufxm.yJ &dSrSmaygYwl.NyD Nzpf\/ xdkYaBumifY cspfp&m yifv.\/ &SufpGef.fuG.fpifuav.vnf.acR.aESmifp Nzpfí BunfEl. p&m cspf y H k N yif u av. aumif .wuúodkvf aevif.acR. .xJ&dS opfom.aeaom a&vdIif.qef.acR.tumrsm.f eifYarmpGmom &dSaeBu\/ twefBumaomf usef.? uRefawmfwdkY rkefwdkif. . ai.yif csifwl.NzifY rmef[kefNyif.aBuuGJaom trlt&mrsm. ]]q&mBuD.vQif usef. arsmae&ifav tpmiwf a&iwfNyD.udk tukefraNymeJY usef.udk BunfYae&mrS tvefYwxdwfNzifY .csvsuf usef.\ t&dyfonf yifv.wnfoGm.onf yifv.uifrSm Bu.wdk.NyNyD.tpr&dSwJY yifv.usif\ yuwd taetxm.l wl..idkifoGm.&ifawmY tqHk.aeavNyD/ csifwl.wl. armYí Bunf Y aeonf / rd k .wnfa&GYvsm. .\/ 143 .f wl.Edkif"m. .fNyifBuD. .udk oyfay.qef.vnf. rd k .qHpuav.

fYudk aNymprf.wl.url wpfaeYwNcm.onf om.k oGm.wkwfNzifY &dkufí zrf.fusvmaom rsuf&nfprsm. rsuf&nf 0ef.fNyifrSm aoroGm.foGm.&ufrQ BumcJYvQif csifwl. b. aumif.vdkufBu&\/ 144 .aumifcefY oHql.vm\/ &SufpGef.wl.acR.qef.f? raumif.usawmYav i&J .zsm. ]]wl.fwl.Nznf. vkyfcJYrdw.ig.tpHkNzifY armfYBunfY&Sm\/ 0rf. G ?f raumif.wGif ñdkí ygvmNrJyif/ &SufpGef.wdk.onf ol\ ql.u usef. .f? tpfudku olawmfaumif.vsm.atmif e*g.}} ]]aBomf .wl.qdk&Smonf/ ]]uHaumif.aNymif. csufcsif.wl. oufNyif.fzsH\ ta&cGHum. Nzpfí tat.vdrfYr.raeygeJYawmY? aemf wl.NzifY NynfYESufae&m wpfBudrf &dkufvkdufwkdif.yJ wl.p&m pOf.wdkYonf yifv.wl.u csifwl. ]]wl.udk pm.aomfNim.cs&if.wpfaumifudk &kdufowfvkduf\/ oHk.rSm qmavmifrGwfodyfae&m xdkig.qef. bmrS pdwfqif.vnf.udk.wdYk eSpaf .'Pfudk vHk. ig.wl.udkyif a0cGJí tpdrf.mufaoqH.[if? bmawG pdwfraumif.u wpfvrf.rIukd aumif.rI 'kp&dkufawG vkyfcJYrdorQ 'Dtcsdef 'Dtcgu pNyD.a&muf&dSvm\/ &SufpGef.aeqJyif/ odkYNzifY olwdkY oHk.&ifawmif rdk. wu.udk cGiYf vw T rf mS aygYu.f&ufcefY BumcJYNyD/ &moDOwkrSm wNznf. oGm.f? aemf}} csifwl.Edkif"m.fzsH av.&if.ocifu wl.aBumwJY oabmaygY wl.awmY vlawGudkvJ trsm.f? NyD.lavonf/ olYwkwfzsm.NzifYom 0rf.aNcmufrsm.wdk.vkyaf y. . .udk okwfay.pdrf. owfcJYw.uvJuG.OD. ñdSK. at. yifv.oH aESmvsufNzifYvnf.wl.tm. wdk.aewmvJ[if? udk.cRefrsm.rnDnw G v f Ykd wl. ESpfaumifoHk.cJY&if tpfuu kd wpfvrf.ESifY usef.&if bk&m.rSmvnf.vdkufao.wl.EGrf. .vHk.&. aEG.rIawG trsm. &kwfw&uf .rsm.acR.wl.qdkawmY aooGm.wdkYrSm twGif.\/ usef.u zsHBuD.NyD.pdrf.udkvnf.Adkufudk tm[m& NznfYwif.axG.udk pm.aumifrQ &kdufNyD.qef.BuD.tm. aeylylwGif taNcmufvSef. .vJ &dSom.&Jp&mawG awG.ESifYrQ vGwfaNrmufEkdifrnf r[kwf[k odí wkefvIyfaompdwfrsm.\/ odkYaomf yifv.pm. i&JNynfudk a&mufrSm tpfudk&JY}} ]]wl.wl.fzsH\ tom. wpfcsufrQ wkefvIyfoGm. rsuf&nf0JvdkYygvm.f? wl. . . wpfoufrSm raumif.fNyifaBumrS olwdkYESpfOD.wuúodkvf aevif. odw.&if. aNymraeprf.fY taBumif. aNrmufbufodkY a&G.uifudk a&mufoGm.a.rd\/ &SufpGef.fzsHBuD.f? r[kwfr[wfwmawG awG.pm.&if.acR.fzsH wpftkyfESifY rarQmfvifYbJ oGm.csrf. .ae&&Sm\/ q.wkwfNzifY avSem.wl.wl.wl. taEG.oG.rSm oHql.qef.fenf.odkY &pf0Jul.}} aemufwpfaeYokdY ul. ESpfodrfYaom avoHNzifY qkd&Smonf/ ]]ysuftpOf NyifcPqdkwJY ynm&dS pum.wl.rsm.wl. ]]wif.í tpm&du©m csefxm. raNymwwf/ olwdkYavSonf yifv.'Pfudk vHkûcHap\/ olwdkYonf yifv.aumif.vm&Sm\/ aemuf av.wl.f tpfudk}} usef.Bu&rSm aocsmw.acR.ig.olrsm. .vkdufBu&\/ odkYaomf Nrdef&SufvSonf/ avSBuD.'Pfudk cHEdkifao.qef.BuD.wHk}}[laom xl.onfY toHudk Bum. ta&cGHcGmNyD.f tpfudk}} ]]bmudk qdkvdkwmvJ wl.ap\/ tat.wl. csifwl.enf.&if wl.wHk? wif.wl. tpfudkeJY twlwuG aeEdkifcsif aeEdik yf gvdrYf r.udk olYoHql.\/ xdkn/ olwdkY oHk.a0YaomrsufvHk..onf tat.cwfvmaom ig.aumif.rIawG rsm.? uJ .f? 'gayr.rIeYJ aq.f tpfudk? wl.OD. .wdkY yifv.ygeJYuG.fvnf.wl.? wl.odkY a&mufoGm.axmufronf[k qdk&rnfvm. aysmufNy. tpfudk&.mufonf zsHom.\ Ekyg. .0 cHEkdifrnf r[kwfawmYbJ taNctaeqdk.Ekdifavonf/ odkYaomf uHaumif.BuD.xnf csKyf0wfBu\/ yifv.}} csifwl.wl.axmufrvkdY wl.Nyifay: pD.

. aAmavmaAmavm arsmaeonfudk awGY&\/ a&cJwHk.NzifY a&Nyiftm.f? tckawmY a&cJawmrSm aoG.u rJYûyH.udk avS0rf.\ vufudkom NrJNrJ qkyfudkifxm.mufBunfYNyD.f êuH&Nyef\/ taBumif.rl yifv.\ ta&SYbufva&mifatmufwGifrl vGefpGm BuD.w.ovm. a[m'D "m.uGm? [m.rsdK.rqufEidk b f J xkd a&cJyifv.fNyiftESHY a&cJwHk.vuf vSyaeonf/ 145 . .awmYacs/ vGwfaNrmufvrf. .BuD.ay:odkY ckefwufNyD.kH OD.favmifpGm .ayawmY}}[k qdkum "m. [m.BuD. a&cJawmifeJY wdkufrdNyDuG}} usef. . e*g.acR.Hcsdef 0kef.Nznf. ay:vmaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ aemuf olonf oufNyif.acR.yGJ0dkif. ay:vmavav Nzpfvm\/ xkdYaBumifY pdwftyifyef.ygbl.udk vGifYypf&ef ûyav\/ odkYaomf csufcsif.odkY c&D.? [m.udk vufvGwfpy./ aemuf rBumrDrSmyif olwdkY aNcovHk. . .qnf.pkwfaBumifY igwdkY tckvkdNzpfwmuG? uJ .fNyifwGif arsmvmaom a&cJwHk. .vQif &SufpGef.rS vGwfrnfr[kwf[k odvmavav? aorxl.vufudkifudk aNrSmufí yifv. ]]odyfaumif.Edkif"m. .BuD. aoyGJ0if&awmYr. qdkonfudkvnf. at. acG. ]][if.rsm.mufrsufESmwpfa.f}}[k qdkonf/ csifwl.vm\/ wcsdKY pm.onf wpf&ufxufwpf&uf ydkí BuD.u tdyfrIefpHkrTm.f ypfvkduf&ef ESaNrmaom pdwfu &kwfNcnf.aom a&cJawmifBuD.rsm.pufoGm. wkefcgoGm.wGif pdrfYceJ usOfceJ cHpm.atmif e*g. igu 'D e*g.f? wpf&uf ydkae&&ifvJ enf.wl. arYxm. tumvn yifv.csvsuf "m. ]]xGD .BuD.at.wpfcu k xD.qef.Gef.\/ &ifwpfckvHk. ysufoGm.pvHk. igYudk cyfapmapm aoapYcsifaew. arTBunfYvu dk o f nf/ xkt d cg wu. .fNyifBuD.rm.NzifY us. .wl.qef.udk udkif&if.acR.vm\/ &SufpGef.vkdufonf/ aemufoHk.vkduf\/ odkYNzifY olwdkY oHk. aerxl. .Nym.&JcHí bmrQrawG. ayGYzufxm.favmifpGm atmfvkdufrdonf/ olonf csucf si.ftdrfrQ twHk.rom. NynfYvmavNyD/ xdkpOftckduf &SufpGef.vm\/ ydkí rsm.NrpGm awmufyaeNcif.qufaevQifrl aemufqHk.}}[k us.NzifY wpfvufvuf awmufyae\/ at.&ufcefY Bumvmonf/ yifv.BuD.fuG? b.&Ncif.&Sm\/ &SufpGef.rsm.epfrQ a&cJa&rsm.pdwfrsm. .fa[Y? igwkdY avSBuD.fNyifwiG f olwYkdo. rsufESm tysufBuD. rdk.rm./ wpfcsdKYu wJi.Gef.a&/ rif.udk xdawGYrdav\/ olwdkY oHk.? a[Y .av.Ekdif"m.xJodkY oGm.? awmuf . .onf rsufESmtysufBuD.om aNrmufbuf . ywf0ef.f&rvJ? iguvJ aoudk raoao. .rsm.NzifY NynfYESuf ydwfqdkYaeaya&mYrnf/ xkt d cg avSBuD.u .rl "m.vsuf .Edkif"m. vufudk Nyef&kyfvkdufNyef\/ taBumif.OD.a&m? csifwl.Nzpfí cPrQ aBumifoGm.vdkuf&\/ taBumif. .ESifY csifwl.OD.OD.vdkufrdBu\/ rBumyg/ olwdkYaNczsm. .rSm aoab.u e*g.fyif vGepf mG rmausmaom a&cJwkH. csufcsif.wl.awmY r[kwyf g/ aBumufp&maumif. ]][kduf? a&cJwHk.rl usef.avmufatmif &Tef.rm.onf at. ]][dwf? vmBua[Y? wkdY a&cJawmifay: oGm.f yif olYww k Bf uD.cJNyD.rl a&cJa&rsm.onf wNznf. ydkí pdwftm. [m.wuúodkvf aevif.ESifY ydkí BuD.rsm.ûyH.í odrf.rif.rSm a&SYc&D.favmifaom toHESifYtwl avSBuD.? yifv.fxJom oGm.rsm.rQ twHk. tpmiwf a&iwfNzifY aoyG0J ifzYkdom &dSawmY\/ aemufwpfaeY olwdkYoHk..fxJodkY "m. . avsmYpzG. avSxJodkY pdrfY0ifvmNyD r[kwfygvm.usifodkY BunfYvdkuf\/ xkdn aiGvonf &Tef./ olwdkYoHk.vlvlyif avS0rf.\/ &SufpGef.wpfckvHk. . .ysufvsuf xdwfvefYwBum.BuD.. [m.\/ þtwdkif.acgif. .rm.Bu\/ NyD.Bur. [m. .Ekdif"m.xD.fNyifxJwGif &kwfw&uf xkdtoHudkBum.OD.NzifY .udk vQdKY0Sufcsufudk odcsifvdkY 'Dudk vmcJYygw.ceJ us.qef.xJ0ifí tdyfvkdufBu\/ xdkn oef.udk rBunfYcsifawmYbl.wGif yifv.yg avSOD.ypGm omae\/ avSOD. vmBu? vmBu}} xdktcsdefwGif usef. tqif.rl wpfa.onf a&cJwHk.rm.

wpfa.qD. xGuv f mNyD.ck & uf t wG i f .fuG? a[m .rSmrl usef.ESifY wpfaeYvQif ESpfq.usifYacG.fzsHta&cGHudkcif.pGifYavaomf .onf wpfûydifwnf.onf csifwl.frQ &dS\/ &SufpGef.vGefaeayNyD/ NyD.wpfckudk &SufpGef. tyf a om t"dupnf.rSmyif &SufpGef.\ eHab. ol usL. .wdv k mawmY\/ aemuf wNznf. ? ywf 0 ef .fcefY NzpfvmNyD.a&mif'Pfudk rcHEdkifNzpfNyD.í oHk.onf trIrJYNzifY usL.usyfw.. . &S u f p G e f .twdkif. aNrmuf0if&.acGY&if.Nznf.u &TD.bJ azmuf N yef a eayNyD / od k i f .mifrsm.vsuf&dSNyD.farmvsuf .onf a&cJawmifwpf0dkuf vSnfYywf avsmufBunfYvdkuf\/ a&cJawmifrSm yifv..fvm\/ &SufpGef. &S u f p G e f .u &.EGrf.odkY NznfYnif.mifudkif.mufonf aeYtcgrsm. [m. pdwfrlrrSef NzpfvmawmY\/ olY rsufvHk. ywf0ef. awm&dkif.om. onf pd w f & l .udk &SmazGzrf. em.BuH rBuHeJY? tckvTwf}} atmfaNymoH? &ke.aomufBu&\/ odYk aomf a&cJawmifrmS aNrmufbufoYkd a&muf&aSd vav aeYwmu yd&k n S v f mNyD. tckawmY tawmfygyJ? vrf.ta&rsm.wl.em&Dom &dSvmawmY\/ usef.Nyif.vGefaeolu usef.NyD.atmufwGif &SufpGef.NyD.k aumif.tpHkwGif xl.rSm wpfaeYwNcm.NzifY vGefpGm vSyae\/ odkYaomf xkdvSyaom NrifuGif.mufom. EGrf.oH? toufNyif.fYav.u aBumifppD D Nzpfvm\/ NyD.onfYtwdkif.vQif wpfcsdev f . vG e f p G m apmif Y p nf .onf yifyef. \ trl t &mud k Bunf Y í pd w f r aumif . ]]avSxJrSm ae&wm odyfusOf.tm. a&cJawmifwGif tem.a.&SLoHutp usef. aumif .f rvkYd u}G }[k qdkavonf/ csifwl. twif.ckrl ol xifxm.}} 146 .acR. a.rd\/ . avmu twG u f a omf v nf .pyfrSvnf.acR.ûyd. wrifarYxm.f? teH udkufESpfq. [m.f rSm ewfom.qef.q.? bk&m.fzsH\ ta&cGHudk ûcHí tdyfBu\/ ntcgwGif om.bmav.foNzifY ESpfûcdufpGm tdyfarmusvsuf &dS\/ xkdpOf csifwl.ceJ avwpfcsufcRefNyD.acR. usif vl r I a &.qef.ae\/ &SufpGef./ usef.vkduf&oNzifY vefYzsyfEdk. nwmu av.awmif tanmif.pl.muf pdwf&l.NyufNyuf awmufyae\/ tNriftm.wuúodkvf aevif.aygufNyD. wpfukef. &Tef. .ESifY csifwl.acR.0g.oNzifY tvif.acR. pm.ívm\/ xkdYaBumifY olwdkY okH.arsmygae\/ aeYtcgwGif a&cJNyifay: aea&mifx. vGefpGmpl.OD.awG oGm. .ESifYtwl aNrmufbuf.wGif yifv. onf .acR.av. .av.&Tef. ayguf v suf oif Y o nf roif Y o nf u d k rcG J N cm.nifompGm a&GYvsm.rnf[k ol êudwGufxm. yg.ceJ ckefwufvkdufBu\/ xkdYaemuf &SufpGef. BunfY&[ I efrsm.a&GYvsm.aom t&dyfta. vGepf mG ylpyfav\/ aemuf rsufv. nwmrSmrl wNznf.\ pl.wl.Nznf. aumif . BunfYvsuf atmf[pf usdefqJaeavonf/ wpfn/ usef. udkufig. aeYwmu em&D ESpfq. ]][m.wGif wdk. . olwdkYoHk. wpfaeYwNcm.avmuwG i f v nf .e. .em&D &dSaomfvnf. acR.qef.kH vnf.wl.Gef.0g.raESmif.usiftm.aNytnmaNy avQmufvkdY&ouG}} xdkYaemuf ra&S.wl. a'goNzpf&NyD/ txdwfwvefY Nzpf&NyD/ xdkYaBumifY oHukefNrSifYí atmfaNym\/ ]]tck vTwfvkdufprf.f uefvyI &f mS .kd pGe. . Bum.? odkYr[kwf cspfol csifwl.vdkyif a&cJawmifay:vTm.e.u yifv.ayGYzufxm. wd&dpämefwpfaumifvdk atmfNrnfoHudk ûyvsuf&dSav\/ usef .atmif e*g. .vkduf\/ a&cJawmifrSm aemufxyf ckepf&ufrQ a&pD.vnf.dk um a&mifNyef[yfoNzifY tom.Gef.uiftm.vku d \ f / xkt d cg &kww f &uf ckefxí BunfYvdkufaomtcg va&mifatmufwGif a&cJawmif wpfckvHk.lvdkufBu\/ a&cJawmifrSm awmifukef. tvsm.fa&pD.rsm.qef. Nzpf a ecJ Y \ / &SufpGef.qef.pmrQ BuD.qef.atmfoHudk &kwfw&uf Bum.ig.vkycf idk .qef .qef.wl.\ ESvHk.Edkif"m.a.ocifu igwkYd ukd avSeYJ êudNyD. ]]uRefrudkvTwf? uRefrudkvTwf? &Sif acG.vufvuf ûyd.kH xkid í f vuf[efaNc[efNzifY rd. azmufNyefoGm.

f yg.u zswfceJ aemufNyefvSnfYí vuf0g.qef.f? vSw.vSaom&.NyD.a.acR.uyJ tomxdkifBunfYaeyg? rif.f}} ]][m.acR.f 'gyJ}} usef.udk NrJNrHpGm zufxm.aNym&if igrif.? cifAsm.? .&dk.f? awmifYw.f o nf / &. . ]][dwfaumif? igwdkY oHk.mufsm. &.f? rif.Edkif"m.r[k w f / aBumuf r uf z G .\ odrfusOfaom cg.? &.wGifyif nmvuf0g.r? usKyfu olYvif? cifAsm.qdkwJYaumifu ukef.vdkufNyD.BuyfpGm zufvsuf .acR. [m.apmif. yg.udk xdk. 'DrSmyJ aoBuwmaygY}} usef.wuúodkvf aevif.foH/ NyD.wl.u acsmw.rmefxkwfí &SufpGef. a'goaygufuGJNyD Nzpfonf/ ]]aumif.qef.av\/ wpfqufwnf.? rvTwfbl.u bmvdkY wm.u csifwl. [m.}} ]]vTwfyg&Sif? uRefrudk vTwfyg}} ]]&SufpGef.muf[m taES.acgif.udk ckvTwfvkduf}} ]][m.qef. uif.f? a[m'Dvkd? a[m'Dvkd}} ]]a[Y &SufpGef.kwfrmr.udk &dkufcsvkdufonf/ &SufpGef.uG? [m.&rSmvJuGm? igYudk rif.a.uav.acgif.wl.\cg.mufpvkH.? wl.qef.u aemufNyef uefvkduf&m usef.ESifY taBumrsm.u &kwfNcnf. .pyfu aemufwpfcGef. .\ OD. &S u f p G e f .NyD/ xdef.pdkufvkduf\/ odkY&mwGif &SufpGef.pHk NymESrf.u aumif.[kwf&ifvJ ckaecgrSm ab. [m.udk oHwlNzifY xk&dkufvdkufovkd uRwfceJ cHpm.r.rSmuwnf.u pum. ]]ig &SufpGef. u w[m. wl.vdkuf&\/ odkYaomf usef.qef.em.ay:wkef.&JY "mwfpmusoa[Y? 'gaBumifY olY&JY cE¨mudk. aemufodkY .apmif.rvnfawmYbl.Nrpfae&wmvJ? 'DrSm ig &SufpGef.\ 'l.kwfrmw.fxJudk tao&dkufcsvkdufr.qkdwJY taumifu bmrS em.? aysmfr.dkifvJusoGm.f p &m aumif . f aumif. vTwfaemf? rvTwf&if cifAsm.qef.f? 'DawmY ig &SufpGef.csKyfNcif. .\ b. vuf0g.acR.fY vlawGuG? 'DawmY raocif wkdYbmvdkY vGwfvGwfvyfvyf raysmfyg.&NyD/ ]]'DrSm &SufpGef. ZGJravsmY? vufNzifY a&cJNyifukd axmufí vTm.atmif e*g.eJY usKyf olaoudk.fao wdkufckduf&vdrfYr.NzifYcHvdkuf&m usef. wpfqufwnf.acR.NzifY usef. eJ Y bmawmf v d k Y v J ? rif .NzifY &dkufcsvdkuf\/ odkYaomf &SufpGef. [m. ? ol u rif .? ckcsufcsif.fudk igvdkcsifw.wl.rSmyif &SufpGef.NzifY &SufpGef. rsufvHk.ceJ ckefwufNyD.onfESifY tm.\ aemufausmNyiftm. .NyDav? usKyfwkdY oHk.acR. [m. vk d u f w muG m ? aeygOD .pHk NymoGm.f o H r sd K .[m. yH k r S e f & .qJyif/ 147 .udk yifv.f o H u vnf .f rBuHeJY? tckvTwf}} &SufpGef.onf rsufvHk.fqkdwm bmvJ? a[m'D r'Dav.udk rvTwf/ ydkí wif.eJYtNref ao&r.rsm.oGm. [m. vufacsmif.wl.u olYa. .qef.yif olYaNcaxmufudk &kyfodrf.qHk.? rvTwfbl.acR. u bm0if&IyfcsifwmvJa[}} usef.fbufvufurl csifwl.wJYaumif r[kwfbl.u usKyf&JY rdef.

vGef. \ ausmuk e f .\ rsufvHk.us.av\/ ]]&SufpGef.'.D.acR.\ pdwfxJrSrl . &SufpGef.&IHY&ef êud.wl.wl.? cifAsm.u .atmif e*g.ceJ vJoGm. f c H od k i f .BuD.&onfY Bum.pm. tcsdefwkef.uyif &SufpGef.xGufrwwf NyL.om uG J t uf r wwf cH p m.BuD .vSatmif NrifYrm.acR. pH k NyL.oGm.tm.rS erf.wuúodkvf aevif.cifrsm txdwfwvefY Nzpfae&SmonfY Bum.qef.udkyif erf. tvl. csifwl.&Nyef \ / taBumif .&kef.vnf.Of. ynmu aBumufp&maumif.wl.bd o d k Y rmausmvSaomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/ &SufpGef.udk ûy\/ xdktcg usef.fum eD&Jvm\/ olYyHk[efuvnf. &SufpGef. ]]&SufpGef.EkdifbJ þtwdkif.onf usef. oG m . .\ ycHk.acR.acR.aeonfYBum.wl.aESmufu xdcdkufoGm.rS rmefwif./ csifwl.usyfpmG ayGYzufxm.&awmYr.wl. acR.u olY oHrPd pkwfwHBuD.\ aemufausm&dS taBumrudk xkd.rl wpfcsufom wGefYNyD.cH&vQif xkdae&mwGifyif Adkif.wpfaumifES.f Nzpfae\/ csifwl. pdwf&dkif.oligom þ oHrPdpkwfwHcRefNzifY wpfcsufrQ txdk.NyDxifyg&JY}}[k awG. cH x m.aeNyef\/ usef. xyfrH atmf[pf owday. rS m oH r Pd N ym.f u wif.udkom olYvufESpfzufNzifY ayGYzufvdkuf\/ usef.aus.udkxkwfí &SufpGef.qef.&if.tvJ twdkufcHxm.rSm tcdk.qef.oNzifY rvIyf&Sm. \ ud k . tcef.tm.0d k i f . csufcsif.acR. (16) aNrmuf0if&dk.udkom ayGYzufxm.mufyg? 'DaeYrS 'Dvdk azmufNyefNyD.tvJ cHae&NyDuo kd ad omfvnf.Edkif"m.csvkdufNyef\/ odkYaomf olYvufoD. tvl.vd k u f & \/ taBumif . a'goacsmif. BunfYae&\/ csifwl.l wl. vSrsufESmav.NyD.0ifvmwm[m olYOD. &Supf eG .vnf.qef.Ofaus. aNymqkd aexdkifvmwJY yk*d¾Kvfwpfa. csifw. onf rsuf v H k .í '.onf usef.acR. 'Pf&m&xm.\ pkwfwHudkvkaeav\/ 148 .aBumudk xdk.wl.yifrBum.[m cgwdkif.r&dSbJ csifwl.dkifNzifY xvmNyD.yif aemufNyefvSnfYí usef.0ifaeaom usm.&IYHNcif.f}} &SufpGef.rd\/ xdkpOfwGifyif &SufpGef.vkduf\/ usef .u Bum.qef.acsmif.qef .xGufvsuf &SufpGef.\/ trsm.onf ûzwfudkufoavmufrQyif emusifrI tvsOf.qef. rl &S u f p G e f .rsm. rl &S u f p G e f . &dSonf[kyif rxifrSwfawmYbJ? csifwl. &l.udk vTwfyg? rvTwf&if usKyf vufeufoHk.pGef. .Ekdifaomfvnf.oNzifY pdwf&dkif.

Nyef\/ usef.NyD.qdkwm rodbl. .if.fYaBumifYrl þaygavmaygavm arsmaeaom a&cJwHk.atmif e*g.\/ usef.odkY a&SmifxGufvdkufavonf/ xkdpOf &SufpGef.rl &SufpGef.tif csnfYeJYNcif. rSef&kHESifYyif aoyGJvSvSBuD.rdkufoGm.aom a&cJawmifi.0g.xef\/ a&cJwHk. qD.fay:wGifrl &SufpGef.qef.aeoH Bum.NzifY ygoGm. tem.xdefae\/ va&mifatmufu NrifuiG .qef.fxm. [m.acR.wkdY ESpfOD. wpfwHk.u xdktcGifYta&.qef. acR.Nznf.if tufuGJaom EGrf.rsm.csdwfNzifY ukwfwG.ESifYtwl a&pD. omawmY o nf Y t qH k .&m aNy.em.frQ vdkufygae&OD.wl.odkYvGifYxGufoGm.rl a'gowBuD. Nzpfygonf/ 149 .aBumifY a&cJawmif\ tpGef.Edkif"m. 0ifEdkifayonf/ odkYNzifY &SufpGef.f oNzifY nnf.wpfckvHk. olwdkYb0 ed*Hk. a&cJNyifay: vSJcsvdkufav\/ .\ &ifcGifrS csufcsif.ESpfrQ Bumonf[k xifrSwfaerd&yg\/ xkdtcdkufrSmyif olwdkY ql. ud k z uf N yD .aom toHNzifY csifwl.um .wpfa. pum.muf .acR.Nznf. aNcacsmfum yifv.BuD.wdkYNzifY a&mNyGef. xkwfEdkifNyD.0g.ESifYcsifwl. wk d Y & d S & mod k Y ypf a yguf v k d u f a vonf / usef .xefvm&m usef.onf rDonfESifY csifwl. .qef .odkYa&mufvmav\/ usef.qef.onf em&D0ufcefY tqufrNywf ypfaygufaeay&m usef.rd\/ odkYaomf .xm.NzifY usef.wl.\ wGef.av.&mqDokdY a&cJwHk.? tm. .wpfwHk.ukefxkwfí &SufpGef.í xdef. S f Burf.? &ifckefNcif.aomaBumifYvnf.BuD.tcsdefwGif usef.\ twGif.NzifY wpfwHk.wl.onf tvsiftNref wpfbufwGif&dSaom a&cJNyifwGif vdSrfYí ta0. wpfcsufatmfNyD.}} &SufpGef.acR. csifwl. ta0. ra&S m if o mrwd r f .ay:wGif olwdkYonf b.wd&pämef wpfaumifES. usef&pfcJYavonf/ &SufpGef.acR.csw d u f kd uref.wl.ckavmufqdkvQif b0qHk.ayGYzufNyD.vdkY rvGwfbl.wuúodkvf aevif. .acR.wl.ygav\/ xkdtcsdefwGif &SufpGef.0g.&maemufokdY vdkufoGm.csed f Nzpf\/ odYk aomf uHaumif.eJY ypfvdkufNyD}} csifwl.tm. uRefr olYrsufvHk.uwef.vm.wkdY ESpfOD. aNy. vGwfaNrmufvmNyDNzpfaom usef.fNyifay: arsmaeaom þa&cJwHk.yifv. qufwkduf ypfaygufaeav\/ &SufpGef.vnf.u aBumufvefYNcif. OD. wl . emusiv f eG .acR. rl.rSm &ifwxdwfxdwfNzifY 0yfum0yfum a&Smifae&\/ xkdYaBumifY em&D0ufrQ tcsdefudkyif oHk.usOfvmNyD.qef.udk tpGrf.f onf olYrsupf u d kd vufEpS b f ufNzifY tkyv f su&f o Sd nfukd awGY&NyD.qef.rDrSmyif &SufpGef.tm.onf &SufpGef. a&cJ a wmif w pf z uf t pG e f .qef.qkdaomf þyifv. [m.NzifY pl.qef.udk csdwfí a&xJwGif 0yfaevkduf&\/ &SufpGef.acR. êudwu G o f uJYoYkd Nzpfraeyg/ awm&dik . qD o d k Y vS d r f Y x G u f v k d u f & Nyef \ / wpfûydifeufwnf.fxJodkY 0kef. aemufqkwfvm&m usef.rQ rqHk.aumif wpfaumifE.acR. qdk&Sm\/ ]]tpfudk? uRefr .wl.BuD.qef. vnf .acR.a0.rnfudk rSef.êuwf &ufpufaeaom &Supf eG . csifwl.pl.dkifvJvkvk Nzpfae&Smaom csifwl.udk vQdKY0Suftyfacsmif.pl.ay:wGifom aemufqHk. acR. a0.vdkuf&yg\/ csifwl.fxo J Ykd usomG .NyD[k wGufxm.axmufroNzifY olYwiG f toifYygvmaomql.vkduf&onf/ xdktcdkufrSmyif wkef.onf &kwfw&uf pl.onf usef.nLaeoHudkyg usef. vuf0g.udk vufrvTwfawmYacs/ &SufpGef.qef.tm.\/ ]][dwf? igYvufu aNy.ESifY &SufpGef.rSm a&cJwHk.acR.rSmyif vufxJrS ql.xkwfvkdufNyD. wG i f csif w l .udk vufESpfbufNzifY udkifumem.xkwftm.wl.onf cPrQ pdwfoufom&m&vkduf\/ tb.atmf&if.wl.qí r&aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ wenf.\ vuf0g. Bum.NzifY Nyefí ckcHvkduf\/ xkdtcg olwdkYESpfOD.ceJ yJYxGufoGm.acR.NyD.tm.BuD.u ydkí ydkí Nyif.qef.\ tm.\ vufypftm.BuD.qef.rsm.onf awm&dkif.onf xdktcdkuf usef.qef .tm. xdkyJYxGufoGm.f rl usef.acR.ckefxGufNyD.tm.ESpfckrSm avSay:wGifuJYodkYyif yl.wl.qef. olwdkY&dS&m ckeftkyfvm\/ usef. aiGva&mifonf vif.f\ tpGef.fae\/ okdYaomf wNznf.pGifYae\/ aemuf &k w f w &uf usef .acgif.\ ab.vdIif. wpfwHk.apmif.&efrS uif.uyfoGm.av\/ &SufpGef.qef.fa&GYb.f a'gowBuD.0g.wdkY vIyf&Sm. wNznf.acR.vsvGef. [m.wl.csKyf&rnf[k xifxm.acR.ESifY csifwl. twif.onf twGif.udk umuG.avawmY\/ usef&pfcJYaom a&cJawmifi.rSm vGefpGmNyif.aom a&cJwHk.csdwfNzifY a&cJawmifpGef.f om. &ifwkefpGm pdkufBunfY&if.tm.rS &kwfw&uf twHk. a&cJawmifudk csdwfvkdufvsuf ukwfuwfwufvmEdkifav\/ olYpdwfxJwGif csifwl.odkY wGef.BuD.

wl.rIawGudk aumif.&\/ olvnf.udk wkdifwnfNyD.wdk.wl. .eJY twlwuG aerSm r[kwfawmYbl.wl.ay:rSmyJ wl.? raumif.f rSm aocsmw.fYES.wl. xdkYaBumifY cspfolESpfOD.rufudkawmY rowf&ufygbl. odcsifae\/ ]]at.tNzpfokdY uwdopöm wdkifwnfvkdufBuavawmY\/ usef.onf ol\ vufpJGawmf ql.? [if.&. &ifxJu yGifYxGufvmwJY ork'.vnf.onf þwpfoufwGif vGwfaNrmuf&ef vrf. ESpfOD.}} ]]r[kwb f .m.tm. wl.wl.? tJ'Dvkdqdk&if tpfudkuvJ wl. . . . auR. csifwl.f? uJ .wl. .wl.}} ]]aBomf .acR.wGif tyltyif vH.Hkygw. .BuD.favmufyJ qdk.\ &ifcGifxJrSm NidrfoufpGm aevkduf\/ cPrQ tBumwGif csifwl.ygaumvm.}} ]][kwfw.rIawG vkyfcJYwJY rdef. usefacR.f? wl.udk owfcsifowfrmS tpfudk&JY}} ]]wl. r. qkawmif. ]]'D a&cJawmifBuD.fxJ arQmygaeaom a&cJwHk.qef.u wu. odNyDvm.rSmrl &Tef.udk zswfceJ BunfYvkduf\/ trSefrl þtaBumif.eJYtpfudk Nrwfbk&m.fYtawG.fu wl. rrSwrf ad wmYacs/ aorxl.eJY wpfoufvHk.m. tckvdkyJ wpfoufvHk. aNym}} ]].udk zrf.l tpfu?kd wu.av? wl. .wl.vufpGm awmufyae\/ yDwd&dyfvTrf.vsuf&dS\/ ]]tpfudkY&JY pum.&if 'Dvkdvkyfav? a[m'D a&cJwHk.u tukokdvfrBuD.wl.wl.&JY azazuvJ wl.udk tJ'DtaBumif. aerxl.muf aNrNyefYudk xGufaNy.awmYacs/ aeY&uf tcsed u f mvvnf. a0NzmoGm.prNrifoNzifY aemufqHk. . pm. avSay:rSm wdkufcdkufBuwkef.udk aBumifYBurJYpGm aevmcJYBuavonf/ 150 .wl.azaz b.rBuD. ar.wuúodkvf aevif.\/ &SufaoG.fvkdY aNymxm.wl.wkdY aNrNyefYudk Nyefa&mufoGm. .NzL*dkPf.u avoH cyfwdk.f? tpfudku wl.fYvJ wl..yg? raumif. .Edkif"m.acR.BuD.csdwfNzifY a&Nyifay: ay:vmaom ig.u csifwl.ygbl.u wl.wl.udk rke. rsufESmeDNref. aNrmufbufudk arsmygoGm. tpfudkYudk pdwfcsyHk r&ao.wl.k 0rxm.vm.wl.Hkbl.vm.atmif e*g.wl. .vdkuf\/ wl.av}} csifwl.wl.rsm.lum csifwl.rSm r[kwfvm. . tpfu?kd tJ't D cgus&if tpfu&kd YJ q&mu wl.wl.rI rsm.? udk.raNymEdkifavmufatmif udk.f udk 'Pf&m&atmif vkyv f u dk &f if wl. ]]tpfudk? tpfudkeJY&SufpGef.qef.SOfí 'l.&JY azaz [kwfvm.wl. .f? 'gayr. wl.wl.ay: vkdufygvsuf &dSaeav\/ xkdpOf csifwl.aew. .wl.wl.ryg}} ]]tdk .fY? bmvJ wl.acR. tpfudk aNymNyD.wl.rSm yifv.wl.rSmpdk.f a&cJwHk.wl.u .wl. rypfbJ aewmvm.tpfudk}} ]]tif.f tpfudk&.fvYkd tJ't D csderf mS om &Supf eG . .tNzpf aexdkifBuatmifaemf? b.&.eJY ypfrvdkYygyJ? 'gayr.f}} usef.aBumvdkufwmaygY wl.&.ûyNyD.f tpfudk? bmaBumifYvJqkdawmY awmifbufudkom arsmygoGm. aeoGm.fYudkyg xdrSefoGm.u tarSmifxJrSmrdkY udk.fYudk &ifxJuvmwJY pum.acR.\/ odkYaomf rsuf0ef.qef.av tpfudkeJY cGJ&rSm odyfaBumufvkdY tJ'Dwkef.tm.udk rypfwm&SifY? uJ .awGaygY wl. aq.ygYr. &ifcGifxJodkY qGJoGif. . .csif.NyD. [kwfom.ygapvkdY wl. wl.wkYd ESpaf .NzifY .usufav tpfudk&JY}} ]]aBomf .&JY azazu rsufcHk.? aemuf wpfoufvHk.qef. 'Dvkdudk.eJYudk.onf/ tBuifvifr.u &SufpGef. olYudk tyfacsmif.aeae olYom.wl.fY wl.? wl.rsm.awmY tBuifvifr.fY uRefr rypfcJYygbl.oGm.m.wl.}} usef.}} ]]tpfudkY oabmyJav}} okdYNzifY cspfolESpfOD.csifaewm BumvSNyDuG.onfY oabmNzifY tcsed u f mvrsm.NyD.udk xdkpOfuyif usef.&rSm r[kwfvm.qef.axmufum tBuifvifr. . .yJ wl.wl.ay:rSm ycHk.csKyf csifwif. .f? wl.rSm pum.wl.&if wl.? ta&.NyD r[kwfvm.wl.wl. pum. wl..

qef.ESifY vSypdkaNyaom ywf0ef.&\/ xl.wdkY ewfbkHudk a&mufaeBuNyD&SifY}}[k qdkav\/ usefacR. BuD . ]]wl.oGm.awmifBuD.frsm. þvkd xl. [dkae&mrSm vlaew. yg.aom a&rsm.o@efESifY uGJNym.pGm BumonfYwkdifatmif awmufavmifaeNcif.fbeef. vaygif.f? vlaewmyJ Nzpfr.NyD.wl.awmifrSm aygufuGJoGm.Nzpfonf/ aemufwpfaeY/ . vufESpfzufNzifY usef.ESifY csifwl.wkdY rD. xdka&pD.qef.twdkif.mufudkwpfa.qef.aemuf NyefNidrfoufoGm.usyfpGm ayGYzufrdonftxd uav.BuD. 0rf.om tenf.xl. NzpfxGef.ae&m awmifxdyf\ ab.udk wpfai.awmY/ wpfa. .BuD.udk ayGYzufvkduf\/ NyD.BuD.onf ra&mufao.NzifY em.vSonf/ 0ef.fwef.av\/ xdkYaBumifYvnf.wkdY ESpfOD.aBumif.yif/ csifwl.aeYwGif usef.vHk.usif yom'rsm.udk ûcHBunfYvQif rD.kd pGe.awmufrsm.udk BunfYNyD.acR.aeaom opfyifrsm.BuD.wl.BunfYvdkufNyef\/ xdktcg tuGuftuGufESifY bmombm0 vGwfvyfpGm oGm.awmif&iS Bf uD.rsm.awmifBuD. xdkNrifuGif.rSm a&at.usif wpfckvHk.pGm Nrufcif.pD.bJ &ufaygif.Bu\/ xdkaEG.Edkif"m.rsdK.aeaom awmifwef.csdefwGif rD.qef.rdonftxdyif NzpfaeBu&\/ odkYaomf xdktrnf.rsdK.BuD.rsm.odkY a&mufvmBu\/ rD.i.&oHNzifY .muf wif.if.if.odkY pD.NzpfoGm.awmifBuD. . wpfaeY/ xdkaeYwGif aNrmufbuft&yfrS tcdk.NyD.acR. yHko@eftrsdK.f}} ESpfOD.&dS&mbufodkY wef.awmifxdyf&dS rD.qef.rvnfEkdifatmif NzpfoGm.aeaom orif? '&. .om.\ ab.oGm.wnfomG .onf rD.ywfvnf&dS a&rsm.vef.oGm.faemf}}[k qdk\/ ]][kwfr. .fxifw.&\/ taBumif. aNrNyefYwGif NrifawGYaeus yHkyef.? ywf0ef.pGm awGYNrifvkduf&Nyef\/ odkYaomf aygufa&mufNzpfxGef.taiGYvHk. ay:wG i f vk d u f y goG m .aysmfyg.qef. yHko@efrsm.i. vGifYNrL.qef.&dS rD.udk pm.ftoGif &dSonfuvGJvQif useft&mcyfodrf.\ awmifaNcem.cJYaomfvnf.axG.uvnf.qif.fbeef.pdkaNyaom awmtkyfrsm. rD. .\ taNc&dS Nrufcif.vdk ckefayguf NrL.awmufBuD.f em.usif taetxm.acR.rQyif rwHkYNyefEdkifawmYacs/ usef.qef.omvsuf&dS&m olYEIwfcrf.aeonfrSm olwdkY wufa&mufaeae&aom a&cJwHk.axG.qGwfysHYzG.ESifY vGefpGm vSypdkaNyaeonf/ usef./ aemuf w pf & uf t xd a&pD . ae&mtESHY awGYNrifae&Ncif.rl taiGYwvlvl vGifYNrL.aiGYrsm.rsdK.lay.acR.&oHNzifY .fyif Nzpfonf/ 151 . ausmufaqmifrsm.udk awGYvdkuf&\/ olwdkYonf NrL.Nyifus.awmifwef.wl.aeaomxdkt&mBuD. ]]tpfudka&? tpfudka&? wl.&onf/ xdkYaBumifY usef.rSm aysmfvdkYrqHk.awmifuykd if NrifvmNyDNzpfonf/ aemufqHk.rSm tHYzG.qdkif.rSm qdwfqdwfNidrfNidrfESifY BunfEl.f aBumufrufzG.xl.wufvsuf&dSonfudk usef.vef.frsm.acR.cJYacs/ trSefrl þ0ef.rSm aNrmuf0if&.usif&dS &moDOwkrSm aEG.rsm.rS bmpum.usifESifY þawmifwef.&vsuf o m/ ok d Y aomf trnf.qef.yif Nzpfyg\/ aygufuGJcsdefwGif awmifBuD.vnf.omtm.wl.awmifbufodkY arsmyg pD.tpm.qef.rsm.aygufa&mufum awmtkyfBuD.a&? [dk .vmvIyf&Sm.rSmrl tcsde&f ifYanmif. tkyftkyfqkdif.onfvnf. Nzpfaeonfudk awGYNrifvkduf&aomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/ usef.rsm.0ef. ES i f Y twl a&cJ w H k . &kwfw&uf xckefNyD.BuD.onf thHzG.fbeef.aeNcif. a&at.wef.vQHrD.qef.acR.acR.rwfrwf OD.udk rNrifzl.f? acsi.u ae&m0ifa&muf.rsm.wkYd awGYvu kd &f aom rD.atmif e*g.wpf0dkufESifY atmufbufwGif vGefpGm pdrf. wpfckyif Nzpfonf/ .NzifY thHzG.wpfarm &IarQmfBunfY&if.awmifwef.udk xl.aemuf awmifwef.axG.rSm rD.wGif olwdkYESpfOD.yif/ trSerf l use.teD.NyD. vGefpGm 0rf.fqDodkY vSrf.qef.rsm. opfyifrsm.onf NyifywGif ae&mtESYH aNcqefYzl.Nzpfí þrD.rsm.awmifBuD.wkdY\ a&cJwHk.u awmifxdyfESifYwuG oG.vmavav? ydí k NrifYvmav NzpfonfuNkd rif&avonf/ aemuf rD.aiGYwef.yg trSwfrxif NrifvkdufBu&onf/ xdktcg usef.rSm vGefpGm xl.BuD.usif&dS ausmufwHk.qef.qef.u 0rf. aEG. xdk.a&m csifwl.rSm rarQmfvifYbJ rD.acR.pyfta[mif.oGm.aomufaeBu\/ þ ywf0ef.wuúodkvf aevif. pdrf.aeNcif. &kwfw&uf rNidrf. .aom awmifBuD.f acR.aiGYwef.rsm.rD.wl.om awmifydkif.&dS&modkY wpfaewmom ukefqHk.omtm.BuD.

.onf awmtkyfBuD.f ao.acs/ urÇmavmuBuD.wpfckudk NzwfausmfvmNyD. olwdkYESpfOD.awmpOf.NyD.a&? udk.awG aysmfaysmfNrL.fwdkY awmifBuD.awmY ydkNyD.tvTm.BuD. .av\/ usef.a&mif azsmYazsmY NzefYusufxm. wpfaumif *lxJrS aNy.wuúodkvf aevif.awG &d&S ifav wu.0gBuD.mufvufudk wpfa. wu.aom opfyifrsm.ay:rSm 'dNyifvl &dScsifvJ &dSaer.\ atmufwGifawmYrl ausmuf*lBuD.yJaemf? odyfat.ckwfonf/ 0uf0HBuD.onf aBumufvefYwBum.NyD. . BuD.udkom tHYBoaom rsufvHk.? oGm.qef. tdyfpufvdkufBuavawmYonf/ olwYkd Nyefvnf Ed. vSnfYywfBunfYvdkufBuonf/ xkdtcg xl.ay:odkY a&mufcsdefwGif Nrufcif.vTm.vnf.aysmfpGm atmfí qdkvdkuf\/ ]]tpfudk 'Dae&mu odyfaumif.fvYkd xifrrd mS trSeyf aJ emf tpfudk}} usef.NzifY ykwfcsvkdufonf/ csifwl. pum. vSyaewmyJ? tkd . wpfudkif.ywfvnfawGudk vSnfYywfBunfY&atmif? 'DuRef.&drfpGmNzifY . rS m aNrmuf b uf q D o d k Y quf í pD.f v mBuoNzif Y aNrBuD . opfudkif.wmyJaemf? odyfvSwmyJ}} csifwl.rSm vefYzsyfNyD.aom ausmufawmifBuD.í olY"m.qpfudk &dkufvdkuf\/ 152 .wl.NzifY NidrfoufpGm BunfYaeBu\/ csifwl. awG.udkom awGYvdkufBuav\/ olwdkY ESpfOD.r&dSaom xl.u aemufrS vkduf0if&if.usif wpfckvHk. .&J wd&pämef &dSw. pum.modYk r. vGwfvGwfvyfvyf &dSaeyHkaxmuf&if 'DuRef.mufqGJí rD.fYukd ewfNynfa&mufaew.u pdk.u NrL.f}} ]]bmyJNzpfNzpfav? vSnfYywf avYvmxm. .rl orifav.l wl.wl.nif. orifav.farmvdkuf\/ csifwl. .onf aemufbuf a*g.vdkufNyD. rwfwwf&yfum csiw f .NyifwGif tpmpm.acR.vkduf&yg/ ]]*l.BupdkY&JY}} odkYNzifY olwdkYESpfOD.odkY Nznf.Edkif"m.wl.wl. olYpum.\ 'l.udk vufNzifYwpfcsufykwfvkduf&m "m.wl.awG? ief.atmif e*g.oGm.yg.qef.avonf/ olwdkYukef.u vSpfceJ a&Smifwdrf.onf wpfa.qef.pGm avQmufoGm.kH vnf. ]]tpfudka& ywf0ef.frsm.udk vufuav. kd v f .raeawmYay/ a&cJwHk.BuD.NzifY 0uf0HBuD. r&dSbJ olwdkYESpfOD.NyD.uav.acgif.l wl. 0ifoGm.&Jwd&pämefr&dSbl.\/ usef.udk xdk.BuD.\ OD. aemufoYkd ckeq f w k v f u dk \ f / 0uf0BH uD. ]]wl.vsuf &dSao.wl.rsm.f r&dSbl.NzifY 0uf0HBuD. tvif.qef.a0.w&&.rm. NzpfatmifaygY|| ]]tpfudk 'D orifav.udk vufBuD.NzifY nifompGm yGwfoyf&if. . ay:wG i f y if vS J a vsmif .ceJ ckefNyD.f? acsi. rD.vdkY xifygw.xGufvmonfudk awGY&avonf/ 0uf0BH uD.onf/ ]]wl.\ acgif.awmif\ taNcokdY wuf v mavawmY \ / xd k t cg ol w d k Y E S i f Y t wl arsmvmaom a&cJ w H k .onf &Snf&Snfa0. ]]wl.ay:rS vTm.fYudk ewfbHk twdkif.rsm.wpfawmifudk awGYvkduf&Nyef\/ xkd ausmufawmifBuD.Ge.ay:rSm om.wpfaumif tem. ra&S.aBumifY tm.qef.rm. csNyD .f? aemufNyD.*&m. wdwdusus od&wmaygY? vm wl.fvkdufrd\/ xd k Y aemuf v G e f p G m yif y ef .pm.tm.acR.usif? uRef.? trnfazmfNyEdkifpGrf.í .BuD.a& owdxm. vSrf. wpfu.vdkuf\/ owday.&JY ab.[m wu. NzLqGwaf e\/ csifw. EG r f .wl. e.yif vGefpGm BuD.rSm BuHYwpfaumife.BuD.wl. aemufudk qkwfvkduf}} [k atmf[pf owday.wl.}} [laom toHBuD.om.wl.oHyif rqHk.qif.NzLBuD.url a&SYw.qHk.D yg.aemuf BuD.kd í vufEpS zf ufuakd NrSmufNyD.NyD.iSufwd&pämefrsm.acR. wpfck/ csifwl.rSm vGifYpOfusoGm.Ncif.u csifwl.ESifYol &.awmif0ef. aNy. om.onfESifY ausmuf*lxJodkY taNy. Bum. BuD .aemf}} [k atmf[pf owday.csrf.qdkwmvJ avYvmNyD.u olY"m.aomufaeBuaom orif? '&.NrL.onfY om.vSaom 0uf0HBuD.wpf0dkuf taNy. .fvYdkom aiGAsKd if.raESmif.k vmBucsed w f iG f aerif.

u tm. aNy.wpfzuf uef.? 'D0uf0HawG opfyif rwufwwfygapeJY}}[k qkawmif.lum 0uf0HBuD.vsuf &.ESiYf rQ Edik af tmif wku d cf u dk Ef idk rf nfr[kw[ f k em.wl.xG u f & maemuf o d k Y xyf B uyf r uG m aNy. BuD.wdkY wufa&mufae&m opfyifudk atmufrS 0dkif.vnf.í vufonf.farm&if.&yfNyD.BuNyD. ckepfaumifudk BunfY&if. acgif.ESifY csifwl.oGm. aemufodkY zswfceJ vSnfYBunfYvkduf&m csifwl.0g. tpfudka&}}[k csD.aeav\/ usefacR.pl.ae\/ olwdkYonf usef.ay:wGif vl. .qef.lNyD.u vufckyfvuf0g.vkdufBuNyD? a&SYaemufydwfxm.wl.qef.tay:okdY ypfwifvkduf\/ usef.ceJcsdK.k BuHYwpfaumife.onf/ okdYaomf "m.qef. wpfcsufrQom atmfNyD.acR.NzifY rmefzD atmf[pfaeBuav\/ xdktcg usef.rdkY usef.u &kwfw&uf .onf wpfwef.rl csifw.vnf.acR.wl. bGm.acR. usef. &yfvsufaeNyD.ceJ xGuv f monfukd awGYvu dk &f Nyef\/ csifw. . yJYwifxyfoGm.wl.vku d v f mcsdew f iG yf if &kww f &uf olwYkd a&SYrS 0uf0BH uD.qef.tm.wpfcv k .fenf.qef.D eD. ckepfaumifurkd l usef.f ceJ vJusaoqH.&drfaomtoHNzifY .xm. .BuD.kH [de.rSm tm.wl.BupdkY wl.rsm.aom tazmf 0uf0HBuD.0g.udkrl csufcsif. aNcwpfzuf usdK. ]]bk&m.udk b.Ncif.wl. olwdkYtm.wl.vkdufBuNyD}} usef. ck e pf a umif u &yf w ef Y raeyg/ ol w k d Y aNy.atmif e*g.NyD. tuif.av\ xdkpOf csifwl.vH.acR. ûyonf/ xdkpOf usef. udk.Edkif"m.acR. aNrBuD.k oGm.rsm..wl.wl.aeNyDNzpfaBumif. ]]wl.wif.? vG. .oGm.\ toHwGif pdk.NyD.rsm. .qef.udk vufwpfzufuayGYí ckefwufvkdufavonf/ csifwl.oGm.qef.vSdrfYatmfNrnfaeavonf/ xdktNzpfudk Nrifaomf usef0uf0Hrsm. "m.BuD. vSnYf BunfYvu kd cf sdew f iG f olYaemufbufrS 0uf0NH zLckepfaumifu wpfwef.onf apmapmpOfu usef.wl. atmfaNymonf/ csifwl.udkqGJvsuf *lxJrS aNy.armYí a'gowBuD. r[k w f y gbl .wnf.u . aemufrS 0uf0H ckepfaumifuvnf.rSm vGepf mG Nyif.Nzpf[efwlonf/ usef.fwif&ef &kwfw&uf a&mufvmNcif.ceJ}} opfudkif.olyDyD taNctae qdk.\ vufarmif.acR. .í usef.ynmygvm.qef.vnfvkduf\/ xdkaBumifY .? bk&m.vmaeNyDNzpfaom 0uf0HBuD.fYqDudk NrefNrefckefvmcJY}}[k atmfaNymav\/ usef.ovdk 0uf0HBuD.f xGuo f mG . .qef.wl.tm. .udk tay:ypfwifvkduf}}[k tavmwBuD. b.kH aumifcefY&\ Sd / tm. tarG.udk ypfpdkufvkduf\/ xdk0uf0HrSm rsufvHk.qDodkY ckef0ifvm\/ NyD.l wl. usdK. tck 0uf0BH uD.rSm pl. xufydkif.í xk. csifwl.NyD. Edik v f u dk af omfvnf.\ atmfoHudk Bum.wdkYudk 0uf0HawGu 0dkif.onfNzpfí emusifpmG atmfvu dk o f nf/ xkt d cg uRef.wnfY&mtaNy. oGm.wl. ]]aNy.onf &kwfw&uf avxJokdY vTm.rsm.k taumif q.fYo.wGif awGY&aom opfyifwpfyifay:odkY csifwl. aBumuf&GHY wkefvIyfvmBu\/ apmapmurl wpfaumifwnf.acR. vufcsufNzifY aoqHk. ]]tpfudk? tpfudk? wl.acR.í taBumufvGefaeaom csifwl.yg.ceJ ckefwufvkdufNyD.wl.f}} 0uf0BH uD.u opfudkif.xlum NzLazG.fvufNzifY zrf.fygw.wD.wJY udk.vdkufvmae\/ þokdY usef.rGrf.udkvsifNrefpGmaumuf. .ESifY csifwl.wpfudkif.kd pdu k v f u dk af v\/ 0uf0BH uD.wuúodkvf aevif.wl.acR.NzJum wkdufckduf&ef a&SYwdk.faumif.awmYonf/ csifwl.qef.wnf.qef.vefYtm.qef. ESpfodrfY&\/ ]]'D 0 uf 0 H a wG opf y if w uf w wf v J taBumif . ]]w.yif tem.acR.NzifY .vH.onf csufcsif.u aBumuftm.\ aemufapYudk tay:rS pD. a&SYwkd. ]]azsmif.NzJum wdkufckduf&ef rmefoGif.wpfaumif\ rsufvHk.acR.qef.qef. . aBumifoGm. "m.í 0uf0HBuD.a&}}[k aNymNyD. . oGm. .EIwfrS ]][m}} ceJ aBumufvefY atmfvu dk rf \ d / taBumif.u aNcOD.u "m.u vGefpGm pdk.acR.oGm.í u.xm.l wl.aemuf bke.wl.aeonfudk awGYvdkuf&aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ trSefrl þ0uf0HBuD.onf opfyifay:odkY armYBunfYraeawmYbJ opfyif\ yifpnfudkom 0dkif.udk aNzmif.NzifY 153 .&drfaBumifYusoH ygaeoNzifY csifwl.av\/ 0uf0HBuD.qef.\ &ifcGifem. ]]wl.acR.xGufcJYavawmY\/ od k Y aomf 0uf 0 H B uD . ? wpf a umif w uf & if wpf a umif taoowfypfvkdufrSmaygY? raBumufygeJY wl. .fazmY odkif.xefaom 'Pf&m&oGm. odvkduf\/ xdkYaBumifY csufcsif.wl.acR. ulnD&ef ûyvkduf\/ usef.

0if.wdkYrSm rsufESmESifY udk.f olwYdktem.vdkvdk t&mrSm wu.\ atmfoHudkBum.fawmfrlBuyg? uRefrwdkYudk 0uf0HBuD.xuf vGefpGmaBumufrufzG.\ OD. cGJNcm.trSif r&dS/ odkYaomf olESifYrl &kyfcsif.pGm atmfvu kd rf o d nf/ csifw.vkdufav\/ xdktcg rD.odYk a&mufvmNyD.aeNyef&m csifwl.\ OD.qef.qef.om xl.wl. pdwfqdk.onf ûyH.muf&dS&m opfudkif.\ vufudk olu yGwfoyfaeNcif.ckrl wu. ay:vmyg\/ þyHktwkdif.vTrf.ESifYuGJatmif cGJEdkifonfudk awGY&aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ þarsmuf0HBuD.BuD.wpfaumif Nzpfaeav\/ xkad rsmuf0rH mS oHk.f qkid f opfyifwpfyifrS rD.f&Sif}} csifwl. wpfcsufrQ wkefcgoGm.vufrcefY eufaom taBumif.onf arsmuf0HBuD.qdkygvQif aemufxyf em&D0ufcefY tcsdeftwGif.rsm.? vufonf.rsm.f acR.ESifY oHk.ay:odkY usa&mufvmavawmY\/ usef.l wl.rsm.faumif.\ vufarmif.aom atmfoHtqHk.f? rif. csufcsif.rSm csifwl. Nzpfrnfpdk. aemufxyfwpfzefxGufay:vmNyefav\/ csifwl.Bu\/ taBumif .wpf z uf r S vG e f p G m pl . opfyifatmufodkY vufndSK. tNcm.wl.tm.rSmvnf.avonf/ xdktcg 0uf0HBuD.wl xifrSwfoGm.f awGYvkduf&yg\/ usef.wGif apmapmpOfu xl.&SpGmatmfNyD. tultnDawmif.}} arsmuf0HBuD.i.vQif aNrBuD.wkdYxH NyefckefwufvmNyD.rSmyif &kww f &uf uRef.\ OD.lpm.onf ao&awmYrnfY twlwl atmfcsif&matmf[pfvkdufNcif.tm.k r[kwb f J wpfu.\ vufudk Nyefvnf yGwfoyfaeav\/ trSefrl þarsmuf0Honf þuRef.rSm 0uf0HBuD.atmif e*g.yif tenf.yJ Nzpfonf/ csifwl.í NyefvnfwkHYNyefvkdufaomf atmfoHyifvm.wl.aumif.vQif em.vnf. aBumuftm. &S a om atmf o H w pf c k xyf r H a y:xG u f v m\/ xk d t oH r S m vG e f p G m xl .fxnfNzifY wkdufvkdufonfESifY usdK.NzifY zkH.vnf.vHk.0g.wufovdk wke. awmufyaeaom rsufvHk.l wl.aESmufrSm olwdkY 154 . a&Ta&mif w0if.aeNyef\/ csifwl.vefYtm.vHk. NyD .wdYk tm.rod/ csifwl. wpfzef rarQmfvifYbJ a&muf&dSvmaom þ arsmuf0HBuD.wl.Edkifaom taNctaeodkY a&muf&dSaeNyD Nzpfyg\/ xkdpOf opfyifBuD.aESmufukd csiw f .Nyvsuf .rodaom atmfoH [def.Sufaeygw.awmifarsmuf0HBuD.wl.\ tNcm.wl.\ udk.awmifarsmuf0HBuD.qef. 'DaumifawGudk armif.Edkifrvm. ukwfNcpfvkduf? oGm.fay:wGif tarT.u olwdkYqDodkY &kwfNcnf.vnf.rl xyfrHí atmf[pfvkduf\/ ]]u.qef. iSufatmfoHavvm. nTefNyaom 0uf0HBuD.xGufvmonfESifYtwl opfyifudk ûzdvSJypf&ef ûyaeaom 0uf0HBuD.acR.rSm wuRwfuRwfNrnfNyD.vkduf\/ NyD.wpfaumif\ OD.pdkufBunfYNyD.qef.udkwpfvSnfY? csifwl.vkduf&\/ usefacR. vGefpGm vSy cspfp&maumif.ta&mif eD&aJ eaom arsmuf0BH uD. ra&S.aeay&m olYtoGifu vGefpGm cspfp&maumif.vQif rsuEf mS csi.ESifxkwfay.&mrS &kwcf sn.acs/ .Nznf. f ifvmBuNyD.wl.kH taoG.Edkif"m.aomufaeav\/ csif w l . qef .aeavonf/ NyD. ud k wpfcsufwnf.trSifrsm.awG vkdufaESmifY.lpm. [kdonf vSnfYupm. .aESmufudk BunfY&if. wpfudk.vufp 0uf0BH uD.raESmif.fvHk.awmif arsmufBuD.aESmufudkEdIufxkwfum csifwl.Bu\/ csifwl.wGif vlom. wd k Y wk e f v I y f o G m .wuúodkvf aevif. \ OD .aeavonf/ trSefrl csifwl.vnf.vnfoGm.wl.fvHk.om Nzpfaomfvnf.aom atmfoHuvnf.ûyH.Bu\/ xkYd aemuf tzsm.w&pm.onf pm.qef.wl. &kwf&kwfoJoJ NzpfomG .acR.\ xufNrufrIwdkYrSm tNcm.xdk.a&m csifwl.aom owå0grsm.wl.ESiYf use.vH. eD&Jaom tarG.ESifY rawGYzl.rsm.u em. . rl þarsmuf 0 H B uD .uvnf.rsufESmudk wpfvSnfY pl.\ atmfox H u G af y:vmNyD.vQif &kwfw&uf 0uf0HBuD.\/ xkdYaBumifY csifwl. rsufESmwpfuGufwnf.wlaeonfudk awGY&í olYrsdK.udk.yg vefYzsyfvsuf xdkt&mudk taotcsm BunfYaomf xkdrD.qef.fawmfrlBuyg? u.udk vufESpfzufNzifY cGJvkduf\/ aemuf OD.í BudwfrdSwfum tenf. ]]'D0uf0HawGu igwdkYudk &efrlaeBuw. bmaumifrSef.BuD.? arsmufatmfoHavvm.NzifY udkufNzwfvkdufESifY ûyvkyfaeBu\/ rBumyg/ opfyifBuD. xkd. kd v f .yg.ck usefacR.NyD.auR.ay: aysmYacGpmG 0yfvu dk Bf uonfukd thBH ozG.BuD. .vnfívm.aeonfudk awGYvu kd &f \/ xdpk Of rD.vJoGm.vdkvdk t&mwpfcku olwdkY ESpfa. &ifxJrS ysdKYtefcsifvm\/ odkYaomf rD.rsm.fY rD. a&muf&dSvmNyDNzpf\/ NyD. onf 0uf 0 H B uD .f .rSm wNznf.pGm NzLazG.wl. xdktNzpfudk Nrifaomf vGefpGm thHBooGm.ay.[efNzifY wpfcsufrQ pl.fyif vGefpGm xl.f .r&atmif Nzpfaeav\/ xdkxl. wl .rsm.aeNyD.wl. opfyifBuD.wdkYvnf. xdkenf.aom taumifBuD.NzifY wpfcsufrQ pl.acgif.wl. opfyifay:rS ckefqif. raNymwwfacs/ &kww f &uf qdo k vdyk if xdak tmforH mS a0.&Tif&Tif trlt&mNzifY olYvufudk urf.aycefY&dSNyD.i.onf aysmYwdaysmYzyf EdkifvSaom 0uf0HBuD.qef.qef.wl.rmefqdk.avaomf csifwl. tm. acgif .

onf vlpum. rûy? xGufaNy. ESpfaumif\ OD.vHk. rûybJ aNrBuD.i.tm.vSonfudk awGY&avonf/ csifwl.vQif 0uf0HBuD.onf arsmuf0HBuD. &.wuúodkvf aevif.vHk.vnf.onf qmvGef.wl.qef.Ncif.u &.aumif.onf xdk0uf0H OD.tm.fí arsmuf0HBuD.aeOD.qef.onfrSm opfyifatmufrS xkdxdkaom 0uf0HBuD. 'ku©ay.awmifarsmuf0HBuD.ESifYtwl opfyifatmufodkY ckefqif.wpfaumif owfypfavonf/ xdk0uf0Hrsm.ifpGm vnfpif. pm.Edkif"m.awmif arsmufBuD.lpm.wifwmyJ}}[k qdkav\/ rD.fNyvsuf ]]odyfaus.wpfaumifNyD.Zl.ay:wGif 0yfvsuf wkef.awmif arsmufBuD.ûyorQ ckcHNcif. aNc[efvuf[efESifYa&m yg.wl.vnf.íukefaomf aemufxyfwpfzef opfyifay:rS ckefqif.aESmufudk cGJí .acR.aESmuf pm.r.aecsdefNzpfí aemufxyf tenf.NyD. em.yif Nzpf\/ csifwl. useforQ 0uf0Htm.rsm.cHaeBuonfudk awGY&Ncif.vnf[efNzifY csufcsif.oGm.vkdufNyef\/ xdkYaemuf rD.vHk.tm.NyD.pyfuyg aNymNyef\/ ]]tJ'D wdkYudk &efûywJY 0uf0HawGtm.lvmNyef\/ xl. xifouJYodkY r[kwfbJ vGefpGm t&om csdKpdrfYNyD.f}} arsmuf0HBuD.ESifY csifwl.f .vdkufawmYonf/ 155 .atmif e*g.? awmfBum olwdkYu igwkdYudk qufNyD.udk owfypfvkdufygvm.wdkYonf rD.opfyifatmufodkY ckefqif.aoukefawmYrSyif usef.wl.

pm.wl. . ul vk y f u d k i f a y.\ ûyrlyHkudk BunfYí w[m.udk BunfY&onfrmS olonf þuRef. usef. vSnf. vnf .\ tnpftaBu.rSm udkufESpfq.rodbl.pGmNrifae&\/ odkY&mwGif 0uf0Hrsm. xk w f v k d u f \ / csif w l .ckefayguf upm.rSm vGefpGmaysmf&TifoGm. ulnDrvdkESifY trIdufrsm.\ vufudkqGJí tumtuG. aq.rsm.vQif .wl.f tpfudk? 'gayr.qef. ]]ae&muawmY odyfudk aumif.wkdY armifESHrSmrl arsmuf0HBuD.f? oHk.fvkyfum *lxJokdY 0ifBunfYvdkuf\/ *lBuD. 'DudkvmNyD.wl.usif.? udk.f&dSaomfvnf. . tv.wl.onf / rD . wl .q. yGJusaeBu\/ olwdkYonf tnpftaBu.wl.acR.acR.wdkY ESpfOD.atmif e*g.wl.axmufrí aoab.u csifwl.NyD.aeavonf/ arsmuf0BH uD. .awmifarsmufBuD.Bu\/ olwdkY BuifpOD.xkwfNyD.tm.f&uftawmtwGif 'DteHYawG aysmufoGm. tpfukd}} ]]tif.u opfudkif.fA[dkwGif tufaBumif.&dpmG aeae&mrS &kww f &uf rarQmfvifYbJ þtazmfrsm.NzifY wHNrufpnf.f? 'gayr.vsuf vGefpGm NrL.eSifY awGY&aomaBumifY vGefpGm NrL. armifESHonf a&TvufwGJvsuf &.Edkif"m.wpfck&dS\/ xdk tufaBumif. 0d k i f . 0ifae&m *lxJ&dS t&m0w¬K [loa&GYudk aumif.aeYwkdif.f&.vTm.acR.aBumifY *lxJwGif teHYtoufqdk.rSmvnf.aBumvkduf&ifawmY q.[m.farmarmNzifY avQmufaebdokdY arsmuf0HBuD.aeyHk&av\/ usef. uHaumif. vGwfaNrmufvmaom usef.rsm. &Tef.udk vSnf.rSmyg wl.a&? [dk0uf0HawGaewJY *lxJrSm 'dNyif 0uf0HawG&dSao.wuúodkvf aevif. wpfckvkyfí *lxJrS tnpftaBu.u aNy.ESifY csifwl.rsm.BunfY&atmif}} xdktcg csifwl.wl. .acR.zGaeav\/ csifwl.xl.qef.qef.fY teHYtoufawGu qdk.ywfvnfwGif vSnfYywf aNy.fcefY eufNyD. .? [kwfygw. tcef. rS m rl tod Ó Pf tenf.rsm. ckefaygufaeaom arsmuf0HBuD. .udk vS n f . . ysif.vm.a0pGm BunfY&if.rS Nyify tvif.}} xdkYaemufwGifawmYrl usef.ay:wGif wpfaumifwnf.udk 0dkif.udk ydwfvsuf .\/ csifwl.rsm. awmif arsmuf B uD .fY aeYwdkif. (17) rD. cPrQ pOf.vTm. ]]wl.vkdufwm vGefyga&myJ? xDG . 156 .wl.qef. . ysHYvGifYae\/ csifwl. arsmufonf arsmufomvQifNzpfí arsmufpdwfom0ifNyD.ygw.onfYwkdif teHYtoufu NyefYvdIifaeqJyif &dSygao.fwdkY oGm.u ESmacgif.i.xl. rcHEdkifbl. olwdkY ab.rS oDoDuav.wkdYtm.a&mifrsm. .

lvkdufBuavawmYonf/ aemufwpfaeY/ xdkaeYwGif usef.wdkYudk tpdrf.oGm.vGef.awmifNzpfaomfvnf. u tm.awmY\/ .wGif xm.fY}} csifwl.uk e f x k w f í cJ v H k .f wl.vmcJY&m . . .wl.wuúodkvf aevif.r&dSawmY cufw.vkyfaepOf csifwl.fwpfck tBuH&xm.ruyfcifuyJ rD.}} csifwl.ocifu wl.wnf xGufcGmoGm.qef.? tem.vdkufonf/ ig. ]]udk.wl.rvdkvdkESifY rdkifig.rSm wpfcsdefvHk.f? 'gqdk wl.wGif EIwfcrf.aevkdY cufaewm wl.cJNzpfoGm.u csifwl.Ekdifw. aeylvSrf.onf/ 157 .if.aew.pm&zkdY udk. . oGm.fY? tck tpfudkY tBuHu opfacgufawGudk&Sm êud.acR.Edkif"m. .qGJoGm.u 0rf.fvkd tBuH&wmvJ tpfudk [if}} ]]rD. b.qufae&\/ odkYaomf olwdkY ESpfOD.NzifY 0uf0HBuD.u odyfoabmusoNzifY vufckyfvuf0g. .rSm rD.aoG.qef. acR.}} csifwl.awmufu odyfBuD.qef.rSm avQmufav yltdkufvmavESifY aemufqHk.wD.i.aESmufudk pm.a&.uspfNyD.wpfa.awmifxdyfqD ypfvTwfvkdufBuygpdkY? 'Dxuf a&SYwufNyD. ud k 0S D .awmufudkNrifaomf vGefpGm tusuf pm.wl.wl.muf *lxJwGif oefY&Sif.rSm prf.rsm. ]]'Dr. tNyifbufodkY pD.ck rD.pifoGm.aea&mYovm. .uawmY &dSygw.&NyDaygY tpfudk&JYaemf}} olwdkYESpfOD.u xkdodkYaNymNyD.NyD.uspfavawmY\/ xdkYaemuf av.fuG.um a&cJwHk.atmif e*g.udk vS.qef. . . . .w. t&nfaysmfNyD.udk a&cJab.fawmYrQ ykyfokd.rSmyJaemf}} usef.f wl.&JY xdyfzsm.yif opfacgufrsm. uRef.pmêud.awmif0em.acR.tem.qef .&oHNzifY .rSm aocsmw. .Bu\/ rD.f Nzpfí at.xkwfvkdufouJYodkY teHYtoufrsm. pu wef.udk aq.&dS&if odyfaumif.lNyD.wl.f tpfudk}} ]]tpfudk tBuH&NyD}} usef.vsuf .vkd t&SnfBuD.awmifxdyf0rS awmufavmifaeaomrD. 'DteD. ]]bk&m.q.eJY tBuHxkwf&ifawmY &rSmyg}} xdkYaemufwGif olwdkYonf 0uf0H OD.wl.foHNzifY . . .fNyifxJrS r.xm. tpfudk&.awmif0udk BunfYvQif eD. aemuf w G i f êud .u . vufwkdYac:í .u rD.acR.vef.acsmif. *lxJwGif wnfYxm.wdkY vkdcsifaewJY rD.udk rD.rSm cJvHk.odkY usef. .awmif tayguf0rSm rD.uyfzkdYqkdwm rvG.udkom pm.kd pGe.vdu k v f Qif b.raESmif.acR.Nznf.omtm.uGm\/ ZGJNzifY c&D.u tm.fwdkY rD.pufru I &daS eyg\/ xkYd aBumifY 0uf0H tom.udk vSrf. tvGeaf t. touf&SL usyfvmavonf/ xdktcg usef.\ tpGef. ceJ ypf v T w f v k d u f \ / cJ v H k .wl.wl.aomufcsifae&SmNyD Nzpf\/ okdYNzifY olwdkYonf csufcsif. ]]odyfydkifwJY tBuHygyJ tpfudk? êud.fY odyf tiftm.av? wNznf.&ufaNrmufaomaeYwGif olwdkYonf rD.csnfxm.vkduf? aemufNyD.u .rsm.udk BunfYNyD.rsm.f? 'gayr.aom a&cJonfY aNrmuf0if&.BuD.&ifawmY udk.f .D xkwv f u dk \ f / þ0ef.? tem.ig.acR. . ]]b.rsm. uif.wl.tm.wl.udk cGmí êud.oufoufyJ pm.xGufvmav\/ xkdtcg tnpftaBu.aoG. ]]tpfudka&? ckaecgrSm rD.fcefY a0. .NyD.ypfvkduf? 'Dvkdqdk&if êud. .pufaeaom ae&modkYoGm.yif aNcmufuyfvmNyD.wpfzuf&dS at.fwkdY 'Dae&muyJ rD.ckdif.wl. tdyfpuftem.fuG.? tif.wkdY a&wHcGefwdkY&dS&if odyfaumif. .u "m.ygoGm. .wl.BuD.qef. om.BuD.&ufrQ aeylvSrf.BuD. . . .\ ta&cGu H ckd mG í tom.pdrf.f}} usef .awmifbufqDodkY OD. .rSmyJaemf? yifv.fbl.f wl.fa&uawmY &dSyg&JY? cyfzdkY a&yHk.vdrfYrnf r[kwfacs/ csifwl.cJ NzpfoGm.rSmyif a&cJwHk.rsm.usifae&mrSm rD.rSm aocsmw..vkdufav\/ ra&S. ]]tif.pdrf.? rD. rD. ]]rD.udk yifv.

&drfaeBu\/ csifwl.onf/ xkdYaBumifY arsmuf0HBuD.eJYawmY rD.ck xdkolonf ausmufaqmifay:wGif xD.onf usef.onf &TDceJ avwpfcsufcRefNyD.ay:&dS vGefpGmom.muf xyfrH a&muf&dSaeonfudk tHYbeef.u oabmraygufao.wpfyHk rD. ayGYzufvkduf\/ xkdYaemufwGifrl usef.lvkdufonf/ okdYaomf êud.maom &Icif.BuD. .pm.rSm NrefvGef.BuD.&NzifY*lxJodkY NyefvmNyD. 'Dêud.u om.vkduf\/ rD. .zG. arsmuf0HBuD.rSm rD. .? ûywfívnf.vSay&m usef.0 raBumufbl.pm.&zkdY rvG.if.qef. wl.ay:odkY vlwpfa.xJü rD.axG.awmif arsmuf0HBuD.uifí vnf.bdodkY cHpm.oNzifY odyfrBumvSay/ csifwl.í arsmuf0HBuD.pdrf.tcsdew f iG f arsmuf0BH uD.\/ tpfudk 'D arsmuf0HBuD.udk aumufí ypfvkduf aNy.rl vlol vHk.\ vufudk qGJí xdkae&mrS NyefvSnfY&ef ûyonf/ okdYaomf .tm.omtm.vkdufESifY aysmfNrL.Edkif"m.tNzpf usdKaomufBu\/ tom.wnfYatmif pDrH\/ a&cJudk t&nfaysmfapNyD.wl.awmY\/ odkYNzifY arsmuf0HBuD.vmcJY&aom olwdkYonf þokdY t&om&dS&dSpm.acR.u xkdtcsif.rnfudk vGefpGm pdk.atmif twlwuG tdyfpufBuavonf/ wwd.acs/ oHk.vdkuf pm.u êud.acR. rD. olwdkYESpfOD.qef.aumif.rsm.acR.&aomtcg vGefpGm Nrdef&SufBu\/ rD.onfESifY *lxJrS xGufí uRef.onf/ aNy. .qef.uJYodkYyif ausmufwHk.? rif.f}} csifwl. arsmuf0HBuD.prSm rD.aumif.udktoHk.? ig.0rpm.aumif.onf 0rf.f aumif.awmifxdyfodkY aNy. .onf BunfYae&if.&aom rdwfaqG Nzpfaeayonf/ olwdkYonf rD.lNyD.aomufBu\/ ukefvGefcJYaom &ufrsm.t&dSef &vmaomf olwkdY aysmfBu&\/ rD.wl.fawmYbl.wl.tm.'Pf ydkí vHkûcHatmif? aEG.xifw.aomfvnf.aeY/ usef.udkyJ êud.? zkwfívnf.BunfY&awmYr.? 'DaumifBuD.wdkYay.tNyefEIef.qif.wl.udk auR.EkdifNzpfum . pdwfysufoGm.acR.wl.aNcwpfae&m&dS ausmufaqmifBuD. .qef.onf csifw.ygvm.acR.xm.armBunfYaeav\/ &Icif.wl.udk EIwfESifYvnf.f awGYNrifvkduf&aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ .ae\/ csifwl.wl.oGm.qef.vkduf&yg\/ taBumif.acR.yHkBuD.\ toGm. .awmifxdyfrSm rD.fyg vef.u arsmuf0HBuD.&yfvsuf &dSaeavNyD/ 158 .wl.qef. Nzpf\/ &efolvnf.l wl.aumif. rD.ae\/ xdktcdkuf urf.pudk udkifqGJvsuf rD.rsm.atmif e*g.? csifwl.onfvGefpGm tm. ac:vkduf\/ ]][JY .udkvnf.0a&mufcJbdaom þ aNrmuf0ef&dk.onf pdwfa&mudk. .rSm &ifwxdwfxdwfNzifY BunfYaeBu&\/ olwdkYu þarsmuf0HBuD.[efrSm vGefpGm NrefoNzifY rBumrDyif ta0.onf vl\ rdwfaqGvnf. aNymvkduf\/ odkYaomf arsmuf0HBuD.ESifY 0uf0H OD. NyefcJYawmY? NyefcJYawmY}}[k atmf[pf aNymav\/ odYk aomf .ESifY arsmuf0HBuD.u oufNyif. .aom êud.rsm.\ toHukd Bum.vQif rD.BudrfrQ aNymawmYrSyif arsmuf0HBuD. 'Denf.acR. ]]arsmuf0HBuD.pudk Nyefí qGJ.ESifY csifwl. ]]tif. Nzpf\/ olwdkYtzdkYum.wuúodkvf aevif.aemuf êud.aumif.udk ai.wl.aomufavonf/ tom.u rD.cs&if.onf twefBumatmif apmifYNyD.yom'u vGefpGm qGwfysHYzG.vmonf/ arsmuf0HBuD.a&mifazsmYazsmYomvif./ wpfn/ xdknwGif *lBuD. aemufNyefvSnYfí aNy. wpfpHkwpfck NzpfoGm.oGm.aESmufrsm.udkom &SmazGpm. opfoD.wdkYonf tat.BuD. a&aEG.qDodkY a&mufoGm.wufoGm.0vHrsm.? a[Y arsmuf0HBuD.u oabmaygufoGm.udik x f m.? ausmuf ausmufcsif.rS pdwfrxdef.wdkYonf 0rf.wpfckqDodkY ol BunfYvkdufrd\/ &kwfw&uf ol touf&SL&yfoGm.udk vHk.udkom tpdrf. vHk. a'otaNctaeudkvdkufí rD.qef.u omref arsmuf0H r[kwfbl.f}}[k qdk\/ xdkYaemufwGif csifwl.&dS uRef.pdrf.rsm.arT.}} csifwl.wnf.pGJavmifNcif.av\/ usef.pGef.? vuf[efaNc[efNzifY vnf.BuD. yGwfwdkufwJY enf. .if.rlum.t&mudk Nrifaomf &ifwpfcsuf vIyf&Sm.omvGef.r&dSacs/ usef.wl.qef.ESifY csifwl.tcsdefwGif arsmuf0HBuD.onfESifY csufcsif.onf t&kPfusif.ae\/ usef.pGaJ eNyDNzpfyg\/ arsmuf0BH uD.udk.

. .fvHk.Nzpfaeay&m om.vkduf\/ &SufpGef.onf/ wpfudk.oif.mufudkwpfa.aNcmufwHk.acR.rSmvJaew.? ol tck tm[m&NywfNyD.tawG.ay:wGiyf if olEiS Yf csifw. wl .tm.rvm.uef.mifvm\/ ]]wl.omoGm.wufvm\/ NyD.vQif xl.. Nrifa. . vl? wdkYudk aumif.wl.aeavonf/ 159 .cJYwJY &SufpGef. &SufpGef.qef. r[kwfyg/ pdwful. yuwd a wG y J ? &S u f p G e f .onf rsufvHk.qef.'.ndwfNyí aNzonf/ xkdtcg usef.ig.\/ twefBumrSyif usef.qef.aom avoHNzifY .pHk uG. Nznf.odkYavQmuf0ifvmNyDNzpf\/ &SufpGef. ac:vkduf\/ &SufpGef.wkdY olYtaNctaeudk odatmif oGm.l wl. usef.dkif avQmuf0ifvmNyD.qef.udk olacgif.aemuf aNray:okdY aysmYacGusoGm.&ygw.NzifY qkwfNzJí em.f wkefvIyfacsmufcsm.acR.ckrl xdkqHk.wpfa.&ef pdwyf ikd .f r&dSawmYyg[k olwdkYxifrSwfaeaom vloefBuD.u tom.wl.acR.tm.mufwnf.oGm.acR.ydkif. &SufpGef. ausmuf&kyfBuD.Bur.lvkdufonf/ NyD.acR.}} usef.wl./ usef.? o&Jvm. r[kwfyg/ wu.muf xyfrHa&mufvmygNyDaum/ usefacR.umprf.dkifNzifY prf. .yif wpfudkufcsif.wuúodkvf aevif.BunfYBu&atmif tpfudk}} ]]aumif.awmY þwpfouf NyefvnfqHkawGYEdkifzG. &yfraeawmY/ csufcsif.vSdrfYvkduf\/ &kwfw&uf olYem.qef.r&dScJY/ xkdYaBumifY olY wpfudk.&Smaom &SufpGef.ig.\ tar.u pum.vkduf&aom vloHrSm usef. xHkusOfoGm.tus.fyvsuf 'ku©dw wpfydkif.\/ trSefrl þuRef.acR.onf av. .oHom Nyefvmonf/ ]]q&mBuD.u êudêudwifwif &SufpGef. &SmazG pm. Nzpfyg\/ . vefYzsyfoGm.aeaomfvnf.yrm ililBuD.? ol .? wd&pämefvm. rsufqefNyL.NyD.udkyg ac:í *lxJrS xGufcJYBu\/ ]]q&mBuD. wdk. olYrsufpda&SYwGifyif tm[m&iwfNywfum vJusoGm.0ifoGm.om.BuD.qef. '.ovdk cHpm.rQom '.yif rsufESmñdSK. csifwl.}} usef.wJY arsmuf0HBuD.xm.Nznf.rsm.mufudk tpfudkeJYwl.nif.onf olBum.[ef wlyg\/ xkdYaemuf &SufpGef. &SufpGef.uvJ tm.&oNzifY 0rf.xH ypfay.qef.aomufEkdifNcif.wl.u xyfar. wk d Y u vl a umif .faycefYcGmí &yf&if.&dS tm.qef.csNyD.f}} xdkYaemuf usef.rvnf/ ]]b. ausmufaqmifay: &yfae&mrS aNray:odkY ckefcsvdkufNyD. wpfwHk.qef. [kduRef.qef.\ toHrSef.fudkom wpfcsuf vl.wpfudkufcsif.qef.oGm.}} ]]&Sif}} csifwl.vJusae&mESifY q.vkduf&onf/ wpfa.onf ililBuD.rsm.awmY a[m'D xl.fYvl/ NyD.f Nzwfxm.pGifYí tom.um uRef.fvHk.? cifAsm. 'ku©ay.u oufNyif.onf wpfudk. *lxJodkY aNy.lí &SufpGef. .om &moufyef aygif.aexkid o f mG .qef.wpfarm BunfYaerd\/ &SufpGef.udkvnf.u tm.q. . em.acR.}}[laom nnf. tdyfruf rufaeNcif.wkYd ESpaf .fol a&mufvmwmvJ tpfudk? vlvm.onf trSwfrxif &SufpGef. 0dkif.aNcmuftwHk.wl.onfESifY csufcsif.xJodkY vloHBum.EGrf.NzifY yHk&dyfxifvmNcif.aom arsmuf0HBuD.muf pum. odoGm.xJodkY xkd.wl.acR.wl.yif raNymEkdifBu/ twefBumrSyif wl.rNyef/ udk.'. .wdkufEkdifrSmyg? NyD.tpyfu ausmufaqmifem.vsuf ac:vkdufav\/ ]]wl.Edkif"m. NzpfaprnfY vlwpfa.fvHk.NzwfcsufwkdYudk wpfzHkwpfenf.av\/ xkdtcg usef.yJ? vm oGm.wl.&yfvsuf &SufpGef. avoHudk em.atmif e*g.onf pHkvHk.acR.udk Nrifaomf tBuD.D.u csufcsif.fvSrf. ]]ud p ö r &d S y gbl . pm.f tpfudk}} usef. u rsuf u ef . tpmpm. rsufvHk.BuD.udk tvG.Nywfrwwf tm[m& iwfNywfae&Smyg\/ &SufpGef.? wl.f}} ]]'Dvkdqdk wl.xHrS ]]tif.ydwfvkduf\/ NyD.fwul zrf.wdkYonf zsHta&cGHtuÐsudk "m.twGif. . tif.qef.wl.aumif.vnf. yJ ? tuef. tpf u d k ? tpf u d k e J Y wl .}} ]]vl .ESifY csifwl.ay: a&mufvmNyD}} wl.D.NyD. ol 'DuRef.acR.Nyef\/ &SufpGef.um.wl.udk . wpfai.

aumif.wmyJ r[kwfvm.wdkYu bmt"du aNymcsifwmvJ? aNymyg}} ]][kwfuJY? uRefawmfwdkY t"du aNymcsifwmu tck 'Dvlol ra&mufEkdifwJY 'DuRef.ocif bmrdk.acR.tm.awG Nzma0oGm.ay:rSmyJ uRefawmfwYdk nDnn D w G n f w G f pnf.atmif auR.fY NzpfNyD. rS m &S u f p G e f .m.? 'DwmYum a[m'D uRef.u pdwfcs&wm r[kwfbl.\ pdwfxJrSrl .BunfYaeonf/ odkYaomf csifwl.NyD.\/ NzLaom rsufESmay:wGif &SufaoG.kwfavsmYvsuf csnfYeJYaeonfudk Nrif&aomtcg tvkdvkd pdwfraumif.u &kwfw&uf ol&l. aooGm.udk pm.a.ES.aumif .ygYr.m. [m.ndwfvsuf .wwfatmif NzpfoGm. .uef.rQ 0ifraNymacs/ olwdkYESpfOD.qef.? rdk.u q&mBuD.aumif..}} ]]bk&m.qef.wl. [m.awmY 'ku©dw rsufrNrifvnf.ygawmY? xm.aNymvkd[ef &dSoNzifY usef.qef .vnfovkdvkdESifY &SufpGef.Edk. ]]'g .udrk l usef.}} ]]aBomf .vJ at. armif .ocifay:rSm rlwnfygw.om. .rl .qef.mufuHqHkvkdY NyefêuH&NyD Nzpfayr.qef.&if.atmif vkyfcJYrdwJYtwGuf tawmfYudk pdwfraumif. rif.wdkY iwfNywfvmwJY igYudk tckavmavmq. .}}[k awG.&Smonf/ &SufpGef. qHk.NyD.f? 'DvlBuD.aew.ygawmY? rif. raNym0HYacs/ usef.NzpfoGm.uyif acgif.fY wpfoufvHk.aom zsHta&cGHudk cRwfí em. usef .}} ]][kwfuJY? uRefawmfwkdY vifr. .k vH.acR.wl.wpfa.qdkonf/ ]]rif.ay:rSm uRefawmfwkdY oHk.? 'DvkdyJ ae&awmYrSmyJaygY}} 160 . .wdkYu em.f? 'gayr.pyfwvIyfvIyfNzifY pum.u wpfcsufrQ awGidkifoGm.aom arsmuf0HBuD. ay.qef.m.qef.uifvJuG?xGD .wdkY vifr.ocif? [m.pnf.u ]]tif.u bmNzpf .Nzwfxm.wdkYu vifr. oef v S o l wpf a . . . .uifudk vnf.wHk.? bm bk&m.aerd\/ okYd &mwGif olYoabmxm.awmif NzpfaeBuNyDudk. ]]tpfudku odyfoabmaumif. ]]at. . ud k Bunf Y &if .fvdkY aNymcsifwmygyJ}} &SufpGef. .vmawmY\/ Edk.arG./ csifwl.}} ]]'gNzifY rif.onf/ usefacR.\/ &SufpGef.ae&if cufaeOD.wGif ydwfqdkYxm. .u acgif.wmawmY [kwfygNyD? aemufusawmY igYudk bmvkdvkyfrvJ}}[k ar.\ t&dyftNcnfudkom eHab.atmif e*g.Edkif"m.}} &SufpGef. tpmiwf a&iwfNzpfaeNyD.'gNzifY igwkdY NyefvdkYr&awmYbl.muf Edk.udk aNzonf/ ]]q&mBuD.yif olu yg. bk&m.cktcsdefwdkif bmwpfcGef. ]]xm. tm.rS &yfBunfYae\/ xl.? awmfBum olYudk u.wl.wl.\/ NyD. . &SufpGef.&JY rsufpdudk pHkvHk.rSyif olu wpfvHk.ay.muf u þod k Y tm.pGef. . . acR.csif. b.m.csif.rsdK.aygYaemf}} ]]'guawmY bk&m.faomtcgrQ raNymawmY[k wl. .f q&mBuD. rsufESmrxm.m.u zsHta&cGHpudk vufrS toifYudkifxm.toufukd owfom pum.acR.qef.\/ ]]uRefawmfwdkY vifr. .}} wpfcsufom nnf. .f r[kwfawmYbl.fa&mufaewmvJ? 'gu b.aumif.a&mufaewm aNrmuf0ef&dk.axmifvkduf\/ ]]ig b.wuúodkvf aevif.uvnf.f tm[m&NzpfoGm.k aeNyD.vH.aemuf xdkae&mrSmyif xdk.tif.u q&mBuD.udk wqwfqwfndwfvsuf .rSmyg}} &SufpGef.fae&mvJ}} usef. aNrNyefYudkawmY NyefEkdifBur.acR.wpfuRef.f? 'DvlBuD.acR. Nzpfae&NyD r[kwfygvm. usdefqdkaeawmY\/ arm[kdufoGm.frdumrS udk.\ tar.udk olwpfyg.udk ai.awmY uRefawmfwYkd vifr.r.aumif.ocifudk vnf. .udk ûypkapmifYa&SmufoGm.u uRef. em.}} csifwl.udpördkY qufvJ raNymvkdawmYygbl.fYudk Nyef'ku©ay.aom tom.tdyfvkdufavonf/ tcsdefvufwHu &Snfvmonf/ eHeufrSonf aeYvnfcsdefyif wkdifayNyD/ xdktcgusrSyif &SufpGef.vGef.url iwfiwfNywfNywfNzifY usef. NzpfcJY&ygw. .f trlt&m ay:vmNyD.

uawmY &SifvJtwl? aovJtwl qHk.Ekid "f m.f rxifbl.a&SYEiS Yf ywfvnfwpf0u kd w f iG f opfyif yef.? uRefawmfwkdY vifr.onfvnf.w.yJ? rSefom. aooG m .mufsm.wmvJ}} usef.awmY wl.Buygw.m. xdkifum e*g. ESpfa.qef.u rcsdûyH. igYrSm vkyfp&m udkifp&m &dSawmYvkdYwkef. .mufukd wpfa.vyfcsderf sm.wl.av.av.mufudk owfrd&if usefcJYwJY wpfa. .mufsm.udk vkyfBu\/ olwdkYonf wu.wl.ygvm. &Suûf yH.acR.avonf/ ]]tpfudk a.c&D.wl. vkdcsifovm.av.av.muf o nf arsmuf 0 H B uD .wpfck xlaxmifbdodkY toHk.í wpfaeukef wpfaecef.vnfygw.uvnf.}} ]]a.qef. wd k Y ES p f a .D u olwYkd aexdik af om ausmuf*Bl uD.yJNzpfNzpf udk.udk pOf.pm.f ? uJ rif .\ vQdKY0u S cf sufrsm.aewmawmif olYem.pm. om.ESiYf rdik 0f ufcefYa0.f? 'gaBumifY q&mBuD.pvHk.yg wpfa. . .taqmif [lorQ BuHzefûyvkyf aexdkifBuonf/ &Supf eG .? rD.fav. u&kPmoufvmoNzifY vQdKY0u S f eufev J eG .av. pwifar.atmif e*g.uav.u ûyH.wkdY em.av}} ]]rdef.? rdef.ao.udk pdkufBu\/ &THYap.vm&\/ ]][kwfom. ]]'DvlBuD. em.vmonf/ csifwl.uawmY rdef.uom a&m*gazmufazmufvmNyD. .bJae&if bmrsm.wuúodkvf aevif. vTifYaeav\/ usef.acR.acR.aom ausmuf*al v.l wl.mufu tm.uav. wa&GYa&GY &ifYanmif.f? tpfudkeJYwlwJY a.mufa.arm&if.uaav.uav. tawG.fvtwGif.fYaoG.NyD.ay:rSm igYvkd 'ku©dwaumifuaum touf&Snf&SnfaeEdkifrwJYvm.wdYk ESpaf .BuD.u .fY 'Dvkd vlolr&dSwJY uRef.NyD.f udrk l olwYkd EpS Of .f}}[k aumufcsuf csrdBuavawmY\}} xk d a eY\ aemuf y d k i f .&ao.mufsm. wpfcsufûyH.D ESiYf a&ma&maESmaESm odyrf &dv S aS y/ olYbmom wpfae&m&mudk oGm.qef.tdrfBuD.yifrsm. ud.qef.wpf*w l iG f ûyNyifay.f uawmYrl olwYkd EpS Of .xJrSm bmNzpfvkdY ydwfqdkYxm. vkdcsifw.\ pdwfxJrSrl .usm.uefrsm.a&m csifw. uRefawmfwdkY wpfa. ES i f Y twl uRef .u vsifaeao.wl.ynmu wu.uG.uav. usef.rsm. ]]'DrSm q&mBuD. a.vsm. aexdkifaponf/ odkYNzifY tcsdefrsm.udk zkwfí yef. a. .om.? usm.fYudk aBumufp&maumif.muf p vH k .&JY odkif. .at.cifuvdk cg.Edkif"m.f}} ]][ifYtif.vsuf . aeYrsm.f&SifY}} usefacR.csnf. csifwl.u qufí . ]]rif .mufuvJ touf&SifaecJYrSm r[kwfygbl.Nzwfxm.NyD Nzpfyg\/ wpfaeY/ tBuifvifr.vvGefaNrmufí q.vsm.Ekdif"m. vkdcsifovm. .yJ vkdcsifw.f? wl.wGif ausmuf*Bl uD.acR.yJrdkY bmyJNzpfNzpf cspfrSmyJ wl. ]]ig em.uG}} usef.&JY vQdKY0SufcsufudkrS rpOf.}} ]]wl. ûyH.rûyawmYyg&ef azsmif.? rsufpd pHkvHk.f vdkcsifw.yJ qdk&if ckcsdefxd rif.wG i f ol w k d Y oH k .uef.vuf0efu &ifYNyD/ udk.vlvlxkdif&if.mufsm.mufBunfYvu dk rf Bd u\/ NyD.qdkvJ tpfudkeJY wlrSmyg? NyD.wkdYu &SufpGef.aeonf/ yDwda0aeonf/ 161 . .muf *lxJwGif at.udk BunfY&if.yJNzpfNzpf? rdef.odkY csOf.}}[k qdkonf/ &SufpGef.&ifcsD r[kwfawmY? udk.yJ? 'gvJ rSefwmyJ}} ]][kwfom.acR.wl.}}[k NyefacsyavY &dSayonf/ &Supf eG .f aom e*g.f? 'gayr.Ncif.musfm.m.udk udkifvsuf ai.uawmY a.fY tkd.zkdrsm.ygNyD w J Y u G m ? 'Dvlolr&dSwJYuRef.qdk&if odyfcspfr.wl.qef. uvJ u G m BuH B uH z ef z ef aNymwwf w .xJrS zsHta&pudk qGJxkwfvkduf\/ olwdkY ESpfOD. ay:wG i f aexdik Bf uavawmY\/ usef. k pf ûD yH.eJYvJwlrSmaygY? tpfudkuawmY udk.ay:rSm 'D"m.zsBuav\/ xdktcg &SufpGef.qef.

acR.wkd.u wl.NyD. .wl.aew.wl.wl.wl.rS . aBuuGJ0rf.f? tJ .qef.rS .f? &SufpGef. .aom wl.vkdygawmY/ .? &kyf&nfudkyif rNrif&ao. .wJY oabmaygY wl.wl.Nyvdkuf\/ ]]tdk .wpfa.wl.i.av.fY tpfudku aeYwkdif.csvsuf .wl.fudk arG.? ck&ufawGrSm trlt&m odyfaNymif.wl.? 'gaBumifY 'DBum.&.b0odkY a&mufcJYNyDNzpf&m [kdpOf[kdtcgwkef.tpHkwGif rsuf&nfa0Yvnfvm\/ wl.qef.wl.qef.wl. .? wl.mZOfawG? arwåmawG? udef. .fuG.wkdY bmrSaBumufp&mrvdkygbl.f}} csifwl.awmY udk.wl. .f? tay:uaeNyD.rSef.orD.wkduf&HkyJaygY? 'gayr.f}} ]][if? [kwfvm.wl.u wl.fwkdY *ltwGif. 'gNzifY }} wl. bmvdkvkdESifY cspfaom csifwl. ./ .&Jatmif vkyfrdaNymrdwmrsm. tpm&SmxGufae&awmY tNyifrSm tpfudkYudk &ef&Sm&ifaum b.udk wl. BunfY&wm tm. .fwdkY taorcHEdkifbl.fY tckawmY .udk tpfudk odyfcspfygw.wl.? tck&ufawGrSm .fuG.uG.wl.faep&m bmrSr&dSbl. .u csifwl.? reufNzefupNyD. ]]tpfudk tBuHwpfckawmY &xm.0yf.ovm.u cPrQomûyH.udk aNymNyygaemf aemf}} usef. *lBuD. .xm.ckrl udk.vdkufr.oH wdrf0ifoGm.acR.fYvkyfrvJ}} 162 .? rnf. ]][kwfw.uuJYodkYyif qwfqwfBuJ pdwf"mwfrsdK.aemf? yGifYyGifYvif. wl.ckvnf.\ ycHk.vif.f tpfudk? 'gayr.yg.wuúodkvf aevif.Edkif"m.f? wl.? .f wl.}} wl.frdonfrSm rqef.atmif e*g.wl. wl.qef.0 r&dSawmY/ rxm.aew.wl. . ]]udk.vSygw.vm.wl.r&bl.acR.mufawmY pdwfazmufNyefvmNyD xifygw.rodatmif opf&GufopfaNcmufudkif.f wl.rD umva&Bunf oaE¨wnfpuwnf.? wpfaeYwNcm. bmrS rNzpfygbl.f? [if tpfudk}} usef.fwwfaeyga&mvm. ]]tpfudkYtBuHuawmY aumif.udk zufxm. tpfudkYudk pdwfqif. aBomf .&.uG. tpfudk? 'g .wl. rsuf0ef.uG. ESpfodrfYzufxm.fxifovdk NzpfrvmygapeJYvkdY twefwef qkawmif.qdkawmY tm.&SnfBuD. .wl.wl. .eJY tpfudkeJYBum.&awmYrnfY rdcifavmif.fY? tif.f? ck&ufawGrSm tpfudkYudk wl.xJ &efrlvm&ifawmY rwwfom&if olYudk owfypf&r. rsuf&nfusvmonf/ usef.eJY tpfudkwdkY ESpfa. .rsufESmudk u&kPmoufpGmBunfY\/ NyD.&JY tayguf0em.udk rNrifBu&ao.f? tNypfqkdp&m bmrS r&dSygbl. .aew.ygacs/ usef.muf taocH 0dkif.aygY tpfudk&.bl. .f? tck udk.vQif oufNyif.qef. tm.awmYvJ wGif./ rSefonf/ rdcifwkdYrnfonf om. [kwfyg&dk.acR.aNymwm tpfudk oabmaygufygw.}} ]]tck&ufawGrSm bmNzpfvkdYvJ[if}} ]]wNcm.bufudk a&TYaeBur.BuD.i.f0ef&ifYanmif.BuD.wl.? qwfqwfBuJcJYaom wl.vdkuf&\/ NyD.onf pdwf"mwf aysmYaysmif.fwkdYrSm udk.vkdufr. .wl. .? wl.u tidk&yfí .u wkd.u aumufcgiifum ar.av.rSm zHk.nif.u olYacgif.wl. .i. oufNyif.fav? axmifacsmufqifxm.wl.SufNzmaewwfonf r[kwfvm.rSmawmY wGif.zGm.w.cktcg csifwl.f? wl.aeYwkdif. .wl.? 'gaBumifY udk.rf.uG. wl.fYES. .wdkY\ NzLovm.NyD.tm.? bmNzpfaeovJ tpfudk&.f? trSefqkd&if &SufpGef.f}} ]]tpfudk wl.f wl.vmygNyDaum? usef.u oHa.f0efaqmifí rdcifavmif.wl.? csifwl. &Sdovm.f}} csifwl.av? &SufpGef.enf.onf reufNzef oefbuf qdkouJYodkY rvGJraoG &ifaoG.fa&m &SufpGef.\ ycHk.wl.udk wGifwGif cg.yifvQif udk.wpfck wl. wpfcsuf csvdkufNyef\/ tuif.fwkdY &ifaoG.awGeJY zHk.avonf/ ]]tpfudkYudk BunfY&wm ckwavm r&TifNyovkdbJ? bmNzpfvkdYvJ tpfudk? wl. ydkvdkY qkd.f wl. pum.wl.xm.wl.vkduf&if.&ygNyD/ ]]tpfudk&.vHk.nif. r[kwfcgrS vGJa&mz.NyD. &dSKufiifae\/ aBomf .acR.

onf vGefpGm pdwfxdckdufvsuf aBuuGJ0rf.avonf/ &SufpGef.trl. qufvuf wl.f trlt&m wpfaeYwNcm.Nywfvsuf upOf Y u vsm.\ q&m&if .qef.f vTm.NzpfvmawmY\/ wpfzufwiG v f nf.BuD.&NyD.wl. ratmif N rif y gNyD / aemuf q H k .aom opfuikd .lí cifyGef.wnf.? rif.t.awmY\/ taBumif.udk. tuJcwfro d nfYtwdik .vnf.udk armfBunfYvsuf atmf[pfusdefqJaeNyD/ xkdYNyif acwftqufqufrS bk&ifBuD.qef.&aomtcg tom.onfESifY vufNyef&dkufcsvdkuf&m usef. &rf.qef.qcsufomvQifNzpf\/ .BuD.vmonfudkawGYaomf vGefpGm pdwfxdcdkufoGm.f wpfa.fcefYtxd eufvmavonf/ xdktcsdefwGif &SufpGef.\/ þokdY þES.wGif&dSaom "m.onf olYaxmifacsmufwGif. ayig.qef.acR.? udk.q&m usef.acR.qef.&Sm\/ xdkYaBumifY teD.oNzifY &SufpGef.udk uref.NyD.rsm.Edkif"m.qef.acR.rudk tckyJ owfr.bufodkY qkwfoGm.Nzpfol usef.avawmY\/ ckepf&ufcefY Bumvwfaomf aytpdwfeufaom wGif.cRefrsm.tm.rcHaom vGefpGmta&.acR.qef.uwef.rSm tydkif.BuD.aom olYq&mBuD. zk e f .onf udk.enf. q&mBuD .yJ[m? tpfudkYaemufudk b.f BuD. rûy&ao. usef.oGm. toHk.BuD.fvkdrS vdkufEdkifrSm r[kwfygbl.\"m. onf rd b ES i f Y wpf*dkPf.uyif 0rf.aumifyJuG? ig tJ'D tvum.qef.f xJoYkd usomG . \ tBuH u m.vnf.acR.qGJ.\ vufxJrS opfudkif.pm.acR. acR.ufwHvkyfNyD. aemufwpfaeYwGif usef.&vTm.f wuftvmudk apmifYí ckwrf nfr[kwb f J &Supf eG .yif qwfqwfwkefatmif a'goNzpf&\/ odkYpOfvsuf &SufpGef.ESifY &SufpGef. qufvuf qkwfae&qJyif/ xdktcsdefwGif usef.&avonf/ &SufpGef.ay:wGif zHk.qef .i.fí &Supf eG .rSm &uftenf.acgif.EdkifNzpfum wGif.qef.mufrusefatmfqJaeonf/ &uftenf. ckwfxpfaeonfudk awGY&\/ usefacR. pwifwl.onf rnfodkYrQ rBuHwwfawmYatmifNzpfum *ltwGif.BuD.um.wpfacsmif.i.vJ tvum.usomG .oH Bum.udk zrf.wpfusif.yef.udk qJqdkoH Bum.BuD. wGif. t&l.qef. olYudk.f acR.qdkawmY aNy. &SufpGef. qef .\ acgif.u tem.uifBuD.f \ OD.f0ef aeYapY? tcsdefapYNyDNzpf&m þaeY eHeufuwnf.wpfa.rS rwefatmif qJqdk ykwfcwfvmavawmY\/ tqJtqdk tykwftcwfcH&aom xdkodkif.BuD.qef. &SufpGef.\ trnfxJwGif usef.onf "m..udk tqifoifY atmufoYkd xk.acR.av\/ xdktcg aNzmif.lNyD.u opfacsmif.ae\/ odkYNzifY wGif.zsaomtcg . wpfudkif. qkwfcGm&mqDodkY vkdufNrJvdkufvmaeNyD/ usef.rsm.Adkufu emvsuf tcsdefra&G.udk udkifí wpfa.axmifacsmufqifxm.rusovdk olYwynfYNzpfwJY rif.acR.qef.qef.om.acR.f}}[k Budrf.f? vQdKawGxJckefcsr.ydkif.u qJqdkNrJ? ykwfcwfNrJ vkyfaeavonf/ usef.rSm vGifYxGufoGm. olYOD.f usef.BuD.vdkuf\/ usef.}} xkdaeYNyD. ]]'gawmY aBumufp&m rvdkygbl. &Supf eG .ck wu.qef.onfvnf.lonf/ NyD.qef.av\/ usef . uav.aom wGif.ftwGif.f vnf.folrxdef. csufcsif.fwmaygY? taNctaer[efbl.ceJ ckew f ufvmrnfY ae&mwGif "m.f tBumwGifawmYrl olonf odkif. ckefwufvmaomf ol\ txifESifYtNrif vGJrSm. .f? owfypfr.vmonf/ wpfcgwpfcg e*g.qef.f? olu tuef.q&mrsm.acR.ay:odkYvTm.qef .wGif&dSaom opfudkif. orm.onf avoHudk Bum.xif&if udk.rf. &Supf eG .mufwnf.f? ykef.onf þwpfcg ckefwufvmpOf olYvuftwGif.pm.ae&Sm\/ 163 .fwrf.&dS odkif.wkdY wdkufckdufaeBucsdefwGif csifwl.udkvnf.qef. apmfum.acR. xkw d iG . wG i f r l usef.udk .xufwGif w0SD. *lxJwGif usif.acR.0SD.awGay: wufaNy.BuD. pdkufxm. ydí k qd.&wm vG.u "m.aumif.Ncif. a0SY. usKd . arG.xJodkY ckef0ifoGm.pdu k cf &H vsuf r&IrvS aoyGJ0if&&kHom &dSayrnf/ þum. usef .acR.qef.wuúodkvf aevif.zGm.xm. acR.udkyif wpfNym.q.zkef.BuD.d pdu k cf sdex f m.aygufNyD.udkygudkifí wufvmNyD.udk ydkí ydkí êud. .k &Gm.avmutwGif. ]]a[Yaumif? usef.onf rdk.onf wGif.xm.armfum.0rSwpfqifY usef.atmif e*g.r.aeav\/ xdktcg tvkdufoifY udkifxm.Edkif"m.aer.acR.rf.vSaom tcsdefusumrS &SufpGef.onf wpfcsufrQ atmfNyD.u a'goudk usdwfrdSwf rsdKodyfí q&morm.muf þodkY pdwf&l.aom usef.av\/ okYd &mwGif use.udk &dkufcsvkdufavonf/ odkYaomf &SufpGef.acR.aumifeJY olY&JYrdef. atmufwGif ql.ceJ toHESifYtwl usef.rl &SufpGef.ydkif.q&mrsm.\ awG.vku d af v\/ tu.acR.fu awmifukef. yif yg&d S v mav\/ usef .awmYrnfYtaNctaewGif &dSaeNyDNzpf\/ þvkd trSm.mufwnf.f ckew f ufvmygu &Supf eG . vG i f Y p Of x G u f o G m .qDodkY ypfay.acR.tzdkY bm'Pf&mrS r&vkdufacs/ &SufpGef.f aNcmufrsm.qef.Ekdif"m.ESifY pmqdkawmfBuD. Nzpf a om od k i f .rSm usef.yif *lBuD.ceJ ckefwufvm\/ usef.Gif. wGif. wpfa. rqJrqdkyg&ef azsmif.qef.vQif &Supf eG .acgif.xJodkY aemufwpfzef NyefusoGm. a0SY. e*g.BuD.

av.rdkYrdkYav. tm. ? &S u f p G e f .armifESHonf þwpfBudrfwGif rdrd\vufrS rvGwfEkdifawmY[k todqdk.0 vufwpfurf. \ aemuf o d k Y vS r f .acR.f xGufcGmoGm.muf\ atmfidkoHav. Nzpfae&Smaom &SufpGef.yif vHk.csif. usef.f \ rd c if ? ol Y cspf Z eD . aNrSmufudkifxm.onf wpfrk[kwfcsif. wnf a Ny.rsm.wpfa.aom olYESvHk.ftwGif. EIwfcrf. qJ aNcvS r f .armifESH\ toufudk Nrdef&nf&Suf&nf owf&awmYtHY[k yDwdNzmaeaom &SufpGef.aNrYapNyD.acgufoHudk em.Bu\/ xdktcgwGif "m.acR.qef .mufu.aNrYapNyD.f twGif. tm.uif.fav. onf v nf .apavNyD r[kwfygvm.\ "m.BuD.uif.acR.vQif arG. olwdkY\ &ifaoG.wdrfoGm.yif Nrifae&\/ NyD.pvHk.p &ifaoG.rsm.pdwf&dkif.rQom uGmvSrf.BuD.qmaeaomvl? odkYr[kwf &SufpGef. .udk NrJNrHpGmqkyfudkif&if.faom tNypfuif.f\ tyokdY vGifYpOfxGufoGm.yg aumif. qk w f q J aNcvS r f .pk&dS&m wpfvSrf.udkyg at.rSmyif olwdkY ZeD.zG.aom tcsdefydkif. rsufawmifrcwfbJ pdkufBunfYaeNrJyif &dSyg\/ xdkYaemuf rBumrwif tcsdefcPi.vnf. ]]tl0J tl0J tl0J}} &kwfw&uf arG.ufESifY rNidrfouforQ eDwm&Jav.pyfuav. olwkdYrdom.ESifY taBumpdrf.f csif.NyD.onf .awmYonf/ þodkY vGefpGm wkdawmif.rSmrl pdwf&l.ae&Smav\/ xdktcsdefwGif &SufpGef.qufae[efrsdK.. yg.qef.av.NyD/ ckwfawmYrnf/ ckwfawmY .pvHk.um [.rSm a.Edkif"m.uav.av.NzpfNyD.mufvufudk wpfa.udkyif awGYNrifcGifY &awmYrnfr[kwfbJ pdwf&l. vSrf.udkom wpfai.\ rsufESmudkom w0wai. [.BuNyD.udk t0BunfYNrifvkdufNyD Nzpfí aoaysmfNyD[k ESpfOD. .0 rodawmYay/ uav. onf v nf .0ifvmaeNyDNzpf\/ olYaNcoHudk usef.Buav\/ xd k t Nzpf u cPrQomNzpf N yD . t&l.\ wrefawmf? odkYr[kwf pdwfazmufNyefum aoG.udkvnf.onf ..&awmYrnfudk odaomfvnf.muf qkyfudkifxm.f\ &IrNiD.qDoYkd wpfvrS .pk wpfckvHk.p &ifaoG. acR.csuf usvmonfESifY olwdkY ESpfOD.aNrSmufí ckwfcsawmYtHYqJqJ olYvufrsm.ESifY êuHae&NyD/ aorif.omru arG.onf &SufpGef.uav. rwnfNidrfvGef.wpfarm pdkufBunfYaeBuav\/ uav.\ ]]tl0J tl0J}} atmfidkoHav.onf olwdkYtwGuf taBumif.rdaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ &SufpGef.qufí vku d 0f ifvm\/ xdkpOfwGifyif .wrefawmf\ wHcg.qef.pdkuf&rnfrSef.&THYpdwf? wkefvIyfpdwfrsm.aoG.Edkif"m.p &ifaoG./ þZeD.Ekid "f m. ]]tl0J tl0J tl0J}} &kwfw&uf *lxJrS vGefpGm om. olwdkYudk.um ]]tl0J tl0J tl0J}} NzifY oH&SnfqGJí atmfidkaeNyefNyDaum/ xdktcg aoG. ívS r f .onf aoab.awGu &if a oG .u yg./ NyD.& Nzpfaeav\/ þZeD.tm. \ a&S Y o d k Y wd k .aygufaeol Nzpf&m 0rf.udk qí qí udik u f m usef.uefvsuf ]]tl0J tl0J}}NzifY avmutm.omtm.aygufvmonfY &SufpGef.i.vufrS e*g. olYudk.udk vIyf&Sm.uif.vHk.qef. Nyef0ifvmavawmY\/ pdwf&l.av.uif.av.oabmNzifY wpfa.rsm.wGif olwdkY ESpfOD.i. .aom t&mwdkYudk arYumolYaNcvSrf.aom aNcvufrsm.Nidrf.wl. NzpfoGm.vHk.Bu\/ vlYavmuodkY a&mufp? arG.yg aoqHk.ck &kwfw&uf rlvpdwf&if. i. pdwfauseyf wif. ta&.maom uav.ae&\/ olwkdYZeD./ a[m .oG m .mufsm. EIwfcGef.u oabmydkufrdBuayNyD/ xdkYaBumifY aoab.0ifaeaomaBumifYyif Nzpfonf/ xkdYaBumifY olu aBumufrufzG.awmY wpfcsdefwnf.\/ olYpdwf ua.uav.pvHk.farm&if.tESrf.NyDNzpf\/ odkYNzifY olwdkYonf aorif. aBumuf&rnfrSef. wl .u olY&ifudk wpf'*F csrf.\ a&SYarSmufodkY a&muf&dSvmayNyD/ e*g.onfY rsufESmav.onf e*g.atmif e*g.&l.f atmf[pf&.p eDwm&Jav.towfcHcJY&aom tNzpfrsm.pGifYvdkufBu\/ olwdkYtwGuf aorif. vd k v k d y if wH k Y &yf o G m .armifESH ESpfOD.armifESHonf vGefpGmawGYNrifvdkaom rdrdwdkY\ &ifaoG.u csrf.rS tyodkY vGifYNy.ckwpfouf? aemifwpfouf xm0&rcGJwrf.faumif.a&m csifwl.avawmY\/ rS e f o nf / ol w d k Y ZeD. xGufay:vm\/ xdktcg usef .&kef.onf olwdkY ZeD.\ idkoHav.wuúodkvf aevif.f\ rsufESmav.rSmyif olYrdom. &SufpGef.vQif eDwm&JESifY cspfESpfoufzG.f 164 .i.armifESHESpfOD. wpf û yd i f w nf .pvHk.armifESHonf tcsdefcPi.aumif.pGmBum.onf tvkdtavsmuf&kyfodrf.armifESHESpfOD. þaeY þtcsdefwGif rdrdwkdY ZeD.xJ0.Edkif"m.ESpfzufrSm azmif.u olYrsuf0ef. aumif . qD o d k Y OD .r[kwfawmY/ pdk. idkoHay.wrf. aumif .\ vufcsufNzifY rkcsaoyGJ0if&awmYrnf[k awG. csif w l .fwGif./ rSefonf/ &SufpGef.

acR. a&aEG.vsuf .acR.qef.Edkif"m.p&G.ynmrsm.i. owfNzwfawmYrnf r[kwaf Bumif. .fyif a&aEG.wl.idkufpdkufcsvsuf tawG.k OD.NyD.f a v.udk Nzwfvkdufavonf/ wpfcsdefwnf.vkad omqE´&aSd eyHak y:ae\/ xdt k cdu k f csifwl. tem.qef.yGifYxGufvmav\/ ]]a.JY.aumif.u &SufûyH.rtem.udk Nrifvmaomfrl tHBudwfvdkufESifY rsufESmoGifNyif trsdK.&dyfxifvm\/ emBunf.&\/ rSeo f nf/ .u csufcsif.f}} &SufpGef.oGm.udk arYaysmufaerdBu\/ cPBumaomf &SufpGef.ygw.i.udk vnf.csm uav.zG.armifESHudk vnf.\ vQdKY0Sufcsufudk razmfxkwfEdkifNzpfum &SufpGef.udk Nzwf&r.odkYa&mufaomf olu tomav.fYudk bmrSvJrvkyfwwfygvm. uav.f qí usef.fav}} usef. ]][kwf .\/ usef.w.vm.? rif.f ay:vmaomf olYrsufESmûyH.ukef êud.vdk aygufowfcv H u dk &f onf r[kwyf gvm.av. &ufpufpGm towfcHvkduf&\/ xdkNrifuGif.udk a&csdK. NyefvnfNrifa.wGifrl rdrdonf vGefpGm xufNrufaom e*g.fudkcsDí wl.tdrfwGif.}} usef.yg &SufpGef.yJ? uRefawmf arYaevkdufwm}} xdktcg usef. q&mBuD.f tawG.qef.Edkif"m.\ &ifcGifxJodkY xnfYay.f eDwm&Jav.acR.um tom. axmifxm.BuD.acR.fudk arG.wGif xnfYí .\/ aoG. xdk"m.qef.f? [m .onf pum.p oHk. . [m.\ ]]tl0J tl0J tl0J}} idkoHaBumifY olYrdom. [kwfom.faemf q&mBuD.a&SYwGif oGm.? &ifaoG.k onf toufuif.? [m.vHk.? oHk.vGef.}} ]]at.? 'DtazrsdK.acR.BuD.musfm. rdrdxufyif wdk.yHBk uD.u rif.tqHk.onfvnf.fzG.xGufoGm.\/ usef.u tusnf.uav. olYtoHae toHxm.f yJYwifxyfae\/ olwYkd oH. uav.vm.qef.rSmyif &SufpGef. &Sm.}} usef.cPavmuf csDay.rJYaeolrsm.f &ifESpfuav.vSonf/ &SufpGef.}} olu aNymaNymqdkqdk *lxJrS xGuf&efNyifvkduf\/ odkYaomf xdktcsdefrSmyif &SufpGef.mifvmav\/ xdkpOfu olYZeD.ygvm./ NyD. .onfYtwdkif.wefvSNyD.frS roGm.f at.pdkufaxmifvsuf t&mtm.acsEkdif&ef odkif.f&m aumif.vcefYom &dSygao.wGif ydNym.vom. pdwcf svufcsNzpfomG .rSm &ifaoG.aumif. aNymif. aumif.Ek tcsdef[kqdkEkdif\/ odkYaomf olYZeD.zGm.onfvnf.yif ckefausmfxGufoGm.\ rsufESmudk wtHYwBo BunfYvkdufBu\/ &SufpGef.wl.wl.wl.ESifY csifwl.BuD.H vnf.&r.onf acgif.udo k m em.avonf/ xdktcg 165 .onf rdrd&efoludk Nyefvnf uvJYpm.ZvHkBuD.NzifYuav.vm.tar.kH OD. rdrdwdkY ZeD.rsdK.ûyH.\ &if0./ onfYaemuf &SufpGef.mufsm.vJNzpfay:ygav\/ xdck Ptcsdew f iG f olwYkd ok. [kwfom. . aNzavonf/ ]]a.acR.vHk.rS m &efoYl vufcsufaBumifY aNrBuD.acR.f \ rsufESmay:wGif olwdkY&ifaoG.qef.uif.JY.&yfvkdufonfudkawGYaomf ol &ifwkefoGm. .wufae\/ aemufqHk.\ .aumif. *lxJ Nyef0ifvmonf/ olYvufxJwGifvnf. aBuuGJzG. .yJ? uRefawmf wu.udk uav. xdik o kd aH v.udk a&csdK. owd & apav\/ xd k p Of u ol Y om.}} ]]Asm? csufêud. b.wuúodkvf aevif.i.wufvmovdk &efoluvnf.qef.pk\ tusnf .ftwGuf vdIufvdIufarmarm ylyifaomu NzpfaeaBumif.acR.aum NzwfNyD.lvmay.NyDvm.av. nTefBum.rdef.u &SufpGef.Ekom. [m.u .av.udk tpGrf.fav.ud k Nyef a Nymif .i. . oGm.atmif e*g.\ ido k u H om *lx0J .a&m csifwl.f? EdkY csufêud.wl.eJYav? rif. awGY&NyD r[kwfygvm. wef v S a om twd w f N zpf p Of r sm. *lNyifbufokdY aNy.yif "m.wGif epfarsmvsufyif &dSae\/ tawG.udk "m.rsm.\/ odkY&mwGif &SufpGef.JYaom csnfYeJYoH ay:vmav\/ ]]tpfudk wl.udkvnf.f\ csufêud.&.onfudk awGYvkduf&\/ odyfrBumyg/ &SufpGef.acR.i.u ]]usef. wu.udk opfom.wnfvkdufr.udk rSe. .wGif "m.\/ &SufpGef.qef.Ny&Smonf/ usef.wpfa.f &&dSvkdufaomfvnf.udkyif vuf0.qef.onf usef.rSmyJaeNyD.ay.vkdufonf/ ]]usef.udyk if 0ifa&mufun l D vkyaf y.av.? uRefawmf bmrS tqifoifY vkyfrxm.Nyef0ifvmNyD.NroGm.ck &Supf eG .\ EIwfrS rarQmfvifYaom pum.aumif.avYusifYcJY\/ odkYaomf rdrd twwfynm wdk.u uav.yg q&mBuD.qef.udk BunfYESifYyg? ig a&aEG.pvk.? uav.wdkY\ &ifESpfonf.qef.rS ûyH.ay.yrm vGepf mG Nidro f ufae\/ ]]tl0J tl0J tl0J}} arG.i. rwnfbl.JYûyH.pvH.av.pm.i. .acR. NyefxnfYNyD.muf pdwfaumif.acR.? rdef.u uav.av.aom axmifacsmuf usif.rdbl.

om. pOf. .}} ]]rrSnfY&ao. .f}} csifwl.&.f tpf u d k & J Y ? wl .aq.f}} usef. 'geJY 'Duav.tm.vJxvm\/ xdktcg usef.wpfckudk &vkduf\/ &SufpGef. awmif.onf/ ]]aBomf .u b.NyD.wl.fES. tawG. . aNrNyefYudk NyefEdkifOD.cdkif. tareJYvm.0ifí .udk a&mufawmYrSawmY udk. .fav}} &SufpGef.fY uav.u EIww f YkH rNyefacs/ csifw.Edkif"m.wl.udk yGwfoyfay.wkdY oHk. awmif. wl.qef .av.f&Sif? q&mBuD. rdef. .om.acR. oufNyif. ]]q&mBuD.ygap? ab. &.f usef. . .bl.atmif e*g.wl.qef.ay:u uRef.&JY emrnfudkvJ q&mBuD.? aemuf wl.pm. b.acR.&JY arG.f? usKyfu 'gudk qkdvdkwmyguG. . .fenf.om.udk emrnf rSnfYay.frsm.laeyguG. .fvkdvkyfNyD.\ trlt&mu rdrd\ uav.f}}[k a&&Gwfaerd\/ xkdpOf &SufpGef..udk cP&yfNyD.vkduf&r.fav.eJY? t[J . .}} [k ar.fvsuf . wl .twGuf wpfckawmif.tEÅ&m.t&if.ay:udk a&mufaewmAs? om.qdkawmY &kyf&nfacsmarmr. vSJavsmif.aq.aq.vkdufrdNcif.u uref. .foleJY wlovJuG? tazeJYvm.qef.ygvkdY wlwl.aemf}} &SufpGef. wl . .NzifY . [if}} ]]r[kwfygbl. tdyfaeprf.a. tvefYwBum.f? aemf uav.[m.BuD.awmif.udk 'D om.udkawmY b.qdkwm raumif.fuG? igwdkY okH. .pGef.vkdufygu aemufydkif.pm.at.r}} &SufpGef.wl.aBumif. vl.? 'Duav.f? 'D uav.wGif rdrdwdkY ZeD.vdrfYr.wl.u thHtm.l wl.acR.0ifí .u uref.udo k m aBuuGaJ omtBunfYNzifY wpfcsufrQ BunfYNyD.u xdkpum.udk q&mBuD.udkBum. q&mBuD. acR.vJ 'DuRef.Zl. tpfudk? wl.foG.\ OD.fcifAsmY? a[m'DrSm BunfY? rsufESm oG.vGefoGm. .uyJ pdwfêuduf rSnfYay. &SufpGef.u pum. .u &kwfw&uf .u Bum.fvkdvkyf ab.omoGm.wif&r.muf[m 'D vlolr&dSwJY aNrmuf0ef&dk.wkdY aNrNyefYudk rNyefEdkif&if rNyef&ygap? om.av.ae&mrS csufcsif. wl . om. .fudk vGefpGm cspfcif NrwfEkd.f? 'Dae&mrsdK.uwef. azmfNyaeay&m tu.aumif. .NyD.at.om.yif Nzpfyg\/ xkdYaBumifY csifwl.ygbl.rf.&rSmyJ? aeoGm.Ekdifygbl. ]][ifYtif.u w[m.wl.yguG. tcd k u f w G i f csif w l .oifYvsuf . [ifYtif.&JY uHZmwm raumif. q&mBuD. [J}} &SufpGef. csifw.u ]]q&mBuD.l wl.u. ygw. .aomf 0rf.vdkufNyDvm. .? q&mBuD.NyD cifAsmY? uRefawmfwdkY av.mufvHk.qdkcsifygw.om.fvdkvkyf aecJYrSmvJvkdY}} usef.mufaooGm.a. ]][kwfw.wl.f rusa&mufygapeJY}} xdktcg csifwl. wpfa.muf u q&mBuD .udkawmY 'D uRef.BuD.qkdcsifwmyg? b. ]]aBomf . ]]wl.i. rNiif.? at.NyD. ]]aeygOD.armifESHtm.wl.om tem.&bl. wd k Y ES p f a .ay:rSmyJ BuD.acR.uav.if .yrm oabmxm.tEÅ&m.? csifwl.wl. aeaumif .\ om.aNymwm rSefw. rxm.fí uav.aeav\/ olYpdwfxJrSrl .vm.aq.? rvkdygbl. BuD.qef.onf/ ]]tazeJY ydkwlw. .wl. ]][m rvdkygbl. .u vufudk cg.fYvJ tpfudk? wl. ]][JY bmrsm.rSmvJuG.&rSmyJ? 'gqkd&if b. csifwl.? uav.tNzpfeJY owfrSwfNyD. u 0if a Nzonf / .mufwnf.}} usef .Nyif.awmY uav. ud k aus. &efûyrnf r[kwfawmY[k awG.om.f usa&mufEdkifrSmvJ q&mBuD.ygNyD? 'gayr.f? 'DawmY olY&JY tem*wfb0rSm tEÅ&m.&if om.fwdkYu b.vdkY qdkvdkwmvm.qdkrSmvJ}} ]]wNcm.csonf/ ]]tif.xlay.if.f ? wl .bl.r[kwfygbl. .av. u &S u f p G e f . .uwef.f}} ]]&ygw.uawmY 'DrSmyJ b0qHk. \ rsuf E S m trl t &mud k tuJcwfBunfY.wuúodkvf aevif.[if}} 166 .&JY}} csifwl.ay:rSm wpfoufvHk. &S u f p G e f .vmwJYtcgus&if uHaumif.ovdk aeae\/ NyD. &SufpGef.av.&JY? olu zatwl om. tawG.av.acgif. bmvkyfrvkdYvJ? at.a.av.rS ar.eJYrqdk aNrNyefYudk a&mufatmifydkYay.wl.qef. ]]q&mBuD. .&.

uG}} &SufpGef.í 0rf.? 'DrSm ig êudwifaNym0HYw.qHk.rSm rdpHkzpHk &dSwJYtNyif arG.acR.rS usef.qdkwmudk vufcH&r.mufom.f? uJ q&mBuD.}} usef.\/ NyD.? 'Dvkdqkd&if aoqHk.oGm.[lusif.wl.fyg q&mBuD.u bmraNym nmraNymESifY olwdkYESpfOD.[if}} ]]odyfaumif. ukodkvfuH aumif.wD.udkBum. aESm.Edkif"m.f? rif.vkdufr.wmaygY? wl.vm.Sufoef.\ avoHwGif pdwf&l.w.udk igY&efolBuD.& oabmwlaBumif.BuD. vHk. .wpfa. .mufudk wpfa.awmY 'Duav. 'Dvkdqdk odyf[efuswmaygY? 'D uRefawmfYom.u .wl. aeaom &S u f p G e f .fvHk.cPwm NidrfoufoGm.enf.pm. .\ rdIif.a& udk.emrnftwdkif.qef.oGm. [m.faemf q&mBuD. .vkdY emrnfrSnfYvdkufr.acR.qef.&Dvsuf aqG.acR. wpfa. rsufESm 167 .bl. .f? 'Duav.muf aNym&if.axmufay. &SufpGef.ay:rSm &uf&ufpufpuf udkifayguf owfypfvkdufw.&dyfqifvmavNyD/ ]]at.f? emrnf ausmfBum.av. .&JY arG.? ol .wkdY [lwef.u aNrBuD. .aumif.0 rNiif.&.&JY emrnfudk aNymNyr.rl ol\ &ifaoG.mufNyef&NyD? [m.? igYom. ]]aooGm. Nyvdkuf\/ ]][m odyfaumif.mufwdk.wpfa.vdkuf&aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ odkYaomf wl.NrnfY0rf.fudk towfcH aoqHk.wmaygY wl.vkdufonf/ xdktcg &SufpGef.a.tNzpfeJY vufcHvkdufyg? uav.\ om. usef.om.&if.acsvdkufNyDuGm? [m.f}} ]]NyD. [if. vlwpfa.pm.enf.omtm.wl.i.u csufcsif.wJY igYom. uef . [m.u om.faNymaewmvm.udkom q&mBuD.rSm emrnf tausmfBum. .[if}} ]]wu. .wl.\ avoHwGif aBuuGJ aqG.rS nHYvdrfYr.f? aumif.orm.wl. ]]q&mBuD.? q&mBuD.fYol ydkrsm.f? aemifwpfcsdefrSmav om.? olY&JY arG.oGm.fY tck om.? ig &SufpGef.ao&wJYyHkudk Nrifvdkufovm.? aNymyg}} csifwl. . .aemf? uRefawmfwdkY awmif.&JY emrnfu ][lusif.acR.om&dyfrsm.vkduf&&if awmuf .}} csifwl. pdwfazmufNyefcsifvmNyefNyDavm/ &SufpGef.bl.ESifY csifwl.u . oluav rif. ]]'DwpfcgawmY igu rif.fav? raumif.wl. . vufckyfvuf0g. wl .wmaygY tpfudk}} &SufpGef.qef.oGm. .wdkY wu.JYûyH.rsufESmay:wGif ûyH. wpfcsufrQ rsufESmysufoGm.vmawmY om.}} ]]at.? aemf}} &SufpGef. [m.pd w f 0 if v mBuyg\/ ol w k d Y oHk. \ rsuf v H k . . . ud k Bunf Y & if . ]]igYom.u xdyfoD.} wJYuG [lusif.av. .f enf.fa[Y? igYrsufpduef.oHyg a&m. .eJY csifwl. aumif.ckepfazmfwdkY a&Smifvif*dkPf.Zl.Sufaeonf r[kwfygvm. .avmu wpfckvHk.fav}} xkdpum.acR.vmav\/ ]]rif.muf Nzpfvm&r./ &SufpGef. [m.&.udk cspfr.wdkY igYom.fav}} ]]aNymyg q&mBuD.w.fYolwpfa. emrnfudkvJyJ usef.u .qef.f? uRefawmfwdkY &ifxJu vdIufvdIufvSJvSJ aNymaewmyg}} &SufpGef.&. rif.tazvJ&dSw.wmaygY tpfudk&JY? om.om. igav? igYwpfudk. .av.qdk&if.emrnfeJYyJ NyefrSnfYay. rif.ayr.acR. .url eifYarmaom toHNzifY qufí aNymaeNyefonf/ ]]'DrSm usef. ig arYaysmufypfvdkufNyD? oifykef.fqdkawmY olYudk cspfcifr.om rao&ifav tckavmufqkd touf q.f r[kwfbl.aomf &SufpGef.}} ]][m .qef.wkdYudk aus. rl rsuf v H k .uyg pum.vm. rSnfYvkdufonfudk Bum.wJY udpöudkvJ 'DaeYupNyD.vsuf aBuuGJqdkYeifYoHNzifY . oem.aom &SufpGef.&if vlawGu odBurSmyJuG? olY&JY rdbu usef. .&JY emrnfudkvJ q&mBuD.om oifay.wdkYxuf rom&ifom ae&r.JY.wl.Sufvm\/ usef.&bl.ESifY csif w l .tazu a&TNcaoFYrif.mufBunfYvkdufrdBu\/ &SufpGef.qef.aygufcsifaom t&dyftaiGYrsm.udk &kwfw&uf t&kdtaoay.? tm.rSm&dSwJY wwforQ ynmawGudk olYudk yHkatmNyD.wif&awmYr.fY&SpfESpf &dSNyDuG? ig .aeyHkay:aom rsufESmay:wGif 0rf.\/ taBumif. usef.atmif e*g. q&mBuD.[lusif.&JY om. .NrnfYoHESifYtwl 0HYBuGm.[m odkif.pm.odkif.wuúodkvf aevif.qHk.faNymwmraumif.wJY igYom.

rdaom usef. uRef.u &kwfw&uf 0rf. vGefpGm odrfarGYaom vlwpfa.}}[k ûydifwl ac:vkdufBu\/ &S u f p G e f .vsuf .cg.acR. pvkduf\/ ]]q&mBuD. wkef.fusvm&Sm\/ uav. vG e f p G m 0rf . t&dktaoay.? igYudk q&mBuD.NyD. .wl. .f a rm&if .ESifY csifwl.av.udk NyefcsDoGm.rvm. . .&Smonf/ xdktcg wl.u xdkrQESifY NywfoGm.rsm.&onf/ tck &SufpGef.f &ifxJu vGefpGm cspfcifaeaBumif.pdwf t[kefaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ csifwl.udk ayGYcsDvu dk \ f / xkpd OfwiG f &Supf eG . aBumuf . uif. pum.omvGef.aom vufESpfbufrSmvnf.aeav\/ ]]a[m om. ]]q&mBuD.iftufuGJaom toHNzifYvnf.wGif olwdkYtwGuf udk.wl.awGY&aomaBumifY Nzpf\/ xdkYaBumifY csifwl.vdkY igYudk ac:zkdY rvkdawmYbl. q&mBuD.\ tqdkûycsufudk apm'u rwufBuygawmYay/ olwdkY ESpfa.udk tuJcwf&onfrSm olwdkY\om.f Nyefvnf 0rf.avawmY\/ 168 .0 rsufvHk.&\/ taBumif.oNzifY rsuf&nfrsm.wl.ftay:wGif xm.av.& NzpfoGm.omaezdkYom vdktyfvSay&m &SufpGef.vkdY rac:eJYuGm? igwkdY[m 'DaeY 'DtcsdefupNyD.i.acR.f onf &ifxJrS vdIufvdIufvSJvSJ 0rf.u .ifaeavonf/ wkef. t[J? 'gaygY? 'gaygY}} ]]tl0J tl0J tl0J}} xdktcdkuf uav.atmif e*g.&dSrdaom ol\ cspfcifNrwfEdk. ol bmrQ Nrif&rnf r[kwfacs/ odkY&mwGif olonf .acR.rl &SufpGef.pk NzpfoGm. . .mufonf csufcsif.av.u [efYwm.wefvSwJY rsufESmudk Nrif&if om. *l x J r S xGufcGmoGm.w& &.av. . AdkufqmaeNyDuG.yg? aemuf om.pm. þodkY EIwfrS aNymrdNcif.BuNyDuG? 'DawmY q&mBuD.acR.xl.fY? olYudk EdkYwdkufvdkufOD. .muftNzpfodkY ul.NzwfvkdufaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ ]]usef. .tm. .Bu\/ trSefvnf.av.}} odkYaomf usef. .vmNyDNzpf&m tvdkufodpGm a&Smifz.fay. ûyH.aeolNzpf&m olYa&SYwGif csifwl.onf r[kwfygacs/ &SufpGef.omtm.? ig tNyifoGm. .p uav.yif pD.Ofaus.omtm.udk &dyfpm.yif Nzpfonf/ . oabmus csDom csDxm.u acgif.oG.u ydkí us. ]]rif. omoG m . om.}} &Supf eG .favmifpGm idkoHay. .udk trSefwu. uav.av.wuúodkvf aevif.& ûyH. .f u uref.vsuf .í &kwfw&uf pum.wl. rif. aBumufaeygOD.cktcsdeftcgrsdK. . Nyefvnf 0if.qef.fonf bmukdrQ odNrifao. .raeawmYbJ trSefwu.fuG.wl.&rSm}} &SufpGef.ay. .uyJ olYudkac:NyD. vnf .yg.Edkif"m.vdkYyJ igYudk ac:Buyg}} usef.aNymif.cktcg rlrrSefazmufNyef &l.qef. om. uav.udk csDxm.qef.[ef wl \ / ol o nf tm.f . ]]tpfudkBuD. pOf.vkdaom qE´NzifY aNymvdkufrdNcif.BuNyD NzpfwJYtwGuf tpfudkBuD.ay: avQmufvnfywf xdef. BuD.pHkuef.udk csDOD.f}} trSefrl þES. trSefwu.wkdY 0rf. EdkYvSefwdkufvQifvnf.qef. csufcsif.oGyfaeaom pdwf&dkif.? wkdYwawG[m nDtpfudk armifESr NzpfoGm.&ef pum.ygawmY? igY&JY tusnf.uif.rSmvnf. ]]q&mBuD.vsuf .r. wpfrdom.? q&mBuD.vkdufr.rf.pifNyD. wpftdrfom.f arG.i. .f}} trSefrl &SufpGef.vufoGm. .omoGm.vm&ifvJ q&mBuD. ]]at.yif &SufpGef.onf vHk.fa&mpdwfyg csrf. vufEpS b f ufukd qefYxw k Nf yD.uwef.u axGaxGxl.if. .

rsm.udk. ûyH.wGifrl oludk.qef.kw.onf &SufpGef.mufonf uav.mufwiG f &Supf eG .&dzG.udkom cg.[lusif.xH ta&mufaNy.vd k u f \ / od k Y Nzif Y &S u f p G e f .wl.pm.wuúodkvf aevif.acR.wkdYu rmefrJ &dkufykwfrnfûy\/ xkdtcg &SufpGef. pm.oefrmvSav\/ usef.rSpí olwdkYoHk.qef.acR.0ifum wm.vmaomf usef. (18) aNrNyefYokdYtNyef xkdaeY? xdk&uf aemufydkif.wmeJYudk tvGefqdk.udk vdkufvH zrf.NrpfavY &dSavonf/ onfodkY ûyrlaygif.a. þoH.&SufpGef.fESifY 0uf0Hrsm.rmyuwdNzifY xGm.NyD.ESifY orif? '&. tvkdvkdufvGef.vmEdkifcJYonf/ xdkYaemufydkif.vSaom oli.NyD.twGuf vHk.a&.&mwGif tazmftNzpf rD.0 wm0ef.? &SufpGef.vsuf ae&&Sm\/ wpfcgwpf&H ]]tif.om wdww f qdwf xGuí f om.awmifarsmuf0HBuD.í roufrom acgif.ñlrdBu\/ 169 .udk w.awmY tpfudkBuD.? csifwl.fwdkif orif? '&.wpfckvHk.ESifY csifwl.rQ ruyfa&mufbJ usef. onf rsuf p d vH k .f aumif.BuD.oNzifY rdcifzcifNzpfaom usef.av.rf. uRef.orif vkduf&onfrSm t&omr&dSawmYyJ ysif.[lusif.fNzpfEdkifavmufatmif aqmYvGef.udk vdkufvHNyocdkif.frsm.uyfaewwfav\/ usef.tm. ûypkapmifYa&SmufavawmY\/ &SufpGef.qef.qD. rnfonfY a&m*gb.acR.u Bum.onf 0uf0Hrsm. 'Duav. ud k vSnfYywfoGm.vmav\/ xdYk aBumifY wpfa.aomufa&.udk tm.wl.f [lusi.NzpfawmYrSmyJ}} [k nnf.tzdkY om.udk zrf.udk owf&mwGif tvG.qD.orif ponfrsm.í &SufpGef.mufwnf.f onf usef. yl.NyD.udkyg ac:oGm.f [lusi.usdKif. wpf c k v H k .atmif e*g.vnf.f uom use. wpfpHkwpfck ûyrnfBuHwdkif.acR.ESifY csifwl. rJYûyH. olu pd w f N zif Y aw.onf tm.f tay: tcspyf v kd suf tvdv k u kd t f êuduaf qmifav\/ use.k a.Edkif"m. usef.orifrsm.fNzpfí tvGefw&m aqmYvSonf/ wpfcgwpf&H tEÅ&m.av.wl.qD.qef. .rS w f x m.avawmY\/ þodkYNzifY ESpfawG? vawG twefwef vGefaNrmufvmcJYNyDNzpf\/ uav. . . tcef.fwul owfNzwfEkdifvGef.lvdkufav\/ wpfcgwpf&H om. uRef . ûyvmawmY\/ olYrdcif zcifu a'goxGufí olYtm.udk vdkufvHzrf. olYarG.xm. tvGefawwJY uav.vyfonfYtcsdefwGif usef.tm. 0rNrif a omf v nf .rl rwwfomonfYtqHk.zcifNzpfol &SufpGef.wwf\/ okdYaomf arsmuf0HBuD.rmoefpGrf.

vkdufNyD.wdkYvJ aNrNyefYudk rNyefbl.tm.tm.Nzef. acgif.\/ okdYaomf aNrNyefYokdYNyef&ef [laompum. usifYpOfrsm.awGudk oifay.qef.avonf/ tb.uom raESmifY. touf av.vdkuf\/ ]]aNrNyefYudk NyefEkdifNyD [kwfvm.fa&mufNyD? 'DuaeYupNyD.udk ac:í ol\ odkif.Edkif"m.wl.cg.av. odkif.\/ xdkYaBumifY &SufpGef.eSpfNynfYaNrmufaom tcsdefwGifrl usef.\ tqHk.r.fwkdif oifBum.yif Nzpfonf/ usef.fvHk.ynmusifYpOfrsm.uyJ olYtwGuf wm0ef. ausmpdrfYoGm.onf om.? EdkY tpfudkBuD.*dkPf.[lusif.&if.ayawmY}} [k &SufpGef.Nzpf o l t m. oHk.ay.ay.tESHY vSnfYywfpD. &kwfw&uf ar. tyfESHav\/ &SufpGef.ay.wl.pm.ynmudk pwifoifBum.frdk.u oufNyif.frQ c&D.ynm oifBum.Suf&if tJ rif.yD y D tem.vkdufyg? olYtouf &SpfESpft&G.a&mufaeNyDudkyif rar.aumif.udk wpfqifYwufí oifBum.ynmu odyfeufeJvGef. [l u sif .rSm taumiftxnf ay:vmEdkifaom udpö r[kwf[k wGufxm.? twGif. om. .tm. &efolESifY wu.awmYacs/ usef.Nzpfoludk aeYpOf twGif.wl.av.zcifudk tJ'Davmufcspfwm}} &SufpGef.ay/ 170 .vdrfYr.onf olYom.w. twGif.q.u &SufpGef.avonf/ usef.ESifY csifwl.? 'DawmYum nDav.tm.cHí bmrQ rpOf.ndwfNyNyD.fvkdY rdk.l oifBum.acR. odkif.fuG.f? &ufaygif. od k i f . aNymonfYtwkdif. 0ifrSmpdk. tpfudkBuD. nwm odyf&SnfwJYnawGrSm avu awmifbufudk wkdufcwfw.qef.wl.wuúodkvf aevif.f? igu olYudk ESpfESpfavmufoifay.qef . em.fuG. wd k Y vnf . pmpwif oifBum.&if olvJ igYvdk N*dK[fqdk.u thHtm.vdkY&wJY t&G.aeNyDyJ? aNrNyefYNyefNyD.NyD. olYpdwfxJrSm olwdkYonf vlol a&mufaygufvmEkdifp&m r&dSawmYaom þuRef.? rdk.cgvsuf .*dkPf. ]]igYrSm rsufpduef.qef. . &SpfESpfaNrmufaom tcsdefwGifrl &SufpGef. .av. .f usef.avonf/ oludk.? om.u igeJYtwl aeygrsm.av.aemuf .ay.}} &SufpGef.pm. . nDav.udk aeYpOf oifBum.wl.acR. .ESpfNynfYaNrmufcsdefrS pí &SufpGef.uyJpNyD.u acgif.NyD.f? om. cspf&&if awmfygNyD? auseyfygNyD? 'Dr.}} &SufpGef. owdxm.udk wpfudk.ES p f a Nrmuf a omaeYwG i f csif w l . usef . . tpfudkBuD.taNccH usifYpOfrsm.&if rif. ]]'DESpfawGrSm igaeYwkdif.ay. ig. acR.u acgif.f&mr&dS/ xkdYaBumifY olYom.wdkYudk olwdkYtem. rvkduf&if wl.qef.a&Smifay.vnf o l r sm.fESpfq.wGif raeapay/ usef .oifYaom toHNzifY ]]bm .okdif.udk Bum.owfpum.rf. avmu\ pnf .? uRefrwkdY [kwfvm.u igYvkdtifeJY tNrJwrf. urf .wdkY aNrNyefYudk NyefEdkifNyD}} csifwl.rmoefpGrf.rSmyJ? wu. BunfYaew.ay.udkom oifBum. .ynm oifay.f wl. qefYusifaewmuG.udk a&mufoGm.ay.xdkifenf.? om.enf.? igYodkif.av\/ touf ig.fY? ESpfwdkif. olwkdY\ [lwef.f a&mufawmYrSyJ igu olYudk okdif.acR.usifYenf.wdkY aNrNyefYudk a&mufrSmtrSefyJ}} csifwl.aomf thHBooGm.wdkY&JY [lwef.favmufudk qufwdkuf awmifbufudk wdkufcwfw.tm.vm. &Gufxnfwyfvkduf&if aveJYtwl awmifydkif. onf om. nDav.ay:wGif aeaeorQ rnfonfYab.fwrf.atmif e*g.ay.acR.&efrQ usa&mufvmzG. twGif. ]]rNzpfbl.aumif.u ]]tpfudkBuD.uifBuD. bmvkyf&rSmvJ}} ]]tpfudkBuD. &ifqkdifwdkufcdk ufowfykwfaom odkif.uifBuD.tm.NyD.bl.csonf/ ]]ig olYudk q.vJ oGm. rûybJ olYom.f}} csifwl.aum uRefrwdkYeJY rvdkufbl. ud k em.wl.av. cE¨mudk.[lusif.wl.fY? 'DawmY igwkdYu azmufzGJYNyD.fY? 'Duav.? xGufouf 0ifouf &SLenf.tm.vnfEkdifrSm r[kwfao.u arG.onf pdwftyifyef.f r[kwfbl.aecsdefwGif usef.rsm.od k Y roD b J wdrf.av.Ncif.vkdYyguG.av. .onf usef.ay&m csifwl.avonf/ taNccHusifYpOf NzpfonfY ur®Xmef.&kH taNccH usifYpOfavmufom oabmrQ oifBum. wl .

usL. acR.vsuf .enf.k 0ef&YJ *dP k . ]]tpfudkBuD.lNcif.awmfBuD. cHk.Edkif"m.Nzpf&\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.&Sef. nDav.fqkdawmY 'Dbkef.yg.rSm emrusef.wpfoufrSm 'DwpfcgyJ csD.wGifrl q&mawmfBuD. vGefpGm xdwfvefYoGm.u qdkNyefonf/ ]]tpfudkBuD. ok d i f . &J Y ausmif.w.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk rpOf.ausmif.acR.NyDyJ tpfuBkd uD.&JY vufoD.fYoHk. xGufay:cJY\/ . rNzpfrdcJYbl.qufNyefonf/ ]]'Dbkef.&JY vufoD.*kPf. rmaea&mYovm.í r[kwfbJ &SufpGef.fcE¨mu oHrPdxufawmif ydkNyD. &ifxJrSm csD.udk ar.lrdcJYw.qef.awmfBuD.f? tpfudkBuD.vnf.usL.avmuwGif a&Smifvif bk&m.cH&vdkY touf r aowJ Y vl u d k a wmif ok d i f .pm.ndwfí .umrS ydkí thHBowkefvIyfNcif.Bu\/ xkdbkef.rsm.qef.p&m &dSvkdYyg}} ]]ar. usuf q &mawmf B uD . avmuuvJ cyf & I y f & I y f r [k w f v m. .awm&if. &SufpGef.&dS 0gBuD.Ekdif"m.*kPf.udk udkifvsuf pOf. yif Nzpf y g\/ &S u f p G e f .udkawmif tpfudkBuD.wuúodkvf aevif.qef .awG.u acgif. cH.u acgif.awmfBuD.? vl a wG u vJ a&muf w wf & m&m avQmufaNymwmu rsm.vdkufawmY ol ysHvGefawmfrloGm.yg tpfudkBuD.BuD.zkef. avmurS m xd y f o D .rSm cHk.Edkif"m.frSmvmNyD.acR. .&m? tpfudkBuD. ay:vGifaeonfudk awGYvdkuf&av\/ xdkYaBumifY þxl.}awGu tvum.\ vufcsufaBumifY[k Bum.zl.xdik q f &mawmfBuD. odwmqkd&if aNzygYr.usufq&mawmf rdefYNrGufwmudk em. bkef.rl odkif.wmudkyJ udk. em.qef. rodbl. csvsuf pum.? nDav.vdkY tpfudkBuD.acR. [k w f v m.usuf? cHk.feJY awmifYcHvkdufw. .Ncif .wJY yk*d¾KvfawmifrS 'D"m.fuG}} usef. ysHvGefawmfrloGm.csufwdwd xdk.acR.mufwnf.yg.aom vQdKY0Sufcsufrsm.rf.qef. .w.&m? a[m'D e*g.aBuuGJaom &dyfoGifrsm.cJY&wmuG.&.f? nDav.? 'gayr. av.awmfBuD. cHk.avQmufae\/ xdkpOfwGif &SufpGef.awmfBuD. cH k .r[kwfygbl.? tpfudkBuD. .csufudkawmif qufwdkuf awmifYcHcJYw.qef.fY}} usef. . cHk.usufusawmY tpfudkBuD. olvufxJwGif e*g.f}} ]]wNcm.? rif. ]][kwfw. cHk.apmif.\ rsufESmudk taotcsm BunfYvdkufaomtcg &SufpGef.u tpfudkBuD.fY tonf. .tm&Hk vGefpGmaumif. &dSrnf[k olu wGufvkdufavonf/ xkdpOf &SufpGef.ESpfNynfYaomaeY/ xkdaeYnwGif usef.usuf[m odyfxl.eJY qwfqwf Bum.pm. csufcsif.ckrl rxifrSwfbJ xkdq&mawmf ysHvGefawmfrlNcif.usufrSm emrusef. Nzpfaervm. udk.f? q&mawmf ysHvGefawmf rloGm.&\/ taBumif.acR.atmif e*g. bkef.fYoHk. ? od k i f .u trnfom Bum.vSygw.*kPf.0ef? cHk.qef.aom Nzpf&yfwGif tNcm.rSm xdkpum.&JY}} &SufpGef.ausmif . rl ouf N yif .&aomtcg usef .u va&mifatmufwGif xkdufvsuf &dSaeonfudk awGY&NyD.ygNyD? tJ'g igYvufcsufaBumifYyJuG}} usef.udk? cHk.onf[k owif.usef.&JY 0gBuD.BuD.wpfoufrSm wu. nDav.fuG? olu igYudk wpfcsufrS NyefrwdkufbJ igxdk.lrdwJY yk*d¾Kvf[m enf.qef.\ rsufESmay:wGif vGefpGm aemifw&aom? 0rf.usL. ]]r[kwfao. tdyfraysmfoNzifY *lNyifodkYxGufí va&mifatmufwGif wpfa.f v k d Y owf r S w f & wJ Y Opö m ? tck 'Da&Smifvifbkef.awmaeonfudk awGYvkduf&av\/ &SufpGef.&JY q&mBuD.onf awmifawmiftDtD awG.bl. orm. wpfcsuf wkefvIyfoGm. a&mufvmaBumif.csuf q.rSmvJ}} &SufpGef.NzpfNyD.eJY ywfowfwJY ]pmcsdK.acR. 'Davmuf ÓPfaumif.&JY udk. xd w f v ef Y w k e f v I y f o G m .fuG? igu olYudk q.Edkif&if 'D"m. wpfcsuftckwf txdk.? 'D q &mawmf u a&S m if v if b k & m.f}} 171 . .cg.awmaerd\/ odkYaomf usef.vdIuf? tlvdIufcsD.wpfcsuf? 'grSr[kwf vuf0g.[lusif.olNzpf&m olYtem.}} [k awG. vQdKY0SufcsufawG &dSEdkifOD.ygw.av.f wl nDtpfuykd q J ?kd q&mawmf ysHveG af wmfrw l m tawmfBumoGm. vrf.awmfBuD.odkY usef. nDav.fwkdifa&Smifvif*dkPf. usef.udk ewfbk&m.\/ ]][m .udk Bum.vkdYyg}} ]][k w f u J Y tpf u d k B uD .fY 'Dbkef. . nDav.tNzpf owfrSwfxm.qef. udk. odvkdufav\/ ]]xkdifygOD.u b.awmfBuD.wdkY NzpfBuyg\/ aemufydkif.u &SufpGef.qef.

.vm.cJYay/ .u em.laomvl[lí usef.qef.u odkif.w.f? wpfckawmY &dSw.u . odí csufcsif. .cJYr.udk wpfa.folurS tJ'Dvkd aNymrNycJYvdkY tazBuD.udk aNymvdkufcsdefwGif ol\ rsufESmtrlt&mrSm vGefpGmemBunf. .[lusif.Hkbl.*kPf.fi. odkif.w. owfvkdufrdcJYw.fY? rif.qef.fY olY&JYOD. aBumufp&maumif.&awmYr.u yifv.rQrwefatmif qJqdkykwfcwfaeonfudkom Bum. usef. .SOfvdkY&rSmvJ? olY&JY wynfYuawmif tpfudkBuD.rl usef.acR. oGm. a&muf&aSd eBu\/ xkv d pl w kH ufpkH &daS epOfwiG yf if &Supf eG . aoaocsmcsm rSwfxm.qef.xHrS tvGefpdwf0ifpm.cJY/ tNrJwrf.? csifwl.udk b.wGif rsufrNrif 'ku©dw &SufpGef.ckrl &SufpGef.awmfBuD.avawmY\/ aiGva&mif omaeaom tumv wdwq f w d v f aS om xkn d wGif uRef. vlav.p&maumif.ESifY udk.pdwfudk &dyfrd[ef wl\/ xkdYaBumifY .xufudk ydkawmfaeao.aom taBumif. *lxJrS aNy.? tpfudkBuD.rSm odkif.f nDav.Edkif"m.oifYvsuf .pm.HkeJY? Bum.yif Nzpf\/ odkYaomf ol csD.csnf.acR. .awmfBuD. aNymNyr.f}} vlrrnf usef. vlav.ynm odyfudkNrifYrm. yHkNyifwpfyk'f aNymNyrnf[k od&aomtcg 0rf.xGufoGm.usL. ig 'DaeYtxdtouf&SifrSm r[kwfawmYbl.ae&oNzifY t.[lusif.rvnf/ xkdYaBumifY arG.u rarQmfvifYbJ cHk.qef.HkOD.udk EdI.yg? tpfudkBuD. ]]awmuf .fuvGJ&if vlav. ]]nDav.? aumif.rSm &SufpGef.usuf bkef.wdkY&YJ azmifBuD.avmu&dS emrnfBuD.mufrQ txifrBuD.f? 'grSr[kwf wNcm.w.ayr.}} usef.\ tqHk.f.&NzifY tdyf&mrSxNyD.rsm.faygYav? tJ[dkpOfwkef.? rif.acR.&\/ &SufpGef.fvkdY tJ'Dwkef. /}} 172 .wnf.omtm. ol\ arG. .ao.EdI.acR.zcifu olYtm.\/ ]]aNrNyefYqkdwm bmvJ tazBuD.f? vlav.wpfae&mudk a&mufoGm. oleJY b. usef.kwfrmNyD. pwif pum.vdkvdk wpfNym.f [kwfvm.NyD? nDav.Hk&cufaeNyef\/ &SufpGef.u olu igYudkwpfcsufom Nyefwkdufcdkufvdkuf&if ig.t&mwpfckudk Bum.fuG.vdkuf\/ usef. Nyefar.wl.\ tqJtqdkcH&aom vlrsm.rsm.? udk. rBumcifrSmyJ aNrNyefYudk NyefoGm.vdkufwm? 'Dvdkodkif. [kwfvm.fY&JY taz&.fY wu.avmurSm oGm.ay:vmonfudk awGY&\/ usef.vnf. rSefonf/ &SufpGef. ]][if 'Dbkef.f vlrrnfav.vkdufprf.fYoHk.[m odyf.&awmYrnfrSef.fvkdY tazBuD.udk tckoGm. &kwfNcnf.xufawmif omao.udkom Bum.owfpum.rSm? bmaBumifYvJqkdawmY . tckvkd ysufcJY&w.f u usef.fuG}} &SufpGef.u thHtm.? usef.fwkef.EdI.[m odkif.pm. .qkyd g\/ ]]vlav.av. nDav. . .folYudkrS r.fvdkYrsm.aESmuffu odyfudk vkdvGef.t&G. .}} ]][kwfw.u &SufpGef.onfudk NrifawGY&aomf usef.fvkdYrsm.qef.awmfBuD.av\/ twefBumrSyif .u xdkokdYaNymNyD.fuG.f? wu.f? oGm.orm.pm.udkomqufavonf/ ]]wu. i.vmrIodyfr&dSawmY olY&JY okdif.tm.[lusif.w.usL.csufxdk.uG}} &SufpGef.\ wpfae&m *lBuD. aNrNyefYudk a&mufcJY&if tazBuD. odkif.fxJudkepfoGm. vGefpGm tHYBooGm.&JY b0BuD. .rdonf/ ]]trSefu 'Dbkef.}} &SufpGef.ayawmY}} ]]a[m'D vlYbHkavmurSm vlawG&JY pdwfxm. rBum.qef.u oufouf vufoD.acR.tm.fY? tazBuD.avmurSm &SmrS&Sm.udk þrQcsD.u wu.wpfc\ k teD.acR.eJY q.u olYudk yHkNyifwpfyk'faNymNyr.ESpfom.acR.aom? tcJrausaom t&dyfta.udk tpfudkBuD.aygY? 'gayr. .f? tar&. ESaNrmvkdufwm? &ifemp&m aumif.ynmu tpfudkBuD.udk taumufBuHwwfw.&JY odkif.f? 'Dbkef.u tazBuD. .BuD.ynm&SifwpfOD. .awmfBuD.zl.ynmtqifY tppftrSefudk vlawGu odyfrodBubl.wuúodkvf aevif. odkif. .onf odkif.atmif e*g.u raNz/ olu pum.wJY xdyfoD.r.avmuwGif txifu& yxrwef.wkdY wpfpw k pfa0.HkcsifrS .qef.mifrsm.[lusif.zcif &SufpGef.\ 'dG[ oHo.vkdufacs}} usef. .u r.udkaNymr.[lusif.[lusif.orm.yif *lxJodkY Nyefum usef. awGidkif oGm.NyD. b.xHrS rxifrSwfaom pum.fYvl &dS&ifvJ tazBuD.fqdk&ifawmY bmrS aNymp&m rvkdawmYbl.

om.fY? nDav.ynmawGudk xyfrHnTefBum.}} usef.vdk cifwG.qef.wpfaeYrSmaygYuG.ftxd&dSBuovJqdk&if q&mwynfY&.cJYw.udk ol .fuG.av.uif[m csufcsif.awmY *kPfodu©m tifrwef&dSwJY tazBuD.wkdY\EIwfrS ][m} ceJ tmar#dwf ûyvkdufrdBu\/ usef.acR. .aumif.udk [efYvkduf\/ &SufpGef.? twif.Yf ? uJ vlav. ZeD.wJY odik .mufqrD mS wynfYccH iG Yf &vku d w f .f? uefawmYNyD. [kwfvm.fuG.rsdK. /}} ]]q&muvJ tazBuD.wdkY&Gmudk NzwfNyD. om.acR.w. tck nDav.f q&mwpfa.f? tJ'DaeY[m NymvGifaewJY rdk.dkqifvdk cRef.[lusif.fr[kwb f . t&dk.fY}} 173 .ay.pHk0dkif.awmY tazBuD.rdkY cspfp&maumif.uef&Smw.pm.l uG.fuG. awmif. ñdIYrdIif.f? tJ'Davmuf tazBuD. cspfwm? av.&JYtar? aemuftazBuD.f vlav.f? tazBuD.fYwpfESpfNynfYwJYESpfrSm uHaumif.&JY ZeD. . bmrS 0ifrar.yGwfESvHk. .wJ Y tazBuD .w. 0rf. .udk odkif.u olYom.? rif. . tJ'Dwkef.f tvdw k yl gYrvJ? aBumufvefYNyD.favmufaysmf&Tif BunfEl.? roifYaBumif./}} ]]wpfaeY .f vlav. &J Y q&mud k tazBuD .&JYq&mu aNcESpfacsmif.f? 'gayr. .av.kwfrmrIawGay:oGm.&JY wpfESpfNynfYwJY om.cJYw. xm.axmufrNyD.om.}} ]]a[Y usef. .ESifY csifwl.[lusif.&.rS avsmYr.&JYZeD.ESpfrSm ynmpHkwwfvkdY udk.a& xkdpOf [dktcgwkef.? om. .&JY q&mu tazBuD.fqkdwJY twdwfedrdwfyJaygYuG.fqdkwm NyefraNymEdkifatmifyJuG. . .u pHkudkifNyD.}} usef.acgif.um.? twif.u olYemrnfESifY wlvSaom trnfudkBum. .udk cspfcif&akd oav.? tazBuD. wnf .rSm twif.? tazBuD.&JYemrnfu &Suf[lusif.fYig.qdkwm awGY&awmYw./}} ]]tJ'DaeY&JYn? ckESpfveJY q.ay: ypfaygufcsvdkufwm vlav.? om. ? rd b om.u b.Nr&Tifvef.NyD.av.vmw.wmudk awGYawmY tazBuD.fuG. tazBuD.yef&Smw.udk t"r®usifYBuHawmY tazBuD.rIudk ay.zkdY a&mufvmawmY tazBuD. tdrfaxmifûycJYw. toufESpfq.axmifaeprf.f? tazBuD.[mav wpfcgwnf. olY&JYynmawGudk wpfckruseftdwfoGefzmarSmuf oifBum.eJY}}[k usef.enf.fuG. aNrBuD.wdkYrdom.aemuf ]][kwfw.cJY&w.wdkY ZeD.ûypk {nfYcHcJYw.f? trsdK.qef.pm.u &Suf[lusif.udkyg .wl.pk[m b.f? tEÅ&m. .f&vGef.eJY odyfwlwmyJ? wpfwHk.f.NyDvkdY odNyD.u aemufqHk.u cPrQ em.f? tJ'Dwkef.0ifBunfYw.vnf.&JY ZeD.vHk.fawmif rubl.arG.Edkif"m.wJY vl.BuD.rSmodyfudk emrnfBuD. ]]tazBuD.avmurSm tifrwef emrnfBuD.awmYav tazBuD.bDvl.om.cJYw.NyD.av.awmY tazBuD.mif aqmifxm.ygyJvm. rdbozG.&JYtdrfrSmyJ tawmfBumatmif wnf.f? tazBuD.&kef.u pum. c&D.cJYwJY tazBuD.omvkdufwm raNymygeJ Y awmY? rd b eJ Y wpf * d k P f . .wdkY q&mwynfY ESpfa.f}} ]]tazBuD.udkav tazBuD.&JY tazu toHBum.yHkBuD.owfvkdufw.xm.wmxuf ryd&k ifawmif enf.armifESHrSm om. xdk.r. ol t"r® usifYBuHcJYw.xJaNy. odkif.f? tazBuD.fu.&JY q&mudk cspfcif&dkaoav.avmu wpf0Srf.f? tJ'DrSmwif q&mu olY.&ufnrSm olu t&ufao&nf aomufNyD. /}} ]]aemufwpfESpfusawmY tazBuD. qufaNymr.[lusif.wJY? NyD.wm vlav.u tazBuD.oGm.awmYav tazBuD.u q&mYudk vkdavao.m.wdkY&JY rdom.&JY om.mrI? at.fY? aemufNyD. ]]tazBuD.f vlav.kwfrmBuD. wpf t d r f o m. . toufq. .muf[m oHa.pm.qufNyef\/ ]]tJ'v D dk q&mu tazBuD. wpfyHkNzpfoGm.wJYae&mrSm nDav. .f vkyfay.&JYtazudk wpfcsufwnf.zkef.udk u&kPmoufpGm BunfYae&Smonf/ &SufpGef.fYae&yf&Gmudk NyefNyD.? tJ'D tazBuD.&aomf tHYBoNyD.&JY onf.mZOfb.pm.&JYq&mu wu.NyD. rawmfaBumif.&JY ZeD.&JY q&mu tazBuD.a. .u tazBuD.vH k .eJYtkyfvkdY r&awmYbl.wdkY&Gm? tazBuD.qef.[m tazBuD.mufxGef.fY rkef.aqmif.udk odyfoabmusNyD.vdkufwmvJ vGefyga&m? tif.pk&JY aysmf&Tifcsrf. aNcqkyfvufe..aNrYrI? BunfEl.av. tcef.&dkaocJYwJY? odkif.fY? tazBuD.fqdk. rsufvHk.&JY q&mudk tazBuD.? aemufqHk. tomem.qef.axmufNyao. &kef.wpfckck usa&mufvmawmYr.qdkwm q&mYudk tdyf&m0ifcsdefwkdif. qufem.yJ usifYBuHawmYw.wJY &Suf[lusif. &Suf[lusif.&JY q&mBuD. tazBuD. olYarG.rS tdyfw..oGm. G Yf ? tazBuD.av tpfudkBuD.pm.pufoGm.atmif e*g. usef.acR.axmif? tazBuD.fY? aemuf rBumcifrSmyJ tazBuD.f vluav.u tpfudkBuD.&JY om.cJYw.wJY om.fYoHk.tzvkdawmif cspfcifBuw.fawmY vlolawmfaumif. usef.f . ÓPfaumif.f av.pm.awGtm.wpfcJBuD.r&dSatmif auR.wuúodkvf aevif.wpfa.[pfatmf tultnDawmif.

aomf ausmwpfcsufpdrfYoGm.u owfNyD.rSef.u yk*d¾KvfawG[m b. rdk. &kwfcsnf. odkif.u tpfudkBuD.xdk. csefcGef.w.f0gqkdwm tckavmuf aNymNy&if odNyD r[kwfvm.acR.buf rsufESmrlí ]]udkif.&Tif .wpfa.aomtcg ]rdk.Buav\/ xkdtcg wu.? vHk.orm.? q&mYudkvJxGufay:vmapcsifwm wpfaBumif.Edkif"m.? tpfudkBuD. odkif.bufoYkd rsufEmS rlum Nidrfaeonf/ cPBumawmYrS wpfvHk.aBumifY odkif.folygvJ tpfudkBuD.rdkY pdwfrxdef.u acgif.fY tpfudkBuD.fYrdk.&JYwynfYudk.eJY wl.udk.wl.vku d o f nf/ &Supf eG .avmuwGif tBuD.qef.qef.q&mBuD.odNyD? vufpowfawmY q&mBuD.f}} usef.udk aNAmif. .vufoD. usL.vufoD.taBumif.füu odkif.u xGufudkrvmawmYbl.ESiYf csifwl. aewJ Y q&m[m rcHr&yfEkdifNzpfNyD.fY}}[k &kwfw&uf ar.vnf.vQrf. .atmif e*g.Nzwfvkdufw.csefxm.Nywkduf? rk'drf.omNzpfaBumif.u Bum.&SmvkdY awGYvkdufa&mvm.&SmBur. csefcGef.udk 0kdif. .vdkufavonf/ csifwl. csdK&Tifacsmif. tJ'Dvkd awG. .Bunf.f [kwf .wl.uG.}} ]]Asm}} usef.fvkdrS NidrfaerSm r[kwfawmYbl.acR. usef. tusdK. csdK&Tifacsmif.fvdkY tpfudkBuD.aewJY a&Smifvif*dkPf.yDyD &kwfw&uf 0ifí .&JYq&mu b.u uav. odkif.onf/ NyD.vufoD.acR.u rdk. [kwfvm.avmurSm&dSwJY *dkPf.fwJYtrIwpfckudk vkyfzkdYygyJ? tJ'DtcgrSm tpfudkBuD.cJYavonf/ odkYaomf aemufydkif.ESiYf csifw.wl.u ][m}ceJ tmar#dwûf yvku d rf Bd uNyefonf/ &Supf eG .[lusif.0rawGYawmYbl.qef. .u ar.acR.u csdK&Tifacsmif.Bu\/ odkYaomf odkif.}} usef.mufudk q&mcsefcGef.f u csufcsif.eJY [lwef.xdk.rf.q&m&JY emrnfudkoHk.u odkif.rsdK.wl. 'k p &d k u f r I a wG usL.awGtrsm.acR.êud.awmuf emrnfBuD.ESpf*dkPf.fuG.f? [lwef.wkefvIyfoGm.fY}} ]]b.EdkifbJ ausmpdrfYwkefvIyfoGm.emrnfeJY owffvkduf&ifawmYNzifY tJ'D*dkPf. towfcHcJYBu&onf/ vlowform.wl.csefcGef.wGif bmrSrNzpfonfudk olodaomfvnf.vufoD.raNz/ rNrifrprf.tm.awmYrsm.Nzpf\/ &SufpGef.f &IyfaxG.vufoD.rvS aysmufuG.fcsufu bmvJ}} &SufpGef.wuúodkvf aevif.u acgif. 'kp&dkufrIawGudk vkdufNyD.vsuf . raoao.f? 'geJYyJ vkdY&efûrdYrSm [lwef.BuD.*dkPf.? csefcGef.omNzpfaBumif.vGefaom 'kp&dkufrIrsm.f? 'gaBumifY tJ'D*dkPf.rdoGm.qef.acR.wltpfudkBuD.wl.csif.udk trSwfrxif awGYvdkufawmY olYudkowfypfzdkYqHk.? tJ 'gayr.onf aemufydkif.Nzpf\/ csifwl. ol\ *dkPf.udk odí .? 'geJY tpfudkBuD.udkBum.udk .udk oGm.vsuf ]]q&mYemrnf u d k o H k .avmurS aysmufNcif.vk "m.}}[k qkdav\/ rSefygonf/ xdkpOfxdktcgwkef.}} csifwl.NyD.f u usef.}} ]][kwfygw.rI NzpfcJY\/ emrnfBuD.pm.aNzonf/ ]]csdK .u rJYûyH.fY apmapmu aNymwJYtwdkif.avawmYownf.ygyJ? tpfudkBuD. tavmwBuD.}[k aoG. xkdemrnfudkom a&.u xkdpum.*dkPf.acR.qef.ndwfí ]][kwfNyD wl.l wl.NzifY usef. xkt d cg usef.wltpfudkBuD.Nref.u pOf. csefcGef.udk awGYw.awGYrdw. emrnfysufatmif wrif tykyfcsykwfcwfNcif.avmuxJ Nyefay:vmrvm. ]]rawGYbl. .êud.udk&SmNyD.pm.ûyNyD.&JYq&m csefcGef.f? 'DxufBuD.NzifY ]]uRefawmf&JY *dkPf.qefatmif vkyfcJYayr.êud.awGYcsifwJYvlwpfa. NyD .Ncif. nDav.xJu vQrf.qef.cJY\/ ypönf.qdkwJY &nf&G. ar.orm.Ncif.\/ csdK&Tifacsmif. 174 .NzifY emrnfa&.\ trnfudk wrifoufouf tvGJoHk.avmuudk BunfYvkdufawmY odkif.tus.qef.xJu xdyfoD. &dyfpm.0ifar.rdw.&ef pdwful./ ]]tpfudkBuD.ckepfazmf&JY eHygwfwpf csdK&Tifacsmif. f c suf u yk e f .wGif vlawGu rdk.fcsufeJY vkyfwmyg}} ]]'DvkdeJY tpfudkBuD.wcsdKYonf tvdkvdkae&if.êud. .ûyH.usifYNyD.vGefwJY &nf&G.folb. tpfudkBuD.vG e f v k d u f w J Y &nf & G .mufudkawmY trSwfrxif ]vdkY&efûrdY}rSm awGYvdkuf&w.usL.vQifvnf..us.avmu wpfckvHk. csefcGef. usef. csefcGef.BuD.foGm. NzpfaewmvJ wpfaBumif.u ememBunf. q&mudk tpfudkBuD.acsmif.csefxm. odkif.êud.

acR. uvJYpm. wkefvIyfoGm.r[kwfwJYwdkif a[m'DnDav.onf tb.u igYudk0dkif.vmwJYtcgus&if odkif.aumif.Edkif"m.rdNyD.? rif. .udkyif owfypfrSm aocsmonf[laom pum. towfcH&NyD.f? b.av.vmwJYtcgus&if olYukd oGm.u azazYudk bmvdkY owf&rSmvJ[if}} &SufpGef.csEdkifawmYonf/ &SufpGef.acR.oGm.&if bmrS rodawmYbl.udk yGwfowfNyD. usef.[lusif.fvdkrS xdef.? 'gu bmrS 'ku©cHpm.buf rsufESm zswfceJrlNyD.usef .[lusif.wl.muf&JYtNypf[m tJ'Dvlwpfa.fvdkY wpftdrfom.qef .wdk.vdkYr&bl.rdw. .acsay.fY? csdK&Tifacsmif. ur®Vmef.fuG.Nzwfí ]]tazBuD. tpfudkBuD.vsuf ]]tazBuD.ckepfazmf&JY eHygwfwpfqdkawmY olY&JYodkif. ]][kwf .u OyrmaNymwmyg om.aooGm.&JY wpftdrfom.êud. odkif.qef.NzifY .u NidrfoufpGm em.wkdYu usef.? igYrdom. tazBuD.atmif e*g. udk.vQif toHwdk.udk &ef&SmrdrSm r[kwfbl.vH.}} ]]aBomf .wmeJY ur®Vmef.aygY? 'gayr. pdwfvIyf&Sm.f? 'DaeYvkd taNctaersdK.rS olYzcif usef. NrifouJYodkY pdkufBunfYNyD.? vlwpfa. 'Dvkdvm. .wl.aomf &SufpGef.wuúodkvf aevif.qef. olwpfa.pk&JY &efaBuG. om. usef. NzpfaecJY&ifawmif tpfudkBuD.u xkdtcgusrSyif oufNyif.NyD.oifNyD.? NyD.av.u [lwef.fwpfa. u csdK&Tifacsmif.}ceJ rausreyfûyí ]]tpfudkBuD.faNymwmvm.mufudkyJ 'Pfcwf&r.u ûyH.fuG? olY&JY tNypfu b.}} ]][dwf usef.qef.fvdkvkyf NyefqyfEdkifawmYrSmvJvkdY awG.eJY olYudk rowfEkdifvkdYoluxGufaNy.avonf/ &SufpGef. u awG Y wJ Y vl [ m [l w ef .om.acsr.u usef.u wu. NidrfaeawmY\/ &SufpGef.f? olY&YJ wpftrd o f m.twGuf uvJYpm.vufarmif.awmufaew.bufu NyifqifwmaygYuG.\ OD. .NyD.fodkYvQif &SufpGef.tm.? wu.ESifY csifwl. .[lusif. .eJY? wpfcsDwnf.acsvkdpdwfawGu rD.BuD.favmufyJBuD. .aumif.}}[k ar.om. wdwfprf.í tm.fa0wmyJ? 175 .twGuf uvJYpm.muftay:rSmyJ usoifYw.eJY csdK&Tifacsmif.mufwnf.}} usef.axmifae&if.&JYtazukd tazBuD.&JY rsufESmudkaxmufNyD.}} usef. .fvkdY wpfcsufwnf.fuG? 'dNyifvleJY bmrS rqdkifbl.[lusif.vdu k Nf yD? aemifwpfcsdef om.[lusif.ynmudk aumif.u pum.u qdkNyef\/ ]]tazBuD.NyD.? csifwl.f? bmNzpfvdkYvJqkdawmY tpfudkBuD.onf vnf.[lusif.wJY [dk rdk./ xkdpOf usef.BuD. . ]]om. .wl.rSm aocsmw.udk owfoGm.f}} usef. ud k v J od w mrS r[k w f b J a v? 'D a wmY [d k w k e f .udk bmvdkYrowf&uf&rSmvJ? odyfowf&ufwmaygY? wpfckawmY&dSw. ][if.rBuD. [lwef.}} usef.awmYtckvkd nD a v.owfudk Bum.udk rowf&ufvkdY vufvTwfvdkufwmxifw.[lusif.[lusif.twwfynmawGudk NyefNyD.qef.mufrS rcsefbl.acR.atmif wkdufEkdifzdkY tazBuD.u nDav.u .u npm pm.f}}[k vufoD. acR.&wmr[kwfbl.awGtm.bl.udk a'gooHNzifY 0if[efYonf/ xkdtcg usef. wkdufckdufvmBurSm trSefyJ? igaowmu ta&. csefcGef.om.vHk. rsufpdrNrifawmY uRefawmfBuD.\ aNymyHkqdkyHkudkBunfYNyD.r.onf rsufrNrifNzpfaomfvnf.&if odkif.qef.u csdK&Tifacsmif.acgif. *d k P f .u om. apmapmuaNymvufp taBumif.aomf rsufuvJ qefNymNzifY ]]tazBuD.u csifwl.onf vnf. txD. .ynm[m acrSmr[kwfbl.uav.f? wpfa. .k udv k J owfypfr.uqdk&ifawmY tpfudkBuD.fYudk 'ku©yifv.qef.fY wu.aumif.onf vnf.t&mudk Nyefqufonf/ ]]tJ[dknrSm tazBuD.Bu\/ xkdtcg &SufpGef.xkdifvkdufw.udk ig b.aerdBu\/ trSefrl usef.vHk. .? 'gayr.vufoD.frowfygbl.fY [dktcsdeftcgwkef.f? [kwfvm.f}} usef.wef.tqHk.udk om.owfrSm aocsmw. . tazBuD.qufNyefonf/ ]]vlwpfa.f? tJ'Dvkdvkyf&yfawG ay:oGm.avmuom.xkdif&if.u Bum. usef. ]]{uEÅ aemufydkif.rSm tpfudkBuD.acR.usefaewmrsdK.[lusif.*dkPf.av. aET.udk Bum.&JY&ifxJrSm uvJYpm.vHk.acR.qdk&ifawmY rSefcsifrSefvdrfYr.acR.u awG.pdwfxJrSm rSwx f m.u csdK&Tifacsmif.acsEdkifygrnfenf.? usef.&JY? om.rmeftNynfYNzifY qdkav\/ xdkpum. tazBuD.f? tazBuD.usawmY wu.muf aooGm. [kwfuJYazaz}}[k aBumuf&GHYpGmaNymNyD.[lusif.aumif.&if igY&JYaNc&meJY vkyf&yfawG ay:oGm. wu.

rS m xufydkif.&SmcJYw. .ynmtpGrf.awmY tpfudkBuD.udk.}ceJ us.f nDav.NyD.}} xkdtcg Nidrfaeaom usef.pdwfxJrSm tpfudkBuD. usdK.u .fNyD.udk em.uvnf.f 'DuRef.csonf/ odkYaomf olu bmrQ apm'u rwufcsifawmY/ pum.vkduf\/ ]]tpfudkBuD.f? wl.wm nDav.tm.Edkifonf/ odkYaomf .&Sm.f onfvnf.vHk.&if.udk b.wl.f vlav. opfyif\ yifpnfxJodkY vufoD.Nzef.wl.uawmY tm. ES i f Y usef . .wpfacgufyif aBuGrusacs/ use.rf.qef.qef.&JY ckepfqifY vufoD.w.aumif. .fuG. pD.u e*g.u þopfyifBuD.k ESpaf vmufaevdu k w f meJY odik .rmeftNynfYNzifY xkd.u OD.vH.&JY rsufpdxJrSm xifxif&Sm.}} csif w l .aNymovdk tpfudkBuD.fY? [dkpOfwkef.fY&ifxu J csD.oHu wu.i.u aNrBuD.om.f acR.acR.qef.vkdufygao.&vdrfYr.HkBunfBu&íyifNzpfyg\/ xdkpOfwGifyif &SufpGef.wltpfudkBuD. wd k Y vG e f p G m th H B owk e f v I y f o G m .kd ? [kwNf yD? 'gaBumifY olodkif.EdkifpGrf.f? aemufckepf&ufus&if opfyifwpfyifvHk. ckepfqifY vufoD.&Sif.w.vkduf\/ csifwl..u tazBuD.\ pdwfxJrSmrl .u acgif.uszdYk raNymeJY? opf&u G u f av.udk tm.ygyJ? opfyifudk xdwJYtcgusawmY tm.udyk J oJBuD.[mav aemufoHk.u tpfudkBuD.Bu\/ &S u f p G e f . opfyifBuD.wuúodkvf aevif. odygw. 176 .xkwfwkef.vkduf\/ &S u f p G e f .u uRefawmfwdkY&JY *dkPf.pGm cg.u ckwifrSm wifNyifacGxdkifNyD.onfvnf.NyDu.? use.xí vufckyfwD.Edkif"m.NyDvdkY xifaew. .kwfoGm.fvkdNrifovJ}} usef. pdwfxdcdkufrnfpdk.&JY vufoD.fY? bmaBumifYvJqdkawmY tpfudkBuD. .u atmf[pfcsD.aumif.wl.rSm aeaeorQ odkif.qef.acgif.uRH0ifoGm.udk awGYcsifovm.vkduf\/ xdktcsdefwGif &SufpGef. 'geJY nDav.usL.udkwpfvSnfY aBumifí BunfYaerdBu\/ csifwl.xdk.favmifpGm tm.udk vufñdI.l qdw k m tpfuBkd uD.&JY vufoD.&JY? 'grS tazBuD. . .frQyif rvIyfacs/ opfacgufuav.rvnfcJYbl.rJBuD. wl .aNymif.NyD.[lusif.? uvJYpm.uawmY tazBuD.t&qd k v Qif vuf o D .Nyif.usL. .vkdufrd\/ odkYaomf &SufpGef.\/ xdktcg &SufpGef.oGm.u opfyifBuD.usL.}}[k aNymvdkuf\/ &SufpGef.w.&qHk.&.odkif.atmif e*g.? csiw f .NzifY wpfcsufxdk.ûy&if. ur®Vmef. .rSm bmrQrNzpf&Hkru tenf.oHr[kwb f .ckwfvdkuf\/ xkdtcg &kwfNcif.f? aBomf .av.udkNznf.udk cg. tm.rNrif&bl. wpf&u G af wmif vIyo f mG . vd k u f o nf E S i f Y opf y if B uD .yif ]Akef.fcsif. .&ufavmufus&if t&GufawGEGrf.wl.f nDrav. ].fvdkvJtpfudkBuD.Nyefonf/ ]]nDav. wl. cHpm.wGif usefaeaom opfyifydkif.udk wpfvSnfY&SufpGef. ]]rNzpfygbl.frS ydkif.&dSonf/ tenf.k qkw.avYusifYwm igwpfcgrS rNrifcJYwm aerSmyJ}}[k awG.acsrGypfvkdufNyDnDav.f? NyD.fr[kwfvm.&JYcsD.wl.k 0rygovdyk cJ ifAsm? tyifBuD.[m. ]]tpfuBkd uD. .f ynmawGtm.udk owfypfNyD.&JY odkif.}} &SufpGef.}ceJ opfyifBuD.ay.fuG.vHk. f w k o f mG .udkom vrf. .NyNyD.u xkd.f? wu.ynmusifYzkdYrvdkygbl.? tJ'Doabmu b.}} &SufpGef.yifaNymNyonf/ ]]tpfudkBuD.rf. aBuGvmr. tifrwefrSvJ tcH&cufwJY r[m'ku©BuD. usefacR. opfyifBuD. &.u 'DuRef.u oufNyif. ]]bmyJNzpfNzpf tpfudkBuD.bufodkYvSnfYí ar. opfyifBuD. u ol w d k Y ud k vdrfnmaNymrnfr[kwfaBumif.odkif.wpfyifa&SYodkYa&mufoGm.aumif.vH.yJuG.q&m&JY wpftdrfom.l wl.vnfvkdYudk r&ygvm. Nrifae&ao.eJY wdkufcdkufNzpfovm.&m? tJ[dknu tNzpftysufu tckcsdefxd tpfudkBuD.&JY yifpnfxJutpmaBum? a&aBumawGudk tm.. .u w[m.NzifY .cJY&r.NyD. acR.ay:rSm ud.mufwnf.uaum tpfudkBuD.Edkif"m. \ od k i f . ]]'Dr.pmwwfrSm}} usef.vJ tJ'Doabmw&m. olYudkvlYavmurSm txD.udk vufoD.fY? tJ'DnrSm apmapmu tpfudkBuD. a[m'D opfyifBuD.? rif.v. aoGYaNcmufNyD.usefb0eJY xm.&JY tm.aemuf ]]'Dr.txm.acscsifaZmeJY q&mwpfa.lí opfyifBuD.vJusoGm. . aooGm.qef .tNrifudk cyf&Sif. nDav.u csufcsif.onfvnf.fawmY tazBuD. .awG qkwf.vdkufaomfvnf.m.\/ &SufpGef.acR. ESpfodrfYaomtm. . tpfudkBuD. wpf c suf ypf x d k .f [lusi.ckrl þodkYr[kwf/ &SufpGef.u olYoabmxm.}}[k ar.qHk.udk NyefaET.udk cg.usdK. tacgufacgufomG .í csifwl. uRefawmf em.u opfyifBuD.ynmpGrf.&wJY'ku©udk oludk.

.fY}} ]]tJ'Dvkd usifYvm&mu udk.rsdK.acR. ]]tazBuD.fay:vm\/ olu qufí . u ckepfqifYvufoD.mufBunfYvu kd rf Bd uonf/ olwYkd awG\pdwx f w J iG f þrQem.odrfarGYvSaom vlwpfa.vnfrI&dSNyD.qef.aBumifY &SufpGef.f/ wcsdKYu rmqwfw.wl.ynmu tifrwef eufeJ cufcJwmuG.wHk*dkPf.f/ 'gaBumifY odkif.u ZGJravsmYao.fY? NrifYrm. .fwdkifvJ twGif.ynmudk ckepfqifYvufoD.uav.u tazBuD. 'PfwpfrsdK.usL.xJrSm tm.u bkef.&xm.fwkdif 'DvufoD. qufaNym&OD.? 'kwd.wdkY BunfYvkdufBuprf.zs&\/ ]]om.udk.wkdYvJ odom.? tJ'Dwkef.lum OD.orm.tm.qef.}} usef.&if.wdkYrSm þwpfBudrfusrSyif &ifxJrS vdIufvdIufvSJvSJ csD.udk yGwfoyfay. tm.u .pm.ESiYf usef.? 'gayr. .apmifYa&SmufvmcJYayr.qef. em.tem.aESmufaBumawGvJ xdcdkufcH&rSm r[kwfbl.rsm.rSm yHkpHtrsdK.uyif qufí .yg. usefovm.&r.tm.u usef. rqifrNcif csufcsif.f? 'Davmufqdk em.wuúodkvf aevif.acR.zke.odkif.f? wcsdKYu aysmYaNymif.? tpfudkBuD.NyD vlav.av.acgif.fudk.vnfa&maygY? om.oGm.ygw.odkif.fqdkwm om. wpfcgwpfcg azmufNyefwJYpdwf&dkif.wdYk wpfa.aumufNyD.fodkif. apmapmu aNymwJ Y twd k i f . odkif. cHk.rdcJYwJYtaBumif.udk tazBuD.[kef.qef.&JYvufoD.mufu wpfcgwpf&H azmufNyefaom pdwf&dkif.D wpfcsufwnf. .f a wmY tJ ' D v d k OD .pvHk.aESmufaBum xdcdkufNyD.cgí .}} ]][ifYtif.om.yif uyfcRJum ylqmaeNyefonf/ odkYaomf &SufpGef.twGuf udk.fudk twGif.ynmudk aumif.}} csifw.usifYNyD. .fvrdk S twGif.qef.ckepfrsdK.fES.wpfrsdK. wH k * d k P f .odkif.acR.vk.vdkufrd\/ usef. oifay.rBunfYeJY? tazBuD.? om.ygaeaBumif. .uvJuG.NynfY0awmYrS ckepfqifYvufo.odkif.&JY&ifxJrSm rD.bufydkif.f}} &SufpGef.rSmrl uav.udk rckcHEdkifbl. usifYawmYwmyJuG. ckepfrsdK.yDyD ckefayguf NrL.wl.Nrpfudk od&awmYonf/ &SufpGef. ]]tpfudkBuD.fY tazBuD.fY? wNcm. aES m uf a Bumxd c d k u f N yD .udk rusifYcsifygeJYvlav. tm.fvdkYom tazBuD.udkusifYvkdY OD.NyD.tm.awmufaeawmY uvJYpm.aumif.u &SufpGef. twGif.u acgif.odkYoGm.NzifY Nywfaeonfudk awGY&NyD.om. . [ifYtif.NyDvdkY odwJYtcsdefusawmY aemufusoGm.? 'D ckepfqifYvufoD.&JY twGif.ESifY csifwl. .usrf.enf.&if. 0if & mwmu qE´ a pmNyD . odkif.[lusif.xl.ygvm.tm.tm.awG 0if 0ifvmw.tm. bmrS rpOf.odkif. ckepfqifYvufoD.wpfrsdK.udk ckcHEdkifrSm r[kwfawmYbl. ]]tJ'D ckepfqifY vufoD.&JYckepfqifY vufoD. .'Pf&m r&Edkifbl.usrf.[lusif.rS 177 . wpf c gwpf & H pd w f & d k i f . .pmtkyfudk twif.wmyJAs}} xkdpum.acR. .u Nzwfxm.odrf.mufu tpfudkBuD.udk olYtem.yg.avonf/ usef.udk ckcHEdkif&if aemuftm.f avmufxd NrifYrm.fY olwdkY*dkPf.usufavmuf? [lwef.[lusif. odkif.&auseyfaom trlt&mtenf.'Pf&mckepfrsdK.Ofaus.atmif e*g. ]]nDav.í .aemf aemf}}[k uyfcRJaeav\/ &SufpGef.? wu.trsdK.i.&JY vufoD.om. wcsdKYu wGefYvdrfae\/ wcsdKYrl aBurGae\/ wcsdKYum.u tazBuD.fYvkyfavYusifYEdkifrSmvJom.udkusifYrdvdkYyJvlav.u acgif.fudk.? OD.wGif tpmaBum a&aBumrsm.q&mBuD. ]]tpfudkBuD.rS 'DvufoD.f udu k sifY&if tazBuD.ynm tcHr&dS&if b.acscsifwmwpfckyJodwmudk.odkYqGJ.Edkif"m.f \ vufo.odkif.? [kdwkef.D odik .? rNzpfbl. tJ'DvufoD.ynmudk oifr.l wl. om.&JY tazBuD.vdkY}} usef. .u twif.udk oifay.fvlav.&dSwJYtcgus&if ukd.acsvd k w J Y qE´ y J &d S a eawmY cH k .'Pf&m &oGm. xGufvm&onfY taBumif.u wu.mufrsufEmS wpfa. enf.odkif.rSm b.f? wcsdKYu ab. aygYuG .odkif.wGiyf if tm.odkif. wdceJNywfvsuf/ xkYd aBumifY &Supf eG .ynmudk om.aom ae&mudk uyfí BunfYvdkuf\/ xkdtcg twGif.om.yJ r[kwfvm.rsdK.fYudk.pmtkyfudk cHk.tm.cgNrJyif/ xkdtcg csifwl.vnf.wdkuf? wcsdKYu uefYvefYNzwf? 'gaBumifY vlwpfa.wJY twGif.r.om.odkif. ]]wu. .udkusifY&if odkif. f ? aeY&d S o a&G Y tcsd e f & d S o a&G Y uvJ Y pm. .0ifazsmif.f}} usef. ]]rNzpfbl.vnfomG . .xJu b.udk ckcHEkdif&if wwd.&JY vufoD.cH&r./ ]]'Dvkdqdk&if om.om.fYudk aBumufp&maumif.udk xkwfEdkifpGrf. .lNyD.[lusif.odkif.fwdkif twGif. .rsm.vdkYac:wmaygY}} usef. usef.wpfrsdK.Bu&\/ usef.[kef.? 'DvufoD.[lusif.awmfBuD.? 'gaBumifY 'DvufoD.w.NyDuG.tm.u Bum.udkyJBunfY? tazBuD.u acwftqufquf xdef.

fY? olowdNyefxm. tazBuD.tqHk.? &Supf eG .rdw.awmYw.acscsifaewJY tazBuD.fu aNray:ra&mufao.f}} ]]tJ .uom &d. eJ Y xk d . &J Y vufoD. cHk.f ? tJ ' D t cgrS m tazBuD . 'Dvlu tazBuD.pm.? avmurSm taumufuspfqHk..ESifY csifwl.odkif. .w.wpfudk. raoygvm.qdkwm tazBuD. ]]tazBuD. .tm.fvdkYoluom tazBuD. olYvufudk zrf. ]]tazBuD ..f a wmY 'DvufoD.ynmeJYqdk wu.fNyD. ]]tazBuD.wuúodkvf aevif.xJuckefxGufNyD.&JYaemufausmbuf csufcsif. .fY tJ'DvlutazBuD.&JYudk.udk xdk.udk owfcsif&if yk&Gufqdwfwpfaumif owfoavmufudk vG. q&muawmY ol Y rd k .f}} usef. vd k u f & if tazBuD .aew.[m tazBuD.vufoD. vuf o D .usufq&mawmftaBumif.eJY upm.êuwf .eJY pum.NyD.u cpfceJ &. vlav.vludk Nyygqdk&if tazBuD. .ovdk [def.NyD. vd k u f w .fvkdY tazBuD .Nyef\/ qefYwiifiif NzpfoGm.f vlav.fuG. tJ'Dwkef. .pdu k af xmifvu kd Bf u\/ &Supf eG .wkdYrl &SufpGef.tus.fuG.&JYycHk.udk usifYcGifYrûybl.frSmyJuG.fcsifwmawmif tcsdefrDrSm r[kwfawmYbl.usufq&mawmfyif Nzpf&rnf[k wGurf v d u kd Nf yD.&SmzkdY êud. tazBuD.pufawmifYwif. .u [dka&muf 'Da&muf a&mufoGm. eJ Y xd k .NyD.BunfYprf. 'D c k e pf q if Y vuf o D .mufu tazBuD.usif Y r d & if twG i f .fvHk.&JY ycHk.Nyefa&mufoGm.}} ]]vlav.f}} usef.q. ud k usif Y & wm[m wNcm.fY tazBuD.eJY ayoHk.olYudkrNrifcif olY&JYoufNyif.f v d k Y xif N yD .awGawmif xoGm.f wkefvIyfoGm.zdkYêud. ckcHumuG.cif vlwpfa.bl. od k i f .fuG.awmfBuD.vJ aNym&if.udk yxrwpfcgvkdyJ tomav.udk aumufuspfw. &kdufvdkuf&if tazBuD.f? tazBuD. wu.fvkdYtJ'Dvluom tazBuD. u ck e pf q if Y vuf o D . wpf c suf a Bumif o G m . .vkdufw.? wu.f? tJ .u olYudk. êud .[lusif./ tJ'Dwkef.u ckepfqifYvufoD.wpfoufrSmwpfcgrS rêuHcJYzl.xkwfNyD.uawmY &ufpufBurf.vkd twGif.u qufvufBum.&JY aemufuae vmykww f mudak wmif rumuG. 'gayr.fuG.udkaNymNyD.? 178 .fY}} &SufpGef.odkif.qufukd pdw0f ifpm.pm.pm.twGif.&JYycHk.atmif e*g.wpfyg.qef.wmeJY tcef. csdK&Tifacsmif.0rawGYNyefbl. od k i f . uvJYpm.tm.oGm.kH om.u .fxifw.&w.? wu.u tJ'Dvkd tazBuD.NynfY0wJYvl r[k w f b J oG m .x&HudkvJckefausmf xGufvkdufa&m tazBuD. ]]tif. £aNE´odu©meJY &yfaewmudkyJ tazBuD. at.k yHak y:ayr.u pum. tazBuD.fY? aBomf tazBuD.r[k w f b l .f u wpfcsufûyH.wGif twefBum NidrfoufoGm. .udk bmaNymovJqdkawmY ]tNrifrSef &ygawmYwJY}uG. pOf. vlav. od k i f .xkwfwJYtcgrSm toHu rdkêud.f vlav.Nrifvkduf&w. aemufwpfcg tazBuD.}}[k ylqmNyef\/ xkdtcg &SufpGef.odkif. 'DvufoD.fay:udk xdoGm.ftuGmrSmawmY bkef.kwrf mvGe. NrifYrm.fY? olu ]tNrifrSef&ygawmY}qdkwJY pum.f w.? om.f? 'gaBumifY wu.udk twGif.udk tckrS aNymzkdYowd&awmYw.usifYpOfudk oHk.f? ÓPfeDÓPfeufrsm.&wmaygY vlav.udk wpfcsuftykwfcHvkduf&wmeJY csufcsif.r.eJY tBurf.avmuf odik .xGufvmwwfw.f q d k w m tazBuD .&JYq&mu tNyifyef.u tazBuD.ywfavmuf avYusifYNyD.eJY tawmfYudkwlvdkYygyJ}} ]]vufoD.vJaemufNyefvSnfYBunfYvdkufawmY olYudk vHk.í .fu tJ'Dvkdydwfyifxm.pm.wmyJuG.f}} ]]'gayr. 'Pf & m&rS m aocsmvk d Y yd w f y if x m.odkif. vl a v.wmeJY tazBuD.êud.f ynmtqifY&w Sd YJ vu l olrsm.&NyD.pGm qufvuf em. . qufaNymygOD.tm.NyDuG.ykwfvkdufwm cHvkduf&w.udk tomav.udk oGm. 0if.&.[efwlaom usef.[lusif.&JY q&mudkyJ Ny&vdrfYr. ykwfvkdufNyefa&m? aemufawmY tazBuD.}} ]]'Dr.\ycHk.tm.nif.arG.f \ pum.fY? tJ'DawmY tazBuD.wl.f}} ]]bmaBumifYvq J akd wmY tazBuD.fvdkY rxifygeJYuG.fuG.êuwf t&ufpufqHk.acR.wm[m tazBuD.vdkoNzifY .rdw.Edkif"m.ukdykwfvkdufEdkifaom vlrSm cHk.&JY twGif.f vlav.csoHBum.fY olYEv S . .q&m&JY rdk.fEkdifbl. . u q&mud k &S m vk d Y awG Y NyD .yJ aemufNyefvSnfYNyD.&JYpdwfxJrSm w'dwf'dwfeJY tBuD.? wu.f}} ]]tJ[dknrSm tazBuD. aemuf r S y J pOf.NyD.fYudk BuufoD.? tazBuD.cGif.f? 'Dvl&JY odkif.

atmif e*g.Edik w f mudk axmufcsifY&if olYudk.f BuD.vkdufawmYrS a&Smifvifbk&m.ynmu tHYrcef.ausmif.fY}} 179 .u ]'umBuD.yg.fu.&JY 0gtBuD.qHk.u cH.ynm[m b.}} ]]tJ't D csderf mS yJ bke.wJY tcsdew f iG . &Supf eG . 'Dbek .u cHk. G ?f ? tazBuD.uG.Edkif"m.f rSm 'Davmufa0.f awmfBuD.vkdYawmif r&awmYbl.f bke.wuúodkvf aevif.u 'Davmufwakd wmif.awmfBuD.k usufyg}vdYk rdeYf NrGuw f .fqkdwm pOf.favmufNrifYrm.f awmfBuD. vlav.qdkwm odvdkuf&awmYw.pm. bkef.xJu wpfyg.f? 'gaBumifYrdkYvJ bkef.av.fazmYodkif.awmfBuD.vdvd NrifYrm.w.wmudk.wJY ae&mxd ckeq f w k o f mG .usufqdkwJYbGJYtrnfudk Bum.&JY odkif.

wGifvufoD. pdwfxJrSmawmY bkef. bkef.? bkef.? ol ykef.êud.w. NzpfoGm.Edkif"m.&JYrdom.udk uvJYpm.f? bmNzpfvdkY wynfYawmfudk vmawGYwmvJvdkY? 'geJY bkef.fwJY? 'grS tazBuD.vm.wmaygY? trSefu 'DvQdKY0SufcsufawGudk tazBuD.vdkufygw. wynfYawmf 'DvdkNypfrIawG usL. usef.pm. &SufpGef.onfvnf.awmfBuD.awmfBuD. towfcH&wJY aoG.fvkdrdefYNrGufovJqdk&if .folYudkrS raNymNycJYbl.fY udpu ö dk olwpfyg.? csifwl.aewmr[kwfbl.onfvnf. (19) twdwf\ a0'em t&dyfrsm.fY}} ]]'geJY tazBuD.u oufNyif.pm. .f}} 180 .aumif.udk odaewmawGYawmY ydkNyD.awmfBuD.av.u NyefaNymw.u olYwpfa.wuúodkvf aevif.twGuf odik .u tazBuD.mufwnf.enf. 'umBuD.udk oGm.rdaomtcg vGefpGm pdwfraumif.u 'Dbkef.awmfBuD.aumif.u aemufqHk.udk tazBuD.acR.u odkif.wpfcsufcsNyD.f? bkef.uG.f vlav.usuftm.owfcYJ w. 'DvQdKY0SufcsufawG tm.fqdkwmudk ar.udk ar.fae&mu xGufvmvkd xGufvmNim.? 'gayr.vdkY r&cJYbl.BuD.owfcJYonfudk pOf.&JYq&m b.ae&mu NyefxGufvmatmif vkyfzdkY êud.vGefrdwmyg}vkdY 0efcHavQmufxm.udk aNymNyrSm r[kwfbl.&JY odkif.fY 'umBuD.wl.f avmuu bmrSroufqikd w f YJ vlawGut kd rsm. pOf.? 'gNzifY 'D bkef. b.fY tazBuD.uG.vkdufw.Nyefw. bmrSapm'u rwuf&Jbl.awmfBuD.f? 'gayr. .&JYtNypfu odyfudkBuD.u 'D bkef.u b.fvdkvkyfNyD. csefcGef.&JYq&m csefcGef.u bkef.awmY tazBuD.aBuG.faevdkY olYudkb. tHYvJtHYBo? xdwfvJxdwfvefYoGm.u qufí ]]tazBuD.vGef&wmu wynfYawmf&JY q&m ykef. tazBuD.pm.rSmvJ tNypfBuD.vufoD.u bkef.BunfYvkdufw.u csdK&Tifacsmif.fvdkrS &SmrawGYNzpfNyD.cHk.q&muvJ olt&SufuGJ tusdK.frSm&dSw.aew. tcef.atmif e*g.w.awmfBuD.&Sm\/ &SufpGef.awmfBuD.pkwpfpkvHk. 'Dvdk rdefYNrGufwmudk rauseyfbl.f? tazBuD.awmfBuD.udkBum.Ncif.udk odrfYodrfYwkefatmiftrIwpfckudk vkyfNyD.qef.uG.avmu wpfckvHk.f? b.awmfBuD.? tazBuD.awmY b.&JYq&m rdk.udk ykef.fwYJ ? tazBuD.wJY? 'Dpum.fvdkvJqdkawmY tazBuD.pm.NzifY xdk. od&wmvJ? tazBuD.usufu qufNyD.vHk.awmfBuD.? 'geJY tazBuD. acsEdkifrSmwJY? tazBuD. rdefYBum.&r. tHYBoxdwfvefYoGm.av.f? 'gaBumifY 'umBuD.eJY tckvkdNypfrIawGusL.ygw. cHk.u }wifygYbk&m.owfzdkY êud.ynmudk aBumufNyD.

.f onf vGepf mG ÓPfxufNrufaom? tpGr.acgif.awmfBuD. ydkí tHYBoae&awmY\/ olwdkY ZeD.udk taorowfcYJ b.u bkef. b. . bkef. wJYuG. .awmfudk wpfcsufndwfNyD.wHk*dkPf.f}} 181 .f}}vkdY NyefavQmufxm. .vd k u f w .ygw.NyD.vdkY xawmifckefvdkufrdw.BuD.&awmY tHYBovGef..rl olYarG.udk udk. u avQmuf x m.fY 'umBuD.Bu\/ .u .usufbkef.lwkef.mufeJY awGYoGm.f/ ]wu.Edkif"m.udkBum.l r[kwv f m.fY olu 'umBuD.awmfBuD.Buw.&JY &efaBuG.&JYab.wuúodkvf aevif.f? 'gayr.fvkyf odwmvJ}}vkdY ar. rdefYNrGufNyefw.? 'gaBumifY 'umBuD.wkdYu 'Dpum. .NrifYaew.awmfBuD.udk vdrfnmvSnfYNzm. ud k oGm.f xufaom yk*K¾d vfwpfa. .rdvdkY tpfudkBuD.f? 'umBuD. qufí . .NyDuG. wJY}} usef.? 'DawmY cHk.wpfa.rSm r[kwfbl.udk owfcsif&if vG.awmfBuD.. uvJYpm.fY olu &kyfzsufxm.udkawmY 'umBuD.u olYudkrJNyD.ESpftwGif.? 'gaBumifY 'umBuD..rSm olY&JY odkif.f? 'gayr. olYudk rrSwfrdbl.awmfBuD.? 'gayr.&JY q&mu ao&nf ao&ufaBumifY pdwf&dkif.awmfBuD.f rSm 'umBuD.f/ ]]'Dr.eJY rawGY&Jbl.acsayr.eJYom aNzawmYaygY 'umBuD.xuf ÓPf&nfa&m? ESvHk.\ rsufESmudkom pdkufBunfY&if.ao. 'umBuD.fY? 'umBuD.f? cHk.udk wynfYawmfeJY vmawGYcdkif.w.BunfYvkdufawmY bkef.wpfcsufcsNyD.u 'umBuD. pOf.aBumif.&nfygvGefpGm NrifYrm.ynmu oleJY odyftqifYuGmvGef.? tazBuD .t&mudk axmufcsifYNcif. pum.f? bkef.u olYudk awGYvJ tydkygyJ? bmNzpfvkdYvJqdkawmY 'umBuD.awmfBuD.acsEdkifrSm r[kwfao.usuf q&mawmfu OD. . .wkdYrSm em.qdkwm tpfudkBuD.vdkufw.&JJY odkif. odkif.pm. rdefYNrGufwmudk vHk.u bkef.q&mu 'umBuD.uae ckepfqifYvufoD. wdk.f? 'gayr.f? 'gaBumifY 'umBuD. .}} ]]t&Sifbk&m.acgif.&JYq&m csefcGef.vkdY rdefYNrGufw.u . .udk ar. uGmvSw.HkoGm.udk aemufxyf rowf&ufawmYbl.axmif&if.udk 'umBuD. wJY}} ]]'geJ Y vl a v. em. rqDrqdkifwJY vlawGudk rowfygeJYawmY? NzpfNyD.}} ]]'DESpfawGrSm csefcGef.aomf usef.u olYuEkd pS Bf udrw f w d o d mG .qef.u NyefrdefYNrGufawmfrlw.qufudk iHYvifYpGm apmifYaeavonf/ &SufpGef.bl. .u cHk. od&awmY\/ &SufpGef.f? 'umBuD.wl.fwdkifavQmufxm.0ifNyD. ]]nDav. odyfthHBooGm..wufoGm.0r.ynmu t&ifYt&ifuxuf trsm.vkdY aNymw.u tpfudkBuD.fr[kwfvm.usufu OD.awmY odyftHYBooGm.f 'umBuD.zcif &SufpGef.wJY? cHk.udk owfvkdufrdwmyg? olu tJ'DtwGuf aemifwBuD.BuD.udk ulnD wdu k cf u kd f ay. odygw.fvkdY 'umBuD.rSm tNrJwrf. . ygNyD ? wynf Y a wmf csd K &T i f a csmif . bkef.f orm.wm NrifawmY . .NyD.}} ]]csefcGef.? csifwl. .em.udk Bum.ynm[m t&ifYt&ifuxuf ydkNyD. bkef.? 'umBuD.pm.u 'umBuD.&JY rdefYNrGufcsufudkBum.BuD.udk cg.fY 'umBuD.awG b.r&SmawmYygbl.pGm&vkdY 'umBuD.u oufNyif.udk olrowf&kHwif rubl.f} .awmfBuD.\ todxw J iG f &Supf eG . .eJY owfEdkifygw.pmtkyfudk vk. &ifxu J a'go &efñ.u qufNyD.fvG.&JY okdif. .&JY q&mu wdww f qdwf 'umBuD.favmuf awmufavmifaew.axmif&if.fav.ckaomf &SufpGef.rf. .\ q&mu&SufpGef.u .fqw kd mudk odygw.vJ tJ'Dwkef.qef.fY bef.udk aumif.u bkef.acR.D odik .awmfBuD.&JY q&mudkawmY 'Pf&m&atmifrvkyfEdkifbl.Hkbl.BuD.f tpfudkBuD.w.ygbk&m. .? [kwfw.vdkufw.wJY? tazBuD.fvkdY r.u xdyo f .? 'geJY tazBuD.udk txifao.Id rD.f? 'geJY tpfudkBuD. ]]oltck q&maumif. cHk.f ]bmNzpfvdkY wynfYawmf&JY q&mu wynfYawmfudk rowf&wmvJvkdYaygY} 'DawmY bkef. ]]'DtaBumif.u olu 'umBuD.acR.u .aew. 'DokH.odkif.udk avYusifY wwfaNrmufayr.u tpfudkBuD.&JY wpftdrfom.muf[k odxm.awGeYJ wdu k cf u kd w f ek .awGudk csefcGef.aumif.atmif e*g.fYES.[m wynfYawmf&JYq&myJ? wynfYawmf olYtaBumif.? 'umBuD.? 'gayr.yJ&dSaew.f? 'D &efaBuG.armifESH ESpfOD.[lusif.fY csefcGef.fY? 'umBuD.orQawGudk w&m.f vlav.wkdY EIwfrS [mceJ tmar!dwf ûyrdav\/ usef.usufq&mawmfvdk 0gBuD.u 'umBuD.aNymNyaom taBumif.? 'gaBumifY tazBuD.f BuD.u .ynmu oleJYtyHkBuD.f ? aumif .&JY odkif.NzifY &SufpGef.vHk.u bkef. qyfEdkifrSm r[kwfawmYbl.lqygeJY? 'umBuD.NyD.vdkY od&wmyJwJY}} xkdpum. ]]bke.u ckepfqifYvufoD.

xdk.aomtm.csufudk q&mawmfbk&m. rd v k d u f w .aew.udk b.awmfBuD..u bkef. aemufukd wpfvrS .udk bmrS 'Pf&m&atmif rvkyEf idk cf YJ &ifawmY 'umBuD.D odik .u aemufudk aNcwpfvrS . ]]'DtcgrSm tazBuD.xkd.}}[k ar.uawmY apmapmu twdik .cgí ]]r[kwb f . u ckepfqifYvufoD.EdkifygNyD vdkY rdefYNrGufw.wufvdkufw.f BuD.f 'umBuD.dik Nf yD. prf .tpm.f Y bk e f .f qkwo f mG .u 'umBuD.xkwfvkdufw.fYvJ 'umBuD. awmf B uD .udkawmY ig.BuD. yJ tazBuD .csuftwdkif.f r[kwfvm. 'umBuD .ygNyDbk&m.fY? igYvufoD. &J Y pwk w ¬ v uf o D .awmYrS . wifygYbk&m.u twefBumatmif pOf.u wynfYawmf&JYq&mudkawmY rysufruGuf ac:xkwfNyD. tJ'Dvkd avQmufxm.awmfBuD.f? 'geJY 'kwd.csufusawmY tazBuD.fES.f? 'DwpfBudraf wmY tazBuD. od v mawmYwmaygY? 'geJ Y csuf c sif .rNcm.oHk.xkwfNyD.? aNymwJY twdkif. tazBuD .u ckepfqifYpvHk. 'gayr.fí wynf Y a wmf u ol e J Y vuf & nf ynm&nf od y f u G m aevd k Y ol Y u d k rwd k u f c d k u f E d k i f & if v J wynf Y a wmf ol e J Y wpfcsDwpfarmif.odkif.vufcsufeJY 'Pf&m&cJY&if bkef. G ?f ? tJ'v D x dk .wJYvlawG&JY toufawG tv[ó rqHk.&JY? NyD.fY q&mBuD.vufoD.y.f}} ]]bke.BuD. awmf B uD .? 'umBuD.u ckepfqifYvufoD. 'umBuD.NzifY owday.udk ausat.fYo.NyD .u pdwf0ifwpm. BuD .eJY bke.fvkdYvJ rNzpfawmYbl.awmY cHk.f}} ]]'DawmY bkef. od k i f . qE´twdkif.wdkufNyD.fvkdY pOf. qk w f v k d u f w .vdkufwmawmif bkef.f BuD.&ifawmY 'Dbkef. xkd.fvkdY bkef.awmfBuD.NyD .? tazBuD.BuD.fvkdrS 'Pf&m&atmif vkyfEkdifrSm r[kwfbl.ukd xGufNyD.vdkufw.kd vdu k af wmY bk e f .fY}} ]]wu. ? êud u f o vd k xd k .vdkY awG.yJ qkwfvkdufNyefw. .fY}} ]]bkef. vufoD. rdefYNrGufwmudk Niif.eJYxkd.D odik .u bkef.ay.lxkwfNyD.fY? tazBuD.fuG.udk oHk.awmfBuD. &J Y &if 0 u txJ u d k enf .? 'umBuD.pk q.uom bke.&JYq&mu 'umBuD.NyD.? 'D&efaBuG.f}} 182 .udk tm.f? 'DawmY tazBuD.qifYavmufyJ tm.? 'DawmYum 'umBuD. rdefYawmfrlvkdufao. Nzpfap&r.fuG.qifYyJ xkwfNyD.ygyJ vlav.f? udkif.BuD. bk&m.pm.u rckcHEkdif&if csufcsif.fY xl.f? tm.fom.awmY EIwfawmfuvnf. u tazBuD . f u vd r f o G m .eJYyJ acs&acs& wynfYawmf racs&rcsif. [m a&SYwpfvSrf.fY}} ]]'D v k d e J Y taNctaer[ef r S e f .&JY &if0udk csdefom.f BuD.odkif.ygYr.xdk. Akef.wmvm.f? 'gayr.faemf}} tazBuD.? tazBuD. ]]aumif.u rauseyfEikd w f YJ &efaBuG.csufusawmY tazBuD. .axmifae&mrS ]]tazBuD.fvYdk iguom ckepfqifYvufo. bkef.f? 'geJY tazBuD.vufo.&JY q&mudpöudk 0ifrpGufzufawmYbl. csd K if Y 0if o G m .k vdu k w f .aNymyg? wynfYawmfvufoD.f udk xkwo f .[lusif.ysHveG af wmfro l mG . u tazBuD .&vdrfYr. aemufudk wpfvSrf.vdkuf&awmYwmaygY? Akef. .usufq&mawmfu ûyH.atmif e*g.k êud. vkdufemEdkifovm.pm.vdkufrdw. ud k ck e pf q if Y vuf o D .Edkif"m.av\/ &SufpGef.fvdkY wynfYawmf&JY vufoD. rauseyfEkdifygbl.vufoD.f}} usef.u yxrxdk.eJY q.u yxrvufoD. tm.vkdY qdkw.vdkufNzpfw.l om.u rdk.kH &ifawmY 'Dbek .NyD wu.fu.w.vJ tawmfYudk rausreyf NzpfoGm.&JY Oy"d&kyf[m odyfBunfvifat.u tHYBovmrdNyD? 'DawmY wwd.a&? bkef.odkif.u acgif.f BuD.wdYk ro d m. } vk d Y twif. . wpfcv k yk Bf u&atmif? 'umBuD. &J Y u d k .f u G .vdkufw. wynfYawmfeJY &ifqdkifap&r.awmfBuD.rSm aocsmw.xGufvmwmeJYtwl vufoD.udk vufoD.mufukd owfcYJ w.Nrif&awmY q&mawmfudk tazBuD. .pm.&IH.êud.NrNyD.rdw.eJYyJ avQmYavQmYaygYaygY xdk.BuD. olYvufcsufeJY aooGm. aemuf u d k wpf v S r f . NyD .qifYtxd wdk.? wu.&JY q&mvJ 'umBuD. 'Dr.fuG. .f}} ]]'gayr.u 'umBuD.fuG. ud k ]quf o mxk d .? tu.udk &kdaoav. enf .f? tvGef&awmifY&cJNzpfwJY vltNzpfudk&vmNyD.u tazBuD.vdkY avQmufxm. .&ifawmif aoaysmfygNyD? auseyfygNyD bk&m.NzifY em.pm.f eJY xd.q&m&JY rd.f? b.fY? NyD.u tawmfBumatmif pOf.udk pxdk. bk e f .udk xkwfroHk.u aumif.u bkef.tm.u bkef.f? tJ .NyD 'umBuD.BuD. awGYvdrfYruG.f qkwNf yefw.vdkufw.udkuf xd k .vdkufw.wuúodkvf aevif.w.vkdufw. .ud k xk w f o H k .f? 'geJY tazBuD.kH a.em.fuG.ayawmY wu. .fYoHk.ceJ olY&if0udk xdk.f yJ wpfcsufom .f ? 'D a wmY tazBuD .cdkif. BuD .pm.udk wynfYawmf Nyef&kyfodrf.u . xdk. u pd w f x J u pOf.csufwdwd xdk.fvYkd 'umBuD.? 'geJY tazBuD.aevkdufw.vkdufw. f Y ? tJ ' D a wmY bk e f .ceJ toHwpfcsuf [def.udk tEdkifeJYyJ acs&acs& t&IH.BuD. xdk. tavmif.&atmif olY&JYtoufudk pGefY&&ifvJ auseyfygNyDwJYav}} ]]'geJ Y tazBuD . odu©modyf&dSwmudk zl.

u tJovdk xdk.}} ]]awmfNyD awmfNyD/ 'D&efaBuG.ceJ xdk.av. u a&S Y w pf v S r f .w.awmfBuD. od v k d u f w . ]][if xl.av. .u &kwfw&ufxí . qufwdkuf vufoD.w. .? tazBuD.udk xd.fYudk.w.ovm. ]]tazBuD.uvJ bke. wefNyeftm.vkduf&w.csí .rSm olwdkY\ om. . ud k ckcHumuG.csonf/ NyD.f}} ]][kwfw.fudk owfaoypfzdkY pOf.kwfrmwJY tBuHeJY vkyfvkdufwmygyJ? 'gayr.qdkNyD.fuG. udk.fY? tazBuD. .u tazBuD. om.fuG. ]]bmNzpfvkdYvJ om. odyfwkefvIyfacsmufcsm.ava&m om.fxdyfudk udk.f ? bk e f .atmif e*g. uwef .vkdufw. ynmig.trlt&mNzifY . owdvufvGwf cPNzpfoGm.arSmufcHkNzpfoGm.u rxl. Nzpfaomfvnf.}} &SufpGef.fzdkYtwGuf oHrPdudk.&JY i. u tpf u d k B uD . .Nzwfí .Nzpfol usef.&JY pdwfxJrSm wu.fY tazBuD.wm Nzpfr.}} usef. . t&mtm. xkd.fxJuae wefNyeftm.wJYtcsdefrSm bkef.&JYvufudk vmqGJrSmyJ? tazBuD.u om.awmfBuD. ]][if .Nzpf w . .fY ? 'DawmY tpfudkBuD.xdk. &SufpGef.vJxdk.udkxkwfNyD.wmudk tNrwfxkwfcJYrdw.EkdifbJ aemufNyefvJusoGm.rvnfí . ]]'geJY tazBuD.fawGYcHpm.vkdufwJYtcsdefrSm bkef.rS .armifESHyifvQif 0g&ifYodkif.f? bmvJqdkawmY wu.udk 'Pf&m&rSmpdk.udk em.pm.ynmudk xkwfoHk.fuG. . ]][kwfw.f}} xkdtcg &kwfw&uf usef.vJ 'Da&Smifvif*dkPf. Nyef&kdufcsvkdufw.awmYbl.u yOörvufoD.udkcP&yfí oufNyif.Bu\/ taBumif.'Pf&m Nyif.aemf aemf}} usef.udk 'Pf&m&atmif rvkyfygbl.[lusif. bk e f .&JY&if0udk Akef.u &kwfw&uf om.\ y&d.&JY vufoD.kwfrmwJY ÓPfeDÓPfeufawG 0ifvmNyD.f om. tazBuD.qef.fY tJ'Dwkef.f Y 'D w pf B ud r f w nf .av. vmNyef w .pum. . .fY}} ]]'D v k d e J Y tazBuD .rSm tenf.BuD.rsm.aumif.f om. tazBuD.awmfBuD.vdkufw.u udk.? tazBuD.&JY}} 183 .&JYudk.awmfBuD. ]][kwfw. .u vufckyfvuf0g.xJ u wpf r sd K .fcHodkif.f pd w f " mwf u soG m .u bkef. uRrf.u tazBuD. êud.oGm.f om. .vdkY wefNyeftm.}}[k ar.fudk csufcsif. f Y ? tJ ' D v k d pd w f " mwf u soG m . vJ csuf c sif .NyD. vd k u f N yef w .[lusif. yxrqH k .tus. ]][m .acR.qef.f awmfBuD.? tazBuD.wD. BuD . twGif.u tazBuD.fY? 'geJYyJ tazBuD.xGif.fudk rxdef.u tazBuD.&JY wefNyeftm.fqdkwm}} ]]tpfudkBuD.xJudk &kwfw&uf tifrwef.vSay/ xkdtcg &SufpGef.u Bum.rsd K .xefxef &rSm aocsmw.vkdufwm? 'Dbkef.aBumifY udk.rSm þrQ todÓPfxufNrufyg.BuD. wd k .f ? tazBuD . .fuG.u bkef.awmY tazBuD.f? 'DtcgrSm tpfudkBuD.Nzwfxm.Edkif"m.pm. 'Dvkdvkyfwm odyf&ufpuf . usef. bkef.m. &J Y ck e pf q if Y v uf o D .aumif NzpfoGm.w. tJ'Dvkd pdk.[lusif.udk avQmYNyD.w.fcHodkif.f awmfBuD.f u G .&JY pdwf&if. tus.ckepfcsufxkd.í .xm.u acgif.fYi. od k i f .u pum.pm. .ynmawGxJu oHrPd udk.wpfckxGufay:vmw.BuD.f ? 'D w pf c gvnf .vdkuf&w.f vefYoGm. aNymovdk tJ'Dvdk &ufpuf.f? tpfudkBuD.qef. wu.vkdufonf/ usef.fxdyfudk tazBuD. tazBuD.udk 'Pf&m&atmif rvkycf YJ ovdk tazBuD.u odyfvnfwmyJ? 'gayr.u oufNyif.f q d k w m od & wmBumNyD N zpf a yr.av wu.&JY &ifbwfxJ AdkufawGxJrSm AavmifqlNyD.ynm[m xdwfxdwfBuJ tifrwef eufeJwJY od k i f .BuD. awmf B uD .fY bke.faBumufoGm.BuD.NyD vdkY aNymNyD.fY}} ]]tpf u d k B uD . . .orm.u rmefygyg uav.k rSmaygY azaz&JY? 'gayr.fNyef&dkufawmY [kdbkef.kwfrmwmaygY}}[k qkdonf/ usef.wpfcsufndwfí .csufudk xd k .odNrifvkdufaomaBumifYyif Nzpf\/ trSefrl olwdkYZeD.Nyif.fvkdYrsm.NzpfNyD.eyfNyD.u a&Smifvifodkif.a&? 'gawmif bkef.wl.fuG.fom. xkwfwmuG? EkdYr[kwf&ifvm.wdkYrSm wkefvIyfoGm. .f}} [k qdkonf/ &SufpGef.wuúodkvf aevif.&J Y oHrPdudk.u .a&m bkef.acgif.u bkef.fYudk.u tazBuD.udk xkwfoHk.f? tazBuD.vkdY cHpm.qef. tBuD.&JYvufudkvmrqGJ&if tazBuD.udk racsEkdifwJYaemufawmY wynfYawmf vlYNynfrSm ae aevkdYvJ tydkyJ? tvum. .ESifY csifwl. . u tBuD .acR.qHk.vHk. .acR.&drfwBuD.fpOf. vJ u ref .BuD.qHk.wmaygY nDav.awmY tazBuD.fcH odkif.NyefaNzvdkuf&w.Nzpfolavmuf ÓPfroGm. .fyJ udk.[lusif. vufudkaNrSmufNyD. .

u a'got&deS rf aoao.BuD.acscsifaZmeJY ûzef.f? bkef.? tckvdk Nzpf&wmudk bkef.ygw.f0dkufwJY pum.NyD. avoHeJY .vkdufygava&muG.wmudk awGY&w. trSefu 'Dbkef.laNym&Smw.l rdao. vdrfygbl. bmrS pdwfrqif.f awmfBuD.awmfBuD. ud k wpfcgwpfavavmufrsm.&.Bu\/ taBumif.xefxef&xm.awmfBuD.u tazBuD. G Yf ? 'geJY tazBuD.awmfBuD.}} ]]tazBuD. tJ'DtcsdefrSm bkef. bkef. .qef.&JYtoufudk rowfcJYwm[m &kwfw&uf tpfudkBuD. q&mawmfBuD.yJwifysOfacG xdkifNyD.vHk.atmif e*g.Nywfawmif. . u vl o wf w J Y tcgrS m bk e f .u q&mawmfBuD. .udkawmif NyefESpfodrfYvkdufao.w.? ol .u vHk.udkoHk.awmfBuD. &ifxJrSm rD.NyD.pm.ay:rSm Adkif.kwfrmBuD. aemif b.fxdyfudk.fYudk ÓPftaNrmftNrifBuD. .ceJ vJusoGm.f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm bkef.ceJ a'goxGufNyD. .udk NyefavYusifYvdkufw.NyD.ygYr. cHk. .u êud.fY}} 184 .acR.Edkif"m. BuD .fcHtm. .k usufonf þodYk &Supf eG . . uwdrwnfwJYvludk. rdefYNrGufvkdufwmyJNzpfw.fuG. .f om. .? q&mawmfBuD.êud.f}} ]]tJ'DtcsdefrSmyJ tazBuD.&YJ&if0udk ]Akef.awmufaew.acR.&JygeJY? 'umBuD.u nDav.u ud.f? bkef.eJY rdefYNrGuf&if rNzpfEkdifbl.udk r . .vdkY atmf[pfaNymvdkufrdw.wdkYtm.? odum© BuD.ygbl. .awmY twGif.ygeJY}vkYd qdw k .ygw. 'geJY nDav. csuf u d k b. k Yf .pm. . bkef.f? 'Dtcsdef 'DtcgrsdK.fY? tJ'Dvkd atmf[pf[efYwm. ESpfodrfYawmif.u ]vlqdkwm aorsdK.u Nywfawmif.&.u .fuG. .NyD.yg? 'umBuD. rS m vJ ? tazBuD .awmfBuD.&JYudk.fay:rSm arSmufidkrdawmYwmygyJ om.u odw. BuD .bk&m.r& Nzpfrdíyif Nzpfonf/ xkdpOf &SufpGef.fvufoD.&JY vuf0g.f? bkef.w. bkef.u .w.}ceJ xdxdrdrd xdk. . usef.awmfBuD. &kwfNcnf. vkdY tm.bmNrGufBum.u owdeYJ aNz&Si. .u bkef.BuD. .&JY pum.f? tazBuD. owdNyef&NyD.u bkef.u wynfYawmfudk vdrfnmaewmvkdY atmfaNymvdkufrdw.vJ 'DvufoD.atmf[pfaNymzdYk pdwu f .NidrfoufoGm.apmif.[m wu.&JYq&may:rvmao.fom. . rxifrdbl. cHk.a&? NyD.u &efaBuG.ckH.kwfnhHwJY vl.fvJ pdwf .? wynfYawmf[m acG.f om. .? olu wpfckckrsm.u q&mYudk uvJYpm.? aBomf .lusKH.udk ckefNyD. OD . .wuúodkvf aevif.pm. 'umBuD.fY om. &J Y vuf o D .udk vHk.BuD.yg bk&m.fvdkY avQmufxm.ay.awmY bke.usuf&JY touf0dnmOf[m iifiifav.fom./ 'gaBumifY oG.awmY aNrBuD. .f vufcsufNzifY ysHveG af wmfr&l onfukd . . tazBuD. .Nyif.fvlav.f yg? qE´aZmrBuD. q&mawmfBuD.a&SYrSm 'l.udk rqyfygeJYawmY? arYvkdufygawmY? cGifYvTwfvdkufygawmY? &mZ0wfrIawG rusL.u tazBuD. ]]bke.&JY q&mu vmawmYr.? bkef.ûyH.NyD.f tazBuD.}f vdYk qd&k mS w. . .udk xyfNyD.vGefygeJYawmYvdkYqdkwJY wkduf&dkufpum.awmY tazBuD. atmf[pfiakd ewmudo k ad wmY 'Pf&mNyif. odawmYrS tBuD.BuD.f BuD.? wynfYawmf toufay. csufcsif.u .u êud.}} xkdtcsdefwGif usef. 'um? rvkyfeJY? rvkyfeJY vdkY atmf[pf[efYwm.awmfral om bke.w.awmfBuD.awmfBuD.vHk.BuD.&JY b.rl olwdkY\&ifxJwGif vGefpGm 0gBuD.yefaewm awGY&awmY tazBuD. odyfudk &SufoGm.awmY omrefvlwpfa. .fYudkNyefNyD.fY? bkef.fYi.f? 'umBuD.fY tazBuD. f c E¨ m eJ Y bmxl .axmufNyD.awG 0ufawGxufawmif . udk. umvdkufw.vHk.ûyH. raumif.fNyef&dkufzdkY vufaNrSmufvdkufwm NrifwmeJY vefYzsyfNyD.usufu tazBuD.NyD.csifygovJ bk&m. .f} 'gayr.f aemifw&NyD. toufr&SifEdkifawmYrSef.txef 'Pf&m&aewJYy*k K¾d vfu udk.fav? tazBuD. .f om.awmfBuD.awmYwmyJ om. .'Pf&mtNyif.tus.? 'geJYyJ tazBuD. NznfYpGrf.fY 'gayr. .0xkwfrxm.udk owd&vkdYyJuG.tm.f? 'gayr.f} tif. . .qyfzkdY csufcsif.rm. ]]bkef.cH.rSm &efaBuG.BuD.u bkef.f c H E d k i f a wmY r S m vJ ? bk e f .qef.0rarQmfvifYrdwJYtwGuf udk. aemufqHk.fY tcsdeftawmfBumwJYtxd tazBuD.f? bkef.JYuav. .bk&m.JY.txef &oGm. bkef.vdkufNyD.f awmfBuD. .NzpfvdkY tckvdk rvmEkdifwmvm.wu.udk xdxdrdrdxdk.fu. [dwf .yJusefawmYw. owd&rd&if auseyfygNyDvkdY NrGufawmfrlw.u tpfudkBuD.&if.? [kdwpfcgwkef.usuf&JhrsufESmrSmvJ tHYBowJYtrlt&m ay:aew. ]td r f .ûyH.. u csuf c sif .muf&JY ud k . . twGif.fuG.uG.f a omtcgrS m Nzpf N zpf 'umBuD .fuG. ]'umBuD.w k rf maumufuspfreI YJ tNyif.BuD. ]r . .wJYBum.awmfBuD.

fav.cHk.? t&ifwpfywfwkef.&JYtNypfaBumifY tazBuD.eyf ÓPfaumif.ESifY csifwl.bmNzpfvkdY 'Dvkdxif&ovJqdkwm}} usef.u .araru NyefaNymNyvkdY om.rd\/ xdkpOf usef.íyifNzpfonf/ ]]om.wkef. .tm.f? tJ'Dwkef. pum.atmif e*g.azazbufuae ulNyD. .[lusif. ]][JY om.u w[m.&JY rsufpdudk vQdKY0Suftyfacsmif.0ifí zmax.udk vefYatmifrvkyfBuygeJYuGm? om.wl.? om.vG e f p G m ÓPfaumif. BuD.u tazBuD.[lusif.? aemif .&JYrsufpdu uef.[m.av. .armifESHrSmvnf.[if}} trSefrl þNzpf&yfudk csifwl.&. .av. ÓPfaumif.upm.onfESifYtrQ wu. rS m rd r d w d k Y om.udk vkyfvmrnfudkvnf.u rsufESmi.vkdYaygY tazBuD. ]]uRefawmf . tvGefyg.tBumBuD.bmawG avQmufar. 0ifraNym0HYawmYacs/ xdktcg &SufpGef. ]]tazBuD. .wl.wJY tazBuD.rSm xdkpum.aomf vGefpGm tHYBooGm.u tavmwBuD.udk aNzyg\/ ]]ruef.avonf/ csifwl.u rdcifudk wpfcsufrQ BunfYNyD. . .? rif .av. wk d Y Bunf Y prf .BunfñdkoGm. tazBuD.&JY? 'gaBumifY om.[lusif.fwifcJYolrSm bkef.udk wm.folYtwGif.aom þom.omBuNcif. aNymprf. tazBuD.av. armif E S H ES p f O D .rI'kp&kdufrsm.f? azazu tazBuD.ypfenf.[lusif.[lusif. .odkif.NzifY zcifudkvnf.udk rEdkifvkdY om.aeygvm. .vQif .fwrf. &ifxJwGifvnf.Edkif"m. uRefawmf}} ]]om.faomtcgrS aNymrnfr[kwfaBumif.u ydkNrifYrm.usufNzpfaBumif.aumif.w.od&if pdwfraumif.usuftay:wGif ydkíydkí av.}} usef.onf BuD.\ tar.om.vSonfudkawGY&onfYtwGuf vGefpGm 0rf.u araru om.[lusif.awmfBuD.r.acR.xifwmaygY? {uEÅ azazu ararYudk roifckdif.acR. .qef. BunfYNyD.qef. ]]olwdkY taysmfwrf.arareJY azazudk vHk.fom.wdkYrSm uav. om. . aumufum iifum ar.vm&ifawmY b.Bu\/ 185 .vmaom wpfaeYwGif raumif.vkdYbJ Nzpf&r. &SufpGef. Nzpf o G m . .? 'Dudpöudk om.wuúodkvf aevif.Nyif.favuGm? bmNzpfvkdYar.wl.Nrpf&ef rNzpfawmYay/ xdktcg usef. wpfcPrQ BunfYaevkduf\/ rdcifNzpfol rmefrJrnfpdk.vmawmYrS csifwl. tazBuD.uyif .aewmvJ}}[k atmfaigufvkdufNyefonf/ &SufpGef.pm. .udk vQdKY0Suftyfacsmif.udk. . r.csif.awmfBuD.f? tazBuD. aemufaeYusawmY araru roifawmYbl.? vlav.\ vufESpfbufudk tvd k v k d q k y f u d k i f r d v suf o m.eJY ypfaygufvkdufwmNzpfrSm}} ]]usef.wdkY uav.tm.yif Nzpfyg\/ NyD.0tNypfrwifygbl.Nyefonf/ xdktcg csifwl.fvkduf\/ NyD.? vlav.wdkY ZeD.fvdkvkyf&awmYrSmvJuG a[}} usef.? rdcifudkvnf. pdk. . . .av. .u tazBuD.u udpöyg om. pvH k .u rdcifNzpfol\ rsufESmtrlt&mudk taotcsm tuJcwfNyD.url usef.Buav\/ ZeD . ]]tazBuD.azazu tazBuD. u igwk d Y xuf a wmif yd k N yD .yif om.? rif.odwmvm. &kwfNcnf.araru om.[lusif.xGufvm&m usef.NzpfrSmpdk.cH&wmyguG.wl.udkBum.BunfYwmwJY}}[k pum.&wmvJ}} usef.od\/ odkYaomf &SufpGef.? b.? tJ'Dwkef.[lusif.[lusif. &. .u rdcifNzpfoltm.acR. .? bmNzpfvkdY ar.Nzpfol usef.u bmNzpfvdkY azazeJY twGif.wdkY\ atmfaigufoHu cufcufxefxef [def.u &kwfw&uf .fqdkwmodcsifvkdY prf.fwkdifu þodkYar. oifay.u om.\pum.udk rEkdifyHkay:awmY araru azazYbufuaeNyD.u tck u wnf .ûydifupm. usef.NyDvm.qef.wl. . tm.NzifY .av.crsm xckefrdonftxd vefYzsyfoGm. odvkduf&aomtcg bkef.Buwmyg om.awGeJY ypfaygufvkdufw.}}[k &SufpGef.&drfoGm. b.aNymaew. .HkEkdifaom avoHNzifY .odwm r[kwfygbl.wmvJvkdY}} xdktcg usef. cHk. ]]nDav.&JY}} &SufpGef. ]]arar aNymNyvdkY om.tm.wGif [dkpOfu rdrd\ toufukd u.ygbl.aNymwm rSefw.&Sm\/ NyD.aumif.[lusif. ]]uJ nD a v. ? igwd k Y &J Y uav. .&JY rsufpdukd tyfacsmif.aemuf ]]{uEÅ azazu tazBuD.fvdkYaNymNyD.ao.aNymav\/ usef.vnf.fY? 'gu [dk. .ûydif&wmvJ}} [k ar.fuG.u 0ifí .

? om. usef.u .BuD. ]]rvmao.l&w.u usef.ovm.pm.u . þrQ xl. .udk ar.f om.&JY odkif.ckrSyif oabmayguf BuawmYonf/ NyD.awmfBuD.Edkif"m. .f ? rif. .udk .w.f? 'Dr. &Supf eG .wdkY ZeD. .u e*g. . ]]tazBuD.}}[k ar.u bkef. xGufay:vmwJYowif.ESifY toHwdrf0ifoGm. .qef.u rdefYNrGuf&if.av.BuD.onfYtqHk.rSm em.udk awGYatmif&SmNyD. .? tck csefcGef. .Edkif"m. .udkom awGYatmif&SmNyD.awmY bkef.&.u ar. u e*g.lvmcJYwmyJ? 'gayr.awmfBuD.w.f? bkef.vJ ysHvGefawmfrlawmYw.av.vm\/ ]]b.acR.oGm.fYaBumifY e*g.axmif.awmfBuD.awmY tazBuD.}} wJY/ tazBuD.NyD.vkdufav\/ xkdtcg usef.acsqyfEkdifrSmr[kwfawmYbl.xJrSm vQdKY0SufcsufawG &dSrSmaocsmw. em.\ vQdKY0sufcsufudk þa&GYþrQ tyifyef.u þ"m. b.vkdufw.cGef.kH olwdkYawG aNrNyefYodkY Nyefvnfa&muf&dSBuaom tcsdefonf tenf.wufvm\/ xdYk aBumifY arG.SOfEdkifrSm}wJY? tJ'Dvkd rdefYNrGufNyD.&JY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk azmfxkwfEdkifvdrfYr. pdwcf syg? wynfYawmfu vlawGukd t&rf.&ª&if.wGif þodkY nnf.f? 'gayr.}} &SufpGef. tazBuD.\ pdwfoabmxm.NyD . .qef.wdkYxuf ÓPfydkaumif.u &SufpGef. .&JY&efaBuG. . 'D"m.qHk.fY? tif. ûyvmaomtcg tenf.yef.}} usef.? aemufq.w. .mufwnf.acR.}} vdkY NrGufBum.Ed k i f " m. usawmY tazBuD .u .udk qyfEikd af wmYrmS r[kwfawmYygbl.f? aemufqHk.udk &atmifvk.av. .udk [dktcsdefxd apmifYNyD.rSm vlYavmuwGif touf&Sifvsuf &dSEdkifzdkY tvGefcJ. ]]'Dvkdqdk&if olvmawmYrSm r[kwfbl.armifESHvnf. .f? tif. tESpfESpfq.[lusif. vGepf mG NrifYrm.fY tazBuD.pm.tm.u tazBuD.wdkY ZeD.u toufudk yifyifyef.? wynfYawmfu olwpfa.atmif e*g.[lusif. "m.fvkdESpfodrfY&rnfudkyif rodwwfawmYacs/ &SufpGef.[lusif. . tazBuD.ESpf&dSNyDuG. ]]aumif. azmfxkwfae&aBumif.u e*g.ayrnf/ 186 .armifESHonf &SufpGef.u &kwfw&uf .touf b.onf rdbESpyf g.tm.\ vQKd Y0u S cf suu f kd azmfxw k Ef idk Nf yD.&JY EIwfcrf.? 'DawmY tazBuD.bl.f/ tazBuD.fY? aemifwpfcsdefus&if om.f ? &Supf eG .fuG.faumif.f om.bl. u quf í ]]tJ ' D N zpf & yf a wG Nzpf y G m .0em.oifYwJYar.Of. ]]om.fY? 'gayr.fuG.f ynmudk oifBum. [dk bkef.u .f}} ]]'umBuD.BuD.eufeaJ om odik .fí usef.vkduf&vkdY 'D"m.u aemufusawmY 'Pf&m aumif. .w. wJ Y a emuf y d k i f . tawmfYudk em.BuD. uGmvGef.av.q. ]]om. .qef.u w.cHí &SmazGpOf.&JYq&m rvmao.avYusiYf Eikd cf YJ onfyif xm. rowfawmYygbl. . .fY 'umBuD.cGef. . . bkef.av.vm.&JY aemufqHk.kw.tm.BuD.wuúodkvf aevif.f? aumif.? 'kp&du k rf aI wGvJ rvkyaf wmYygbl.ynmu olYynmxuf tyHkBuD.w.u ÓPfrrDvdkYom razmfxkwfEdkifwm Nzpf&r.&JY ar.&onfudkvnf. ESpfodrfYcsifygaomfvnf.f oHk.f vlav.muf tb.OD.Ekdif"m.favmuf&dSNyDvJ}}[k ar. ]]q&mawmfBuD. ]]tazBuD.u olaNymNycsifonfrsm.vnfvdkufBuav\/ &S u f p G e f .udk Bum. &SufpGef.}} vkdY avQmufxm.av.&JYvQdKY0Sufcsufudk &atmif azmfxkwfEdkifrS olYudk .rdefYNrGufcsufuawmY ]'umBuD.zcif &SufpGef. .fY}}[k qdkvdkuf\/ usef.&.udk aNymNyNyD.acR. .&Smonf/ &SufpGef.fuG.f Nyefvnf tm.awmY bkef.[lusif.ukduyfNyD.}} bkef.awmYrvJ om.qef. vlav.f? 'umBuD.yJ? oltckavmufqdk toufaNcmufq.u rsufESmwpfcsuf ysufoGm.}} usef.fYig.awmY ckwpfoufrmS 'D&efaBuG.i. .awmfBuD. þodkYyif oabm&Bu\/ tu.wGm.acsrSmyg}} vkdY aNymawmY bkef.? om.wpfa. om. uvJYpm.Ekdif"m.rnf/ xdktcsdefxd csefcGef.Nyefw.BuD.frQBumayOD.fY tckawmYvJ bmrS taumiftxnfray:cJYygbl.

tcef.wm? pdwfxJrS pGJpGJNrJNrJ rSwfrdatmif usufcdkif.&r.av.av. [l u sif .&mwGifvnf. om.av. .u om. tpfudkBuD. thHBooGm. t&dkufcH&í wpfudk.ynm avYusifYaewm r[kwfbl.atmif e*g. .\/ NyD.? [kwfvm.wuúodkvf aevif.yJ oifoGm. &Supf eG . . tñdkuGuftrnf.tm. .u olYudk tck odkif. .udk acsmYarmY ESpfodrfYay..onf &SufpGef.udk aoG. &dkufESufNrnfwGefaeonfudk Nrifaomf raeomí . xifvmvQifom pdwfrcsrf.udk &dkufwmu om.wl. ]]'Dr.ay:rSmyJ aeoGm.av.Edkif"m. 'Dvo dk m wpfuu G cf si. rS p í &S u f p G e f .f aewmrSr[kwb f u J ?G olYukd pdwx f u J tvGwf usufrw S f ckdif.wkdYtm.aewmuG.vnfEikd pf rG .fvHk.? tpfuBkd uD. .enf. ]]tpfudkBuD.. ynmud k oifBum. .ESpftwGif.rSmuG.awmYacs/ wpfaeYwGif csifwl.av\/ xkdtcg om.rsufESm &kwfNcnf. . oifBum.uGufrsm.NyD.aewmuG.rS £aNE´qnfí .vdkYawmY b. .fY}} csifwl. tenf.av.fY vlawGqdkawmY Nznf.u NrJNrJrw S rf rd mS aygY arar&JY}} [k vlBuD.&.av.ay.wl.ygvm.uGufeJY usifYenf.Yf ? tpfudkBuD.wl. rwwfwwfatmif t"r®oifcdkif. cufxefoGm.u usef.av.i. . onf usef .NyD xd k a eY aemuf y d k i f .rNzpfygeJYAs? tazBuD.u om.csif.f \ oifBum. .yHu k kd em.f r&daS wmY/ xdYk aBumifY bmrQ raNymawmYacs/ wpfcgwpf&H om. tpfudkBuD.f pdwfwkdif.[lusif.f avYusifYcidk .}} ]][if.udk oHk.av.f NrifonfESifYyif &dkufoifY&dkufav\/ enf.wl.l wl.enf.rQyif rsufESmom ray.udk odkif.&if olqyH ifawGNzLwJYtxdawmif wwfcsirf S wwfomG . (20) ausmufaumif. aumif.Nznf.[lusif.&JY okdif. usef.vHk.zdkYtwGuf&dkufwmyg? tazBuD. . ]]arar pdwfraumif.u olYukd odik . tm.awGudk tvGwfom usufckdif.ruszG.ynm[m 'DavmufeufeJwJYOpöm uav.u . NzpfrdNyD. yd k í Buyf r wf v m\/ od k i f .ukd emem&du k rf S om.u om.av.f}} [k 0ifa&muf pGufzufav\/ &SufpGef.fY}} csifw.f wl.aNrYNcif.u 'DuRef.f&ygYrvJ? wl. . ]]tpfudkBuD.[efNzifY rdcifuykd if ESpo f rd Yf ae\/ 187 .f avYusiYf omG .

? rif. ntcsdefwGifvnf.udk &ufvkyfavonf/ tcsdefrSm tvGefvsifNrifpGm ul.fY? atmifNrif&if Nyefr.vdkvdk usef.udk EIwfwkduf ar. tpfudkBuD.qef.qnf. êudwifûyzG.onf &kwfw&uf tdyf&mrS vefYEdk.udk olESifYtwl aexdkifapNyD.acR.udk odrf.f trIudpörsm.u azmifzGJYr.aNymif. omoG m .ud k pOf .}} &SufpGef.aBumif. usef . þodkYNzifY ESpf0ufcefY Bumvmaom wpfaeYwGif &SufpGef.udk om.f xm.rsm.vausmf&if avu awmifbufudk wdkufawmYr.aNrmufoGm. oloifay.vQif aomufoHk. pwif c&D.enf.NyD.uwef.vdkuf&\/ ]]avaBumif.wl.f? ratmifNrif&ifawmY yifv.f tm.l wl. G e f .&0rf.qef.acR.[lusif. ]]'gu bk&m.f onf azmifzYJGaeaom wpfcsed v f .udkygEdI.atmif e*g.lí trJvdkufNyD.armifESHrSmrl &SufpGef.vJxNyD. . . tom.wl.av.qef.f? tpfudkBuD.udkom wpfuGufcsif.vm\/ taBumif.armifESHrSm þuRef.vdu k rf ad omaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ xkdYaBumifY uref.ocif&JYtay: rlwnfao. aecsifBu\/ odkY&mwGif om.udk ckwv f BJS uNyD. .acR. [l u sif .yif tdyf&mrS vl.\ toHwGif idkoH a&m.rsm.rS &kwfw&uf cGJcGmoGm.aBumif.rSm tat.fyHk wkdufckdufenf.rd a omtcg 0rf .f í avwd k u f & m vrf .aeavonf/ usef. ckid cf YH vaS y\/ &Supf eG . olESifYtwl tdyfapav\/ wpfnwGif usef.acR.rnfudk apmifYqdkif.Sufae\/ wdwfqdwfaom tumvnwGif þtoHudk Bum.ay.wuúodkvf aevif.rsm.ay:odkY a&muf&dSaomtcgwGifrl usef.acR.BuD.pepfrsm.omoGm. onf E S i f Y ol w d k Y o nf azmifay:odkYwufNyD.kH vdv k dk use.rSm NyD.wGif xnfYí odkavSmifpkaqmif.tm. b.Edkif"m.f ESiYf use.u opfyifBuD.aq. NyD.rdaomtcg 0rf.Bu&atmif}} [k qkdonf/ xdktcg usef.&awmYrnfudk pOf. ud k pwif wnfaqmufavawmY\/ uRef.í . csiw f .ypö. olYeaH b.wl.armifESHonf tm.Ncif.vJaeonfukd owdxm.NzifY &GufxnfESifY &Gufxnfêud.pyfwGifyif wJxkd.&ovdkvdk cHpm. pm.? 188 .f acR.f [lusi.u ]]nDav. aBumif .\/ ]]tpfudkBuD.wGif &yfcidk .pm.vSnYf &m vrf.Bu\/ NyD.axmifBunfYprf.udk oifBum.pyfü a&csxm.\ atmfoHudk Bum. r[kwfbJ odkif. \ b0aemif a &.wkdY 'DaeYupNyD.vkdufBu\/ tm.url opfacguf? opfrQifrsm.muf olwkdYom.onfudk awGYaomf tvGef thHBoaeBuav\/ tcsdefESpfvrQBumaomf azmifBuD.uGufESifY usifYpOf enf.aNymif.NyD .G e f .rsm.pufaom toHNzifY .}} csifwl.qef. .&onfrSm vGefpGm aBuuGJzG.f aumif.NyD? awmifbufudk wkdufcwfaeNyD}} &SufpGef.vQif xkdurf.oGm.rsm.fqkdawmY aNrNyefYudk NyefrvdkYaygYaemf? [kwfvm.fuG.aNymif.&eftwGuf a&csdKrsm.NzifY Nyefvnf raNzEdkifrD &kwfw&uf tNyifbufrS &SufpGef.rsm.ynm usifYpOfrsm.wkdY ZeD.w.wdkY ZeD.udk taNcmufvSef.fxJ epfaoBuwmaygY}} trSefrl usef. azmifBuD.ydkif.ae\/ &Supf eG .xGufEdkifrnf Nzpfyg\/ avwdkuf&mvrf.? aemufxyf av.vHk.cJYaom odkif.vJNyD.vdkufBu&\/ ypönf. OD.fodkY b.aeBu\/ odkYaomf þuRef.onf wpfcsdefvHk. vGefpGm 0rf.av.qef. ]]wl.ay:wGif ESpftwefBumatmif aevmcJYNyD.a'oGif aygufa&mufaom opfyifBuD.wGif &SufpGef.rl tdyfrIefpHkrTm.wkdY ZeD.? nDrav.qef.omNzifY ypönf. tvGwfusufrSwfckdif.tm.Nzpfí vGepf mG rmausmNyD.a&tdwfBuD.aq.wpfckudk BudKBudKwifwifzGJYxm. owfykwfenf. em.ae&aom tcsdefumv tawmtwGif.wpfa. azmif B uD .rl aNrmuft&yfbufodkY wdu k af e&mrS avwku d o f H aNymif.BuD.vSavonf/ aemufwpfaeY eHeuf/ usef.tpHktvif azmifBuD.pD.ay:&dS opfyifBuD.í aeBuavawmYonf/ tu.acR. .qef.ay:wGifyif at. csifwl.aomf azmifBuD.\/ olwdkYonf aemufxyfwpfzef v0ufcefYrQ tcsdef. onf awmif b uf . od k Y aNymif .vdkufBu\/ NyD. urf.yg aNymif.at.u at.

[lusif.&JY vSnfYuGufudkcH&rSmr[kwfbl.om þuRef.awmYbl.u oufNyif.nDav.u bmNzpfvdkY roGm.u pdwfoabmxm.onf/ oluatmfí . oHk.a.udk b.pm.fcE¨mu ausmufqpf&kyfuJYokdY wkwfwkwfrQ rvIyfacs/ usef.NyD? nDav.0dkif.wl.wl.wkdY ckefvkdufBupdkY&JY}} [k qkdav\/ &SufpGef.xufrS 0efxkyf0efydk.&drfqHk. uGJBu&awmYr.BuD.aomf usef.atmif e*g.vnfaeay&m ol oHa.roGm. rdkufceJNzpfoGm.xm.acR.aomf &ifckefoGm. ysif. tppt&m&m txl.vJ rdef.EkdifonfY 'ku©bkHxJodkY wGef. .[lusif.oNzifY olu usef.f? csifwl.enf.qef.vQif b. .qef. rqHk.trd wpfawGESifY enf.ay:odkYckefwufvkduf\/ olYaemufwGif csifwl.muf þae&mrS xGufcGmoGm. nDav.oifYw.? azmifBuD.}} &SufpGef.vkdufouJYodkY cHpm.favmufaNcmufaoGYNyD. txl.u .ygaemf}} [k rSmaeavonf/ usef.atmf vkdufav\/ ]]wl.bufodkY vSrf.wdkYxuf trsm.cJYygonf/ olom usef.pktay:wGif olonfodkY rNzpfapvkdyg/ olYycHk.\ b0aemifa&.f nDav.acR.NyD r[kwfvm.ESifY wpfrdepf wpfpuúefY tcsdefrQyif cGJcGmcsifol r[kwfygay/ ol odygonf/ aumif.faomtcgrQ þae&modkY Nyefvnfa&muf&dSvmEdkifrnf r[kwfawmYay/ xdktcgwGif olwpfa.wl.vdkY Niif.ae&Smavonf/ trSefrl &SufpGef.qdkayr.folrS êudwifaNymvdkY r&bl.oGm.ayrnf/ onfrdom.cJYygaom þusef.vkdufí wufvmonf/ xkdpOfwGif usef.f? 'gaBumifY nDav.\ udk.rSm ql.pyfrS wGef.eyfw.xHrS rarQmfvifYaom rxifrSwfaom pum.wdkYESifYtwl NyefoGm.vm. .f? 'gayr.mufu olY&if0okdY vufoD.zdkYaumif. . .mufwnf.f? olrsm.csovdk NzpfaeayawmYrnf/ txl. ]]nDav.aew. wpfa.oNzifY ol vGefpGm oHa.mZOf wG.udk Bum.? bmawG aNymaewmvJ? tpfudkBuD. .rSm qGJaqmifEkdifpGrf.uG.a&m usef. owd0D&d.mZOfNzifY wG.csvsuf .udk aNymNycJYNyD.udkBum.wuúodkvf aevif.oHa.acR.mufwnf.av.u urf. ]]tazBuD.fwmrdaom om.liifapvkdyg/ 189 .wkdY rdom. .a&? NrefNrefvmBua[Y? tpfudkBuD.}} [líom tmar!dwf ûyvkdufrdav\/ &SufpGef. csifwl.fY? 'gaBumifY nDav. tpfudkBuD.u igwdkYeJYrvkdufbl.Bu\/ xkdYaBumifY &kwfNcnf.wufvmBuavonf/ usef.&dpGm txD. ]]vGefcJYwJYESpfuwnf.rvJ? tpfudkBuD.qef.vJ roGm. .yg? usef.BuD.udk urf.u nDav.[lusif. usef.pGm odygonf/ þvlom. . 'DrSmaecJY&if b.rd\/ wpfpHkwpfa.acR.twGuf ol tcsdef. ydkawmfvdrfYr.qef.vrf.[lusif.udk vufNzifY qGJ.fY 'Dvkd udpörsdK.\ vufudk qGJudkifí .pGm azmifBuD.lpOf.udk vufvTJr.? igwdkY nDtpfudkESpfa.awmif arsmuf0HBuD.u &SufpGef.wkdYeJY rvdkufbl. .rm.rSm &kwfw&uf rsuf&nfusvm\/ wpfbufokdY rsufESmvTJvsuf rsufESmñdSK. ]]tpfudkBuD.fY oluyg. .? c&D. ]]tpfudkBuD.fav.&JY ukodkvfuHuvJ aumif. .muf 'DaeY 'DtcsdefupNyD.rl &kwfw&uf .vkduf&\/ xdkYaBumifY olYEIwfrS .}} &SufpGef.*&kpdkufNyD.wl. .pktm.yif urf.wl.? ig tpdk.fwmcspfrdcJY&m olYtwGufESifY usef.a&? om.EGrf.qef.? nDav.onf þom.cJYvQif ol\ &efolu 0dkif. .u nDav.vJ aemifwpfcsdefus&if tpfudkBuD. .lvkduf\/ odkYaomf &SufpGef.acR.eJY ckepfayavmufuGmoGm.wkdYu azmifBuD.[lusif.&if om.rSmrl rD.qEkdifaom cspfNcif.acR.wl.acR.[lusif.ESifY &SufpGef.u aNymaNymqdkqdk &SufpGef.NzifY .acR.wdkYeJY vkdufcJYrS NzpfrSmaygY}} usef.NzifY xdk.usefcJY&ayawmYrnf/ odkYaomf þta&. r&dSonfYtqHk.u &SufpGef.rQ cJGcGmcsifol r[kwfay/ txl.Edkif"m.mZOf BuD. .ygw.}} xdkpum.csavawmY\/ usef. .qef. arYaeNyDvm.BuD.udk ayGYzufvsuf tvsifOD.qef.aumif.u tpfudkBuD.av.\ vufudk udkifqGJí rsufESmi. .f}} csifwl.u wtHYwBoNzifY .qef.om.onf &SufpGef.rom.wpfavQmufvHk.&wmvJ? tazBuD. oGm. .tay:wGif rEdIif. ]]tpfudkBuD.wGif csifwl.aNimifYcvkwfawGNzifY NynfYvQrf.yg vGefpGm wkefvIyfoGm.[lusif.ay:odkY NyefaNy.ay:wGif aoGYaNcmufysif. ]]tpfudkBuD. ]]nDav.yJ}} usef. wpfoufvHk.

vJ roGm. . .ay:odYk ypfwifvu dk af v\/ wpfqufwnf.wdkY vifr.aevkdufavonf/ aBomf .wkdYudkyif qufvuf ypfwifavonf/ xkdYaemuf &SufpGef.twdik . 'Dvkd r[kwfygbl.pm. wkefvIyfoGm. acR.tm. . ]]'D .? tazBuD. . . . . . .udk qGí J azmifBuD.Nzwfxm.\ rIef0g. . .wGifyif usef.? uJ . .awG [kef. . .NzifY ta0. .u toufBuD. ckoGm. tckvkdufcJY}} usef.qGJxm.awmufavmifaeygNyDaum/ xdpk OfwiG f azmifBuD.ay:rSaeí idkoHNzifY atmf[pfaeav\/ ]]nDav.ESifY uG.fvm\/ aemuf vHk.qef .i. .faemf? tazBuD. .wpfcsufcsvsuf toHudk NrSifYí .tay:wGif olwdkY ydkí oHa.aewm xifw. ]]igaowmudk rif.awmYaemf? tm.Nznf.NyD om.onf &SufpGef.[kef.udk om. k Yf u.r[kwfygbl. oGm.faerd\/ . oGifoGifpD. ]]om.wdkYvnf.acR. rif.Nznf.fqdk}} usef.[lusif. uGm}} &SufpGef. a0.ifoHNzifY atmfí .wdkYawG vrf. .mZOfwG.[lusif./ usef. tazBuD.f [kwfvm. usef&pfcJYNyDaum/ usef.? 'gaBumifY aNrNyefYudk rNyefcsifawmYbl.[lusif.Bu? oGm.? uav. cspfw.NyD.av. . idkoHNzifY .om. olwdkY oabmaygufBu\/ xdkYaBumifY &SufpGef.\ vl&dyfonfvnf.aomf oHa. .[lusif.? om. idk&vGef.onf olwdkYESifYtwl vkdufyg rvmcJYNcif.onfudk od&aomf vufavQmYNyD.csifao. k f om. .udk Nzwf&ef tm.uwef.t&dyfonfvnf.f wa&GYa&GYro S nf wNznf.u &ifxJ qdkYeifYoGm.ESiYf csifwl. oHa.pum.&if om.avNyD/ &SufpGef.uHaumif.wkdYu 'DuRef.ESpfbufudk ydwfvkduf\/ NyD.vkduf&avonf/ wpfcsdefwnf.udBk um.bl.vdkY qifaNcawGay.wkdYu roGm.ndwfNy\/ ]]at.NyD . wNznf.? tazBuD.faysmufoGm. mvuf N zif Y ol Y "m.}} &SufpGef.u rnfodkYrQ oabmrwl/ usef.0g.fESpfawmif aevmcJYwmyJ? aNrNyefYudk rNyef&vJ taBumif.}} usef.om.acR.um.atmif e*g.mufwnf.NyD? rif.usdK. .usvmNyefavonf/ odkYaomf rsufESmudk wrifcufxefatmif êud.wdkYu pdwfaNzmifYaNzmifYeJY oGm.udk qGJxkwfvkdufNyD. . . .m.wuúodkvf aevif. tazBuD.qef.aumif.wGif wpfa. .0 rNrif&awmYacsNyDwum. .Edkif"m.rS oufNyif. tpfudkBuD.a&? rif.a0.onfvnf. wdwfprf. .ckrl &SufpGef.[lusif. .yif/ &SufpGef.rl azmifay:wGif toHukefatmfí wodrfYodrfYidkaeav\/ EIwfrSvnf.em. .u usef. ]][dwf .ESifY rIef0g.u bmawG avQmufaNymaewmvJ? oGm. xdkenf. ]]aumif.rSm olwdkY\ aumif.wpfavQmufvHk.qef.wkdY NrifoGm.? nDrav.l u sH K . om. .[lusif. olYvnfyif. olY&ifrSmvnf. tusyf u d k i f v monf u d k a wG Y aomf vG e f p G m . . [ifYtif.&JY}} ]][ifYtif. wpfa.Nznf.vQif usef.Ekdif"m.ûyí . *&kpdkufNyD. owfaorSmyJ}} &SufpGef. .f wk e f v I y f o G m . .&JY om.onf urf.qef.}} [k atmfaigufNyD. vuf .\ pum.[lusif. .av. om. kd u f kd owfao&ifvJ om.? vmyg .Bubl. wNznf.vHk. . u tBuD .awmYrSyJ rif. . .\/ twefBumawGidkifvsufaerd\/ NyD.NzifY . ayGYcsDNyD. .mZOfBuD. .r&Nzpf v suf rsuf & nf r sm.acR. ausmcdkif. rsuf&nfrqnfEkdifBu/ &SufpGef.? azazBuD.udk iJYíomNzpfaBumif.\/ usef.udk om. . roGm.rSm þrQtxd tcdkiftrm pdwfqHk. vmyg}} &SufpGef.qef. ]]tazBuD. .u uref.f? tazBuD.muf rdrdtay:wGif þrQ oHa.av.vdr®mw. .Bu . tus.ud.vm\/ ao. csdKomaom toHNzifY . .rSmvnf.om.? nDav. .[lusif.í rdcif\ &ifcGifwGif tdyfaysmfoGm. toufudkyif rES a NrmawmYbJ rd r d t m.[lusif. olonf usef.onf em.mZOf rsuf&nf awGawGus&if.NyD Nzpfyg\/ &SufpGef.acR.u aNymaNymqdkqkd e*g.mZOf rD.ûyvkduf\/ usef .u uwkefu. .Bur.faygY [kwfvm.ud k i f v uf u d k twif.cJYavNyDwum.oGm.Buygap}} usef. .BuD. tHBudwfí olwdkYtm.aygY? ig aooGm.u acgif.vnf.u ud.ay:rSm q./ 190 . tazBuD.wl.qDoYkd arsmygoGm.wGiyf if usef.axmif&r.onfrl a&pD. ]]tazBuD. .udk cspf&if tazBuD.

.&.pGm tuJcwf&if.\ aysmfNrL.acR. .onf olYacgif.wl. [dk[m .? csifwl. \ &G u f x nf u d k o m vufñdI. ]]tJ'g azazY rsufcHk.wpfpif. awmifbufoYkd om zdwu kd af e\/ rD.qef.ay: vTm. .qef.l wl. vmvrf.awmifarsmuf0BH uD.xdk.Ge.f odYk csOf. w[m.Gef.omtm.í tvefYwxdwfNzifY qdkav\/ ]]a[m .acR. wl . . . . þodkYNzifY olwdkYvdkufygpD. csiw f .u .u oufNyif.}} usef.ESpfckudk em&D0ufrQ pdwf0ifwpm.f okYd qufíqufí a&GYvsm.yg tpfudk}} [k qdk\/ use.&dyfaysmufuG.wGif olwYkd EiS Yf twl vku d yf gvmcJYao.fvkdvkyf&rSmvJ? igYq&mBuD. .omNzpfyg\/ usef.xdk.}} 191 . .f \ ta0.wuúodkvf aevif.wll. .fvkdaNymr.frli.rnf.eJY vufxyfwJY udpöudk b.pGm vl.wpf a e&m awmifbuf.\ yDwdvTrf.qef.&NzifY atmfaNymavawmY\/ ]]avS .wl.aeqJ/ wpf a eY .Gef.vGefY vIyf&Sm.rSmrl awmifbuf.[lusif.eG .wl.uif\ awmifbuf.vdkufavonf/ csifwl.rsm.vdkufonfudk BunfY&if.xkd.ifoGm.qef. . ? csif w l .udv k .u thHBopGmNzifY . avSBuD.omvGef.rS . ar.qef.qef.&JY wHqdyfyJ tpfudk}} [k toHudkESdrfYí qdk&Sm\/ xdkcPpOfü usef. . .um.bl. 'Dyk*d¾KvfeJY xdyfwkdufawGY&if b.atmif e*g.vmavavNzpfvmoNzifY aemufq. yDwd Nzpfae&Smavonf/ aemufxyfwpfzef em&D0ufcefYtBumwGifawmYrl olwdkYonf vif. arQmf B unf Y &if .\/ okYd &mwGif ..qef.zsm.}} [k ar. . .kH wGif arsmuf0BH uD.f . ]]tif.&dcS YJ onfY tcsdeu f pNyD. yif v .frodao.u csifwl. . . .folawGvJ wl. . olwdkYeJYrS OD. t&dyfuav.u NyefraNz/ twefBumyif cyfrqdwfae aeav\/ usef.onf NymvJYaom rdk.eif.vnf.xkd.yg.[lusif.u rdcifNzpfol\ trlt&m taNymif.NzL*dkPf.Id nTe&f m avSBuD.Nyvdkuf\/ NyD.onf usef.[lusif.NyD. vufñ.\ &Gux f nftm.f acR. acR.bufqDokdY a&cJw.onf zcifNzpfol uRrf. awmifbufyikd .acR.f[ef ay:vmNcif.pGm pdwful. wpfae&mwGif tyfpufESpfpufrQ t&mxifaeaomrnf. . .rSm raeEdkifrxdkifEdkif Nzpfvmav\/ xkdYaBumifY a&ay:wGif aygavmarsmygaeaom a&cJwHk.qefaom tûytrlrsdK.acR.qef .\ vufudk tomt.csKyfBuD.&Snfcsvsuf .kH ESiYf twl arsmygoGm. ]]b.m qkyfudkifvkduf\/ xdktcg csifwl.aeBuyHkudkBunfY&if.udk awGYvkduf&avawmY\/ usef.acR.aom rsufESmwGif tûyH. raNz/ avS B uD .wl.ESpfpif.Edkif"m.aumif.zsm.acR.wl.u BunfYvkdufaomf yifv.vdkuf\/ ]]arar bmNzpfvkdYvJ[if}} csifwl.&JY zcifu rsufcHk.fNyif\ awmifbufrdk.odkYvufñdSK. .pGm NrifawGYvkduf&\/ xdkpOfckduf .NzifY pdkufBunfYaerdNyD.BuD.frSmvnf. ]]a[m[dk &Gufxnfudk BunfYvkdufprf.vdkufrd\/ trSefrl usef. wpf p if . rsm. uif t m.foGm.tvJudk tuif.ukyfpuf0dkif.ud k csuf c sif .eif. þokYd uav. . onf rd k .yJ? olwdkYu aNratmuf 'kp&dkuf*dkPf. ESpfckudk awGYvkduf&yg\/ usef. vS r f .qef.\/ usef.pdwfoef.rS xdktyfpuf&m t&dyfuav. \ tar.kH 0 rûyvkycf YJ ay/ wnfwnfBunfBunfom aexdkifcJY\/ tckrl0rf.f}} usef.qef.onf 0rf.vsuf &dSaeav\/ avrSmvnf.&JY *dkPf. ig . cE¨mudk.xJwGif tawG.oNzifY avxJwGifyif uRrf.vmavav aEG.Gef.vQif 0rf.awGyJ? ig .&mrS trIrJYNzifY i.uvJ igeJY wl. tHYBoaepOf csifwl.ceJckefwufNyD.axG. &kwfw&uf wkef. . taotcsm BunfYvu dk af omf &Gufxnfay:wGif aoG.\/ csif w l .wl.rSm tpOD.OD.? [dk .BuD.vmaom azmifBuD.avawmYonf/ olwYkd azmifBuD.NzL*dkPf. aumif .fol avxJwGif uRrf. . wl .rSm aeYnrNywf awmifbufqDodkY a&GYvsm.[m. .Gef.acR. . vmwdk.xdk.&owJY tpfudk&..wpfwHk.f\/ xkdYaemuf zcif ûyrlouJYokdYyif olYudk.uJYokdY eD&Jaom vuf0g.wl.vsuf&dS\/ ]]wl. vifESifYom.omvGef.udk xif&Sm. .wl. .om.yaeaom aea&mifNcnfatmufwGif avSBuD. . bmvJ}} usef.acR. u usef .

NyefvmNyD}} xdktoHrsm.favmifaom trdefYay. ]]aBomf .fY}} xdktcsdefwGif olwdkY\azmifBuD.u b. .wl.folurS vmNyD.acR.ay:rSm ygvmovm.&JY tusdK.csKyf&JY *dkPf.ESpfpif.? wl.fNyifwGif yJYwif[nf. uRefawmf usef. &yfBu}} &kwfNcnf.uJYodkYyif tawG. rodromwkef. . wl . .u . 'DavSBuD.\ avSBuD.atmfar. tpfudk &Dvifwef.rl aemufqHk.csdefwGif rsufcHk.opf*dkPf. *dkPf.vkduf&onfESifY &kwfw&uf wpfudk.\ vufuav. &dkaoav. ]]wl.cH&r.cGJudkOD.aom toHNzifY .u . xlyloGm.f cGu J usm.udk olwdkYBum.onfESifY rsufvHk.NzL*dkPf.av\/ xkdokdY twefBumrQ Nidrfouf wdwfqdwfaeNyD.}} ]][kwfuJY? uRef .vm.qef.NzifY vSrf. &yfwefYoGm.acR.rsm. xdkpOfwGif csifwl.wl.muf vSrf.csvsuf . bmrS rpdk.odkY a&mufoGm.vkdufavawmY\/ olwdkY avSBuD.wuúodkvf aevif.wl.ay:wGif vlwpfcsdKY\ "m. .f*dkPf.fbufodkY auGYoGm. ]]azazrsm.avoHaNymif. Nzpf \ / xd k t cg rsuf c H k .ifaeonfudk awGYvdkuf&\/ rSefonf/ csifwl.yJay:ay:? tpfudku om.vHk.Edkif"m.ay:odkYyif a&mufvmouJYokdY cHpm. .wpfa.aomf csifwl. udk.&drfeJYaemf}} [k ESpfodrfYvkduf\/ csifwl.aqmifyg? tck e*g.vnfygw.faemf? [kwfvm.qef.acR.avawmY\/ usef. .onf avSBuD. . . tpfudk}} ]]pdwfcsyg wl.wGif aemufxyf us.u pdk.acR.u oufNyif.mufawmif &aerifY[myJ? udk.fvHk.oH wpfckudk Bum. .oHudk Bum. tpGrf. rif.fvdktaBumif.&drfoHNzifY . .u ]]tck rarQmfvifYbJ tpfudkwkdYeJY vmwdk. *dP k . [m .av\/ ]]tpfudk . ]]*dkPf.NyD.*dkPf.rsm.vkduf&yg\/ olu uref. u Nyef a Nzvk d u f N cif . acgif.cGJ&JY acgif.f*dkPf.rsufqefNyL.f cGJ acgif.uwef.wl.f csKyf&YJ *dP k . NyefvmNyDvdkY aNymaew.vsuf &kwf&kwfoJoJ NzpfoGm. . NyefvmNyD? wdkY rrav./ odkYESifY usef.aemuf &GufxnfudkvSnfYí yJYudkaNymif.av tpfudk}} 192 .qef.wl.cGJyg? b.&Nyef\/ ]]aumif.aqmifygvJ}} ]]ewforD. . ]]at.k êud. .ESpfvufNzifY wdkufckduf owfykwfaeBuoHrsm.aeNyDyJ? tpfudkwdkY oGm.rsm.vHk.cGJ}}[laom emrnfudk Bum.rsm.}} xkdtcg avSay:u vlu .udk ruyfygeJY}} xdktoHudkBum.wl.ay:rS &kwfw&uf ûydifwl atmfvkdufBuavawmYonf/ ]]rrav. ]]b.aemuf avSBuD.NyD? tm. . .fwkdY ESpfa. .ay:rSvlu csufcsif.mufudk b. wdwfqdwf NidrfoufoGm. .atmfaNymavonf/ ]]rqdkifwJYvl tem.ay:rS us.qef.onf ]]ewforD.ukef onf.*dP k .ESpfpif.BunfYBuwmaygY wl.fwkdYrSm uav.qef. usef. .ay:rS vlwpfa.vdkuf\/ xdktcg avSBuD. cPavmuf twdkuftcdkuf &yfBu&atmif}} xdktoH tqHk.NzifY vSrf.f cGJ a&mufaewmud. rodbl. tem.ygyJ? [m .udkBunfYNyD.favmifaom toHwpfcsuf ay:xGufvm\/ ]]usKyfwkdY*dkPf. .wl.wl.aeav\/ xdkpOf tNcm.&JY rrav.f? tpfudk em.*dP k . . avSwpfpif.NyD. . .vnf. NyefvmNyD? wdkY rrav.qdkovdkyif vufeufESifY wdkufBuckdufBuoHrsm.NzL*dkPf.fuG.aqmifNyD.k ? uRefawmfu rd.wl. rif. .faemf? iJYuGuf&r.Buav\/ aemuf &kwfNcnf.f? 'DawmY usKyfwdkYtm.um b.cGJrSm r[kwfygbl.av. NyefvmNyD}} ]]rrav.0SufwpfrsdK. . .\ pum. \ buf a wmf o m.acR. 'DrSm tvkyfvkyfaewmyg? cifAsm.atmif e*g.0ifvsuf&dSaeonf r[kwfygvm.}} [k qkdNyD.vkduf&av\/ csifwl.u yifv.cGJuyg}} csif w l . .cGJu tvkyfvkyfaewmvJ}} [k rsufcHk. usKyfu &Dvifwef.&. aoG.ar.vl\ trdefYay.pm. NzL*d k P f . . .}}[k a&&Gwfvkduf\/ usef.

pD.oud. ]]OD .vsuf 0rf.\ ukef. tcsdKYudkvnf. OD.Edkif"m. .usuf Nzpf\/ olYatmufwGif twGif.bufokdY vSnfYí . aeaumif . csifwif. vufxw J iG v f nf.udk awGYvkduf&oNzifY olYpdwfxJwGif tvGef xl. rsuf&nfrsm.ay:okYd vTm. .fESpfumv tawmtwGif.odYk ra&mufryD if avSBuD.cGJrSm oHk.[lusif.udkom &IH.wl.usyfpGm ayGYzuf&if.wl.f? 'DwpfcgawmY rif. tbdk.wJY}} vDxif.url [kdBunfY onfBunfYNzifY *emrNidrfNzpfaeav\/ &kwfw&uf þrQ rsm.\/ twGif.csKyfBuD.awmif rodawmYbl. awGY&aomf vDxif. .aecJY&mrS . yk*d¾KvfrSm *dkPf.êud.vH k .wGif &mxl.u avSBuD.u NyefatmfaNym&if.NzL*dkPf.NyD.*dkPf.ESifY usef. &. omaeav\/ tb.tm.í csifwl.? 'gu uRefr&JYom. csifwl.fESpfwmrQ uGJuGmcJYaom *dkPf.csvdkuf\/ okdYaomf olYrsufvHk.vGef*dkPf. .mufukd vufqv JG suf&o dS nfukd awGY&aomf vGefpGm tHYtm.fusaeavonf/ wpfbufwGifvnf.ynmwGif rsufcHk.cGJESifY rdk.wJY aNr. ]]om.mufsm.wGif wpfa.ae[ef wlav\/ xkdpOf csifwl.odBum. . ]]olwdkYvm.fí . q.mufawmif ygvmao.cGJ? usm.*dkPf.\ wpfudk. Nyefvm&kw H if rubl.wl.wem.rS csufcsif.udk vnf.tBuD.cGJ[lí cGJNcm.uwef.av\/ okdYaomf olu £aNE´q.qef.? tifrwef cspfp&maumif. 'l.f oNzifY azmifBuD.Nym.vQif .u vlawGyg}} [k aNzav\/ 193 .csKyfBuD.Nzpf o l usef.wlnD vDxif. usef. csifwif. wcrf. .fEpS o f m.bk&if csifwif.&dS\/ ewfom.usuf\ *dkPf.}}[k qkdav\/ usef. &dk&dkaoaoyif qufqHavonf/ vDxif.onf odkif.*dkPf. . .*dkPf.avS\ wpfbufwpfcsufwGif &yfí csifwl. .tazu rif.wltm. Nzpfav\/ okdY&mwGif vDxif.aqmifrSmrl csifwl.[m.vkdY &l.usuf wpfOD.w.csKyfBuD.rsm. ]]aumif.fNyD. .muf aoonf? &Sifonf rodbJ aysmufqHk.opf*dkPf.vnf. *dkPf.\/ NyD.wnf.muf wif.ceJ ckefwufvkdufavawmY\/ &Dvifwef.f a emf } } [k Nyef v nf E I w f q uf a vonf / NyD .wl.cGJESifY tNyif*dkPf.tm.wuúodkvf aevif.oG. .onf csifwl.NzL*dkPf.tazu 0rf.tomBuD.*dkPf.qef.axmuf t&dktaoay.uJYodkYyif pdwfvIyf&Sm.cGJ[lí Nzpf\/ tNyif*dkPf.r vdkY rif.*dkPf.u aBumiftrf.fwpfa.ck&dSonf/ .wl.axmufNyD. w.qef. ]]OD.NzifY êudqdkaeBuonf/ *dkPf.a.favmuf pdwfaomu a&muf&wmudk aNym&if aNymvdkYqHk.aumif.}}[k EIwfcGef.w.tm.csKyf csifwif.\ OD. ]]tpfudk}} ]]nDav.[lusif.? [lwef. .av.udk OD.acR. £aNE´q.onf olY*dkPf.u avSem.wkdY avQmufwufvmonfudk t&kdtao ay.vGe.i.*dkPf.? orD.qufvdkuf\/ csifwl.av.t&G.Yf }} xkdtcdkuf csifwl. odrf.aumif.wl. .wpfa.*dkPf.acR.cGJ\ acgif.rSm r[kwfbl.Nzpf\/ vDxif. usef.oifYoGm. .omvGef.csvkdufprf. usef.ck &kwfw&uf Nyefvnf qHkawGYvkduf&aomaBumifY Nzpfyg\/ olwdkY ESpfOD.k uG.vSaom vlrsm.\ rsufESmudk axmufxm. rsufcHk. .NzL*dkPf.wl.if.? aumif.*dkPf.wl.NyD.qef.[lusif.wl.ck csifwl. . bk&m.ywfay:wGif aoG. .*dkPf.folawGvJ? bmudpöeJY 'DudkvmBuwmvJ}} vDxif. .cGJESifY quf&uf*dkPf. wpfa.wlnDav. Nyefa&mufvmwm wl. pdwv f yI &f mS .êud.avonf/ ]]olwdkYu b.u rwfwwf&yfvkdufNyD.onf avSOD.}} [líom aNymEkdifNyD.av.rSm rif.cGJrSmrl ig.fvHk.av. ]]BunfYprf. csif&.usuf\ om.Buav\/ trSefrl rsufcHk.a&Y? 'Dq. usef.yif Nzpf\/ rdk.wl.cGJwdkY NzpfBu\/ ewfom.atmif e*g.f uav.cGJ\ acgif.om.faBumifYrl olESifY q.cGJ? usm.u .uGufrsm.? tavmif.xm.*dkPf. 'l. .tm.wk d Y tm.rS vlrsm.qHk.aqmifrSm *dkPf.onf . ar.onf csifwl.NzpfoGm.f NzpfNyD.vHk.av.u vDxif.eJY cGef.onf olYrdcif aNymonfYtwkdif.\ tpfudk Nzpfavonf/ ewforD. 0g t& wGufvQif vDxif.cGJ? ewforD.aqmifrSmum.fwl.wdkYrSm e*g.wl tpfudkBuD.fí w[m.cGJ? aNrG*dkPf.cGJ\ acgif. vDxif.? rif. av.wGif wd&pämefta&cGu H kd 0wfxm.rvm.twGufeJY b.*dkPf.tm. vQif om.[lusif.edrfYNyD.acR. . uref.mufudkwpfa.trf.wl.

avtukefcHNyD.? oleJY tvum.wpfa.}} [k NyefaNymavonf/ zkef.rvnfEkdifatmif NzpfoGm.vkdufyg}} [k qdkonf/ xkdYaemufwGifrl olwdkYonf tNcm.udk raNzbJaeonfudk awGYaomf a'gowBuD.ESifY cGef.f zkef.\ wpfudk.om.qef.cGJacgif.xefonf [lwef.0gtm.acR.q. ]]a[Y . .f qdkwmom em.wG i f v nf . . ]]a[Y .0gu a'goaNcmif.&Sm\/ avoHwdk.f wltpfukd eHygwfEpS Ef iS Yf aNymp&m qdpk &m pum.aeNcif.EdkifvkdY &dS&ifvJ ausat.rsm.NzifY . . trsdK.xGufoGm.u *dkPf.mufESifY zufvSJwuif.*dkPf. b.vGef*dkPf.ynmwGifrl qD. . .0gonf usef. bmaNym&rnf rodatmif Nzpfae&Sm\/ &Dvifwef. 0gu avoH E S i f Y trl t &m armuf r mvS \ / ol Y e H a b.}} olYatmfoHu þwGif &yfoGm.wGif 0gtvGefBuD.vGef*dkPf.fom.olNzpf\/ apmapmu olYi. .NzifYvnf.vGef*dkPf.orD.cav. .xefu ceJYûyH. .mufu vufxyf.0g\ *dkPf.u *dkPf.rSm qD.awmif csD&NyDuG? rif.cGef.l wl. .orQ armufrmavonf/ rsufcHk.\/ xdkYaBumifY &Dvifwef.0gu a'go ydkxGufvm\/ xkdYaBumifY a'goNzifY atmfí .acR.vnf.qdkwJY vlqdk. . Nzpfaomfvnf. touf av.xefrSmvnf.NrpfvkdufaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ a0Y&efonf zkef.Edkif"m.acR. OD. .0g\ "m.u aNr. vGefpGm ÓPfeDÓPfeuf rsm. NzpfcYJ \/ .udkBum.BunfYvdkuf\/ xdkpOf cGef.vdk aNzmifYrSefwJY*dkPf.aNym&if BunfYaNymaygY udk.fYvl}} qD. Niif.aqmif zkef. .fvdk qHk.NzL*dkPf. usef.fvdkNzpfwmvJ}} [k ar.0g\ ar.aewm rBum.vku d &f Nyefaomf csifw.bmawG vmaNymaewmvJ}} qD. .rl a0Y&efu wm.av\/ xdkpOfcdkuf qD.0g\ *dkPf.wpfa.ESpfa.0g? tpfudkav.aNcmif.\ rsufESm ñdkarSmifoGm. ]]'D rdef. ûyaeonfudk awGYvkduf&uwnf. vlwpfa.u yg0ifywfoufvrd Yf rnf[k wGux f m.uwef.vHk.lygYrvm.0efí . .muf em.csufaBumifY aoqHk. ]]taumif.acR.kwf .u rdef.udk odrf.frSmvJ}} qD . 'Dvufxyfa&.wkd. usef.bl. .wdkYvdk 'kp&dkuf*dkPf.? &SufpGef. NrifYrm.0gxuf ydkí wwfuRrf. . .0ifí qdkav\/ ]]a[Y .fvHk. odkif.Nzwfr.u atmfar. .u olYtar. Bum.ck xyfwpfzef em.mufrSm qD.? ig ar.acR.csKyfBuD.qef.wlnDrZeD. 'Dr.tm. rmeBuD.\/ xkdYaBumifYvnf.av\/ ]]usef.pGm odvdkuf\/ zkef. .omtm.csKyfBuD.wGif [lwef.0g[laom xdyfoD.BuD.uawmY twdkuftcdkufudk cPavmuf &yfxm.axmifvkdufyg}}[k qkdavonf/ 194 .rS qD.uG? [if. . .udk Nyefí &efwkdufay.if.qef. .ygOD. odkif.\/ taBumif.orD.rSm wpfckckawmY &dS&r.NyD. . .oGm.*dkPf.acR. aNrmufNrm.u þta&.av.xef\ tBuHudk tuif.orm.wuúodkvf aevif.qef.qef.wpfa. &Dvifwef.vm.qHk.bufodkY twloGm.u usef.qef.vnfvm.}} [k atmfaNymav\/ qD. .raeygeJY? tm.udk [lwef.yg.NzifY qwfqwfBum.f a vmuf & d S trsdK.usHK.muf xdkifaeonfudk awGY&\/ .&oNzifY olu qD.rS e*g.qef. .&NzifY avSay:odkY ckefwufNyD. ]]tpfudkBuD.muf 0rf. ]]tpfudk? 'gu b.\/ okdif.&JY a&Toruf NzpfaeNyDuG? pum. trSefrl csifwl.xef? rif.? ausat.wl.[m tck igwdkY rsufcHk.avonf/ rarQmfvifYbJ qD.onf ol\ *dP k .tcif.pGm &daS omfvnf.BuavawmYonf/ usef.NzL*dkPf.atmif e*g. .wpfa. vGefpGm tcJraus Nzpfaeavonf/ xkdYaBumifY olu Bum.acR.\/ xkdYaBumifY .r.yif r[kwfygvm.ynmvnf. avSBuD.NzifY .wlnDrESifY ZeD.aomf usef.0gonf cGef. qD./ xkdYaBumifY a0Y&efu uref.*dkPf.acR.qef. tck b. ]]igwdkY&JY *dkPf.Nzpfaom a0Y&efyif Nzpfyg\/ a0Y&efonf qD.onf apmapmuyif usef.fuG? em.*kdPf.

pdwf wnfwnfNidrfNidrfeJY aqG. ]]uJ .xJodkY OD.onf avS0rf.wl. usef.acR.wl nDtpfudk ckepfazmfxJwGif eHygwfwpf csdK&Tifacsmif.atmif e*g.pm. trsm. csuf c sif .fESpftawmtwGif.wdkufcdkufvmolrSmvnf.onf om.orm. rodNzpfaecsdefwGif eHygwfoHk.atmif atmfaNymavawmY\/ ]]tr.l xdkifvkdufBuNyD Nzpfyg\/ csifwlwl.k oHwpfcsuf Bum.buf&dS cHkudk vufñdSK.u [lwef.aom odkif.mufu .? rif.qef.azmfudk vGefpGm av.qef.avmuwGif ydkíyif ausmfBum.? a0vig.f wGif odik . .mufu [l w ef . BunfYvdkufav\/ qD.wdkY ESpfa.u {nfYonfxdkifcHkrsm. wpf p H k w pf a .yrm NzpfaeBu&avawmY\/ þq. quf ok d i f . vS n f Y Bunf Y vd k u f B u\/ xk d t cg a0Y&ef u rsufESmxm.csKyf&JY orD.Ekid af wmYacs/ xdt k cg [lwef.vsuf .rvS aysmufvsuf aoonfvm. ]]nDav.wpfcsufndwfí 0ifxkdifvdkufav\/ xdktcg csifwl.0g\ rsufESmrSm csifcsif.êud.qHk.ûyí olYa.wl. . odkif.NzL*dkPf.oD.xJwGif ae&m.fESpf tawmtwGif.vH k .wGif xdkifvkdufBuonfYwkdif aBumif.*dkPf.a&SmifvkdufNyD.onf aysmufNcif. pdwfxJrS þodkYpOf.[lusif. od v d k u f \ / ol Y tm.onfYtNyif odkif. av.f}} 195 .mufom usefavawmY\/ odYk &mwGif þq. wef .rSm {nfYonfNzpfae\/ xdk*dkPf.rSmrl csifwl.acR.*dkPf. Nzpf a omf v nf .rSm csifwl.wGifxdkifvsuf wpfa.ay:wGif rsufcHk.&dS xdkifcHktoD.udkvnf.EkdifNzpfvsuf odkif.wpfa.xdk.ESifY usef.&if.f xef avS0rf.awGukd rodapcsifwYJ tcsufawG &dSaumif.aumif.rSmvJ rwnfrNidrfeJY vIyfvIyf&Sm.wGif &yfae\/ tdrf&Sif cHkrsm.&dkufoAs}} zk e f .orm.udkom aNymaeBuav\/ xdkpOfwGifyif &Dvifwef.wHk? [lwef.mufESifY wpfa.0gESifY a0Y&efwkdYrSm 0gBuD.[lusif.fYwpf*dkPf.Nzpfom usef.wkdYrSm wpfbufpGef.xJoYkd avQmuf0ifvu dk cf sed w f iG f &kww f &uf aemufbufrS avwd.&Sm.xdk. wpfckvHk.cGJ acgif. ESpfq.fvHk.aqmif vDxif.NzifY yxrOD. orm.f? 'Dq.acR. rûybJ a&SYudkom xdk.avmuBuD. xef \ &k w f w &uf atmf a NymoH a Bumif Y tm.avmuxJodkYyif rqif.vkduf\/ ]]igYnDav. *d k P f .muf &efbufrsm. .qHk.bJ tv’my ov’mypum.awGtygt0if [dkifqm.ulvkdufBuyg}} [k qkdavonf/ . aNymav\/ usef.wGif [lwef.wl.wl.eJY oabmuGJvGJrI&dSvdkY ckduf&efNzpfyGm. ig.vHk.Nzpfol qD.&if crsm taNz&cuf&mS rSmyJ? olYrmS olrsm.f avmuodYk qif.aewmu vufpowfawmY rsufcHk. eHab.Edkif"m. . eD&Jwufvm\/ oluJYodkY xdyfoD. NzpfcJYygw. &Dvifwef.rsm.tqifY tNrifYrm.? csifwl.*dkPf.trdaemufwGifrl rdk.[dkrSm xdkifvkdufav}}[k usef. \ 'k w d .ck þavSBuD. tp&dSwJY *dkPf./ tm. &dSvdrfYr. .vmav\/ *dkPf.wGif usef. usef.rsm.udk &SmzdkYtwGufa&m? csifwl.cJYBuygw.\ emrnfrSm usroGm.avmuom.mufudk &SmzdkYtwGufeJYa&m rsufcHk.wif.pm. acsmif. wl t&S d e f t 0g &d S a e\/ xd k Y a Bumif Y odkif.wl.wdkufckdufonfrSm vGefpGm odu©musaom tûytrlyif r[kwfygvm. pdkufBunfY&if.wkdY om.ig.*dkPf. cHkwGif ay.rSm odkif.mufsm.wl.k ? tckcsdef olwYkd awGa&SYrmS olYuakd r.Ekid o f rl mS ig.onf usef.*dkPf. . acsmif.fESpftwGif. ]]usKyfwdkY a&Smifvif? cGef.u tpGefqHk.wuúodkvf aevif.*dkPf. qD.eJY vufoD.pm.aNrmif.vHk.bufwGifrl &Dvifwef.cGJ acgif.bk&if*dkPf.0gtm. avS0rf. &Dwkduf&TifrSmvnf.vGef? 0gar? cHk.cHkwGif xkdifavonf/ okdY xdkif&if.qef.pGm 0ifvdkuf\/ csifwl.vHk.u vlawG[m a&TNcaoFYrif. . tm.acR. avS0rf. wpfcsufrQ rsufapmif.fav. .pGm 0ifaeav\/ twefBumrSyif olu .wif.muf acsmif .qef. rvIyfEdkif r&Sm.u 'Pf&m&wJY nDtpfudkawGudk az.yif Nzpf&m csifwl.rsm. .ckuJYodkY wpfbufvltm.vHk.wGif &mxl. tm. tawG.u acgif.eJY vufxyfomG .xefwdkY vkduf0ifvmBu\/ zke.? &Sifonfvm.[m 'Dq.aqmif zkef.aNrmif.*kP d .rsm.yif NzpfvifYupm.tm.qef.fav}} odkYNzifY &Dvifwef.tm.wdkY ESpfa.arSmuf wdrf.udk vnf.aumif. . í wk d u f c d k u f v d k u f a Bumif .xdkifapvkduf&\/ olwdkYtm.qef.a.aomtm.xJudk BuGNyD.onf olupí toHudkNrSifYum .acR.rS a0Y&ef\ eHab.fESpftwGif.ESifY eHygwfESpf &Dvifwef.wl.aEG. qD.cJYwmud.NzL*dkPf.BuygpdkY? tck ESpfbufpvHk.rsm.cHkwGif xkdifvdkufNyD.0gyif Nzpfaeav\/ odkYaomf olu Nyefvnf ckcHNcif. acsmif.Bum. &Dvifwef.ckvnf. aysmufqHk.ESifY e*g. .vku d &f oNzifY ol Y tm.udpöudk raNymBuao.*dkPf.\ tpGefqHk. wpfudk. &SufpGef.&ifYrBuD.NzL*dkPf.\ vufudkqGJí avS0rf.eJY usKyf&JYnDav.Buavonf/ .acR.

Hkcsifay/ xkdYaBumifY usef. aNz&Sif.&wmyJ}} usef.a. &SufpGef.BuD.rwGyif NyefaNzav\/ ]][kwfygw. uRefreJY tpfudk usef.0rodoNzifY 0g.fNzifY aNymvkdufNcif.NyD. . aoNyDqkdwm rSefovm.\ taNzaBumifY &Dvifwef.rSvl Nzpfí xdkpum.tcsdefwGif uav. ]]&SufpGef.0gESifY a0Y&efwdkY\ EIwfrSyg .udk &SmzkdY xGufvmwm}} [k qdkav\/ usef.onf a&cJawmifuRef.BuD. &Dvifwef. . &SufpGef.ck w pf z ef qD .f? 'DvkdeJYyJ &SufpGef.BuD. .if.fpm.wuúodkvf aevif.}} [k wzGzGaNymNyD.wJYaeYrSmyJ vlqkd.f? aemufawmY olu &kwfw&uf uav.ESpfavmufuwnf.u vGefcJYwJY udk.udk aNzav\/ ]]vlqdk.rS qufí qdkNyefonf/ ]]tckawmY uHaumif.wl.BuD.? 'gaBumifY usKyfoabmt& aNym&&if taumif. ar.[lusif.awmY/ tm.u xdkokdYaNymvkdufNyD.vkduf\/ NyD.u raoao. raoao. ]]&SufpGef.fYtawG. b. &SufpGef. vlaumif.fvkdY 'DNyóemudk 'Dvdkenf.acR.ygNyD}} qD.qef.wl.wdkYyg rarQmfvifYbJ Nyefa&mufvmBuygw.avmu&dS odik .acR. 'Dt&Iyft&Sif.fygbl.f? vlqdk.u vlq. bmqkdvdkonfudk oabmaygufoGm.NyD.ceJidk&if.zkdYqdkwm rvG. &Supf eG .BuD.wl.a&m? usef. ]]tazBuD.av\/ ]]usef.yGm.0gurl csifwl.f? aemufrS ae&mtcsdefowfrSwfNyD.u vlqdk.BuD.qef.u taBumif.uyif aooGm. xkdtcgusrSyif csifwl.yJaygY}} xdkpOf qD. &SufpGef. uvJYpm.avmuwGif þa&GY þrQ t&IyftaxG.u aooGm.yif r[kwyf gvm.í tNrifrSef&NyD.awmY\/ trSefrl csifwl.udk ]]vlqdk.yif Nzpfyg\/ odkY&mwGif þpum.&Nyefaomf ydkí tcufawGYoGm.acR.udk aNz&Sif.}} usef.\ tBuHudk vHk.vHk.fYaBumifYrl &SufpGef. aoNyD[k qdkvdkufNcif.fESpf tawmtwGif.\/ .armifESHrSwpfyg.onf olwdkY\ tpfudkBuD.u pdwf&dkif.udkrl þodkY opömazmufrnfr[kwfay/ olu xdkodkY awGa0aepOf csifwl.acR.olaumif.kd &Supf eG .bl.qHk.udk arG.udk cPrQ &yfxm.vJ aooGm.u qufí .axmufrvkdY csifwl.NyD[k aNymvkdufonfudkyg Bum.ESifY udk.acR.qef. .ESifYwuG qD.Bur. ck b.vufiif.u olYtazBuD.NyD&SifY}} csifwl.u &kwfw&uf0ifí olYudk. aoNyD}} csifwl.tazBuD.frSmvJ? igwkdYu 'DaumifBuD.mufaBumifY odkif.qHk. Nzpf o G m .onf vlawGtm.frQomNzpfaom usef.qef.idkoHBum. NzpfcJY&onfudk Bum. vlqdk.aemuf pum.vkdufr.&aomf olu rdbESpfyg.acsBurnfrmS aocsmae\/ okYd aomf olu olvGefpGmoHa.udk ]vlqkd.ESpfuwnf.om usefaeygonfqdkaom t"dyÜg. qD.\ ]]tl0J .rSm NzpfyGm. .&SufpGef.f r S m &d S a Bumif .? vlqdk.tm.odYk omG . olY&JY ESvHk.bJ olYtarESifY tazudk.oGm.NywfNyD.0gu bmrQ xyfrar. .eJY aNz&Sif.f tm.0gu &kwfw&uf0ifí . taNrmuftNrm.f? 'Dq.wl.acR. . rnfolrQ odvdrfYrnf r[kwfacs/ qD.[lusif. rdwfaqGtNzpf NzpfoGm.udk r.uvJyJ usKyfwkdY&JY q&mudk NyefaNymNyr.cJYwJY tNiif. 0gu 0if í &S u f p G e f .BuD.r[kwfbl./ xkYd aBumifY csifw.u rdrdwdkY oHk. .i.vHk.&NyD.&av\/ tu.f &dSaeBu\/ . &SufpGef. aoqHk.0gtar.wl.fyif usef.mZOf&dScJYygaom &SufpGef.a&m*g xvmygw.fqkd&ifawmY taumif.qef. NzpfvmcJY&Ncif.vnf.qef.pm.udk owfzdkY BuHpnfygw.fí oluom zGifY[aNymvdkufvQif okdif.f rSm aoNyDNzpfí vlaumif.f? wu.qef.? tazBuD. .csKyfBuD.fudkrl olwdkYZeD.l wl.rSm avsmfuefaom taNzyif Nzpf\/ tb. .bl.? uRefawmfY&JY arG. .atmif e*g.BuD. udk.wl. t"dyÜg.fwkdifu olYtazBuD.qef.onf trSefwu.u rqdkif.acR. vGefcJYaom udk.xNyD. atmfar.&aomf vG e f p G m pd w f r aumif .Edkif"m. tl0J}} idkoHBum.udk NyefaNymNy? usef.rSm 'kp&dkuf*dkPf.}} [k atmfaNymrdavawmY\/ 196 .uawmY usKyfwkdYtm. aNrNyefYudk NyefBu? csifwl. ]]uRefr 'Duav.wl.}[k ykwfcwfaNymqdkae&HkNzifY rNyD.acR.BuD.wl.f orm.vHk.? vlqdk.aeonfudkBum. vlqdk.rIawGudk tckcsufcsif.ao.pHkukd olwdkY&JY *dkPf.

ud k ]zsef .mufyif xGef. .[m rif.um.OD.wpfyidk .yg.vm. &ifqdkif&efrSm tvGefvG.u rif.rnf r[kwfacs/ onfodkYqdkvQif cGef. .? olwdkY wwGwfwGwf &GwfaewJY emrnfuawmY csifwl.wGifyif usef.cJYNyDNzpf&m [lwef. uav.[lusif. .udk olu acgif. .0em.om.vGef*dkPf.cGJacgif.wuúodkvf aevif.usufcsefeYJ csefcsdKwdYk EpS af . &SufpGef.frSm&dSovJ}} usef.fulaBumif.acR.? igwkdY tckaNymaewmu [dk vlqdk. ]]tpfuBkd uD.f rS xdyo f .wdwd aNzcsvdkufav\/ olu uav.pGm wGuv f u dk rf \ d / olrwdYk \ cGe.eJY tck aqGrsdK.}}[k ar.tazBuD.pm.udk &ifqidk Ef idk rf nf r[kw[ f k wGux f m. ..acR.f}} usef. .folYudkrS aNymaep&m rvdkygbl. pdkufBunfYvsuf .aomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ a0Y&efuvnf.f &. usefwm bmwpfcGef.NzpfNyD.fuG}} &Dvifwef.wpfa. aumif.wdkYonf rdrdbufrS rulnDonfYwkdif cGef.ESifY vufxyfNyD. ]]qD.udkBum. .rvnfEkdifatmif NzpfoGm.0gu usef.aqmif zkef. rS m a'goud k rxd e f . odxm. .tm.xefonf qD.tm.acR. .opf*dkPf.[lusif.vdkyif ]]uRefawmf raNymbl. .qef. ..udk aNymaewmr[kwfbl. vHk. [l u sif .}} [k pdefac:vkduf\/ trSefrl usm.yif Nzpfyg\/ tb.&JY arG.wl. [kwfvm.av\/ xdkYaBumifY qD. .rS &Dvifwef.wll.[lusif.0gu cufxefaom toHNzifY .rS usm. .}} [k aNzvkdufaomfvnf.ESifY usef.aqmif zkef.fvkdufNyD. .NzL*dkPf.acR.Buav\/ csif w l .D odik .vkduf\/ xdktcg cGef.aBumif.aomf qD. aumif.faomtcgrQ rsufESmwGif rNyacs/ 197 . .wmrsKd. usef. ]]uRefawmf raNymbl.udk ]csufceJ} qGJxkwf&if. vlBuD.awGu uRefrwdYk avSay:udk wufvmwmqkad wmY olwYkd u {nfYonfawGy?J onf.wl.0gtm.ygyJ}} [k qdkav\/ trSefrl a0Y&efu Nrm.\ idk&if.qef.vGef*dkPf. oufaoxlvkdufouJYodkY NzpfoGm.aNymvJ olwdkYbufu ygrSmaocsmw.*dkPf.udk aNymaewm[JY? rif.fusef.NzL*dkPf.wpfcGef.yJuG? 'Demrnf&Sifu olwkdYudk zsufqD.pm.muf ckepfa.udk tm. &SufpGef.}} usef.0g? rif.qHk.*dkPf.rS"m.i.kH NzL*dP k . \yg.raoao.udk &Dvifwef. om.[lusif.acR.awmif awmfaeBuNyDuG? tck olwdkYu wpfzGJYwnf.qef.vnf.rf. oabmaygufoGm.awG aNymaewmudk uav.f}} xkdpum.0gu &kwfw&uf ceJY&.vdkufaomtcg vGefpGm tHYBooGm.vdk NzpfaeBuNyDwJY? &Dvifwef.vkdY r&awmYbl.rwGyif taNzay.}} [k wHk.\ rsufESmtrlt&mudk BunfYNyD.vmav\/ ]][kwfygw.tm.BuD. cg.&if.}} xkdpum.Nzpfí uav.rS ar.rku d u f AsdKif.Ekdifol Nzpf\/ olu a'goudk b.wdkY*dkPf. ]]usef.NyDNzpfí qD.u olYrdbESpfyg.0gu olYcg.rpGyfpGJygeJYuG? rif. . ]]igwdYk &YJ *P kd . .cHvu dk yf g tpfudkBuD.NzpfrmS aygYu?G 'gu olYtNypfeYJ oyl ?J b. .vku d \ f / odYk NzifY a0Y&efu .pyfu emrnfwpfckudkyJ wwGwfwGwf &GwfaeBuNyD.vHk.awG? owåd&dS&if xGufcJYprf.&JY qHk.NzifYyif atmfaNymaeav\/ ]]olwdkY [lwef. vGefpGm pdwfxdef.tazBuD.f vGe*f P kd .u igwdkY&JY rrav.usufcsefeJY csefcsdKwdYk [m usD.Bum.vGef*dkPf.[lusif. þtcsufukd tuif.tm.f om.f rS vlaNcmufa. .u rqdkif.udkBum.Edkif"m.opf*dkPf.fYaBumifYrl csifwl.? ol tck b.qef.0gu a0Y&ef\ tBuHudk ÓPfrrDí rausrcsrf.um.&\/ odkYaomf pum.cGJacgif.qef. .[lusif. ]][JY usef.aomf rsufcHk.oGm.bufokdY rodrom vSnfYxkwfNcif.BuD.axmifwmu taumif. } ceJ x&d k u f v k d u f r d a vawmY \ / wpfqufwnf. wl . wrif a'goxGufatmif qGvkdufNcif.cJYwJYvlyJ Nzpf&r.? tck uRefrwdkY &Dvifwef.uav.u rsufcHk. .u csifwl. Ek d i f N zpf u m usef .onf usef.&JY ZeD.bufrS ulnDay.f NzpfaeBuNyDu?G olwYkd &YJ yg.xefu 0ifí .? olrsm.&JY arG.f orm.? 'DrsufcHk.NzwfcsufudkyJ em. ]][dwf .udk vkcd sifwyfrufvYkd tpGv J rf. taNrmuftNrm.atmif e*g.u qD.aNymaom pum. vlqdk.? &SufpGef.NzL*dkPf.mufuawmY t&l.yif Nzpfyg\/ okdYaomf qD.mufEiS Yf þrsufc.u 0ifpGuf&ovm..rQyif qufí raNym0HY&SmawmYacs/ xdkpOf qD..udk odu©musatmif t&rf.0g\ tar. &l. ]]vlav.

um. . &Dvifwef.uwef.rSmawmif rNrifawGYzl.0gu rausrcsrf.av\/ qD.apcJY\/ pdwfxJrSvnf. NyefvmcsdefwGif .}} [k qkdav\/ a0Y&ef\ pdwfxJrSrl .avQmufNyD.pmtkyfudk vk.&SxufNrufwYJ rsufv.0gtm.\ pl.wHk*dkPf. .rsm.axmifBunfY&ao.ud k &k w f w &uf Bum. ]]tpfudkBuD. .ygbl.vk d u f & \/ cGef.wmyJ}} [k qdkvkdufav\/ &Dvifwef.? 'Davmuf pl.fqHk.u rdrdtm. .u vlawGeJY vufwGJygYrvm.[lusif.&SvSoNzifY rdrd&ifudk wkefcgoGm. ]]tawmfyJ? cHk.muftaeeJY b. .kH rsdK.eJY r[m&efñdSK.acR.wHk*dkPf.tm.wGifawYvsuf .f N yif \ awmif b uf q D r S c&mrI w f o H r sm.wJYOpöm? olwdkYu 'Dvkd 'kp&dkuf*dkPf.ygawmY? cHk. igYq&meJY *dkPf.wJY*kdPf.fvkdvJ}} xk d p Of r S m yif yif v .zufxm.ukd owfNyD. usdefqJaerdNyD. . raoao.onfudk Nrif&aomf BuD.*dkPf.[lusif.wuúodkvf aevif.avmurSm 'Davmuf emrnfBuD. NzpfoGm. .wkd.u bmrQ raNymbJaecJYvQif olwdkYonf rnfolYudkrQ aBumuf&GHYae&ef rvdkawmY/ xkdYaBumifY csifwl. .NyifwGif vufacsmif.fvkd tBuH&dSovJ aNymyg}}[k cyfNywfNywf ar. ]]'Davmuf toHk.vGef*dkPf. bmawG avQmufaNymaewmvJ? [lwef.aom tar.&mrsm.xifusefaeao.\ yg. ]]arar .rSm þwpfBudrw f iG f a'goxGuo f mG .udk pGyfpGJae&if wu.udk rdcif\ em.avmu twGif.&JY oabmxm.pm. .aerd\/ csifwl.ar.f}} [k aNymNyD. .qD wifNy&OD.}} [k a&&Gwfvkdufrd\/ xkdpOf &Dvifwef. ]]aumif.om.odkif.bl. taNctaeudk apmifYBunfYaevkdufav\/ xkdpOfwGif usef.u cHk.usawmY tpfudkBuD.aom avoHNzifY .csKyfBuD.}} [k qdkav\/ qD.0gonf rdrd xdkpum.Edkif"m.csKyfESifY udkifaygufcH&awmYrSyif pum.udk NrifEkdifwJYvlyg? olu b. .&Saom tBunfYESifY Nywfom. .atmif e*g. a0Y&efu uref.ydkum Buifem. ]]&Dvifwef. Nyefxed . tazBuD.Nzwf&JrSmvJ? tck 'Dudpöudk usKyfq&mBuD.*dkPf.f}} [k awG.udk rawGYawGYatmif vkduf&SmrSm aocsmw. .tawmfrsm.qef.aNrYNcif.0gu ceJYûyH.udk em. tNyifxGufNyD.wl.wHk*dkPf.tm.u 0gBuD.\/ xkdYaBumifY a0Y&efbufodkY vSnfYí qdkonf/ ]]nDrav. toem.u w.u odkif.awmY\/ &Dvifwef. .Buavofn/ a0Y&efu &Dvifwef.? aemufNyD. tckvdk t&rf.? rif.pGm axG. &ifxJwGif rausrcsrf.vnf.awmY ckepfqifY vufoD. .bJ xm.tBunfYu pl.fqdkawmY usKyfvkd omrefvlwpfa. [lwef.eJY 0gar*dkPf.udkaNymaepOf &Dvifwef.f Nrm.\ &ifxJwGif ydkí av.aBumifY aBumuf&GHY wkefvIyfoGm.&Sm\/ 198 .vkduf\/ qD.wHk*dkPf. q&mawmfig.NzifYyif . ]]tpfudkBuD. ..oHwdwf &yfoGm.uawmY odyfta&. ]]tif.yg.&JY oabmxm.u .f vku d af vonf/ qD.NzL*dkPf.av\/ om.&S xufNrufvcS snfYvm.NyD.kH tBunfYu pl.folYudkrS rsufESmom ay. .[lusif.u trSefw&m.wl.rSm r[kwfygbl.? tpfudkBuD.omoGm.csKyfBuD.'PfaBumifY om.OD.vHvmav\/ olYpdwfxJwGif . ]]'Dvkdqdk&if cifAsm.mufu xdkifae&mrS csufcsif.k. rsufpdrsufESm ysufoGm. .vQif EIwfrSatmfí .u xkdtcgusrS at.aemf}} [k owday.pGm pdwfrcsrf.yJ? tpfudkBuD.u tNypfwif&if uRefreJY rqdkifbl.Nzpfoltm.av. ]]cHk. &Dvifwef.rSvlrsm.eJY ywfowfaew.vnf. wpfcsufrQ pdkufBunfYvkduf\/ xkdtcg apmapmpOfu rdrd\ vuf0g.lcJYw.u b.0gESifY a0Y&efwdkYrl &kwfNcnf. . . ]]0gar*dkPf.vnf.0gonf &Dvifwef.eJY 0gar*dkPf.. oluJYodkYyif pOf. ûyH.aq. *dkPf.fíom usef.ygw.\ rsufvHk. ]]rxifygbl.f}} [k qkdavonf/ xdktcg qD. . .&JY usrf.NzifY . . zswfceJ pdkufBunfYvdkufonfudk awGY&\/ &Dvifwef. .rBuD.uvlawG a&mufvmNyD}} [k atmfaNymav\/ xkdtcg rsufcHk.wmaygY}} [k qdkav\/ &Dvifwef.f? olwdkYuawmY tpfudkBuD. .NzpfaeqJyif Nzpfyg\/ xkdYaBumifY olYEIwfcrf. .rSm&dSwJY *dkPf. 0rf.? cifAsm. . tvSnfYaumif.\/ okYd aomf olu a'goudk csufcsif.aemf}}[k wdk.&JY rsufv.r.u usef. ]]'Dudpöu odkif. .aerd\/ odkYaomf tu. &Sdxm.vkdufrdavonf/ usef.bl.0gvnf. .ruswJYvl}} [k qD.&SufpGef.wpfa.Bu\/ qD.uaum b.fvkdY *dkPf. .

vnf. .muf? ckepfa.NzpfNyD. csufcsif.ESifY 0gar*dkPf.NzifYvnf.Edkif"m.&JY tazBuD. om.xJwGif rsufcHk.av. om.udk owfcsifaewJY vlawG}} [k pdwfxJwGif a&&Gwfvdkufrd\/ xdktcdkufwGif cHk. .&JY? olwkdYu om.vHk. tazBuD.udk a0YBunfYvdkufNyD. csifwl.mufcefY avS0rf.xJodkY 0ifa&mufvmBuav\/ 0gar*dkPf.wuúodkvf aevif.\/ olu vltm.xefwdkYudk Nrifaomf vGefpGm tHYBoaom trlt&m Nzpfay:oGm.[lusif. oabmaygufoGm. owfrvkdYuG.wHk*dkPf.foDv&Sifwpfyg.wdkYbufrS vlaNcmufa.fY? 'DvlawGu vlqdk.bufrS OD.uyfí qdk&Smonf/ ]]om.fY}} usef.bufrS vDxif.wdk.awG? igY&JY tazBuD.NzL*dkPf. avS0rf.atmif e*g. .\ em. ]]'DvlawGu vlqdk.aqmifvmolrSm r.em. raoao.ESifY zkef.udk vdkuf&SmNyD.ygbl.awG om.avawmYonf/ 199 . rsuf&nf &pf0Jvm\/ toHwkd.wl.? taru olwdkYudk oufouf nmaNymaewmuG.av.

f cH&awmYrSmyJ}} [k qdkonf/ xef0ef qdkolrSm t&yfykykESifY 0gar*kdPf. usef.Edkif"m. ig.olNzpfí olu csufcsif. .0gu pum.NzL*kdPf.awmifawmfaeBuNyDAs? usef.wHk*kdPf.vnf.0g\ pum.udkBum.acR.0gu &kwfw&uf xí .aemufrS 0ifvmolNzpfNyD. wpfa.qef.qef. ]]olu usKyf&JY *dkPf.*kdPf.BuNyDcifAs? 'DwpfcgawmY usKyfwkdY tBuD.acR. tcef.}} xkdtcg &Dvifwef.yk*¾dKvf xef0efwJY? uJ .orm.wl.qef. .onf qD.xkd.wHk*dkPf.&JY 0gBuD. q&mav.0guJYodkYyif a'goBuD.eJY vufwGJoGm. odkif.muf tuJcwfaeBupOf qD.b.u tck rsufcHk.acR. xef0ef? q&mav.fqdkwm odBuw. .pvHk. .a.qef.eJY csifwl.ygyJ? nDav. ]]tpfudkBuD.fESpfwdwd aysmufaewJY usef.Nzpf\/ okdif. csifwif. (21) opömESifY &efaBuG. . usKyfwkdYudk vdrfnmaew.\ usef&dSao.BuD.aomf wpfcsufrQ ai.avmuwGif emrnfBuD.qef.frSm&dSw. olonf cHk.aom 0gBuD.odkif. tck ay:vmNyD [kwfvm.NzL*kdPf.acR. pdkufBunfYNyD.vHk.aBumifoGm.eJY aqGrsdK.csKyfBuD.0gaNymwm rSefovm. . tm.mufteuf wpfa.Nzpfonf/ olwdkYESpfOD.orm.tus.u taNzray.tm.}} &Dvifwef. . .í . qdkavonf/ ]]&Dvifwef.atmif e*g.}} [k qdkonf/ xkdpOf qD.wuúodkvf aevif.qufNyef\/ ]]usef. .u rsufcHk.? qD.wpfOD.mufNzpfav\/ usifY&Tif.yif &Dvifwef.f? 'gayr. q.wlnDav.mufu &SufpGef.bufodkY vSnfYí rsufvHk. a[m'D yk*d¾KvfuawmY cHk.NzL*dkPf.av\/ xef0efrSm qD.acR. EIwfqufvkdufOD. vufñdSK.usuf&JY a&Tom.fY olwkdYu &SufpGef. .wdkY ESpfa.u rsufcHk. .om.mufudkwpfa.0guyif 0ifí .u usef.? tck [lwef. . ]][lwef.NyL. usifY&Tif.Nzwfí .ruf}} xef0efu tHYBopGm Bum.rD qD. ]]bm .*dkPf.aoNyDvkdYqdkNyD.f}} 200 .rSmrl 0gar*kdPf. rsufqefNyL.

cGef. .rSm 'DudpöeJY ywfoufwJY yk*d¾KvfawGtm.wdkYuvJyJ? cifAsm. 'DrSmyJ vrf.folwkef.u 0gBuD. . csifw.u avoHrSefNzifY .f ? cH.&kyNf yD. ]]&SufpGef. ]]usKyf&JY ZeD.qlwufvm\/ olu .EGr.qef. ]][kwu f YJ }} [kaNymNyD.udk vmr.pum.}} [k qdkav\/ &Dvifwef.wGif rD.ESifYyif twlNyefoGm. vSr.Nidrfoufaeaom 0gar*kdPf.udpö ay:aygufoGm. rsufESmrSmvnf.u cufxef rmausmvS\/ csifwl.awmY tckvdk wdkawmif.ckcsifwl.wkdY&JY *dkPf.frxifygbl.Bur. .EGrf. .ouJYodkY NzLzyfNzLa&mf NzpfoGm.vGef.acgufacguf wpfa.0raNymEkdifwmudk cGifYvTwfyg}} xef0ef\ rsufvHk.qef.udk usKyfq&mqD t&if wifNy&OD. .l wl.l wl. ckepfqifY vufoD.csKyfBuD.acR. .w. ]]tif.foDv&Sifu .wl&JY tazeJY oGm.onf &Dvifwef. aoG. .acR. .}} [k qdk\/ usef.a.tm. . cHpm. .u csifwl.r.loGm. .pmtkyfudk cdk. . .foDv&Sifu acgif.? 'DawmY 'Dvkdvkyfygvm.wl.BuavawmY\/ xdktcg &Dvifwef.udpöudk txl.if.Edkif"m.f vsuf&o Sd nfukd awGY&yg\/ rSefygonf/ csifwl. .NyvkdY &Ekdifr.ae&yHkudk csufcsif.u csifwl.cJYaomf cHk.acR. .wl. .rl .wJY tcsdefrSm &Sif.vHk. .t&ifawGYvkdufOD.wuúodkvf aevif.tm. cHk. .armifESHtm.oifYaeqJrSmyif? wpfcsdefvHk. . . usrf. &Dvifwef. .w.f BunfYvu kd \ f / csifw. 'Dudpöu odyfus. .om.folrSm.awGYvdkuf&if raumif.qdkwm &Dvifwef.yif Nzpfyg\/ usef.fY oHk. ]]at. aNymvmoNzifY rsufESm ñdSK. .usef.fqdkwmudk qHk.av\/ usef.&aomf xef0efonf rsufprd sufEmS ysufomG .qef.acR. .vQdKY0Sufxm. ]]&SufpGef.r. qdk&Smavonf/ ]]tpfudkav.u rarQmfvifYbJ xkt d aBumif.}} &Dvifwef.aumif tck b. . . . r. .ndwfí . 'gvJ aumif. .[laom trnfudk Bum.f? tck ol b. cifAsm.Nzpfaeí olu ud.*kdPf. k [ f efukd csufcsif.NyD. tpfudkav.u acgif. aoG.rS usifY&Tif. rif. . csifw.frSmvJ}} [k us. .wHk*kdPf.yg? 'DaeYawmY .? uRefawmf wl.k wH*k P kd .mufudk owfNyD. .f? 'Dvydk J pDpOfBuwmaygY}}[kqo kd nf/ xkYd aemufwiG rf l cGe.pufaom toHNzifY .onf .}} xef0ef\ aemufqHk.fav? q&mu oabmwlrS wl.twGufvGefpGm odu©mus&acsawmYrnf r[kwfygvm.vkduf\/ ]]olu . .[m &SifwkdY*dkPf.wmudkvJ xnfYaNymygOD.udk zdwfac:NyD.awmufrQ ta&mifxGufvm\/ olu ]]'D acG.cJY\/ tb. .wl.tm.uG}} usef. .frSmvJ aNymprf.wHk*kdPf.oabmaygufoGm. ]]'Dudpö&JY tNzpfrSefu b.qef.u .folrSefw. . aNz&Sif.NzwfBuwmaygY}} usifY&Tif. . xef0efu &SufpGef.oGm.f ESiYf 0gar*kP d . qdkavonf/ ]]udkif.rdNcif.ESifY vDxif.vm.frSmvJ? 'Daumifu igYwl t&if.onfESifY &kwfNcnf. ]]aumif.fYaBumifYrl .qef.bl.csNyD. tck b. b. . .vHk.qkwfoGm. .acR.wl.? aemuf oHk. .fyHkb.wHk*dkPf.f rom.yg}} [k aNzvkduf\/ xef0ef tHYtm.f wkYd xGufcGmBuNyD.Nyygvm.yk*d¾Kvfig.ay. ]]'Dar.l wl.l wl. &Sif.vkdY rNzpfao.wl.f taNctaewGif acwåcGJcGmae&rnfYyHkrsdK.us. cHk. . .ndwfvsuf . vGefpGm rausreyf Nzpfvm\/ xkdYaBumifY at.buf vSnfYívnf.wl.yJ}} [k qdkonf/ 201 .NyD.NyD.ygbl.ac:NyD.udk BuGcJYzkdY zdwfBum.foGm.*dkPf.qef.uawmY igeJY vdkufcJYyg? q&meJY rif.f? cktcsdefrSmawmY vHk.fNyefY &IyfaxG.f b.f vGe*f P dk .vrSm [lwef./ .rSm rde.atmif e*g.twGuf tck taNzay.av\/ taBumif.awGYvkdufr. q&meJY oGm.rsufEmS ñdKS .cGJBuwmaygY}} usef.ukzd iG Yf [vmonfukd Bum.acR.favmifpGm atmfar.u .eJY uav. .odkif.0if.aemuf csifw.tpHk NyL.bufoYkd vSnfYí ar.udkyg wpfygwnf.? 'Dudpötm. wdu k cf u kd &f ef [efNyifvu kd \ f / odYk aomf .ygw.0if.wkdYtm.fenf.if. avmavmq. ]]nDav..f? tJ'DtcsdefusrS b.u oufNyif.mufudk owfoGm.vBum&if usKyfwdkY[lwef.\ avSBuD. .}} [k qkdav\/ xkdtcg xef0ef\ rsufvHk.\ avoHwGif rdrdwdkY ZeD.

u ûyH. .\ ñdSK.avmuwpfckvHk. aemf}} vDxif. . .? uRefr tpfudkaum aeaumif.om.u csufcsif.qDokdY NyefoGm. xGufcGmoGm.f? rif. . }} [k oufNyif.rSm &kwfNcnf. .u Bum.fuG? 'gayr.av.vmav\/ vDxif.qef.u 'DvlawGudkavQmufowfvdrfYr. ar. tpfudk}} &Dvifwef. ]]uRefr rodygbl.EGrf. .}} xdkYaemuf vDxif.udk odkif.vHk. .av. ]]csifwl.u [lwef.0ifí aNzonf/ ]]'g[m .wl. ]]'geJY ODav.aBumif.f awmfBuD.onf olwkdYtm. .olwYkd vu l kd owfw. xkdtcg csifwl. ]]nDav. wpfcsufrQ wkef. usef.uwef.f wl.wmaygY wl.csdefwGif uref.csNyD.awGukd Nyefxed .acR. cH. .fvkdY .NyDvm.fvHk.csKyfudkNyefvmNyD.atmif e*g.acR.NyD.awG tptqHk.wl.vnf. . taNrmftNrif&w Sd YJ yk*K¾d vfrYkd vYdk a&Smifvif*P kd . ]]OD.aysmufaewJY taBumif.acR. .tmrcHXmeu vlawGtm.vdkY&NyDvm.fY nDav. &Dvifwef. . EIwfqufum olwdkYavSBuD.Edkif"m.vm\/ csifwl.ifoGm.tBunfYwGif emBunf.acR.f? nDav.uaNymw.NyD.Nzpfol &Dwdkuf&Tifraoao.csKyfuae apmifYêudaeygYr. . igwkYd eYJ Nyóem rwufapcJYb.f? olwYkd uvJ nDav.f? tJ'v D dk taNctwif tNyeftvSef pGypf BJG uwke.qef.fvdkaevJ[if? olaysmufoGm.f om. [efNzifY &Dvifwef.f r[kwfvm.EdkifawmYaBumif.qef.folvJqdkwm pHkprf. . .qdkwm? 'Dudpeö JY ywfowfNyD.wl.udk owfwm uRefryg}} &Dvifwef. .udk tBunfYvTJNyD.wkdYvnf.cJYwmaygY nDav.}} [k ar. tazYudk vmawGYr.ae&NyDuG.aom trlt&may:vGifae\/ okdYaomf csufcsif.wl.aeaom rsufESmuav.eJY igwkdY[lwef.wl.f r[kwfbl.? ol tckwavm odkif.fqdk [kwfvm.NyD.}} ]]odyf aumif.pOf csifwl.ESifY usef.vkyfwJY usKyfuawmif olYudk t&IH.wkdYtm. .}} usef. .odaeBuawmY b. .l uG? 'gaBumifYvJ 'Dq.ausmif.vkduf\/ ]]tpfudk? tpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tif&JY 'Pf&m b.uG? wpfudk. ]]aumif.vsuf . &Dwdkuf&Tifudk vkyfBuHwJYvl[m b. 'DavmufawmifyJvm.folvJqkdwm odovm.rSm tpfudk eHygwfoHk. .f csKyfNyD. Bum.f rSm a&Smifvifbk&m. aNymNyvkdufyg? uRefr rBumcif *dkPf.&JY bke.vQif .qef.awmYbl.faNymw.BuD. a&Smifvif*dkPf.}} 202 .u a&Tig.Nyef\/ ]]nDav. .ygNyD? usKyfu cifAsm.u rsuf&nf0Jvsuf idk&dIufoHNzifY qkdav\/ ]]tpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tif&JY &efol b. od&aomf vGefpGm0rf. .acR. .Ncif.wuúodkvf aevif. tpfudk usef.tm.ynmtrsm.bufodkY vSnfYívnf. a&Smifvif*kdPf. .awmifudk oHk.qef.av}} usef.u bmaNym&rnfrodatmif NzpfoGm. bkef.BuD.fvHk.bufodkY vSnfYí pl.u csifwl.eJY rqdkifygbl. tazYudk 'DtaBumif.Buav\/ usef.}} ]]'g .av? igwdkYu a&Smifvif*dkPf.k 0efu orm"d&NSd yD.w.vHk.u csifwl.ygw.raNz/ Nidrfoufí ae\/ twefBumrSyif .wufvmw.vQif . wpfukd.ay.wl.fY}} ]]aBomf . .wl.&SpGm wpfcsuf pdkufBunfYNyD.tm.wl.mufudk*kdPf.}} ]][kwfw.vkdYr&EkdifcJYbl.BuD.fvYkd pGypf w JG . . wpfcsufpdkufBunfYvdkufNyef\/ olYrsufvHk.? tm. wpfcsdKYudkvJ owfcJYw.awmY ar.[m igwkYd &YJ &Dwu dk &f iT u f kd vkyBf uHw.acR.qef.yif xkdtrlt&m aysmufoGm.f rSm a&Smifvifb&k m.}} &Dvifwef. .acR. ]]tif.f}} csifwl.\/ okdYaomf &Dwdkuf&TifrSm vlaoaumifuJYokdY wpfudk.Buw.omoGm. &Dwdkuf&TifuawmY bmrSrNzpfygbl.u aoG.Nzpf&Nyefonf/ xdkYaBumifY usef.fvdkrS aNz&Sif.*dkPf.wl. rvIyf&Sm.fvHk.&aomtcg vGefpGm pdwfraumif. rvIyfEkdifawmYbl. ar.wkdY ESpfa.u qufí . .vHk.&Tifvef.? 'gayr.qef.ausmif.fY olu vlaoeJYawmY rNcm.BudrfwdwdwufvmNyD.f? OD.? usKyfnDav.fEpS f tawmtwGi.tm. wdk.aNrrpD.u &kwfw&uf csifwl. ]]igvJ wGufxm. .wl. .udk owfwJYtNyif olwkdY a&Smifvif*dkPf.}} [k aNz&Smonf/ &Dvifwef.

qef.rnf[k qHk.pdwfxm.atmif e*g.acR.ck olY&ifxJwGif ylyifaomuNzpfaeaom taBumif. b.pufNzifY qufqHNyD.Nzpfol usef. 0rf.wdat. wpfcsdefvHk.l&wmvJ}} [k pOf.usufcsefESifY csefcsdKwdkY ESpfa.udkrS rdef.f acR.&ap? olYnDav. yef a y.fvdkNzpfoGm.aNymNyí taBumif. .rSm uRefawmf . &SufpGef. ]nDrav.rtNzpf .wpfcek YJ qHak wGYcYJ &vkYd yg/ tckuRefawmfu oleYJ nDtpfukd awmfvkdufNyD tpfudk}} &Dvifwef.[if}} &Dvifwef.vnf. ]]tpfudk 'Dq.uom tvGeaf t.av.t&mrSm csifwl.\ tar.rS aumif. .}} [kqdkav\/ ]][kwfuJY tpfudk? uRefawmfY&JY tpfudkBuD.rS m yg/ tck r if .pm.}} &Dvifwef.r[kwfygbl.u b.tm.kd BuD.udkraNzbJ ]]0rfzefuRef.fESpftwGif.awmifuRef. aeNyD y J ? q&mu rif .pHk od&aomtcgwGifrl &Dvifwef.udkBum.Nyefav\/ usef.? [kd .mufudkcGJcsifrSm r[kwfawmYygbl.a&mufvmNyD.l wl.udpöudk tckbmrS raNymygeJYOD. wpfcsuf BunfYvkduf\/ olYpdwfxJwGifrl ]]rif.qef.umuG.vHk. [dk .pufNyD.Edkif"m.av.mufES.vGefcJYrdwJYtNypfawGcsnf. rif.vHk.&rSmaygY? rif.NzL*kdPf. b. Nyóemud k b.uawmY aysmYaysmif.qef.taBumif.fvYkd uRerf wkYd uom 0efrcHbt J wif.eJY igu i.u ol a&Tig.udk vk.[m uRefri.wdkYvifr.ESpfa.aomf csifwl.ae&if olwYdkvJ bmrSwwfEidk rf mS r[kwfygbl. &J Y om.udk tNypfwifBudrf.Nzwfxm.odYk a&muf&o Sd mG .if .qef.wpfa.u qufí cGef.fwkef. at.wlnDtpfudk tm.u wu.eJYawGYcYJ y?kH 0rfzefuRef.av\/ xdkpOf usef.wJY NyóemyJNzpfNzpf igwkdY twlwuG aNz&Sif.acR. pm.f&G.[lusif. .udk owfcJY&kHru xkdowfcH&aom vlawGxJwGif a&Smifvif*dkPf.om aNrNyefYukd Nyefa&mufrvm&if 'Dxu J vQdKY0u S cf sufukd b.qef.rl &Dvifwef.udkom vufqGJí avS0rf.ap? olYtoufudkyifpGefYí aNz&Sif.rvnfvdkY usK. q&mYud k awmif .wGifawmYrl tb.b.f y H k aNz&S i f . .wJY tNzpfq.aemifw&cJYygw. &rnf u d k pOf . Nyif .ESpfa.tm.acR.fvdkvkyfNyD.&JY "m.BuD. .u ar.qef. . .u b.u .NzpfoGm.frQyif Nyóem BuD.odrf. twGif.av\/ .Niif.\/ trSerf l &Dvifwef.fapmifYa&Smufxm.acR.muftwGufvm.acR.cJYwmvJ}} [líom Nyefar.vmNyef\/ ]]tpfudk .wifNy? wu.wl. ]]nDav.axmufNyD. xdkpum.m.ndwfvkduf\/ olYpdwfxJwGifrl ]]'gvJ NyóemwpfckyJ}} [k a&&Gwfrd\/ 203 .u tusdK. yg0ifae&m .xJwGif usef&pfaom usef.av\/ xdt k cg usef.f&muae twlwlBuD.omoGm.NyyGJu b. . .muftaBumif.txd &Sif.wl.u .rrsdK.odkY olwdkYawGa&mufcJYyHkrsm.fenf.}} &Dvifwef.wl.udk Bum.u usef.\/ xkdYaBumifY .muftay:wGif apwemawmYxm.fvdkY q&mu rif.kd &Gm.aomf use.&SufpGef.f? 'gayr.tmrcHXmeodYk a&mufcYJ y?kH csifw.Nyif.u usefacR.loGm. . uRefawmfwdkYeJY rsufcHk.fawmY vlqdk. .m.m.yHk? a&cJrD. ]]'gawGtm.acR.í r&aomaBumif Y yif N zpf y g\/ od k Y &mwG i f olYpdwf&if.fyHk &efp&dScJYwmvJ? uRefawmfwdkY vifr.u 'l.f emrnfudkom ac:aNymqufqHaeonfudk awGY&aomf &ifxJwGif vGefpGm rausreyfNzpfrd\/ odkY&mwGif rdrd\ om.yH?k aemufqHk.fodkYb.kd ? wu.fyHk vlawGowfNyD.av\/ olYpdwfxJwGif csifwl. .awmif tawmf B uD .armif.fvYdk rif.forl S odrSmr[kwfawmYbl. ]]vufpowfawmY 'Dvu kd .vGef*dkPf.\ tdrfaxmifpkudkawmY xdef.wuúodkvf aevif.tNyifbufodkY xGufoGm. "m.wl.f e nf .qef. tb.? awmifay:a&muf&if q&mYudk t&ifqHk.av.favmuf BuD. wd k Y vifr.? oltckvNkd zpf&wmu olY&YJ b0rSm tvGeq f . vltaNrmuftNrm. 'Dvkd rdef. .fY wu. .vmwmyJ? b.u tHYBoaomtBunfYNzifY usef.u em. . .cJY&if igwkdY *dkPf.avawmY\/ xdktcg avS0rf.BuD.ygyJ? tck uRefr trsm.qef. .}} xdpk um.u rdrdtm. .u acgif.om.udk ar.frQyif oabmrusapumrl olwdkYESpfa.rsm. vGefpGm pdwfraumif.rSm tNyifyef.NyavawmY\/ &Dvifwef.tm.aerd\/ csifwl.} [líyif rac:bJ olpdrf. vuf[efNyNyD. .

oGyfoGm.&JY tazuaum bmNzpfvYdk 'Dvdk taBumif. . . .f? cGef.0rodbl.fY wpfcsuv f w G o f mG .fvkdvkyfNyD.pm.&.qef.Ekid "f m.yJ? t&if usm.Edkif"m.w.}} ]][kwfw.u bmaumif.fu.u owfypfvkdufw.wpfcsuf txdcHvdkuf&w. &SufpGef.pkwfwHeJY awmifeH&HrSm a&.u taBumif.? aemufwpfcg olwdkY*dkPf.&JY rdef.csdK usefao. aNymNycsuft&qdk&if &SufpGef. tvum.fvdk vkyf&rSef.f cHvkduf&w.folvJ tpfudk}} ]]ayauG. .qef.ut&ufeJY yufvkdY ayauG.wnf.wpfcsufndwfNyD.? wu.uyif qufí .udk vdkcsifaewmqdkawmY olwkdYu 'Dowif.udk aumif.fY rsufcHk.aemuf .u at. &oGm. udk.udk pGJvrf.aumif.fY olwdkYu tBuD. .wJYtaBumif.0raNymbl.mufukd arYomG .udk a&mufwJYtaBumif.NzL*kdPf. .vGef*kdPf.csNyD.acR.aNymypfvdkufr.fqdkawmY}} usef.aumif.NzL*dkPf.acR.NzL*kdPf.fwdkif0efcsawmif. &l.}} &Dvifwef. ]]&Supf eG .mufudk rsufcHk.fav? 'gaBumifY &efNidK. [kwfom.f? 'gaBumifY e*g.fav}} ]][kwfuJYtpfudk? ayauG.w. ]][kwfwmaygY tpfudk? 'gaBumifY ayauG. .fvdkrS êudwifcefYrSef.fuG? aemufrBumygbl.usufcsefeJY csefcsdKwdkY ESpfa.&JY acgif.odvm. .u atmfvdkufawmY uRef. . . .? 'gayr.u e*g. ]]uRefawmfwkdY vifr.? 'gayr.fY igwkdY 0rfzefuRef. vHk.csí .folrS odrSmr[kwfbl.fav}} ]]b.xm.yJ od&if olwdkYu e*g.&Smw.m.f? nDav.vHk.Buw. .mufom.NyD.tpm.uG? rif. tpfudkeHygwfav.av\/ 204 .u qufí .wuúodkvf aevif.csdKu owdrarYae&ifawmY ol&JYatmfoHudk cHEkdifrSm r[kwfbl. ]]igwkdYu trSefqdk&if nDav.udk olwdkYwpf*dkPf.zGJYrdBuwmaygYuG}} usef. ]]tpfukd .0zGifYraNymawmY tm.NyNyD.opf*kdPf.lzkdY tcGifYtvrf.u oufNyif. 'De*g. .fvkdY ayauG.w.pHkprf.oGm.u aumif.vkYd v?J wl. e*g.&wmvJ tpfudk}} &Dvifwef.? 'gayr. .aygY? tck olu arYaew. ayauG.u ESpfa. ]]cGef.csdKudkaygY}} ]][m . .csdKu arYvJoGm.? q&mYudk taBumif.wmudk.u &SufpGef.ydk&dSwmaygY tpfudk}} &Dvifwef.acR.apmif. .vkdY odvkduf&wmuG? 'geJY ig&.udk oGm.udk tpfudkBuD. olu vHk.aqmif ayauG. .f u tvkyv f yk w f m yd&ad yr.f oHk.f? olu zGifY[aNymzdkY Niif.uvlawG tJ'D udpöudk aNymvm&ifawmY tpfudkolwdkYudk aumif.qef. bmNzpfvkdYvJqdkwm}} usef. .odom.awmY nDav.f? aemufrS &SufpGef. ]][kwfNyD? rsufcHk. .NyD.remrnfudkyJ aNymaewm[m vufpowfawmY olwkdYu nDrav.f? nD eHygwf ckepf&.u atmfwmr[kwfvm.wJY pmykd'fudk awGYoGm.Edkif"m.qef.udk vk.Edkif"m.vHk.wl. 0rfzefuRef.yef&awmYrSmyJ tpfudk}} &Dvifwef.? trSefu 'Dudp[ ö m rsufcHk. yg.}} ]][ifYtif.csdKu tJ'DtaBumif.vHk. G Yf ? olu vlwpfa.NzL*kdPf.udk oGm. usef. .&SmNyefa&m? 'gayr.atmif e*g.Edkif"m.awmY oleJYig wdkufcdkufcJY&ao.vkdY r&ygbl.eJY rywfowfygbl.fY tck b.u .acR.muftwGufeJY tckvkdNzpfcJY&wm uRefawmfb.fqdkwJY vQdKY0Sufcsufudk b.wmudk.csdKudk oGm. &SufpGef. . 'ku©cHNyD.u acgif.a.rJY olrsm.ay:u vlawGtm. .vm.vdkufNyD.Edkif"m. ]]uHBur®mqdkwm b. wpfcsufrQ pOf.u olwdkYudkyJ rJBuawmYwmaygYuGm}} usef. ae&wmvJ}}[k ar. .udk &oGm.pyfxJu wwGwfwGwfeJY nDav.csdKudk oGm.qef.w.aq. owif.aygufoGm.yJ? olu zGifYraNymbl.mufu &l. ]]tpfukdBuD.vGef*dkPf.? cGef.w.pHkudk odaomf vGefpGm pdwfraumif.Nzpf&\/ xdkYaBumifY olu .oD. .awmif rodawmYygbl.pGmNzifY .ESpfa.csdKu vGwfoGm.udk b.vGef*dkPf. .f? nDav.fvTifYygYrvJ? 'DtaBumif.acR. . .pHk &Sif.tus.tzGJYtoD.u oufNyif.uvJ ayauG.&if *kdPf.f? olu igY&JY vuf0g.aewmudk.

ESifvmcJY&m .qdkwm xif&Sm. f t oG i f a qmif a eyg\/ &D v if w ef .tdrfwGif rsuf&nf0JvmonfudkNrifaomf olu . Nzpfay&m olawGYNriforQ topftqef.NyD.f nDav.w.ckepfazmfvdkYawmif rac:BuawmYbl. &J Y tazud k wpf c grS rawG Y zl . yk*d¾Kvfr[kwfbl.oGm. ]]'Dq.atmif e*g.udkom txl.rSm tpfudk tawmfyifyef. ig.wGif qHyifNzL wpfcsdKY aygufvsuf &dSaeonfudk awGYvkduf&avonf/ xdkYaBumifY .? &Dwdkuf&Tif'Pf&m&oGm.q.ckrl uav. wpfoufwGif wpfcgom vlawmolawmxJodkY a&mufvmcJYNcif. .}} usef.[lusif.fausmf c&D. .vJ aysmufNcif.w. BunfYvkdufrd\/ xdktcg &Dvifwef.Nrpf0odkYyif a&muf&dSvmavNyD Nzpfyg\/ usef.azmfvkdYyJ ac:Buw.wd k Y N zif Y vG e f p G m cspf p zG .eJY &ifqdkifckcHEkdifwmudk BunfY&if aygYao.fESpftwGif.pkvnf. wl .rsm.Edkif"m. .[lusif..ao.ckryS if t0wftpm. .udk qd&k mS avonf/ odkYNzifY olwdkYonf avSNzifYyif awmifbuf.fav? [if.fuG? csD.fay:wGif ta&mifûyd.Gef. ]][lwef. uG ? 'gayr.u . rSefoa&GYudk bBuD.Nzpfatmif wnfaxmifEkdifNyD. .axmif&if.qef.cspfcifae&av\/ usef.NyDaemf? uRefawmfuvJ tck uHaumif.Nyuf awmufyaeaom t0wftpm. aNymorQ em.acR.wJYaemuf rif.Nzpfol &Dvifwef.u usef.vGef.uG? [lwef. bl . .awmY vlawGu wdkYudk [lwef.wkYd rdom. rsuf&nf&pf0JvmavawmY\/ &Dvifwef.tzGJYtm.olNzpfaomfvnf.p&mawmY aumif.f Y ol u rsuf c H k .rvS aysmufoGm.[lusif.Nzpfol &Dvifwef.onf rlvu vGefpGmpum.qef.\ rsufvHk.topfrsm. .tm. S 0f wfqifvu dk Bf u\/ xdt k cg olwYkd \ udk.wpf*dkPf.udkom ar. . vJv. ud k *dkPf. &Dvifwef.u &Dvifwef.vnf. 'DwpfcgawmY igwdYk nDtpfuakd wGvNl yefpBkH uNyDaygYumG }} [k ESpo f rd Yf pum.vdkYom tpfudkeJYNyefawGYwmAs}} [k aNym&if.usL.odkY &ufaygif.onf vS y aom t0wf t pm.BuD. odcsiforQudk pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf &Sif.Gef. . ynmud k o m pdwf0ifpm. NzL*d k P f . .wuúodkvf aevif.uav.acR.acR. *dkPf.vHk.Nyae&avawmY\/ 205 .enf.ckepfazmfu tck vlNyefpHkBuNyDuG? 'DrSm nDav.cJYoNzifY tdrfaxmifrûycJYacs/ xkdYaBumifY usef.NzifY vSyaeavawmYonf/ usef. onf od k i f . ]]ig csif w l .\ acgif. &Dvifwef. .qef.oHk.ckqdkvQif csefuRef.avawmY\/ bBuD.

Nznf.u &kwfw&uf &.Edkif"m. qdkwmav}} csifwl.u acgif.aeYNrwfukd trDvmEkdifwJYtwGuf odyfNyD.udk Bum.EkdifcJYbl.tm.aumif.xJrS acgif.[DoHrsm.folYudk tcspfqHk.wlnDtpfudk ckepfa.vdkufacs/ nonf aiGva&mifatmufwGif vSyae\/ om.mae\/ xkdtcsdefwGif &Dvifwef.rxm.&dS vrf.aeYBuD.cg.acR.f&if. ]]nDrav.onf urf.armifESHwkdYonf va&mifxdefxdefom&matmuf avSOD.eJY c&D. .atmif e*g.u . . ]]nDrav.NyLBunfYvkduf&m vlESpfa.wl.ae&awmY q&mYtwGuf vufaqmifypönf.vkduf&\/ okdYNzifY olonf avS0rf. tcef.mufxJrSm tNrJwrf.wuúodkvf aevif. a&mufvmawmYr.aeY wNznf.vdkuf\/ xkdtcsdefwGif &Dvifwef. .wdkY ZeD. . ta&.aygY}} [k qdkonf/ &Dvifwef. aumif.fvkdY qdk&rSmyJaemf}} [k pwifpum.&if. . .uvnf. .xdyfwGifxdkif&if. odvm.fxJodkY 0ifa&mufvmcJYav\/ okdYNzifY ntcsdefwGif olwdkYonf avSudk urf. rif.mufonf Nrif .wl.qef.wnf. eif .eHab. ]]tpfudkBuD. &Smray.rf.u wpfrifoufouf aNymvkdufwmyg? trSefaNym&&if q&mu igwdkY nDtpfudk ckepfa. . . . ud k .waewJYvluawmY a[m'D nDav. .onf u d k a wG Y vk d u f & yg\/ ok d Y aomf ol u xd k o l r sm. .pNrnfaNymaeBuav\/ usef.w.ESifY usef. (22) ESpfwpf&m arG.? q&mu igwkdY *kdPf.acR.yJ NzpfrSmaygY}} &Dvifwef.f? uRefawmfu tckvdk okdif.qef. .rbufqDrS Nrif. uHaumif. f p D p D .ESifYyif olwdkYavSonf [laye.oGm. .qdkav\/ csifwl. ]]tck uRefrwkdYu tavmwBuD. owd&wrf.fí . . ]]q&mY&JY tESpfwp&m arG.u &.acR.cdk&ef pdwful.mufxJrSm b.ygyJ}}[k qdkav\/ 206 .avmurSm&dScJYwJY aeYxl. pum. . vsuf ûrd Y xJ b uf o d k Y 0if o G m .qef.uyfí &yfem. usef.

f? nDav. .f acR.usifwJY vluawmY nDav. yif Nyef v nf o abmayguf o G m .udk avYusifYaew.u ab. ]]nDrav.pm.ynmeJY pmayESpfrsdK.qef. . wpf c suf r Q aBumif o G m .fav}} ]]igwdkY wynfY ckepfa.cJYw.uwfowf twif.fuG.u f svm&Sm\/ &Dvifwef.omvkdufrvJuG.pD xl.u okdif.Edik af wmY/ olYyg. .fYig. wl .oGm. .atmif e*g. okdif.qef.&bl.\/ odkYaomf .? q&mu b.fu.yJ &dSw.tm.usifwmu wpfa.u q&mYudk *g&0ûywJYtcgrSm q&mu &kwfw&ufpdwfr&TifNyovkd NzpfoGm. bmvIyf&Sm.u vufckyfvuf0g. . . . uRefr r.*dkPf.yJ? nDav.udk vHk.l ? tpfudkBuD.roD &ef r cbJ Nyef a &muf v mwmud k o m q&mod & if b.qef.yJ&dSw.rSm taumif.qef.bufqDrS Nrif.fqdk&ifawmY igwkdY [lwef. . ]]tpfudkBuD.fvkdY uwfoD.zkef. usef. aNymwm r[kwfvm. .&Smbl. wD.oG.yJ qkdygawmYuGm}} xdktcg csifwl.uawmY Nywfom. ]]tck a wmY nD a v.u [lwef.vkduf&if ausyGefatmif vkyfwmcsnf. . eHygwfoHk.fY igwkdY [lwef.f nDrav.aomf ratmifYtnf.qHk. ckepfuawmY vQdKY0Sufvufeufypf tawmfqHk.mufxJrSm ÓPf&nftNrifYqHk.? BunfYprf.aeYvkyfawmY igwkdY *dkPf. .wlnDtpfudk tm.}} csifwl. rif. ]]'Dr. .? rif.fY? nDrav.wl.cReBf uw.u q&mY&JY ukd. .vdk yk*Kd¾ vfBuD.q.fu. .vsuf .udk.u wrifoufoufraNymcsifvkdY xdefcsefNyD.ygw.w.qHk.qHk. G Yf ? tpfuBkd uD. ]]igu ÓPf odyfrzswfvwfawmY bmrS xl.wdkY 'Dwpfcg awmifay:udk a&mufwJYtcsdefus&if q&m *lxJuae xGufwJY tcsdefeJY wdk. 0rf.ESpfrSm olY&JY owif. tNyifbufokdYvSnfYywfBunfYvkduf\/ odkYaomf .Oya'oawGudk odyfuRrf. uRrf.f}} xdktcdkuf &kwfw&uf urf.}} &Dvifwef.f? q&mu aNymw.&rSmyJ}} csifwl.acR. uRrf.u Bum.ynmwpfrsdK.[lusif.Edkif"m. csifwl. .&ygacs/ nonf wdwfqdwfae\/ 207 .fuG.w. . .Nzwfí . .? wu. vGefcJYwJY ig. udk. .NyD . aNymav nDrav.í .usifw.ygapvkdY qkawmif.NyifrmS rsu&f nfawG pD.fvkdY xifaewm? [if.ESpfavmufwkef.wl. tpfudkBuD. aemuf csuf c sif .usawmY ÓPfodyfaumif.onfwJY/ xdkpOf &Dvifwef.u xkdpum.udk xyfrHavYusifYaeao.ynmtawmfqHk.f? tJ'g uRef.apmifYa&Smufvdkuf? olYudk rxdwfvefYapeJY? tNyifbufu udpöudk tpfudkBuD.f? wdusw.mufu wpfa.f? vkyf&nfudkif&nfNynfY0w.ckepfazmfxJu okdif.f}} [k csifwl.pvHk.udBk um.rSm xdpk um.f ynmtwGuf q&mu *lxu J ae rxGuaf wmYb.folYudk ydkoabmusovJ qdkwm}} use.0rBum.eJY nDav. ]]'gayr.vHk.f}} wJY/ ]]uJ . ]]vufpowfawmY tpfudkBuD.wl.f? [kd .wl.? 'D ig.\/odkif.udk qufaeNyefonf/ ]]q&mu tck odik .uawmY enf.f? bmtvkyfrqdk q&mu ckdif. ]][ifYtif.pvHk.aomf vGefpGm aysmfNrL.ynmawGudk avYusifYwJY txJrSm igu têud.acR. .fwdkifusawmYaum}} &Dvifwef.uqufí .q&mBuD.pdwfxJwGif vGefpGm tHYBooGm.? ol vlYNynfrSm r&dSawmYzkdYrsm.Hkygbl.oHukdrQ rBum. . qdkav\/ csif w l .u ûyH.ESpfaNrmuf arG.u .mufwpfrsKd . aNymr.? tpfudkBuD.cRefwmr&dSygbl. .udk tck oGm.wuúodkvf aevif.f wpfrsdK. eHygwfav. .udk Bum.wl.yJ? nDav. .? igwkYd nDtpfukd ckepfa.? tyifyef.u . usef.&JY odkif.aNcmufusawmY "m.ynma&m? pmayt&mrSmyg ESpfrsddK. .odkif.}} [k qdkvkdufav\/ xkdtcg &Dvifwef.NyD .udk Bum.f a vmuf r sm.udk vQdKY0SufcsufwpfckaNymNyr.ESifY Nrif.cGmoHrsm.u &kwfw&uf . usef. G Yf ? 'D okid . ckawmY oluHraumif. .f? nDav.eHab.vdkufr.aNz&Sif. ckepfazmfxJrSm odkif.ygyJ wynfYwkdY? igu olom igY&JY tarGt&kduft&mudk qufcHEdkifr.vkdufBu&Nyef\/ odkYaomf olu bmrQ rNzpfouJYokdY pum.mufwnf.[DoHrsm. .&SmazGNyD. .

if.&dS NrufawmxJrS vlq. NyefvSnfYaNy.aom toHNzifY . .ay:odkY vTm.wl.mufrSm a&Smifwdrf.tm.wpfae&mwGifom puf0dkif.acR.u [kwfvm.vHk. raBumufeJYaemf}} [k usef. q&mBuD.Hudk xGif.*kdPf. . . .uav. ckwfcsufu vGefpGm vsifNrefvS&m xkdvlig. k u f kd xd.fvkdYaNymvdkufyg}}[k atmfaNymav\/ . vufwpfcsuf a0SYNyvdkufNyD.awGvkdyJ? bmvJ olwkdYu cGef.u usef. vuf e uf u d k .aqmifNzpf[efwlolu csufcsif. usef. aNymonfYtwdkif.ESifYaeonfudk awGY&yg\/ csifwl.f? rdwfaqGwdkY qE´&dSr.f \vufukd udik &f if.vGef*kdPf.fcsifudk usKyf&Dvifwef.ay:wufcdkif.ESifY rvSrf.csKyfBuD. cGef. tpfudk? 'Dvkdqdk&if apmapmwkef.udk tv.vnf.[lusif.uav.vkduf\/ ]]olwdkY tm.Ncrf.apmif.csdefwGif olu csifwl. . ayGYzufESpfodrfYvkduf\/ tNyifbufwGifawmYrl &Dvifwef. Nidrfoufvsuf/ xkdpOf &Dvifwef. .}} &Dvifwef.qef.ESifYyg}} [k qdkNyef\/ csifwl. ]]r[kwfygbl.fvu dk af om toHuykd g Bum.? olwdkYu 0gar*dkPf.mufu ]tr.wl.fcsifudk EIwfqufygw. .wdkYu EIwfqufvkdufygw. ]]nDrav. .udk ac:NyD.u wdwfqdwf Nidrfoufaom nOfY.NyDNzpfaom vltkyfxJrS rdef.vdkufav\/ olu vsifNrefpGm ckeftkyfNyD.tcsdefwGif cyfvSrf.u usef.u .av. 0gar*kdPf.muf\ vufaumuf0wfudk ckwfcsvdkuf\/ olYvuf0g.NzifY xdkvlig. ar. olwkdYu igwdkYudk twif.l wl.xJoYdk w&a[m 0ifvmav\/ xdkYaBumifY &Dvifwef.rSmyif &Dvifwef. Edk.acsmif.vkdufav\/ xkpd Of &kww f &uf "m.aomufBuygawmYvm.}} &Dvifwef.u wdk.u tpfukdu bmNzpfvkdY olwdkYudk cGef. f p D ud k i f x m.uyg}} usef.a& .vGef*dkPf.ynmtpGrf. nDrav.tm.ceJ ckefwufvkdufav\/ urf.vH k .av\/ xdkpOf olwkdYxJrS wpfa. .tqHk.vSrf.fa. t0wfeufpnf.f [lusi.onf use.fqdk&if avSay:udk wufvmBuNyD..oGm.qef.eHab. .u csifw.[lusif.fav.x. avS0rf. ]]om.[lusif.mufcefY ckefxGufvmBu\/ olwdkYonf tm..ESifYtwl urf.u *dkPf.onf csifwl.eJY usef.Bu\/ rsuf E S m wG i f v nf . vIyf&Sm.k csdev f u kd Nf yD.csKyf q&mBuD.aom vl r sm. .l wl. .u 'DrSm&dSygw. ]]cifAsm.wGif urf.wl.ESifY usef.xJodkY 0ifvkduf&m xdktcsdefwGif usef.\/ ]][if .} [k wpfcsufatmfvkduf&m rdef.vnf.ay:okdY a&mufoGm.muf\ tkyfí &. x.\ ud.vnf. \ Nrif Y rm. .u oufNyif.oP²mef &yfvdkufBu\/ &Dvifwef.qef.csí .roHNzpfaeavonf/ xdkYaemuf tuÐ s teuf ? rsuf E S m wG i f t0wf e uf p nf .wkdY b.u . tHYBooGm. ]][dwf . vuf x J w G i f v nf . bmav.wl.fu rdwfaqGawGvJ}} okdYaomf wpfbufrS bmrQ NyefraNz/ urf. vonf &Tef.apmif.vGef*kdPf.u toHudkNrSifYí .vdu k &f yg\/ xdYk aBumifY csiw f .wkdYudk wpfcsufBunfYNyD. .wl.urf.okdY a&mufoGm. .ypGm omae\/ ywf0ef.vS a om odkif.wJYaemufawmY igwdkY wuf&awmYrSmaygYuGm}} [k qdkav\/ xdkYaemuf &Dvifwef. 208 . .udk azmufvu dk af Bumif.wpfa. .wuúodkvf aevif. vGifYpOfxGufoGm. .udk vufqGJí avQmufxGufoGm. aNymonfYtwdkif. tpfudkBuD. .qef. odvu dk &f \/ xkpd Of a&rsm.atmif e*g. wpfpw kH pfa. avS0rf.a. ]]nDav.fwGifxm. .tm. tuÐ s teuf 0 wf x m. &Dvifwef. .rurf.BuavawmY\/ xdktcg &Dvifwef.aESmifxm. . vuf0g.rsm. rdef.azmufí atmfaNymav\/ ]][lwef.acR.t&ifoGm. .usifonfvnf.u &Dvifwef.Buonf/ csifwl.í usef.mufu avSatmufrS olwYkd avS0rf.udkodaomf acgif.onf &D v if w ef .NyD.acR.NyD .u bmqufvkyf&rnf rodatmif NzpfaepOf &kwfw&uf olwdkYavSrSm wkefcgoGm.vnf.onf &Dvifwef. tm.fvkdY aNymvkduf&wmvJAs}} &Dvifwef. xm. . &Dvifwef.[lusif.nif.\ pum. Nzpfae\/ xkt d csdeEf iS Yf wpfûydiw f nf.[lusif.acR.vHk.&efyif tcsdefr&bJ vufxJrS "m.eJY usef.u vlawGvm.om.ig. t&ufav. .a. .qef.acR.Edkif"m.

[dk .yJ? olu olYwynfYrawGukd okdif.ay:wGif ñSyfxm.zdefu vlqdk.u vlowform. .qef.folvJqdkwmudk rodapcsiv f YdkyaJ ygY? 'gayr.? vlaumif. ûyaewm[m tpfuBkd uD.wGifrl taBumif. toHvJ rûyyHkaxmufawmY olwdkYu olwdkYudk.fY c&D.uGufyJuG.odkY a&mufoGm.u odyfwif.apbl.vrf.q&mwpfa.NyD. .lBunfYvkdufaomtcgwGifrl pm&Gufay:ü . .okdif.acR.qufrqdkawmYbJ xdkae&mrS avQmufxGufvmcJYBuav\/ olwdkY\ avS B uD . &Supf eG .Bu\/ rSeo f nf/ 0gar*dP k .oHk.avmuxJudk t&rf.csvsuf .usyfwm? *kdPf. rsufBuG.fuG.&ygvm. .} vkdY a&.BunfYawmYrS odvdkuf&wmudk.f csKyf q&mrBuD.vkdufygw.? 'DvkdwJY? rsufBuG.ESiYf csifw.NyD.wl.f aBumifYyJ Nzpf&r.fov D &Sif vkyBf uw.êud.fa&. opfyifwGif csnfaESmifxm.l wl. ]]avSudk zsufqD.fY odkif.acR.vHk. igwkdYeJY yl.}} pum.NyD.foDv&SifBuD. ]]olwYkd u tckvkd uRefawmfwYkd ukd t[efYtwm.}} &Dvifwef. rS m rl ûryf o G m .}} 209 .avonf/ ]]bbBuD.aumifudk tpm. rsufBuG. ]]'gayr.}}[k ar. wpfcgrSaNymoHrBum.fav? olwYkd *kP d .xdk. csiw f .udk "m.fwJY? owfwJYvlu eH&Hay:rSm ]rdk.fav? 'gayr.pGyfxm. .pm. .fY? [kdeefe.muf[m vGefcJYwJY q.u .fpOfwkef.u OD. &SufpGef. ]]vlBuD.w. tdrfaxmifrûyawmYbl.vm.u f vJyJ r. zef .aESmifY.SufrSm aocsmw.&nf.wJY rdef.u towfcHvkduf&w. .ay.fESpfausmfwkef.uG.mufu r.NyD.qef.cJYw.wdYk u &Dvifwef.u .wpfaumifay:odkY ckefwufvkdufNyD.uyJvm. ]]olwdkYu rsufESmzHk. .f Y 0gar*k d P f . ]]r[kwfygbl.onfudk awGYvkduf&yg\/ &Dvifwef. zef.avmurSm odyfemrnfBuD.onf/ &Dvifwef.urf.f o D v &S i f 0wf v k d u f N yD . .ayNyD / xd k Y a Bumif Y aNcusif N zif Y o m ol w d k Y c&D .yif Nzpfyg\/ xdkpOf usef. wd k Y bm&ef ñ d I .oHk. .udk cP &yfxm.Edkif"m.om.aom pm&Gufudk awGYvkdufBu&onf/ usef.w.acR. usefwpfa. .qdv k o kd nfudk oabmaygufomG . .&JY *kdPf.fY apmapmwke.vm.&d S c J Y v k d Y v J ? tpf u d k B uD .vGef*kdPf.wGif vlwpfa.mufrQ r&dSygacs/ olwdkY Nrif.awmY rsufcHk.fov D &SiBf uD.NzpfcJYBuav\/ aemufydkif.vkdY aNymvdkufw.rSmvJyJ vltawmfrsm.u oufNyif.[lusif. .udk. .f? aemuf taotcsm pHkprf. ]]olwkdYu em.qef.yJ}} [lí qdkavonf/ usef. [efYwm.&JY vufcsufyJqkdwm odBuwmyJuG. wpf o uf v H k .wpfckckaBumifY wpfa. roGm.aygif.rurf. &S u f p G e f .awG rsm.fY? wpfcsdKYu r.avmu u vlawGtm.u &kwfw&uf 0ifí ar. vufwpfbuf NzwfvkdufNcif.vSygbl. rsm.u Bum.0ifí .rS qufí .u uRefawmfwdkYudk 0dkif. tJ'Dvkd aNymvkduf&wmyJaygYuG}} xdkYaemufwGif olwdkYonf pum. NcaoFYrif.fpOfumvu orD. &S u f p G e f .aom Nrif.f vGe*f P dk .[m a&TarG.0ifí .wl. csefcGef. .cJYvdkY 'DNrif.xJrSm rdef.u i.u Bum.vnfrI &dSom. ]]0gar*kdPf.racsm rdef.frSm zef. ]]towfcH&wJY zef.fY}} csifwl.fY? olwkdYu tJ'Dvkd cGef.? wpfcgawmY olu olYwynfYawGudk vTwfNyD.rsm. .pnf.xm.NzL*dkPf.om.oHk.u okdif.l wl.folwdkY b. . eJ Y tpf u d k B uD .pGm Nrif.f}} csifwl.Zufêud.f? 'Dvq dk &kd if a&SYquf&r.aumif\ eHab.wuúodkvf aevif.rom.eJY csed v f u dk w f YJ tuGuu f cGe.fESifY zef.aumifudk NrifawGYvkdufBu&\/ okdYaomf Nrif.atmif e*g. . .oHk.udk wdkufcdkufwmudkawGYawmY igvJtawmftHYBooGm. .zdefqdkwJY okdif. quf c J Y B u&av\/ ol w d k Y t wef B um avQmufrdaomtcgwGif &kwfw&uf a&SYrvSrf.fwJY}} usef.zdefqdkwm 0gar*kdPf.awG&JY udk.awmY ol u &k w f w &uf r.zdefwkdYrSm i.uav.f}} [k a&.rvS wpfOD.yJwJY? aemufydkif.vufoD.mufuvnf.f r.f csKyf q&mrBuD.fwm udpöudk aNym&wmawmY odyfraumif.f u olwYkd nDrav.csdefwGif Nrif. . Nyefavsmfay. .u pm&Gufudk . zd e f u vJ y J vuf w pf b uf u d k N zwf N yD .foDv&Sif 0wfoGm.f &JY "m.vdk [efaqmifaewJY aemufawmY tpfudkuvJ wrifoufouf &GJYNyD.0ef.aumiftem.

av\/ oHk.vsuf a&.onf &Dvifwef.mufausmfrQom &dSonfudkBum.qdkcsifw.\ 0kdif. ayGYzufvkduf\/ usef.vsuf c&D.rurf.qufBu\/ vrf. raNymwwfbl.[lusif.fvkdY olwkdYu tazBuD. q.tm.acR.ay:wGif rw&m. ]]wu. .pkESifY awGYvQifawmYrl tNywf&Sif.ESiYf usef.udk. .í vkdufygvmBu\/ 210 .mufu ]]q.vHk.udkBum.f}} [k atmfaNymoGm.usef.&JYtazBuD.aeonfudk rBum. owfNzwfvQifrl vHk.av. .qufBuav\/ &Dvifwef. e.acR.rsm.&JY}} usef.mufyif Nzpfonf/ xkdYaBumifY [lwef.uG.fcsJY rGef*kdppfom. .ckvnf.wkdYtm.avmu vlrsm. ]]NrefNref aemufudkNyefvSnfYBu? [kd ta&SYbufrSm rGef*dkwyfom.ypfavY &dSBu\/ .f}} usef.qef.cspfodkif.av\/ usef.f? tm.[lusif. ]]bbBuD.wkYd rl xdak e&mwGif &yfvsuf ta&SYbufoYkd vSr. bbBuD. .fa. .vke.aomf xdkolxJrS wpfa.wJY taumifawGAsm}} [k qdkav\/ xdkolrsm. Nzpfyg\/ olwdkYq&mBuD.u wpfcsufawGa0oGm. .[lusif. &Dvifwef.qef.fa.í &ifqkdif&ef xGufcGmoGm.}} [k qdkonf/ &Dvifwef.udk.u tck rsufpdrNrifawmYbl.yif tm. usef.u ûyH. .aNrSmuf ûycJYaom rsdK.ckepfazmfwkdYrSm e*dkuwnf. . uRefawmf bbBuD.rdkifrQ a&muf&dScsdefwGifrl a&SYrvSrf.onf xdkrQom aNymNyD.fY bbBuD.rsm.muf u d k owf & wmvJ ? 'D v d k v l a wG u d k avQmufowfwmawmY raumif.yef.wGif olwdkY bmNyóemrS ray:cJYygacs/ onfaeYwGifrl olwdkYonf tef. a'go NzpfcJY&olrsm.vku d &f onf/ xdYk aBumifY olu toHBum.fokdY a&mufvmav\/ xkdpOf &kwfw&uf ta&SYbufqDrS ukefonf[k xifrSwf&aom vlq.pufaom rsufvHk.í .[lusif.fwdkifawmY rif.? olwdkYudk EkdifEkdifrSm r[kwfawmYbl. ae&mqDrS pl. wpfnwm wnf.c&D.mufyguG.u .fESpfa.udk wpfck awmif.fY? 'gayr.udk 'kef. vkaeBuw.av\/ &Dvifwef. . .aomf csufcsif.f pD.mufavmufawmY&dSw.tdrfwGif rsuf&nfrsm.BuyfrwfavY &dSaomfvnf.zkef. . .fa.udk &SmvkdYawGY&if bbBuD. udk.cdkvkdufBuav\/ aemufwpfaeY/ olwdkYtm. Nrif.fY}} xdktcg usef.f arQmfBunfYvu dk rf Bd u\/ rSeo f nf/ [lwef.u .ygbl.BuD.\ pum.onf olwdkYawG odkif.omoGm. tazBuD .u olwdkYudk rowfzkdY aNymay.u .ygaemf? tazBuD.uyif rGef*dkppfom.u wkdif.rSm usef.aomif.wuúodkvf aevif.mufvJ}}[k ar. ]]'DudpöudkawmY bbBuD. . ]]zef.}} &Dvifwef.udk 'ke.pD.0g.qef.vdkufNyD. . wpf a .u &kwfw&uf .onf a&SYbufwGif e. awGYaomf uref.[lusif.&mqDoYkd Nrif.pD.uG.udk ol Bum.Edkif"m.rS .aomf vGefpGm0rf.0ifomG .wpfûrdYokdY0ifNyD. .[lusif.zdefu vlaumif. ESdyfpuf ñSOf.fpD pD. &Dvifwef.ESifY awGYvQif a&Smifwdrf. vlenf.atmif e*g.wpfa.ckESpfazmfwdkYonf rGef*dkppfwyfBuD.&ef tNrJ owday.ESifY ckduf&efrNzpfyGm. Nrif.fpD pD. rûyonfYtNyif txl.qdkrSmvJ uav.fcsJY rGef*dkppfom.fawmYrS rowfygbl.rsm.f}} ]]bm awmif.pl. .yif vufNyí .í aNy.NyD. ]][if . olYaemufrS xyfBuyfruGmyif Nrif.&ufBu? emBunf. wpfa.orm. atmforH sm.tm.0g. NynfYvQHvmonfudk awGY&av\/ xdknwGif olwdkYonf ûrdYav.wdkYvnf.vmonfukd awGYvkduf&\/ xdkolrsm. b.tm. . ]]rGef*dkppfom.0 tNypfwifNcif.udk b.udk 'kef.olNynfom. [m bmNzpf v k d Y vl a umif . usef.NyD.Nyefvnf c&D. .mufcefY Nrif.okwfysm aNy.awG vlowf? ypönf.uwef.ay.BuD.

\/ &Dvifwef.udk rcHEkdifNzpfum a&SYESpfacsmif.0g.kwfawGudk wpfa.&if .muf aNrBuD. . vuf0g.muf o nf oH k .[lusif.vnfywfrI&yfwefYoGm.ouJYodkY cHpm.ukd vk.avawmY\/ usef.dkifvsuf&dSNyD. ES p f o m.NyD.qDokdY Nrif.í ayGYcsDxm.udk rEkdifEkdifrSef.wGif twG i f .avawmYonf/ usef rGef*dkppfom.oGm. . xGufaNy.udk aemufNyefvSnfYí ck w f v d k u f a v\/ &D v if w ef .\ vuf0g.[lusif.&if. wpfqufwnf.rSm avxJwGif .apmif. .fxHrS ypönf.ESifY usef. atmf&if.i.wpfa.tm.atmf owday.fpDudkifvsuf &Gmom.onf rsdK.wuúodkvf aevif.aNcmif.&if.wpf a . "m.rSmvnf. rsufESmwpfckvHk.aNy. at.vQif uref.wdkY ZeD.\ tm.vQif usef. a&SYokdY aqmifYwGef. ud k rvT w f b J twif . .pD. taemufrSm}} usef.\ &if0odkY &dkufcsvkduf\/ rGef*kdppfom. taz 'De. e. 'Pf a Bumif Y olY&ifbwfwpfckvHk. ud k aNcNzif Y abmvH k .avawmY\/ olwdkYonf xGufaNy.[lusif.rsm.ynmpGrf. .muf\ NrifYrm.qef.. . NzLa&mfvsuf&dSonfukdawGYaomf &Dvifwef.ysuf rvJusaomfvnf.BuavawmY\/ xkpd OfrmS yif apmapmu usef.ESifY csifwl.i. od v k d u f a v\/ xd k Y a Bumif Y o l u &D v if w ef .fcsJY rGef*dkppfom.mufu usef. Nrif.fcsJY rGef*dkppfom.mufrSrcsefeJY? tukefowf}} [k atmfaNymNyD.aemufodkY xyfBuyfvkdufoGm.oHk.0 rxGufawmYbJ toufxGufoGm.í avxJwGif pl.udkrDaomf &Dvifwef.u olY&if0em.fcsJYrGef*dkppfom.wpfa. aNy.av.&if.fvHk.BuD. xdwfvefYoGm. rS Nrif .vkduf\/ 211 .rsm. uef o vd k avay:od k Y aNrSmufuefwifvkduf\/ uav.onf tGefYceJ wpfcsufrQ toHxGufvmNyD.kwfrmvSaom NrifuGif.pl.onf "m.tm.apmif.if. ñSOf. uk d .\ Nrif.avawmYonf/ &Dvifwef. &Dvifwef. .onf aemufodkYyif vSnfYrBunfYbJ &Dvifwef.acR..qef.udk.wdkY\ wdkufcdkufNcif..av\/ usef.u a'goaNcmif. 'Pf & m tawmf t wef & oG m .oHk.f AavmifqloGm.aemufNyefvSnfYí 'kefpdkif. tvpfokwfoGm.vkduf\/ xdktcg vSH&dk.apmif.udk 'kef. .drf. . .u tcsdefrD taemufodkY vSnfY&if.u aemufckdif.f wltpfukd &Dvifwef.\&if0udk aqmifYrdvsuf wpfcsufom tGefYceJatmfoH Bum.NzifY xdkrGef*dkppfom. &ifxJ0. vSrf. .avawmY\/ NyD.acR.\ vSHwHrsm.tm.qef.pufoGm.onf usef. uav.&dk.kwfawGudkowfwm taotcsmBunfYxm.uwef.fvHk.vQif 'kefpdkif.frSm toHvHk.av. d r f .armifESHvnf.vkdufoGm.\/ odkYaomf rGef*kdppfom.aBumif .fvHk.yif vuf0g.mufom. csuf c sif .aom rGef*dkppfom.ceJckefwufNyD.drf.qef.ygvS a om vuf 0 g.[lusif.\/ xkdYaemuf xdkrGef*kdppfom.ay:odkY &kwfw&uf ckefwufvkdufNyD.\ ar. wpfa.wnf.atmif e*g. wpfudk. rS m &k w f w &uf rG e f * d k p pf o m.fcsJY rG e f * d k p pf o m.k d i f o G m .dkifvGifYxGufoGm.rsm. vHSwHNzifYxdk.aNy.\aemufausmtm. ayG Y z uf x m.vnf.pGm xdk. atmufodkY Nyefusvm\/ xkdtcg aemufrGef*dkppfom.aom rGe*f pkd pfom. ud k o m uref.vQif olwdkY oHk.udk tvl.rSm ol\ *dP k .NzifY rGef*kdppfom.\ Nrif.acR. rwfwwfuyif &Gmol&Gmom.vSaom odkif.onf xkdNrif.\ aemufausmudk &kdufvkdufav\/ odkYaomf rGef*dkppfom.wl.cspfol&Jaumif.vkduf&NyD.av\/ ]]taz .0ifvmNyef\/ xdktcg usef.vnf.vsuf aNray:odkY Nyefusvmav\/ .csuf uefvkdufaomtcg uav.awGYvkdufBu&av\/ wpfae&mwGif e. ]]om.odonfESifY wpfcsdK.qef.acR.uwef..NyD.kd í vJusoGm.q.f wpf O D .lvsuf&dSNyD.axmuf acGusoGm. xdktcg e.avawmY\/ usef.onf &kww f &uf ckefxvmNyD.okdY a&mufoGm.lvkdufNyD.rSm emusif aBumufvefYvGef.rsm.rSmrl &yfae&if. csufcsif.rl &Dvifwef.rsm. ayGYzufxm.csvdkufNyD.yef.rsm. owfNzwfaeonfudk yufyif.mufu aNcaxmufNzifY vdSrfYuefvkdufNyef\/ þodkY oHk.av\/ xdkpOf aemufrGef*dkppfom.tm. xdktaNctaeudk Nrifaomf csufcsif.tcsdefwGif rGef*dkppfom.Edkif"m. .vQif rGef*kdppfom.qef.\ vuf0g.vJusoGm.tm. rBumrDrSmyif ta0.NyD.BuD.a.rS aNrNyifay:okdY rusrDrSmyif a&SYodkYckefxGufvdkufNyD. ayGYzufvkdufav\/ usef.acR.aNy.acR.pdkif.rSm rGef*kdppfom.&ef aNy. aoqHk.u xdk&ufpuf .udkNyif.onf Y w k d i f usef .apmif. aoG. ay:od k Y vTm.odkY a&mufvka&mufcif&dSpOfrSmyif olu vSHwHudk &kwfw&uf qGJzrf. rw&m.apmif .udk BunfY&if. .yif olYudk.ay:rS vSypGm ckefxGufvkduf\/ olYaNctpHk aNrNyifESifY rxdrDrSmyif olYvufoD. f w pf c suf .ay:odYk yHyk sufyef. udk.NzifY ckwfowfaeao..aemf}} [k aNymNyD.tvJcHaeBu&av\/ rBumyg/ rGef*dkppfom.xGufoGm.a. vSw H NH zifY aqmifYx.0g.aeaom zciftm.[lusif.wpfcsufu rGef*dkppfom. [l u sif . .onf rGef*kdppfom. ]]a[Y .xGufvsuf .

.udk zrf.NyD.rl &efolYvufodkY olYom.\/ rSefygonf/ csifwl.tm.mifESifYwuG txdwfwvefY atmfaeaom usef.u Nznf. qdkavonf/ ]]r&dSawmYbl.uvJqdkwm igpOf.pGm rwfwwf&yfvkdufNyD. .avonf/ csifwl.[lusif.atmf&if.ynm'DavmufNrifYrm. pdk. ]]om. .aeNyefav\/ &Dvifwef.BuD.wl. bmrSrNzpfygbl.tpHkrSdwfvsuf usef. rsufvHk.csif.}} csifwl.wdk.&.wpfa.pl.wl. . xkdrQom tm.NzifY taNy. .pdkif. acgif.f}}[k nnf.pdwfcsyg? usef.aeonfukd awGY&awmY\/ xkdYaemuf olonf csifwl.&awmYrSyif oufNyif.wl. ]]wu. .vm.u tpdk.acR.wl.tm.}} [k atmfaNym idk.av.vmNyD.uJYokdY rdef. pl.aeNyD.NzifY . wifysOfacG xdkifvsuf xGufouf0ifouf usifYvsuftwGif. pdwfylyefvGef.apmif.Nznf.Ncif.u csifwl.wpfcsufcsNyD.wl.awG. .ouJodkYNzpfNyD.tm. .Nznf. .rSaygY tpfudkBuD. . om.oluJYodkY pOf. pdkufBunfY&if.tm.tm.acR.av.pm. a&&Gwfaeav\/ &Dvifwef.u olYtpfudk pum.oNzifYom arYvJoGm.wl. usef. pm.mufudk 'ku©a&mufatmifvkyfrSm r[kwfygbl.ESifY twGif.udkrl acgif. &l.}} [k qkd\/ usef.wJY vuf0g. yifyef.wl. ]]rif.fvHk. ..wdk.f}}[k qkd&SmNyefonf/ 212 .aemufokdY aNy. b.tem. xkdtcgusrSyif csifwl.acR.acR.f } } [k owday.ÓPf vHk.wl.rS od&awmYr.yg wdwf&yf aysmufuG.NzifY .vkdufaeaomfvnf.onf &Dvifwef.vQif .'.fvkd vkyfrvJ tpfudkBuD. aNy. .tm.\ ycHk.av.ndwfvkduf\/ NyDvQif rsufvHk. aemufrStwif. &l.avonf/ usef.foGm.fY olu om. idk. Nyef&atmif vkyfOD. ud k tNref o G m . csifwl. .qef.wl.om aNy.dk&if.oGm.atmif e*g.f*kdPf. .wuúodkvf aevif. wl .u atmfidk&if. .? zrf.wl.enf.dk&if.ay:odkY csDwifvkdufav\/ csifwl.qef.wl.&drfvmNyD. . .aZmNzifY twif.qDodkY Nrif.ygawmYacs/ trSefrl rGef*dkppfom.pm.av. .udk tNrefqHk.xJwGifyif xnfYí pOf.[lusif.D.pGm aNy.? odkif.dkaeav\/ xdktckduf &Dvifwef.wGif vufNzifYrSDum pOf. toufr&dSawmYaom puf&kyfuJYokdYyif aNcESpfbufuom a&SYokdYaNy.qef.pm.onf csifwl.wGif '.yef. zGifYBunfYvdkufNyD. toHwkd. .vnf. owd&awmY\/olonf q. .vkduf&av\/ usef. &dIufiif idkaBuG.onf .wl.wenf. . Nrif.'Pf&m ukpm.NyD tpfudkBuD. .u oufNyif.auG. toHwkd. Nyefí owd&vmav\/ owd&vQif&csif.oGyfoGm. usef. .vSrf.aemuf arYvJoGm.odkY a&mufaomtcgwGifrl olonf &Dvifwef.Edkif"m.? vkdufvkdYr&awmYbl.rnf r[kwfygacs/ xdktcg &Dvifwef.vQif .wl. .nif. pD p Of r S Nzpf a wmYr. ]]tpfudkBuD.avawmY\/ okdYaomf rGef*dkppfom.onf idk.BuD. pOf..wJYvlu uav.dkifNzifY aES.aeonfudk awGYvkduf&yg\/ xkdpOf csifwl. .yif csifwl.csEkdifawmY\/ &Dvifwef.onfudkodaomf &Dvifwef.nLaNymqdkav\/ xdktcg csifwl. .tm. a&SYcyfvSrf.ar.qef.wGif rGef*kdppfom.rom. .udk rawGYawmYbl. ]]'Dvlu b.udk Nrifaomf ydkí 0rf.yJ nDav.qef.laNymNyD. csif w l .0 rûyEkdifygawmY/ om.\ toHrsm.0g.udk rrDygacs/ aemufqHk.faBumufp&maumif.oluJYokdY NzpfoGm.f]] [k 0rf.acR.\ t&dyfta.0aysmufuG. ]]nD a v.&drfBuD.pm. ygoGm. .u usef.udkyif wpfcsufwnf.udk 'kef.vkduf&rnfrSef.[lusif.wl.qef.aZmNzifYwpfudk.NyD}}[k aNymNyD. rawGY&awmYbl.NyDudkawGYaomf &kwfNcnf.&.? igwkdY q&mudk oGm.foGm.pm.vnf. ]]'Dvdkqdk&if om. .oHukdBum.0g.ac:vd k u f ? a&&S n f p Of .wl. vHk.vkdufoGm. nDav. ]]usef.av\/ xkdtcg csifwl.oGm.vkdYudk r&bl.'Pf&m&apcJYonfNzpf&m csifwl.vkdufrSyif csifwl. bmrQ rNrifpGrf.acR.acR.av.wl.rSm om.frdkifcefYrQ Nrif.ESifvmNyef\/ &Dvifwef.awmaevkduf\/ twefBumaomf rsufpdNyefzGifYvsuf .}} [k ar.vnf. . .u .}} [k ESpfodrfYvkdufav\/ csifwl.qef.vGef.oGyfoGm. ]]'gayr.

olNzpf\/ olonf usef. &SufpGef.Edkif"m.qef. .u .odkY oGm. .f}} usef.? b.acR.OD. rsufESmydkí ñdSK. csifwl.wJY 'Dvl&JY odkif.wl. bmudkqdkvdkonfudk csufcsif.fxm.wl.wdkY ZeD.armifESHtm.qef.NzifY xkdolonfvnf.atmif e*g.a&mfoGm.ynmuvJ 'DavmufawmfaeawmYum tpfudkwdkY 'DvlYudk awGYatmif&SmEdkifw.fu.udkom r&ru ac:.w.? tpfudkwkdYqD olu Nyefvm&SmrSmyg}} csifwl.u acgif.tem.acR. tckavmavmq.qef. owfvkdvQifvnf.\/ odkYygvsuf xkdolonf uav. .fawmY tpfuu kd vJ 'Pf&mrenf. G Yf ? rGe*f kd ppfom.wuúodkvf aevif. &xm. .vnfoabmaygufoGm.aom xkdolonf odkif.fwulyif owfEkdifpGrf.ygawmY\/ 213 .wl. b. [efaqmifxm.cgíom Ny\/ usef.NyD.qef.wl. &Dvifwef.udk axmufNcif.\/ ]]'Dvdkqdk&if 'Dvludk 'DvkdyJ vTwfxm.acR.Nref.u csifwl. ]]wl.[efaqmifxm.vkdolyifNzpfaBumif.Ncif. oabmaygufvmav\/ rSefonf/ rGef*dkppfom.fvkdvkyf olYudk EkdifrSmvJ}} csifwl.fae&mwGif&dSonfudk ar.ynm vGefpGm NrifYrm. . ]]tpfudkwkdY oludk &SmzkdYawmif rvdkygbl.awmYrSmvm.loGm.wl. tpfudk&. tvG.acR. em.olNzpf&m usef.u ÓPfaumif.

'Pf&m Nyif. \ twG i f .u zGifYaNymrSm r[kwfygbl. .um vrf.qufavonf/ ]]'Dvlu om.qef.vmonfESifYtrQ om.qefESifY &Dvifwef. ygaomaBumifY ]yg. ]]om.u tckuwnf.}} [k qdkonf/ rS e f y gonf / usef .u avoHNywfNywfNzifY .u oufNyif.udktvsifpvkd roGm.wnfí qufvuf xGufcGmvmcJYBu\/ &Dvifwef. rodbl.acR.mufpvHk.udk zrf.csNyD. &SufpGef.a.tqHk.NyD.mufonf pum.&JY ae&mudk ar.Edkif"m.uvnf. . ]]at.av}} usef.a. tm.wpf0g. . tpfudkBuD.acR.rrm Nzpfvmav\/ okdYNzifY [lwef.atmif e*g.u pum.apmif . 'D a eY t xd 'D v l & J Y vuf 0 g. .wm[m tpfudkBuD. tcef. . NzpfvmrSmaygY}} usef.wl. rS e f r S e f r Qom oG m .onf xdkvl\ &kyfyHkudk aumif.mufonf [lwef.xefxef&cJYoNzifY c&D.aemuf olwdkYoHk. wpfcgrQ rêuHzl.u EIwfrS xkdpum. vd k u f p Of u xk d v l u arYvJ o G m .om Nzpfayonf/ . NzpfyGm. .f? om.oGm.u aBumuf&GYHNyD. . od k i f .u 'ku©cHxm. ]]ig .rl twGif.ao. &uf r Q BumaomtcgwG i f r l &D v if w ef . zGifYaNymrvm.rsdK.raNymawmYbJ c&D.apmif. om. .qef .avmuf aBumufp&maumif.c&D.twGuf ylaqG.acR.wl.av.&av\/ aemuf o H k .awmifay: xdktNzpftysufrsm.wJY vuf0g.qef. u vS H w H N zif Y aemuf N yef x d k .muf\ atmfaNymoHudk Bum.rsm.}} xdktcg usef.av\/ xdktcg olu .rS wpfaeYusawmY vlawmfBuD.udk aNymvkdufonfYwkdif &ifxJwGifrl vGefpGmemusif cHcufvsuf &dSav\/ xdkYaemuf olwdkYoHk.av.odkif. ]]olom zGifYaNym&ifawmY olYudk om.awmifqDodkY OD.aygufatmifom ESifaeBuawmY\/ csifwl.av.arT. . .bl. rSwfrdavonf/ &Dvifwef.\ pum.wGif csifwl. (23) [lwef.Nyif. 'Pf & mrS m vH k . .ESifY vl} [líom 0dk.vkduf&yg\/ 214 .ck olwkdY oHk.wl.aES. rS m [efaqmifvkdufNcif.a. avmuxJ p 0if w J Y t csd e f u pNyD .rSm aocsmw.tNzpfu pGefYvTwf&rSmyJ}} csifwl.pGm rrSwfrdawmYacs/ xdkvlwGif yg.tm.arT.Ncif .tvkdwGif &kwfw&uf awmtkyfxJrS vlwpfa.bJ aES. 0 aysmufuif.oGm.awmifokdYa&muf&ef ESpf&ufc&D.onf &ufanmif.wGif rusef. acR. .av.odkif.wuúodkvf aevif.&aom aomua0'emzdpD.

wpfa.wuúodkvf aevif.wl.xGm.qef. ]]'gayr.vkdufavonf/ csifvd&Sefu &.bufodkY vSnfYívnf.qef. þae&modkYa&mufvm&onfudk ar.onfESifY vGefpGm 0rf.u 0gar*dkPf. ]][J Y . .farmvsuf .ESifYvnf.laecsdefNzpfNyD. ]]at.fESpfcefY rawGYrNrifBubJ aeNyD.ckESpfazmfxJrS eHygwfaNcmuf csifvd&SefyifNzpfonf r[kwfygvm.fuwkef. .wdkYxH ac:oGm. NzpfaeayNyD/ usef.Nzpfaeaom csifwl.acR.m.acgif. ]]at.awmifay:rS qif.u &.0. .wl.av.usdKif.omoGm. uGJuGmcJYpOftcgu csifvd&SefrSm touf q. .í Nrif.fESpfwkef.ck q.ESifY tcef. Nyefa&mufvmonfYowif.a&? rif.onf xdktoHudk Bum.fenf.u vGefpGm 0rf.yJudk. csifwl. csifvd&Seftm.twGif.farmvsuf .}}[k qdkav\/ 215 .ESifYtwl &Dvifwef.lae\/ usef.wD.vSnf. tcef.url csifvd&Seftm.? odyfaumif.? xdkYaBumifY usef.wl nDtpfudkrsm.? vufpowfawmY uRefawmfYtpfudku wpfa.mufyg ac:vmwmudk.uyif . . . . .qef.aeaBumif.ESifY csifwl.uvdkrsm. ./ usef.Nyef\/ olu vufckyfvuf0g.vnf.odkY aNymNyD.rsm.ü usef.atmif e*g. BunfYvkdufav\/ rSefonf/ olwdkYESpfOD.vkdufNyD.wl.Nyefvmwm tcsdefaumif. usef&dSaeaom *dkPf. .av\/ csifvd&Sefu olESifYtpfudk eHygwfav.aemuf NyefqBkH uaomtcg csifv&d eS o f nf wu. rdrdurl þae&mbufodkY xGufvmum êudwifí apmifYqkdif. acR.vSnf. ]]owkdYorD.qef. ]]BunfYprf.fY&SpfESpfcefYom &dSao.wkdYonf q&mBuD. ]]tpfudk usef. . owif.ESpfpif.aemuf .q&m usmyGwf&Sif vkd.? tpfudkukd uRefawmf owd&vkdufwmAsm}} usef.c&D. .u .u 0rf.acR.qef. usef. uvd k xif a eovm.]][k qdkNyD.\ tESpfw&mNynfYarG.? tck ol u om. ud k t&if w k e f . trlt&mNzifY acgif.rSm wkdYudkwdkufwJY vlawGxJrSmawmY olrygygbl.awmif tawmfav. .eJYr.&if olY&JY r*Fvmaqmift&ufudkyg qufaomuf&awmYrSm}} [k qkdav\/ usef. ]]tdk .aeY t&ufaomufNyD. .yJ nDav. [lwef. usef.wpfcef. rrmrusef.Edkif"m.uav? rdef.ckdcef.&aBumif.wmyJa[Y/ wkdY owdkYorD.ifyJaygY? olYorD.u awmifay:odkY tNrefNyefNyD. twlygvmaBumif. rSwfaewkef.qHk. &Sif.fY vlBuD.qef .pGm raysmufao. rdwfqufay.a&SYwGif &yfvkdufav\/ xdktcsdefwGif &Dvifwef..}} usef.fY [dkwpfaeYu urf. .&JY tazu [efY&efûrdYu emrnfausmf odkif.mufwnf.if.qef.yJuG? wkdYnDtpfudkwawG q&m&JY tESpfwpf&marG. .vmcJY&m vrf. .em.Buav&m rrmrusef.acR.wpfa. .aeYtwGuf ypönf.acR. nDav.qef.womNzifY ]]nDav.iHkYaevkduf\/ xkdYaBumifY &Dvifwef.acR. csifvd&SefrSmrl usef.acR.ab.udk Bum.vSnf. t&yfNrifYvmygvm.xGufvmNyD. .NzifY aemufNrif. b.omoGm.twGif.wGif tem. . [kwfvm.NyefBum.}}[k qdkavonf/ &Dvifwef.acR.usdKif. oD..f&ef [lwef.acR. . csifwl.uav.eJYNzpfaeNyDuG? t&ifq.acR.Nyefvmwm r[kwfbJ uRefawmfYtwGuf r&D.&ef awmif.onf csifvd&Sef\ vufudkqGJvsufrS &Dvifwef.wGif tem.u csifvd&SefvufudkqGJí .qef.qdkav\/ xdktcg &Dvifwef. .wl.wl wnf.wGif wnf. . .vsuf .rSm 'Pf&maumif.qef. .u b.u usef .}} [k Nyefí toHûyvkduf\/ xdktcg csifvd&Sefonf awmtkyfxJrS aNy.udk taBumif.qef. .NyD.tm.Nyvkduf\/ NyD. Nrif. . csif v d & S e f ? nD a v.qHkusD. .oefYay.qHkusD.yef.av\/ rSefonf/ xdkolum.}} &Dvifwef.uG}} csifvd&Sefu raNz/ &SufpEdk.\/ .Nyavonf/ xdknwGif olwdkYonf wnf. . .fyHkb.vnf. aNcqHk.acR.mufuYJ oYdk xGm.

& pum.aumif.D yif Nzpfyg\/ trSefrl usef.awmifay: taqmifBuD.u wHcg.acR.ygawmY\/ aemufwpfaeYwGif olwdkYc&D.0if. zrf.wkdYtm.mufonf rawGY&onfrSm BumNyDNzpfí tm.acR. tvsif oGm.udk oGm.qufxGufcJY&m vrf.qef.acR.zGifYay.*dkPf. xdkNrifrsm.NyefvSnfYNyD. .vkduf&yg\/ ]]tpfudk usef. usef. (24) [lwef.}} rSeo f nf/ tcef.&Spfaumif &yfvsuf&dSonfudk awGY&NyD.rSm olwdkY [lwef.awmifay:odkYwufNyD.qHk.rS Nrif.tm.qef.u . }} [k qdkav\/ 216 .aepOfrSmyif tNyifbufrS wHcg. [efaqmifol\ taBumif. usef&dSaom *kdPf. .ckEpS af zmfxrJ S eHygwfav.csif.onf olwdkY nDtpfudkxJwGif ÓPftxufNrufqHk.tm.Edkif"m.rsm.onf usef.[lusif.udk Bum.acgufoH Bum.pNrnf aNymBuavawmYonf/ usef.aygufuyJ 0ifBupdkY . olu [lwef. Nzpfaomfvnf.qHkusD.oGm.yif Nzpfyg\/ xkdnwGif olwdkY*kdPf. .acR. usef.qHkusD.wGif vrf.f qHu k s.acR.olr[kw/f [lwef. csifvd&Seftm.wl nDtpfudk av.atmif e*g.vQifBum. usef.NyD.r[kwfaBumif.fwrf.awGYcdkif.onf/ xkdtcdkuf &kwfw&uf usef.awmifodkY a&mufvmBuavawmY\/ olwdkYonf [lwef. use.u usef. awGY&\/ xdkYaBumifY usef. .ckESpfazmf NyefqHkNyD olwdkY pum.wGif wpfnom tdyfNyD.aom rGef*kdppfom.qHkusD. tcef.wuúodkvf aevif.qef.qef.udk aNymNyaomtcgwGif olvnf.wwfatmif NzpfoGm.&yg.&rnf[k aNymaomfvnf.a.? tawGYtêuHtrsm. wu. &SmazGvmcJYNcif.qef.vdkuf&NyD. ]]igwkdY ausmif. taBumif.qD.omtm.xJrSm {nfYonfawG a&mufaeNyD? igwdkY aemufbuf wHcg.\ 0rf.c&D.& atmfvkdufoHudk Bum.wlnDtpfudkrsm.wpf0uf ta&mufü raeEkdif rxdkifEkdifNzpfum csufcsif.aemuf [lwef.Bum.pm.qHkusD.\ tNyifbufwGif Nrif.wdkY Nyefa&mufvmaomowif.xJoYdk 0ifvmolrmS tNcm. rpOf.

onf olYtpfudkBuD.vm.qef.twGif.awG ay:vm&if tpfudkBuD.acR.av.tm.q&mBuD. tpfudkBuD.omaysmfNrL. &dSae&m usef. .onf &Dwdkuf&Tif\ tcef.vkdufNyef\/ csifvd&Sefu .rl þtmrcHXme oH.mufrSm . .faemf}} olonf xdkokdYaNymNyD.ESifY pum. csdK&Tifacsmif. . . rsufESmrSm yg.Hkbl.}} ]]nDaxG.atmif e*g. .tm.eJY nDaxG.? wkduf&Tife.acR. rsuf&nfusrdav\/ xkdYaemuf usef.xJrS xGufvmNyD.}} csifvd&Sefu &. ]]nDav.aum}} [k ar.aNymaeBuonfudk awGY&avawmY\/ tpfudkBuD. tultnDawmif. tNyifbufrSyif OD.wpfa.fu [lzeftmrcHXme&JY odkif.csuefawmYvkduf&av\/ NyD.Ekdifaom tNzpfqdk.av.tm.? tpfudk uefYvefYumaemufuaeNyD.rsm.raqmifxJrSm {nfYonfawGudk {nfYcHaeygw.vdkuf&av\/ ]]usKyftpfudkBuD.xkdifwGifxdkifí {nfYonfrsm.av\/ tcef.qef.? rkwfqdwfarT.farmvsuf .yif r[kwfygvm. ukvm.qef.vQif tcef.f}} csifvd&Sef\ pum.apmifYav.xJwGif psmef0ifaeoNzifY usef.orm.acR.rSm udk.zkef.ae&w.udkom tvGef awGYcsifae\/ odkYaomf usef.wuúodkvf aevif.qef.avmurSm aNz&Sif.acR.&JY pum.fausmfcefY &SdaeayNyD/ odkYaomf armfukqef.qef.&dS vltm.arT.Buav\/ usef.oHudkyg Bum.u toufom BuD.qef.qef.NyD.armfukqef. ]]{uEÅ olwYkd &YJ &wemypön.wpfaumiftvm. .ftpfukd? olwkdYu tmrcHXmeu odkif.mufu bmvkyfBuwmvJ nDav.mufuawmY aeNynfawmfu &uf&Tif tmrcHXme&JY odkif.wHcg.fcE¨m 0zkdifYvmNyD. wpfcsufwek v f yI o f mG .eJY nDaxG.fAs? odkif.u .BuD.d NzifY apmifYaeav\/ odkYaomf twefBumatmif apmifYonfYwkdif Nyefrvmaomtcg tcef. ]]cef. ar.fuvJ}} ]]tmrcHXmeu vlawGav}} xkdtcsdefwGif usef. &kwfw&uf BunfYvdkufvQif rdrdxufyif ydkí &ifYa&mfaeonf[k xifvkduf&\/ xkdpOf armfukqef./ ]]olwdkY oHk. .&cufwJY udpöBuD.oGm.q&mBuD.u usef.qef.? olu bmtwGuf {nfYonfawGeJY pum.vQif usef.&NyD.ESifYtwl csifvd&Sefvnf.onf olYtpfuBkd uD.bufokdY ull. r[kwv f Ydk olwYkd u r.av.q&mBuD.udkBum.ay. uHk.wHcg.acR.eJY nDaxG.udk oGm.aysmif. .ao. qHyifvnf.rSm olYtcef.pm.? tckESpfawGrSm tpfudkBuD. [kdpOftcgu usm.SOEf idk w f meJY tpfudkBuD.0if.u wpfqdk wpfyJ? usKyftpfudkBuD.udkwGJí eHab.fY pdwf"mwfuawmY tvsifu twdkif.qef.ayguf0rS 0ifvkdufBuavonf/ xdktcg ausmif. rodrom zGifYBunfYvkdufonf/ xdktcg olYtpfudkBuD. ]][kwfw.qef. &TifaumY? aemufwpfa. vkomG .wJYvu l vJaygYao. oefrmcJYaom vlwpfa.f}} [k aNzonf/ usef. uefYvefYumaemufodkY avQmufoGm.aomf usef.acR.vmayr. tNzLwpfcsdKY aygufa&mufaeonfudk awGY&\/ armfukqef.wGif olwYkd NyefvmEk.q&mBuD.rSmrl toufESpfq.acR.qef.av\/ ]]{nfYonfawGu b.av.acR. oHk.mufygyJ? usif.uom oGm.odkY a&mufaeonfudk awGY&aomtcg usef. [kdwkef.apmifYtm. Nzpfaew.u NzefaNza&.acR. .rSmrl olYq&musef.ESifY nDaxG.aerd\/ 217 .ukdawmif cifAsm.u csifwl.a.a.odkif. vGefpGm awGYcsifvm\/ xdkYaBumifY olu .onf rsuf&nfokwf&if.wm NzpfrSmaygYtpfudk? tpfudku rodbl.usdKYwkdygyJ tpfudk}} usef.vke.\/ xkdYaemuf uefYvefYumtm. xlvyspf NzpfaeNyD.onf olYq&m\ tcef.k rSm emrnfBuD. okdYNzifY usef.aNz&Sif. .fu [l&eftmrcHXmeu odkif.ygyJvm.u ydkíaocsmatmif csifvd&Seftm.\/ taBumif.wkdYu r.acR. csdK&Tifacsmif.BunfYvkduf\/ xdktcsdefwGif &Dwdkuf&TifrSm tdyfpufae\/ &Dwkduf&Tif\ rsufESmrSm NzLa&mfydefcsdKifYaeonfudk awGY&NyD.qef.qef. ]]tpfudkBuD.wll.udk vmNyD. .av.acR.k ckpvH.Edkif"m. ar. tmrcHXmersm.acR.aeygvdrfY}} [k pOf.f aysmufomG .udk awGYcsio f NzifY taemufbuf tcef. tcef.zkef.ckrl rvIyfEdkifr&Sm.BunfYvdkufOD.oGm.onf vGefpGm pdwfxdckdufoGm.apmifYav.vHk.qef.muf ab.roD&efrc Nyefa&mufvmonfudk awGY&aomf vGefpGm 0rf.\ pum.r. xif.

vHk. usKyf e J Y vm&S i f .Edkif"m. wpfa.odrfarGYw.u xkdvlBuD.pk tmrcHXme wpfckvHk.acR.}} usef.? {uEÅ igY tpfudkBuD.qef .u vlawGuaum rkom.fY usKyfwYdkukd [lwef.aNymp&m rvdyk gbl.u usKyfwkdY nDtpfudkxJrSm odkif. xif.f avmuvlawG tm. ]]vufpowfawmY 'D odkif.k OD.udk odik . . &ifwpfcsuf wkefoGm.mufu usKyf t pf u d k usef .rd\/ xdkpOf cE¨mudk. vufpowfawmY a&Tig.wdkY [lwef.f}} csifvd&Sefvnf.&onfESifY vGefpGm a'goxGufNyD.av\/ csd K &T i f a csmif .muf aemufwGifawmYrl vlig.rcHXmeu vlawGtm.acR.wJYval wG r[kwaf yr.&oNzifY rsufESm wpfcsufysufoGm.wmyJ Nzpf&r.? aemufqHk.f? 'gayr.acR. oHk.fodkY wpfvSrf.NyD.f? pmayvJ awmfw.frS xGufí aNym&ef[efNyifvkduf&m usef. .qef.yJ? cifAsm.ckepfazmf&YJ *kPo f wif.vH. . uefYvefYum aemufuG.acR.acR.yg.qdkwm [kwfygw. .mufu igYtwGufeJY vdkufvmBuwmudk.wkYd oH. .\ rsufESmay:wGif emBunf.ygw. pdwfxJrS .aysmif. . vkyfwmvkdYyJrSefyg? tck cifAsm.pGyfpGJae&if aumif.udk. vufcsufeJY aocJY&w.f awmifYawmifY? wpfa.u usef.u aotwl&iS t f wlAs? ol&YJ upd u ö usKyf&YJ upd yö ?J cifAsm.muf[m okid .fY usef.\/ NyD.vkd Nzpfaeonfudk awGYvdkuf&yg\/ xdk{nfYonf oHk.fausmf t&G. .f r&dSygbl. ykwfcwf aNymqdkaeBuonfudk Bum. ]][lwef. tck awmifay:udk Nyefra&mufvmao.}} [k aNymNyD. . qGJxm. . .ynmrawmfygbl. . NzpfaeNyD. . Nid r f o uf a e&mrS .ckepfazmfu rkom. qGJxm. 218 .k onf touf ig.? wduswJY aeY&ufudk aNymNyygvm.? Nyefa&mufvdkY &dS&ifvJ usKyfu 'Dpum.f? 'gaBumifY usKyfwkdYu b. .ftcsdefrSm Nyefa&mufvmrvJrodbl. avQmufxGufoGm. .f}} [k awG.muf&yfvsuf&dS&m {nfYonfrsm.Hkp&m r&dSawmYygbl.rtv.aNrYaom trlt&may:aeonfudk Nrif&Nyefaomf em.atmif e*g. ud k Nyóem&S m csif & if tm.? a&Smifvifbkef.mufrSm ydefydefyg.wmusif.\ wynfYwyef.vQif cef.vQif .qef.q&mBuD.rvnfEkdifatmif Nzpf&Nyef\/ xdktcsdefwGif armfukqef. usKyfwkdYu cifAsm.u olYtpfudk usef.pum.r&dSatmif êud.q&mBuD.u .acR. .aysmif.fY a&Smifvif*dkPf.vkdufpOf armfukqef.*kdPf.u .k Bum.tm.acR. xdkvlrsm.fudpörqdk trSm.acR.udk xyfaNymrSmyJ? usKyfeYJ use.fawmifYawmifY vlBuD.\ avoHwGif rdrdwdkYtm. .f avmurSm emrnf odyBf uD.cifAsm.Gif.avmuf odkif.tmrcHXmeu vlawGtm.ckepfazmftaeeJY todtrSwf ûyBuygw.k a.vkduf&avonf/ xdktcg csifvd&Sefonf usef.&JY ae&mudk ar.a.bGif.qef.vkyfwmvdkY twif.acR.pvH.fvkdvJ? bGif. ]][lwef.tmrcHXme&JY udpöeJY vkdufvmBuwmudk. BunfYvu dk af omtcgwGirf l {nfYonf oH. raNymbl.f acR. .eJY vmawGYyg? 'gyJ}} odkif.}} [k awG.wkdY&JY oabmu b.tm.wkdYu tck olYudk a&Tig. towfcH&wmudkawmY 'Dtwdkif.}} usef.qef.}} armfukqef.vnf. .pufoGm. &SufpGef.? 'gayr.a.pum.wk d Y u 'D u d p ö r S m usef. .&JY rdom. . onf wpf c sd e f v H k .vkdufNyD. ]]'DrSm .fvkdY qdkwmu vHk.a. rwfwwf x&yfí .ck armf u k q ef .Ofaus.ynmvJ awmfw.t. aysmif . . .u rwfwyf&yfí us.bl. acR.yif Nzpfaeav\/ xdktcdkuf ydefydefyg. .acR.pm. wpfa.BuD. .u 'DvkdaNymrSawmY usKyfwkdYu r.qef. BunfYraeEkdifbl. ceJYvdkufoH a&maeonfudk Bum.qef.f? txl.aqG.csif. &ifwpfckvHk. b.af wGcsnf.tm.mufrSmrl a&m*gonfwpfOD.ukd owfw.bJ aNymBuAsm}}[k rmqwfqwf aNymvkduf\/ xdktcg odkif.qef.u olYtm. ]]csdK&Tifacsmif.favmifaom toHNzifY .vH k .fY wdk.&Nyef\/ ]]usKyfwYdk *dP k .qef. wk d Y wdkufckdufBuawmYrnfudkawGYaomf armfukqef.wkdYu rauseyf&if usKyf armfukqef. yg? cif A sm.qef.q&mBuD.NyD? 'Dudpö usKyf a[m'D armfukqef.tm. xif. aNymrSmvm.q.qef.NyD.wuúodkvf aevif. {nfYonfu . ES i f Y xif .? 'gayr. ]]usKyf&JY tpfudk usef.mufu cE¨mudk.\ toHudk Bum.fwdkif olwkdY rsufpdeJY wyftyfawGYwmyJ? a&Tig.f? tck usKyfwkdYtpfudk usef. ]]tif.f wlnt D pfukd ckepfa. . a'goxGufvmNyD Nzpf\/ olvnf. wpfzef {nfYonfrsm.qef.qHk. .rsm. at.&Tifaom trlt&mNzifY .f? vlvJ .odae&ygw. ]]uJ .yg. ûyH.f? usKyfwkdY nDtpfudkxJrSm olu oabmtaumif.vHk.0t"dyÜm.

.onf &kwfw&uf tcef.ck þodkif.&if. usKyfwkdY [lwef.f? q&mBuD. [J q&mBuD. tmrcHXmeu vlawG toH.wJY yk*d¾KvfawGusawmYrSyJ q&mBuD.yGJa&SYodkYNznf.yg xGufcGmoGm.qef. ]]wu.u Nyefra&mufao.Edkif"m. .qef. .q&m oHk. odkif.uefvHk.aemf}} csdK&Tiaf csmif.qef. . armfukqef. t&kdtaoay.f Edik Nf zpfum at.awmY tawmfcufaeygw. ]]tpfukd bmrS pdwrf yleYJ ? olwYkd a&Tig. wm0ef.vnf.fxJrSm t&IyftaxG. .zkef.f}} armfukqef.nif.fAs}} [k qkdav\/ usef.pGm qkdNyDNzpfyg\/ ]]cifAsm.tNzwfudkom usKyfwdkY cH. ñdSK.zkef.eJY awGYcsifygw.acR. .f}} armfukqef.laqmif&Gufaeygw. ]]cif A sm.awG trsm.? nDav.a.vsuf .tqHk. . a&Smifykef.0 rzdwfrpOfbJ yuwdtwkdif. . ]]usKyfq&mBuD.zkef. vHk.udk Nrifvdkufaomf £aNE´yif rqnfEkdifawmYbJ ayGYzuf EIwfqufaeavawmY\/ usef. k Yf u. . usef. vuf csufvkdY wpfcsdefvHk.vHk.mufa&SYrS vufzuf&nfBurf. .usdKYu ceJYûyH.awmuf emrnfBuD.*kdPf.w.BuD.aqmifoHk.a0.xJodkY aNy. 0gBuD. &dSygao. .ESifYvnf.vQrf.xJrS vufzuf&nfrsm. kd u f kd rxde.u psmef0ifaew.aBumif.wGif tuÐsvuf&Snfp ESpfbufudk wpfcsufa0SY.q&moHk.q&m oHk.\ NrL.f? 'DawmYum cifAsm. NyefvmNyD}} [k 0rf.aomf ud.&Tifaeaom rsufESmrSm csufcsif.tmrcH Xme&J Y towf cH &wJ Y ud pörS m usKyf n D a v.f Ekid o f l Nzpfaomfvnf.lr.a.u xGufawGYrSm Nzpfw. olYtpfudkBuD.aomtcgusrSyif usef.zkef.wuúodkvf aevif. ]]tpfudkBuD.q&m oHk. csdK&Tifacsmif.ESifY awGY&ef rwefao. a&muf&wmAs? tpfudk wu.avmurSm vQrf.q&mBuD. .f? wu.&JY tqHk.vS\/ . usKyfwkdYtm.t"dyÜm.pufaNz.u psmef0ifaeowJY? [J .wdkY NyefEkdifygNyD}} olu pum.wk d Y oH k .& EIwfqufvkduf\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.0ifoGm.fvkdY twif. . .acR.mufu tpfudkYudk a&Tig.mufonf rsufESm tysufBuD.a.rsm.omvGef.atmif e*g.bl.vHk.tm.onf 0rf. . usef. aBuuGJaom oufNyif.&Sif.uefvHk.omtm.vkduf&NyD.a&mfoGm.f nDav.nif.}} [k 0ifaNymav\/ xdkpOf vlemyHkaygufaeaom odkif. olYpm.udkcs&if.k rusvkYd tpfu&kd w D u dk &f iT f tckvdk wpfoufv.pGyfpGJaew.onf vGepf mG pdwx f ed .}} 219 .? awmfBum tpfudk&Dwdkuf&Tif tdyf&mu Edk.vkduf&m xdkokdif.fvkdY okdif. apmapmu tmrcHXme&JY acgif. olYnDaxG.NyD.frSm &Sif.pGm usa&mufvmav\/ xkdodkY usa&mufpOf toHwkd. usef. cifAsm. .Buav\/ xkdYaemuf pum.f/ 'gayr.vHk.? udkif. .ESifYtwl vdyfwufoGm.wdk.pGyfpGJaew.fYudk êuHêudufcJygbdNcif. . tmrcHXmeu vlawGudk owfw.&JY udpörSeforQudk usKyf&JY tpfudkBuD.qef.\ pum.NyD.fY usKyfnDav. yef.muftaeNzifY olwdkY q&mBuD.aewmawmY r[kwfygbl. tBuHxkwfBuao. uHk.fYeJY usKyfwkdYa&mufvmwmeJYyJ q&mBuD.fvkdY olwdkY pGyfpGJwJYtwkdif.acR.BuavawmYonf/ xkdodkif.ynmudk Nrifaomf odkif.rSmvnf. qkdvdkNcif.mufu c&D. .mufESifYwuG wynfYwyef.kH 'ku©dwtNzpfrsdK.NyD.wkdY oHk.vmawmYrS tm.a. . rarQmfvifYbJ usef. qufvuf ayGYzuf EIwfqufav\/ armfukqef.tm.om wpfcsuf Bum. .udBk um. ]]'Dvkdqdk&if usKyfwkdY q&mBuD.wkdYu usKyfnDav. .qef.a.uyJ tm.? aemufNyD.Nyefa&mufvmawmYrSyJ 'Dudpöudk xyfNyD. ]]'DZmwfvr.a.u .raqmifxJrS xGufcGmoGm.qef.eufeJvSaom twGif.ûyH.yif wkefae&Smonf/ olu . xkpd um.r[kwfygbl.zkef.Buygvm.Asm? b. usef. .oNzifYtoHrsm. tmrcHXmeu vlawGudk owfrd&ifvJ taBumif.vnf.wmaygYav}} csifvd&Sefu usef.NyD.wpfavrQyif raNym0HYawmYbJ cef.BuwmaygY? tif.\ trlt&mudk BunfY&if. ysufoGm.a.yif &dSaeav\/ ol\ NrifYrm.acR.rsm. .muf u a&T i g.rf. .uvmwJY {nfYonfqdkawmY usKyfwkdY bmrS qufraNymcsifawmYbl.acR.rsm. .usdKYu . yef. ]]tpfudk .f? tNyifudk vHk.qef.yif Nzpfyg\/ vlem&kyfaygufaeaom uHk. vm&Sif. wpfcGef.qef. .qef.0rxGufEdkifao.onf avvdIif.qef. usef.

aumif. csifvd&Sef? rif.udk b.vnf.udo k m pdu k Bf unfYaeBuav\/ usef.vHk.fawmYrS rarYygbl.Edkif"m.mufu usef.\ q.mufuvGJvQif usefoltm.}} ig. .pGm em.acR.udk pdwf0ifpm.acR.qef.qef. &Dvifwef.onf usef.rIwfxkwfEkdifBuawmY\/ xkdYaemuf olwkdYtm. nDav.f? 'Dvkd wpfaqGvHk. aigufaecsdew f iG f usefig. bmawG avQmufaNymaewmvJ? 'Dpum. Nzpfay:aerdyg\/ twefBumrSyif olu .udk wpfvHk.vHk.xefaom a0'emudk cHpm.rusef &Sif. ]]a&Tig.uG a[}} &Dvifwef.NyavawmY\/ &Dvifwef.mufrS rowfcJYygbl.&if rif.wuúodkvf aevif.omoGm.ae&bdtvm.\ tawGYtêuH &Sif.u xdkpum.xJrSm oHk.udkBum.qef.Bu\/ olwkdYonf xkdtcgrSyif zl. owfwJYtvkyfu igwkdY odkif. ]][dwf ..Nref.acR. .udk uRefawmf wpfa. .onf usef.orm. wpfa.ceJ oufNyif. .atmif e*g. wpfrsdK.axmifBuav\/ 220 . ol q.acR..mufpvkH.fESpfumv tawGYtêuHrsm.vHk.udk ar.a.oGm.? uRefawmf[m q&mY&JY qHk.Buav\/ usef.0ifí .acR. tmrcHXmeu vlawGtm.udk tarSmifcef.v ydwfypfrSm aocsmw.qef.vHk.fESpfwm êuHawGYcJY&aom tNzpftysuftm.rBo0g' pum.\ rsufESmwGif Nyif.u csifv&d eS t f m.u &kwfw&uf Bum.aomf vGefpGm0rf.qef.Nycsufrsm.a.awG vkyfwJY tvkyfvm.vHk.udk q&m Bum.

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif

e*g;Edkif"m;

tcef; (25)
[lwef;awmifxdyfay:0,f
usef ; acR;qef ; onf xd k o d k Y q,f E S p f w mumv tawG Y t êuH r sm;ud k ol Y * k d P f ; wl nD t pf u d k r sm;tm;
&Sif;Ny&if;aemufqHk;wGif rzkH;ruG,fEkdifNzpfum olYZeD; csifwl;wl;u b,fyHkb,fenf; rdrd\ &kyfoGifESifYrNcm; 0wfpm;NyD;
tmrcHXmerS vlrsm;tm; owfcJYonfY taBumif;udkyg zGifY[aNymNyvkdufrdavawmY\/ xdkYaemuf olonf
usef;qHkusD;tm; . . .
]]tpfudk . . . tJ'D udpöudk b,fvdk &Sif;&rSmvJ[if? uRefawmfYudk tBuHay;prf;ygOD;}} [k qdk&Sm\/
usef;qHkusD;wkdY tm;vHk;rSm yg;pyfydwfai;aBumifoGm;Bu\/ twefBumrSyif usef;qHkusD;u . . .
]]'DudpöudkawmY q&mYudk wifNy&rSmyJ nDav;? 'gayr,fY tudkYtxifawmY nDrav; csifwl;wl;u tck
trSm;odoGm;vkdY trSefukda&mufvmwJYvl? 'DawmY olYudk cGifYvTwfzdkYoifYw,f? tpfudkBuD; uRefawmfaNymwm rSefovm;}}
csdK&Tifacsmif; bmaNym&rSef;rodatmif NzpfoGm;\/ taBumif;rl þudpörSm vlaygif;rsm;pGm\ toufESifY
ywfoufaeonfNzpf&m ol aNz&Sif;&cuf Nzpfaeavonf/ &Dvifwef;url acgif;ndwfí . . .
]][kwfw,f}} [k Nywfom;pGm axmufcHvkduf\/
csifvd&Sefonf olYtpfudk eHygwfESpfudk taBumufqHk;Nzpf\/ tpfudkBuD;u vGefpGm oabmaumif;olNzpfí
pum;aNym& vG,fvS\/ tpfudk eHygwfESpfrSmrl vGefpGm wdus Nywfom;ol Nzpf\/ xkdYaBumifY olYtpfudkESpfu
usef;acR;qef;\ ZeD; csifwl;wl;tm; cGifYrvTwfEkdifrnfudk vGefpGm pdk;&drfaeavonf/ ol &ifwrrESifY Nzpfaecdkuf
tpfudkESpf &Dvifwef;u acgif;ndwf axmufcHonfudkNrifaomf vGefpGm 0rf;omoGm;NyD;vQif . . .
]][kwfw,f? olrsm; ar;vm&if tpfudkusef;acR;qef;u 'DvlawGudk tpfudk rowfbl;vdkYyJ aNymaygY? tpfudku
vdrfwm nmwmrS r[kwfwm? wu,fvJ owfwmrS r[kwfwmaemf}}
221

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
csdK&Tifacsmif;u csifvd&Seftm; zswfceJ pdkufBunfYNyD; . . .
]]'DvkdyJ wpfcsdefvHk; bl;uG,faevkdY NzpfrSmvm;}} [k Nyefar;vkduf\/ csifvd&Sefu. . .
]]'Dvkdqdk&if b,fvkdvkyf&if aumif;rvJ tpfudkBuD;}} [k Nyefar;vkduf\/ csdK&Tifacsmif;u . . .
]]igY oabmuawmY q&mY&JY arG;aeYNyD;oGm;vkdY&dS&if igwdkYu nDav; usef;acR;qef;&JY uav;udk
t&ifoGm;&SmBur,f? aemuf oHk;vNynfYwJY aeYusrS &SufpGef;&JY udpöudk aNz&Sif;r,f? aemufNyD; igwkdY*kdPf;wl nDtpfudk
aNcmufa,muf&,f? nDrav; csifwl;wl;&,f tm;vHk;aygif;ckepfa,mufu odkif;avmuxJudkqif;NyD; wpfa,mufudk
aumif;rI q,fckpD ûyBu&r,f}}
usef;qHkusD;u oabmusvGef;í vufckyfvuf0g;wD;í . . .
]][m . . . odyfaumif;wJY tBuHyJ? a&Tig; tmrcHXmeu vlckepfq,fausmf aoqHk;cJY&wmudk &nfpl;NyD;
usKyfwdkYtm;vHk;u aumif;rIq,fckpD ûyvkduf&if vlaygif; ckepfq,fausmf&JY toufudk u,fvkdufovkd NzpfrSmyJAs}}
&Dvifwef;uvnf; . . .
]]tpfudkBuD;&JY tBuHu odyfaumif;wmyJ? q&mvJ oabmwlrSm aocsmw,f}} [k 0ifaNymonf/
usef;acR;qef;rSm þudpt
ö wGuf wpfcsdefvHk; pdwfvufraysmfr&Tif Nzpfae&mrS ,ck olY*dkPf;wl nDtpfudkrsm;u
odkufodkuf0ef;0ef;NzifY olYtwGuf þokdYvdkufygaqmif&Gufonfudk awGY&aomtcg vGefpGm pdwfvIyf&Sm;aeavawmY\/
0rf;ompGmNzifY . . .
]]'Dvkdqdk&if uRefawmf tckcsifwl;wl;udk oGm;aNymNyvkdufr,f}} [k qdkNyD; csufcsif;yif tdyfcef;qDodkY NyefoGm;NyD;
olYZeD;tm; aNymNyvkdufav\/ csifwl;wl;vnf; tvGef pdwftm;wufoGm;av\/ [lwef;aNcmufazmf\ tpGrf;tpESifY
ol\ om;av; usef;[lusif;tm; rkcs &SmawGYrnf[k ,HkBunfav\/ okdYNzifY csifwl;wl;onf pdwfvuf
&Tifvef;vmonfESifYtrQ a&m*gvnf; ododomom oufomvmavawmYonf/
oHk;av;&ufrQ BumaomtcgwGifrl usef;qef;zkef;onf reufNzefwGif rdrd\arG;aeY usa&mufawmYrnfrSef;
odoNzifY psmef0ifpm;Ncif;rS Nyefvnf &kyfodrf;vkdufavawmY\/
wynfYwyef;rsm;u rdrd\ þ ESpfw&m arG;aeYyGJwGif pnfpnfum;um; odkufodkufûrdufûrduf usif;yrnf
NzpfaBumif;vnf; odxm;\/ odYk aomf wynfY &Dwu
kd &f iT rf mS 'kuw
d© NzpfaeNyD; wynfY use;f acR;qef;vnf; aysmufcsi;f rvS
aysmufaeNyef&m olYtwGuf aysmf&TifoifYoavmuf raysmf&TifEdkifatmif Nzpfaeyg\/ xkdBum;xJrSyif rdrdonf
toufwpf&m NynfYonftxd aeEkdifcJYonfNzpfí uHaumif;vSonf[k rSwf,laerdav\/
þwpf B ud r f rd r d o nf &uf a ygif ; ud k ; q,f w d w d t cef ; yd w f í psmef 0 if a pcJ Y N cif ; rS m wu,f a wmY
xdkufusdodkif;ynmudk avYvmusifYoHk;aecJYNcif;om Nzpfyg\/ ,ckrl xdk xdkufusdokdif;ynmudk aumif;pGm
usifYBuHtm;xkwfrdNyDNzpf&m rdrd\ [lwef;*dkPf;onf odkif;avmuwGif ,cifY ,cifuxuf ydkí xGef;vif;
awmufyayawmYrnf Nzpfonf/ xkdYaBumifY usef;qef;zkef;onf ,aeY eHeufvif;onfESifY &ufaygif; udk;q,fwdwd
tvHkydwfxm;aom tcef;wHcg;udk zGifYí xGufvmonfESifY OD;pGm olNrifawGYvkduf&aom olrSm tNcm;r[kwf? ol
q,fESpfwdkifwdkif tpOfrNywf owd& wrf;waecJYygaom cspfwynfY usef;acR;qef;udkyif Nzpfyg\/ xdktcg
usef;qef;zkef;onf olYrsufpdudkyif olr,HkonfYtvm; usef;acR;qef; [kwfrS [kwfygavp[laom oHo,pdwfNzifY
rsufvHk;rsm;udk yGwfwdkufBunfYrdonftxd tHYBooGm;yg\/
,if;tcsed w
f iG yf if use;f acR;qef;onf &kww
f &uf uav;i,fwpfO;D yrm olYq&m\ &ifciG x
f o
J Ykd aNy;0ifvmNyD;
w&dIufrufruf idkaBuG;aeavawmY\/ EIwfrSvnf; ]]q&m . . . q&m}} [lí a&iwfouJYokdY wrf;wrf;wwyif
olYq&mtm; wpmpm ac:ae&Smavonf/ rSefonf/ usef;acR;qef;onf pdwfvIyf&Sm;vGef;oNzifY q&m&if;
usef;qef;zkef;ukdyifvQif t&dktaoay; OD;cs&rnfrSef;yif arYaeav\/ csdK&Tifacsmif; tygt0if usefwynfY
ig;a,mufurl q&mESifY rvSrf;rurf;wGif 'l;axmufí t&kdtaoay;&if; . . .
]]q&m nDav; usef;acR;qef; NyefvmNyD}}
]]q&m . . . tpfudk usef;acR;qef; NyefvmNyD}} [k [pfaBuG;today;vkdufBuav\/
usef;qef;zke;f vnf; vGepf mG 0rf;omoGm;\/ trSerf l usef;qef;zke;f onf tESpw
f pf&mtxd touf&iS v
f mcJYNyD;
tESpf&Spfq,fwdkifwdkif w&m;tm;xkwfcJYolNzpfí pdwftpOfrSm yuwd wnfNidrfckdifrmvS\/
222

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
okdYaomf olYwynfY ckepfazmfpvHk;tay:wGif om;&if;yrm cspfcifaeNyD; ,ckwpfzef xdkwynfYrsm;xJrS
aysmufcsif;rvS aysmufaecJYaom usef;acR;qef;wpfa,muf trSwfrxif Nyefa&mufvmonfudk awGY&aomtcg
ol\ wnfNidrv
f aS om pdwrf mS rvIy&f mS ;bJ taeEkid af wmYay/ usef;qef;zke;f 0rf;omvS\/ aysmf&iT v
f \
S / auseyfv\
S /
usef;qef;zkef;\ wynfYrsm;onfvnf; 0rf;omtm;&NzifYyif q&mNzpfoltm; udk,fvufaq;aBumokwfoif
ûypkay;Bu\/ NyD;vQif t0wftpm; topf vJvS,fay;vdkufBuonf/ xdktcsdefwGif usefacR;qef;onf q&mNzpfol
pdwfvuf&Tifvef;aepOf pdwfaemufusdaprnfY udpörsm;udk raNymao;bJ a&cJrD;awmifuRef;\ xl;Ncm;qef;Nym;aom
tNzpftysufrsm;udkom aNymNyvkdufonf/ usef;qef;zkef;onf wynfYNzpfol tdrfaxmifûyoGm;onfudk Bum;&aomf
ydkíyif 0rf;omoGm;\/ xdkYaBumifY . . .
]]rif;&JY ZeD;aum? olYudkac:NyD; igYudkvmawGYvSnfYav}} [k qdkav\/ usef;acR;qef;url 'l;axmufí . . .
]]q&m . . . uRefawmf tckvkd q&mY&JY cGifYûyrdefYr&bJ tdrfaxmifûywJYtwGuf uRefawmYfudk tNypfay;yg}} [k
awmif;qddkae\/
usef;qef;zkef;u ol\ NzLazG;aom rkwfqdwfarG;udk yGwfoyf&,farmvsuf . . .
]]rif;u wu,fvYdk tckvkd a&cJr;D awmifuRef;u NyefrvmEkid af o;bJ aemufxyf tESpaf v;q,f aeae&ifaum
rif;u igYqDrSm cGifYwkdifNyD;rS rdef;r,lawmYrSmvm;? tvum; uav;pum;awG? uJ . . .x? rif;rSm bmtNypfrS
r&dSbl;? usef;qef;zkef;rSm 'Dvkd tawG;tac: ryGifYvif;wJY wynfYrsdK; r&dSap&bl;}}
odkYaomf usef;acR;qef;u q&mYxHarSmufwGif 'l;axmufvsuf &dSaeqJyif/ usef;acR;qef;u qufí . . .
]]'gayr,fY olu rsufcHk;NzL*dkPf;csKyfBuD;&JY orD;Nzpfaeygw,f q&m}}
usef;qef;zkef;u rkwfqdwfarG;udkudkif&if; ûyHl;í . . .
]]'gvJ bmNzpfvkdYvJ? rif;&JY ZeD;u tusifYpm&dwå aumif;&if NyD;wmyJuG? olu tusifYpm&dwå raumif;vJ
wkdY&JY [lwef;awmifudk a&muf&if igwkdYu olYukd aumif;atmif ûyNyif&rSmyJ? rsufcHk;NzL*kdPf;vJ bmNzpfvkdYvJ
usef;acR;qef;? vlqw
kd m tNrifus,f&r,f? b,fawmYrS wkYd *P
dk ;f om tvGeo
f v
D aumif;wJY*P
kd ;f ? emrnfBuD;*dP
k ;f qdNk yD;
*kdPf;*PpdwfeJY olrsm;udk txifrao;&bl;? avmurSm taumif;eJY tqdk;qdkwm tifrwef cGJNcm;&cufw,f?
tusifYov
D aumif;wJY*P
kd ;f u *dP
k ;f om;wpfa,muf tusifYpm&dwå azmufNyefvm&if 'Daumif vlq;kd ? vlq;kd *dP
k ;f xJu
pdwfxm;NzLpifwJYvlqdk&ifvJ vlaumif;yJuG}}
usef;acR;qef;onf olYq&m\ pum;udkBum;aomf vGefpGm0rf;omoGm;\/ olY&ifxJwGif q,fESpfwdkifwdkif
&Iyaf xG;pGm ude;f 0yfaecJYaom NyóemBuD;rSm ,ck olYq&m usef;qef;zke;f \ pum;aBumifY vH;k 0 &Si;f vif;oGm;cJYav\/
xdt
k cgusrSyif usef;acR;qef;vnf; ûyH;ûyH;&Ti&f iT f Nzpfvmum 'l;axmufae&mrS rwfwwf &yfrad wmY\/ usef;qef;zke;f u
qufí . . .
]]rif;&JY a,mu©r rsufcHk;NzL*kdPf;csKyfBuD;udk igu tawmfav;udk txifBuD; av;pm;ygw,f? olY&JY
odkif;ynmudka&m? ÓPfynmudka&maygYuGm? olY&JYpdwf"mwfu enf;enf;xl;qef;vkdY olY&JY vkyfaqmifcsufawGu
wpfrsdK;csnf; Nzpf&wmaygY? 'gayr,fY olu atmufwef;uswJYvl r[kwfygbl;? igwdkYu 'DvleJY aumif;aumif;
rdwfaqGvkyfoifYygw,f}}
eHab;wGif em;axmifaeaom csdK&Tifacsmif;wdkY\ pdwfxJwGifrl . . .
]]q&muawmY nDav; usef;acR;qef;udk wu,fYudk odyfcspfwmyJudk;? 'gaBumifYvJ usef;acR;qef;&JY a,mu©r
'kp&kdufacgif;aqmifBuD;udkawmif taygif;toif; vkyfcsifw,fvkdY aNymwm}} [k a&&GwfvdkufrdBu\/
xdktcdkuf tcef;xJodkY tdrfapwpfa,muf 0ifa&mufvmNyD; . . .
]]rsuf c H k ; NzL *d k P f ; csKyf B uD ; u vl v T w f N yD ; q&mav; usef ; acR;qef ; twG u f vuf a qmif y pö n f ;
ay;ckdif;vkdufygw,f}}
odkif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;u ûyH;í . . .
]]aNym&if;qkd&if; rif;a,mu©rBuD;u r*FvmvufzGJY ypönf;vmay;NyDudk;? uJ . . . usef;acR;qef;? rif;
NrefNrefoGm;NyD; {nfYcHvkdufOD;}}

223

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
usef;acR;qef;onf usef;qef;zkef;pum;tqHk;wGif acgif;ndwfí xdkae&mrS xGufcGm&ef [efNyifvdkuf\/
xdkpOf csifvd&Sefu . . .
]]uRefawmf tpfudk usef;acR;qef;eJY vkdufoGm;r,}} [k cGifYyefvkduf\/
usef;qHkusD;u &,fí . . .
]][JY . . . csifvd&Sef/ tck[mu rif;a,mu©rBuD;u r*FvmvufzGJY vmay;wmrS r[kwfwmuG? rif;u
bmNzpfvkd 'Davmufawmif tavmwBuD; Nzpfae&wmvJ}} [k aemufvdkuf\/
csifvd&SefrSm rsufESmwpfckvHk; eDNref;oGm;\/ odkYaomf usef;acR;qef; aemufodkYrl qdkufqdkufûrdufûrduf
vkdufoGm;avawmY\/
cef;raqmifwGif t0wftpm; wpfa&mifwnf; wpfrsdK;wnf; 0wfxm;aom vlBuD;ESpfa,muf &yfvsuf
&dSae\/ olwkdYESpfOD;onf usef;acR;qef; xGufvmonfudk Nrifaomf a&SYodkYûydifwl wpfvSrf;vSrf;wufí 'l;axmufNyD;
t&kdtao ay;vkdufBu\/ EIwfrSvnf; . . .
]]tpfudkav;? uRefawmfwkdYu [lzkeJY [lvkyg}} [k EIwfqufvm\/
usef;acR;qef;u t&kdtao Nyefay;NyD;vQif olwdkYtm; rwfwwf&yfcdkif;vkduf\/ olYpdwfxJwGif tHYBoae\/
tb,fYaBumifYrl [lzk\ rsufESmwGif &Snfvsm;aom "m;'Pf&mudk awGY&NyD; [lvk\ rsufESmwGifvnf;
ausmufaygufrm&mrsm;NzifY NynfYESufaeaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ olwdkYESpfOD;pvHk;onf toufig;q,fausmfaeNyD/
usef;acR;qef;u . . .
]]a,mu©rBuD;udk usKyfeJY cifAsm;wdkY&JY rrav;u oGm;NyD; EIwfqufuefawmYrvkdYygyJ? 'Du udpöenf;enf;
&dSaeao;vkdY roGm;Nzpfwm? tckawmY usKyfwdkY roGm;cif a,mu©rBuD;u r*FvmvufzGJYawGvmay;NyDqkdawmY
tm;emp&mBuD; NzpfaewmaygYAsm? uJ . . . uJ . . . cifAsm;wkdYvJ c&D;yef;vmBuNyD? 'DrSm cPxdkifNyD;
vufzuf&nfBurf;av;aomuf? tyef;av; aNzvkdufygOD;}}
odkYaomf [lzkeJY [lvkwdkYu rxdkifacs/ olwdkYonf vufzGJYypönf;rsm; a&;rSwfxm;aom pm&if;udkxkwfí
usef;acR;qef;tm; w&kdwao urf;ay;vkduf\/ NyD;vQif . . .
]]ocifBuD;u rSmvkdufw,f? 'Dvufaqmifav; enf;enf;yg;yg;udk vufcHygwJY}}
usef;acR;qef;u aus;Zl;wifpum;aNymNyD; r*FvmvufzGJY ypönf;pm&if;udk zGifYBunfYvkduf\/
xkdtcg usef;acR;qef; wkefvIyfoGm;&awmY\/ taBumif;rl xdkpm&if;xJwGif vufaqmifypönf;
trsdK;aygif;ESp&f mausmf yg&Sad eaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/ xkYd Nyif t0wftpm; toH;k taqmif ypön;f rsm;vnf; renf;yif/
[lzkonf tNyifodkY vSnfYxGufoGm;NyD; txrf;orm;q,fa,mufausmfudk cef;raqmifxJodkY aowåmrsm;
wpfv;kH NyD;wpfv;kH xrf;0ifvmckid ;f vku
d \
f / usef;acR;qef;rSm i,fpOfuyif taetxdik f tpm;taomuf &k;d pif;olNzpfí
þrQ rsm;Nym;vSaom a&TaiG &wemrsm;udk vdkcsifwyfrufaompdwf tvsOf;r&dSacs/ odkYaomf ,ckypönf;rsm;rSm
csifwl;wl;\taz olYa,mu©rbufrS ay;ydkYvkdufaom ypönf;Nzpfí vufrcHcsif cHcsifESifY vufcHvkduf&av\/
xkdtcsdefwGif csifwl;wl;vnf; ,if;owif;udk Bum;oNzifY tcef;xJrS xGufvmcJYav\/ a&mufaomtcg
rdrdtaz? tpfudkESifY tdrf&dSvlrsm;taBumif;udk ar;Nref;vdkuf\/ NyD;aemuf [lzk? [lvkwdkY ESpfOD;udk xrif;[if;
pm;aomufcidk ;f vku
d af o;\/ xdYk aemuf [lzek iS Yf [lvw
k Ykdonf tm;vH;k udk EIwq
f ufNyD; Nyefvnfxu
G cf mG oGm;Buavonf/
csifwl;wl;ESifY usef;acR;qef;wdkY tcef;xJokdY Nyefa&mufBuaomf csifwl;wl;u vufaqmifypönf;rsm;udk
vSefavSmBunfYvkduf\/ ,if;tcsdefü csifwl;wl;\ ESvHk;pdwf0rf;rSm txl;&Tifvef;aeav\/ olr\ rdbrsm;u
olr tay:wGif þa&GY þrQavmufyif aumif;onfudk awG;rdíyif Nzpfyg\/ odkYaomf csifwl;wl;onf BumBum
pd w f v uf r &T i f v ef ; Ed k i f y g/ om;av; usef ; [l u sif ; tzrf ; cH a e&onf u d k awG ; rd a omtcg &if x J qk d Y e if Y
aBuuGJoGm;&Nyefyg\/ xdkpOf usef;acR;qef;u . . .
]][lzkeJY [lvkwkdYu b,fvdkvlawGvJ wl;wl;}} [k ar;vm\/ csifwl;wl;u . . .
]][lzkeJY [lvk&,f? aemufwpfa,muf [lcsdKqdkwm&,f &dSao;w,f? olwdkYu oHk;a,mufwpfzGJY? olwdkY
oHk;a,mufu [dk vGefcJYwJY tESpf ESpfq,fausmfu taemufawmife,faNrrSm emrnfBuD;wJY "m;NyawGyJaygY?
aemufydkif;usawmY olwdkYoHk;a,mufudk odkif;orm;awG 0dkif;NyD; wkdufckdufBuwkef; tazeJY êuHêudufawmY tazu
olwdkYoHk;a,mufudk 0ifu,fvdkufw,f? 'geJYyJ olwdkYoHk;a,mufu wpfoufvHk; tazY&JY uRef,HkawmfBuD;tNzpf
224

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
vkyrf ,fvYdk uwdûyvku
d w
f myJ tpfu?kd tazud,
k w
f idk v
f J aNymw,f? 'Dvo
l ;kH a,muf&YJ odik ;f ynmu odik ;f avmurSm&dw
S YJ
emrnfBuD; odkif;orm; tawmfrsm;rsm;xufawmif ydkomowJY}}
xdkYaemufwGifawmYrl usef;acR;qef;onf tcef;xJrS xGufNyD;vQif ol\ *dkPf;wlnDtpfudkrsm;ESifYtwl
cef;raqmifBuD;tm; oefY&Sif;a&; vkyfBuavawmY\/ tvStyrsm;vnf; rGrf;rHNyifqifvkdufBu\/ taBumif;rl
aemufwpfaeYqdkvQifyif olwdkY\ odkif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;\ tESpfwpf&m arG;aeYobif qif,if&ayawmYrnf
r[kwfygvm;/ csdK&Tifacsmif;ESifY wynfYrsm;uvJ &Dwdkuf&Tiftm; t0wftpm;topfvJvS,fay;NyD; ayGYxlwGJavQmufum
q&mBuD;tm; *g&0ûy&ef Nyifqifae\/ xdkpOfwGifyif aemufxyf tdrfapwpfa,muf 0ifvmNyef\/ xkdtdrfap\
vufxJwGifrl zdwfpmwpfapmif udkifxm;onfudkawGY&\/
csdK&Tifacsmif;u tdrfapvufxJrS zdwfpmudk,lí zwfBunfYvkdufaomtcgwGifrl . . .
]]cGef;vGef*dkPf;csKyf [dkwdkufcsHK;eJY *dkPf;om;rsm;u q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;tm; *g&0ûy&ef vmygonf}} [k
a&;om;xm;onfudk awGY&avonf/
xdktcg usef;qHkusD;u wkefvIyfaom avoHNzifY . . .
]]cGef;vGef*kdPf;csKyfBuD;udk,fwdkif a&mufvmyga&mvm;? olu 'Davmufa0;vHwJY ae&muawmif
vm&w,fqdkawmY igwkdYu olYudk aumif;aumif;rGefrGef {nfYcH&rSmyJ}} [k qkd\/ csdK&Tifacsmif;uvnf; . . .
]]'Dvlu omrefvl r[kwfbl;? q&mudk,fwdkifxGufNyD; olYudkêudqdk{nfYcHckdif;rS xifw,f}} [k qkdonf/
xdkYaemufwGifrl olonf q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;tm; taBumif;Bum;vdkufavonf/ usef;qef;zkef;u . .
.
]]'D cGef;vGef*dkPf;csKyfBuD;u aNrNyefYudk wpfcgrS ra&mufzl;bl;vkdY Bum;&wmyJ? 'Dwpfcg olu q&mY&JY
arG;aeYudkawmif vmygvm;}}
odkYNzifY usef;qef;zkef;onf wynfYaNcmufa,mufESifYtwl xGufí êudqdkvkduf\/ cGef;vGef*dkPf;csKyf
[dkwdkufcsHK;rSm tuÐst0ga&mif 0wfpm;NyD; trlt&m oGif[efu at;aq; wnfNidrfvS\/ trSefyif *dkPf;csKyf[laom
*kPfyk'fESifY nDnGwfvkdufavsmvS\/ olYaemufwGifrl cGefvGef*dkPf;om; &Spfa,muf ygvmonf/ xkdtxJwGif qD;0gESifY
a0Y&efwYdk twGv
J nf; ygvmav\/ usef;qef;zke;f u [kw
d u
dk cf sHK;tm; aus;Zl;wifpum;aNymNyD; t&dt
k ao ay;vku
d \
f /
csdK&Tifacsmif;wkdY aNcmufa,mufrSmrl 0gi,folrsm;Nzpfí [dkwdkufcsHK;tm; OD;cs uefawmY&avonf/
xdkYaemuf usef;qef;zkef;onf [dkwdkufcsHK;tm; {nfYcef;xJodkY zdwfac:vmNyD;vQif vufzuf&nfBurf;ESifY
pm;aomuf z G , f & mrsm; auR;arG ; &if ; pum;pNrnf aNymaeavonf / xd k p Of w G i f td r f a pwpf a ,muf u
zdwfpmwpfapmifudkif&if; 0ifvmNyef\/ csdK&Tifacsmif;u zdwfpmudk ,lzwfBunfYaomf cHk;wHk*kdPf;rS 0gBuD;yk*d¾Kvfig;OD;
a&muf&dSvmaBumif; od&av\/ 0gtm;NzifYwGufvQif þcHk;wHk*dkPf;rS odkif;orm;BuD;ig;OD;rSm usef;qef;zkef;xuf
i,fav\/ odkYaomf usef;qef;zkef;onf tqifYtwef; cGJNcm;wwfol r[kwfí oluyif ae&muxNyD;
xGufêudvkduf\/ cGef;vGef*dkPf;csKyf [dkwkdufcsHK;\ pdwfxJwGifrl . . .
]]cHk;wHk*dkPf;u vlig;a,mufudk olYwynfYwpfa,mufvTwfNyD; êudckdif;vJ&wJYOpöm? bmNzpfvkdYrsm;
udk,fwkdifêud&ygvdrfY}} [k awG;aerd\/
xdkYaemuf ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif vufoD;bk&if*dkPf;? [dkifqm;*kdPf;? a0vig;*kdPf;ESifY tNcm;aom*kdPf;rsm;\
acgif;aqmifxdyfoD;rsm; wzGJzGJa&mufvmBuavawmY\/ {nfYonfrsm; þrQrsm;Nym;pGm a&mufvmonfudk
awGYaomtcg usef;acR;qef;wdkY nDtpfudkrsm;rSm vGefpGm tHYBovmrdBuav\/
usef;qHkusD;u {nfYonfrsm;tm; êudqdk{nfYcH&if; toHwkd;wdk;NzifY usef;acR;qef;tm; ar;vkdufav\/
]]nDav; rif;b,fvkdNrifovJ}}
usef;acR;qef;u . . .
]]olwdkYudkBunfY&wm tcsif;csif; csdef;NyD;vmBuovdkyJ? olwdkY wpfzGJYeJYwpfzGJY awGYBuwmawmif tHYBo[ef
rNyBubl;tpfudk}}
usef;qHkusD;u . . .
]][kwfw,fuG? olwdkYu q&mYudk wu,fYpdwf&if;eJY vmNyD; *g&0ûyzdkY r[kwfbl;}}
]][if . . . 'gNzifY olwdkYu &efaBuG;awGudk &Sif;zkdYvmBuwmyJ? aemufNyD; uRefawmfY&JY tpfukdBuD;
&SufpGef;twGufvJ ygw,fAs}}
225

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif

e*g;Edkif"m;

tcef; (26)
arG;aeY {nfYonfrsm;
xd k p Of aemuf x yf zd w f p mwpf a pmif a&muf v mNyef a vonf / þwpf B ud r f w G i f 0gar*k d P f ; rS
*dkPf;csKyfq&mBuD;\wynfY usifY&Tif;q&mav;ESifY *dkPf;wlig;a,muf a&mufvmBu\/
csd K &T i f a csmif ; ES i f Y &D v if w ef ; rS m wpf a ,muf u d k w pf a ,muf B unf Y & if ; ûyH ; vsuf N zif Y csif v d & S e f t m;
BunfYvdkufBuav\/ xdktcsdefwGif armfukqef;? usef;acR;qef;ESifY usef;qHkusD;wkdYuvnf; tuJcwfrdoGm;BuoNzifY
tm;vHk; csifvd&Seftm; ûyH;í BunfYvkdufBuav\/ csifvd&SefrSm &Sufudk;&Sufuef; Nzpfae&Sm\/ usef;acR;qef;u
olYvufudkqGJí ûyH;&if; . . .
]]vm vm? rif;eJYigeJY {nfYonfawGukd oGm;êudBu&atmif}} [k qdNk yD; xGuêf udBu\/ ESpOf ;D om wHcg;rBuD;qDoYkd
a&muf o G m ;Buaomtcsd e f w G i f r l usif Y & T i f ; q&mav;tm; awG Y v k d u f & \/ usif Y & T i f ; q&mav;rS m touf
av;q,fausmfrQ&dSNyDNzpfaomfvnf; udk,fvHk;udk,faygufrSmrl awmifYwif;zGHYûzd;vsuf/ NyD;vQif rdef;rom;Nzpfaomfvnf;
omrefa,musfm;rsm;xuf acgif;wpfv;kH ydNk rifYaeonfukd awGY&avonf/ usifY&iT ;f q&mav;\ aemufausmbufwiG rf l
*dkPf;wlig;a,mufygvmNyD; xkdtxJü a,mufsm;av;wpfa,mufom ygvm\/ usefrdef;uav; av;a,mufwGif
ESpaf ,mufrmS r,fov
D &SiNf zpfNyD; ESpaf ,mufrmS rl rde;f rysKd av;rsm; NzpfBu\/ rde;f rysKd wpfa,mufrmS ûyH;pp trlt&m&dNS yD;
tNcm;wpfa,mufrSmrl acgif;iHkYxm;&if; tuÐspudk vufNzifY [dk[dk'D'D aqmYupm;aeav\/ xkdrdef;rysdKav;um;
csifvd&Sef\ ZeD;avmif; usda&Smifrlyif Nzpfyg\/
usef;acR;qef;u a&SYrS OD;aqmifí olwYkd aNcmufa,muftm; cef;raqmifxo
J Ykd zdwaf c:oGm;\/ csifv&d eS v
f nf;
aemuf r S xyf v d k u f v monf / csif v d & S e f o nf vG e f p G m &S u f u d k ; &S u f u ef ; Nzpf a e&S m onf / ol o nf
vlawGtm;vHk;a&SYokdYa&mufoGm;awmYrS usda&Smifrltm; wdwfwqdwf acsmif;BunfYvkduf\/ ,if;tcsdefwGifyif
usda&Smifrlvnf; acgif;uav;iHkHYí olYtm; acsmif;BunfYvkduf&m rsufvHk;csif;qHkrdoGm;Buav\/ xkdpOf usda&Smifrl\
*dkPf;wlnDrav;u ]t[rf;} [k acsmif;wpfcsuf [efYvkduf&m ESpfa,mufpvHk; &SufoGm;NyD;rsufESmwpfckvHk; eDNref;vsuf
uref;uwef; tBunfYvTJvkdufBuav\/ usda&Smifrl\ *dkPf;wlnDrav;u cpfceJ&,fNyD; toHwkd;wdk;NzifY . . .
]]tpfr? [kd tpfudkav; csifvd&Sefu tpfrxufawmifydkNyD; &Sufwwfao;w,faemf}} [k qdkav\/
227

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
usef;qHkusD;wpfa,mufuawmYrl wpfcsdefvHk;vkdvdkyif rdrdbufESifY {nfYonfbufrS tiftm;udk csifYcsdef
wGufqvsuf&dS&m ,ckwpfzef 0gar*kdPf;rS {nfYonfaNcmufa,muf xyfrHa&mufvmonfudk awGY&aomtcg
tenf;i,f pdwfat;oGm;av\/ pdwfxJrSvnf; . . .
]]usda&Smifrlu nDav; csifvd&SefeJY apYpyfxm;wJYvlqkdawmY awmfBum pum;eJYaNz&Sif;vkdY r&wJYtcgus&if
olwdkYu b,fenf;eJYrqdk igwdkYbufuae tultnDay;rSm aocsmw,f}} [k awG;aerd\/
csdK&Tifacsmif;wkdYurl bmrQ êudwifNyifqifxm;Ncif; r&dSoNzifY {nfYonfrsm;tm; xrif;NzLESifY oufowffvGwf
[if;vsmNzifYom {nfYcHae&avonf/ {nfYonfrsm;onf pm;aomuf&if;uyif rsufvHk;tBunfYu wHcg;rbufodkYom
a&mufaeBuonfudk awGY&\/ olwdkYonf wpfa,mufa,muftm; apmifYqdkif;aeBu[ef wlav\/ csdK&Tifacsmif;u
{nfYonfrsm;tm; taotcsm tuJcwfBunfYvdkuf\/ acgif;aqmif xdyfoD;rsm;rSm *kPfodu©maBumifY vufeufrsm;
rygBuaomfvnf; i,fom; wynfYrsm;\ cg;Bum;wGifrl azmif;a,mifa,mifaeí vufeufrsm; 0Suf,lvmaBumif;
od&avonf/ usef;qHkusD;vnf; pdwfxJwGif pOf;pm;&usyfae\/
]]'DvlawGu b,folYudk apmifYaeBuwmvJ? cufwmu q&muvJ olY&JYoli,fcsif; rdwfaqGawGudk arG;aeYrSm
vHk;0zdwfavYr&dSbl;? EkdYrkdY&if igwdkY 'Dvkd wpfzufouf tm;enf;p&m taBumif;r&dSbl;}} [k qdk\/
&Dvifwef;uvnf; toHwkd;wdk;NzifY . . .
]]igwdkY apmapmydkif;u pDpOfxm;wmu q&mY&JY arG;aeYusif;yNyD;rS olwkdYudkzdwfNyD; 'DudpöawGudk &Sif;r,f?
tJ[dk tcsdefus&if igwdkYuvJ igwdkYbufuvlawGudk ac:xm;rSmyJ? aumif;aumif;rGefrGef aNz&Sif;vkdYr&&ifvJ igwkdYu
aBumufp&m r&dSbl;aygY? tckawmY olwdkYbufu vufOD;NyD; &kwfw&uf vlpkvla0;eJY igwkdY [lwef;*kdPf;udk
vm&Sif;wmudk;}}
usef;qHkusD;uvnf; wdk;nSif;pGmNzifY . .
]]taNctaeu 'Dtxd a&mufaerSawmY igwkdYu bmwwfEkdifOD;rSmvJ? toufpGefYNyD; igwkdY*dkPf;&JY odu©mudk
umuG,fBu&kHyJ &dSwmaygY}}
csdK&Tifacsmif;rSm *kdPf;wl nDtpfudkxJwGif usef;qHkusD;om ÓPftaumif;qHk;NzpfNyD; b,favmufyif
aNz&Sif;&cufcJaom NyóemyifNzpfap olu aNz&Sif;EkdifcJYNrJNzpf&m ,ckaomf usef;qHkusD;udk,fwkdifu þodkYþES,f
aNymvmaomtcg taNctae vGefpGmr[kwfrSef; em;vnfvdkufav\/
xdkpOf usef;qHkusD;u &kwfw&uf . . .
]]wpfenf;awmY &dSw,f? igwdkY nDtpfudk aNcmufa,mufu wpfa,mufpD ypfrSwfwpfckpD &Smxm;Bu? awmfBum
pum;eJYaNz&Sif;vkdYr&wJY taNctaeus&if igu ]tr,fav;} vkdY wpfcsufatmfNyD; tcsufNyvdkufr,f? tJ'Dtcgus&if
igwkdYaNcmufa,mufu vQyfwpfNyuf olwdkYbufu aNcmufa,mufudk zrf;csKyfxm;vdkufr,f? 'Dvdkqkd&if olwkdYu
olwdkYvlawG igwdkYvufxJrSm &dSaeao;awmY vkyf&JrSm r[kwfawmYbl;}}[k qkdavonf/

228

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif

e*g;Edkif"m;

tcef; (27)
pdefac:yGJBuD;
tcsdefum; {nfYonfawmfrsm; pm;aomufNyD;pD;NyDNzpfí tdrfap tvkyform;rsm;u yef;uefrsm;tm;vHk;
odrf;qnf;aecsdef Nzpf\/ xkdpOf usef;qHkusD;u toHudkNrSifYí . . .
]]BuGa&mufvmBuwJY q&mBuD;wkYd taygif;toif; a&mif;&if;wkYd ? 'DaeY[m uReaf wmfwYdk q&mBuD;&JY tESpw
f pf&m
arG;aeY Nzpfygw,f? 'DarG;aeYudk q&mBuD;wdkYu *kdPf;ol*dkPf;om;awGudkyg wpfygwnf;ac:vmNyD; uRefawmfwkdY
q&mBuD;&JYarG;aeYudk vma&muf*kPfûytm;ay;wmudk trsm;BuD;aus;Zl;wifygw,f? 'gayr,fY uRefawmfwkdYbufu
auR;arG;{nfYcHwmrSm nHYzsif;wJYtwGuf cGifYvTwfapcsifygw,f}}
]]tck uRefawmfwkdY&JYq&mu q&mBuD;wkdYudk aemifvmr,fY oHk;q,f&ufaeYrSm 'D[lwef;awmifudk
xyfNyD;BuGa&mufBuzkdYzdwfac:vkdufygw,f? zdwfac:&wJYtaBumif;&if;uawmY uRefawmfY&JY*kdPf;wl nDav;
usef;acR;qef;u olY&JYq,fESpfwm tawGYtêuHukd aemifBuD; q&mBuD;wkdYtm;vHk;udk &Sif;NyzkdYyJ Nzpfygw,f}}
]]trSefqdk&if 'DaeY[m uRefawmfwkdYq&m&JY arG;aeYr[kwf&if oluaemifBuD;wdkYudk &Sif;NyrSm Nzpfygw,f?
'gayr,fY 'DaeY[m uRefawmfwkdYq&m&JY r*Fvm&ufNrwfNzpfvkdY aemufvmr,fY oHk;q,f&ufaeYudk csdef;qdkvkduf&Ncif;yJ
Nzpf y gw,f ? aemuf N yD ; 'D v k d a eYNrwf r *F v mrS m od k i f ; avmu&J Y 0d a &m"d u d p ö a wG u d k aqG ; aEG ; Ncif ; [m
edrdwfraumif;ygbl;cifAsm}}
]]'gaBumifY tck aemifBuD; q&mBuD;wkdY uRefawmfwkdY&JY [lwef;awmifudk a&mufawmifYa&mufcJ
a&muf v mwJ Y t cgrS m uRef a wmf w d k Y e J Y t wl w uG v k d u f N yD ; awmif & J Y a&S Y a emuf 0 J , m &I c if ; awG u d k Bunf Y z k d Y
zdwfac:ygw,fcifAsm}}
use;f qHu
k s;D \ pum;rSm vGepf mG xdrv
d \
S / olu {nfYonfawmftm;vH;k \ yg;pyfukd t&ifyw
d x
f m;vku
d Nf cif;yif
Nzpfyg\/ olonf taNctaeay: oHk;oyfí wriftm;vHk;udk aNz&Sif;rnf[k ydwfaNymvdkuf&m tu,fí
þaeYþtcsdefwGif þtaBumif;udkûyí aNymvmolonf [lwef;*dkPf;tm; wrif &efbufûyvdkNcif;om NzpfaBumif;
xif&Sm;apvkdNcif;om Nzpfavonf/
229

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
trSerf l {nfYonfrsm; ,ckuYJ oYkd [lwef;awmifoYkd pk&;kH í a&muf&v
Sd mNcif;rSmvnf; [lwef;*dP
k ;f udv
k ma&mufNyD;
Nyóem&Sif;&efyif Nzpfonf/ odkYaomf olwdkYonf odkif;avmuwGif emrnfBuD;vSaom [lwef;*dkPf;tm;omref
tcsed rf sKd ;wGif wpfO;D wnf; wpfa,mufwnf; vma&mufí &efbufûy0HYBuNcif; r&daS y/ ,ck tkypf Ek iS Yf a&mufvmBuíom
þvd k &ef û y0H Y aom owå d & d S v mBuNcif ; Nzpf o nf / od k Y &mwG i f ol w d k Y txJ r S wpf p H k w pf a ,muf u d k o m
t&dyftNcnfBunfYaerdBuNyD; Nyóemudk tpazmf&ef wHkYqdkif;aeBuavonf/ xdkpOfwGifyif cGef;vGef*dkPf;rS qD;0gu
&kwfw&uf rwfwwfx&yfí us,favmifaomtoHNzifY . . .
]]usef;qHkusD; cifAsm;u pum;y&d,m,feJY usKyfwkdYudk xdef;csKyfxm;zkdY rêud;pm;ygeJY? usKyfwkdYu trSeftwdkif;yJ
bGif;bGif;aNymr,f? 'Dwpfcg usKyfwkdYawmifay:udkvmwm[m q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;udk *g&0ûyzdkY&,f? &SufpGef;
tck b,frSm&dSw,fqdkwmudk ar;zkdY&,f? 'gygyJ}}
armf u k q ef ; onf a'goud k wpf c sd e f v H k ; xd e f ; xm;&m qD ; 0g\pum;ud k B um;aomf ceJ Y û yH ; ûyH ; í
pwifa'goaygufuGJavawmYonf/
]]aBomf . . . vufpowfawmY 'Dvkdudk;? 'gaBumifY 'gaBumifY}}
qD;0gu rsufvHk;rsufqefNyL;vsuf . . .
]]bm 'gaBumifYvJ}}
armf u k q ef ; u ]]usKyf u cif A sm;wd k Y usKyf q &mBuD ; &J Y arG ; aeYtwG u f *g&0ûywmud k a wG Y awmY
tawmftHYBooGm;w,f? aemufydkif; cifAsm;wkdYu vufeufawGudk udk,frSm 0SufNyD; ,lvmwmawGYawmY ydkNyD;awmif
tHYBooGm;w,f? tckusrS taBumif;&if;udk od&awmYw,fAsm? [if; . . .}}
qD;0gu tuÐsudk uref;uwef; cRwfNyD;aemuf . . .
]]a[Y armfukqef;? rif;taotcsmBunfYprf;? igYrSmvufeufygovm;}}[k atmfar;vkdufonf/
armfukqef;u [if;ceJ toHûyNyD;aemuf . . .
]]aBomf . . . [kwfom;yJ? 'gayr,fY . . .}}
olu pum;rqHk;rD &kwfw&uf qD;0gab;&dS vlESpfa,muf\ tuÐscg;pnf;udk vufNzifY qGJcsvdkuf\/
olYvufrSm vGefpGm vsifNrefay&m vlESpfa,muf ra&Smif&Sm;EkdifcifrSmyif cg;pnf;u NywfoGm;avonf/
wpfqufwnf;wGifyif ]xef; xef;} [laom toHESifYtwl "m;ESpfvufu atmufodkY ûywfusvmavawmYonf/
xdktcg tm;vHk; rsufESmysufoGm;Buav\/ qD;0gu us,favmifaomtoHNzifY . . .
]][kwfw,f igwkdY vufeufygvmw,f? wu,fvkdY usef;acR;qef;u &SufpGef; b,frSm&dSw,fqkdwmudk
zGifYraNym&ifawmY a[m'DvufeufawGeJY pum;aNym&vdrfYr,f}}
xdktcg usef;qHkusD;u ]tr,fav;} [k atmfvkdufvQif olwdkY*kdPf;wl nDtpfudkrsm;onf &efolbufrS
vlaNcmufa,mufudkvQyfwpfNyuf wkdufcdkufNyD; zrf;csKyfxm;Buayrnf/ okdYaomf xdkw'*FtcsdefwGifyif &kwfw&uf
bk&m;pm&GwfzwfoHrsm;Bum;vdkuf&\/ ,if;toHonf [kdta0;qDrS vGifYysHvmovdkvkd rdrd em; em;uyfí
&Gwfzwfaeoa,mifa,mif xif&aom vGefpGm xl;Ncm;onfY toHrsdK;Nzpf\/ xkdtcg okdif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;u
ûyH;í . . .
]]vufpowfawmY a&Smifvif*kdPf;&JY ausmif;xkdif q&mawmfBuD; cHk;0ef? cHk;usd? ckH;&SefYwkdY a&mufvmBuwmudk;}}
[k qkdav\/
rS e f o nf / ra&S ; raES m if ; rS m yif a&S m if v if b k & m;ausmif ; BuD ; \ 0gtBuD ; qH k ; bk e f ; awmf B uD ; oH k ; yg;
BuGa&mufvmBuonfudk awGYvkdufBu&\/ xkdtcg usef;qHkusD;onf ol\ ]tr,fav;} tcsufay;oHudk
atmfrnfûyNyD;rS ratmfbJ &yfxm;vdkuf&\/ tb,fYaBumifYrl olu ]tr,fav;} atmfvkdufonfESifY cGef;vGef*dkPf;?
cHk;wHk*dkPf;wkdYbufrS vlrsm;udk zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;onfyJxm;OD;? a&Smifvif*dkPf;rS þ0gBuD;q&mawmfoHk;yg;
a&muf&dSvmNyDNzpfí bmrQ tusKd;&dSrnf r[kwfaomaBumifYyif Nzpfyg\/
xdkpOf q&mawmfBuD;oHk;yg;tm; usef;qef;zkef;udk,fwdkifxGufí êudqkdvkduf\/ cGef;vGef*dkPf;csKyfBuD;
[dkwdkufcsHK;vnf; rwfwwf&yfí wav;wpm; êudqdkavonf/ usef{nfYonfawmfrsm;vnf;ae&mtoD;oD;
rwfwwf&yfí wpfûydifeuf êudqdkvkdufBuonf/
230

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
a&S m if v if a usmif ; bk e f ; awmf B uD ; oH k ; yg;\ aemuf w G i f r l ouf v wf y d k i f ; &d S bk e f ; awmf B uD ;
q,fYESpfyg;vkdufygvmBuonf/ a&Smifvifbk&m;ausmif;\ bkef;awmfBuD;cHk;0efrSm NzLazG;aom rsufcHk;arT;rsm;u
rsufcGHay:odkYwkdif &Snfusvmonfudk awGY&\/ cHk;&SefYq&mawmfBuD;rl udk,fvHk;udk,fxnfvGefpGm awmifYwif;NyD;
cefYnm;aom Oy"d&kyf &dSavonf/ cHk;usdq&mawmfBuD;um; rsufESmNyif&IHYrJYaeouJYodkY EIwfcrf;axmifYpGef;
ESpfbufrSmvnf; atmufodkYwGJavsmif;usvsuf&dSavonf/
usef;qef;zkef;u a&Smifvifq&mawmfBuD;rsm;tm; ae&mxdkifcif;ay;NyD;csdefwGif [dkwkdufcsHK;wdkYonf
bkef;awmfBuD;oHk;yg;tm; vma&mufEIwfqufBuonf/ a&Smifvifbk&mausmif; ausmif;xkdifq&mawmfBuD; cHk;0efrSm
vGefpGm pdwfwnfNidrfNyD; rmefrme r&dSacs/ q&mawmfonf 0gBuD;0gi,fra&G; vma&mufEIwfqufolwkdif;udkNyefí
EIwfqufpum;aNymqdkaeavonf/ tcsdefcPtBumwGifyif tm;vHk;EIwfqufNyD;pD;oGm;Buonf/ xdkYaemuf
ausmif;xdkifq&mawmfBuD; cHk;0ef vufzuf&nfBurf;wpfcGufaomufNyD;aomtcg q&mawmfBuD;u . . .
]]q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;? bkef;BuD;u 0gawmfeJYyJBunfYBunfY? oufawmfeJYyJBunfYBunfY bkef;BuD;u
i,fygw,f? 'gayr,fY 'DwpfcgawmY bkef;BuD;u aNymp&mpum;wpfcsdKY&dSvkdY bGif;bGif;yJaNymcsifw,f? pdwfr&dSygeJY}}
[k pwifNrGuf[avonf/
odkif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;rSm rlvuyif aysmfaysmfaewwfNyD; bmrQ tpGJtvrf;BuD;ol r[kwfí
&,fûyH;umNzifY . . .
]]bk e f ; awmf B uD ; oH k ; yg;u usKyf & J Y wynf Y usef ; acR;qef ; twG u f e J Y BuG v mwm xif w ,f } } [k
NyefvSefar;vkdufavonf/ cHk;0efq&mawmfu . . .
]][kwfygw,f? bkef;BuD;wkdYu usef;acR;qef;udkar;p&mtaBumif;ESpfck &dSaeygw,f? yxrtcsufuawmY
usef;acR;qef;u bkef;BuD;wkdY&JY*dkPf;om; wnfaxmifcJYwJY a&Tig;tmrcHXmeu vlawGudk tm;vHk;owfNyD; bkef;BuD;wdkY&JY
*kP
d ;f om;aNcmufa,mufuv
kd J owfcYJ w,f? tJ'u
D pd u
ö kd b,fv&dk iS ;f rvJ? 'kw,
d tcsuu
f awmY bke;f BuD;&JY*P
kd ;f wltpfukd
cH;k usufukd &Supf eG ;f uowfcYJ ygw,f? tck usef;acR;qef;u &Supf eG ;f b,frmS &daS ew,fqw
dk m odorl Ykd vYdk vmar;wmyg}}
usef;acR;qef;u &kwfw&uf rwfwwf&yfvkdufNyD; . . .
]]q&mawmfbk&m; . . . a&Tig;tmrcHXmeeJY a&Smifvif*dkPf;om;awGtm;vHk;udk wynfYawmfowfwm
r[kwfygbl;? wynfYawmfu q&mY&JY qHk;rpum;udk aNr0,frus em;axmifcJYygw,f? 'gaBumifY wynfYawmfu
rkom;pum; raNym&Jygbl;? 'DvlawG tm;vHk;udk owfwJYvlu b,folqdkwmwynfYawmfodygw,f? 'gayr,fY
taBumif;trsdK;rsdK;aBumifY raNymNycsifygbl;? 'kw,
d tcsufuawmY q&mawmfBuD; cH;k usuf ysHveG af wmfrw
l mudk vlwikd ;f
pdwfraumif;NzpfBuygw,f? 'gayr,fY &SufpGef;[m wynfYawmfeJY nDtpfudkawmfxm;ygw,f? &SufpGef; tck
b,frSm&dSw,fqkdwmudk wynfYawmfodayr,fY wynfYawmfu opömazmufNyD; zGifYaNymrSm r[kwfygbl;? wynfYawmf&JY
toufom taocHygYr,f? wynfYawmf tpfudkBuD;&JY ae&yfudkawmY zGifYaNymvdrfYr,f r[kwfygbl;? tck 'DudpörSmvJ
wynfYawmf&JYq&m? wynfYawmf&JY *dkPf;wlnDtpfudkawGeJY rqkdifygbl;? 'gaBumifY q&mawmfbk&m;wkdYu aNz&Sif;csif&if
wynfYawmf wpfa,mufwnf;eJYyJ aNz&Sif;awmfrlBuyg}}
usef;acR;qef;\ avQmufxm;csufrSm vGefpGm wnfBunfcefYnm;vSayonf/ cHk;0efq&mawmfu
usef;acR;qef;\ avQmufxm;csufrsm;udk Bum;awmfrlaomf bk&m;pm wpfcsufrQ &GwfNyD; pdwfxJwGif . . .
]]tdrf; . . . olYpum;u trSefawGvkdyJ? 'Dvkdqkd&if b,fvkdqufvkyf&rSmygvdrfY}} [k awG;aerdav\/
,if;tcsdefwGifyif &kwfw&uf Nywif;ayguf tNyifbufqDrS uav;i,f wpfOD;\ ]azaz} [k atmfvkdufoHudk
Bum;vkduf&\/ usef;acR;qef; tvGefwkefvIyfoGm;\/ ,if; ]azaz} ac:oHrSm olYom; usef;[lusif;\ toHyif
Nzpf\/ xkdYaBumifY olu . . .
]]om;av; . . . rif; NyefvmNyDvm;}} [k Nyefatmf aNymvdkuf\/ NyD;vQif uref;uwef;NzifY cef;raqmif
tNyifbufodkY aNy;xGufoGm;\/
,if ; tcsd e f w G i f vuf o D ; bk & if * d k P f ; rS vl r sm;u wH c g;ayguf w G i f &d S a eBu&m usef ; acR;qef ;
xGufaNy;awmYrnf[k 0dkif;0ef;wm;qD;xm;Buav\/ usef;acR;qef;onf om;udk awGYcsifaZm BuD;ae&m olu pum;rQ
NyefraNymEkdifawmYbJ vufESpfbufudkom eHab;odkY &dkufxkwfvkdufav\/
231

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
xdktcg vufoD;bk&if*dkPf;rS *dkPf;om;ESpfa,mufab;ESpfbufqDodkY vGifYxGuf vJusoGm;Buavonf/
xkdYaemuf usef;acR;qef; Nywif;ayguf tNyifodkY a&mufaomf xdk0ef;usifwGif vl&dyfvla,mifyif rawG&ygawmYacs/
]]om;av; usef;[lusif;}}
olu oHukefwifí toHûyvdkuf\/
odkYaomf wpfbufrS Nyefxl;oH vHk;0 rBum;&ygacs/
xdktcg usefvlrsm;onf usef;acR;qef; xGufaNy;oGm;Ncif; r[kwfaBumif;odí ae&mwGif &yfvsuf
taNctaeudk apmifYBunfYaeBuav\/
xdktckduf csifwl;wl;onf taemufbufcef;wGif aeae&mrS cifyGef;Nzpfol usef;acR;qef;u om;av;\
trnfudk ac:oHBum;oNzifY 0rf;omtm;&aNy;xGufvmNyD; . . .
]]om; . . . om;av; NyefvmNyD}} [k 0rf;yef;wom atmfaNym&Smonf/ usef;acR;qef;u . . .
]]tpfudk apmapmu om;av;&JY toHudk Bum;vkduf&ovdkyJ wl;wl;? 'gayr,fY tpfudk aNy;xGufBunfYawmY
bmrSrawGY&awmYbl;uG,f}}
csifwl;wll; pdwfysufoGm;\/ toHwdk;wkd;NzifYvnf; . . .
]]{uEÅ tpfudku om;av;udk owd&vGef;NyD; em;Bum;rSm;oGm;wm xifyg&JY}} [k qkdav\/
usef;acR;qef;u cPwmrQ awGa0 ai;aBumifoGm;NyD;aemuf acgif;udk cg,rf;vsuf . . . ‘
]]tpfudk rrSm;Ekdifygbl;? om;av;&JY toHudk taotcsm Bum;vkduf&wmyg}}
olu xkdrQomaNymNyD; csifwl;wl; {nfYonfrsm;ESifY awGYvQif Nyóem rsm;vmrnfpdk;aomaBumifY . . .
]]uJ . . .wl;wl;? rif; txJukd Nyef0ifomG ;awmY}} [k pum;pudk Nzwfvu
dk af v\/ xdYk aemuf usef;acR;qef;onf
cef;raqmifxJodkY Nyef0ifvmNyD; cHk;0efq&mawmfBuD;tm; t&kdtaoay;vsuf . . .
]]wynfYawmfu om;av;udk owd&vGef;vdkY tckvkd trlt&m ysuf,Gif;oGm;wm cGifYvTwfygbk&m;}} [k
avQmufxm;av\/
cHk;usdq&mawmfu . . .
]]usef;acR;qef;? rif;u rif;&JY om;av;twGuf 'Davmufawmif &l;&l;rl;rl; Nzpf&ao;wmyJ? &SufpGef; owfcJYwJY
vlawG 'Davmufrsm;wJY txJrSm rdb? om;orD; r&dSawmYbl;vm;}}
cH k ; usd q &mawmf B uD ; rS m cE¨ m ud k , f ao;ao;ñS u f ñ S u f r Qom Nzpf a omf v nf ; toH r S m rl vG e f p G m
BoZmanmif;vS\/ xkdYaBumifY usef;acR;qef; bmNyefvnfaNzBum;&rSef;yif rodawmYacs/
xdktcg cHk;0efq&mawmfBuD;u &kwfw&uf okdif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;bufodkY vSnfYí . . .
]]q&mBuD;u 'DaeY 'Dudpöudk b,fvkd&Sif;zdkY pdwful;ovJ}] [k ar;av\/
odkif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;u . . .
]]wynfYawmf&JY wynfYav;u wNcm;ae&mrSm rxl;cRefayr,fY olu q&morm;udkawmY rvdrfnm&Jygbl;?
olu a&Tig;tmrcHXmeu vlawGudk owfwm r[kwfbl;vkdY aNymcJYwJYaemuf olowfwm r[kwfygbl;? &SufpGef;&JY
ae&yfudkawmY olodygw,f? 'gayr,fY olu raNymNycsifvkdYwJY}}
xkdtcg cHk;usdq&mawmfBuD;rSm a'gowBuD;NzifY pm;yGJcHkudk vuf0g;NzifY NAef;ueJ &dkufvkduf&m pm;yGJcHk
aNcav;acsmif;pvH;k usdK;oGm;NyD; pm;yGrJ sufEmS NyifrmS vnf; aBurGomG ;avawmY\/ q&mawmfBuD;\ vuf0gapmif;tm;rSm
trSefyif aBumufp&maumif;vSonf/ xdkYaemuf q&mawmfBuD;u atmfí . . .
]]aumif;NyD? q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;&JY odkif;ynmu odyfaumif;w,fvkdY odkif;avmurSm ausmfBum;aewm
BumygNyD? q&mawmfwdkYvJ [kwfovm;? r[kwfovm; rod&ygbl;? 'gaBumifY 'DaeYawmY odkif;avmu vlawG tm;vHk;
a&SYarSmufrSm usKyfwdkYu q&mBuD;eJY odkif;ynmcsif; zvS,fcsifygw,f}} [k NrGufqdkavonf/
q&mawmf B uD ; cH k ; usd x H r S xd k p um;rsm; yG i f Y tef x G u f v monf E S i f Y wpf û yd i f e uf cef ; raqmif
wpfckvHk;&dSvlrsm;vnf; &kwf&kwfoJoJ NzpfoGm;Bu&avawmY\/

232

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
rSefyg\/ usef;qef;zkef;\ toufrSm ,ckqkdvQif ESpfwpf&m wif;wif;NynfYNyDNzpfonf/ olESifY odkif;ynm
,SOfûydifbufrsm; olYavmufrnfolrQ toufr&SnfcJYBuay/ xdkYaBumifY usef;qef;zkef;\ odkif;ynm NrifYrm;aBumif;
Bum;odol rsm;vSaomfvnf; tb,fa&GY tb,frQ NrifYrm;euf&Idif;aBumif;udkrl rnfolrQ taotcsm tuste
rodBuygacs/ odkYaomf olYwynfY ckepfa,muf\ odkif;ynmu tpGrf;xufNrufvSay&m q&mNzpfol\ ynmrSmrl
txl;aNymNyzG,f&m r&dSawmY[líom a,bl,s od&dSem;vnfxm;Buav\/
,ckrl a&Smifvif*dkPf;rS bkef;awmfBuD; oHk;yg;u emrnfBuD;vSaom usef;qef;zkef;tm; vlyHktv,fwGif
wJYwdk; pdefac:vkdufonfudk awGY&NyDNzpf&m cef;raqmiftwGif;&dS vltm;vHk;\ pdwfESvHk;udk vIyfudkif&rf;vkdufouJYokdY
tvIyf&Sm;BuD; vIyf&Sm;oGm;apygawmY\/ olwdkYtm;vHk;\ pdwfxJwGif þvdk yGJBuD;yGJaumif;rsdK; þwpfoufwGif
wpfcgyif awGY&cJbdNcif;[k em;vnfoGm;ap\/ xkdYaBumifY cef;raqmifwGif;&dS vltm;vHk;onf pdefac:Ncif; cH&ol
odkif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;tm; BunfYvdkufBuav\/
usef;qef;zkef;rl tûyH;rysufacs/
pdefac:cH&Ncif;twGuf rnfodkYrQ pum;wHkYNyefNcif;rûybJ cyfûyH;ûyH;&Tif&Tif trlt&mNzifYyif aeaeav\/ xdktcg
cHk;0ef q&mawmfBuD;u . . .
]]q&mBuD;&JY odkif;ynmu odyfNrifYrm;vkdY bkef;BuD;wkdYoHk;yg;u q&mBuD;udk ,SOfEkdifr,f rxifygbl;? NyD;awmY
q&mBuD ; u bk e f ; BuD ; wd k Y x uf 0gES p f 0 gavmuf yd k B uD ; awmY bk e f ; BuD ; wk d Y u q&mBuD ; eJ Y wpf a ,muf c sif ;
,SOfûydif&ifq&mBuD;udk r&kdrao rav;pm;&m usygvdrfYr,f? 'gaBumifY bkef;BuD;wkdY oHk;yg;u pkaygif;NyD; q&mBuD;eJY
,SOfûydifcsifygw,f}}
tm;vHk;u cHk;0efq&mawmf\ pum;udk Bum;aomf pdwfxJwGif . . .
]]w,f . . . taNymaumif;wJY bke;f BuD;ygvm;? vufpowfawmY bke;f BuD;awGu oH;k yg;pvH;k aygif;wku
d cf u
dk zf Ykd
pdwful;aewmudk;? usef;qef;zkef;u odkif;ynmawmfayr,fY touft&G,f BuD;&ifYaeawmY odkif;tm;vnf;
qkwf,kwfaerSm aocsmw,f? 'DawmY a&Smifvifbkef;awmfBuD;oHk;yg; 0dkif;wdkufcdkufwmudk b,fcHEdkifrSmvJ}} [k
pOf;pm;aeBu\/ xdkpOf csdK&Tifacsmif;u &kwfw&uf rwfwwf&yfí . . .
]]'DaeY[m q&mBuD;&JY ESpfwpf&mNynfY arG;aeY? 'gaBumifY q&mu b,foleJYrS rwdkufckdufygbl;}}
csdK&Tifacsmif;\ pum;udkBum;aomf tm;vHk;u . . .
]][lwef;*dkPf;awmY aBumufoGm;NyD}} [k xifvkdufBu\/
odkYaomf csdK&Tifacsmif;u qufí . . .
]]q&mawmfBuD;oHk;yg; NrGufBum;ovkdygyJ? q&mBuD;u bkef;awmfBuD;wdkYxuf 0gydkBuD;awmY wu,fvkdY
,SOfûydifwdkufckdufcJY&if odkif;avmu vlawGu q&mBuD;udk tEkdifusifYw,fvdkY tNypfwifBuygvdrfYr,f? 'gayr,fY
tck a&Smifvif*dkPf;u pddwfac:vkdufw,fqdkwJY aemufawmY wynfYawmfwkdY [lwef;ckepfazmfuvJ rvTJra&Smifom
a&Smifvif*dkPf;&JY OD;yOöif; wpfq,fYESpfyg;eJY ,SOfûydifyg&ap}} [k aNymvkduf\/
tm;vHk;u csdK&Tifacsmif;\ pum;tqHk;owfudk Bum;aomf &kwf&kwfoJoJ NzpfvmBuNyef\/
rSefygonf/
cHk;0ef? cHk;usd? cHk;&SefY bkef;awmfBuD; oHk;yg;wGif wynfY OD;yOöif;av;yg;pD ygvmBu\/ xkdYaBumifY
tm;vHk;aygif;vkdufvQif wynfYOD;yOöif; wpfq,fYESpfyg;Nzpf\/ odkYaomf tm;vHk;u [lwef;ckepfazmfwGif
&Dwdkuf&Tifwpfa,muf rvIyfEdkif r&Sm;Ekdif 'ku©dwNzpfaeí [lwef;aNcmufazmfom &dSonf[k em;vnfxm;Bu\/
csdK&Tifacsmif;vnf; ,if;taNctaeudk taotcsm wGufqNyD;rS aNymvdkufNcif;yif Nzpf\/ olwdkYonf
a&S m if v if b k e f ; awmf B uD ; oH k ; yg;ES i f Y wpf O D ; csif ; wd k u f c d k u f v Qif ol E S i f Y &D v if w ef ; om vuf & nf w l
wkdufckdufEdkifayrnfNzpfNyD; usef*kdPf;wlnDrsm;rSmrl &IH;edrfYrnf aocsmae\/

233

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
xdkYaBumifY olu olwkdY*dkPf;wl nDtpfudk aNcmufa,mufaygif;í a&Smifvif bkef;awmfBuD; oHk;yg;\ wynfY
q,fYESpfa,mufESifY wdkufcdkuf&ef awmif;qdkvkdufNcif;yif Nzpfyg\/ olwdkYonf þa&Smifvifbkef;awmfBuD;rsm;\
wynfY OD;yOöif; q,fYESpfyg;tm; tenf;i,frQ raBumufacs/ olwdkY [lwef;aNcmufazmfu tvG,fESifY Edkifrnf[k
,HkBunfxm;\/ xdktcg cHk;0efbkef;awmfBuD;u . . .
]]q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;u odkif;ynmudk rzvS,fcsifbl;qdk&ifawmY bkef;BuD;&JY wynfYaNcmufa,mufeJY
[lwef;aNcmufazmf ,SOfûydifBu&rSmyJaygY}}
]]aNcmufazmf r[kwfygbl;? ckepfazmfyg}}
csdK&Tifacsmif;u Bum;Nzwfqdkonf/
cHk;usd q&mawmfu &kwfw&uf vefYzsyfoGm;NyD; . . .
]]bmvJ? q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;vJ ygrvkdYvm;}} [k Nyefar;av\/ csdK&Tifacsmif;u . . .
]]r[kwfygbl;? wynfYawmf&JY *dkPf;wlnD &Dwdkuf&Tifu wpfudk,fvHk; rvIyf&Sm;Ekdifygbl;? olYrSm wynfYvJ
r&dSygbl;? 'gayr,fY tckvdk [lwef;*dkPf;twGufta&;BuD;qHk;tcsdefrSm wynfYawmfu olYudk vlpm;wpfa,muf
&Smckdif;rSmyg? 'gaBumifY [lwef;ckepfazmfu a&Smifvif*kdPf;u bkef;awmfBuD;awGeJY aNcmufa,mufyJNzpfNzpf?
ckepfa,mufyJNzpfNzpf? wpfq,fYESpfa,mufyJNzpfNzpf ,SOfûydifwdkufckdufr,fvkdY qkdwmyg}}
cHk;0efq&mawmfu taotcsm pOf;pm;NyD;aemuf . . .
]]aumif ; NyD ? bk e f ; BuD ; wk d Y a&S m if v if * d k P f ; u [l w ef ; ck e pf a zmf e J Y wk d u f c k d u f r ,f } } [k aemuf q H k ;
rdefYNrGufavawmYonf/
&Dvifwef;ESifY usef;qHkusD;wdkY tm;vHk;u csdK&Tifacsmif;\ pum;y&d,m,fudk aumif;pGm oabmaygufBu\/
trSerf l usef;qef;zke;f wGif tvGeaf useyf tm;&qH;k aom odik ;f ynmwpfrsdK;&d\
S / ,if;rSm ckepfpifBu,f "m;odik ;f uGuyf if
Nzpfonf/ þodkif;ynmrSm tm;vHk;ckepfrsdK;pD&Sd&m usef;qef;zkef;u olYwynfY ckepfa,muftm; oD;Ncm;pD
oifBum;ay;xm;\/ þodkif;ynm\ xl;Ncm;csufrSm tu,fí þodkif;ynmudk ESpfa,mufaygif;í wdkufckdufvQif
tiftm;rSm wpfq ydkBuD;\/ odkif;orm; av;a,muf wpfûydifwnf; wdkufckdufaeouJYodkYyif/ tu,fí
av;a,mufpkaygif; wkdufckdufvQif &Spfa,mufwkdufcdkufaom tiftm;ESifY nDrQ\/ ig;a,mufwdkufckdufvQif
q,fa,mufEiS Yf nDrQNyD; aNcmufa,mufqv
dk Qifrl wpfq,fYEpS af ,muf? ckepfa,mufwu
kd af omf wpfq,fYav;a,mufEiS Yf
nDrQav\/ xkdYaBumifY þodkif;ynmudk [lwef; ckepfazmfu aygif;pk wkdufckdufvQif rnfolYudkrQ aBumuf&efrvdkawmY/
,ck a&Smifvif bkef;awmfBuD; oHk;yg;yg olwdkYtm; yg0ifwkdufckdufrnfNzpf&m [lwef;ckepfazmfonf þodkif;ynmudk
aemufqHk; ta&;ay: odkif;ynmtNzpf xnfYoHk;&awmYrnf Nzpfyg\/ csdK&Tifacsmif;u cHk;0ef q&mawmfxHrS
oabmwlaBumif; Bum;&aomf . . .
]]'Dvq
dk &kd if q&mawmfBuD;wdYk 'DrmS yJ cP apmifYqidk ;f aeawmfryl g? wynfYawmfu &Dwu
kd &f iT t
f wGuf vlpm;&SmNyD;
[lwef;ckepfazmfNzpfatmif NznfYqnf;vkdufygYr,f}}
xdkYaemuf csdK&Tifacsmif;onf csufcsif;yif olY*kdPf;wlnDrsm; tm;vHk;udkac:í twGif;buf tcef;odkY
avQmuf0ifoGm;avonf/ tcef;xJodkY a&mufvQif a&mufcsif; armfukqef;u . . .
]]tpfudkBuD;? tck uRefawmfwkdY ckepfpifBu,f odkif;uGufeJY a&Smifvif*kdPf;udk ,SOfûydifr,fqdkawmY b,folYudk
tpfudk &Dwkduf&Tif&JY ae&mtwGuf tpm;xdk;rSmvJ}} [k ar;avonf/
csdK&Tifacsmif;u . . .
]]'Dudpu
ö dk wdkYawGtckyJ qHk;Nzwf&rSmaygY nDav;? tck igwkdY 'DvkdvkyfBur,fav? udk,f tpm;xdk;apcsifwJYvl&JY
emrnfudk udk,fYbmomudk,f pOf;pm;NyD; vuf0g;Nyifay:rSm a&;xdk;vkduf? aemufrS zGifYBunfYBur,f}}
xkdtcg armfukqef;u ol tpm;xdk;apcsifol\ emrnfudk OD;pGm a&;onf/ aemuf usefvlrsm;u vuf0g;wGif
toD;oD; emrnfwpfckpD a&;BuavawmYonf/ xkdYaemufwGif csdK&Tifacsmif;u olYvuf0g;udk OD;pGmzGifY\/ xdktcg
]csifwl;wl;} \ trnf a&;xdkxm;onfudk awGY&\/ &Dvifwef;ESifY usef;qHkusD;\ vuf0g;NyifwGifvnf; csifwl;wl;\
trnfudkyif a&;xm;Bu\/ usef;acR;qef;udk,fwkdifvnf; olYZeD;\ emrnfudkom a&;xm;NyD; armfukqef;vnf;
csifwl;wl;yif/ odkYaomf csifvd&Sefwpfa,mufawmYrl olYvufoD;udk twif;qkyfxm;NyD; rsufESmwpfckvHk; eD&Jvsuf
&dSav\/ olu olYvuf0g;ukd NzefYrNyacs/ armfukqef;u . . .
234

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]tHYa&m . . . wkdYtpfudku bma&;xm;vdkYvJ? Nyprf; . . . Nyprf;}}
armfukqef;u twif;yif csifvd&Sef\ vuf0g;udk NzefYBunfYaomtcgwGifrl csifvd&Sef\ vuf0g;wGif
apYpyfxm;aom rdef;uav; usda&Smifrl\ emrnfudk a&;xm;onfudk awGY&avawmY\/
usef;acR;qef;rSm xdt
k NzpfaBumifY vGepf mG pdwv
f yI &f mS ;oGm;\/ olu csifv&d eS \
f vufukd qkyu
f ikd &f if; ]nDav;}
[k wpfcsuf atmfvkdufrdonf/ tm;vHk;u csifvd&Sef\ pdwf&if;apwemudk odBu\/
csifvd&Sefonf csifwl;wl;rSm ,ck aexkdifaumif;umpNzpfí tNyif;txef wkdufckdufvQif cHEkdif&nf r&dSrnfudk
pdk;&drfae\/ xkdYaBumifY ol cspf&ygaom ZeD;avmif; usda&Smifrludk ac:xkwfNyD; ulnD&ef pdwful;xm;Ncif;yif Nzpfonf/
xdkpOf csdK&Tifacsmif;u . . .
]]uJ . . . tck tm;vHk;u nDrav; csifwl;wl;udk a&G;Nc,fcsifBuw,fqkdawmY nDav; usef;acR;qef; rif;u
rif;&JYZeD;udk oGm;ac:acs}} [k qdkavonf/
usef;acR;qef;u olYtdyfcef;xJodkY oGm;NyD;vQif csifwl;wl;udk ac:xkwfcJYNyD; taNctae t&yf&yfudk
&Sif;Nyvkdufavonf/

235

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif

e*g;Edkif"m;

tcef; (28 )
a&cJvuf0g;
xdktcg csifwl;wl;u oufNyif;cs&if; . . .
]]tmrcHXmeu vlawGeJY a&Smifvifbkef;BuD;awGudkowfwm uRefrygyJ? tckawmY uRefrtwGufeJY tckvkd
tpfudkwkdY tm;vHk; 'ku©a&muf &wJY tNzpfuawmY pdwfraumif;p&mygyJ? tck uRefr olwkdYudk rsufcHk;NzL*kdPf;rSm
oGm;&Sif;zkdY aNymvkdufr,fav? uRefrazazu uRefrtwGuf aNz&Sif;ay;rSm aocsmw,f}}
usef;qHkusD;u . . .
]]nDrav; csifwl;wl;? tckudpöu 'Dtxd taNctaea&mufvmrSawmY cGJNcm;aezkdY rvkdawmYygbl;? olwdkY
'DaeY [lwef;ukd a&mufvmwm[m wu,fawmY 'D tmrcHXmeu vlawGtwGufu t"du r[kwfbl;? &SufpGef;udk
&Smcsifwmu t"du? &SufpGef;udk &SmcsifwJY taBumif;uvJ e*g;Ekdif"m;udk vkdcsifwmu t"duyJnDrav;}}[k qdkonf/
csifwl;wl;u . . .
]]'Dvkdqdk&if tpfudkBuD;wkdY pDrHovdk uRefr vkdufemygYr,f? 'gayr,fY uRefr&JY odkif;ynmu tqifYedrfYawmY
ûAef;pm;BuD; oifay;vkYd wwfygYrvm;? ckepfpifBu,f odik ;f uGu&f YJ tESpo
f m&udk em;vnfEidk yf gYrvm;}} [k ar;avonf/
csdK&Tifacsmif;u . . .
]]'DtwGuf pdwfrylygeJY? nDrav;u vQdKY0Sufvufeufypfwm awmfw,fqdkawmY wkduf&if;ckduf&if;
vQdKY0SufvufeufudkoHk;&if 'Dodkif;uGufu ydkNyD; xda&mufygw,f}}
wu,fawmY *dkPf;wlnDrsm;u csdK&Tifacsmif;\ oabm&if;udk odaeBu\/ olonf þuJYokdY csifwl;wl;tm;
0ifa&muf wdkufcdkufapNcif;rSm &Dwdkuf&Tifwpfa,muf pdwfvufaysmf&Tifap&ef &nf&G,fíyif Nzpf\/ trSefrl
þa&S m if v if b k e f ; BuD ; rsm;ud k ol w k d Y [l w ef ; aNcmuf a zmf w k d u f c k d u f v Qif y if tNywf t owf Ek d i f E d k i f a om
taNctae&daS vonf/ odYk aomf olwYkd [lwef;aNcmufazmfom toH;k ûyvQif &Dwu
dk &f iT w
f pfa,muf yg0ifwu
dk cf u
dk Ef ikd Nf cif;
r&dSoNzifY pdwfvufaysmf&TifEkdifrnf r[kwfacs/ ,aeYonf þckepfpifBu,f odkif;ynmudk yxrOD;qHk;tBudrf
toHk;ûyNcif;vnf;Nzpf&m &Dwdkuf&Tifudk,fpm; csifwl;wl;udk tpm;xkd;NyD; tNrefqHk; oifay;NyD; wkdufckdufapNcif;NzifY
tEkid &f aomtcsdew
f iG f &Dwu
dk &f iT v
f nf; rdru
d ,
kd w
f idk f 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
kd &f ouJYoYkd cHpm;apcsifaom apwem t&if;cHNzifY
csdK&Tifacsmif;u pDpOfvkduf&Ncif;yif Nzpfavonf/
236

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
csifwl;wl;vnf; vGefpGm yg;eyf vdr®molNzpfí xdkoabmudk csufcsif; em;vnf oabmaygufoGm;\/
xkdYaBumifY csifwl;wl;u . . .
]]aumif;NyDav? uRefru tpfudk&Dwkduf&TifqDrSm tckyJ oGm;oifvkdufygYr,f? 'gayr,fY uRefr cHEkdif&nf
&dSygYrvm; raNymwwfbl;}}
csifvd&Sefu . . .
]]rpdk;&drfygeJY? rruom aNcvSrf;eJY aNcuGufudk aoaocsmcsm rSwfxm;vkduf&if &ygNyD}}
odkYESifY tm;vHk;u &Dwdkuf&Tif\ tcef;xJodkY 0ifvkdufBu\/ csifwl;wl;rSm [lwef;awmif a&mufuwnf;u
rrmrusef; NzpfaeoNzifY &Dwkduf&TifESifY rsufESmcsif;rqdkifcJY&ay/ ,ck yxrqHk;tBudrf rsufESmcsif; qdkif&Ncif;yif
Nzpfyg\/
&Dwkduf&Tifonf csifwl;wl;tm; tuJcwfBunfYNzifY BunfYvkduf&m &kyfqif;t*Fg acsmarmvSyoavmuf
wnfNidrfvSaom csifwl;wl;udkNrifaomf usef;acR;qef;twGuf 0rf;omoGm;av\/
NyD;wpfzef csifwl;wl;u ckepfpifBu,f odkif;uGufudk oifBum;NyD; olYudk,fpm; 0ifa&muf wkdufckdufay;rnf[k
Bum;&Nyefaomf 0rf;enf;0rf;om NzpfoGm;&Smavonf/
olu csifwl;wl;tm; ûyH;BunfY&if; . . .
]]nDrav;twGuf tpfudku bmrS vufaqmifray;EkdifcJYbl;? 'gaBumifY tck 'Dodkif;uGuf&JY ta&;BuD;qHk;
aNcuGuaf wGudk vufaqmifypön;f trSwef YJ tpfuo
kd ifay;&awmYrmS aygY? aemufyikd ;f &efoal wG qkwo
f mG ;awmYrS tpfuu
kd
rif;udk tptqHk; tao;pdwf Nyefoifay;r,f [kwfvm;}}
]]aus;Zl;wifygw,f tpfudk}}
þonfrSm yxrqHk;tBudrf csifwl;wl;\ pum;oHudk &Dwdkuf&Tif Bum;vkduf&Ncif;yif Nzpfyg\/ ,if;odkY
csifwl;wl;xHrS ]]aus;Zl;wifygw,f tpfudk}} [laom pum;oHudk Bum;&aomtcg &kwfw&uf olYrsufESmwpfckvHk;
wGefYvdrfoGm;NyD; rsufvHk;tBunfYudk a&SYodkYom pdkufíBunfYaerdav\/ wpfpHkwpfckudk awG;ai;í taotcsm
pOf;pm;ae[efyif/ usef;acR;qef;u vefYzsyfoGm;NyD; . . .
]]tpfudk bmNzpfoGm;wmvJ}} [k owday;vdkuf\/
odkYaomf &Dwdkuf&Tif bmrS NyefraNymbJ xkdtwdkif;ai;aBumifae\/ olYrsufvHk;xJwGifrl xl;qef;aom
ta&mifxGufaebdodkY &dS\/ emBunf;cHNyif;aom t&dyfta,mif vkdvdkyif/
usef;acR;qef;u csifwl;wl;tm; wpfcsuf BunfYvkduf\/ csifwl;wl;\ rsufESmwGifvnf; trlt&m
ysuf,Gif;ae\/ aBumuf&GHY wkefvIyfaeouJYodkY/
csdK&Tifacsmif;url &Dwkduf&Tifudk BunfYvkduf? csifwl;wl;udkBunfYvkdufESifY olwdkY\ rsufESmtrlt&mrsm;
aNymif;vJoGm;&onfudk em;rvnfEkdifatmif Nzpfaeav\/ okdYaomf olwdkYtoD;oD;\ &ifxJodkYrl edrdwfqdk;rsm;
0ifa&mufvmNyDNzpfyg\/ olwdkYonf tvkdtavsmuf &ifckefoHrsm; us,favmifvm&avNyD/ xkdpOf &Dwkduf&Tif\
oufNyif;csoHudk us,favmifpGm Bum;&NyD; NzLa&mfaom ol\ yg;ESpfbufrSm teDa&miforf;vmonfudk awGYvkduf&\/
olu wkd;nif;aomavoHNzifY . . .
]]nDrav;? rif; 'Dtem;udk avQmufvmcJY? ig rif;udk aoaocsmcsm BunfYcsifw,f}}
csifwl;wl;\ wpfudk,fvHk; wkef,ifvsuf&dS\/ cifyGef;onfNzpfol usef;acR;qef;\ vufudkom wif;usyfpGm
qkyfukdifxm;NyD; a&SYodkY wpfvSrf;rQ rwdk;oGm;&Jacs/ twefBumaomf &Dwkduf&Tifu . . .
]]rif; a&SYwdk;rvmvJ ta&;rBuD;ygbl;? [dk;aeYwkef;u rif;&JY rsufESmudk igrS rNrifvkduf&bJ? at; . . .rif;
tck a[m'D pum;ES p f c G e f ; ud k Nyef a NymNyygvm;? cif A sm;ud k , f w k d i f 'D y pö n f ; ud k tmrcH N yD ; vk d u f y d k Y & r,f ?
vrf;c&D;wpfavQmufrSm r&yfrem;bJ q,f&uftwGif; ta&mufydkY&r,f? wu,fvkdY vrf;c&D;rSm wpfpHkwpf&m
cRwf,Gif;cJY&if a[; . . . a[; . . . cifAsm;&JYtouf ao&kHwif rubl;? cifAsm;&JY a&Tig;tmrcHXme wpfckvHk;
vlBuD;vli,fra&G; tm;vHk;ao&vdrfYr,f}}
usef;acR;qef;wdkYtm;vHk;rSm &Dwdkuf&Tifu þpum;vHk;rsm;udk wpfvHk;csif; Nznf;nif;pGm aNymaeonfudk
Bum;&aomf ausmcsrf;í vmrd\/ csifwl;wl;vnf; &kwfw&uf tHudk Budwfí a&SYodkY wpfvSrf;wuf&if; . . .
]]tpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifu odyfcsD;usL;p&m aumif;ygw,f? uRefr&JYtoHudk aumif;aumif;rSwfrdw,f?
237

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
[dk;aeYwkef;u tpfudkYudk a&Tig;tmrcHXmeudk vmydkYwJYvl[m uRefrygyJ}}
&Dwdkuf&Tif\ rsufESmrSm ydkí aBumufrufzG,faumif;vmav\/ olu Nznf;nif;pGmNzifY . . .
]]'Dvkdqdk&if [kdaeYu avSay:rSm igYudk tqdyftyfeJYypfwmu rif; . . .}}
olu &kwfw&uf pum;udk &yfvkdufNyD; usef;acR;qef;tm; wpfcsuf BunfYvdkuf\/ olYtBunfYwGif
t"dyÜm,faNrmufNrm;pGm ygae\/ olu &kwfw&uf oufNyif;wpfcsuf&dIufvkdufvsuf vGefpGm vIyf&Sm;aeaom pdwfudk
xdef;vkdufNyD;vQif . . .
]]tif; . . . ta&;rBuD;awmYygbl;av? igu tck 'ku©dw NzpfaeNyDyJ? bmrS aNymp&m rvdkawmYygbl;? at;
. . . nDrav;u tpfudkwkdY&JY [lwef;ckepfazmf&JY *kPfodu©mudk rusatmifxdef;ay;&r,f}}
csifwl;wl; rsuf&nf0JvmNyD Nzpf\/ olronf &Dwdkuf&Tif\ apwemudk aumif;pGm oabmaygufvm\/
[kdpOf [dktcgu avSay:wGif &Dwkduf&Tiftm; tuGufqifí tqdyftyfNzifY avS0rf;xJrS ypfvkdufolrSm
csifw;l wl;rSe;f &Dwu
kd &f iT f odomG ;\/ olr\ toHrw
S qifY odomG ;Ncif;yif Nzpfyg\/ odYk aomf &Dwu
kd &f iT o
f nf olY*P
dk ;f wl
nDav; usef;acR;qef;udk cspfvGef;oNzifY olYtwGufESifY olwdkY\ tdrfaxmifa&; ysufNym;rnfpdk;í q,fESpfwdwd
emBunf;cJY&aom a0'emudk twif;xde;f csKyfNyD; tNzpfreS u
f kd od0k u
S x
f m;&ef êud;pm;aeaBumif; csifw;l wl; odvu
dk o
f nf/
usef;acR;qef;onf &Dwu
kd &f iT \
f trlt&mudo
k m awGYvu
dk Nf yD; ol\pum; wpfyikd ;f wpfpudo
k m Bum;vdu
k &f aomfvnf;
tNzpfrSefudk yg;eyfpGm &dyfpm;rdvkdufonf/ olu wkefvIyfacsmufcsm;aom? r,HkBunfEkdifvGef;aom tBunfYNzifY
csifwl;wl;udk pdkufBunfY&if; xpfxpfaigYaigYNzifY . . .
]]rif; . . . rif;u . . . wu,fyJ tpfukd&Dwdkuf&Tifudk tqdyftyfeJY ypfvkdufwJYvl}}
csifwl;wl;rSm olYpdwfudkol rcsKyfwnf;EdkifNzpfum rsuf&nfûzdifûzdifus&if; . . .
]][kwf. . . [kwfygw,f? [kdaeYwkef;u avSxJrSm tpfudk&Dwdkuf&Tifudk tqdyftyfeJYypfwm uRefrygyJ}}
usef;acR;qef; &kwfw&uf atmfí . . .
csifwl;wl; wu,f? rif; . . . rif; bmNzpfvkdY igYudk apmapmu raNym&wmvJ´
]]uRefr tJ'Dwkef;u tpfudkeJYrS rodao;wm? aemufydkif; tpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifu tpfudkY&JYtpfudkrSef;odawmY
uRefr b,faNym&JawmYrSmvJ? tpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tif tckvkd Nzpf&wm[m uRefrom t"du w&m;cH Nzpfaewmudk;?
aemufNyD; tpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk vuf0g;rSm oHpl;eJY &dkufwJYvluvJ uRefr&JY tpfudk&if; csif&,f0rfyJav? uRefrwdkY
rsufcHk;NzL*kdPf;u wu,fawmY [lwef;*dkPf;eJY bm&efñdSK;&efprS r&dSygbl;? 'gaBumifY e*g;Edkif"m;udk &NyD;wJYaemufrSm
tpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tifudk [lwef;*dkPf;udk NyefydkYcJY&ygw,f tpfudk}}
usef;acR;qef;\ wpfudk,fvHk;rSm wqwfqwfwkef,ifvmNyD; rsufvHk;rsm;vnf; rD;0if;0if;awmufvsuf
&dSaeav\/ olu csifwl;wl;tm; vufñdSK;xdk;&if; . . .
]]rif; . . . rif; . . . igYudk nmw,f}}
xdktcg csifwl;wl;u "m;udk qwfceJqGJxkwfNyD; "m;&kd;udk usef;acR;qef;tm; xdk;ay;&if; . . .
]]tpfudk uRefr&JY tNypfudk uRefr b,fvdkrS ra&Smifwdrf;csifygbl;? 'gaBumifY tpfudk tck uRefrudk a[m'D"m;eJY
owfvkdufyg}}
usef;acR;qef;u csifwl;wl;ay;aom "m;udk qwfceJ qGJ,lNyD; csifwl;wl; &if0udk xdk;pdkufvkduf&ef
[efNyifvu
dk \
f / odYk aomf xdck Pwm tcsdet
f wGi;f rSmyif q,fEpS q
f ,fr;kd rQ cspfBuifpmG twlaexdik cf YJ aom olYcspfZeD;udk
rowf&ufvsuf Nzpfum wpfcsufrQ ai;aBumifoGm;&if; ]tm;} [k wpfcsufatmfí tNyifbufodkY wpf&dSefxdk;
aNy;xGufoGm;avawmY\/
csifwl;wl;wkdYtm;vHk;rSm usef;acR;qef; bmaBumifY &kwfw&uf wpf&dSefxdk; aNy;xGufoGm;onfudk
em;rvnfBuoNzifY ai;aBumifí BunfYaerdBuav\/ NyD;rSyif vkdufxGufoGm;Buonf/ xdkpOf usef;acR;qef;u
usef;qef;zkef;a&SYwGif 'l;axmufvsuf . . .
]]q&m uRefawmf[m cGifYrvTwfEkdifwJY tNypfBuD;udk usL;vGefcJYrdygw,f? 'gaBumifY uRefawmfu q&mYudk
wpfckyJ awmif;qdkcsifygw,f}}
usef;qef;zkef;vnf; apmapmu tcef;xJwGif Nzpfay:aeaom Nyóemudk vkH;0 rod&SdoNzifY olu
nifompGmyif . . .
238

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]bmudpövJ? rif;aNymyg? q&mu rif;&JY awmif;qdkcsufudk vufcHrSmyg}} [k qdkav\/
usef;acR;qef;u bmrS NyefraNymbJ usef;qef;zkef;tm; OD;oHk;Budrf csvkduf\/ NyD;rS . . .
]]q&mYudk aus;Zl;wifygw,f? uRefawmfYrSm om;wpfa,muf &dScJYygw,f q&m? tck vlqdk;&JY vufxJudk
a&mufaeygw,f? q&mu uRefawmY&JY tJ'Dom;av;udk vlqdk;awG vufxJuae Nyef&atmif u,fwifNyD; om;av;udk
vlvm;aNrmufwJYtcsdefxd apmifYa&Smufay;ygaemf}}
usef;acR;qef;onf xdkokdYaNymNyD;aemuf &kwfw&uf vSnfYí cHk;0efq&mawmfBuD;? cHk;usd? cHk;&SefY
q&mawmfBuD;rsm;ESifYwuG cGef;vGef*dkPf;csKyfBuD; q&mBuD; [dkwdkufcsHK;? 0gar*dkPf; ponf tm;vHk;udk
vSnfYywfBunfYvkdufNyD;vQif . . .
]]tck 'Dupd aö wG tm;vH;k [m usKyfwpfa,mufwnf;&JY vufcsuyf gyJ? 'gaBumifY usKyftNypfukd usKyf0efcyH gw,f?
tm;vHk; auseyfBuygawmY}}
usef;acR;qef;\ pum;qHk;onfESifY tNyifbufqDrS vufeufESpfck rzdwfac:bJ &kwfw&uf t&dSeft[kefNyif;pGmESifY
vQyfwpfNyuf 0ifvmNyD; vufeufwpfcku ol\ vnfyif;udk xdrSefum csufcsif;yif aoG;rsm; yef;xGufvmNyD;
ae&mwGiyf if vJus aoqH;k oGm;avawmY\/ tNzpfu NrefqefveG ;f oNzifY xdt
k csdew
f iG yf if usef;qef;zke;f ? csdK&Tiaf csmif;?
&Dvifwef;? usef;qHkusD; ponfY q&mwynfY av;a,mufrSm a&SYaemufqifYatmfum usef;acR;qef;tm;
ckeftkyfvkdufav\/ odkYaomf Akef;Akef;[laom toHESifYtwl usef;qef;zkef;eHab;&dS {nfYonfawmf av;OD;om
usef;qef;zkef;\ vuf0g;apmif; twGif;tm;aBumifY eHab;odkY vGifYpOfoGm;NyD; usef;acR;qef;udkawmYrl olwkdY tcsdefrD
ru,fEkdifawmYacs/ usef;acR;qef;um; vnfrsdKrS aoG;aBumNywfum toufZD0def csKyfNidrf;oGm;NyD Nzpfyg\/
armfuq
k ef;? csifv&d eS Ef iS Yf usef;acR;qef;\ cspfZeD; csifw;l wl;wkYd vnf; xyfBuyfruGm a&mufvmBuonfYwidk f
usef;acR;qef;\ toufudkum; rrDvkdufygawmYacs/ xkdtcsdefwGifyif cef;raqmif Nywif;ayguf tNyifbufrS . . .
]]azaz . . . azaz}} [laom uav;i,f wpfa,muf\ atmfoHudk trSwfrxif tm;vHk;Bum;vkduf&\/
a[m . . . aemufwpfcg Bum;&NyefygNyD/
]]azaz . . . az}}
,ckwpfzef atmfac:vkdufaom toHurl &kwfw&uf wdrf0ifoGm;NyD; wpfpHkwpfa,mufu uav;i,f\
yg;pyfudk wpfpHkwpfckESifY zkH;tkyfvkdufovkdyif Bum;vkdufBu&av\/
wpfcsdefwnf;wGifyif usef;qef;zkef; udk,fvHk;rSm &kwfw&uf ckefysHxGufoGm;NyD; vlawG\ OD;acgif;rSausmfí
Nywif;ayguftNyifodkY vQifwpfNyuf a&mufoGm;avawmY\/ cef;raqmif tNyifbuf rvSrf;rurf; wpfae&mwGifrl
rGef*kdppfom; t0wftpm;ESifY vlwpfa,mufonf toufq,fESpfcefY&dS uav;i,f wpfOD;tm; zufxm;NyD;
uav;i,f\ yg;pyfudkyg vuf0g;NzifY zHk;tkyfxm;av\/ odkYaomf uav;i,frSm xdkrGef*dkppfom;\ vufrSvGwf&ef
twif;&kef;uefvsuf &dSaeyg\/

239

. . 269 aq. . . . . . . . . . . . (34) tcef. . .NydKifyGJ . . . . . . . . . . . . (32) tcef. . .arSmif . . . . . . . . . . (33) tcef. . . . . . . . .rmwdum tcef. .ynm . . . . . . . . . . .bk&if . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qDokdh . . . . . . . [kdwkdufcsHK. . . 358 . . . . . . . . 350 yef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 awmwGif. . (41) tcef. . . 327 q&mBuD. (42) tcef. . . . (31) tcef. . . orm. . . . . (43) a&Smifvifbk&m. . . . . . . . .rkd. . . .vGefawmifokdh ESpfa. . (30) tcef. . . . . . . . . 280 twdwfZmwfvrf. . . . . . . . . . . . . .BuD. . . .awmfBuD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (38) tcef. 301 tqdyfbk&if aq. . . . 309 uHqdk. . (29) tcef. . .fvGwfvuf½kef. . . . . . . . . 240 vdyfjymukef. . . . . . . . . . . . 333 tvif.wrefawmf &efa&mif . . 291 vQdKh0Suf'Pf&m .NcH okdif. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (39) tcef. . . . . wkdufyJG . . . (36) tcef. .awmif a'0D . . . . . . . . . . 264 rarQmfvifhaom owif. . . . (35) tcef. . . . . .pHk . . . . . 341 ESif. . . . . . . . . . .ausmif. . . . . . 324 cGef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .muftwl . . . . . . . (37) tcef. . (40) tcef. 314 ukd. . .

qef.acR.odkU vufeufESpfck ypfoGif.raqmiftwGif.\ vufu twGif.fESpfausmfcefU uav.zkef.xGufvmonfudk jrifaomf uav.i.xefxef &oGm.wl.\ tvdktwdkif. t0wftpm. ajcaxmufESpfbufrSmvnf.fcE¨mrS tvGefav.odkU b. tcef.(29) a&Smifvifbk&m.qef.&ef jyifvdkuf\/ odkUaomfol\ udk. ajrBuD.udk zdvdkufygvQif olUtouf xGufroGm.vHaeonfudk cHpm.oGm. ]]txJudk0ifprf.zkef.zkef.vdkuf\ / xdktcsdefwGif rGef*dkppfom. pdwfysm.i. ppfppfyif jzpfaeyg\/ 240 .rl tvsif.fwpfOD.ftm.r&Sdacs/ olu wnfNidrfaom toHjzifh rGef*dkppfom.onf olUtcspfqHk.atmif e*g.mcwfjcif.tm.avol usef.i. .ojzifh vGefpGmpdwf xdcdkufvsuf&Sdaeaomfvnf.zkef.ESifh oGm.ESifh vlonf rarQmfvifhbJ þrQ jrefpGm usef.ftcsdefwGif a&mufvm onfudk olrodrDuyif vufwpfbufu olUycHk. jzpfaeonf r[kwfygvm.}} [k trdefUay..ayGUzufí cef.qDodkU trSefrl xdkolonf tcef.ausmif.onf olUtem. onfhwdkif 'Pf&m jyif.NyD.folUyckH.faMumifhrl tu.&\/ tb.wGif usef.zkef.½SHK.wuúodkvf aevif.ay:wGifwifxm.rS rBuGEkdifjzpfaeacs\/ rSefygonf/ usef.ay:odkU ckefwufajy.raqmif acgifrdk.Edkif"m.vdkuf&NyD.csm om.fíom usef.ygvmav\/ rSefonf/ xdkuav. cef./ xdkvlrSm vGefpGmwkefvSKyfoGm.udk xkwfítenf.rnf aocsmaomaMumifhyif jzpfyg\/ xdkUaMumifh xdkvlonf rwwfomonfhtqHk.wdkU\ &ifESpfonf..&wem usef.qef.qef.qef.vdkufol jzpf\/ usef.i.jyif.fonf csifwl.odkU 0ifvmcJh&avawmh\/ olwdkUESifhtwl q.t0wftpm. csufcsif.wynfh toufqHk.wGif.ESifhvltm.[lusif.qef.

.onfu rdrdaMumifh olU udk.&drfpGm atmfvdkufrdí toHxGufvmcJhjcif.f uref.}} [kajymNyD.u odyfvdr®m ygvm. .[lusif.[lusif.onf olUtMunfhESifh &ifqdkifrd vdkufcsdefwGif &ifxJrS tvdkvdk wkefvSKyfoGm..wl.. ]][kwfuJh arar? uRefawmf jznf..roD&efrc jyefa&mufvmonfudk awGU&jyef&m wpfNydKifeufwnf. em.&aomf ausmpdro hf mG .u toufr&Sdaom toHrsdK. . ]]tar .tpHku b. ajymjyvdkufovm.ab.azaz aooGm..vHk.av\/ usef.mufrS rusefapeJU? wpfa.ESifhvlu usef.onf usef.udk ray.? om.tljywfrQ y&da'0rD. vSnfh ywfNyD. ]]olwdkUu om.pm..atmif e*g. tm.u om.wl.av. ]]rif.u om.if...faomfvnf.pufNyD..f aumif. ]]om.[lusif. 'grS .NyD.[lusif.zkef..apmifh? jznf.u olU&ifudkaumhí .frSm&Sdw.csif csifwl..acR..}} [ktrdefUay..azazudk raoaoatmif tusyfudkif cJhMuw. azaz .onf xdkvlUvufrS vGwfvQifvGwfcsif.. 241 . .0ifNyD. azaz}} [kpdk.onfudk jrifaomf rl.. tm. tck rif. rdcif\&ifcGif xJodkY ajy.wl.ppfppf? om.av.pufNyD.\ rsufvHk. t0wftpm.. tvdktavsmuf jyefajyoGm.av..raqmif twGif.jznf. awmuf avmifoGm.udk vTwfvdkufprf.qef.vQif .ifoGm. ..f? vm ..u ]]uav.eufeJvSaom odkif.wl.MuKwf\/ vlwdkif.vdkuf&yg\/ csifwl.pm. om. oGm.. a0'em ESpf&yfudk cHpm. .onf om. om.f qdk wmudk olwdkUudk ajym .arhrwwf onf..fvHk.pm.[lusif. ]]om..u acgif.mufrS rusefapeJU}} tm.qef.xHrS xl..muf rS rvGwfap&bl.vHk.l wl. tarhudk uwdwpfck ay.NyD? 'Dawmh ararwdkUu om.rdMu\/ usef. vkyfBuHowfjzwfjcif.fpOfuyif olUarG.udk jrifonfESifh ½l.f vlav.udk Munfh&if. ]]'g .\ at..onf rarQmfvifhbJ cspf&ygaom cifyGef.taz b.tcsdefwGif csifwl.wmawmif om.}} usef.[lusif.fol tqHk.csifay..&&Sm\ xdktcsdefwGifyif aysmufjcif.av.aom pum..[lusif.uav.[lusif.\/ odkUaomfusef.}} ..pGmjzifh . pdwfavmrBuD.wl.jzifh .wl.fol vkyfwmvJ[if . olUtMunfhrSm vGefpGmrmefygNyD.fh wpfa.udk aoatmif½dkufNyD. ajy.taz aewJU ae&mudk zGifhajymvdkufwmyJaumif.}} [k jyefajzavonf/ csifwl.vH. yifjzpfyg\/ csifwl..udkzuf&if.ES i f h vl u toH r xG u f a tmif taMumud k xd k . aMumufrufz.qef.farmí .&\/ csifwl.&r..jcif.tm.&m usef.u yg.usvsufESifh &.f}} usef. om.jyifrS rsuf&nfpD.&JU arG.ynmudkrSwfom. rvTwfbJ xm..ojzifh ajymvdkufav\/ xdktcg xdkvlu usef. \/ ]]om.f? 'gayr.tm. yd w f x m.vHk.fh wpfa.ygw. ]]'DrSm &SdwJh {nfhonfawGtm.vufxJodkU vSrf.jznf...av.eJU? jznf. aMumufrufzG.jznf.[if}} [kar.av.\tar. ? ighom.pD&ifoGm.onf i.rvS aysmufqHk. cH&onfudk awGUaomtcg .&Sd vltm.omjcif.av. cufxefvS\/ &ufpufMurf.av\/ xdkUaMumifh olu olUzcif usef..}} ]]olwdkUu bmjzpfvdkU tazUudk raoaoatmif vkyfMuwmvJ[if? b.faemf}} ]]ajymyg tar}} csifwl..Edkif"m..oGyfolES. rajymeJU}} csifwl.u jznf.[lusif. ....yJapmifhaer.ay..aecJhaom &ifaoG..0ef q&mawmfBuD.om.wuúodkvf aevif.}} ]]om.uG.nif. ararhom..udk Munfhvdkuf\/ olu toufyifi.tm.wl..apmifh? 'gayr.av..enf.av.. ar.zcif &SufpGef. tar}} csifwl. vm? ararhqDudk vmprf. G f aumif..&JU arG.lcJh&ay&m ol\tydwfcH&aom taMumrSmvnf.rSm ½kwfw&uf? wpfcsufwkef. ]]azaz . ol U ud k rG e f * d k p pf o m.vdkuf&\/ usef. t0wf t pm.udk qwfceJ ndwfí . .udk Mum..aom tMunfhjzifh cef.jznf.u ysmysmovJjzifh .wl. ayGUzuf &ef jyKav\/ xdktcg rGef*dkppfom..k u csifw.wl.aMumifh at.av.[lusif.\ udk. ]]arar . usef..frSnmodkU wjznf. wGif0rf.u ajymjyrSm r[kwfbl.. .u om.uwef.. ESifh 0rf. cHk.

jyif.vmNyD..[lusif.. onf tarh & if c G i f r S "m.&rSm r[kwfbl.u 'Dvdkajym&if usef. om..? araru olUudkwrif nmvdkufwmom.onf ajym&if.udk wu. em.pufpGmjzifh qufqdk\/ ]]wynfhawmfru 'DavmufyJ ajymEdkifw.0efq&mawmfu aemufxyf wpfzefar.}} aemufydkif. wynfhawmfru q&mawmfBuD.ud k uyf a y..vm\/ ]]tckyJ Munfhav? araru [dkq&mawmfBuD..&Smvdkufav}} cHk.&r..í .wl.awmfBuD.u pum.wl. tem.aew. ]]bkef..tm.f bk&mh? q&mawmfBuD.uG. omvSKyfaeav\ cHk.aewJhae&mu .u at.ru ydkNyD.}} olu qufí ar. ..faemf ½kyf&nfacsmarmwJh rdef.\ESKwfcrf. ]]'umrBuD.[lusif.vJus aoqHk.mufwnf.u .av.axmifyg}} xdkpum.fh}} xd k U aemuf cH k .ojzifh id k & rnf u d k y if arh a eavawmh \ / xd k U aemuf usef .yif jzpf\/ usef.vd k u f \ / csifwl.rl rMum. vufeuf xdrSefpOfuyif vufeufwpfcku olrtm.vdkufbl.udk wpfcsufrQ MunfhNyD. usef.\ udk.aeaom ae&mqDodkU '.f? q&mawmfBuD.frSm&Sdw..pdkufvsuf&SdaMumif.Mu\/ cHk.f om.pum.tqHk. ]]q&mawmfBuD.NyD..u wpfcsufrQ atmfí rdcifjzpfol\ udk.jzifh ..qef.f}} csifwl.odkU ayGUcsDoGm.emMunf.jrnfhpGm NyHK. ta&mifwvufvuf awmufyaeonf[k xif&aom rsufvHk.. jzpf&m rnfolrQ rawGUjrifcJhjcif.dkif jzifh avQmufoGm.onf rdcifESifh zcifwdkU\ tavmif.0rxGufawmh/ EIwfcrf.'. eHab.jyefonf/ ]]bm . ]]om.&efjyKvdkufygao. .ykef.f touf0dnmOf csKyfNidrf..acR..\ em. ? trSefrl csifwl. toufqHk.avawmh\/ xkdtcgusrSyif csifwl..rSm toHvHk.NyD. vdrfnmwwfw. vnf.u . vGefpGm ylaqG.aomf tm.0efq&mawmfBuD.wGif yHkvsufusoGm.oGm.av. xdrSefxm.}} csifwl.acR.fcE¨mrSmvnf.aqG. ]]bmajymw.aom olr\vufrSm ½kwfw&uf ajyusoGm.D.atmif e*g.\ toHxGufvm\/ ]]&SufpGef.}} 242 .vmwJh tcgus&ifav rdef.tpHkjzifh pdkufMunfhum .wl.. vSKyf&Gae\/ odkUaomf bmtoHrQ xGufrvmay cHk.udkyJ &SufpGef. ]]'umrBuD.wGif usef.onf usef.wl.[lusif. tHhtm.od k U avQmuf v mNyD .mufwnf.f? olu [dkae&mrSm ykef.u ysmysmovJ vSrf.awmfBuD..uav.nif.u uRefawmhf ararudk owfwmvm. cspfcifyGef.wl.Edkif"m.awG&JU vdrfnm vSnfhpm.wl..wuúodkvf aevif.acR.wl.}} csifwl.0ef q&mawmfBuD.&SmNyD r[kwfygvm.&JU}} csifwl. bkef.0efu tavmwBuD.[lusif.BuD. em. k u f kd vSKyfumvSKyfum ac:vdu k o f nfw h ikd f rdcifjzpfol csifw.onfESifhtwl olr\udk..ajr§ m if u d k q J G x k w f N yD . yJ oGm..odkU usef. wpfa.qef..fawmh bmrS rajymjy ygbl.ES.f? wynfhawmfr tem.udkMum... ]]ig .b.wl.u bk&m.av\/ tem.wmudk owdxm. arar}} olu rdcif\ ud.om apmapmuwnf.rsm.wpfa.f}} xdktcgusrS csifwl.qef.wl.qef.rsm.em.&ygawmh/ rSeo f nf/ csifwl. zufxm.pm wpfyk'f&GwfNyD. ? rif.vHk. .uyfí avoHjzifh .l wl.vsuf usef.qef.acR.tm./ usef.acR..\ &if0wGif vufESpfckxdk. ]][kwfw.\/ odkUaomf csifwl. 0ef q &mawmf o nf csif w l . ajymw. usef..f qdkwmudk ajymjyyghr.\ vufrSajyusoGm.oihfoGm. wl .0ef q&mawmfBuD. toHu ydkíwdk. bmrS rMum.udk wdk. [l u sif . [dka&muf&if olUudkawGU&rSmyJaygh}} csifwl.fay:odkUckeftkyf vkduf\/ ]]arar .vGef.wl.\/ cHk.feHab.wl.. ½SHK.

jzpfíowÅd t&mwGifvnf.BuD.om yJhwif½dkuf[nf.aeonfukd awGU&aomf olrvnf.awmh/ csifv&d eS t f em. ]]igridkbl. tm.[lusif.. . vJ toufqHk.f wkefvSKyfoGm.0efq&mawmfBuD. xrdoGm. tm.armifESH ESpfa.pufvSaom tMunfhudk &ifqdkifrdaom tcgwGifrl tvdktavsmuf MuufoD. tus.udkufxm. rsuf E S m ysuf v suf usef .awG}} olUpum.udkyif vma&mufí &efbufjyK0Hhol rsm.. b. usef.nif. tBuD.vdu k af v\/ olU OD.awmif BuD. ½kww f &uf ar.vHk. bkef. usef..aeU[lwef. toD .wuúodkvf aevif.zkef.zkef.ajyNidrf.vH.onf rsufvHk.qef.BuD.if..jzifh pd&k aJT eayNyD / xdt k csdew f iG f cef.&jcif .fh wpfa.? tck usef.wdkUu 'DwifyJ tm.cJhaom pum. jyifwiG f rsuf&nfrsm. tm. owd&vdkufojzifh pum..zkef.oHrsm.orm.idck sifvm\/ þ tcsdew f iG f olronf &Su&f UHG raetm. ]]q&mBuD. ud k ck e zrf .udk &yfvdkuf&av\/ xdkUaemuf usef.wGifyg yJhwif xyfoGm.rwpfckvHk. ud k twif.ck usef.wdkUudk jyefcGifhjyKygOD..}} [k rmefwif.nif.onf xdktcsdefwGifrl aemufcsefíjyefMuavonf/ usda&Smifrlonf csifvd&Sef\ pdwfxdcdkufpGm idak BuG.vsuf {nfhonfrsm. oD . td r f x J w G i f rsuf & nf r sm.av. t½dktao wpfcsuf ay. ..vdkufoHu cef. acol r[kwfaMumif.qef.ynmwGif olrwlatmif uRrf.jyefvn S v hf maom tcsdew f iG rf l olUyg.vdkuf\/ usef.f awmfBuD. ES K wf q uf N yD . odkif.[def. u ol U ud k o wf w mr[k w f b l .fbufrS nmbufodkU jznf.\ vk y f B uH o wf j zwf j cif .raqmifBuD. ud k cH o G m ..u q&mawmftm. jzifh zHk.ajr§mifudk udkifí cef.ausmif. tavm wBuD.wJh aemufawmh tif. pm.\ udk. rsuf v H k .\/ taMumif.qef.tzJGU toD. usef. qef . [l u sif .apmifhae? 'gayr. 243 .}} [k qdkNyD.q&mBuD. vdkufygNyD? tck bkef. tjypfwifír&aMumif.\ &ufpuforQ at.vdkuf\/ NyD.? 'Dvlqdk..[lusif.jzif h jynf h v QH a e\/ od k U aomf ol u ES K wf c rf ..udk qufwdkuf jrifawGUvdkuf&ojzifh odkif.arG.rSm þaMuuJGaMumufrufzG.yJGcs idkaBuG.wpfcsuf [efUNyD.\ ausmif. ]]wifygh? jyefcsif jyefEdkifygNyD? vdkufrydkUwmudkawmh cGifhvTwfyg}} [k qdkav\/ xdUk aemuf a&Smifvif*P kd .vQif usef.aygif.zkef.aESmufxrJ mS rl olUrdciftoufraorD rSmMum.rsm. .tm.odUk oGm. ol w xl .rsm.yif jzpf\/ olwdkUonf odkif.0ef q&mawmfBuD.rSwf xm... wnfNidrfaom toHjzifh .acR. bkef..orm.BuD.Edkif"m..rdyg\/ .íxGufvm\/ cHk.aeNyD jzpfyg\/ 0gar*dkPf.fawmhrS igidkrjybl.pGmavQmufí onfaeU [lwef. ]]bk e f .vnf . xm. ? rif . wpfckvHk.udk £ajE´rysuf wHcg.jzifh .NyD. qkwfvdkufrd\/ NyD. om jzpf a Mumif .Muavonf/ xdt k cg csiv f &d eS \ f EIwfrS .qef.u xdkrQESifh &yfoGm.u acsmif. vQif jyefoGm.vQif olonf "m.acR.rd N yD .vnf.vTrf. idkoHrsm.tm.qef.? tck 'Dtxd jzpfyGm.cJh&NyD qdkawmh .atmif e*g.ESpf&mausmf\ rsufESmudk pdu k Mf unfNh yD.BuD.½SHK. tif.Mu av\/ xdktcg cHk..\ ar.avonf/ usef .mufpvHk.usifwwf xufjrufaom a&Smifvifbk&m.odUk {nfo h nfrsm.qef.rsm.oD..0 rxifrSwf0Hhygbl.rSm ol w pf y g.BuD.fay:wGif rsufESmtyfvsuf csKH.awmifay:odkU a&mufvmMuaom odkif.onf emrnfBuD.cifu udpöawGudk bkef.jznf. jyefvnfí t½dktao wpfcsufay.acR.av\/ odkUaomf olwdkUonf . .vdu k jf yefaomf q&mawmfonf tvdt k avsmuf aemufoUkd ajcwpfvSrf.NyD.awmifodkU a&mufvmMuaom *dkPf.f aumif.mufrS rusefapeJU}} pifppf . .ckusef. ½ky&f nfoiG jf yifukd pdwx f rJ S NrJNrHpmG aw.ygru [lwef.uvnf. ]]awmuf .raqmif wpfckvHk.qef.wdkUu vHk.vSaom tjzpftysufrsm.NyD.f rS bke..awGa&SUrSm b.wdkU ZeD.rS odkif. igridkbl. xif&Sm.k xdik af e&mrS x í jyef oGm.pHkeDjref.ydUk NyD. BuD ..orm.xdkifq&mawmfyif jzpfvifhupm. ae&Smavonf/ usef { nf h o nf a wmf r sm.wJ h v l u owf v d k u f w m}} [k jyefvnfajzMum.rtxd vdkufydkUay. pOf . zk e f .. idkoHaESmvsuf ..wl tpfudk usef.vsuf &Sdaeyg\/ ]]jznf.rl csifvd&Sefonf olwdkU*dkPf.onfh tvm.\/ . csuf c sif .[lusif.Muavawmh\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.

owd jyefvnfvm&ef ESdyfe. ]]vlav.udk usKyfb.[lusif.awmfBuD.pufvm\/ xGufouf 0ifoufrSmvnf.As ? olu rajym&if oleJU &efawGUvdkufaygh}} usef.zkef.. usda&Smifrltm. ]]cifAsm.[lusif.lí aemufausm&Sd taMumr wpfckudk ESyd ef .rSKrsm. &Dvifwef. apmifha&SmufrSmyg[k ESpfodrfhNyD.ceJ vJus owdarhoGm.Muawmhav? usKyfidkawmhr.ESifh BuHKae&onfh tcdkufwGifyif olUrdcif aocgeD. ajymraeygeJ U awmh ? igwd k U oG m .awmhrS usKyf idkrSmAs}} [k atmf[pf ajymaejyef\/ usda&Smifrlu nifomaomtoHjzifh .u tHBudwfNyD. rMumcifyif toufxGufawmhrnfudk odum tonf.cdkif. oHk.ru ydkNyD.f? usKyf &efolawG wpfa. jzpfoGm.vdkufaom acsmufwGef. r[kwfygbl.wGif pGyfay.u . &Sm\/ xdkpOf usef.qef. oGm.qJGac:oGm.fay. .u ylyefoGm.uav.[lusif..[lusif..vm\/ xdktcg usifh&Gif. olr vnfyif.vHk.a&mifvnf.uG.ckuJhodkU owdarhoGm.f}} [k qdkav\/ usef.&JU OD.ygvm..udk prf.\ezl.&JU &efolr[kwfygbl.acR. ukoay. ½kyf&nfydkacsmwJh rdef.u usef...\/ bmqufvkyf&rSef..vHk.f vdu k \ f usef.k xGuo f mG ..f tpfudk? tpfudkvJ usef.0ifí .f jymvmonfuo kd m awGU&\/ usef..xef apumrl toufraoao.fwkefvSKyfoGm.onf þrQ yl.[lusif.udk .kH qdUk NyD.vH.onf usif&h iT .f r..av.aBuGvkrwwf cHpm.Muygpd k U }}[k ajymNyD .wdkU 0gar*dkPf.qef.aemuf 0kef.&JU ae&yfudk ar.rS qJGBudK. csifvd&Sefu rif. ]]vlav.rSKrsm.Munfhvdkufa&cJwHk..fov D &SiEf iS hf usda&Smifrw l Ukd tm.[lusif. ]]nD r av.wwfw.f Asmyg'rsm. uvd [líom toHxu G v f mNyD.\ odkUwdkif usef. ]]vlav.cRwfNyD.[lusif.[lusif.u ½kwfw&ufatmfí . ab.pufaeonfudk cHpm.íom .lbl. vGefpGmwdk.rSm vHk.rma&..[lusif.uvJ ightpfudk usef.tm.zG.Edkif"m.u tJ[dk bkef.0 jyefvnf owdr&½HkrQru olUwpfudk.}} [k atmf[pfajymavonf/ usda&Smifrl vGefpGm&SufoGm.\/ xdkUaMumifh olu usef.fawmhrSr..aumif.ar.f ynm vGepf mG jynf0h aom yk*Kd¾ vfu BudK.udk owdxm.udk ajymjyvdkufNyD.onfh vSnfhuGufudk toHk.wuúodkvf aevif.[lusif.NyD.pm.udk &efjyKzdkU vmwmyJvm.wdkU tm.udkaumif. ]]uRefawmfh araru [dk bkef.foDv&Sifu Mum. at.u tpGyfrcH/ ½kwfw&uf ckefa&SmifvdkufNyD.cJuJhodkU tvGefylaeNyD. tpfudk? q&mu uRefrwdkUudk vmcdkif.pufaeonfudk cHpm.aqG..vdkuf&\/ 244 . . pdr.ck usef. usef.rod atmifvnf. aemufausm wpfae&mwGif rD.xefwmyJudk..atmifhxm.vdkuf&avawmh\ usef.&Smav\/ odkUjzifh &Dvifwef...[lusif.[lusif.yJcG sid&k ef jyKvdu k \ f / odUk aomf ½kww f &uftylv. kd v f .. .zkef.kH wke.zke. aysmhaysmif.vdkuf\/ usda&Smifrlu txdwfwvefUjzifh .[lusif.nif.. .u usef.\vnfyif.jzpfaMumif..uwef.[lusif.jcif. ]]&efolU ypönf..oa&GU jyefowd&vm&ayrnf/ odkUaomf . ]]tpfudk csifvd&Sef? uRefrajymawmhr.f uJo h Ukd odik .\ tusÐudk uref. rif.wmu &SufpGef..ygOD. tom.cs vdkufygao.&ef jyKvdkuf\/ odkUaomf usef.onf usef. r..ysufvQuf &Sufpdwfjzifh eDjref.fAs}} [k jyefajym\/ usda&Smifrl rsufESmtysufBuD.mufrusef xGufoGm.odxm. . f ifvmNyD.fvHk.. ]][if..&\/ odkUjzifh olu usef.vmayonf &Dvifwef.vQif 'Pf&mrnfrQyif jyif.wmyg&Sif}} usef.\/ usda&Smifrlu .[if}}[k ar.vnf.rSm owdjyefr&bJ &Sdav\/ xdkaomtcg tm.[lusif.qef. uav.av\/ usef.eJ U zuf N yD .udk rxde.}} [k ajymNyD.\ &if0udk ESdyfe.qef.csí . ]]rif.&JU pdwf"mwfu tifrwef jyif.udkNzKwfí usef.udk qwfceJ armhNyD.tm. uref.[lusif.onf &ifxJrS ylaqG..tus.yJ cifAsm.f csKyfEikd af wmhbJ csKH.rSm rnfoUkd rQ owdr&bJ &Sad eonft h jyif wpfu. vdrfnmvSnfhjzm. ]]'Duav.}} [k qdk&Smonf/ xdktcg csifvd&Sefu idkvufpjzifh acgif.xkwNf yD.NyD.awmfBuD. .ayGUcsDvdkuf &\/ pifppf usef.atmif e*g.? rif.udk twif.... idkcsvdkuf}} [k atmfajymav\/ odkUaomf usef.ywfvnfwGifrl a&cJuJhodkU at..[lusif.fay.uJhodkU at.awmhryS if aMuuJeG mMunf.vdkuf&ojzifh tBuD.u oufjyif. igwdkUu rif.uwef.udk oGm. ]]r . .

tcef. rS m rif .u ½kwfw&uf .vHk.ynmwdrfaum aysmufuG. ]]q&m'Duav.qef. igaowmyJ aumif. aocgeD . cJ h w . G pf um. &J U om.wl. ighukd aepMum odik .. bmrSjyefrajzacs/ ol\rsufESmay:wGif ½kwfw&uf rsuf&nfaygufrsm.vdk vludk oGm. usef.&mudk ai.fa&mufoGm.usvm\/ vufESpfbufrSmvnf.qef .f a emf ? 'gayr..}} [k tpD&ifcHMu\/ xd k U aemuf o l w d k U ES p f O D .}} &Dvifwef.&mud k vufjzifhprf.apmif. ]]q&m .zkef.\ jzLazG. zke. . .ojzifh . vGepf mG jynf0h ol jzpfíom bmrQrjzpfc/hJ omref twGi.vnf.onf uav.qef..ywfvnfwGifawmhrl vGefpGmat.wJhaemufrSm 'D&ufpufNyD.udk u.udkMum. ]]usef .av\/ usef.udk wu.NyD.[lusif.f? tckawmh 'DavmurSm 'Dynmudk wwfuRrf. zk e f .wmvJ tvum. aoaeonfudk awGUjrifojzifh tm.url oufjyif.Edkif"m.f? 'Dawmh igvlUavmurSm toufwpf&m aevmcJhwm[m bmrsm.zkef. . xGufoGm.uG. zrf.xm.onf usef.favmufu ay&Tif&aoh aoNyD...*dkPf.r.f &SdawmhrSmvJ? [lwef. rsufvHk.aomausmjyifü xif & S m .f cHtm.wdkUtm.. u rsuf a rS m if u d k wif .vdkvl b.xJodkU ac:vmonfh aemufwGif csifwl.lay.f ? rif .fEdkif ygawmhvm. qef . at.&mud k awG U jrif v d k u f & onf / usef ..csKyfNyD.ckuo hJ Ukd vGepf mG pdw"f mwfusqif.wuúodkvf aevif.udk &ifcGifxJwGif ayGUzufxm.zkef..cJah omaMumifh yifjzpfyg\/ csefvd&Sefu .'DavmufemrnfBuD.NyD.zkef.NyDudk rodawmhjcif.vSwJh vuf0g.\aemufausmudk Munfhvdkufjyef\/ xdk tcg usef.vm. acR.ESifhtwl vdkuf oGm.}} ar.f qef.qef.qef..zke.f ynm\ emrnfuykd if wpfcgzl. usef .oyfMunfhvdkuf&m vuf0g.wltpfudkBuD.k oifay.aomom.f igurif . wif. zk e f ..qef.ygw. pvH k . þodik .aomf wpfudk.mufwnf..f}} [k qdk\/ usef... rif.vH.aeMupOf rGef*dkppfom.av.SOf NydKifEdkifrnfpdk.pGm cH&zl.olu .wdkU jyefa&mufvmMu\/ olwdkUu a&mufvQifa&mufcsif.rlum.Muav\/ usef .&mxJwGif ylavmifaeNyD. awmifay:rSm b.acR.ajrmuf a tmif apmif h a &S m uf z d k U igh u d k u wd a wmif .foGm.udkom pdkufMunfhaeavonf/ twefMumrSyif aMuuGJaqG. olwdkUonf q&mESifhtwl aexdkifvmcJhonfh tcsdefwpfavQmufvHk.rsdK.ud k vl v m. u xd k v uf 0 g.fvHk.aomf tm.om csaeNyD.rSmrl usef.udk ac:vmwJh rGef*dkppfom.ifoGm. owdrxm.armifESH\ tavmif.NyD.pufoGm. qef .q.vHk.fEdkifrSm} [k qdkavonf csKd&Tifacsmif.f h igh w ynf h & .&JU toufudkawmifrS ru. igh w ynf h a v.&.&f iS q f &mawmfBuD. &J U wpfOD.wwfonfudkom awGUNyD.\ausmay:rS a&cJvuf0g. tm. usyf p G m ukwfxm. jynf0h olomqdv k Qif rl xdkab.wJhvl &Sdaeygao. .folrS r&Sdawmhbl.udkMum.qef .Munfhaeav\/ csifvd&Sefu .uvm.fEdkifawmhbl.&mud k awGUvdkuf&aomtcg vG e f p G m xd w f v ef U oG m . [l u sif .vnf.yJaygh? ig .eJUukrvJ? uRefawmf aq.onf apmapmu xdkrGef*dkppfom.usyfpGmayGUzufxm...vdkufrdawmhacs/ xdkUaMumifhtck xdkrGef*dkppfom. xdkrGef*dkppfom.wdkU ZeD.zl.f usifph OfawGtm.. csdK&Tifacsmif.qef.f q&m}} [k cGifhyefNyD. cef.[lusif.t"dyÜg. aom &ifeifah MuuJzG .u csufcsif. pifppfuse. ]]csdK&Tifacsmif.raqmifxJ wGif acgufwHkUacgufjyef avQmufvsuf&Sdaeavonf odkU avQmuf&if.fyJ ru.NyDvdkU igxifaecJhw.f onf xdo k Ukd ajymNyD..f cHtm. \ aemuf a usm&S d xl .. usef.&SmvmcJhprf.vdk vltm. acR.ESifh r.[lusif.jrnfhaom toHjzifh . wpfa.awmhrS igu a[m'Duav. vHk.rSm xdkpum. pD. ]]uJq&m bmaq. xdkvuf0g.aom pd r f ..pdwfxdcdkuf ylaqG..[lusif. qef . igh&UJ q&mBuG.. odkif..yif jzpf\/ usef.cJah y/ usef.&m\ eHab..}} csdK&Tifacsmif. ]]vGefcJhwJh tESpfoHk. .Mu\/ 245 .. ajymoHwpfcgrQ rMum.xdwfvefU wkefvSKyfoGm.oGm. ]]uRefawmfvJ vdkufoGm. onf usef ..wGif olwdkUq&monf aysmfaysmfaepdwfat. vdkvltm.ywfvnfae&mudk xdvdkufonfESifh cdkufcdkufwkef.atmif e*g.at..rQ rMum.ayrnf/ usef. aMumufp&maumif.f cspfwynfh&.wdUk vnf.\/&Dvifwef.vdk vl\ vufcsufudk aumif.r. Ek a &mif vuf 0 g.f rSm twGi.av\/ trSefrl usef.wnf.pufvsuf &Sdae\/ xdktcsdefwGifyif csdK&TifacsmifESifh &Dvifwef.Mu\/ taMumif. toufjyef&iS v f mNyD.qef. aom vuf 0 g.í olU*dkPf..[lusif. [dk usef.zkef.vQif .f}} xdkpum.

vmap&ef BudK.foUkd vQif toufwpfzef jyef&SifvmEdkifawmhygrnfenf.zkef.wpfudk.u .NyDyJ? uRefawmfbmrS rjzpfawmhygvm..&drfaomaMumifhyif jzpfyg\/ odkUjzifh em&D0ufcefUMumaomtcg usef.i. [l u sif . awGa0ai. wd k U [l w ef .u tHudkBudwfí ."mwfrsm.jzifh usef.wdUk onf use.zkef.atmifhcHraeeJUaemf}} xdktcg &Dvifwef..wJhvlyJ}} [k a&&Gwfav\/ xd k U aemuf usef .rsm. usef.qef.\ wpfudk.fxJodkU 0ifa&mufvmrnfudk pdk.[lusif.csif.r&Sdawmhyguvm. xdk.zkef.pm.. vufacsmif.fh}} usef. rSeo f nf/ MuG. .atmif e*g.SOfNyD.fhudk uHqdk.fBuD.acR. wpfudk.fvHk. ]]'gu 'D v d k u G .[lusif.tm.onf rSdwfxm.&JU apwemay: wnfaew.ydwfcH&NyD.udk twif.[lusif.qef. azaz ? om.SOf½dkufvdkuf wJhtcgrSm 'Dvl&JU vuf0g.\ udk.fawmhrS vuf0g.f&m taMumif.ynmudk toHk.[lusif. xJ u d k ayG U ./ &Dvifwef.qef.vdkuf\/ OD.f acR. usef.onf xdkodkU ½kwfw&ufatmfNyD.vdkuf&\/ ]]azaz . uHaumif. csif.ifawmhacs/ odkUaomf ol\rsufESmrSmrl wjznf.acR.u wu..u xdkodkUajymNyD.\udk. aeawmh rif .\ aemufausmudk olU&ifbwfjzifh zduyfxm.u .armifE\ HS tokbudpt ö wGuf jyifqifaeMu\/ csdK&Tiaf csmif. odvdkuf&av\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.f vHk.qef.zkef.zkef.vdkufav\/ xdpk OfwiG f &Dvifwef.mwifxm.qef.NyDjzpf&m tu. oG m .fh&Spfae&mudk xdk.wdUk ZeD...xJoUkd 0ifNyD.. 'Pf&m&oGm.ESihf csifv&d eS w f Ukd url q&mhtcef. ]]&D v if w ef ..zkef. tm.. tpdrf.&f iS q f &mawmfrmS vGecf ahJ om tESpEf pS q f .fcefUuyif ysHveG f awmfro l mG .onf taMumrsm. tcef . uRefawmf [dkaeUwkef.wmyJ q&m? uRefawmfcsufcsif.ydwfxm.0 rwkef. ck E S p f a zmf & J U emrnf u od k i f .av. wkef.&ifha&mif orf.wuúodkvf aevif. oHk.? use.oGm. vkyfMuwmaygh? 'Duav.f qHu k s.acgif. rif .f? odyfemw. onf usef .u tusÐudk cRwfí usef.fatmfoHudk Mum.ukef rxkwf&J bl.. usef..tm. f h ? rif . xduyfvdkufonfESifhtwl &Dvifwef.qef..[lusif..av\/ q&mBuD.[lusif.u tajctaeudk tuJcwfNyD. avmurS m od y f B uD .fvHk.vdkuf\/ NyD.&Sd yifr taMumaygif.wGif &yfvsuftajc taeudk &ifwrrjzifh apmifhMunhfaevdkufMu\/ taMumif. &if h a &mif ajymif . qef .&JU toufu bk&m. usef. r½dkufygeJU}} olwdkUtm.[lusif.[lusif. . rif.wdkUonf q&mheHab.qef.qef.\/ odkUjzifh olonf tusÐudk uref.aeaMumif. tpGrf. cRwfí usef.ayawmh ? oleJUb.\ rsuf E S m ta&mif u vH k .csif. 0 tpd r f .uwef.ifvmonfudk awGUvdkuf& av\/ xdktcsdefusrSyif q&mBuD. cdkufcdkufwkefoGm.tm.udk ylaEG..\tajctaeudk MunfMh u\/ xdktcg olwdkU q&mu olUudk.qef. zk e f .vQif . .fh uRefawmf tck'Pf&m aysmufoGm.omwJhvleJUawGU&if udk. ? twif.yif zufxm.zkef.aemuf udk.odkif.ocifBuD.yrf.vmav\/ usef .udk Munfhum rsuf&nfpufvufjzifh .. ]]usef.aMumifoGm.av.em&Daygh? 'Duav.vdkuf\/ usef..u q&mhudk. ck w if a y:wG i f tomt.em&D toufydk&Snf&ifvJ oHk. onf uav.u tawmhu f kd aMumufp&maumif.\ aMuuJGzG.tm. ]]igwdkUtm.q&m} usef. &ifcGifxJodkU ydkuf axG."mwf tqdyfrsm.vQif usef. zk e f .vQif usef. ? rcH E d k i f w J h t cgus&if usef .u 'DvleJU vuf0g..\ &ifcGifxJodkU twif.fxJrS twGif.NyD.xdk.qef.\ tavmif.vHk.w.fonf toufjyefí&SifEdkifzG.fujyef'PfcH&rSmjzpfvdkU olutm.acR.. usef.&wmaygh? 'Da&cJvuf0g.rEdkifbJ xdktat.a&mif t&dyfrsm.\ rsufESmay:wGif tpdrf.jyKwJhtcgrSm udk.rSm vHk.D ESihf armfuq k ef.av? tJ . wufvmonfudkawGU&NyD. qH k u sD .fxJ&Sd tat..vnf. quf v k y f v d k u f p rf .jznf..rSm olwdkUq&monf touft&G.vdkufav\/ usef.udkvnf. 246 .odxm.Edkif"m.l v mNyD .ukefBudK. aemufwpfcg 'DvleJUawGU&if owdxm..onf E S i f h toufxGufawmhrnf jzpfaMumif.fhxuf odkif.vdkuf\/ xdkodkUtom.apmif.apmif.qef.fvHk. emaew. ]]q&m ./ þodkU qdkvQif þuav.fuG.aom rsufvHk.qef.tpHkudk zGifhí . ud k quf v k y f c d k i f ..fq&m? 'gayr.fvHk.vHk. usef. ESpfq. qef .f}} usef..zkef.NyDjzpfí tiftm.Mu\/ xdkodkU&SdpOf ½kwfw&uf usef.

ltdyfpufEkdifcJhMu\/ &Spf&ufajrmufaomaeUwGifrl olwdkUonf usef.usef. OD.rBuD.axmufríyif qdk&rnfvm.pm.om.twdkif.fwGif.[lusif.f ajymvmEdkifaom usef.fxdyf &if0eJU csufatmufrSm oGm.u txuf jrufqHk.wpfzHk ajymif.jznf. bBuD.trsdK. tcsnf.vJapae\/ q&mBuD. i. rarhygbl.EdkifcJh\/ þodkUjzifh tpydkif.vmNyD.[lusif.wjznf.aomfvnf.oGm.eJU OD. aumif.jznf.e. ab.rsdK.\/ olonf ravQmhaom ZJGjzifh twGif.usef.? igwdkU BudK..lukpm. onf ol U ud k .zkef.\ &ifciG x f o J Ukd a&muf&adS eayNyD/ &Dvifwef..f tat.odkU a&muf&Sdvmaomtat.\ udk. jyefxkwfae jcif.[lusif.lí r&awmhygacs/ olwdkUu enf.f qdkwmq&m pOf.jynf &efolrsm.jyef\/ twGif.mufonf oHk.aomufEdkifcJhav\/ xdkUaMumifholwdkUonf usef.lvdkUr&Edkifawmhbl.Edkif"m.mufvQif &Spfem&DcefU ukoay.NyD. tcsdeftMumqHk.pm. q&mBuD.csdeu f srSyif olUwynfh tm. ododomom avsmh enf.fh om.ae&mrSmawmh Mumav at.zkef.f? igwdkU&JU tpGrf..l&ef BudK.wdkif.[lusif.wuúodkvf aevif.zdkawG .aomf &ifxJwGif 0rf.eJUawmh b. usef.&JU ckwifrSm rif.}} [k qdk&Smavonf/ xdkpum.om.enf. ayGUzufxm.oGm. ]]om.udk pkpnf.tm.u ]][kwfuJ}h} [kajymNyD. wpfaeUwjcm.fvdkaMumifh 'DvdkjzpfcJh&w.wdUk rSmrl ab.udk wpfaeukefvHk.pm.\/ olu usef.ay.aomtcgrSyif &Dvifwef.&Sd tat. &S d tat.bdk.aumif.fvdkrQ xkwf. aMuuJGpGm cHpm.[lusif.ynmoifNyD.om.\ toufudk atmifjrifpGm u. rD.tm.}} [k trdefUay.tenf."mwf tqdyfrsm.onf tawmfyif tajctae wdk.wufaumif.u rcHEdkifaom tcg csdK&Tifacsmif.av. &ifwpfcsuf xdwfceJ ckefoGm.usifhpOfudk usifhvdkuf&\/ olUudk.fh olb.vH.wGif csdK&Tifacsmif.udk olUq&m enf. rD. usef.fwGif.udk Mum.qH.yif jzpfcJh\/ xdk tcg pum.pGmjyefxkwfae&avonf/ xdkUaemuf armfukqef.fcJhwJhtwGuf om. oufjyif.tm. tdyaf ysmfomG .udk xkwf.vmygNyD? 'gayr. zk e f .tpmvnf.aomtcgrS y if rsuf v H k .atmif e*g.udk wjznf.fxdyf? &if0eJU csufatmuf oHk.odkif.jzifh BudK."mwfudk jznf.tiftm.i.[lusif.fuJhodkUyif BudK.wGif wifysOfacG xdkifNyD.bdk.NyD wynfhwdkU? 'gayr.arGT.k udk cef.u .EGrf.rSmyg? igwdkU tckt&ifuvdk rif.av? tckbdk.mufxJwGif olu usef. yifyef.&JU 'Pf&mu aysmufoGm.Edkifav\/ þodkUESifhyif q&mwynfh ajcmufa."mwftqdyfrsm.k usD.wdkUtm.[lusif.? om.u usef.xJü armfukqef.&JU i.onf .aemufolu ]]bdk.u qufíukpm.aomfvnf.wGif usef.tenf.wdkUu om.mufcsif.tiftm.zkef.&JU ajcaxmufawGuawmh aEG.rGef vm\/ tat.[lusif.fhajcmuf&uf jynfhajrmufaom tcgwGifrl usef. avsmhyg. ajymif. twGif.xJoUkd ac:NyD.yif jzpfyg\/ odkUjzifh usef .csif.fwGif. .vJvmonfudkawGU&\/ olwdkUonf b.fxJwGif tat. tcef.\ udk."mwf tqd y f r sm.nif. ]]tck tat.vQif tpm.mufwpfvSnfhpD tem.fwifEdkifcJhNyD[k xifrSwfcJhMu\/ odkUaomf oHk.uGm}} [kqdkav\/ 247 ."mwfrSmvnf.[lusif.qef.udk wdkufxkwf&r. usef..avjzpfvmw.rSm armfuq k ef.ay.wGif xdkifí tat."mwf tqdyfrsm.tESD.í tat. ]]armfukqef.lvmNyD. rajymwwf/ olwdkUq&muyif vufavQmh&rnfvdk &SdcJhaom usef.jzpfí wynfhig.bdk.pm.f}} [kqdkonf/ tm.rS tat.vHk.fwGif.fpm. rif.qef.arT.ESifh csdK&Tifacsmif."mwf xkwf.csum ."mwfu olUi. ]]q&m bdk.cJh\/ xdkUaMumifh olwdkUtm.vdkufprf. jzpfoGm.\ cHEdkif&nfrSmvnf.ckrl udk.ESihf usef. wpfa. pm.wpfoufvHk.pum.a. . jznf.vnf.av.f u usef.vHk.[lusif.zdkU rvdkawmhbl.qef.bdk.av.oufomoGm.&ufwdkifwdkif usef.qef.. qef .[lusif."mwf r&SdawmhouJhodkU b. ud k z G i f h í rwfwwf&yfvdkuf\/ xdt k csdew f iG f usef.NyD.udkMum.cJh\/ xdktcg olwdkU wpfa.[lusif.ayGUcsDxm. usef.\ tajctaerSm wpfrsdK. toufudk u.aomf ? q&mBuD. ydkí tcsdefMumjrifhvmav\/ xdkUaMumifh olwdkUonf wpfa.fvdkrS tat."mwf tqdyfudk xkwf.fMu&av\/ uHaumif.vdkU r&bl.[lusif. uk e f o G m .zke.jznf.\ udk..csav\/ NyD..odkif. f w G i f .tm.. "mwfrsm.rS tat. aemifwpfcsdefrSm azazeJUarar udk.? om.pm.f bdk.csif.vdkuf&av\/ q&mBuD.[lusif.tdyfvdkufaemf}} [kESpfodrfh vdkufav\/ usef.q.xJudk rD.[lusif.pkaew.vnf.cJhorQ tvum. oHjzifh qdkav\/ tcef..

usef.bdk.qef.udk tvGwfuswfrSwfcdkif.ynmrSm trSefyif cufcJeufeJNyD.jref. jzpf aMumif.fh bdk.zkef.u wpfckcsif.í avQmufoGm. ar.aumif.atmif e*g. oHk.av.jyefvnf &Gwfjyaomtcg usef.zkef.acR.u rif.qef.pnf.&JUodkif.f? i.[lusif.f rvG.t&mrSm tjcm.ynm b..ukd rckwf&Jbl..qef.ynmrsdK..r[kwf?&SufpGef.u b.qef. . ckwfcsufudk b.u ]][ifhtif.f onf &Supf eG .. rif..vQif nmvuf0g.odkUapmif.wuúodkvf aevif.aom taMumif.bdk.fvuf atmufrS NzwfNyD.muf\ oGif[efjzifh ½kwfw&ufab.uGufoHk.zkef.jcif.vdkufaom odkif. qufvkyf} [kqdkonf/ xdkUaemufusef.rSm rsufESm eDjref. 248 .ynm awGudk wwfxm.bdk.u odkif.? 'gayr..om.csuf ckwfprf. ]][kwfNyD vufpowfawmh olu &SufpGef. ckwfcsvdkuf\/ usef.u NyHK.qef. usef. om.[lusif.\ odkif.uom.fvdkvkyfNyD.udk r½dkufawmhbl.}} usef.oGm.onfodkif.fav..uGm}} [k acsmhvdkuf\/ usef.u NyHK.[lusif.? bdk.t&mudk ajymjyvdkuf\/ xdktaMumif..}} [k jiif.av\/ usef.xm. rwDxGifEdkifcJhojzifhom vGefpGmjrifhrm.f cJah om odik .av\/ usef.fh? uJ .u usef.jzpfatmif raygif.pHk\odkif.zkef.xJodkU ac:um .fwm}} [k csD.pHkudk wpfckwnf.. cef.apmif.wJh odkif..onf em. nmvuf0g. aemufwpfcsufawmh ckwfvdkufOD.apmif.bdk.\ odkif.qef.awmfBuD.0rupm..u .[lusif..[lusif.bdk. xdktcg &Dvifwef.apmif. BuG. wwfwJh odkif.[lusif.f ynmrsm.\/ usef.fqdkwm b.zkef..&rSmvJ vlav. .udk vuf0g.yJGcHkudk vufjzifh wpfcsufykwfNyD.aygif.onf usef.udk vHk.bdk.ynmu bmvJ}} odkUaomf olonf tdyfaysmfaeaom usef.fí .u odkif.rSm yxrvuf0g.zkef. tvGwu f sufcikd .jyEdkifonfhwdkif tvGwf&atmif usuf&GwfEdkifonfudk awGUaomf acgif.í ]]rif.fvdk vkyfodrSmvJ? tJ'Dvdk rif.raorD olUtm.u usef.fvufudk puf0dkif.rGefaom odkif.ynmudk pkpnf.fudk aemufvSnfhíaemufjyefwpfcsuf ckwf vdkuf\ xdktcg usef.f? 'gayr.fh odkif.? om.[lusif.zkef.í .f&TifwdkU acwfumvu odkif. ]]om.odvdkufav\/ trSefrl &SufpGef.fqdkwm wu..uJhodkU vnfapvdkufNyD.ynmrSm [dkpyfpyf onfpyfpyf ESifh tawmfyifpHkvif ysHUESHUvS\/ xdUk aemufusef.favmuf awmfovJqdkwm ppfrvdkUuG.\/ odkU&mwGif &SufpGef.&JU tifrwef xl.eJU 'Davmufxd usifhEdkifw.qef.qef.ajymjycsuf tqHk.jcm.w.}} [k cdkif.u vuf0g. wpfa.uGufjzpfaMumif.ckwfcsufuJhodkUyif avxJwGif ½dkufvdkufrdouJhodkU cHpm.apmif.usL.udw k pfcck sif. odkif.m cH.zkef..[lusif.q&mBuD. onf wu.eJU? uJ .pHk\ usifhpOfrsm.wmudk.zkef.bdk....vdkufNyD. ]]aumif. bmrS raMumufygeJU ? ckwfomckwf}} [kqdkvdkuf&m usef.qdk\/ q&mBuD.fvuf0g.u usef.f uusef.zke.bdk.qef.om.qef. ]]odyfaumif.[lusif.u tHhMoae&avonf/ xdktcg &SufpGef.udk ESdK.fh &SufpGef.uvJ vdr®mom.wJhtwdkif.favmuf&Sdw.apmif.bl.qef.uGufrSm usef.yJ ? bdk.apmif. ]]bdk.u . *dkPf. aumhusifh\e*g. .BuD.? tvum.zkef...aemf}} [kqdk&Sm\/ usef.eJUjyefrcs&bl.u nmvufjzifh ckwfcsufudk cH. rif.av.u b.\ q&mbkef.qef.Edkif"m.t&myif jzpfyg\/ &Dvifwef.vdkuf&jyef\/ usef..wGif q&mBuD.eJU ckwfyghr.rBuD.uGuftajrmuftjrm.udk xdrS rxdEdkifbJeJU}} [kqdk\/ usef.ynmtESpfom&udk r&&SdcJhaMumif.ynm oifMum.NyD.Edkif vuf0g.&JU ynmtqifhudkrod&if bdk.eJU oHk.apmif.tm.u udk.[lusif.tm.lvdkufjyefonf/ usef.udk bdk.vdkuf\/ usef.jzifh tomt. ]]om.lvdkuf\ xdktcg ]]rqdk. tay:rS atmufodk h cyfapmif.u vuf0g.udk odkif.bdk. od&SdoGm.cdkif.[lusif.qef. udk tvnfwnfhwnfhrS ½dkufxkwfvdkuf\/ xdktcg usef.[lusif.orm.u pm.bdk.ynmb.bdk.NyD. rif. bdk.ygNyD bdk.rckwf&if bdk.ay.ndwfí .ynmaygif.om. oabmaygufoGm.axmif&if. ]]vlav. om.fh&SpfuGufxJrS oHk.udk tm..zkef.u bdk.fi.a& . ajymjycJhzl.u &..u b..[l usif.q.bdk.cJhaom tjzpftysuf taMumif.

jznf.NyD.fxJwGif twGif.aumif.pm.w.ojzifh usef. rsufESmudk twif.hf oludk.apmif.*dkPf. tjyif ESif.rsm.zkef. wGifyif rsufcHk.aumif.xdkufwefaom vufaqmifypönf.qef.f&SdvmavNyD? odkUaomf olUudk.rjynfrpHk wwfxm. &SufpGef.tm.tjrpfwG.usifhpOftwdkif."mwftqdyfudk ajzzdkU twGuf tjyifvltaeeJU b.ynmudk wjznf.a&mufaeojzifh þESpfESpf tcsdeftwGif.f? aemuf ydkif.onf olUbBuD.vHk.jcif.&Dwdkuf&TifESifh usef.jyxm.fcE¨mxJodkU a&mufoGm. wdrfaumraeapcsif/ NyD.rS *dkPf.onf rsufcHk.u pdwfxJrS pOf. .twGuf &SmvmNyD.wdkUonf olwdkU\nDtpfudk &Dwdkuf&Tif ESifh usef.\ oabmudk aumif.ESifhtm.ckuJhodkU jzpf&jcif.[lusif.csKyf csifxif. odkif.vQif wdkawmif.w.jzL*dkPf.wdkUtm.0g.vHk.[lusif.f? 'gayr. NyD.[lusif.usifhpOfxJu twGif.ojzifh tat.jymvmav\/ tat.aumif.vHk.vdkufMu&av\/ odkUjzifh [lwef.laqmifvmcJhav\/ odkUaomf [lwef.rS csdK&Tifacsmif.jzL*dkPf.xkwfonftxd jyóemjzpfyGm.tm."mwftqdyf wufaomtcgwGif twif.vnfoabmaygufvmrnf[k wGufxm.aemufwpfcsdefwGif usef. ay.arG.Budrf cefUrQ vlvTwfíolUajr.[lusif.l&efvGefpGm cuf cJaMumif.\ tat. od&Sdavawmh\/ usef.[lusif.vdkuf\/ ]]tif.tm.\vuf0g.onf usef.atmifhtnf.fNyD.vnf. cdkifNrJjcif.pGm udkvnf.[lusif.i.yJ avhusifhcdkif.wGif wpfoufvHk.Edkif"m. odvdkufav\/ xdktcg usef."mwfukd rvGijhf y.vSojzifh olUud.Mu\/ tESpfwpf&mausmfNyDjzpfaom aq.apmif.? OD.fwdkifuvJ ighq&maoqHk.vmr.onf usef.fvdkrS rulnDEdkifawmhbl.\ tyl"mwfavmufEiS hf xdt k at.acR.EdkifcJhacs/ wpfzef þESpfESpftwGif.[lusif.NyD.om ydev f v DS monfukd awGU&aomtcg olwdkU vGefpGmpdwfxdcdkufoGm.? wpfpdwf wpfa'oomvQif rSwfrdcJhw.tm.onf usef.atmifuko&ef pdwfqE´pl. rsm.&rSmyJ? b.fqdkwm apmifhMunfh&rSmaygh} odkUjzifh usef.vm&&Smonf/ onfESpfESpfrQ tcsdeftwGif.qef.usL. wpfcgxuf wpfcg qdkovdk ododomom jyif.jcm.lMunfhvdkufonfESifh usef.rsm.tm.[lusif."mwfudk jy.fvdkxl. ckwfcsufoHk.\ rsufESmrSm wpfaeUwjcm. em.cJhaomaepMum twGif.atmif e*g. rdrd wwforQ odorQtm.fyHk oHk.wdkUrSm wdkuf½dkufr[kwfonfhwdkif oG.udk &Smay.rjyKygawmhacs/ 249 . vkyfBuHcJhaom &efoludkyif &SmazG &ef tcsdefray. aq.tm.xdkufwefonfh aq.cgeD.av.jrpfvl? tp&Sdaom vGefpGmtbdk.ygu csufcsif.av. ]]aumif. usef. pdwfraumif. odkif. xdkuRef.k wufrvmbJwpfaeU wjcm.av.f0dkufí rsufcHk.qef. [lusif.pmawGudk tm.jzpfonf[k rSwf.jzifh þodkif.usifhpOf&JU usrf. t&G. twGif.Mu\/ odUk aomf usef. . odkif.usufonf oHk.aom aq.jref.[lusif.rsm.BuNyD.zkef. vSnfhvnfNyD.wpfacguf wGif armfukqef.OD. olUudk.? olU'Dtwdkif.jzpfaMumif.ap\/ xdkUjyifvGefpGm tbdk.wuúodkvf aevif.vdkufav\/ usef. aejyef\/ olUpdwfxJrSvnf.*dkPf.ay.odvdkuf\/ xdkUaMumifh.rSm vGefpGm½SKyfaxG. armif.yHkavmufyJ usifhvdkU&wm? tckvuf&Sd tajctae eJUqdk rwwfEdkifawmhbl.wdkUrSmrl ae&mtESHUtjym."mwftqdyfrSmrl trSefyifjyif.[lusif.zkef.udkyg usef.tm.f tm.cJh&m xdktcsdefrSpí rsufcHk.jrpf aq.jzL*dkPf.usifhpOfudk oifMum.pm.fapEdkifrSmaocsm w.jzL*dkPf.zkef.\twGif.Muav&m aemufqHk. odkif.rrSwfrdbl. k w f iG .NyD.tm.lxm. tenf.rnf pdk.\ vufcsufjzifh .qef.fcE¨mxJ&Sd tat.wGifvnf.zkef.fxJu tat.qef. vma&mufMunfh½SK ar.aom tjzpfudk awGU&aomf ydkíqdkUeifhpGm cHpm.f &Sd twGi.udk usef.\tajctaerSm wd.fwdkifom aepMumodkif.odkif.wkef. xdktwGif.u &GwfcJhwJh aepMumodkif..xefvGef.ydkí pdrf.[lusif.f}} [k cDs.Mu&av\/ txl. xdkvltm.pm. jyefvnf xkwf.fapEdik cf ahJ cs/ xdUk aMumifh usef.tm.usuf onf aemufxyf vlvTwfjcif. csifxif.ynmudkom xyfwvJvJ avhusifhapcJh\/ csdK&Tifacsmif.ck þa&cJvuf0g.[lusif.awmhrS q.odvdkuf\/ trSefrl &SufpGef.qef. r&Sd aMumif.awmif rS vGefpGm&Sm..f? odyfaumif.rsm.wGif usef.onf usef.\ udk.fh igudk.csKyf vTwfvdkufaomvlESifh pum.ZJGeJU BudK.fa&mufaomtcgwGifrS ol\xufjrufaom OmPfpGrf.aom ESpftwGif."mwf tqdyfwufonfh tcsdefwdkif.onf usef.NyHK.onf udk.? 'gayr.csufudk cH.BudK.xefpGma0'em cHpm.&Gufrsm.yg."mwftqdyfrsm.vQif auR.csKyfBuD.usifhpOfudk avhusifh&ifawmh tyl"mwfu tat.tm.aeUpOfavhusifhcJh&m ESpfESpfrQ MumaomfolU udk.[lusif.twif.fxJrS tqdyfwdkUom aysmufuif.csif\xdkUaMumifh tvGwfom usufcdkif.

zkef. wkef.ESifhwuG nDtpfudk tm.[lusif.axG.k av.arT.u .[lusif.onfESifh usef.qef.zkef. *d k P f .Budrfwdwd oGm.a&mufítultnD awmif.\yifr q&mrSm aumhvif. wpfuGJjym.cJhMuaom tcsdefvnf.vsuf rD.wGif a&Smifvif*dkPf..fpOfu usef. [l u sif .ausmif.aom *dkPf.. usifhpOfudk wpfpdwfwpfydkif.Mu\/ tb.twGufESifh þodkUvkyfay.av..wdkUtm.xH tultnD oGm.aygif.ifvm&Smyg\/ usef. usifhpOfESifh yll.foDv&SifBuD.jzwf&jcif.om jzpfírdrd\ twGif.fwif&ef ta&. odvdkuf Mu&aom aMumifhyif jzpfyg\/ usef.f&G.&cJhaom *dkPf.qef.wdkU pdwfxdcdkufrnfpdk.wdkU oabmaygufxm.vsif rsufESmwGifvnf.f tzdk.qef.qef.pD uJGjym.NyD.usifhpOf wpfpdwfwpfa'oudkyif ajymjyrnfr[kwfay/ xdkUaMumifh usef.iHkUí oGm. usifhpOfudk &Edkifrnf / xdktcg usef. usef .pwifxGufcJhonf/ oH. vdkufr.pm. a&SUarSmufwGif 'l.zkef.onf aemufwpfaeU eHeufvif. aqmif N yD .onf yifrodkif.[lusif.qef. pdwf0rf. tpdrf. od k U ac:ítul t nD a wmif . a&S m if v if b k & m.wuúodkvf aevif.jzpfygvsuf .wif.tm. ausmif. oHk.xdkif q&mawmfBuD.&ufrQ Mumaomfow l Ukd onf a&SmifvifawmifajcodUk a&muf vmMu\/ xdt k cg olwUkd onfjrif.zkef.wpfzef0gar*dkPf.? olri.? bBuD.\ twGif.vQif usef.ausmif. ausmif . udk.w0if &SdcJhol jzpfyg\/ odkUaomf olronf .ckuJhodkU a&Smifvifbk&m.awmfodkU tnHhcH acgif. usef.vmawmh\/ xdkUaMumifh csifvd&Sefu usef.jzpfNyD.udk q&moGm.NyD.fwdkif .tm.tay:wGifvnf.awmif.fwdkif oGm.xH odu©m tuscHí tultnDoGm.ausmif.fapumrl a0'em wpfaeUwpfjcm.axmuftnHhcHvdkuf &ouJhodkU odu©mtusBuD.ckESpf&Spfvydkif. ]]reufjzef usef.wpf*dkPf.udk ac: íc&D.f}} [k qdk&Smav\/ csdK&Tifacsmif. apmifNcHKay.atmif e*g.onf olwdkU q&m\ESKwfrS rarQmfvifhaom pum.ac:vmNyD.yifjzpfyg\/ tu.onf ½kwfw&ufa0'em azmufjyefvmNyD.zkef.fvHk.wdkU onf wpf*dkPfESifhwpf*dkPf.[lusif.ckuJhodkU a&Smifvifbk&m.atmif vkyfay. jzpfonf[k csdK&Tifacsmif.av.bJ oludk.fwdkif pma&. OD .a&mufNyD.wpfOD.rSmvnf.Mu\ q&mBuD.fEdkifrnf[k wGufqrdaomaMumifh xdkodkU qHk.zkef. wm0efray.zHk.xdkif q&mawmfBuD. awmifay:odkU ajcusif wufcJhMu\/ 250 .cHjcif..í tHudkomwif.zkef.[lusif. [l u sif .\aepMumodkif.zkef.tm.onfh aemufydkif.[lusif.jzwfvdkufMu\/ NyD.cJhNyDjzpf&m vuf&Sd 0gar*dkPf.fvGefoGm.0efausmif.tm.a&muf &ef qHk.aomf vG e f p G m pd w f x d c d k u f o G m .vnf. tygt0if olwdkUtm. usef. a&Smifvifbk&m.awmif.ESifhywfoufí [lwef.ESifh tuRrf.jzpfyg\/ usef.vdkuf&\/ xdktcsdefwGifyif usef.onf csdK&Tifacsmif.ckuJhodkU tjcm.&ef BudwfrSdwfí qHk.onf olUq&m bdk.Budwfxm.rwefaom emrnf *kPfodu©ma&.onf usef.usifhpOfrSm aepMum usifhpOfxJrS wpfpdwfwpfydkif.us&avawmhrnf[k odxm.í aEG.yif jzpfcJh&yg\/ xdkUaMumifhvnf.onf aemufqHk.ay. cH a pvQif [l w ef .uG. jzpfyg\/ trSefrl þESpfESpf umvtwGif.*dkPf.bdk.oljzpf&m? &SufpGef.u rnfrQyif olUa0'emudk BudK.odkU a&mufvmcsdefwGif usef.Edkif"m.qef.vnf.fr.rSm vGefpGmt&Suf&apaom tvkyfvnf.\toufudk u. olr pdwfckcJhygavNyD/ xdkUaMumifh olrxHodkU usef.&ef qHk.jzpfae\/ rsufBuG.xJodkU twif.&Smavonf/ odkUaomf .rSm rsufMuG.odkU oGm.csKyf q&mrBuD.f a Mumif h r l ol w d k U q&m onf usef .jzwf&jcif.kwfvmojzifh rwwfomonfh tqHk. ydkí&ifhanmif.*dkPf. twG u f od u © m tenf . vQif ydkíjynfhpHkaom twGif.udkac:NyD.jzpf\ NyD.ausmif.zdkudkyg rD.f r Qom usrnf j zpf a Mumif .ESifh [lwef.ESifh OD.onf olwdkUa&Smifvif*dkPf.odkif. tultnDawmif. þaepMumodkif. tm.vif.udkom OD.Mu\ odkUaomf olwdkUonf þES.udk awmifajcwGif csnfxm.cktcsdefwGif uG.udk Mum. usef.[lusif.wpf*dkPf. csifvd&Seftm.cH &awmhrnf jzpfaMumif. tcef.qef.onfvnf.fonf vGefpGm pdwf"mwfBuD.ojzifh a0'emudk rsdKodyfcHpm.NyD.jzwfvdkufjcif.wGif .q&mBuD.wGif olwdkU [lwef.vHk.[lusif.qef.odyg\/ odkUaomf cHk. i.qef.[lusif.f í csd K &T i f a csmif .vHk.zkef.a&mufNyD. tvdktavQmuf a&Smifvif*dkPf. csefvd&SefrSm pdwfysufíomjyefcJh&onf csnf.a&mifydkí &ifhvmum wpfudk.onf a&Smifvifbk&m.*dkPf. jzpf\/ olwdkU*dkPf.xuf usef.pm.wGif oludk.\ toufudk u. þ tajctaevG e f p G m qkwf. odkUjzifh .cHapcJhygaomfvnf.

]]uJ .EGrf.avonf/ ra&S..fawmfrsm. udk.qef.aq.zkef.xJoUkd ajy.ESpfyg.&JU &efzufjzpfzdkU vmwmrsm.rxJrS ausmif. q&mBuD.onfudk olwdkUawGUvdkuf&yg\/ trSefrl usef.fawmfawGeJUvJ igu 0gBuD.f}} xdUk aemufbek .ausmif .ESpfyg.. wpfcsufrQ tuJcwf[ef Munfh NyD.0ef q&mawmfBuD.tm.qef.}} 251 ..NyHK.ESpyf g. oHyHk.xdkifq&m awmfBuD.aom rkwq f w d af rG. 0ifomG . bkef.zkef.aemuf .aerd\/ xdkUjyif usef..BuD.yg.fcE¨mxGm. wH c g.udkyg ta&.&Ti&f iT Ef iS hf vGefpGm oabmouúm.&NyD .. xJ r S acgif .Mu\/ bkef. rsufvHk. twdkif.rS usef. [lwef.ckvdk udk.f awmfonf oHyHk...onfESifh tBuD.pm.udk jyefvnfowd&vdkufrd\ olUq&mbkef.BuD.zkef.onf þa&SmifvifawmifodkU jyefa&mufaomf oli.pm.onfh oufBuD. wqdwfavmuf ausmif.rSm ausmif. xrf.ig.yOöif.awmfBuD.fhESpfESpfcefU a. jzpfovdk aewwfaom yk*¾dKvf jzpfyg\/ bkef. wpfa.zkef.ay.rSm udk.udk taMumif.vmMu yHkrsm.qef.yg.ausmif.wufcJhyHk? aemufqHk.csifvdkUyg bk&m.yif bk&m. usef.fpOf twdwfb0u taMumif.zkef.musfm. ]]OD. pum.bkef. oH r sm.wdkU q&mawmfBuD..qef.0gBuD.zkef.ckaomf a&Smifvif*dkPf. cHk.jzifh a&xrf.kH eD&aJ jymifwif.fwdkif vdkufvmw.jzifh jynfEh u S af eonft h jyif rsufEmS wpfcv k .wHcg.BuD.NyD. awmifhwif.u igwdkU a&Smifvif*dkPf.BuD.udk aumif.Mum. qifjref. ig. MunfhvdkufrdMu\/ usef.tm.xJ ac:roGm. Mum.aqmifaom cHk.eHab. tus.fwdkifvm&wmudk odyg&ap}} usef.qef.raESmif.. rsm.jyma&mifESifh ydefvSDaom toufwpfq.yOöif.zkef.&Snv f sm.qef..ay.ausmif.qef.rsm.0gBuD.0efOD.zkef. ta&.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.ygw.vm.mifvmrdavonf/ xd k p Of ol w d k U onf awmif c k v yf tyef . xdkifvdkuf\/ xdkpOf usef.awmfBuD.*dkPf.onf uref. Z&yf r S aeí arQmfMunfhvdkufygvQif a&Smifvifbk&m.BuD.udk. ]]q&mBuD.if .u usef. rsufqefjyL.zkef.*dkPf.}} cHk.& cufoGm. bkef. ? Z&yfxJrSm xdkifNyD.í usef.BuD.qef.ESpfyg.zkef.ESpfvHk.usd? cHk.u Z&yfxJodkU vdkuf0ifNyD. udk.ESifh rdrdwdkUtm.fqdkawmh igwdkUa&Smifvif*dkPf.u vSrf. rsufeSmpdrf.yghr. tHhMooGm.u Z&yfxJodkU vufjyí . yifhac:vm[efwl yg\/ usef.*dkPf.awmfBuD.BuD.u udpö&SdvdkU awGUcGifhjyKygvdkU}} bkef.qef. cHk.NyD.aom &aoht0wftpm.qef.mufvnf. yG i f h v mavonf / xd k t cg ausmif.xdkifq&mawmfxufyif 0gydkBuD.atmif e*g. at..wBuD.NyD.u Z&eftjyifbufodkUxGufí bkef.yg. xGufvmMuonfudk awGUvdkuf &yg\/ .vsuf NyHK..0ef q&mawmfBuD. ]]aumif.av. MuG.udk jyefvnfjrifa.[kMum.u usef. ygaeonfudk awGUjyef&m pOf..qef.onf avmu\ yumoetvSudk vHk. Z&yfxJodkU 0ifvm\/ usef. vQif ausmif .zkef. wGif aumhvif.aom jyóem wpfpHkwpf&m ay:vmrSom yifhaqmif&avh&Sdaom udk. ajz&m Z&yf u av.eJU e*dkuwnf.usdKif.qef.f&Sifudk.csKyfBuD.NyDav ? OD.0efudk taMumif.od k U a&muf v mMu\ .awmfBuD.wGifvnf.rsm.Mubl. vHk. ]]tultnD wpfckawmif.ig.ajymMuwmaygh}} [k qdkNyD.rSmyif bk & m.vdkufrd\/ ]]igu bmyJajymajym *dkPf.csKyfonf [lwef.fwdkif a&muf&Sd vmaMumif.wpfvHk.\pdwfxJwGif .pDwGif xnfhíawmifay:rS qif.f? b.pjrnf ajym&if. aumif.yJ? 'Dudk.}} [kawG.xm.zkef.vif.&SefU wdkUtjyif aemufawmfyg t0g&ifha&mifouFef.&ojzifh xdk0gBuD.aMumifh .fvdk taMumif.wmyJ? 'geJUrsm.NyD.ausmif. ESKwfqufvdkuf\ cHk.rsm.u pOf. yifjzpf\/ ..zkef.zkef.wpfyg. a[mif.yg? [lwef.u [lwef.u odyfoifhjrwfwmrS r[kwfbJ? tck usef.awmif ighukd bk&m.BuD.f BuD.u .vQif jzLazG.*dkPf.u .fwdkiftckvdk rarQmfvifhbJ a&mufvmwmudk bkef.wuúodkvf aevif.at.onf pum.wdkU tm.í.qef.tm.uwef. Mum.aq.? igvdv k l rajymeJU omref vlwpfa.qef.aom ½kyf&nf&SdNyD.Edkif"m.udk 0wfqifxm.í þawmifwufvrf.rBuD . Mum. xd k .ajy.rsm.csKyf q&mBuD. avmif .f wkefvSKyfoGm. Z&yfxJodkU 0ifvmMu\/ usef.if.mufuvJ 'Dvdk rqufqHoihfygbl.0rESpfouf ? aysmfaysmfae aysmfaysmfoGm.pGm jrif&av\/ xdktcdkuf bkef.

u xGuaf jy.? a&aEG.} [laom pum. ]]wynfhawmf 'DaeU'Dudk vmwm[m q&mawmfBuD. 'Dvdkvm.pOfvmt& ausmif.usdq&mawmfwdkUrSm usef.0if. zvS...BuD.vQif . csufcsif.}} [k pdk. BuG.fhol&SdrSm r[kwfbl.u w[m.MuNyD..ynmcsif.\/ q&mawmfBuD.vHk.rSm olu b.&JU vufoD.pm.oGm. odkif.yg\/ xdkpOf cHk. wpfcsufrQ MunfhvdkufMu NyD.ay. ? wynfhawmf 'DaeU 'Dudk vmwm[mvJ 'DtwGuf aMumifhygyJ}} cHk. odkif.0efq&mawmfu at.f? 'gayr.lwmvdkU ajymwm[m wpfenf.wdkUeJU odkif.fol tifrwef pdwfcsaevdkUom jzpf rSmygyJ ? {uEÅ 'DESpfESpftwGif.cJh&if aemufydkif.udk raMumufygbl.udk. q..onf ½kwfw&uf bmjyefajym&rSef.fh&Spfyg.av}} odkUESifh olupdwfjyefvnf wnfNidrf oGm.awmfBuD.oHk.f&Tifuom ighudk aepMumodkif.uae xGuaf jy.0ef q&mawmfESifh cHk.&.vif.u .BuD. cPom 0ifa&mufvmNyD. &.awmhvJ rrSm.k wrf.jrpfudk Munfh&ifwu.hf q&mBuD.aMumif.f &aohBuD.zkef. avhusifh wDxGifvdkufovJ rodbl.*dkPf. aMumifhygyJ bk&m.vrf.fav}} usef.ynmawGu b.u tm.pufpGmjzifh ..f? 'DaeUodkif.yg.udkwpfOD.}} 252 .ynmudkrsm.awmfudk BuGvmwJhtwGuf trSefqdk&if bkef.&JU xH.BuD.u a'goxGufoGm.&Sif.om jzpfrnf[k xifrSwf vdkuf\/ xdkUaMumifh ½kwfjcnf.ynmudk av.}} [k qdkav\/ cHk.wdkUu ausmif. csD.foGm.&JU odkif.odkif.pmudk roifMum. zvS.ynmu odyfudk jrifhrm.f csifwmvJ wpfaMumif.? &aohBuD.ausmif. wdkUESifh odkif.ypfEdkifrSmvm.avmurSm oleJU .qef. pdefac:wmvm.vQif pdwfxJrSvnf.onf olwdkUtm.u toufwpf&mawmif &SdaeNyDqdkawmh olUodkif.f ausmfrS pNyD.awmh q&mawmfBuD.uGuf puf½kyfwpfpHkudk ray. i.usifhpOfxJu usrf.u bkef.oHk.\ ]q&mawmfBuD.ausmif.fh wHjrufpnf.&drfpGm awG. ]]'Dr.wdkU a&Smifvif*dkPf.vSnf. {nfhcHoifhygw.? ol tck wpfudk. wdkU&JU odkif.uae oif.pvHk. .yg.? bkef.aMumif.aerSm aocsmw..aom yk*¾dKvf jzpfí xdkifvsufae&mrS x NyD. pdwfxJwGif .vdkufrdonf/ ]]igh&JU [lwef.0efq&mawmfBuD.wdkUudk vmNyD.rSm aecJhayr.}} xdktcg cHk.fawmfwnf.rsm. ]]'D&aohBuD. jzpfovdk aewwf oljzpfí xdktawG.fcsifwmvJ wpfaMumif.atmif e*g.fvdk eufeJ cufcJwJh odkif.cJh&if aumhvif.zkef.u 'Da&Smifvif bk&m.fvdkU twdtus owfrSwfvdkU r&ygbl.rSm vlaygif.wpfaxmifausmf&Sdwm &aohBuD.fvdkrS xGufay:vmEdkifrSm r[kwfbl.om.zkef. jyefr0ifap&awmhbl. rsufpd rsufESm ysufoGm.\/ odkUaomf olu csufcsif..? &ygw.wJh vlukd ausmif.r&atmif jzpfaeMu&m cHk. wDxGifcJhwm qdkayr. tdk..qef.zkef.Edkif"m.oifcJhw.awmfxJudk zdwfac:NyD.fpOfwkef.0efESifh cHk. vmwmudk Munfh&if olUudk.fh q&mBuD.BuD..vHk.usdu &aohBuD. cHk.u a&Smifvif*dkPf.ygbk&m.wnfwJh tvkyfyJ vkyfcJh&wmyg? qHyifvJyJ r&dwfjzwfjzpfygbl.0ef q&mawmfu ]]ajymyg}} [k xyfrHpum. odkUaomf usef..fwdkif bkef.ckwdkif tvGefvGwfvyfNyD.qef.BuD..yif jyef vnfpOf.fí . ]]aMomf .f igbkef.onf ..q..zkef.xJwGif cHk..ynmudk cdk.cJw h o hJ l jzpfvUkd a&Smifvifb&k m.qef.ynmawG[m igtoufav.usL.pm.f&G.BuD.wdkU&JU ausmif.pm.ynmcsif. ]]ol'DaeU 'Dudkvmwm bmtwGufygvdrfh}} [k pOf.\/ ]]rSefygbk&m..fh &if.aomf usef. ]]'gayr.ausmif.rSm vGefpGmpdwfBuD.u .vdkufrd\/ xdkUaMumifh bkef.wuúodkvf aevif.? 'gaMumifh wynfhawmfudk a&Smifvif *dkPf.zkef.SOfEdkifr.jyefvnf aysmufuG.usdq&mawmfwdkU wpfOD.? NyD.usdq&mawmfBuD.wmuvJ wpfaMumif.? tckolwdkUu igh&JU odkif.qef.udk Mum.udk pdefac:vdkufjcif.ygbl.fpOfwkef..fvdkU ighq&m bkef.xJ wpfoufvHk.yif rodatmif jzpfoGm.uom a&Smifvif bk&m.avonf/ xdktcg usef.qef. q&mBuD.} usef.ay.ynm[m a&Smifvif*dkPf.[m.? wynfhawmfu i.uvJ ighudk vdk[efUewfrif.

jznfhqnf. t"dyÜg.\ wpfOD.cJhwJh aepMumodik .rSm a&Smifvifbk&m.BuD. wpfOD. cyfa0.u usef.[lusif.Edkif"m.wuúodkvf aevif. pOf.fqdk&if wynfhawmf trsm.udk rodrom ndwfjyvdkufav onf/ NyD. uwday.awGudk &efrjyK&bl.aomaepMum odkif.vdkufvQif tawmftwef jynfhpHkvmrnf jzpf½Hkru usef.\ toufukd u. rl usef.vlawGudk jyefroifay.f&Tifudk.rS wwfuRrf.rnfjzpfaMumif.wdkUu 'DaepMum odkif.yif jzpfavonf/ usef.jzifh &efoludk jyefí toHk.wif& rSmyg bk&m.ck a&muf&Sdvmjcif.BuD.wpfpESifh a&Smifvif*dkPf.usifhpOfudk tukeftpHk oifMum.NyD.atmif e*g.[lusif.fcE¨mxJrS tat.aew.fwif&ef qHk.acR.aomf vGefpGmpdwfvSKyf&Sm.usdq&mawmfuvnf.f? uJ . *dkPf.avhusifhNyD. wpfenf.av\/ xdUk aMumifh olu&efoUl xHwiG f b..omoGm.[lusif.[lusif.k taoqd.onfudk odNyD.u yd k í tH h t m.0efq&mawmfBuD.&efyif jzpf aMumif.wpfpudk zvS.rSwx f m.fhoHk. ajymMum.f0dkufí Ncdrf.NyD.zkef. ]]'DESpfcsufpvHk. wd k U wynf h a wmf u d k txif r vJ G y geJ U bk & m.u acgif.rSm ol\wynfh usef.jyKaomenf.[lusif.zkef.*dkPf.wdk.H k M unf [ ef ray:ao.csKyfq&mBuD. ]]om.usifhpOf\ twGif.NyDav? q&mBuD. oabmayguf vdkuf\ rSefonf/ usef.ESifhom yl. zk e f . xdktcgusrSyif q&mawmfBuD.r..zkef.wnf. rusdefqdkEdkifygbl. odkif.jzifh avhusifhaom wdkufusdvufoD.qef.ck [lwef.avmufyJ oabmaygufcyhJ gw.rSm wpfcsufaMumifoGm.enf.xdyfoD.Muav \/ taMumif .rsm. 253 .av\/ cHk.ausmif. tjyifodkU ac:xkwfNyD.usifhpOf\ tpdwftydkif.&r.f.fwdkifwDxGifBuHqcJhaom &efolUtm.udk &efbufjyK&ef r[kwfbJ rdrd wwfuRrf. olwdkU&JU odkif.bufrS t½SHL.tm. ? xdkUaMumifh rdrdwdkU .fenf.cg í .udkMum.qdkav\/ usef. .faomtcgrQ 'l.vdkufyghr. .om.vQif cHk.rSom udk. wpfydkif. rsm. ]]q&mawmf B uD ..f usifph Of wpfyikd .k ESihf aocJ&h í &ifxw J iG ef musif pJG NrJpmG aw.fqdkawmh bkef.ynmudkvnf.udk oifay.oGm.Zl.f enf.ajcmuf vdkufjcif.zkef. aus.qef.jzifh &efolUudk jyefítoHk.Gif.jyKaom enf.qef.cHcsifvdkU vmwmyg? wynfhawmf&JU q&m BuG.aygif.qef.uJhodkUaom odkif.[lusif.u aepMumodkif. tausmftarmfwpfOD. jyefvnfíOD.om. wu. wG i f usef.awmh r S y if q&mawmf B uD .avmuwGif odkif.onf u d k awG U í aemuf q H k . u q&mawmf B uD .f wpfptjyif rdrdudk.ay.\vGefpGm cufcJeufeJaom &efoltm.f usiphf Ofukd wynfah wmfu wpfpw d w f pfyikd .\/ taMumif.NyD.rl q&mawmfrsm. 'DynmeJU a&Smifvif*dkPf.rdí yif jzpfyg\/ xdkUaMumifh cHk."mwf tqdyfudk ajzEdkifrnf jzpfaMumif. usef.oif h oG m .[lusif.udk ajymvdkuf\/ xdktcg usef.. cHk.fygyg wpfcsuf Munfhvdkuf&m cHk.zkef.cJhaom aepMumodkif..tm. a0.BuD. rjynfhpHkacs/ .jzifh .[lusif..[lusif.fawmf oifMum.f? 'gayr.usifhpOf\ tpdwftydkif.wpfaxmif ausmf&SdaMumif. qef . usef.\ a&Smifvif*dkPf. q&mawmfawGudk usdefqdk uwday. jynfhpHkjcif. bdk.jzpfí b.aMumif.fawmh aMumufvefUíaeyg\/ xdkUaMumifh a&Smifvifbk&m.pD.0efq&mawmfonf xdkpum. oG.uGufudkyg xyfavmif.jzifh .[lusif.zkef. tavm wBuD.fh usef. &rnf[k odaomaMumifh q&mawmfrsm.qef.cHonfukd awGU&aomaMumifh yif jzpfyg\/ usef .qef.uGuf wpfq.qef.aepMumodkif.jzwfxm.usdq&mawmfu raMumuf[líom ajymaeaomfvnf.tm. wpfydkif.axmufrnf r[kwf/ odkUjzifh usef.vif. ? 'DESpfcsufudk usef.0efq&mawmfBuD.bdk.} [k qdkvdkuf&\/ xd k p um.wGif bkef. txifjrifvJGoGm.zkef.om. &Sdygvdrfhr.wdkU uom 'DusifhpOfawGudk &Sif.f ynmudv k ma&muf awmif.? odkUrSom usef.odkU a&mufrS toHwdk. odkif.u cHk.&bl.? om.? xdUk tjyif rdrd bufrS aepMumodik . olwUkd xHrS odik .u qdkonf/ ]]aumif.aomf vGefpGm0rf.qef.ud k M um.f? 'gaMumifh q&mawmfBuD.? .r&SdwmawGvJ trsm.\vdktyfcsufudk wpfOD.pm.pvH.usdefqdkNhyD.u xdkpum.u usef.lNyD. usifhpOfudk usef.qef..wdkUqDuae ynmawmif.? wynf h a wmf ' D a eU 'D u d k v mwm q&mawmfBuD.vdkuf}} [k usef.jzifh avhusifhaom xdkufusdvufoD. tyg.ausmif.f? tJ'x D rJ mS [muGuf ? vGwfuGuf cRwf.wdkUu 'Davmufawmif vdkvm.tjzpfudkyg yGifhvif.[lusif.}} [kjiif.usifhpOfxJu twGif.zkef.[lusif.u jznfhqnf.f}} usef.u wjcm.tm..ay.ckvuf&Sd tajctaerSm usef.fwifEikd rf nfjzpfaMumif.pGm zGifh[ajymjyvdkuf&av\/ usef.udk Mum.usifhpOfrSm wpfpdwfwpfydkif. wpfO.om jzpfNyD. vufcHEdkifygw..rS csufcsif.ajymjyay.BuD.ESifhrqdk usef.vnf.usdq&mawmftm.r&Sd tjrwfomvQif &SdaMumif. odkif.ynmudkvJ roifcsifygbl.D uonfoUkd atmufusdKUcHNyD.? aemufNyD..\ toufudk u.[lusif.aom om.rSm olUrdbESpyf g. rsm.acgif.

tck'Dodkif. .csKyfodkif.NyD.fh jzpfoGm.\ pum.&Sdao.ynmcsif.bdk.ynmaygif.wJh tpGrf. pOf.vQif usef.zkef.Edkif"m.&JU aepMumodkif.wuúodkvf aevif.ESifh [lwef.[lusif. olonf em&D0ufrQyif jyefíEdk.usifhpOfudk avhusifhygr. onfESifh pdwfxJrS .pHkudk oifMum.&JU &nf&G.wJh 'Dvq kd &kd if om.ray. . aom tBuH BuHpnfygrnfenf.wdkU uJhodkU 0gBuD.u xdkpum. wpfckxJodkU ac:oGif.vif. ? olu odyf&Sif.u bdk.vdkuf&av\/ ]]usef.f? 'Djyifodkif.. onf ol\ tdyaf Mumudk yGwo f yfí ydwv f u kd jf cif. usef.ynmudk roif&ifav wpfESpftwGif. ? a&Smifvif*dkPf.ay.wJh odkif.awmfBuD.bdk.0efq&mawmf BuD.atmif a&.vJ tawmfav.0ef q&mawmfBuD.wdkUudk vmNyD.avhusifhEdkifrSmbJ om. om.fay.f}} usef.mufyJ? olu odkif. ESpfa. [efaqmifxm.bdk. pmtkyf[mtwk rjzpfEdkifygbl.qef.vnf.f} } [k Budrf.f BuD.ajymoHudkMum.atmif vkyfwm[m 'Dpum.u yifr*dkPf.awmfBuD.bdk.&wmvJuG.D ? bke. tm.bdk. onf xdkodkU uwdopöm usdefqdkNyD.rS m tvd k t avsmuf ae&ma&G U oG m .qufudk taotcsm em.[lusif.om.[lusif.wwf \ / .aomf csufcsif.vdkuf\/}} xdkUaemuf usef.qyfEdkifawmhrSmvJ bdk.wGif oabmuJGvJGrSK &Sdygaomfvnf. 'umav. tdyfaysmfoGm.bkef.? om.0ef q&mawmfonf usef.atmif vif.0ef q&mawmf ESifhtwl vdkufyg oGm.lvu kd Of .f} [k &Sif.tbdk.axmufí uwdopöm usdefqdkay.}} odkUESifh olu rsufpdudk wrifrSdwf xm.vmavawmh\/ odkUEdk.yg.tm.ynmudk wwfrS r[kwfygbl.rS 'if.usrf.u b.fpOfu &SufpGef.0g. b.zkef. b.aemufcHk.qef. ]]'umav.[lusif.. wpfa.qef. 'Dudk ac:vmwkef.&JU}} usef.f ynmeJU rwdu k cf u kd &f bl.&JUtouf[m &SifaeorQ umvywfvHk.udk odkif. 0efq&mawmfwdkU\ pum. om.u rsuf&nfa0hvm\/ ]]om.ynmudkoif NyD.u bkef.u tawmfMumus&if vlvw T Nf yD. vGef pGmxl.jzifh olu tdyaf ysmfomG .&JU pum.fzdkU ajymwJh aemufawmh ola&.0efq&mawmf rodaom tcsufwpf csuf &Sdae\/ þonfrSmtjcm.rsm.f}} [k qdkNyD. usef..ynmudk oifMum.bdk./ 254 .rSmvnf..f r[kwfvm. yifyef.? olwdkUrSm bmtBuHtpnfawG rsm.f om.av\/ odkUaomf cHk.tm.&JU? aemif wpfaeUaeU wpfcsdefcsdefrSm olwdkU&JU a&Smifvif*P kd .xufwJh odkif.&JU ? 'Dvdkqdk&if om. tcef.fhES.[lusif. ]]vlav. oHk.aecJh\/ ol U ud k .cJh&av\/ NyD.q&mBuD.uG.om. olu ]azaz} [katmfac:cJhao.odkif.onf Z&yfjyifwGif ae&pfcJhNyD.qef.vdkufNyD.qef.udk 'Doikd .em&D tcsdefMumrSyif owd&rnftpm. ]]olwdkUu om.u oabmaygufoGm.ao&awmhrSm om.\ xl.qef.rSm 'Dxufaumif.fcsufudk qyfEdkifrSmvJ[if? om.vdkufav\/ usef. awGudk ajymzdkUyJudk. vlav.ESpfodrfhvdkuf&\/ usef.fodkUvQif raumif.ckvnf. G cf sufukd om.pGifhaxmifaevdkufav\/ trSefrl a&Smif vif*dkPf. f w G i f .r. ynmeJUvJ &efoludk wdkufcdkufEdkifygw.olonf olUtaMumudk xdk..[lusif. usef. om.rl cHk. cHk.wJh odkif.om.u aemufydkif. taejzifh usef.. av.udk emcHyghr.ydwfcJhaomfvnf.cJyh gaomfvnf. tdyfaysmfae[ef jyKvsuf cHk.awGUr.[lusif.fhES.fhvkyfNyD.cJhw.k 0efq&mawmfBuD.zkef..om.pm.[lusif. taztarwdUk &JU &nf&.f}} odkUjzifh ajr.vdkufrd\/ ]]vufpowfawmh olwdkUu ighudk tdyfaysmfoGm. 'Dxufaumif.r[kwfacs/ usef.atmif e*g.wdkUtMum.udk Mum. ]]ig .&JU rdbESpfyg. cH.u vlav.cif w pf a eUqD u rG e f * d k p pf o m.? 'Da&Smifvif odkif.\/ ]][kwfuJh bdk.aea&maygh? cPtem.onf i.udk usdefqdkcdkif.[lusif.a&SUwGif 'l.u .zkef.? .vJ igwdkU taotcsm avhvm&if oabmaygufrSmygyJ}} usef.[lusif..cJh&m olUtwGif.udk uwd ay.. zvS.wmudk bdk.muf Z&yfxJodkU jyef0ifNyD.ynm oifay.*dkPf.onf r[kwfygvm.bdk.vJ rqdkEdkifygbl..eufeJaom odkif.udk bdk..vmpOf olu cHk.av.fqdk? tckawmh b. &S d t aMumrsm.

fusdK.csí .atmif e*g. &ifwpfcsufckefoGm.[lusif.xJrS xGufoGm. &Tifusif. ighudk bmr[kwfwJh odkif. Mum.ay.awGawmif olwdkU a&Smifvif*dkPf.rd\ .. em. atmufuscH ajym&rSmvm.loGm.fpm..bdk..orm..}} twefMumatmif toHwdwfoGm. .NyD.twGuf wdk.&ifawmh igwdkU 'DavmuftBuHtdkufp&m rvdkawmhbl.udk ighudk.twGufeJU igu &Tifusif.usifhpOfudk rwwfzl. bdk.aemuf . tck igh&JU ausmif.pGifhaxmifaepOf cHk. usef.qDrSm oGm.usd q&mawmf\ toHudk Mum.NyD.[lusif.u em.&jyef\/ ]]tpfudkBuD. ]]'gayr.&NyD.xdkifq&mawmf trSwftom.vdkufygvdkU }} cHk.wufatmifvkyfaewmyJ? udk.wuúodkvf aevif.vdkuf&avawmh\/ 255 .fh*dkPf.NyD.usifhpOfudk igwdkUoHk.udk igwdkU a&Smifvif*dkPf.usifhpOfudk oifMum..&JU aepMumodkif... tcef.wm? tck 'Daumifav....lzdkU rBuHaveJU}} [k a&&Gwfvdkufrd\/ xdkpOf cHk.? 'Daumifav.&JU odkif.ynmawG oif ay.u *dkPf.? [if. vufpowfawmh 'Dbkef.. cHk.. trdefUeJU &Tifusif.wmudk.oHudkyg wpfqufwnf.ynmtppfudk vdrfnm. ]][if.&JU aepMum odkif. cHk. ajymvdkufprf.fh a&Smifvif*dkPf.&JU aepMumodkif.pGifhaxmif&if.. . ]]tpfudkBuD.twGuf vkyfwmrS r[kwfwm}} cHk.csKyfq&mawmfyJ? tpfudkBuD.u emc rSmyg? 'gu udk. ]][Jh .mufurS rusifhzl.0efq&mawmf u oufjyif.jzpfwJh awmifa0S.(30) vdyfjymukef.usufom &Sdaeao.awmfBuD.NyD.&SefU? rif.BuD.u ..}} usef.a. tcef.Edkif"m.udk .&Sefq&mawmfxHrS ][kwfuJh} [k ajymoHMum.0efq&mawmfBuD.

vif.f ? rif.q&mawmfrmS vGepf mG pdwo f abmxm.jrpftpdwt f ydik .0 rcHbl.tv.aepMum odik .fwJh? vlawGUvHk.ESifh [lqufq&mawmfwdkU jzpfMuonf/ xdUk aemufyikd .ck x d k o d k i f .fhudk aMumufp&maumif.twGif.vnf.0ef? cHk.av\/ usef.frQyJ rSwfrdrd igeJU rqdkifbl. ]]olUoabmyJ cHk.ay. usif h p Of u d k usif h c J h a om aemuf q H k .usifhpOfrSm vGefpGmcufcJeufeJ vSojzifh *dkPf.fqdkawmh olu rawGUcsifvJ vufcH&rSmyJayghwJh? 'gayr. ud&k ifav.vQif usef.f}} usef.a.u &Tifusif.[lusif.zkef.cef.yg.f avonf/ pm.f uav.0efq&mawmfu NyHK. vuf c suf j zif h ysH v G e f a wmf rl c J h a om cHk.cJhaom odik .xdkif q&mawmfBuD. q&mawmf r S m &S u f p G e f .rS oifMum. xd k i f v d k u f ? igtck a&S m if v if * d k P f .wJh? eH&Hjcm. ynmusrf.wHcg. vdkufw.fa&GUb.&SefUq&mawmfjyefa&mufvm\/ q&mawmfu .tm.xJwiG f bmrS rawGUjrif&bJ tcef.qef.b.[lusif.? aumhvif.bkef. roif bl.wpfyg.pdwfxJrS tHhMoaepOf at.wpfcv k . rS m &T i f u sif .usifhpOf\ usrf.a&SUodkU a&mufvmMu\/ udk&ifav.aeNyD.pm\ tMum.k jzm &if.zkef.odkif.f ? olu tjyifvl qdk b.a.rSm rlvuwnf.ajymoHay:xGuf vm\/ ]]rif .atmif e*g.fvdkU .awmfBuD. ckepfq..zke. &Scd &hJ m þaepMumodik .folUudkrS rawGUcsifbl. ac:í xrif.? igu rif.wpfcef. jyKvkyfEdkifyg\/ odkUaomf .yif/ þodkU eH&Hudk azmufí pum.&f iT q f &mawmf rysHveG af wmfrrl D tcsdeyf ikd .jzpfaMumif.jzpfaom cHk.av\/ usef.tm.rl xdt k oHrmS eH&\ H tjcm.\ pdwfxJwGif ]]'Dbkef. jzpfaeav\ odkUaomf tcef.q&mawmfxH ac:oGm.udk bk&m.u wu.kH tcef.a&SU wGif &yfNyD.ay.NyD.oHk.avonf/ xdkUaMumifh [lqufq&mawmfBuD. ]]uav.*dkPf. vufxufNyD.avonf/ usef.wJh}} cHk.xJrS xGufoGm.f jyefUyGm. xdkodkif.udk &Tifusif.arSmiforQ wdwfqdwfajcmufaoGUvSaom tcef. wpf O D .wGi.cJhwJh tcgus&if taotcsm Munfh vkdufOD. wpfcsdev f .udk tjyifbufrS jyefaphvdkufNyD. oHk.atmifudkrl ajymEdkifol &SmrSm&Sm.pvHk.xJrS ]]0ifvmcJh}} [laom toH&ifh&ifhwpfoH ay:xGufvmav \/ usef.aemuf q&mawmfBuD.. xl.cJh\/ odkUaomf aepMumodkif.0 ta&. tcef.u xdktcef. [mvm[if. pifppf xdEk pS f xdt k cgpOfu BuG.mufu Mum.udk ausmfvGefvmcJhNyD.jyEdkifr.f&h pS rf sKd .wpfckvHk.ojzifh a&Smifvif*dkPf.pufaom pum.}} NyD.aomf usef.avawmh\/ tcef.[lusif.u rnf.wuúodkvf aevif.u trdefUay. usif h p Of u d k avh u sif h wwf a jrmuf M u\/ .f usiphf Ofukd txl.wJh vlyJ? oluajymw. ? tppf[kwfw.rm q&mawmfBuD. q&mawmf y if jzpf a v\/ &T i f u sif .tm.qef.HkMunf &awmhrS 'Duav.yg.&JU twGif.aeygvm...yg. odvu kd &f íyif jzpfyg\/ [drk mS buftcef.vdkufrd\/ 256 .yJ &Sif. jrifhrm.atmif jrifhrm.xJodkU 0ifvdkuf\/ xdktcg udk&ifav.wpfbufrS 0ifa&mufvmjcif.ud.ol wdkif.arSmifww d q f w d v f aS om tcef.mufavmufom þaepMum od k i f .u wu.f ynm&yfaygif.udk wpfacgufwnf. kd af wmfonf aepMumodkif.oHk. vS\/ txl.wJh ? 'gayr.f rSm [lwef.aemuf q&mawmfwpfqufvQif wpfa.&\/ taMumif.u toHxu G af y:vm&modUk Munfv h u kd \ f / usef.yg.fh tckausmif.rsm. vmvrf.Edkif"m.u olU&JUodkif.qef.f wGirf l use.wGif &Tiu f sif.rSm omrmeftwGif.[lusif.&f iT u f . vufxufrS jyefUyGm.pm tkyf xkwfay.uyif wm.usifhpOfudk qHk.[lusif.emcJh&yg\/ xdkvloHk.pm.oH. a&mufvmNyD.wGifñSyfí wdwfwqdwf &GwfqdkjycJhí vloHk.ckuJhodkU toHMunfvifjywfom. jyefxGuf oGm..mufrSm usef.twdkif.qDac:oGm. &J U aepMumod k i f .0if.usD? cHk.NyD.udk olu vHk. tjyifoUkd rxGufacs/ q&mawmfBuD. tHh MooGm.Edkifr.k rsKd .BuD.wGif BuG.í .f usiphf Of [lí oH.kH udk vSnMhf unfh vdu k \ f tcef.awmfawmf rsm.fh olu 'Dtwdkif. usif h p Of u d k wpf a cguf y J ajymjyr. ]]&Tifusif.&Sd tjcm. cdik .[lusif.oGm. jzpfavonf/ xd&k iT u f sif.usrf.f om atmif.aemuf rnf.[lusif.wvnf usio hf [ l í l ydí k enf.f qef.wdkif usifhEdkifolrSm vGefpGm&Sm.qef.ajymEdkifjcif.u tcef. a&mufvmygNyD}} [k toHjyKvdkuf\/ xdktcg tcef.rpdkufacs/ twefMumaomf cHk.f A[dkwGifrl xdkifcif.wpfck csxm.aomufNyD.ausmif.vif. .rsm. k af wmf &Sdaejcif. tcef..tm.}} [k awG.[lusif.Muavawmh\/ twefMumaomf udk&ifav.usufq&mawmf\ wynfh&if.fhudk xl.&SefUwdkUu vJGvsif bk&m.pmydk'frsm.&SefU ?awmfMum usef.

NyD.om &Sif.udk a&Smifvif*P kd .onf vufESpfbufudk &Tifusif.jznf.rSm olUudk...jym. b.vif.udk wpfckcsif.ESifh olUwpfudk.avawmh\/ xdktcg &Tifusif.f &JU aepMum odik .yif jzpfyg\/ twefMumwdwfqdwfaeNyD. k af wmf\ vuf0g..jznf.vdkuf&NyD.BuD.vSonfh rSwOf mPfprG ..fvHk.pGmcHpm. .[lusif.f*dkPf.awG tm.atmif e*g.udk.f? rif.axG.f} [k jyefajymvdkuf\/ xdkUaemufusef..fuu G t f xd wpfv. at.taMum? BuGufom. ]]ausmif.f}} 257 . ]]'gudk rSwfrdzdkU rcufygbl.cdkif.rSm &SdwJh t½dk. rvJTra&Smifom oifay.fawmf\ vuf0g. rSwfrdygw.u . ]][kwfuJh}} [k ajzvdkuf\/ xdpk Of &Tiu f sif.&JUudk.vdkufr.udk. arhvJvkrwwf jzpfoGm.yif xGufay:vmavonf/ twefMumrSyif xdktylvSdKif.Zl.um wpfudk.&JU rSwfOmPfu wu.fyJaMumufp&maumif.u tcef.ovJqdkwm igrodbl.NyD.? rif.ESpfbufudk ig&JUvuf0g.xdik q f &mawmfukd rif.tzJGUu vlqdkwmudkvJ rodbl.fxJu omreftaMum&JU tjyifbufu taMumawGudk igh&JUtwGif.udk ydkxkwfí tylvSdKif.udk.ydkUcsavawmh\/ aemufqHk.xdkifq&mawmfBuD.onf bkef.usifhpOf\ usifhenf..[m b.vdkufNyDvdkU ? 'Duav.wifpum.kH rusef rSwrf Ed ikd af om tvGeaf umif.eJU}} [kqdk&m usef.ESifhrQ ruGmEdkifacs/ wjznf.fvdkenf.fawmfu ud&k ifav.xdkifq&mawmfu trdefUay.&JU vuf0g.[mb.[lusif.frQ rSwfrdw.fvHk.vHk.w.f*dkPf.u csufcsif.rS &Tif.aomaMumifhom usef.ovdk olu b.udpyö J}} [k xyfajymjyef\/ xdktcg usef.? ajymomajymyg ? wynfhawmf tm. ]]uJ . rdrdtay:wGif apwem rqdk.[lusif.usifh pOf q..aom a&cJa&xJodkU ckefqif.udk.wGif olu usef.vdrfhr.usif udk.u .udk ausmif.vdkuf? rSwfxm. ]]rif. xdkpOf &Tifusif.ajym Mum.pufpGmjzifh ]]rif.fvHk.ayawmh\/ odkUaomf&Tifusif.wpfudk..[lusif.[lusif.&JUemrnfudkvnf.u bmjzpfvdkU ighudk 'DaepMumodkif..[lusif.\aepMumodkif.cGef.frsdK.wdkUodkU vSnfhywfoGm.u 'DavmufrSwfOmPf aumif.wifygw.? igu rif.aygh[k xifaecJh\ odkUaomf.f? 'gaMumifhigurif.k 'd. tcef.udk u&m.wuúodkvf aevif. u bmodkif.vHk.ynmawG oifcJhw. oGm. rSwfrdaomf&Sd rrSwfrdaomf&Sd wpfqufwnf.vdu k ½f EkH iS hf tptqH.\ vGefpGmqef.k a'gufa'guf &Gwfqdkjyvdkufonf/ pifppf &Tifusif.aemf igu rif.ouJhodkU ]]rif. atmifvkyfay.fawmfu pwifí a&Smifvif*dkPf.ESifh xdktylvdkif.vdkaom qE´rsm.fxJrS jyefvnfí qkwfcGm xGufoGm. jzpf\/ pdwfxJurl odyfoifay.EdkifNyD}} [k qdkonf/ xdkUaemufwGifrl usef.kH q. ig 'DwpfacgufyJ ajymEdkifr.udk BuHKBudKufvdkU tultnDay..ESpfbufudk uyfvdkufavonf/ &Tifusif.pm.fawmf\ toHu xyfrHay:vmav\/ ]]rif.[lusif.&JUemrnfudkvJ rodbl.ajym[efudk Mum.fawmfonf ausmif. ydwfaeaom ae&mwGifvnf.jyifxo J Ukd xdk.k wpfv. aMumif.rSm vSnfhywfav jrefavjzifh aemufqHk.udk.fa&GUb.f}} xdkpOf &Tifusif.wm oufoufyJ}} usef.u odyfaumif. jrefjref atmifjrifvdrfhr.eJU vmuyfxm.yif yxrtuGurf S aemufq.f qdkwm rif.&jcif.wpfcu k rdrv d uf0g.ESpfbufudk oHvdkuf"mwfjzifh uyfxm.aom tylvKdS if.zGifhvdkuf\/ wjznf.rSwfrdvS oHk.fh rif.tmeJU yGifhoGm.azmuf0ifa&mufvmNyD.? rif.fawmfu vufESpfbufudk jyef½kyfvdkufNyD.fawm\ vuf0g.u .&aomfvnf.t&ifwkef.udk.a&vTwf &Gwfjyvdkuf\/ olUpdwfxJwGif þuav.[lusif. avsmhxm.[lusif.atmif 'd. igrodbl.. vufarmif.? rif.rSm rdkufceJ jzpfoGm.ighudk jyef&Gwfjyprf.tm. jzifh wGef.Zl.0wGif &yfvsuf&Sdonfudk awGU&\/ xdkpOf &Tifusif.vdkuf\/ usef.f usiphf Ofukd oifay.}} [k prf.tm.tzJGUu vlqdkwmvJ igrodbl.xJrS jyefxGufvm\/ xdktcsdefwGif udk&ifav.? vGefpGmat.? 'gayr.ud.f ? 'Dvdkqdk&if rif.fawmf vefUzsyfoGm.fqdkwmvJ igrodbl.aom pum.ESpb f ufrS aEG.q.[lusif.vSonfudk awGU&í ]aus.udk.usifh pOf udk oifay.rdjcif.udk.usifhpOfudk usifhwJhtcgrSm ydkNyD..u wpfBudrrf Q Mum.[lusif.f}} [k qdk\/ &Tifusif. &Tifusif.&JUwufvrf.vdkuf? bmrS rpOf.kH rQ rrSm.csifvS onfr[kwfay/ xdkUaMumifh olu usef.rSm vGefpGmylavmifvmovdk cHpm.u aus. oifcdkif.fawmfu tm.frsdK. oGm. usef.'DaeU odkif. qufwdkuf odkif. tm.Edkif"m.aeonfudk xif&Sm.udk ulnDwJhtaeeJU rif.udk.vdkuf&av\/ taMumrsm.ajymvdu k ?f ig'D uav.ESpfbufodkU wufoGm.awmh rif.ck usef.? rif.fawmfu .ESpfbufu olUvuf0g. ]]rif.f udk odaomf vGefpGm vefUzsyfoGm.

0efq&mawmfu ..usifhpOf q.qef. usif h p Of u d k oif M um. usef .udk jyeftoHk.f u vli. ]]avQmuf r ajymeJ U 'gu q&mBuD . . uNyHK.. q&mawmfBuD.t0dkif..qef.u usef.qef.qef.fu xdkusrf.Zl.bmtwGuf olwdkUxH ac:vmygoenf.? 'DusifhpOfawGu wynfhawmf&JU q&mu wynfhawmfudk oifMum.ay.k usd q&mawmfu toHudkedrfhí .u xdkpum.ynm xdkufusdvufoD.zkef.wmaygh}} [k ajymNyD.BuD..? q&mBuD. oHk.zkef.qef.vQdKU0Sufodkif.k usq d &mawmfukd ay. ]]q&mawmfBuD.usd? cHk.twdkif.zke.ynmygyJvm.vufawmufyaeav\/ vGefpGm oGufvuf csufcsmNyD.fhoHk.vsuf .ynm oif&aom vlrSm vGefpGmenf. ]]q&mBuD.pmrl txyfudk cHk.\ odkif. vQdKU0Suf odkif.. 0ef q &mawmf aemuf w G i f &yf a eaom vl i .aomf ½kwfw&uf xdwfvefUwkefvSKyfoGm.bdk. tm.frmS ydeyf ed yf g.NyD.aepMumodkif..pD.vdkuf\/ vli. usef.om. .aom [lwef.acs/ usef.}} 258 . aomuf&if.u odkif.írNyD.jcm.u olUq&mbdk.wmyJ}} usef. udk&ifav.u usef.wJh odkif. urf. wpfq.u oifzl.í rsuf&nf&pf0Jvm\/ olu ]]bdk.zkef. rjiif.pjrnf ajymaevdkuf&\/ twefMumrSyif usef.fhoHk.k usd q&mawmfrS wpfqifh cH.rSmrl &Tef.[lusif.wuúodkvf aevif.0wfESifh r[kwfbJ vl0wfjzifh odkif..ay.uav.fwdkifa&Smifvif*dkPf.qef.tm.[lusif.0efq&mawmfvufodkU ay.rsm.bdk.uGufudk rif.vdu k \ f cH.wJ h t wG u f aus.ajrhpGmNyHK.}} [k pwifpum.jcm. rsufvHk.ftm.tm.udk a&.atmif e*g.yg.zkef.vdkufNyD}} [kajymjy\/ usef.aeav\/ twefMumaomf a&.. tawmfyifyef.zkef. \/ cHk.udkMum. t½dktao ay.wpfcGuf iSJUí usef.&JU odkif.OmPfaumif. ]]q&mBuD.NyD...qef. jyefac:vmav\/ udk&ifav.ao.aomaMumifh jzpf\/ odkUqdkvQif ausmif.xdkifq&mawmfonf þoli.csonfh wdkufusd vufoD.cJhzl.xJu ygyJvm.NyD.wifvSygNyD}} [kjyefajym\/ xdkUaemuf a&.pmrludk .vGef.jzpfaom &efolUtm.udk.u csrf.\/ xdktcsdefwGif cHk. ]]'Dvdkqdk odyfaumif.cdkif.frSm ouFef.fwdkif zwfMunhf&if odrSmyg}} [k qdkav\ cHk.qef.pum. ]]wynf h a wmf & J U ajr.. &J U od k i f ..ay.onf usrf.udk a&mufvmwJhOpöm ? bkef.NyDvm.zkef.[lusif.&if.líwpf&Gufcsif.&SefU q&mawmfBuD.ESifhtwl vli.eJUawmh {nfhcH&rSmaygh}} [kajymNyD.ynmt0ef.fenf. *d k P f .fu usef.tm.vnf..r.0ef? cHk. &J U oD.zkef.udk vSeaf vSmMunfNh yD.vdkUvm. ynmtqD t ES p f a wG ? [l w ef .qdk\/ usef.pmrludk qufuyfvdkufav\/ cHk. olwdkUu uRefawmhfudk a&Smifvif aepMumodkif. zk e f .yg.usifhpOfESifhwuG ol\oD. jzpfaomfvnf.ESifh usef.k &SeUf q&mawmfu Munfah vonf/ odUk aomf xdq k &mawmfrsm.yg.zkef. ? 'gu usKyfwdkU&JU a&Smifvif*dkPf.oGm.omojzifh jyefxdkifí vufzuf&nfMurf.qef. ? wynfhawmfwdkU jyefygOD.usrf.odkif.oHk.fjzpf\/ cHk.vQif jyef & ef ES K wf q uf v d k u f a v\/ xd k t csd e f w G i f cH k .zkef..ftm.vdkuf\/ usef.a&.ynm wpfrsdK.ftm.f u ½kwfw&ufpum.[lusif.ay.pmrl wpfxyfBuD.wdkU Z&yfxJodkU jyefa&mufcsdefwGifrl usef.oGm.wdkUu vufzuf&nfMurf. vufzuf&nfMurf.Edkif"m.}} vli.ay.vSonfh vli. taotcsm pdu k Mf unfv h u kd \ f / vli. odkif./ xdUk aMumifh usef.uGuf usifhpOf usrf. vmvrf.f}} [kqdkav\/ cHk.qdkav\/ ]]q&mawmfBuD. qef .pmrlukd tuste rMunfb h J [dv k eS o f nfveS rf Qom Munfah v\cH. vSefavSmMunfhvdkufonf/ xdkpOf usef.0efq&mawmfu toHudkjr§ifhí .qef.ay.om.qef. vSrf.f wpfa.om.0efq&mawmfu Z&yfxJodkU a&mufvQifa&mufcsif.udk awGU&aomf pdwfvSKyf&Sm. ]]tcsdefrapmawmhbl.av.pmrlrsm.ynmu wynfhawmf wdkU a&Smifvif*dkPf.yg.aemuf cH. ]]q&mawmfBuD.ud k a&S m if v if * d k P f .udk.í ..vQif qufía&.u .uGuf wpfq.udk Munfhyif rMunfhbJ olUaemuf&Sd vli..oGm.udk oifMum.usrf.0efq&m awmfu usrf. &J U aepMumod k i f .muf a&mufvmMu\/ xdkvli.zkef.fcefU&Sd usrf.q.rSm olUodkif.0efq&m awmfu puúLt&Guf oHk.

ynmu tm.}} vli. ]]bdk.qef.t.ygeJU}} cHk.vufaqmifwpfck yg. a&. ? xdkodkif.aomufNyD. .ynmudk vHk.\/ a'govnf. ]]'D wdkufusdvufoD.. avawmh\/ 259 .usdq&mawmfrSm ½kwfw&uf udk. usef.\/ pdwfxJwGifvnf.usd q&mawmf\ wynfhjzpf\/ ol\rSwfOmPfu vGefpGmaumif.f wdwd avhvmwDxGifNyD..ynmjzpf&rSmvJ}} [k twef Mum awG. ]]q&mBuD.u q&mBuD.f odik .usdq&mawmfu .farmvdkufNyD.qef.usef.m. 0rwwf o jzif h q&mwynf h E S p f a ..BuD. .NyD.lvdkufonf/ odkUaomf cHk. pum.\/ csef½dku uref.\ av.lwJhenf. ]]wynfhawmf usef. xGufoGm.ynmudk toHk.*dkPf.u ajymNyD.? 'gaMumifh wu.zkef.fwpfcsuf wkef. aom pmudk csufcsif.uvnf.f? vlvlcsif..emrnfb.NyD.usL.ay: arSmufvsuf vJusoGm.rSKu ta&.f odik .rSm vGefpGmjyif.dkifvJvmaom tm.udk odkif.fh oHk.vlcRefjzpfrSm aocsmw..qef.u ig tESpfoHk.usifhpOfESifh [lwef.f avmu uvlawGo&d if olwUkd tzdUk odu©musrSmpdk.. aemufodkU vJusoGm.frSm cHk.wJhpum.udk odyf r.f rif. csef½dkqdkaom vli.usef.rqef vufcHvdkuf\/ odkUaomf olu twGif.uGufudk &GwfjyvdkufygOD.ifoGm..cJhaom [lwef.qef.ynmvdkUajymwm ? [if.u igeJU q&mawmfBuD..\ wdkufusdvufoD.aepMum odkif.olu tm.jyefí tvGwf&GwfqdkEdkifpGrf.zkef. ? 'Dvlu bdk.aMumifh rsufESmeD&JoGm.\ odkif.vdkuf&m cHk.f}} [k aumufcsufcsrd\/ odkUjzifholu .awmh ra&mufygapeJU ? igrif.u &. csef½dkrSmrl ajrBuD.tm.NyD..wpfq.om. ]]uJ .rSm 'DpmawGudk tvGwf&atmif usufEdkifwmudkawmh ig csD..awG a&aEG. vSrf. ]]rif. ]]uRefawmfemrnf csef½dkyg}} [k r0Hhr&J ajzav\/ usef.qef.\/ cHk.cdkif.BuD.zkef..qef.zkef.udk pum..zkef.[lusif.rSm.&JU odkif.fbufodkU vSnfhívnf.ajyaewJh tcsdefwdkav.qef.apmapmu a&.ynmeJU vHk.q.}} cHk.zkef.pmudk jyef ay.\/ olUrsufpdjzifh zwfoGm.pdwfxJrS rSwfxm.taysmheJU . qufqHwJh ae&mrSm ½dk.wuúodkvf aevif.odkif.fvdk ac:vJ uav..vdkU 'Dvdky&d.ygw..uGufudk wpfvHk.u [lwef.? odkif.oabmaygufoGm.wJhpmudk zwfNyD.zkef.rS rESpfurS atmifjrifcJhwJhOpömyJ ? 'Dodkif.zkef.0qefUusifbufyJ? b.usdq&mawmfu puúLtxyfudk usef.fvkyf olwdkU&JU a&Smifvifodkif.tjyif.usDq&mawmfaemufodkU .frSm usef.fqifajymwmyJ jzpf&r.vdkufjcif. oabmaygufNyD.usdq&mawmfu vli.rusef trSm.NyD.}} odkUESifh vli.SOfNydKifwJhenf. vGefpGm wkefvSKyfoGm.rSm usef. tjiif.udk puúLwpfqifhxkwfí wGef.\ vufxJodkU tyf vdkuf\/ usef.qef..twGif.fhES.rSm 'DavmufxufjrufwJh OmPf&nf OmPfaoG.ynmjrifhrm..*dP k .? 'gu a&Smifvifodkif.u wnfMunfaom avoHjzifh ..f? 'gayr. ]]vufpowfawmh olwUkd u igh&UJ [lwef..zkef.zkef.u ½kwfw&uf0ifí .fu usef.yif rodawmhacs/ xdkpOf cHk.zkef.qef.aom yk*¾dKvfjzpfí rdrdudk.HkovdkygyJvm.bdk.enf.vdkufr. jzpf\/ pifppf þvli..\ odkif.Edkif"m.udk jyefr½kyfodrf.usrf.Gif.aerd\/ xdktcg usef.0r.qef.qef..usdq&mawmfrSm odkif.rusbl.pmudk tvGwfrSwfxm.qef.frSmvnf.vnf.frdrd jyef[efvdkufEdkifaomfvnf. .\/ olu bmjyefajym&rnfrSef.wwfygbl.½SdwJh aemuf awmh wpfaeUaeU wpfcsdefcsdefus&if vlxl..zkef.r&Sd tvGwf&Gwfzwfjyvdkufav\/ xdkpOf usef.usrf. ‘]]csef½dk . í od k i f .fvdkU q&mawmfwdkUu 'Dodkif.qdk&if vTifhypfvdkufyg? wynfhawmfudkawmh jyefray.tm.tm. &SufvJ r&Sufbl.udk igwdkU a&Smifvif*dkPf.lwmrSe.&JU wdkufusD odkif..ckolUudk ac:vm jcif.jzifh a&Smifvif*dkPf. ynmvH k .usd q&mawmfu 0ifí .oludk tEdkif. rif.}} usef.av\ xdktcgcHk. OmPfom aumif .f ynmudk ..*dkPf.yg csef½dk}} csef½dkqdkaom vli. .Murf.muf Z&yf t jyif o d k U vG i f h x G u f o G m .BuD.qef.lcJh[k jyo&ef jzpfav\/ usef.wdkU&JU pum.atmif e*g.fu rsufESmysufoGm.wmAs ? tckrS olwdkUa&Smifvif*dkPf.qHk.\/ pdwfxJwGif .eufaom pum. rif.om.&JU avoHudkMunfh&wm bkef.zkef.bdk.fh vrf.uwef.

\ odkif.\ odkif.u olwdkUtm.[lusif.[lusif.rsm.zkef.onf yifr*dkPf. ]]om. vdkufrd\/ þaeUwGif olwdkUonf jrpfudkjzwful..k 0ef? cH.jzifh .\ udk..Munfhvdkuf&m usef.\ odkif..qef.k yg.tm. zk e f ..[lusif.? awmfMum wpfckck usefoGm.aom taMumr rsm.\/ usef.r.[lusif.hfvkyfNyD.av\/ twefMumaomf usef.onf a&Smifvif aepMumodkif.atmif vkyfvdkU &awmhrSm r[kwfbl.k usEd iS hf cH.pdwfrS rSwfrdyghrvm.zkef. oH.zkef.zkef.. ]]b. onf touf w pf & mwd w d w&m.t&mudk jrifaomf vGefpGm 0rf.\ toHrSm wkef.atmif e*g."r® u sif h B uH vmcJ h a omf v nf .[lusif.acs/ xdkUaMumifh wpfvrf.*dkPf.qef. ]]'Dwdkufusd odkif.odkU puúLprsm.om.udkac:í a&Smifvifawmifay:rS qif.wGif usef.usifhpOf rsm.[lusif. wkefvnf.. eD&Jvm\/ usef. tm.vnf.qef.qef.[lusif..ynmudk tcGifhr&bJ rusifhcdkif.av\/ usef.wGifvnf.rdav\/ aemifwvnf.pvHk. om.[lusif. jzmxGufoGm.om.}} xdkrQomajymEdkifNyD.cJwrQ eD&Jvsuf&Sdaomfvnf.ygvdrfh? oludk.bdk. vGifhjy.wuúodkvf aevif. vuf u d k wpf c suf a 0S U .a&mif taiGUtoufrsm.rf ..tm.rSm .? uJ .pufay.. vSrf..c&D.NyD. tenf. ]]'gu wdkufusd vufoD.uwef.jcif.Sufay:vGifaeonfudk awGU&onf/ xdkUaMumifh tavmwBuD.rSm rcHr&yfEdkif jzpfNyD.awmhr.ynmu tHhMoavmufatmif aumif.&JU aepMumodkif. jzpfav \/ cH.jyefvnfowd&vm\/ 260 .udk tao.&if avhusifhwJhtcg us&ifawmh wpfvJGpDjzpfoGm.[lusif. ]]usef.cdk&aomtcg wdkif.eJU 'Djyify taMum&Spfck b.qef. ac:í Z&yfxJrS xGufcGmoGm.odkif.qef.vHk.fvHk.rSm &SdwJh t*Fgtpdwftydkif.[lusif."mwf tqdyfudk aumif. om.zkef. wkefvSKyfoGm.ygOD.}} usef. NyHK.qef. puú L prsm. . vufawGUravhvmzl.}} usef .fvHk..l vdkufaom puúLtxyfudk vufxJwGif qkyfítwGif.xefwJh tat.NyD.omoGm.jzifh usef. wpfaeUwjcm.aumif. ol&JU yifrtaMum&SpfckvJ yGifhoGm.. wpfcsuf atmfí arhvJusoGm.av\/ rSefygonf/ usef. .vHk. csD.fapEdkifygNyD}} [k awG.jzifh acsvdkuf&m .vHk. qef .tm.u usef.[lusif. avxJwGif a0haepOfrSmyif usef.zkef."mwf tqdyf&Sdaeom.foGm.mufu tvGwfom&NyD.udk MunfhNyD. tcH& cufaew.*dkPf.íMunfh&if. .ü wnf.. u xd k o d k U ajymNyD .u uref. wkefvSKyf? csD.fxJu tat. bmjzpfvdkUvJ}} [k ar.rSmaygh? 'Dvdkqdk&if 'DtqdyfawGudk b..onf usef..\ vufudk uref.qJGí olUaemufausm&Sd taMumrrS wpfqifh twGif.Mu&m ½kwfw&uf usef.eJU 'Djyify jyif.BuD.wmaygh? 'Dwpfcg awmh olUudk.vdkuf\/ usef.udk avhusifhvdkufawmh olUtwGufydkNyD.f}} usef .ynmpGrf.Edkif"m.udk ul.u xdktcsif.qef.bJudk.usifhpOfudkom usifhcJh&ojzifh rsufESmrSmvnf.k &SeUf q&mawmfBuD.zkef. ]]om. usef.udk avhusihfcdkif.onf usef.q&mBuD. .onf vGefpGmwkefvSKyfoGm.yGifhvdkU jzpfyghrvJ? 'Djyify taMum &Spfck yGifhoGm. odyf . a&m..\ wpfudk.xefwJh tat. . xdkteDa&mif Mum. þwpf B ud r f w G i f rBuHwwfawmhatmif twkefvSKyfBuD.vdkuf\/ xdktcg usef.xJudk 0ifoGm. a&Smifvif aepMumodkif.av\ olUpdwfxJwGif .zkef.fxJrSm 'Davmuf jyif.u atmfvdkuf\/ ]]bdk.wmyJ ? csef½dk u tm.qef.zkef. a0'emvGefpGm cHpm.&JU ynmyJ? vufpowfawmh q&mawmfwdkU q&mwynfh ESpfa.ckuJhodkU tpdwfpdwftjrGmjrGm jzpfoGm.rSmrl ai.u usef..aMumifvsuf &Sad e av\/ xdt k cg q&mawmfBuD.qef.[lusif.&if tqdyfawGu olUudk.BuD./ þodkUjzifh usef.f? ratmifhEdkifawmhbl."mwf tqdyf&Sdaeom.f&vdkufMu\/ pdwfxJ rSvnf.[lusif. qef .&Sd ta&.fES. rajymwwfbl.fvdkrS vGifhjy. jzmxGufoGm.u [lwef..fwGif..zkef. jynfpHkoGm.fhES. jzpfí tjcm.tm.uwef.yif jzpfyg\/ .ifvsuf &SdNyD.dkifqif.i.qef..onf apmapmu jyef.usifhpOfeJU a&Smifvif aepMum odkif.wGif tpdrf.wpf*dkPf.usifhpOf ESpfrsdK.ae&ovdkyif jzpfae\/ usef.\ rsufESmrSm rD.[lusif. rsufESmtrlt&m rSmvnf.oGm.\/ xdktcg usef.NyD. oGm. usef.onf usef. zk e f .udk ydwfvdkuf&av\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.f}} [k a&&Gwfvdkufrdavownf. vd k u f & m Z&yf w pf c k v H k . .u txpftaighjzifh .aemuf usef..usL.zkef.hfvkyfNyD.if.vmcJhMuonf/ vrf..

zkef.ft*Fg tpdwftydkif. olMum.kwfrmwJh tBuHeJUvm.u pdwfxJrS &.fEdkifawmh yguvm.tm.[lusif.? om.fvdktultnD ay..? EdkUrdkU&if rif.}} [k a&&GwfNyD.fhESpfckudk a&&Gwfjyvdkufap\/ usef. ]]&Tifusif.zkef.qef. olUtajctaeudk oabmaygufvdkuf\/ olU udk.fwpfp.udk þwpfcgom aemufqHk.wuúodkvf aevif. ]]aeygOD.u oHk.muf xdkifvsuf&Sdae\/ xdktcsdefwGif olwdkUaemufbufrS avSwpfpif.[lusif.vdkufvm\/ xdkavSrSmrl tawmfyifBuD.onf a&SmifvifaepMum odik .rSm jrifhrm.&JUemrnf udkvJ rodbl.&JU emrnfudk olrodbl.? 'grS r[kwf .wJh}} usef.jrpfvdkuf\/ usef.tm.u ]][kwfuJh bdk. ]]&Tifusif.[lusif.vnf.&JU ?'DvdkzGifhvdkuf&if wJh om.acs/ usef.wGif ysHESHUaeaom tat.udk zGifhay. a&Smifvif aepMum odkif.av.fhES.vdkufNyD.udk zGifh[ajymjyvdkufav\/ usef.tm.qef.vdkufwmyg? olu ajymw.vJ rodbl.zkef.wGifrl a..udk.fvdkvJ b.}} [kqdkav\/ xdkUaemufusef... wpfa.wGif uyfí ajymouJhodkU xifxif&Sm.qef. vlav. ]]vlav.udk . Mum.rS vGifhjyefUvmjcif.udk.qef.[lusif.u .fwGif.rSm 'Dvdk xdyfoD.. b.pm. þ odik .atmif avhusifhEdkifr.avSmfcwfae\/ olUeHab.f*dkPf.kwfrmwJh tBuHeJU vkyfwmawmh r[kwfEdkifbl.eJUvJ tawGUrcHbl.mufESifh rdef. oifcJhwJh a&SmifvifaepMumodkif. rsuf&nfrsm.urSef.½dk.\ cspfp&maumif.vSaMumif.onf [efraqmifEdkifawmhbJ .fawmfu om.usifhpOf usifhenf.[lusif. rsm. rjyK&ef wm. jzpfaomfvnf."mwf tqdyf&Sdwmudk rodvdkU apwem ½dk.qdkawmh {uEÅom.udk &Tifusif.vnf.pGmjzifh olwUkd bufqu D kd avSmfcwfvmonfudk awGU&\/ avSi.u xdk.onf ½kwfw&uf ol\twGif.udkajymw.om.wpfbufrS us.odBuHKawGUcJh& aom taMumif.qef.vdkufwmvJ}} [kar. odkif.zke.zkef..om.fawmfu om.bdk.fawmfu xyfwvJvJ om. usifhpOfub.om.onf usef.f ynmusifph Ofrsm.vdkufwmvm.&aomtcg ajymol\ twGif...usifhpOfudk ydkNyD.qef. zkef.fwJh}} xdktcg usef.zkef.tm. toufudk owfypf&vdrfhr.u usvmaomrsuf&nfudk qnfvdkufNyD. avSudk&yfNyD..rS .udk.fay:wGifrl rkwfqdwf xlvyspfESifh vlwpfa..u twefMum pOf.&JU jyifytaMum&Spfckudk yGifhap&wmvJ}} usef.eJU om. od&ayonf/ usef.uav.qef.frSm tat.[lusif.tm.qef. .zkef.D onf t&Sed jf yif.fvdkaumifursm...udk vkcsif aewmygvdrfh}} [kawG.? om.vdkuf\/ xdkpOfrSmyif jrpf\tjcm.fawmfu om.zkef. tem.faomtcgrS vlwxl.. vlav. ru..ajcmufNyD.qef. odkif.. odvu kd \ f / xdUk aemufwiG f usef. pD.favmifaom toH wpfoHvGifhysHvm\/ ]][dwf .atmif e*g.udk b. udk. ESpf odrfh&ef pdwful.bl.u .xJodkU rpdrfh0ifEdkifao.u .fhvkyfNyD.uvnf. uav. wpfa.[lusif.u qdkwmvJ olrodbl. &Tifusif.rSm usef.tBudrftjzpf &GwfNyD. ]]'gu &Tifusif.[lusif.ojzifh tqdyfrsm.. ]]aMomf .qef.jrefjref atmifjrifoGm. wpfa.mufxdkifvsuf avSudk tjrefqHk.om.a&SUwGif &Gwfqdkjcif.musfm./ usef..? a&Smifvif*dkPf.muf &Sdaew.aemuf b.&JU jyifytaMum &Spfckudk zGifhay."mwf tqdyfudk olUbdk.prf.onf usef. olUwpfudk.jyef\/ usef.½Sd taMumr&Spfckudk usef.aom rsufESmudk wpdrfhpdrfhMunfh &if. udk.fqdkwmudk ig rMum.zkef.}} [kuwd ay. .vdkuf\/ xdUk aemuf olu acgif.qef.udk.f u usef..qef.ygvm.ydwfxm.}} [k ar.f? om. uav.avonf/ xdktcg usef.udk armhí Munfv h u kd &f aomtcg avSi.Edkif"m. ]]&Tifusif.f*dkPf.? om.? om. &Tifusif. tjyif.bdk.u 'Da&Smifvif aepMumodkif.zkef.fawmfu b.vdkuf&m usef.udk.fvdkufrd\/ ]]b.[lusif.bdk.fvHk.vHk..f ynm tppfjzpfaMumif.zkef. ighudkawmif Ncdrf.f}} xdktoHrS jrpfjyif ra0.ck avmuf a&&GwfvdkufonfESifh usef.u .f bdk.orm.&Sm..t&mtm.\/ avSay:wGifawmh 261 . uav.usvmavawmhonf/ usef.udk ay. q.

? vluvnf.av\/ wpfcsdefwnf.Mu\/ usef..qHk...rsm. vdkuf&m "m.atmfoHudk Mum.. aMumuf'l. av.rsm.zkef. tavsmhray.í aemufodkU vSnfhMunfhpOf olUvufarmif..0SD.u olUtm.wpfacsmif.av\/ usef.}} [k a&&Gwfrdav\/ xdkUaemuf olu olUavSxdk. .qef.onf udk.eJU vl&UJ ab.wpfpif.Edkif"m..qef.k }} [k a&&Gwfvdkufav\/ usef.odUk ckex f u G o f mG .\ vufxJrS avSmfwufudk .ESpfcsuf ckwfvdkufjyef &m wdbufbkef.f&Sm. ]]a[h ./ xdkUjyif olwdkUu usef.awGu yg. odonfESifh avSxdk.url olUaemufausmrS yGwfumoDum jzwfoGm.\ avSrSm vlajcmufa.ajcaxmufwdkUjzifh rGef*dkppfom. ckefxGufoGm.\ avSay:odkU a&mufoGm.líwpfcsyfudk ypfvdkufNyD.EdkifawmhbJ aemufrS vdkufvmaom avSu rDvmav\/ xdktcg rGef*dk ppfom.u &. vnf.rsm.fp&majymaewm xifw.jyef\/ ajcusaom ae&mwGif 'kwd.csufrSm tvGefjyif.zkef. w0SD.tm..rsm.ydkif.zkef.uyfvmavonf/ rMumrSDrSmyif rGef*dkppfom.&efyif pdwful. jrpfxJodkUusoGm.qef. .avSmfwuf wpfacsmif.ESifh vltm..ysOfcsyf udk csNyD.jzifh pwifypfcwfavawmh\/ jrm.odkU wpfcsuf wdrf.wnf.u xdkvltm.mufcefU vdkufygvm\/ ppfom.u avSudk wpfNydKifeuf avSmfcwfvsuf&Sd&m rkwfqdwfarT.f&Sm.frSmvmí xdkae&modkU avSmfcwf0Hhygrnfenf.rf. a&xJodkU vGifhpOf usoGm.fulacs/ odkUaomf usef.qef. aemufxyf ta0.qef. jrm.om.aeMuNyDjzpf&m tb.\ avSbufodkU avSmfcwfoGm.udkyif jzpf&m rkwfqdwfarG. ESpfyg.om.yif jzpfyg\/ 262 .rSm vGifhxGufoGm.jzifh 0ifckwfav\ "m.onf olUwpfoufwmwGif t&GHrkef. avSOD. ]][dkbufudk jrefjref avSmfMuprf.ae\/ jrm.}} [k atmfajymvdkuf\/ odkUaomf avSxdk.rsm. tjcm.zkef.. .ygvm.u vufudkwpfcsuf. jyefvnf ckcHwdkufcdkufaeonfudk awGU&av\/ usef.wuúodkvf aevif.vHk.ESifh ypfcwfaeaom rGef*dkppfom.fr.u ae&mvGefpGm usOf. wpf[kefxdk.\ pdwfxJwGif .rsm. ]]bBuD. odEikd af yonf/ xdktcg usef. wpfOD.rsm.rsm.rSmyif usef.ae\/ jrm.mufukd ajymwmud. vufpowfawmh rGe*f pkd pfom.jzifh w0SD. ]]aMomf .avonf/ xdkUaMumifh rkwfqdwfESifhvl\ avSrSm a&SUodkU rwdk.mufu olUtm.ESifh ycHk. xdkysOfcsyfudk axmufí qufwdkuf ckefxGufvdkufjyefonf/ odkYjzifh tcsdefcPi. avSay:rS ysOfjym.av\/ xdkpOf tm.NyD.zkef. tawmfaumif.&NyD.f}} [líyif jyefar.ESpfbufodkU vGifhpOf xGufoGm.tm.BuD.NyD.qef.k oHrmS vGepf mG us.rsm.udk MunfhNyD. .ESifh vl\avSi.bJ vufoD. vGifhajy.ae[efu vGefpGmoGufvuf vsifjrefvS\/ usef. xdrSefav\/ xdktcg avSmfwufrsm.fqDodkU jrm.fa.ynmvJ rqdk.udk ½dkufxkwfz.rSm rGef*dkppfom.u uav.rsm. a. avSESpfpif.avawmh\/ xdkpOfavSorm.rsm.tm.&Sví S jrm.líjrm.udk ½dkufxkwfz.udk vmu.f&Sm.BuD.\/ jrpfxo J Ukd a&mufaomf olUajcaxmufu xdyk sOfcsyfay:wpfcsufeif.wdkUodkU jrm.\ aemufausmwGif jrm.0ifvmaom jrm.av\/ xdktcdkuf rGef*dkppfom..mufu rkwfqdwfESifh vl\avSay:odkU ckefwufvmMuav\/ rkwfqdwfESifhvlonf 'Pf&m&aeaomfvnf.rsm. q.vmaom jrm. ajy.af vmif pl.qef.zkef.om.jzwfvdkuf avawmhonf/ xdktcsdefwGif rkwfqdwfarG..musfm.wGifyif olu vuf0g. bmrS raMumufeJU ? bBuD.qef.rsm.NyD.uav.ESifh vlonf avSmfwufwpfacsmif. ]]'Dvl&JU odkif.rSm wpfp wpfp eD.odik . jzifh avSudk avSmfcwfNyD.onf yvlysHbdtvm..rsm.tm. xlvyspf ESifholrSm vufarmif.atmif e*g.zkef.ypfo\ l vuftm.zkef.aomfvnf.0SD.ESifh rGef*dkppfom.u ab.apmif.rSm tawmfyifoefrmaMumif.zkef.apmif.wpfbufwpfcsufrS "m... tm.xefNyD.. ESpfa.ESpfcsyfudk .vdkuf&m jrm. pdkufaeonfudk awGUvdkuf&av\/ rkwfqdwfESifh vlrSm uav.rif.f arG.fudk ab.ypfvdkufMu\/ usef.wkefae&Hkru xGufajy.ceJ atmfoHwpfcsuf Mum..qef.zkef. 0ifa&mufulnD&ef pdwfydkif.qef. wdbufbkef.u rkwfqdwfarG.\ pdwfxJrS .onf xdkvlBuD.f twGif.onf tcsdefqJGaeí rjzpfawmhrSef.jzifh 0dkif.\ ta&Smiftwdrf.&efyif rvG.\ avwd.yg. a&Smifwdrf.udk ½dkufxkwf z. vsifjrefav\/ NyD.fa[h}} [k atmfajymNyD.rsm.rSm vGefpGmrSefuef wdusvSaom ta&Smiftwdrf. ab.ESpaf .rsm.

bkef. aq.bufqDodkU ul.onf usef.NyD.qef.NyD.onf 'Pf&mudk udk.musfm.Edkif"m.tm.wuúodkvf aevif.zkef.rav.aom rkwfqdwfarG.ESifh vlESifh uav.Muav onf/ rGef*dkppfom.atmif e*g.ynmpGrf.udk qJGí ]]oGm.yg xnfhay.ayawmh}} [katmfNyD. jrifh rm.\ avSxGufoGm.Muavawmh\/ xdkUaemufwGifrl olwdkU onf avSBuD.jzifh olwdkU\ e*dkavSBuD.u vufESpfbufjzifh xdkvlESpfa.\ odkif.cwfxGufajy. aq.av.vQif usef. NyD.ay:odkU usoGm.rsm.avSmfcwfNyD.qef.qef. wdkufauR.rsm.odkU xGufajy. ypfwifvdkuf&m wpfbkef.Muavonf/ odkUjzifh rGef*dkppfom.0g.rSm toufr&Sdawmhacs/ 263 .uwef.muf\vuf armif.vSonfudk jrifaomf avSay:wGif qufrae&JawmhbJ jrpfxJodkU ckefcsí olwdkU avSBuD. jrpfjyifta0.zkef.vdkuf\ xdktcsdefwGif aemufausmwGif jrm.vHk.aomtcsdefwGif usef.rSefcH&aom a.oGm.zkef.rsm.oGm.fpD&&Sdxm.udk uref.

u xdkcsef&Dqdkoltm.qef. csL&if.a[mifyg? tckolUudk rGef*dkawGu zrf. .vQif NrdKUav.Zl. ac:vmwmyg? 'Duav.aqmif BuD.fhESpfESpfausmfrQom &SdrnfjzpfNyD.. uReaf wmfh aemufausmrSm vuf0g..vmcJw h mygyJ? 'gayr.}} [k qdkav\ usef.. rarhygbl.vQif . ]]rif.f BuD..ajymif.qef. olronf aoqHk.ac:xkwfNyD.apmif.qdkawmh ol&JUom.eJU orD. ol U avS b uf odkUul.u csef&D\'Pf&mudk ppfaq.wmygyJ}} usef.av\/ csef&Du .qef.cdkcef. wnf. OD.f? rif. ]]uRefawmfu 'Duav.Edkif"m..azmf í 'Pf&m&xm.vdkufNyD.oGm.. ]]q&mBuD.wGifom rvSKyfr.ESpfa.zkef.zkef.(31) awmwGif. tcef.csavonf/ NyD. rwfwyf&yfcdkif.wuúodkvf aevif.tm. xGuaf jy.ovm.wJh acgif.yif usef.f? tck'Dae&ma&mufawmh uRefawmfavSukd olwdkU rDoGm. qef .zkef.wpfNrdKUwGif avSudkuyfcdkif.? uRefawmfu acgif.wpfckwGif 0ifí tem. wdkufyJG xd k U aemuf w G i f usef .lvdkufMuav\/ NyD.rav.atmif e*g.ay. onf rk w f q d w f E S i f h v l E S i f h uav.wpfcsuf t½dkufcHvdkuf&ygw.&JU rsufESmu jzLzyfjzLa&mf jzpfaew.aom csef&DESifh uav.zkef.tm.NyD.qef.\ avSay:odkU a&mufonfESifh csufcsif.mufudk apmifha&SmufNyD.aom olrtpfudk\ tavmif.rSm rGe*f pkd pfwyfu vTwv f u kd w f hJ wdAufbek . zk e f .u usKyfwdkU&JU toufocif aus.rav..}} [k ar.fv h rf.ESpf a.rSm twGif.Suf xdkifae&Smav\/ 264 .rav.pD.muf&JU tazu rGef*dkppfwyfudk awmfvSefykefuefzdkU olykefwyfzJGUudkOD.ab.rSm touf q.avonf/ uav.&JU vuf½Hk.aqmifBuD.&SifygyJ? usKyfcsef&Du wpfoufvHk.. aq.Munfhvdkuf\/ NyD.rdvdkU owfypfvdkufNyD.aemuf .c&D.udk wdkufauR.awGeUJ wdu k cf u kd &f if.udk twif.'Pf&m &xm..vdkuf\/ rkwfqdwfESifhvlonf usef.

í½SKwfcs jypfwifMuav\/ usef.? aeUwdkif.pyfudk [ay.u ighukd tm.pm..zkef.f? uJh&JU ½SKwfcs Muw. ]]ig rpm.\ rdcifbufrS rsufcHk..\/ odkUaomf *dkPf.vsm pm.\/ tom.udk auR.&Sif qdkawmh uRefawmfu trSef twdkif.yifjzpf\/ þtvif.u uRefawmfwdkU&JU toufocif aus.. . rdrdurl wynfhajr.txifBuD.vdpk w d f vH.&ef jyK\/ xdktcg usef.wrefawmf*dkPf.u usef.ar. ]]uRefr emrnfu csLusL.qef..awmhbl.pm..qef.vdkufr.avmurS vlrsm.aygh}} [k jyefajymav\/ usef. usef .rSm xrif.u rwfwyf&yfí .wrefawmf *dkPf.u Muifemoem. bmrS &Si.? 'Dvdkqdk&if OD.BuD.jrnfph mG oufjyif.zkef. ]]csef&D rif.f&G. apNyD.\ t½Sdeft0grSmrl wpf[kefxdk.u . csKyf B uD .zkef.tm. ayGUcsDNyD.[if. trSefpifppf þtvif..udk.arG.onfw h ikd o f u l rsdKrusacs/ csLusL.u . u [l w ef .ckol\ wpfudk.zkef. ? 'gaMumif h q&mBuD . tmar!dwfoHwpfcsufjyKNyD.Edkif"m.[lusif.\ vufxJrS yef.qef. usef.vdkuf \/ uav.wJh}} [k ajzvdkuf\/ csef&Du xdkemrnfudk trSwfrxifMum.csvdu k rf &d mS av\/ xdkUaemuf xrif.zke. íom toufcsufcsif.tm.*dkPf.wrmefawmf *dkPf.rSmvnf.wufvm\/ usef.bdk.jzpfNyD.[laom trnfudk Mum.k 0r&Sad cs/ usef. . jzpfaer. txifao.tm.uefESifh wlwpfpHkudk.rav.qef. rpm.ESifhyg? uRefr 'D tpfudkav.lí .zkef. xrif.aom wynfah jr.? igAdkuf0aeNyD}} [k jiif.rpm.wdkUtm.rSm i. pd w f & S n f vuf & S n f cGHUauR.&r.f}} [k qdkav\/ 265 . aqG. t&if pm.udk odkif.u olUq&mbdk.rSm oufowfvGwfpm.fwrf.qef.qef.[lusif.rSm oabmxm.u pdwfaumif..udk ajymjyvdu k af v\ usef.u ig.aewmyJ}} [kqdkav\/ use.avmuwGif tvif.rS cJGxGufvmaom *dkPf. wdk. ]]q&mBuD.qdkNyD.qef.BuD.BuD.wrefawmf*dkPf. &J U od k i f .f}} trSefrl tvif.Zl.f qef.usef.acs/ odkUaomf olwdkU\ tjyKtrlESifh vkyfaqmifcsufrsm..BuD..rav.rS Munfh&if.csifawmhbl.yg? OD. [l u sif .&JU emrnfu usef.q.? 'kua© &mufaewJh vl wpfa. pum.onf csef&DESifh csLusL."mwf tqdyfysHUESHU oGm.rSefrSefpm. tm.aeavawmh\/ xdkpOf csef&Du ½kwfw&uf . auR.. vGefpGm pdwfraumif.Muw.zkef.f jyaep&m rvdyk gbl.[l usif.f? uRefawmf[m tvif.qef. t&ifpm.tajymtqdkvGefpGm oGufvuf csufcsmonfudk awGUaomf oabmusoGm..rSm r[kwfbl.mrSKwpfckyg? b.NyD .? rif.av\/ csLusL.0 rpm.pm. av.. ]]tpfudkav.ae&mrS vl.. ud k taotcsmz. ]]uav. ]][m}} . usef.vdkuf\/ xd k t cg csLusL. ]]tpfudkav.rSm twGif.rnfpdk.qef. *d k P f .avmu vlawGu atmufvrf.. ]]vuf p owf a wmh q&mBuD .vsuf . ]]OD.í olUyg.f rSm cse&f u D olUtm..wuúodkvf aevif.vQifyif 0dkif.oljzpfí t&Sdudk t&Sdtwdkif. raoEdkifao.vHk.aMumif.avmuwGif ay:xGufvmcJhonfrSm ESpfig. ESKwfqufum xdkifae&mrS xGufcGm&efjyKvdkuf\/ xdktcg csLusL.av\/ usef..&JU emrnfuaum}} [k jyefar.aomf .u eHab. ]]OD..BuD.[lusif.[lusif.aomf usef.emNyD. yJ u d k .zkef.rav..NyD.f & S m .u vGefpGm xl.[lusif.onf usef.aeav\/ csef&Du tusdK.taMumif.u olwdkUudk odkif.onf odkif. zGifhajym&awmhr.aom toHjzifh .BuD.u vlyg? uRefawmfhwdkU *dkPf. xrif.onfuakd wGUaomf trSepf ifppf rdro d nf wpfu.vJ xrif...faomfvnf.[lusif..fEikd o f nf udk pOf.zke.t½d k .rdNyD.f u olUudk auR.fvHk.BuD.udyk if ru. [lusif.wrefawmf*dkPf. ynmu tHhMoavmufatmif jrifhrm.zkef.fav}} [kqdkNyD.csdefwGif usef. aemufwpfaeU eHeufwGifrl usef.&Sd taMumudkydwfxm.u usef.BuD.eufeJojzifh odkif.\/ oluNyHK.vJx&if.orQ tjrifvnf.folrqdk igu ulnDrSmyg}} [k qdkav\/ xdk nNyD.tm..fvdkac:ovJ}} [kar. pdwfraumif.atmif e*g.BuD.av.wdik f rdr\ d wpfO. usef.av.&JU emrnf b..[lusif. vJavsmif.mufukd ulnw D m[m igh&JU om.f t*FgxJwGif tat.jzL*dkPf.qef.faemf? awmfMumOD.D wnf.u uav.frQom &Sdygao.&if OD. auR. olwdkUtm.. Munhf\/ xdkUaMumifholu .rpm. .

zkef.u 'Davmuf jrifhrm.Zl.udk okwfay.u ]]&ygw..rf.aMumifoGm.ap&bl.f}}[k qdkav\/ csef½kdu ½kwfw&uf .\/ yg.fvdkUukvdkUaysmufcJh&ifvJ igwdkU[lwef.}} usef.zkef.awmfeJU aysmufatmif ukzdkUqdkwm rjzpfEdkifawmhbl.u rif.. wpfvavmufyJ touf&Sif&awmhrSm? 'Dawmh olUudk 'DvleJU xnfhay.udk Mum.awmfBuD..[lusif.om.[lusif. &Sif.qef.ajymwJh orm.u .vdkuf&Sm\/ csLusL.zkef. ]]'Dvdkqdk&if rif.NyD.? aemufNyD."mwftqdyfu omreftqdyfrsdK. vdkufav\/ ]]usef.udk aq.aemf}} 266 .u usef.vif.u vlawGudkyJ ukay.mufudk owd&vdkuf\/ ]]rif.MupdkU? rif.[lusif.avmu uvlawGudk vHk.awmfu wjcm.orm.tm.awmfvm.pm.}} csef&Du .pm.fh igwdkUtckuwnf.}} [k ar.zkef.zkef.&JU odkif..&JUbBuD.zkef.wdkU&JU *dkPf. &JU tat.av\/ xdktcgusef.tusyf rif.jyifay:odkU pD.rS r.pm.&awmhr.u cRif.udkyJ tm. ]]uav.\ pdwfxJwGif awGa0ae\/ ]]'D vdyfjymukeform.zkef.onf/ ]]olU&JU jyify taMum&SpfckxJudk tat.0ifí .\ rsuf&nfrsm.\ oabmudk odí..lbl.? rif.a&SUa&.. ajymxm.awmh tvGefqHk.}} usef.f? 'gayr. orm..wmyJ? 'gayr.ayr.[lusif.aMumifh xdwfvefUoGm.}} usef. [dkcsif..udk twif.zkef.aemuf ½kwfw&uf vlwpfa.qef.r[kwfbl.f? q&mawmfBuD.u olwdkU&JU *dkPf.&JU tat.\ pum.fhqJqJ awmif olu wpfcsufvSnfh MunfhrSm r[kwfbl.}} ]]b.ynmeJU odkif.}} csef½kd\ obm0usaom pum. uRefawmfhbBuD. .&JU emrnfowif.\ pum.wlq&mBuD.vdkU tck orm.qef.u wpfcsufrQ ai.Munfhwmayghav}} odkUjzifh olu .atmif e*g.fh tck usef.aeonfudk awGUaomf usef..csuftaeeJU tpfudkav.vif.uG? tckusef.qef. olu olwdkU&JU tvif.."mwftqdyfudk rajyaysmufEdkifapbl.zkef.vdkufNyD. rjrifatmif csef½dktm.qef.ukrvdkUyg? 'Dtpfudkav.u uRefawmfh&JU *dkPf.r&Sd&bl. ]]q&mBuD.awmfeJU rwlbl.ukray..&Sif.aomf usef.av\/ usef.ukay.u csLusL.&JU emrnfudk igaumif.f}} [k yg.u vdyfjymukef.0 ta&.? bmajymw.[lusif. vufurl usef.pdkufwm r[kwfbl.awmfBuD.awmfBuD..aumif.u BudKwif NyD.qef.*dkPf. usef.udk.u tjyifvludk aq.awmfBuD.udk igu 'Dvl&JU vufxJudk xnfhvdkuf&if usef.pyfum ajymaomfvnf.[lusif.fh q&mBuD.u vlyJ ? olu odkif.? wu."mwf tqdyfawGysHUESHU0ifoGm. arQmfvifhcsuf&Sdao.cg.wmaygh q&mBuD.ygw.uvJ tvif.udkMum.&SdwJh uav.qD oGm.udk u.av.f}} [k ar.xJudk r0ifcdkif.u Mum.zkef.fcJhvdkU bBuD.aomf usef.[lusif.ryJ? rif.eJU bmrS aus.? tjyifavmu u vlawGqdk&ifawmh olUa&SUrSm tqdyfwufvdkU aoawmhr. cgjyav\/ csef½dku tHhMowkefvSKyfvsuf .cH aus.}} ]][kwfygw.NyD jzpfvdkU orm. ]]bm ..aewmawmif 'Dtpfudkav..yJudk.Zl. vGefpGmpdwfxdcdkufoGm..fvdkyJ jzpfjzpf rukwmeJUpm&if ukMunfhwmu ydkNyD.zl.rSmyg}} [k qdkjyef \/ xdktcg usef. awGa0 pOf. ]]uRefawmfvJ twGif.wuúodkvf aevif.udk Mum.. wpfOD.pm.wrefawmf*dkPf.rSm uHaumif.f vdkU ajymMuwmAs}} usef. csufcsif.[lusif..wdkU*dkPf.qef.zl.NyD.[lusif.rav.u acgif.[lusif.udk uRefawmfeJU xnfhvdkufygvm..&awmhrSmaygh? 'gayr. usef.yg apuG. uHprf.vm.vnf.qef.wm? ydkufqHwpfjym.f}} csef&Du usef.u taotcsm pOf.usvmaom usef.Edkif"m.fh igu xrif.xJudk a&mufoGm.qef.qef. ..EdkifwJh &uf odyfr&Sdawmhbl. wrefawmf*dkPf. ]]'gayr.fh 'Dorm.cifAs? vlawGu olUudk aowJhvludkawmif &SifatmifukEdkifw. ]]'Dorm.. Mum.av. tpfudkav.vnf.vnf.u odyfpdwfaumif. ]]q&mBuD.'Pf&m &xm.yif rsuf&nf0Jvm&Sm\/ ]]eifu ightay: odyfapwemxm.

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
trSefrl usef;qef;zkef;onf csef½dkwdkU atmufvrf;*dkPf;rsm;\ vkyf½dk;vkyfpOftwGuf pdk;&drfruif;jzpfae\/
ol\tcspfqHk;wynfhusef;acR;qef;rSm trSefpifppf þvdk atmufvrf;*dkPf;aMumifh aemufqHk;wGifemrnfysufvsuf
taoqdk;ESifh aoqHk;cJh&onf r[kwfyg vm;/ csef½dku ...
]]q&mBuD; 'DtwGufawmh bmrS pdwfrylygeJU}} [kajymNyD; csLusL;bufodkU vSnfhí ...
]]csLusL; ... rif;u q&mBuD;eJU vdkufoGm;ayawmh}}
csLusL; wpfpHkwpf&m rajzrD usef;qef;zkef;u wtHhwMojzifh ...
]]bmjzpfvdkUvJ}} [k ysmysmovJ ar;\/ csef&Du ...
]]uRefawmf usef;[lusif;udk ukovdkU &onfjzpfap? r&onf jzpfap uRefawmf q&mBuD;vufxJudk
jyef t yf a wmh r S q&mBuD ; u csLusL;ud k uRef a wmf h u d k jyef t yf a ygh ? aemuf N yD ; vrf ; c&D ; rS m uRef a wmf u
uav;ESpfa,mufpvHk;udk vHkNcHKatmif apmifha&Smuf oGm;zdkUqdkwm odyfrvG,fbl;? NyD;awmh csLusL;udk q&mBuD;
vufxJrSm xm;&if uRefawmf ydkNyD; pdwfcs&w,f? rGef*dkawG&JU &efudkvJraMumuf&awmhyg cifAsm}}
xdkUaemufwGifrl usef;qef;zkef;onf csLusL;udk ac:NyD;csef½dk? usef;[lusif;wdkUESifh vrf;cJGvmcJhavawmh\/
usef;[lusif;rSm olUrdbESpfyg;uG,fvGefcJhonfh tcsdefrSpNyD; usef;qef;zkef;tm; olUtbdk; t&if;wpfa,mufyrm
qufqHvmcJh&m ,ck ½kwfw&uf cJGcGm&awmh rnfudk awGUaomf rsuf&nfyif rqnfEdkifatmif idkaBuG;&Smav\/
usef;qef;zkef;u nifompGmjzifh ...
]]usef;[lusif; ... om; ? om;&JU a0'em aysmufuif;oGm;wJh tcgus&if OD;av; csef&Du om;udk
[lwef;awmifudk jyefydkUvdrfhr,f? om;bmrS pdwfraumif; rjzpfygeJU}} [k ESpfodrfhvdkuf\/
xdktcgusef;[lusif;u rsuf&nfpufvufjzifh vufrvSKyfEdkifawmhí acgif;udkom ndwfjy&Smav\/ odkUaomf
olUrsuf0ef;tpHkrSmrl rsuf&nfrsm; woGifoGif pD;oG,fusaeqJ yif/ xdktcg csLusL;vnf; rsuf&nfpufvufESifh
vufudkify0gav;udk xkwfum usef;[lusif;\ rsuf&nfrsm;udk okwfay;&Smav\/ NyD;rSyif csLusL;onf
usef;qef;zkef;ESifhtwl xGufcGmoGm;avawmh\/
usef;[lusif;onf olUq&m bdk;bdk; xGufcGmoGm;NyD;rSyif 0rf;enf;jcif;udk rcsKyfwnf; EdkifawmhbJ csKH;yJGcs
idka<u;vdkufavawmh\/
csef&Du rsufarSmifukwfvsuf usef;[lusif;tm; Munfhvdkuf\/ xdkUaemuf...
]]usef ; [l u sif ; ... rif ; touf b,f E S p f E S p f & S d N yD v J } } [k ar;av\/ usef ; [l u sif ; u
½SdKufiifidka<u;ae&if;rS ...
]]wpfq,fhESpfESpf}} [kajzvdkufav\/
xdktcg csef&Du ...
]]aMomf ... wpfq,fhESpfESpfawmif &SdaeNyDyJ? uav;vJr[kwfawmhygbl;uGm? bmjzpf vdkU idk,dkae&wmvJ ?
r&Sub
f ;l vm; ightouf wpfq,fEh pS Ef pS w
f ek ;f u b,favmuf t½du
k f cHxm;&ovJawmh rodb;l ? 'gayr,fh igrsuf&nf
wpfpufawmifrS ruscJhbl;uG? a,musfm;qdkwm aoG;ajrom tuscHr,f rsuf&nfrus&bl;? rif;om'Dvdkrdef;uav;
wpfa,mufudk qufidkae&if igrif;udk ½dkuf&vdrfhr,f}}
usef;[lusif;onf csef&DxHrS rmausmpGmajymvdkufaom pum;udkMum;vdkufaom tcg aMumufpdwf0ifvm\/
olUpdwfxJwGif ...
]]usKyfq&mbdk;bdk; jyefoGm;wmeJU cifAsm;u usKyfudk tEdkifusifhawmhr,faygh}} [k a& &GwfrdNyD; olu
tHudkBudwfí ...
]]uRefawmfu q&mbdk;bdk;eJU rcJG&ufvdkU idkwmAs olrsm;uom uRefawmfudk½dkuf&if uRefawmf ridkygbl;? uJ
... cifAsm; uRefawmfhudk½dkuf&J&if ½dkufMunfhav? 'DaeU cifAsm; uRefawmfhudkwpfcsuf ½dkuf&ifaemifwpfcsdefrSm cifAsm;udk
uRefawmfq,fcsuf jyef½dkufrSmyJAsm}} [kqdk\/
csef&D wpfcsufaMumifoGm;NyD;rS w[m;[m; &,fae&if; ...
]]ighnDu odyfawmfwmyJ? 'grS a,musfm;yDoawmhraygh rif;u 'Davmufawmfaeawmh igrif;udk
b,f½dkuf&JyghrvJ}}
]]uRefawmf udk,fvufawGurS rvSKyf&Sm;Edkifwm? cifAsm;bmvdkU r½dkuf&J&rSmvJ}}
267

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
csef&Du &,farmí ...
]]ig'DaeU rif;udk½dkuf&if aemifwpfcsdefrSm rif;u rif;&JUq&m bdk;bdk;qDrSm odkif;ynm awGoifNyD; ighudk
jyef½dkufrSmayghuG}}
xdktcg usef;[lusif;vnf; r&,fbJ raeEdkifawmhacs/ þodkUjzihf olwdkUESpfOD;onf jrpfaMumif;twdkif;
ta&SUbufqDodkU OD;wnfí pkefqif;vmcJhMu\/
vdyfjymukef; orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;rSm &Grfqef;awmif&Sd vdyfjymukef;wGif aexkdif jcif;jzpf\/
vrf;c&D;wGif usef;[lusif;onf wpfaeUvQif ESpfem&DrQ tat;"mwf tqdyfwuf vsuf&SdNyD; wpfudk,fvHk;
wkef,ifum tHBudwfí a0'emudk cHpm;ae&\/ rsm;rMumrDyif olwdkUonf &Trfqef;awmif&Sd vdyfjymukef;odkU
a&mufvmMu\/ csef&Donf olU*dkPf;wl bBuD;uolaeaomae&mudk tjyifvlrsm;tm; rodapcsifrSef;odí
jrif;vSnf;q&mtm; &Trfqef;awmifajcrSmyif &yfcdkif;vkdufNyD; usef;[lusif;ESifhtwl awmifay:odkU wufvmcJh\ olu
rdkifESpfq,frQ c&D;udk tcsdefrsm;rMumrD a&mufrnf[k wGufxm;aomfvnf; olonf twGif;'Pf&m&xm;oljzpfí
avQmuf&if;ESifhyif wpfudk,fvHk;udkufcJvmNyD; armyef;EGrf;e,f vmawmh\/ usef;[lusif;rSm olUtm;vGefpGm
tm;emoGm;&NyD; ...
]]tpfudkBuD; uRefawmfwdkU jznf;jznf;yJ oGm;Muwmaygh? awmfMumtpfudkBuD; odyfarmaeOD;r,f}} [k qdkav\/
xdktcg csef&Du ...
]]cgwdkif;qdk igrdkifwpf&mc&D;udk rem;wef; avQmufEdkifcJhwmuG? ckawmh 'Dbkef;BuD;&JU vuf0g;apmif;wpfcsuf
xdvu
kd w
f meJU ig 'Davmufawmif toH;k rusawmhb;l }} [k rcsdwifuJ qdak v\olu tm;wif;í qufavQmufvu
kd \
f /
odkUaomf olUajcvSrf;rsm;u Mumav aES;avjzpfvm\/ ywf0ef;usifwpfckvHk; arSmif&DysdK;vmNyD jzpfaomfvnf;
owdonf awmifwpfawmifudk yif rausmfEdkifao;acs/ awmtkyfav; wpfcktwGif;odkU a&mufvmMu aom tcgwGifrl
usef;[lusif;u csef&Dtm; tyef;ajztdyfpufem;ae&ef twif;t"r® ajym&avawmh\/
csef&Duvnf; pOf;pm;vdkuf\/
]][kwfw,f ... ignoef;acgiftcsdef awmifay:udk a&mufoGm;vdkU bBuD;udk tdyf&m uESdK;&if bBuD;u
a'goxGufNyD;'Duav;udk ukray;&if cufOD;r,f}}
odkUjzifh olwdkUESpfOD;onf awmifay:odkU qufrwufawmhbJ xdkawmtkyfwGif;&Sd opfyifwpfyif\ atmufwGif
ycHk;csif;,SOfí vJSavsmif;tdyfpufvdkufMuawmh\/

268

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif

e*g;Edkif"m;

tcef;(32)
rarQmfvifhaom owif;BuD;
noef;acgifcsdefjzpf\/
usef;[lusif;onf tat;"mwftqdyf wufvmjyefojzifh tdyf&mrS vefUEdk;vmcJh\ xdktcsdefwGifyif
cyfvSrf;vSrf;qDrS vufeufcsif; ckwfxpfoHrsm;ESifh atmf[pfoHrsm;udkyg Mum;&onf/
csef&Dvnf; vloHMum;í"m;udk uref;uwef; qJGxkwfNyD; [lusif;tm; ayGUzufvsuf toifh taetxm;
jyifvdkuf\/trSefrl csef&Donf twGif;'Pf&m&xm;ojzifh odkif;tiftm; vHk;0r&Sdawmhacs/ xdkUaMumifh &efolrsm;
½kwfw&uf a&mufvmvQif usef;[lusif;tm; apmifha&SmufEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfaMumif; odaomf vGefpGmpdwfylyefvsuf
&Sdav\/
xdktcsdefwGif pl;pl;0g;0g; atmfoHrsm;udk tqufrjywf Mum;&NyD; vlrsm; vJNydKusoGm;oHrsm;udkyg
Mum;vm&av\/ csef&Donf tajctaerSefukd od&ef wdwfwqdwf a&SUodkU jznf;nif;pGm wdk;oGm;\/ xdktcg
arSmifrvif;wvif; awmtkyt
f wGi;f wGif jzpfymG ; aeaom wdu
k yf \
GJ jrifuiG ;f udk aumif;pGm awGUjrifvu
kd &f avawmh\/
vlwpfa,muf olonf vufeufryg vuftm;odkif; oufoufjzifh vlckepfa,mufcefUudk vSnfhywfí
wdkufcdkufae\/ wpfcPcsif;rSmyif xdkvlckepfa,mufxJrS ig;a,mufrS ajray:odkU vJusoGm;NyD; 'Pf&mjyif;xefpGm
&oGm;Mu\/ odkUaomf csef&DESihf twl usef;[l usif;yg acsmif;ajrmif; MunhfvdkufcsdefwGifrl wpfa,mufwnf;aom
vufeufrJh vlonf ajray:odkU vJaeavNyD/
xdktcg vlckepfa,muftkyfpkxJrS ESpfa,mufrSmrdef;uav; rsm;jzpfaMumif; awGUjrifvdkuf\/
usef;[lusif;u xdkrdef;uav;ESpfa,mufxJrS wpfa,mufudk jrifaomf vTwfceJ atmfvdkufrdrwwf
jzpfoGm;av\/ rSefonf/ xdkrdef;uav;rSm tjcm;r[kwf/olU*dkPf;wl OD;av; csifvd&Sef\ ZeD;avmif; usda&Smifrl
jzpfaeaomaMumifhyif jzpf\/
269

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]wifrif; 'DaumifBuD;udk taotcsm ppfaq;ar;jref;Munfhvdku}f}
xdktcg wifrif; qdkaom rdef;uav;u ";m;udk qJGía&SUodkUwufNyD; ...
]]zef[dkqefU? uRefrar;r,f? ayauG;csdK b,frSmvJ}}
zef[dkqefUqdkaom trnfudk Mum;&aomf csef&Donf wpfcsufrQ wkefvSKyfoGm;av\ pifppf zef[dkqefU
qdkolonfvnf; rsufcHk;jzL*dkPf;wGif emrnfBuD; yk*¾dKvf wpfOD;jzpfonf r[kwfygvm;/
,ck zef [ d k q ef U tm; 0d k i f ; 0ef ; wd k u f c d k u f v d k u f a om ol r sm;wG i f bk e f ; BuD ; ES p f y g;yg yg0if a v\/
xdkbkef;BuD;ESpfyg;rSm a&Smifvif*dkPf;rSjzpf\/ xdkUjyif cGef;vGef*dkPf;rSvnf; ygao;\/
rdef;uav; ESpfa,mufrSmawmhrl 0gar*dkPf;rS jzpfMuavonf/ pifppf olwdkUonf zef[dkqefUqdkoltm;
0dkif;0ef; wdkufNyD; ayauG;csdKudk ar;aejcif;rSm &SufpGef;\ owif;udk ar;jref;pHkprf;&efyif jzpfavonf/
xdkpOf zef[dkqefUu &,fí ...
]]rif;wdkU ESpfa,mufudk igu rdef;uav;awGqdkNyD; vuf0g;apmif;eJU &ifbwfudk r½dkufbJ ñSmxm;cJhvdkU
rif;wdkUESpfa,muf tckvdk bmrS rjzpfcJhwmuG? tckawmh rif;wdkUu ighudk ppfvm;ar;vm; vkyfaeNyDaygh? [m; [m;
[m;}}
zef[dkqefUu tm;yg;w& &,fNyD; ',D;',dkif xvdkufav\/
]]'DrSma[h ... &SufpGef; b,frSm &Sdw,fqdkwm odcsif&if a&Smifvif*dkPf;&JU ausmif;xkdifq&mawmfBuD;udk
rif;wdkU oGm;ar;ygvm;uG}}
xdktcg a&Smifvif*dkPf;rS bkef;awmfBuD;teuf wpfyg;u ...
]]aMomf ... 'goufouf [dk rsufc;kH jzL*dP
k ;f u csifw;l wl;u igwdUk a&Smifvif*P
kd ;f udk acsmufweG ;f oGm;cJw
h muG}}
[k atmfajym\/
usef;[lusif;rSm xdkudk,fawmfu olUrdcif jzpfol\trnfudk xkwfazmf ajymojzifh *kPf,lrdonfESifh trQ
0rf;enf;aMuuJGjcif;vnf; jzpf&av\/ pdwfxJrSvnf; ...
]][if?h usKyfararu vGecf w
hJ hJ ESpEf pS af vmufu aoqH;k oGm;cJah yr,fh tck cifAsm;wdUk vJ 'kuc© smvywfvnfaeNyD
r[kwfvm;}} [k a&&Gwfvdkufav\/
xdkpOf cGef;vGef*dkPf;rS vlwpfa,mufu ...
]]wifrif; 'DaumifeJU pum; qufajymraeeJUawmh? "m;eJUom xdk;owfvdkuf} [k atmfajymav\/
wif r if ; um; usd a &S m if r l \ *d k P f ; wl t pf r jzpf \ / od k U aomf ol r onf vG e f p G m a'goBuD ; NyD ;
oabmxm;ao;av\/ wifrif;u "m;udkqJGí zef[dkqefU\ ajcESpfbufudkckwf&ef jyifvdkuf\/ xdktcg
zef[dkqefUonf pdwfxJrS usdwfí oufjyif;wpfcsuf csvdkuf\/
]]igu olwkdUESpfa,mufudk rdef;rom;awGqdkNyD; olwdkU &ifbwfudk½dkuf&if ,kwfnHh&m usrSmpdk;vdkU ñSmcJhwm?
tckawmh igh&JU pdwfaumif;u ighudk jyef'ku©ay;aeygayghvm;}}
olu rsufpdudk rSdwfí ao&efjyifvdkuf\/ xdkpOf ... ]xef;}ceJ "m;tm; "m;csif; ½dkufcwf oHwpfcsuf
Mum;&ojzifh rsufpdudk ½kwfjcnf; jyefzGifhMunfhvdkuf&m usda&Smifrlu olU*dkPf;wl tpfr wifrif;\ xdk;pdkufvmaom
"m;udk yifxkwfvkdufaMumif;awGU&av\/ wifrif;u wpfcsuf aMumifoGm;NyD; ...
]]bmjzpfwmvJ}} [k ar;\ usda&Smifrlu ...
]]tpfr uRefrwdkUudk zef[dkqefUu vuf0g;apmif;eJU rckwfbJ vuf½kyfcJhvdkU uRefrwdkU tckvdk raocJhwm?
tck uRefrwdkUtvSnfhusawmh olUudk owfypfzdkU roifhygbl;}} [kjyef ajym\/ wifrif;u tHhMooGm;NyD; ...
]][Jh ... igu olUudk owfrSmrS r[kwfbJ? olUudk igu ayauG;csdK b,frSm&Sdw,fqdkwm odatmif
ppfaq;ar;jref;½HkyJ[m}}
usda&Smifrlu ...
]]'gjzifh tck olUudk,frSm tqdyfvufeuf txdrSefcHxm;&ygw,f? 'Dawmh olUudk t&ifOD;qHk; ajzaq;
ay;NyD;awmhrS ar;Muwmaygh}} [k ajymNyD; vJusaeaom cGef;vGef*dkPf;rS vlwpfa,muf\a&SUodkU avQmufoGm;av\/
NyD;vQif ...
]]tpfudk pD;rif; tqdyfajzaq; ay;prf;yg}} [k awmif;av\/ cGef;vGef*dkPf;rS pD;rif; qdkolu ...
270

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]tJ'Daumifudk BudK;eJU t&ifwkyfxm;OD; ? 'Daumifu odyfOmPfrsm; ...}}
pD r if ; onf pum;ajym&if ; a0gh c eJ aoG ; wpf c suf tef x G u f v mav\/ ol o nf zef [ d k q ef U \
vuf0g;apmif;wpfcsuf trdcv
H u
kd &f ojzifh twGi;f 'Pf&m&xm;ol jzpf\/ usad &Smifrv
l nf; wpfcsupf Of;pm;vdu
k Nf yD;vQif
tdwfxJrS BudK;wpfacGufk xkwfízef[dkqef a&SUodkU oGm;NyD; ...
]]zef[q
kd efU ... pdwrf &Sed UJ aemf}} [k ajymNyD;vQif zef[q
kd efU\ ajcESihf vufwUkd udk BudK; jzifh csnfaESmifxm;vdu
k \
f
xdkUaemufwGifrl usda&Smifrlonf ajzaq;udk ,lNyD; tqdyfvufeufudk qJGxkwf&ef ajzaq;udk xnfhay;vdkuf\/
xdktcg wifrif;u cufxefpGmjzifh ...
]]zef[dkqefU ... uRefr&JU nDrav;u pdwfoabmxm; aumif;vdkU &Sifhudk u,fvdkufwm? tckayauG;csdK
b,frSm &Sdw,fqdkwm &Sifrajymao;bl;vm;}}
zef[dkqefU u [m;wdkuf&,fNyD; ...
]]wifrif; ... rif;u igzef[dkqefUudk odyftxifao;vGef;wmudk;? [lwef;*dkPf;u usef;acR;qef;[m
olUtpfudkBuD; &SufpGef;&JU ae&yfudk rajymjycsifvdkU olUudk,fol taocH oGm;cJhw,f? igzef[dkqefUu usef;acR;qef;udk
odyfav;pm;w,f? jrwfEdk;w,f? 'gaMumifh igu olUvdk tpGrf;tpr&Sdayr,fholUudkawmh twk,lcsifygw,f}}
xdkpum;udkMum;aomf usef;[lusif;rSm &ifwpfckvHk; AavmifqloGm;\/ olu zef[dkqefU qdkoltm; ydkí
cifrifvm\/ trSefrl [lwef;*dkPf;rS eHygwfig; usef;acR;qef; aoqHk;oGm;cJhjcif;udk *dkPf;tzJGU toD;oD;rS
ESajrmwojzpfcJhMu\/ olwdkUawGajymaom pum;wGifvnf; ...
]]tif; ... 'Davmuf ,Ofaus;odrfarGUNyD; vdr®maumif;rGefwJh vlwpfa,mufu bmrS r[kwfwJh 'kp½dkuf
atmufvrf;*dkPf;u rdef;uav; wpfa,mufaMumifh emrnfqdk;eJU aocJh&w,f? olUtwGufeJU [lwef;*dkPf;
wpfckvHk;awmif emrnfqdk;cJh&w,f}} [k ajymavhajymx &SdcJhMu\/
usef;[lusif;rSm i,f&G,fao;aomfvnf; oluvlUt&dyftjcnfudk Munfhwwf\/ tuJzrf;wwf\/ olu
olUq&mbd;k bd;k bBuD;? OD;av;rsm;\ tajymtqdk avoHukd tuJ zrf;onfEiS hf olUrdciftay:tjypfwifaom oabmrsKd ;
ygaeonfudk odvdkuf\/ olUzcifu rdkufíom olUrdcifudk vufxyfrdovdkvdk? &dyfzrf;oHzrf;ajymMuonfudk
Mum;&onf r[kwfygvm;? xkdpOf wifrif;u ceJUNyHK;jzifh ...
]]usef;acR;qef;u rsufpduef;vdkU 'Dvdk o&Jwapä? ewfqdk;ewf,kwfawGudk udk;uG,f wJh 'kp½dkuf
atmufvrf;*dkPf;u rdef;reJU vufxyfvdkufrdawmh udk,fhtjypfeJU udk,fcHaygh? bmcsD;usL;p&m &SdvdkUvJ? olwdkU
[lwef;*dkPf;u bmrsm; ...}}
]]tpfr ...}}
usda&Smifrlu Mum;0if[efUvdkuf\/ xdktcg wifrif;u ...
]]eif pdwfcsaeyg? igcsefvd&Sefudk rykwfcwfygbl;}} [kajymNyD; zef[dkqefU\ nmbuf rsufvHk;udk "m;jzifh
csdefvdkuf\NyD;aemuf ...
]]&Siaf jymrvm; rajymbl;vm;? uRefru &Si&hf UJ nmbufrsufv;kH udk t&ifazmufr,f? NyD;&if b,fbufrsufv;kH ?
NyD;&if nmbufem;&Guf ? b,fbufem;&Guf ? 'gawmifrS &Sif rajymao;&if ESmacgif;udk xyfjzwfvdkufr,f?
ukefukefajym&if &Sifraoap&bl;? 'gayr,hf &Sifhudk,ft*FgawG wpfckNyD;wpfck avQmhoGm;&vdrfhr,f}}
wifrif;\"m;zsm;rSm wu,fyif zef[dkqefU\ nmbufrsufvHk;ESifh vufr0ufcefUom uGma0;\/
zef[dkqefUu rsufvHk;udk rrSdwf½Hkru jyL;pdkufMunfhNyD; wnfNidrfpGmjzifh ...
]]0gar*dP
k ;f &JU *dP
k ;f csKyfq&mBuD; rsufBuG,u
f ody&f ufpufBurf;MuKwfw,fqw
kd m owif;om Mum;zl;cJw
h ,f?
tckolUwynfh udkMunfh&ifyJ [kwfw,fqdkwm ajymEdkifygNyD? uJ wifrif; igzef[dkqefUu rif;wdkUvufxJ
a&mufaewJhaemufawmh rif;wdkUvufckyfxJu a&vdk BudKufovdk vkyfEdkifygw,f}} [kjyefajymav\xkdtcg wifrif;u
rsufvHk;jyL;í ...
]]&Sif ... uRefrwdkUq&mudk apmfum;0Hhovm;}} [k atmfar;NyD;vQif "m;zsm;udkyg a&SUodkU wdk;vdkufav\/
zef[q
kd efU\ nmbufrsuv
f ;kH um; uef;oGm;&SmavNyD? odUk aomf wifrif;u xdrk Qjzifh r&yfao;bJ zef[q
kd efU\
b,fbufrsufvHk;odkU "m;jzifh xkd;csdefvdkufjyef\/
271

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
zef[dkqefUum; &GHUaMumufroGm;onhftjyif w[m;[m; &,fíwifrif;tm; wpfvHk;wnf;omusefonfh
b,fbufrsufvHk;jzifh pdkufMunfhvdkufav\/ xdktcg wifrif;rSm MuufoD;xvm\/ olru ...
]]&Sif ... uRefrar;wmudk bmjzpfvdkU rajzao;wmvJ}} [k aMumufaMumuf&GH&GHjzifh ar;jyef\/
zef[dkqefUu ...
]]igwdUk a,musfm;awG[m bmyJvyk v
f yk f opömw&m;udk a&SUxm;w,f? 'DtaMumif;w&m;awGukd rif;vdk vlrsdK;udk
&Sif;jyvdkUvJ em;vnfrSm r[kwfbl;}}
wifrif;rSm ydkí xdwfvefUvm\ NyD;vQif zef[dkqefonf jyefvnfckcH&ef vHk;0 tiftm;r&Sdonfhwdkif ol\
trlt&mu vGefpGmwnfMunfNyD; rmausmausm jzpfaeao;onfudk awGUía'goxGufum olUtm;pdkufMunfhaeaom
b,fbufrsufvHk;udkyg xdk;azmufvdkuf&ef jyKav\/ odkUaomf usda&Smifrlu wifrif;\"m;zsm;udk olr\ "m;jzifh
umvdkufNyD; ...
]]tpfr 'Dvlu odyfacgif;rmawmh olUudk owfvdkUvJ taMumif;rxl;ygbl;}}
wifrif;u wpfcsufrJhvdkufNyD; ...
]]olu q&mhudk &ufpufMurf;MuKwfw,fvdkU ajymaewm eifrMum;zl;vm;? 'gaMumifh igu olUudk
&ufpufMurf;MuKwfjyvdkufwmaygh? 'Dvdk vlqdk; vlrdkufrsdK;awGudk 'DavmurS csefxm;cJh&if vlaumif;awGudk
trsm;BuD;'ku©ay;rSmyJuG,fh? 'Dawmh wpfa,mufawGU&if wpfa,muf&Sif;ypf? ukodkvfawmif&ao;w,f}} [k qdkav\/
usda&Smifrlu ...
]]'Dvlu a,musfm;yDoygw,f tpfr? olUudkvTwfvdkufygvm;}}
]]bmuG,fh ... 'Dr,f usda&Smifrl? tck a&Smifvif*dkPf;u OD;yOöif;ESpfyg;xJu wpfyg;[m olUvufcsufeJU
ysHvGefawmfrlNyD; wpfyg;uawmh 'Pf&m&oGm;NyD; cGef;vGef*dkPf;u aemifawmfESpfa,muf&JU 'Pf&mu ydkNyD;awmif
BuD;us,fao;w,f? 'Dawmh'DvdkaumifrsdK; udkrS wdkUu jyefNyD; r&ufpuf&if b,fvdkaumifrsdK;udk &ufpuf&rSmvJ?
igenf;enf;rS rauseyfbl; uJ[m ...}}
wifrif;u pum;tqHk;wGif zef[dkqefU\ b,fbufrsufvHk;udk xdk;azmufvdkufjyefonf/ odkUaomf
usda&Smifrlu olU"m;jzifh vsifjrefpGmumvdkufNyD;vQif ...
]]tpfr ... 'Dvlu vHk;0jyefNyD; ckcHEdkifwJh tiftm;r&Sdawmhygbl;? 'Dvdk tajctaersdK; rSm olUudkESdyfpuf&if
odik ;f avmu vlawG odomG ;wJw
h pfaeUrSm uRerf wdUk 0gar*dP
k ;f &JU emrnfou
d m© xdcu
kd rf mS aocsmw,f tpfr}} [kazsmif;zs
vdkuf\/ xdktcg wifrif;u ...
]][Jh usda&Smifrl ... pum;r&SnfeJU? eifab;z,faeprf; ighudpöudk eifMum;0ifajymaezdkU rvdkbl;}} [k
jyefatmfaigufav\/
]]tpfr ...}}
usda&Smifrlu wpfpHkwpf&m xyfajym&efjyKpOf wifrif;u ...
]]'Dr,f usda&Smifrl ? ighudk tpfrvdkU eifac:&if igajymwJhpum;udk eifem;axmif&r,f? aeygOD; ? rif;u
bmjzpfvdkU &efoltay: 'Davmuf apwemxm;ae&wmvJ ? bmvdkU Mum;0ifNyD; umqD;umqD; vkyfae&wmvJ}}
usda&Smifrlu bmjyefajym&rnfrSef; rodpOf wifrif;u "m;jzifhxdk;vdkufjyef\/ þwpfBudrfwGif wifrif;u
tm;udk oHk;qifhcefU ydkxkwfvdkuf\/ usda&Smifrlu rMunfh&ufojzifh rdrd"m;jzifh umvdkufjyef\/
xdktcg ]xef;}ceJ "m;tm;"m;csif; ½dkufcwfrdoHESifhtwl ESpfa,mufpvHk;yif aemufodkU ESpfvSrf;rQ
,dkifxGufoGm;NyD; ESpfa,mufpvHk;\vufarmif;rSmvnf; xHkusOfpGmcHpm;vdkuf&yg\/
wifrif;u a'goajcmif;ajcmif;xGufvsuf ...
]]usda&Smifrl igajymaewJhMum;u bmvdkU umqD;umqD; vkyfae&wmvJ ? bmoabmvJajymprf;}}
usda&Smifrlu avoHat;at;jzifh
uRef r oabmu ol U ud k aumif ; aumif ; rG e f r G e f ar;aph c sif w ,f ? tJ ' D v d k a r;&if ol U qD u tajz
&aumif;&vdrfhr,fvdkU xifw,f? 'gygyJ tpfr}

272

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
wifrif; ceJUNyHK; wpfcsufNyHK;í ...
]'Dr,f usda&Smifrl? rif;&JU oabmudk igrodbl;rsm;rSwfaeovm;? rif;udk,frif; jyefar;MunfhygOD;?
[lwef;*dkPf;u csifvd&Sef[m rif;eJU vufxyfzdkU udpöudk cPcP vmajymvsufeJU rif;u bmjzpfvdkU [dka&TU 'Da&TU
eJU a&Smifz,fae&wmvJ? bmjzpfvdkU rif;taz ukd,fwdkifvmajymwmawmif rif;u tdrfuae a&SmifxGufoGm;&wmvJ}}
usda&Smifrl u½kwfjcnf; rsufESmysufoGm;NyD; ...
]]nDrav;&JU udk,fa&;udk,fwm udpöu tck'DudpöeJU bmqdkvdkUvJ}}
wifrif;u ceJUNyHK; xyfrHNyHK;NyD; ...
]][if; ... rif; taMumif;udk igrodbl;rsm; rSwfaeovm;? tcktjyifvlawG &SdaevdkU igu rif;&JUtemudk
rqGcsifwmodvm;? rif;u vlom 0gar*dkPf;rSm &SdNyD; pdwfu [dk'kp½dkufatmufvrf;*dkPf;buf a&mufaewm}}
usda&Smifrl\ rsufESm jzLzyfjzLa&mf jzpfvmNyD; wkef,ifaomtoHjzifh ...
]]uRefru tpfrudk wu,fhtpfrt&if; wpfa,mufvdk av;pm;cJhw,f? tck tpfru bmjzpfvdkU uRefrudk
ykwfcwfwdkufcdkufae&wmvJ}}
wifrif;u ...
]]aumif;NyDav? rif;u igajymovdk 'kp½dkufatmufvrf;*dkPf;buf pdwfra&mufbl; qdk&if 'Dvl&JU
b,fbufrsufvHk;udk igha&SUwifxdk;azmufjy}}
usda&Smifrlu xdwfvefUoGm;NyD; ...
]]uRefru 'Dvdk&ufpufwJh tvkyfrsdK;udk rvkyfwwfbl;? tpfr u bmjzpfvdkU uRefr udk 'Dvdk twif;tusyf
vkyfcdkif;ae&wmvJ}}
]]rif; xdk;rvm;? rxdk;bl;vm;ajym? rif;rxdk;&if igurif;&JU taMumif;awGudk wpfck csif; zGifhajymvdkufr,f?
'gyJ}}
usda&Smifrl tcufBuHKoGm;\/ rSefonf/ olronf wpfpHkwpfckaom tjypfudk usL;vGefcJhrdonfhtvm;
wifrif;ESifh xdyfwdkuf rqkdif0Hhacs/ olru nifomaom avoHodkU ajymif;í ...
]]tpfr uRefrwdkUu *dkPf;wl nDtpfrawGyJ? wpfa,mufudk wpfa,muf cGifhvTwf ñSmwmoifhygw,f}}
wifrif;u ceJUNyHK; NyHK;NyD; ...
]]igu rif;udk odyfcufcJwJh tvkyfudk vkyfcdkif;aewmrS r[kwfwm? q&mu igwdkUudk &SufpGef;
b,frSmaew,fqdkwm pHkprf;cdkif;w,f? tck'Dvlu ayauG;csdK b,frSm &Sdw,fqdkwm odw,f? ayauG;csdKu vJyJ
&SufpGef; b,frSmaew,fqdkwmudk odEdkifw,f? tck rif;udk 'Dvl&JU b,fbufrsufvHk;udk xdk;azmufcdkif;wmu tJ'D
tajzudk &zdkUyJ r[kwfvm;? olUudk ppfaq;zdkUyJ r[kwfvm; usda&Smifrl}}
usda&Smifrlu avoHwdk;wdk;jzifh ...
]]uRefr ... uRefr pdwf"mwfu odyfaysmhw,f? tJvdk rvkyf&ufbl;tpfr}}
]]bm ... rif;pdw"mwf aysmhw,f [kwfvm;? q&mu rif;&JU "m;odkif; odyfjyif;xef &ufpufw,fvdkU tNrJvdkvdk
csD;usL;aewmyJ? rif;u q&meJU twlqHk;yJwJh? 'gaMumifh q&mu rif;udkom txl;tav;xm;NyD; odkif;ynmudk
oifay;cJhwmwJh? tckawmh rif;u b,fvdkjzpfvdkU pdwf"mwf aysmhoGm;&wmvJ}
usef;[lusif;onf tajctaetm;vHk;udk wdwfwqdwfacsmif;ajrmif; tuJcwfaecJh &mrS olUrdbESpfyg;
aoqH;k aomaeUwGif usad &Smifru
l olUtay: aumif;aumif; rGerf eG f qufqcH o
hJ jzifh usad &Smifrt
l ay:wGif tvdt
k avsmuf
cifrifaeav\/ aemufwpfaMumif; aomfvnf; usda&Smifrlonf olUOD;av; csifvd&Sef\ZeD;avmif;jzpfí ydkípdwfxJrS
&if;ESD;csif ae\/ ,ckwifrif;u usDa&Smifrltm; tusyfudkifcdkif;apaeonfudk awGUaomf olUpdwfxJrS tvdkvdk rcHcsd?
rcHom jzpfaecJh&yg\/ xdkpOf wifrif;u ...
]]nDrav;? igrif;udk ar;r,f? vGefcJhwJh oHk;ESpfavmufu q&mu*dkPf;ol*dkPf;om; tm;vHk;udk pka0;NyD;
q&mud,
k w
f ikd f wDxiG cf w
hJ hJ "m;odik ;f ESpu
f u
G f udk oifMum;ay;wke;f u rif;u bmjzpfvUkd ra&mufvm&wmvJ? tJ'w
D ek ;f u
rif;ra&mufvm&aumif; vm; qdNk yD; q&mu a'goxGuNf yD;awm "h m;udck sKd ;vdu
k w
f ,f? tJ'aD emuf q&mu "m;odik ;f uGuf
ESpfuGufudk wpfoufvHk; b,folrS roHk;&bl;vdkUajymcJhw,f}
usda&Smifrlu ...
273

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
tJ'Dwkef;u uRefr zsm;aevdkU rvmEdkifwmyg? tJ'Dudpöudk uRefr q&mhudk wifjyNyD;NyDbJ? bmjzpfvdkU tck
xyfar;ae&wmvJ}
]]'Dr,f usda&Smifrl tJ'Dudpt
ö wGuf q&mUudkom rif;nmvdkU& r,f? ighudkawmh wpfoufnmvdkU r&bl;rSwfyg?
uJ ... igrif;udk xyfar;r,f? 'gayr,fh rif;uom 'Dvl&JU b,fbuf rsufvHk;udk "m;eJU xdk;azmuf&ifawmh ig
rar;awmhbl;uG,f}}
usda&Smifrlu acgif;ikHUoGm;&Sm\/ vGefpGmpdwfqif;&J oGm;[efwlyg\/ olru toH wdk;wdk;jzifh ...
]]tpfr ... *dkPf;wl tcsif;csif; raxmufxm; rñSmwmawmhbl;vm;}}
]]usda&Smifrl igESpfcGef;yJ ar;r,f? "m;eJUxdk;rvm;? rxdk;bl;vm;}
]]tpfr pdwfcsyg? q&mu wu,fvdkU uRefrudk olUodkif;tarG ay;tyf&ifvJ uRefr uvufrcH&Jygbl;}}
wifrif; a'goydkxGufvmonf/
aMomf ... rif;u ? igu rif;udk 'DtwGufeJU remvdk jzpfaew,fvdkU qkdvdkwmayghav 'Dr,f igu rif;udk
b,fae&mrSm ½SHK;edrfhbl;vdkUvJ? rif;ay;rS igu & &rSmvm;? uJ ... Mum w,f? rif; olUudk"m;eJU tckxdk;rvm;
rxdk;bl;vm;}}
usda&Smifrlu rsuf&nf0Jvm\/
]]uRefrrSm tjypf&SdvdkU tpfru uRefrudk tjypfay;&if uRefrcH,lzdkU toifhygyJ? 'gayr,fh 'Dvdk tjyifvlawG
a&SUrSm uRefrudk EdkifxufpD;eif; twif;tusyf vkyfcdkif;wmudkawmh}}
usda&Smifru
l pum;ajym&if; toHwrd 0f ifomG ;&Sm\/ olr rsuf&nfus&SmNyD r[kwf vm;/ id&k mS NyD r[kwyf gvm;/
wifrif;u ceJUNyHK;NyHK;vsuf ...
]]at; ... rif;u tckrSvmNyD; idkjyraeygeJU tjyifyef;uom idkjyNyD; rif;pdwfxJrSm awmh ighudk b,favmufrsm;
used q
f aJ evJ rodb;l ? igajymr,f usad &Smifrl ? rif;vGecf w
hJ hJ oH;k ESpw
f ek ;f u use;f usKd ;e,frmS wu,f aeraumif;wmvm;?
[ifh ... 'grSr[kwf [dkoGm;NyD; uav;arG;wm r[kwfbl;vm;}}
usda&Smifrlonf wifrif;xHrS xdkpum;udk Mum;onfESifhtwl xdkifae&mrS vSpfceJ ajy;xGufoGm;av\/
wifrif;u usda&Smifrl ajy;vdrfhrnf[k BudKodxm;bdtvm; csufcsif;yif ajy;vdkufvmNyD; usda&Smifrl\ a&SUrS
wm;qD;vdkuf\/ olronf usda&Smifrl\ &if0odkU "m;jzifh xdk;csdef&if; cufxefaomtoHjzifh ...
]]rif; ck [dkvl&JU rsufvHk;udk azmufrvm; razmufbl;vm; razmuf&if rif;taMumif; udk tjyifvlawGa&SUrSm
zGifhcs&OD;r,f}}
usda&Smifrlu &Sufvnf;&Suf? a'govnf; xGufum ...
]]uRefrudk rwm;ygeJU? oGm;yg&ap}}
odkUaomf wifrif;u "m;udk r½kyf/ wm;qD;xm;vsufrS ...
]]igar;r,f? rif;u [dkuav;udkb,frSm auR;arG;xm;ovJ? rif;u [lwef;*dkPf;u csifvd&SefeJU ZeD;avmif;
jzpf&ufeJU bmvdkU tjcm;vlwpfa,mufeJU azmufjyefcJh&wmvJ}}
xdkpum;aMumifh tm;vHk; wkefvSKyfoGm;Mu\/
usef;[lusif;\ pdwfxJwGif wGifvnf; awGa0 aemufusoGm;onf/
]]a':av; usda&Smifrlu vlaumif;yg? oluOD;av; csefvd&Seftay: opömrJhrSm r[kwfygbl;}}
trSefrl usef;[lusif;onf touf wpfq,fhoHk;ESpfrQ om&Sdao;í vlUavmu&Sd vlom; a,musfm; ?
rdef;rwdkU\ pdwfaeoabmxm;rsm;udk rod&Sdao;acs/ odkUaomf vlBuD; rsm;jzpfMuukefaom csef&DESifh zef[dkqefUwdkUurl
wifrif;\ pum;aMumifh tHMh oaerdMuav\/ usda&Smifr\
l rsufEmS wGiv
f nf; aoG;r&Sad wmh / olronf xd;k csdex
f m;aom
wifrif;\ "m;udk z,f&Sm;NyD; a&SUodkUom twif;ajy;&ef jyKav\/
odkUaomf wifrif;u rñSm/ usda&Smifrltm; wu,fyif "m;jzifh xdk;csvdkufonf/ usda&Smifrlum; &if0odkU
"m;rpdkufatmifrenf;yif a&Smifwdrf;vdkuf&m vufarmif;wGif "m;'Pf&m tjyif;txef &oGm;&Smav\/
þwpfBudrfwGifrl usda&Smifrlonf qufvuf onf;cHEdkifpGrf;r&Sdawmh /
olru "m;udk cRef;ceJ qJGxkwfNyD; wifrif;tm; &ifqdkifvdkufavawmh\/
274

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]'DrSm tpfr ? uRefrudk tckvdk EdkifxufpD;eif; twif;tusyfvkyfaewJh aemufawmh uRefrqufNyD;
onf;rcHEdkifawmhbl;}
wifrif;u þaeU þ&ufwGif usda&Smifrl\ vQdKU0Sufcsufudk azmfxkwf vdkufrdojzifh usda&Smifrlu rdrdtm;
owfNyD; ESKwfydwfvdrfhrnf[k xifum csufcsif;yif usda&Smifrl\ 0rf;AdkufodkU "m;jzifh xdk;csvdkufav\/
xd k t cgusd a &S m if r l u nmvuf a rmif ; wG i f ' Pf & m &xm;ojzif h b,f v uf j zif h wif r if ; \ "m;ud k
zrf ; ud k i f x m;vd k u f & av\/ xd k t csd e f r S p í *d k P f ; wl n D t pf r ES p f O D ; onf tcsif ; csif ; yif jzpf v if h u pm;
olwpfjyefudk,fwpfjyef tonf;,m;zG,f wdkufcdkufMuavawmhonf/
eHab;rS vlrsm;onf 'Pf&mud,
k pf D &xm;Muojzifh olwUkd tm;0ifa&muf jzefajzEdik f jcif; r&Sb
d J *dP
k ;f wlnt
D pfr
ESpfa,mufoJoJrJrJ wdkufcdkuf aeMuonfudkom Munfh½HkrQ MunfhaeEdkifMuav\/ odkUjzifh Munfh&if;rSvnf; olwdkU\
pdwfxJwGif ...
]]0gar*dkPf;&JU odkif;uGufu wu,fhudk jyif;xef &ufpufwmyJudk;}} [k aumufcsuf csrdMu\/
usda&Smifro
l nf wdu
k &f if;cdu
k &f if; olr\ nmbufvufarmif;wGif 'Pf&m&xm;ojzifh aoG;rsm; tvsOfrjywf
pD;usae\ xdkUaMumifh "m;udk b,fbufvufodkU ajymif;udkif xm;&aomaMumifh wdkufuGufu roGufvufvSay/
wjznf;jznf;ESifh usda&Smifrl\ ajcvSrf;rsm;yg ,drf;,dkifvmav\/ xdkUjyifolr\ tusÐrSmvnf; aoG;rsm;jzifh
eD&J&TJepfaeav\/ xdkpOf nmrsufvHk;wpfbuf uef;oGm;&Smaom zef[dkqefUu ...
]]usda&Smifrl ... cifAsm;usKyf&JU b,fbufrsufvHk;udk xdk;azmufvdkufyg? usKyfzef[dkqefUu cifAsm;udk wpfouf
aus;Zl;rarhygbl;}}
trSefpifppf zef[dkqefUonf usda&Smifrlwpfa,muf toufudkyif rmerxm;bJ rdrdudk umuG,fvsuf
&Sdaeonfudk awGU&ojzifh raeEdkifrxdkifEkdifjzpfum atmfajymvdkufjcif;yif jzpfyg\/
wifrif;url olwdkU *dkPf;wl nDtpfrESpfOD; wpfa,mufudk wpfa,muf rsufESmysufMu&NyD jzpfíusda&Smifrltm;
tjywftowf &Sif;ypf&efom pdwful;xm;\/ zef[dkqefUonf wifrif;\ "m;uGufrsm; wjznf;jznf; jyif;xef
&ufpufvmonfudk jrifaomf rcHcsdrcHom atmfajymjyefonf/
]]t&Surf &Sw
d hJ rde;f r? 'gaMumifh rif;udk odik ;f avmuu vlawGu bDv;l r wifrif; vdUk ac:MuwmyJ? wu,fu
h kd
a>ra[mufxufawmif tusnf;wefao;w,f? 'DavmurSm rdef;rawGtm;vHk;om t½kyfqdk; tusnf;wefae&if igwdkU
a,musmf;awG tm;vHk; bkef;BuD; yJ0wfvdkufMurSm aocsmw,f}}
trSefrl wifrif;onf ½kyf&nfrqdk;vSygacs/ odkUaomf zef[dkqefUu rdef;rom;awG\ pdwfaeoabmxm;udk
odí wrifrcHcsif vmatmif wpfjym;rwef ajymvdu
k jf cif;yif jzpfyg\/ wifrif;onf xko
d Ukd ykwcf wf ½SKwfcsc&H avaomf
tonf;qwfqwfwkefatmif emusifcHcufoGm;av\/ pifppf zef[dkqefUonf xdkodkU wifrif;tm; a'go
xGufvmatmif jyKjcif;rSmrdrdbufodkU wrifjrm;OD; jyefvSnhfvmatmif y&d,m,fqifvdkufjcif;yif jzpf\/ rdrdbufodkU
wifrif;tm½HkpdkufNyD; wdkufcdkufvmrSom usda&Smifrl wpfa,muf xGufajy; vGwfajrmufEdkifrnf r[kwfygvm;/
odkUaomfwifrif;uvnf; OmPfrsm; oljzpf\/ olrpdwfxJwGif ...
]]igusda&Smifrludk owfNyD;rS 'if;udk owfr,f? 'if; b,fajy;rvJ }} [k Budrf;0g;vdkuf\/
xdkpOf zef[dkqefUu qufíqdk\/
]]usda&Smifrlu b,favmuf aumif;rGefjrifhjrwfw,f qdkwm odkif;avmuuvlawG tm;vHk; odMuw,f?
[if; ... bDvl;r wifrif;uawmh t&Sufudk r&Sdbl;? udk,fhudk,fudk t[kwfrSwfNyD; [lwef;*dkPf;u csifvd&Sefudk
oGm;jrLqG,fw,f? csifvd&Sefvdk ajzmifhrwfrSef uefwJh vlu rif;vdk rdef;r,kwfrsdK;udk b,fta&;pdkufyghrvJ? 'geJUyJ
rif;u usda&Smifrludk vkyfBuHzdkU pdwful;wmayghav? [m; [m; [m; ... rif;udk,frif; jyefMunfhprf;? yg;½dk;u aigaig?
yg;pyfu bDv;l r yg;pyfukd NyJNyJ? tom;uvJ a&m*gonfr wpfa,muf&UJ tom;vdk 0gxdex
f ed f ? vluvJ 0g;jcrf;jym;vdk
ydefuyfuyf añSmifememeJU ? [m; [m; ? 'Dvdk bJacgif;ajcmufvdk t½kyfqdk; tusnf;wefwJh rdef;rrsdK;udk ½kyf&nfacsmarm
cefUnm;wJh csifvd&Sefu tdyfrufxJawmif xnfhrrufbl;uG? a0;ygao;&JU? olu rif;udk awGU&ifawmif o&J
ajcmufcH&w,fvdkU xifaerSmuGodvm;? rif;udk,frif; taotcsm jyefMunfhygOD;uGm? 'geJUrsm;awmif olrsm;udk
rqifrjcif rsufpypfjyao;owJh? [m; [m; [m; }
275

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
wifrif;onf xkdpum;aMumifh a'goudk rcsKyfwnf;Edkifjzpfum ½kwfw&uf usda&Smifrl\ "m;atmufrS
ckefxGufNyD; zef[dkqefU\ yg;pyfudk "m;jzifh xdk;vdkufav\/
trSefrl wifrif;onf yg;½dk;tenf;i,fjrifhNyD; yg;pyfuvnf; enf;enf;om us,f\/ tom;vnf; odyfrjzL
vSygay/ aemufNyD; udk,fvHk;uvnf; oG,fvsvs ESifhyif jzpfyg\/ þrodromaom cRwf,Gif;csufuav;udk
wjcm;olrsm; taejzifh ½kwfw&uf jrifwwf&ef rvG,fyg/ odkUaomf zef[dkqefUrSm rsufvHk;tMunfhvGefpGm pl;&S
xufjrufNyD; wpfBudrfjrifzl;aom ½kyf&nfudkyif wpfoufwmvHk;pJGNrJpGm trSwfw&aewwfol jzpfav\/
,ckvnf; olu wifrif; rcHcsifatmif wifrif;\ rjzpfpavmufaom ½kyf&nf cRwf ,Gif;csuf
tpteuav;rsm;udk wrif yHkBuD;csJUí azmfxkwfykwfcwfvdkuf&m wifrif;rSm a'goajcmif;ajcmif; xGufvm&awmh\/
NyD;vQif wifrif;onf [lwef;*dkPf;rS csifvd&Seftm; wdwfwcdk; tHkUykef;cspf cspfaecJhonfrSm rSefaomfvnf; zef[dk
qefUajymjyouJhodkU rsufpypfjycJhzl;jcif; r&Sdygay/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap wifrif;onf zef[dkqefU\ pum;aMumifh a'go
BuD;pGmxGufvsuf "m;jzifh zef[dkqefU\ yg;pyfodkU xdk;vdkufav\/ odkUxdk;vdkufpOf ½kwfw&uf awmtkyfxJrS
vlwpfa,mufu vQyfwpfjyuf ckefxGufvmNyD; zef[dkqefU\ a&SUrS umqD;vdkufav\/
wifrif;vnf; "m;udk r½kyfodrf;Edkifjzpfum xdkvl\ &ifbwfudk wtm;xdk;pdkufcs vdkufav\/
wpfcsdefwnf;rSmyif xdkvl\ vuf0g;apmif;u wifrif;\ &ifbwfodkU t&Sdefjyif;pGm ½dkufcsvdkuf\ xdktcg
wifrif;rSmvnf; vGifhxGufoGm;NyD; aoG;tefusoGm;av\/ xdkvl\ &ifbwfwGif vnf; wifrif;\"m;u pdkufvsuf
wef;vef;? xdkvlum; toufr&SifEdkifawmhyg/ xdkpOf cGefvGef*dkPf;rS 'Pf&m&xm;aom vlESpfa,mufu
tvefUwMum;jzifh atmfvdkuf av\/
]]ayauG;csdK? ayauG;csdK ygvm;}}
rSefygonf/ zef[dkqefUa&SUrS ½kwfw&uf0ifí wifrif;\"m;udk umqD;vdkufolrSm rsufcHk;jzL*dkPf;rS
ayauG;csdKyif jzpfyg\/ trSefrl ayauG;csdKonf 0gar? cGef;vGefpaom *dkPf;om;rsm;u olUudk 0dkif;0ef;wdkufcdkufojzifh
'Pf&m tjyif;txef&cJ\
h / xdt
k csdew
f iG f zef[q
kd efUu olUtm; 0ifa&mufu,fwifNyD; ESpOf ;D twl xGuaf jy;vmcJMh u\/
þawmtkyfodkU a&mufcsdefwGifrl zef[dkqefUu 'Pf&m&xm;aom ayauG;csdKtm; 0Sufxm;NyD; aemufrSvdkufvmaom
olrsm;ESifh xGufíwpfOD;wnf; &ifqdkifwdkufcdkufcJh av\/
,ckaemufqHk;wGifrl zef[dkqefUtm; wifrif;u "m;jzifh taoxdk;&ef jyKvdkufonfh tcsdefwGif ayauG;csdKu
rMunfh&ufawmh ½kwfw&uf ckefxGufNyD; Mum;0if umuG,fvdkufjcif; jzpfyg\/odkUjzifh ayauG;csdKonf
wifrif;\"m;csufjzifh toufxGufvkvktcsdefwGif tm;ukefxkwfí ½dkufvdkuf&m wifrif;rSm 'Pf&mtjyif;txef
&oGm;avonf/
xdktcsdefwGif usda&Smifrlonf vufarmif;'Pf&mudk aq;xnfhNyD; ydwfpjzifh csnf aESmifvdkuf\/ NyD;vQif
zef[q
kd efU\ ajcESiv
hf ufwiG f csnfaESmifxm;aom BudK;ud"k m;jzifh jzwfypfvu
kd af v\/ xdUk aemuf wGirf l usda&Smifro
l nf
pum;wpfcGef;rQyif rajymawmhbJ xdkae&mrS avQmufxGufoGm;av\/ xdktcg zef[dkqefUu ...
]]usda&Smifr?l cifAsm;udk usKyf aus;Zl;wifpum; ajymyg&apOD;}[k ajymNyD; ajrBuD; ay:odUk ay:rS "m;wpfacsmif;udk
qwfceJ aumuf,lvdkuf\/
xdkpOf usda&Smifrlu zswfceJ vSnfhvmNyD; wifrif;tm; vufñdk;xdk;í ...
]]olu uRefr&JU*dkPf;wl tpfryg? olUudk bmrS rvkyfygeJU&Sif}}
zef[dkqefUu ...
]]'Dtajctae a&mufawmhrSolUudk owfrypf&if rdef;uav; twGuf aemufydkif; 'ku© a&muf&vdrfhr,f}}
xdktcg usda&Smifrlu rsuf&nfpD;usvm\/ ESKwfrSvnf; aMuuJG0rf;enf;oHjzifh qdk onf/
]]'DavmurSm uRefr uHtqdk;qHk;yg&Sif ? rwwfEdkifbl;av? uHpDrH&myJaygh? 'gayr,fh uRefr&JU*dkPf;wl
tpfrudkawmh xdcdkufemusifatmif rvkyfygeJU&Sif}}
]]aumif;NyDav? rdef;uav;&JU pum;udk usKyfwpfoa0rwdrf;em;axmif&rSmaygh}}
udka&Smifrlu toHwdk;wdk;jzifh wifrif;tm; ...
]]tpfr uRefr oGm;awmhr,f}} [k ajymNyD;vQif awmtkyftwGif;rS avQmufxGufoGm; av\/
276

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
zef[dkqefUu usda&Smifrl awmtkyfxJrS xGufoGm;onfESifh "m;udk udkifNyD; ajray:wGif 'Pf&mtemw& &um
vSJavsmif;aeaom cGef;vGef*dkPf;? [dkifqm;*dkPf;? a&Smifvif*dkPf;rS vlrsm;udkMunfhvsuf ...
]]igzef[dkqefUu rif;wdkUeJU bm&efñdk; rSr&Sdbl;? 'gayr,fh awmif wifrif;qdkwJh t&Sufr&SdwJh rdef;ru
usad &Smifru
l kd rw&m;ykwcf wfajymvdu
k w
f mudk rif;wdUk em;eJU qwf qwf Mum;oGm;Muw,f? wu,fvUkd 'Dr[kww
f ,kwf
owif ; ud k rif ; wd k U u od k i f ; avmuxJ rS jzef U usuf v d k u f & if usd a &S m if r l c rsm wpf o uf v H k ; t&S u f w uJ G
tusdK;enf;jzpf&awmhr,f? 'gaMumifh rif;wdUk udk ig b,fvrkd S &efñ;kd &efpr&Sad omfvyJ J vlUavmuxJrmS touf&iS v
f suf
csefxm;vdkU rjzpfawmhbl;? 'Dawmh ...}}
zef[dkqefUonf ajymajymqdkqdk xdkvlrsm;tm; olUvufxJrS"m;jzifh tqHk;pD&ifvdkuf avawmh\/ aemufqHk;
wifrif;a&SUodkUa&mufaomftcg olu wifrif;tm; tqHk;pD&if jcif; rjyKaomfvnf; rsufESmay:wGif "m;jzifh
Muufajccwfypfvdkufav\/wifrif;rSm emusifcH cufvGef;ojzifh arhoGm;rwwf cHpm;vdkuf&av\/ xdktcsdefwGif
wifrif;rSm 'Pf&mjyif; xefpGm &xm;ojzifh rnfodkUrQ a&Smifwdrf;Edkifjcif;r&Sdacs/ yg;pyfrSom ...
]]&Sif ... &Sif 'Davmuf r,kwrf mygeJU? uRefrudk wpfcgwnf; owfcsifowfvu
kd }f } [k atmf[pfajymvdu
k af v\/
zef[dkqefUu w[m;[m;&,f&if; ...
]]rif;vdk o&JobufeJUwlwJh rdef;rudk ig rowf&ufygbl;uGm awmfMumrif;u i&J jynfa&mufoGm;vdkU
i&Jjynfu i&Jwapä awGtm;vH;k rif;&JU½ky&f nfukd awGUvdUk aMumufvefU NyD; vlUjynfukd jyefajy;vm&if igwdUk vlUjynfBuD;
uaomif;ueif; jzpfukefygOD;r,f}}
olu ajymNyD; [m;wdkuf&,farmvdkuf\/ NyD;vQif ... "m;udk ypfcsum ayauG;csdK\ tavmif;udk
zufíidkaBuG;av\/ NyD;aemuf tavmif;udk ayGUcsDum awmtkyfxJrS xGufcGmoGm;av\/
wifrif;rSmvnf; emusifrSKudk twefMumatmif cHpm;ae&NyD;rS "m;udk aumufí ,dkifxdk;,dkifxdk;jzifh
awmtkyfxJrS xGufcGmoGm;avawmhonf/ þrQ &ufpufNyD; vGefpGm aMumufrufzG,f aumif;aom awmtkyf
wdkufyJGBuD;udk csef&DESifh usef;[lusif;wdkUESpfa,muf pvHk; tprStqHk;wdkif rsuf0g;xifxif jrifvdkufMu&\ aemufqHk;
wifrif;u awmtkyfxJrS xGufcGmoGm;rSyif olwdkU ESpfOD;vnf; oufjyif;csEdkifavawmh\/ usef;[lusif;u ...
]]tpfudkBuD; [dk ... usda&Smifrlu uRefawmfh *dkPf;wl OD;av;csifvd&Sef&JU ZeD;avmif; ygyJ? wifrif;qdkwJh
rdef;r ajymawmh a':av;usda&Smifrl[m olrsm;eJU uav;&cJhw,fqdkyJ? tJ'g [kwfovm;[if tpfudkBuD;}}
csef&Du ...
]]wifrif;qdkwJh rdef;ru awGUu&m avQmufajymwmyg? olUpum;udk r,HkygeJU}}
]][kwfw,faemf? aemufwpfcg uRefawmfOD;av; csifvd&SefeJU awGU&if wifrif;udk aumif;aumif;
qHk;rcdkif;vkduf&OD;r,f? 'grS a':av; usda&Smifrl auseyfrSmAs}}
xdktcg csef&D u tvsifpvdkjzifh ...
]]rajymeJU ... rajymeJU ? 'Dupd u
ö kd rif;OD;av; csifv&d eS u
f kd b,fawmhrS rajymjyygeJU rif;om ajymjyvdu
k &f ifawmh
'ku©yJuG}}
]]bmjzpfvdkUvJ tpfudkBuD;}}
]]'Dvdk em;axmifvdkU raumif;wJh owif;udk rif;b,folUudkrS rajym&bl;aemf}}
usef;[lusif;u ...
]][kwfuJ}}h [k wpfcGef;ajymNyD;vsif qufí ]]tpfudkBuD;u 'Dowif; rSefaerSmpdk;vdkU rajymapcsifwmvm;[if}}
[k csef&Dtm; ar;jyef\/
csef&Du oufjyif;csNyD; ...
]]igvJ rajymwwfawmhygbl;uGm}} [k nnf;wGm;NyD; pum;udk tqHk;owfvdkuf&av\/
aemufwpfaeU rdk;vif;vQif vif;csif;yif csef&Donf usef;[lusif;udk ayGUcsDí awmifay:odkU wufvmav\/
rMumrDyif olwdkUonf awmifxdyfem;&Sd awmtkyfav; wpfckxJrS wJtdrfav; wpfvHk;udk awGUvdkuf&\/
csef&Donf usef;[lusif;tm; wJjyifwGifxm;NyD; olurl wJtdrf uav;xJodkU 0ifvdkufonf/ xdktcg tdrfuav;xJrS
q,fESpfausmfcefU&Sd vli,fwpfa,mufudk awGU&NyD; olu orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;ESifh awGUvdkaMumif; ajymjy avonf/
ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif xdt
k rd u
f av;xJrS orm;awmfBuD; [dck sif; xGuv
f mav\/ [dck sif;\ ½ky&f nfrmS rl bmrQ xl;jcm;jcif;
277

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
r&Sd/ omref vlwpfa,mufvdkyif jzpf\/[dkcsif;onf csef&Dudk jrifaomf ESKwfqufpum;qdkav\/ NyD;vQif csef&Du
usef;[lusif;tm; vufñdk;xkd;jyNyD; olu orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;ESifh awGUvdkaMumif;ajymjyavonf/
ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif xdktdrfuav;xJrS orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif; xGufvmav\/ [dkcsif;\ ½kyf&nfrSmrl bmrQ
xl;jcm;jcif; r&Sd/ omref vlwpfa,mufvdkyif jzpf\/ [dkcsif;onf csef&Dudk jrifaomf ESKwfqufpum; qdkav\/
NyD;vQif csef&Du usef;[lusif;tm; vufñdk;xdk;jyNyD; a&m*gukoay;&ef pwif ajymavawmh\/
orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;u usef;[lusif;tm; wpfcsufrQ tuJcwfMunfhNyD; ...
]]olu b,f*dkPf;uvJ}} [kar;av\/
csef&Du wpfcsuf awGa0oGm;NyD;aemuf tm;wif;í ...
]][lwef;*dkPf;uyg}} [k qdkav\/
[lwef;*dkPf;u[k Mum;aomf orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif; wpfcsufrQ aMumifoGm;NyD; ...
\]]olu [lwef;*dP
k ;f u [kwv
f m;? 'Dvq
kd &kd if olUudk ighqD bmvkyaf c:vmovJ? bmvkyrf mS vJ}} [k qdo
k nf/
xdktcgusrSyif csef&Du olonf rGef*dkrsm;udk awmfvSefykefuefcJhaom olykefacgif; aqmif csL&if;a[mif\
om;av;ESifh orD;av;udk umuG,f apmifha&Smuf&if; xGufajy;vm pOf rGef*dkrsm;ESifh vrf;ckvyfwGif yufyif;qHkNyD;
ckcw
H u
kd cf u
kd cf &hJ yHEk iS w
hf uG aemufq;kH [lwef;*dP
k ;f csKyf usef;qef;zke;f u olwUkd tm; 0ifa&muf u,fwifomG ;aomaMumifh
touf ab;rS vGwfajrmufcJh&yHkrsm;udk yg orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;tm; ajymjyvdkufav\/ xdkUaemuf wGifolu ...
]]uRefawmfhtay:rSm tJ'Dvdk q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;&JU aus;Zl;&SdcJhygw,f bBuD;? 'gaMumifhrdkUvdkU olUajr;av;
jzpfwhJ 'Duav;av;&JU a&m*ga0'emudk bBuD;u jcGi;f csuf taeeJU ukoay;zdUk bBuD;udk uRefawmf awmif;yefygw,f}}
[k qdkav\/
orm;awmfBuD;[dkcsif;u at;pufpGmjzifh ...
]]rif;u w,f oabmxm;BuD;ygvm;? usef;qef;zkef; u,fwmu rif;udk u,fwmyJ ighudkrS r[kwfwm?
igu bmjzpfvdkU ighpnf;rsOf;udkzsufNyD; 'Duav;udk u,f&rSmvJ}} [k jyefajymav\/
xdktcg csef&Du 'l;axmufí OD;cs uefawmh&if; ...
]]bBuD;? 'Duav;&JU tazu oli,fcsif; rdwfaqG tay: opömrazmufcsifvdkU olU udk,fol taocHcJhwJh
wu,fh ol&Jaumif;wpfOD;yg}} [k qdk\/
[dkcsif;u ceJUNyHK;jzifh ...
]]'geJUyJ igu olUudk ukoay;&awmhrSmvm;uG}}
csef&Du qufí ...
]]NyD;awmh olUtaruvJ rsucf ;kH jzL *dP
k ;f csKyfBuD;&JU orD;ygyJ? 'Dawmh olvJ uReaf wmfwUkd *dP
k ;f &JUaoG; ygw,fvUkd
qdk&rSmaygh}}
orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;u xdkpum;udkMum;aomf pdwftenf;i,f ajymif;oGm;\/
]]aMomfvufpowfawmh 'Dvdkudk;? uJ ... rif; rwfwyf&yfvdkuf prf;uGm 'Duav;u rsufcHk;jzL*dkPf;u
csifwl;wl;&JU uav;udk; 'Dvdkqdk&if ig pOf;pm;&r,faygh}}
xdkUaemuf usef;[lusif;tem;odkU avQmufoGm;NyD; ...
]]vlav;? ighrSm pnf;rsOf;wpfck &Sdw,f? tJ'gu bmvJqdkawmh igu igwdkU *dkPf;0if awGrS wpfyg;
rukoay;bl;qdkwJh pnf;rsOf;yJuG,fh? 'gayr,hf uav;u igwdkU&JU *dkPf;0if tquftEG,f wpfa,mufqdkawmh
rif;udk igukay;yghr,f? 'gayr,fh rif;u ighukd uwdwpfck ay;&r,f? rif;&JUa&m*g a0'emaysmufuif;oGm;wJh wpfaeUrSm
rif;u rif;tar&JU tazjzpfwJh rsufcHk;jzL *dkPf;csKyfBuD;qDudkoGm;&r,f? rsufcHk;jzL *dkPf;xJudk 0if&r,f [lwef;
*dkPf;om; vHk;0rvkyf&awmhbl;}}
usef;[lusif; jyefrajzrD csef&Du ...
]]bBuD; 'Dvdkawmh rjzpfbl;? q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;u tpuwnf;u taotcsm ajymoGm;wmAs ?
'Duav;udk b,fenf;eJUrS uRefawmfwdkU *dkPf;xJ r0ifap&bl;wJh wu,fvdkU 'Duav;&JU a&m*gudk ukovdkU
aysmufuif;oGm;&ifvJyJ [lwef;*dkPf;u uRefawmfwdkU *dkPf;tay: bmaus;Zl;rS wifp&mrvdkbl;wJh}}
[dkcsif;u xdkpum;udkMum;aomf vGefpGma'goxGufoGm;[ef wl\/ olu atmfí ...
278

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
]]bmuG ? usef;qef;zkef;u bmrdkUvdkUvJ? [if ... ighudk txifao;wJh yHk&wJhaemuf awmh 'Duav;udk igu
bmjzpfvdkU ukay;&rSmvJ}}
usef;[lusif;onf rdrd\ udk,fwGif;t*FgxJodkUwdkif tat;"mwftqdyfrsm; ysHUESHU 0ifa&mufvsuf&SdNyDjzpfí
q&mbdk;bdk; ru,fEdkifawmhaMumif; od\/ xdkUaMumifh rdrdtoufrSm þorm;awmfBuD;\ tqHk;tjzwfay:wGifom
wnfaMumif; em;vnf\/ odkUaomf q&mbdk;bdk;u rdrdtm; twefwef rSmMum;cJhaom pum;udkrl jyefvnf
Mum;a,mifvsuf yif &Sad eav\/ rdr\
d q&mbd;k bd;k u þ'kp½du
k f atmufvrf;*dP
k ;f xJoUkd r0if&/ þodUk *dP
k ;f rsKd ;xJoUkd
0ifvQif wpfoufvHk; ysufpD;qHk;yg;vdrfhrnf[k qdkcJhonf r[kwfygvm;/ odkUaomf usef;[lusif;onf þ*dkPf;xJ
0ifjcif;jzifh b,fenf;b,fyHk ysufpD;rnf[laom tcsufudkrl vHk;0rodacs/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap olonf q&mbdk;bdk;tm;
vGefpGm½dkaoav;pm;ay&m q&mbdk;bdk;\ pum;udkrl ajr0,frus em;axmif&rnf[k odxm;av\/ xdkUaMumifh
olUpdwfxJwGif ...
]]'D orm;awmf [dkcsif;u ighudk rukay;vdkU ighwpfudk,fvHk; tqdyfwufNyD; aocsifaoygap? ighq&m
bdk;bdk;&JUpum;udkawmh igvGefqefvdkU rjzpfbl;}} [ka&&Gwfvdkufrd\/
odkUjzifh olu toHudkjr§ifhí ...
]]q&mBuD; ? uRefawmhfararu rsufcHk;jzL *dkPf;uyg? 'gayr,fh uRefawmfu uRefawmfh&JU q&m bdk;bdk;udk
uwday;xm;ygw,f? 'Dvkd *dP
k ;f rsdK;xJukd *dP
k ;f om;tjzpf b,fawmhrS r0ifygbl;vdUk ? 'gaMumifh uRefawmfuwdysufvUkd
rjzpfygbl;? q&mBuD;u uRefawmfhudk rukEdkif&ifvJ uRefawmfbmrS rwwfEdkifygbl;? wu,fvdkU uRefawmf ao&rSm
udkaMumufNyD; udk,fhuwd udk,fzsufNyD; q&mBuD;&JU pum;udk em;axmifcJh&if q&mBuD; uRefawmfhudk ukvdkU
aysmufoGm;w,fyJxm;OD; ? 'DavmurSm uwdrwnf toHk;ruswJh vl wpfa,muf wdk;vm½HkyJ &SdrSmaygh?
bmtusdK;&SdawmhrSmvJ}}

279

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif

e*g;Edkif"m;

tcef;(33)
aq;ynm
orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif;tm; pdkufMunfh&if; ceJUNyHK;wpfcsuf NyHK;vdkuf\/ NyD;vQif ...
]]tif; ...'Doil ,fav;u tawmf avoHjrifah eygovm;? 'g[m olwrifoufouf vlprG ;f aumif;[efaqmifNyD;
vkyfaewmyJ jzpf&r,f? 'gayr,fh iguolUudk wu,fhudk rukay;bJae&if 'Doli,f igh'l;udk vmzufNyD; ighudk
r&Sdcdk;bJaeEdkifrSm r[kwfbl;}} [k pOf;pm; aeav\/
odkUjzifh [dkcsif;u ...
]]'Dr,f csef&D/ olUq&m bdk;bdk;u olUudk igwdkU*dkPf;xJ r0ifapcsifwJh aemufawmh 'Duav;udk rif;tck
csufcsif; jyefac:xkwfoGm;ayawmh? ig [dkcsif;&JU tdrfxJrSm vlao r&Sd&bl;uG}} [k qdkav\/
csef&Donf olUbBuD;\ pdwfaeoabmxm;udk aumif;pGm od\/ olUbBuD; [dkcsif; onf ajymNyD;pum;udk
rnfonfh tcgrQ jyef½kyfodrf;wwfol r[kwfay/ xdkUaMumifh olu usef;[lusif;bufodkU vSnfhí ...
]]usef;[lusif; rif;araruvJ rsufcHk;jzL*dkPf;uyJ? rif;'D rsufcHk;jzL*dkPf;xJudk 0if&if rif;&JUbdk;bdk;u bmrS
ajymrSmr[kwfygbl;}} [k qdkav\/ xdktcg usef;[lusif;u ...
]]aumif ; NyD tpf u d k B uD ; uRef a wmf h a emuf a usm eH ½ d k ; q,f a csmif ; &J U tzsm;yd k i f ; ud k vuf q pf e J U
wpfcsufacgufvdkufyg}}
csef&Du usef;[lusif;ajymonfhtwdkif; tvsiftjrefvkyfvdkuf\/ ½kwfjcnf;qdkovdkyif usef;[lusif;\
ajcvufrsm; taMumydwfae&mrS ajyoGm;av\/vSKyf&Sm;vmEdkifonf ESifhtwl usef;[lusif;u jzKef;ceJ rwfwwf
x&yfNyD; ...
]]tpfudkBuD;&JU wm0efausygw,f? uRefawmfh q&mbdk;bdk;u tpfudkBuD;udk tjypfrwifygbl;? udkif; ...
uRefawmfjyefawmhr,f}}
280

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
usef;[lusif;u xdkrQomajymNyD; xdkwJi,fuav;xJrS wnfNidrfpGm vSrf;xGufoGm;av\/ csef&Du
tvefUwMum; trlt&mjzifh ...
]]rif; b,foGm;rvdkUvJ usef;[lusif;}} [k vSrf;ar;onf/
usef;[lusif;u vSnfhrMunfhbJ ...
]]uRefawmfom 'Dvdyfjymukef;rSm aooGm;cJh&if vdyfjymukef;orm;awmfBuD;&JU emrnf *kPfodu©m
xdcdkufoGm;rSmaygh}}
,if;odkUajymNyD; usef;[lusif;onf cyfrSefrSef avQmufvSrf;ae&mrS wpf[kefxdk; ajy; xGufoGm;avawmh\/
[dkcsif;u usef;[lusif;tm; vSrf;Munfh&if; ceJUNyHK;NyHK;vsuf ...
]]igh vdyfjymukef;&JU tjyifbufrSm aowJh tavmif;u enf;w,fvdkU rif;xifaeovm;}} [k vSrf;ajymav\/
csef&DrSmrl bmudkrQ ta&;rpdkufEdkifawmh? usef;[lusif; aemufrS ajy;vdkufNyD; usef;[lusif;tm;
zrf;csKyfvdkufav\/ xdkUaemuf csef&Du armyef;pGm wJi,ftwGif;odkU jyef0ifvmNyD; ...
]]bBuD; ... bBuD;u olUudk wu,fruko ay;Edkifawmhbl;vm;}} [kar;av\/ [dkcsif;u&,fí ...
]]rif;uvJuGm ightaMumif; od&ufom;eJU ? bmvdkUar;aeao;wmvJ}}
xdktcg csef&Du ...
]]bBuD;u uRefawmfhudkawmh ukay;r,f r[kwfvm;}} [k xyfar;jyef\/
]]'gayhg}}
]]'Dvdkqdk&if uRefawmfhtpm; bBuD;u 'Daumifav;udk ukoay;vdkufyg? uRefawmfhudk rukeJUawmh}}
orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;u csef&Dtm; pdkufMunfhí ...
]]rif;u ]ESvHk;*dkPf;} &JU vuf0g;apmif; 'Pf cHxm;&wJh vlyJ? ckepf&uftwGif; orm;awmfaumif;eJU awGU&if
aysmufEdkifw,f? ckepf&ufu ausmf&ifawmh toufudk xdef;csKyfEdkifayr,fh rif;wwfuRrf;xm;wJh odkif;ynmtm;vHk;
qHk;yg;&vdrfhr,f? wpfq,fh av;&uf ausmf&ifawmh b,form;awmfrS rif;udk ru,fEdkifawmhbl;}}
xdktcg usef;[lusif;u ...
]]uRefawmfhudk q&mBuD;ukzdkU rvdkbl;? tpfudkBuD; csef&Dudkom ukay;yg}} [k ajymNyD; csef&DbufvSnfhí ...
]]tpfudkBuD; uRefawmf[m atmufwef;uswJh vlwpfa,mufyg? tpfudkBuD; touf udk uRefawmhftoufeJU
vJ&if uRefawmf touf&SifaevJ bmt"dyÜm,f &SdawmhrSmvJ}}
csef&DrSm uwdopömudk vGefpGmav;pm;apmifhxdef;ol jzpfonf/ ,ckolonf odkif;q&mBuD; usef;qef;zkef;tm;
uwday;cJhNyD;rS olU*dkPf;\bBuD;u oabmrwlonfudk jrifaomf olu olUtoufjzifhvJ&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufav\/
xdkUaMumifholonf usef;[lusif;ESifh bmrQ pum;qufrajymawmhbJ cg;pnf;udkjzKwfí usef;[lusif;\
cg;wGif csnfaESmif vdkuf\/ usef;[lusif;u atmfí ...
]]cifAsm; uRefawmhfudk rvTwfbl;vm;? uRefawmf qJrdvdrfhr,faemf}}
odkUajymaomfvnf; csef&Du vHk;0ta&;rpdkufonfudk awGUaomf usef;[lusif;u qJa&; vmavawmh\/
]]orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;wJh ? bmorm;awmfBuD;vJ? xGD; EGm;xufrdkufwJhvl? 'Dvdkvlpm;rsdK; &SdwJh *dkPf;xJudk
bmudpöusKyfudk 0ifcdkif;&wmvJ? [if; ... a&S;b0 tquf qufuwnf;u tukodkvfawG rw&m;vkyfvmcJhvdkU
'Db0rSm 'DvdktoHk;ruswJh vlBuD; jzpf aewmawmif rodwJhvl}}
usef;[lusif;rSm vGefpGmtmoGufvQmoGufaom uav;jzpf&m ol\qJyHkqJenf;rSm vnf; vGefpGm&,fp&myif
aumif;aeav\/ xdkaemufydkif;wGifvnf; [dkcsif;ESifh csef&DwdkU vlBuD;rsm;yif rMum;zl; rBuHKzl;aom qJenf;rsdK;pHkjzifh
qJaeao;av\/
csef&Durl olb,frQyif qJaeae ta&;rpdkufbJ taotcsmcsnfaESmifNyD;vQif ...
]]bBuD;? nDav;[lusif;? uRefawmf oGm;OD;r,f? uRefawmfhtwGuf orm;awmf vdkuf&SmOD;r,f}}
[dkcsif;u at;pufpGmjzifh ...
]]'De,fxJrSm orm;awmfaumif; r&Sdbl;uG?rif;vJ ckepf&uf twGif;'De,fxJu xGuf EdkifOD;r,f r[kwfygbl;}}

281

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
csef&Du &,fí ...
]]uRefawmfu bBuD;&JU vlwpfa,muf vkyfaerSawmh ao&rSmudk aMumuf&rvm;} [k ajymNyD;vQif
avQmufxGufoGm;av\/ xdktcg usef;[lusif;onf [dkcsif;tm; ...
]][dkcsif;? cifAsm;u tpfudkBuD; csef&Dudk rukoay;&if cifAsm;usKyf taMumif; aumif;aumif; odr,f}}
[kajymNyD; pdwfvSKyf&Sm;ojzifh arhvJusoGm;av\/ [dkcsif;u [if;ceJ oufjyif;rSKwffNyD;vQif ...
]]vdyfjymukef;rSm rif;wpfa,muf xyfaovdkUvJ bmrS rxl;jcm;ygbl;}} [k a&&GwfNyD; pm;yJGay:rS qdwfcsdK
wpfacsmif;udk uref;uwef;qJG,lum ½kwfw&uf ypfaygufvdkuf\/
xdktcg wJtjyifodkU wpfvSrf;csif; xGufcGmoGm;aom csef&D\ 'l;aumufauG;udk xdrSefoGm;av\/
xdk'l;aumufauG;ae&mrSm wu,fhtaMumae&mjzpfí csef&DrSm xdrSefcHvdkuf&onfESifh wpfNydKifeuf
'l;ñGwfusNyD; vJoGm;avawmh\/ wpfcsdefwnf;wGifyif taMumrsm; tydwfcHvdkuf&bdodkU jzpfNyD;vQifrwfwyf&yfíyif
r&ygawmhacs/
orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;\ pdwfaeoabmxm;rSm trSefyif xl;qef;vS\/ olonf rukcsifaomoludk
b,ftajctae a&mufaeae vHk;0ukoray;acs/ olukay;csifaom olUudkawmhrl r&ru ukay;wwfav\/
orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif;\ aemufqHk;pum;udkMum;aomf &ifwpfcsufwkefvSKyfoGm;\/
pdwfxJrSvnf; ...
'Daumifav;u usef;qef;zkef;&JU ajr;wynfhqdkawmh 'DaumifjyefoGm;&if aemufydkif; usawmh usef;qef;zkef;u
ighudk &ef&SmrSmaocsmw,f}
aemufqHk;wGif [dkcsif;u qHk;jzwfvdkuf\/
]]rxl;awmhb;l ? ESpaf ,mufpvH;k udk rukoay;awmhb;l ? tvGeq
f ;kH aemufxyf tavmif;ESpaf vmif; wd;k vm½Hyk }J }
xdkUaemufwGifrl usef;[lusif;tem;odkU avQmufoGm;NyD; cg;pnf;udkajzí usef;[lusif;\ vufESpfbufudkudkifum
tjyifodkU qJGypfvdkuf&efjyKav\/ xdkpOf olu pOf;pm;vdkufav\/
]]tif ; ... 'D a umif a v;u bma&m*ga0'emrsm; cH p m;ae&vd k U usef ; qef ; zk e f ; vd k vl u awmif
vufrSdKifcs&wmygvdrfh}}
[dck sif;onf aq;ynmrsm;udk t½I;trl;vdu
k pf m;cJí
h om þrQ ausmfMum;aom orm;awmfBuD;jzpfvmoljzpf&m
olu aq;ynmESifh ywfoufvmvQif bmrqdk odcsifav\ ,ckvnf; vGefpGmodcsifpdwfjzifh olu usef;[lusif;\
vufaumuf0wf aoG;ckeaf Mumudk prf;Munfv
h u
kd \
f / ol tBuD;tus,f wkev
f KS yfomG ;\/ aemufwpfzef prf;Munhjf yef\
þwpfBudrfwGif yxrtBudrfxuf ydkíwkefvSKyfoGm;av\/ olUpdwfxJrSvnf; ...
]]'Daumifav;u touf i,fi,f&G,f&G,feJU b,fhES,fhvkyfNyD; jyifytaMum&Spfck pvHk; yGifhae&wmygvdrfh?
twGif;tm;odkif;ynmudk igESpfaygif; 'DavmufMumatmif avhusifh cJhwmawmif 'Dtqifhudk ra&mufEdkifcJhbl;? {uEÅ
usef;qef;zkef;tbdk;BuD;u olUajr; wynfh av;udk cspfvGef;vdkU olUtwGif;tm;udk tukefjzefUa0ay;vdkufwm xifyg&JU}}
[k a&&Gwfaerd \/
xdkUaemuf olu usef;[lusif;\ i,fxdyf? &if0ESifhcsuf atmufwdkUodkU prf;oyfMunfh vQif usef;[lusif;\
tusÐudkyg cRwfíMunfhvdkuf\/ xdktcg oloabm aygufoGm;av\/ odkUjzifh olu ceJUNyHK;wpfcsufNyHK;NyD; ...
]]usef;qef;zkef;u olUajr;wynfhav;udk cspf&mr[kwfbJ ESpf&ma&muf aeygyaumvm;? 'Duav;&JU
jyifytaMum&Spfckom ryGifhao;&if 'Daumifav;udk ukvdkU&OD;r,f? tck awmh tat;"mwftqdyfawGu 'Daumifav;&JU
udk,fwGif;t*Fg tpdwftydkif;xJudk tESHUtjym; ysHUESYHoGm;NyDqdkawmh 'Daumifav;&JU toufudku,fzdkU rvG,fawmhbl;?
w [m; [m; [m; ... usef;qef;zkef;udk vlawGu tawmfhudk txifBuD;Muw,f? ewfbk&m;vdkU awmif
xifrSwfaeMuw,f? ightjrifrSmawmh 'DavmurSm usef;qef;zkef;avmuf EkHtwJhvl r&Sdawmhbl;}}

282

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
xdktcsdefwGifyif usef;[lusif; jyefEdk;vm\ odkUaomf olUajcvuf&Sd taMumrsm;rSm jyefí txdk;ydwfcH&onfudk
awGU&NyD; vHk;0rvSKyf&Sm;Edkifawmhacs/ olUa&SUwGif [dkcsif;u xdkifNyD; rD;wdkifudk pdkufMunfh&if; tjyif;txef pOf;pm;cef;
0ifaeonfudk awGU&\/ csef&DrSmawmhrl wJwHcg;tjyifbufwGif vSJavsmif;vsufyif &Sdaeao;av\/ olwdkU
oHk;OD;pvHk;onf udk,fhtawG;ESifhudk,f Nidrfoufvsuf &SdaeMu\/ pifppf [dkcsif;onf olUwpfoufwm tcsdefrsm;udk
aq;ynmwGifom aZmufcscJh\/ avhvmqnf;yl;jcif;jyKcJh\/ xdkUaMumifh rnfrQ cufcJeufeJaom a&m*grsdK;yifjzpfap
ukoEdkif\/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; odkif;avmuom;rsm;u olUtm; ao&Gmjyef orm;awmfBuD; [k wifpm;ac:qdkcJhMu\/
odkUaomf ,cka&cJvuf0g;apmif;\ tat;"mwftqdyfrSm tvGefjyif;xefaom tqdyfrsKd;jzpfae\/ NyD;vQif
þvuf 0 g;apmif ; 'Pf c H & aom ol \ jyif y taMum&S p f c k u d k zG i f h a y;vd k u f a om tcG i f h t a&;rsd K ;uvnf ;
vGepf mG BuHKBudKufcahJ om tjzpfrsdK;jzpfae\/ trSerf l [dck sif;uJo
h Ukd aom 0g&ifo
h rm;awmfBuD;onf omref a&m*ga0'emudk
uko&onfrSm t&omrawGUvSay/,ckuJhodkU BuHKawmifhBuHKcJ cuf&mcJqpf 'Pf&mrsdK;udkrS pl;prf;vdk odvdk t&om&Sd&Sd
ukovdkav\/ xdkUaMumifh,ckvnf; olonf usef;[lusif;\a0'emtaMumif; udkpdwf0ifwpm;jzifh pOf;pm;aerd\/
tEvHky#dvHk a0zefydkif;jcm;ae\/ odkUwpfbufrS cufcJ eufeJaom a0'emtaMumif;udk qHk;jzwfNyD;jzpfae\/
]]ig 'Daumifhudk raysmufaysmufatmifukr,f? wu,fvdkU &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; aysmufoGm;awmhrS 'Daumifhudk
igjyefowfypfr,f}}
odkUaomf [dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif;\ tonf;ESifhwuG uvDZmrsm;odkUwdkifatmif ysHUESHUaeNyDjzpfaom
tat;"mwf tqdyfrsm;udk tjyifodkU jyefxGufatmif vkyf&efrSmrl tb,frSm vG,fulygrnfenf;/
[dkcsif;onf wpfem&DeD;yg; tcsdefrQ tEkvHky#dvHkxdkifí pOf;pm;NyD;aemuf aMu;jym; wpfq,fhESpfjym;udk xkwfí
usef;[lusif;\ taMumq,fckudk xdk;csvdkufav\/ xdkodkU xdk;vdkufjcif;jzifh usef;[lusif;\ omreftaMumr
wpfq,fhESpfckESifh jyifytaMumr&SpfckwdkU tqufjywfoGm;NyD;vQif udk,fwGif;ae&mtESHU a&muf&Sdaeaom tat;"mwf
tqdyfrsm;vnf; wpfoD;wjcm;pD jzpfoGm;Muavawmh\/
xdkUaemufwGif [dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif;tm; rD;tyfpdkufay;avawmhonf/ xdktcsdefwGif usef;[lusif;rSm
udk,fwGif;ü tyltat; ppfcif;vsuf vGefpGm tcH&cufaom a0'emudk cHpm;ae&awmh\/ [dkcsif;onf wpfae&mNyD;
wpf a e&m tyf p d k u f a y;onf E S i f h t rQ usef ; [l u sif ; \ ud k , f a y:wG i f v nf ; [d k w pf u G u f onf w pf u G u f
ta&jym;avmifuRrf; oGm;av\/ odkUaomf usef;[lusif;onf a0'em'Pfudk tavQmhray;bJ awmifhcH&if; olU
pdwfxJwGif ...
]]cifAsm;u usKyfudk toHxGufatmif vkyfaeayr,fh usKyfu wrifratmfbJ usdwfcH aer,f? 'DawmhcifAsm;
bmwwfEdkifrSmvJ}}
olonf pdwfxJrS qHk;jzwfonfhtwdkif; a0'em'Pfudk usdwfcH&if; tNyHK;rysufatmif wrif [efvkyfaeNyD;vQif
olUarG;pm;zcif &SufpGef;u oifMum;ay;cJhaom rsm;jym;½IyfaxG; vSonfh taMumynmtaMumif;udk [dkcsif;ESifh
[kwfwdywfwd aqG;aEG;íyif aevdkufygao; \/
trSefrl usef;[lusif;onf taMumrsm;ESifh ywfoufí tay:,HrQom em;vnf aomfvnf; orm;awmfBuD;
[dkcsif;\ pdwfBudKufbmom&yfynm jzpfaeí orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;u tm;yg;w& jyefí aqG;aEG;ajymjyav\/
usef;[lusif;onf [dkcsif;ajymjyaom taMumynmrsm; teuf wpf0ufausmfausmf rSm olvHk;0 rMum;zl;aom
ynmjzpfae\/ xdkUaMumifh em;vnf oabmayguf&ef ydkía0vm a0;aeav\/
odkUaomf olu ]]igwdkU [lwef;*dkPf;u 'Davmufawmh wwfygw,f}} [laom oabmudk jy&ef
uwfo;D uwfowf ar;cGe;f rsm;udk xkwí
f [dck sif;ESihf taMumynmcsif; cyfwnfwnf jyefvnfjiif;cHak qG;aEG;aeav\/
[dkcsif;uvnf; usef;[lusif;bmrQ em;rvnfbJ xif&mjrif&m ajymaeaMumif;udk odaomfvnf; olvGefpGm
pdwf0ifpm;aom taMumif;t&mjzpfvQif avukefcHum usef;[lusif;tm; jyefvnf &Sif;jyaeav\/
trSefrl [dkcsif;onf þawmifBuD;ay:wGif aq;pyf? aq;usdKaom tdrfazmfoHk;a,mufESifh aexdkifcJh&m
pum;pjrnf ajymazmfr&SdbJ vGefpGm ysif;&dNiD;aiGUzG,f&m aumif;vSonf/ ,ckrl usef;[lusif; a&mufvmNyD;vQif
olESifh[dkpyfpyfjzifh rawmufwacguf taMumynm taMumif;udk ajymvmonfudk Mum;&aomtcg ysif;&dNiD;aiGUjcif;rS
oufom cGifh&cJhav\/
283

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
[dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif; xif&mjrif&m ajymaeaom taMumynmtaMumif;udk tysif;ajy em;axmif&if;
rD;tyfjzifh usef;[lusif;\ taMumtm;vHk;udk pdkufvdkufNyD;aom tcsdefwGifrl tarSmifvTrf;aom nydkif;odkU
ul;ajymif;rSef;rod ul;ajymif;vmNyD;jzpfav\/
xdktcsdefwGif tdrfazmfuav;rsm;u xrif;[if;vsmcl;cyfí olwdkUtm; vma&muf auR;arG;av\/
tdrfazmfwpfOD;url xrif;yJG udk tjyifodkU ,laqmifNyD; csef&Dtm; auR;vdkuf av\/ xdknwGif csef&Donf wJuav;\
tjyifbufwGifyif tdyf&avawmh\/ usef;[lusif;onf ajcvufrsm;vSKyf&Sm;EdkifNyD jzpf&m tdyfpufawmhrnfh tcsdefwGif
csef&D\eHab;odkU oGm;a&mufNyD; ESpfa,muftwltdyfvdkufav\/ usef;[lusif;\ oabmqE´url 'ku©
a&mufvQifvnf; twlwuG cHrnf[laom oabmjzifh csef&DESifhtwl wJtjyifbufwGif tdyfvdkufjcif;yif jzpfyg\/
[dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif;\ tjyKtrludk rod[efjyKí aevdkufaomfvnf; olUpdwfxJrSrl tHhMojcif; yif jzpfyg\/
]]'Daumifav;[m wu,fu
h kd wjcm;aumifav;awGeUJ rwlygvm;}} [k vnf; pdwx
f rJ S aumufcsuf csrad v\/
aemufwpfaeU ... [dkcsif;onf ukefvGefcJhaom aeUutwdkif;yif aeU0uftukefcHí usef;[lusif;\
taMumrsm;udk rD;tyfrsm; pdkufay;av\/ NyD;aemuf [dkcsif;onf aq;enf; topfwpfzHk azmfí usef;[lusif;tm;
wdkufauR;vdkuf\/
trSefrl [dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif;tm; tat;"mwfudk tat;"mwfjzifh jyefwdkufaom "mwfMurf;wpfrsdK;udk
wdkufvdkufjcif;yif jzpfyg\/usef;[lusif;onf xdkaq;udkaomufNyD;csdefwGif wpfudk,fvHk;cdkufcdkufwkefaeav\/
odkUaomf twefMumaomtcg tat;"mwf usoGm;NyD;vQif usef;[lusif;vnf; vGefpGmvef;qef;vmovdk cHpm;
vdkuf&av\/
xdkaeU naebufodkU a&muf&SdcsdefwGif usef;[lusif;tm; [dkcsif;u rD;tyfjzifh xyfrH pdkufay;jyef\/ xdkodkU
rD;tyfrsm; pdkufaecsdefwGif usef;[lusif;u pum;emrsm; xdk;NyD;csef&Dtm; ukoay;&ef wdkufwGef;av\/
odkUaomf[dkcsif;onf usef;[lusif;\ wdkufwGef;ajym qdkaeonfudk ta&;rQyif rpdkufbJ w[m;[m;
&,farmNyD;vQif ...
]]'DrSm csmwdwf? rif;vdk aumifav;u igvdk yk*¾dKvfudk OmPfeD OmPfeuf oHk;vdkU &r,frsm; xifovm;?
a0;ygao;&JU}} [k qdkav\/
]]vlawG&JU udk,fay:rSm odyfxl;jcm;wJh taMumu csufaMumryJ r[kwfvm; q&mBuD;? 'gayr,fh q&mBuD;
oabmaygufxm;zdkU vdkwmu wcsdKUawGrSm csufaMumvHk;0 r&Sdbl;qdkwJh tcsufyJ}}
[dkcsif;u wpfcsufaMumifoGm;NyD; ...
]]a[h ... csmwdwf ? rif;bmaygufwwfu&awG ajymaewmvJ? vlrSm b,fhES,fh vkyf csufaMum r&Sd&rSmvJuG}}
trSerf l usef;[lusif;onf wrifyif yg;pyfxJ awGUu&majymvdu
k jf cif;om jzpfyg\/ ,ckvnf; xyfrí
H ajymaejyef\/
]][m ... q&mBuD;uvJ wu,fawmh aq;ynmtwGuf bmrS tusdK;r&Sdygbl;Asm}}
[dkcsif;u usef;[lusif;\ pum;aMumifh rsufarSmifukwfoGm;\/ olu ...
]]'DrSm csmwdwf csufaMumru rif;ajymovdk wjcm; taMumrxuf ydkNyD; xl;qef; wmawmh [kwfw,f?
'gayr,fh tusdK;odyfr&Sdbl; qdkwmawmh vHk;0 vJGrSm;w,fuG? tJ'D pum;u orm;tdk? orm;a,mif q&mwk
q&ma,mifawG em;rvnfvdkU avQmufajymwJh pum;awG? 'Dr,f csmwdwfighrSm igudk,fwdkif a&;om;jyKpkxm;wJh
csufaMumreJU ywfoufwJh aq;usrf; wpfusrf;&Sd w,f? rif;,lzwfMunfh&if odrSmaygh}} [kajymNyD;vQif tcef;xJodkU
0ifí t0ga&mif vufa&;pmtkyfwpftkyfudk ,lxkwfvmNyD; usef;[lusif;tm; ay;av\/
usef;[lusif;u usrf;pmtkyf\ yxrpm&Gufudk vSefavSmízwfvdkuf\ xdkaq; usrf;wGif vlwdkUonf acwf
tqufquf uyifcsufaMumr\ toHk;0ifyHkudk rodMuí toHk;rcswwfMuaMumif; csufaMumronf aq;ynmwGif
vGefpGm ta&;BuD;vSaMumif; a&;om;xm;av\/ usef;[lusif;onf xdkaq;usrf;udk wpf&GufNyD;wpf&Guf vSefavSm
zwf½I&if; pdwfxJrS tvGwf&atmifawmh rSwfxm;vdkufav\/
trSefrl olonf olUq&m bdk;bdk;ESifhtwl a&Smifvif bk&m;ausmif;odkU vdkufygoGm; pOfu a&Smifvif*dkPf;om;
csef½dkqdkaom oli,fu olUq&m bdk;bdk;tm; uvdefuscJhyHkudk owd&vdkufojzifh xdkenf;twdkif; oHk;&ef pdwful;
rdvdkufjcif;yif jzpfyg\/ ,ck þaq;usrf;udkrl orm;awmfBuD; [dkcsif;u vG,ful&Sif;vif;pGm a&;om;xm;ojzifh
284

wuúodkvf aevif;atmif
e*g;Edkif"m;
vGepf mG rSwo
f m;& vG,u
f jl cif;yif jzpf\/ odUk jzifh use;f [lusi;f onf pdwBf udKufEpS af cgufrQ zwfrw
S Nf yD;vQif aq;usr;f udk
[dkcsif;vufodkU jyeftyf&if; qdkav\/
]]uRefawmf'Daq;usrf; pmtkyfudk zwfzl;om;yJ ? uRefawmf q&mbdk;bdk; toufoHk;q,favmufu jyKpkchJwJh
]tajccHcsufaMumr aq;usrf;\tay:,H oabmw&m;} qdkwJh usrf;pmtkyfu tckq&mBuD;&JU 'DpmtkyfeJU xyfwl
jzpfaew,fAs ? tif; ... b,folu b,folUqD cdk;csovJ qdkwmom uRefawmfrodwm}} [dkcsif; rsufvHk;pHk
jyL;us,foGm;\/ a'govnf; xGufrd\ olUpdwfxJwGif ...
]]igtckrS touf ig;q,fhwpfESpfyJ &Sdao;w,f? rif;ajymawmh rif;&JUq&m bdk;bdk; u toufoHk;q,frSm
a&;w,f? tcktoufwpf&m &SdaeNyD? 'Dvdkqdk&if olUusrf;pmtkyf[m vGefcJhwJh tESpfckepfq,favmuf uwnf;u
a&;cJhwmaygh? 'Dvdkqdkigu olUqDu cdk;csovdk jzpfaew,f? igh&JU 'DcsufaMumraq;usrf; pmtkyfu b,favmuf
eufeJovJ? t&ifh t&ifu b,form;awmfawGrS wpfcgzl;rS rajymcJhbl;wJh oabmw&m;opfawG tm;vHk;udk ig
a&;xnfhxm;wmuG? 'geJrsm; rif;u rif;q&m bdk;bdk;&JU bmvJ tajccH csufaMumr aq;usrf;\ tay:,H
oabmw&m;} pmtkyef UJ twlwyl w
J ?hJ ]tajccH} vJ jzpfao;w,f? ]tay: ,H} vJ ygvdu
k af o;w,f? 'gqd&k if rif;av;u
ighudk wrifoufouf odu©m csaewmyJ}}
[dkcsif;u þodkUpdwfxJrS a&&Gwf&if; a'goxGufvmojzifh ½kwfw&uf tm;xkwfí tyfudk pdkufcsvdkufrd\/
xdktcg usef;[lusif;rSm emusif;vGef;ojzifh toHxGufí atmfrdvkrwwf jzpfoGm;cJh\/ odkUaomf olu
BudwfrSdwfí wif;cHvdkufjyef\/ [efrysuf NyHK;ívnf; ...
]]q&mBuD; r,Hkbl;vm;? 'Dvdkqdk&if uRefawmfu uRefawmhfq&mbdk;bdk; a&;om;jyKpk cJhwJh ]tajccH csufaMumr
aq;usrf;\ tay:,H oabmw&m; } pmtkyfxJu pmom;awG udk tvGwfqdkjy&rvm;}} [k jyefar;av\/ [dkcsif;u
tHBudwfí ...
]]aumif;NyD rif;ckcsufcsif; qdkjyprf;? wu,fvdkU wpfvHk;omvJGMunfh rif;udkig taoowfypfr,f}} [k
Budrf;av\/
usef;[lusif;onf toufig;ESpfrjynfhrDuyif a&cJrD;awmif uRef;wGif olUarG;pm; zcif &SufpGef;u
wif;usyfpGm ol\odkif;ynmtm;vHk;\ odkif;uGuf usifhpOfESifh pum;xm tm;vHk;udk tm*Hkaqmif usufrSwfcdkif;cJh&m
xdkpOfu wpfvHk;vJGonfESifh vuf0g;pm; wpfcsuf &cJhonfcsnf; jzpf\/ olonf toufq,fhESpfESpfa&mufonftxd
wpf&ufrem; tvGwfusvmcJh&m ol\rSwfOmPfrSmvnf; tjcm;aom uav;rsm;xuf tqaygif; rsm; pGmomae\/
xdkUaMumifh þvdkpmaMumif;rsm;udk tvGwfusufNyD; &Gwfzwfcdkif;jcif;rSm oli,fpOfu wwfajrmufcJhaom vufpJG
ynm&yf jzpfaeyg\/
odkUjzifh olonf [dkcsif; tvGwfzwfcdkif;aom aq;usrf;udk tprS tqHk;wdkif wpfvHk; rvJGatmif
&Gwfzwfjyvdkufavawmh\/
[dkcsif;rSm tHhMovGef;ojzifh aMumifíyif oGm;av\/ olUpdwfxJwGif ...
]]'Daumifav;u wu,fyJ rSwfOmPfaumif;vScsnfvm;? wpfcg zwf½HkeJU wpfvHk; rvJGatmif rSwfrdaeygvm;?
wu,fhudk vlxl;vlqef; ynm&Sifav;yJ}} a&&Gwfaerdav\/ olonf usef;[lusif;ESifh tvm;wl csef½dkqdkaom
vl&nfcRef ynm&Sifav; wpfa,muf a&Smifvif*dkPf;wGif &Sdaeao;onfudk vHk;0rodacs/ odkUjzifh olu [efraqmif
EdkifawmhbJ...
]]wu,f aumif;wJh rSwfOmPfygvm;}} [k usef;[lusif;tm; xkwfazmf csD;usL;vdkuf av\/
xdkUaemufwGif olonf usef;[lusif;tm; tyfpdkuf ay;NyD;vQif acwÅ tem;,lap vdkuf\/ xdkUaemufwGifrl
usef;[lusif;\ynmudkxyfrH prf;oyfvdkí olu ...
]]igh r S m taMumtyf p d k u f aq;usrf ; pmtk y f wpf t k y f &S d w ,f ? rif ; &J U q&mbd k ; bd k ; vJ 'D p mtk y f u d k
a&;om;zl;ovm;rodbl;}} [kajymNyD; tcef;wGif;odkU 0ifum twJGaygif; wpfq,fh ESpfwJG&Sdaom aq;usrf;pmtkyfudk
xkwf,lvmcJhav\/
usef;[lusif;u xdkpmtkyfudk ,lMunfhvdkufav\/ xdktcg pmtkyf\/ pmrsufESm wdkif;wGif pmvHk;rsm;
ao;ao;pdyfpdyfjzifh a&;om;xm;onfudk awGU&NyD; aoG;aMum? taMum aq;pyfenf;? aq;\ tcsdeftq ponf
tm;vHk;udk wdwdyy a&;om;jyKpkxm;onfudk awGU&av\/
285

aemf}} xdktcg [dkcsif. tyfpdkufaom tcsdef/ tyf\ twdkt&Snf/ tyfpdkufonfh twdrfteuf ponfwdkUudkvnf.wGif vuf0g.aMumifh&&Sdaom twGif.om. qdkwm ygyJ}} usef.onf ]ESvHk.vdkufav\/ aq. pmtkyfudkawmh uRefawmfh bdk. tpH k t vif a&.f? ig olU'Pf&mudk ukEdkifvdkU ukEdkifjim.apmif.udk jyefvnf &Gwfzwfjy\/ NyD.? NyD.a&mufaeí olu þodkU qdkav\/ ]]uRefawmfoufqdk.bdk.Edkif"m.udkom azmfjyxm.rsd K .usrf.apmif.wGif vuf0g..udk rrDovdk? aq.fawmh tpfudkBuD.[lusif.'Pf&m trsdK.[laom acgif.pmtkyf q.pOf atmufrS taMumif.[lusif.bdk.apmif. rawmfvdkU 'Dq&mBuD.enf.} / vuf0g.&if.&m vGefpGm rSwf&cufvSav\/ xdkpOf usef.rd&ifvJ 'ku©}} odkUjzifh usef.ukd rrDygbl. aemufcHkay:odkU wif vdkuf\/ NyD.}} [kqdkvdkufav\/ [dkcsif.t"dymÜ .&JU a[m'D aq.onfudk awGU&avonf/ usef.fh vuf0g. rjyKpkEdkifygbl.wpfcsufNyHK.apmif.pOfudk &SmawGUvdu k af v\/ olu wpf&u G cf sif.vJyJ rukoEdkifygvm..ynmtarGtESpfudk þrQ 286 . [laom acgif.[lusif.apmif.awmh .rsdK.NyD.r&SnfEdkifbl.udkyJ &Smzwfvdkufr.} ]rD.í .&uf Mumvdrfhr.rBuD.[lusif.rsm.'gayr.um.wJh vuf0g.'Pfudk uRefawmf bdk.rSwfxm.\/ odkUaomf olonf usef.om. 'Pf&mudk aysmufatmif ukowJhenf.awGUvdkuf&av\/ xdkpmtkyf \ pmrsufESm(108) wGif rl usef.rBuD.rvnfacs/ trSerf l [dck sif.bdk.\ tBuHtpnfudk &dyfpm.fh rif. trsdK.. 'Pf&mukenf.Munfhaygh at.fhvkyf tckcsufcsif. oufqdk.fES..xm.wmu ta&.'Pf&m ukoenf.aysmufuif.[lusif.fenf. r&Snfbl.apmif.vdkufrd\/ ]]'Davmuf xlxJwJh pmtkyfudk igtptqHk. ukoí aysmufuif.xm.apmif.apmif. tm. zwfcsif&if BudKufwJhpmtkyfudk .apmif. &JU odkif. ppfxdk.onf csef&D\ 'Pf&maysmufuif.udk awGUvdkuf&\/ usef.onf twJGeHygwfudk.t"dymÜ .&ef twGufom pdwftm½Hk pl.lzwfEdkifygw.udkom aeUnrjywf zwfNyD. vuf0g.} xJrS olcH&aom vuf0g.} ]tqdyfoJ vuf0g.} [laom acgif. ]]tck avmavmq..pOfi.[lusif.vQif olUudk owfypf rnf[k qdkvdkjcif.usrf.onf aq.onf pum.udkvnf.omoGm.pmtkyfudk zwf&if ta&.apmif. zwfzdkUawmif oHk.f}} [k qdkavonf/ xdkUaemufwGifrl usef.bdk.ayghav}} odkUjzifh usef. csef&D&JU vuf0g.fyHk b.[lusif.[lusif.rsm.aom aq. vSeaf vSmMunfv h u kd af om tcg ]oHrPd vuf0g.ygbl. pum.? igukEdkifrukEdkifqdkwm rif..u ½kwfw&uf pOf.onf xdkaq.pmtkyfrsm.apmif. ukoenf. wpfppjzifh usef. aeavawmh\/ xdkUjyifolonf [dkcsif.ay:uk o enf .'Pf&m trsd K .oGm.apmif.[lusif.vQif csef&D\ 'Pf&m b.wpfa.tm. ]]rif.onf ]vuf0g.t&mrsm.tm.vH k .\ tjcm.vQif . csef&D&JU'Pf&m aysmufzdkUom t"duyJ? pum.? 'gayr.frmS usef.zdkUu rif.atmif uko&rnfudkom BudK.rsdK.atmif e*g. ]]q&mBuD.u ra&.pOfatmufwGif 'Pf&m\tajctae yHkyef.ynmu uRefawmf bdk.vdk wwfygw.vnf. pepfwus jyKpkxm.. ighudk rcHr&yfEdkifatmif vkyfzdkU rvdkygbl.apmif.f}} [k qdkav\/ usef. ajym vkad om pum. rSwfom.usrf.\/ olonf xdkacgif.udk tao.aMumifh &&Sd aom twGif.ndwfí .fukd em. 'Pf&mukoenf.'Pf&mudk ukwJh enf. tvGwfrSwfrdEdkifrSmvJ 'Dawmh tck tpfudkBuD.udk igukEdkif&ifvJyJ rif. [laom acgif.usrf.yloJ vuf0g.vdkU qdkwJh aemufawmh uRefawmfu q&mBuD.pm.vdkufav\/ olonf xdkodkU rSwfom.u q&mBuD.NyD.pdyfudk aw.aemuf pdwfxJwGif .usrf.mufrdrd\ aq.[lusif.\ vu© P m? a&m*gtajctae? 'Pf & mtajctae ? ta&.odxm. [dck sif.wuúodkvf aevif.udk apmfum.pOf atmufwGifrl ]r&Sd} [k a&.ppfxdk..ynmrSmawmh uRefawmfh bdk.u ceJUNyHK.onfudk vnf.} ]ausmufcGuf vuf0g.[lusif.vQif uRefawmf&xm.tqHk.\ pum.rdoGm.uvJ q&mBuD.yifjzpfygonf/ odkUaomf usef.*dkPf.pm.vGefpGm 0rf.fudk awGUvdkuf&av\/ acgif.usawmh uRefawmfh bdk. ]]rif.av. pOf av.f? ighb.. rukoEdkifovdk vufpowfawmh q&mBuD.[lusif.u acgif.[lusif.xm.? 'DtaMumtyfpdkuf aq..ftkyfausmfudkyg vSefavSm zwf½SK vdkufav\/ [dkcsif.bl.pmtkyfudk w½dkwao jyefydwfNyD.bdk.om.

í awG.&efrSm b.rnf r[kwrf eS .wdkuf &.f&G.rsm.[lusif.ojzifh twGif.[lusif.bl.ynm [lonfrSm vGefpGmcufcJ eufeJaomynm&yf wpfckjzpfí wdkawmif.ifaom vufjzifh aiGtyfacsmif.w. olUuHyJ}} odkUjzifh olonf [dkcsif. ]]tpfudkBuD.\/ þvlBuD.[lusif.awG tqufrjywf xGufaeygw. ½kwfw&uf xGufvmonfudk jrifaomf ajcrudkifrd vufrudkifrd jzpfvmavawmh\/ xd k t cd k u f ol U aemuf b uf q D w[m.f o H M um. tpfudkBuD.f onf vufukd aemufypfí ysm.yifjzpfyg\/ usef.yl.yghr.farmaejcif. rajymygeJU ? jrefjrefom ukvdkufprf. ig.av.avawmh\/ usef .pHkwwfuRrf.awmfBuD.aom ae&mjzpfav\/ usef.fí .wwfbl.wmayghuGm}} xdkUaemufusef.f \ trlt&mudk Munfh&if.rSyJ}} 287 .axmuf rvdkU igraocJh&if igh&JU bBuD. tusdK.u pdk.faysmhaysmif.. u xd k y H k j zif h oH k .Edkif awmh[k qdkcJhonf r[kwfygvm. xHk.oG.Edkif"m.[m.wpfckck jzpf&ifvJ uRefawmf 'DavmurSm touf&SifaerSm r[kwfygbl. ]]q&mBuD.rsm. tvHk.onf olxdk. ? 'Dawmh uRefawmft&JpGefUNyD.f? igroHk. tcsdKUudkyg rSwfom.rsm. 'D&ufawGrSm uRefawmfu q&mBuD. odkU a&mufaomf .f? b.pdkufwwfacs/ NyD.xl.rsdK.&ufrQ tcsdeftwGif.onf i. udkrl aumif.BuD.ESihf qufvufajymqdak eívnf. tpfudkBuD.kwfvsuf odkif.\ aq.qdk.udk igukoMunfhr.fvdkvkyf&rvJ}} [kqdkav\/ usef.vQif tyfacsmif.udk tyfpdkufukoay.xGuf½dk.jzwfvdkuf\/ ]]jzpfcsif&mjzpfygap tpfudkBuD.faom tyfacsmif. [dkcsif. r&Sdacs/ usef. rnfodkUrQ rajymbJ ae aevdkufavawmh\/ þodkUjzifh usef.ck usef.f? aumif.\/ aemufqHk.rdoGm.vdu k \ f / ]]'Dtyfacsmif.u 'Dvdkpum.ojzifh rxdk.0ta&.0qkwf..f? bmrS rwwfuRrf.ynmvHk.[lusif.xefpGm &GmoGef.aom taMumae&mwGif b. xdk.wdkuf cdkufaeaom wJtjyifwGifyif vJavsmif.fodkUrQ rjzpfEdkifygacs/ .vnf.? 'Dawmh wpfckck BuHOD. vHk.&ifvJ 'Dvdkrdk.&JU taMumawGuae aoG.[lusif.. pdkufjcif. vGefpGm ao.udk .[lusif..xJrS aiGtyfacsmif.&drfpGmjzifh .&Spfacsmif.. &.oG.vsuf &Sdae\/ [dkcsif. ajymMum.}} [k qdk\/ csef&D u w[m.rSm auG.qD r S aoG .awGu odyfaysmhvGef.awGudk zwf½SL avhvmcJhw.ao.ukoenf.vdkufaomtcg ao.csuf r Q quf w d k u f x d k . vHk.yg? uHaumif. twGuf tck tcsdefr&Sdawmhbl. rjynfh0vQif xdk. wdkufcdkuf av\ csef&Donf rdk. ESpfESpfNcdKufNcdKuf zwf½Iavhvmaeonfudk jrifaomf pdwfxJwGif yDwdjzpfvsuf usef.ck usef.oGm.pHr&Sdacs/ . av.avawmh\/ odkU&mwGif aq.rSm vGefpGm pdwfysufoGm.qdk.onf csef&Dtm.onf wkef. [l u sif .[lusif.u tm.pGm rSwfrdaeav\/ [dkcsif.[lusif.aumif..aom ae&mrSm csufatmufae&mjzpfí vGefpGmta&.udkom tcsdefrvyf zwf½Iavhvm qnf.usrf. vd k u f & m ½k w f w &uf xd k a e&mrsm.wGif olu tHudkBudwfí qHk. &.udk udkifí taMumwpfckudk OD.rsm.lícsef&D tem.a&mavyg onf.aeUonf usef. ]]nDav.atmif e*g.pdkufíxdk. jyKcJh&m olonf aq.jcif.tm.ae&wmxuf awmfao.vJ t&SufuJG&wmaygh? wu.om jzpfoGm.onf csef&D\ tjzpfudk MunfhívGefpGmpdwfrcsrf.tzdkU vdyfjymukef.ayr.pdkufír0ifEdkifacs/ .xefpGm &GmoGef.f [lusi./ xdkajcmuf&ufajrmufaom aeU\naeydkif.usrf.wuúodkvf aevif.wGifrl ½kwfw&uf rdk.u csef&D\'Pf&mrSm ckepf&ufausmfírS rukovQif 'Pf&maysmufuif.pdkufvdkuf\/ trSefrl olonf tyfpdkufjcif.[dck si.[lusif.0rupm.tm.faomtcgrQ aoG. [m.odkU a&muf&SdcJhaom ajcmuf&ufajrmufaom aeUyifjzpfyg\/ usef.fh tpfudkBuD.f od\/ olu tm½Hak jymif.folyif jzpfaomfvnf.&ojzif h aemuf o d k U vS n f h M unf h vd k u f & m orm.udk wpfcgrQ rjyKvkyf zl.onfhwkdif odkif.a&mavyg onf. xGufvmavawmh\/ pifppftyfpdkufxdk.fvdkU igwpfckck jzpfoGm.cJhaom pum.pGm xdk .pdkufvdkufaom ae&mwGif aoG.aom þav.&JU aq.tm.[lusif.xJavxJrSm 'ku©cHpm.f jzpfaeav\/ [dck si.f? tpfudkBuD.[m. vGef.[lusif. [dkcsif.m cwfaeaom use.onf aq. rsm.

.udk csa&.pm&Gufudk jyef. 0rf.pyfaom tdrfazmfav.ceJ} oufjyif. olUrsuf0ef.rSm tb.lNyD.qrQyif jyif.rS csef&Dtm.vdkufwm? 'Dtwdkif. &.enf.onf tdrfazmfxHrS aq.ykyrf sm.&JU aq..uG? igh'Pf&mtawmfav.NyD.[lusif.f}} [kqdk\/ pifppf usef. xdkUaemufwGifrl usef.usrf.f tpfudkBuD.vQif axG&mav.q.wGif cyfwnfwnfjzifh yifaq. u ][if.tm. rSefuefívm.u enf.pyf usdK aomuf&rnfukd odaomfvnf.faemf}} csef&Du &. tqufrjywf tefaeav\/ usef.f'Pf&m? b.[lusif.&jzifh .rsm.i.&rnfenf.NyD.jyif.vdkufwm .enf. tefvmjcif.pm. 0rf.rtef ygawmhacs/ aoG.ovm.udk ol a&.rsm.fxifw. odkUr[kwf tajctae ydkqdk..ykyfrsm.tm.ftaMumudk xdk.onf 0g.onf atmifjrifpmG xd..pdkufvdkuf av\/ olonf aq.wdkufcdkufaeonfh Mum.í csef&DrSm aoG. onf.[lusif.oGm. usef.tm.faq.yifavm [lonfudk ra0cJG wwfay/ xdkUaMumifh olu [dkcsif. vSdrfhae&Smav\/ aoG.rSm aysmhaysmif.loGm.\/ csef&Dvnf.avxefxef &GmoGef.líacsmarGUaeatmif "m.rSef.csaom aq.ayghuGm}} [kqdkav\/ xdktcg usef.u vludk raoapEdkifygvm.[lusif...fa&m*gudk b.cH&bdodkUemusifum vl.f? bmyJjzpfjzpf igaomufrSyJ}} [kajymNyD.om aomufvdkuf&ifawmh 'DaumifBuD.a&. armhaomufvdkufav\/ xdkn wpfnvHk.f .av.rSm [dkcsif.ay.usrf.avawmh\/ olonf b.lícsef&D\ taMumwpfckcsif.omtm.faq. rrSm.eufaom aoG. vSnfhMunfhvdkuf\/ [dkcsif.vdkuf\/ ]]'Daq. pOf.av.}} csef&Du &.rsm.Edkif"m.rsm.jzifh vSD.ESifh aygif.udk xyfaomufvdkU &ygao.\/ csef&Dvnf.onf.jyif.rsm.onf rdrd\ukoenf.wGifrl csef&Donf AdkufxJwGif "m..pyfNyD.rsm.[lusif.usdKvmcJhyg}} [kvnf..omoGm.facsmif.tpHkrSmrl usef.vnf. rSKwfNyD.onfh twdkif.líwpfusdKufwnf.wpfrsdK.[lusif.w.cGufudk csef&Dem.jzifh txdk.k 0 rodacs/ olonf rwwfEidk o f nfh tqHk.w.aeav\/ xdktcg usef.\aq.qdkwm uRefawmfvJ rajym wwfawmhbl.ovdkyJa[h}} usef. ]]aomufvdkUawmh &ygw. ]]&.vnf.fuG}} usef..xd a&mufrnfudk odav\/ 0g. jzpfíb.fvsuf ..pmtkyfudk tausmtvnfzwfxm.usL./ oHk. odvdkufav\/xdkUaemuf olonf aq.vQif wpfusyfom.f xifygw.w..csdefwGifrl rdk. ]]nDav.enf.rsm.rsuf&nf &pf0JpGmjzifh qdkav\/ ]]tpfudkBuD. wdwfoGm.jcif. oufomoGm.pyfaom tdrfazmfav.f jyif.fuGm? aomufcsvdkufwJh tcgrSm "m.u tdrfazmfav..\ rsufESmay:wGif ceJUaom oa&mfaom trlt&m &Sdaeaomfvnf.twdkif. tyfacsmif.rS aq. txdk.tyfacsmif.vGefpGm 0rf.fh aq..rSm rdrd&rf.pyfrS rnf. xdk. aoG.f? 'gayr.odkU xdk..& qdkygav\/ ]]nDav.f rmao.udk ..i.NyD.yg.k pdu k Ef ikd cf ahJ v\/ tcsdet f wefMumaomf csef&\ D yg.vQif b.udk aomufMunfhvdkufyg? aumif.eJU wpfNydKifwnf.fp&maumif.[lusif. tefusvmav\/ usef.Sufoef.NyD..onfudk jrifaomf usef.[lusif.\ vufxJrSaq. aq.vQif aq.ovm.cGuf udk . b.[lusif.vnf.onfhwdkif tenf.aq.fí . qdk. .wpfacsmif.í uko vdkufaomfvnf. .w.ay.fp&m aumif.fodkUtusdK.udkom wpfcsuf Munfhvdkuf\ xdktcg [dkcsif.[lusif.u enf.cHvdkuf&ovdk cHpm.pyfaom tdrfazmfav. ]][kwfw.odkU . aumif.[lusif.pm. 'Daq.&JUaq.atmif e*g.oGm.av\/ aq.lvmcJh\ usef. jyKpkae&av\/ aemufwpfaeU eHeuf vif.omtm. aq. rdk. ? aq.[lusif.pD avsmhcsí pyfapvdkufjyef\/ aq.frSm tenf.[lusif.yif jzpfyg\/ 288 .w.í þwpfBudrfwGif usef..u b.a&mavyg wdwf&yfoGm.enf.foUkd aom yko H @mef &So d nfurkd l vH.wuúodkvf aevif.ae&w. jzpfatmif vkyfvdkuf\/ NyD. .tyfacsmif. ]]aumif.raeawmhbJ xdk0g.enf.um. rif. pyf[yfusdKcsufí . rao&if odyfuHaumif.pmtkyfudk xyfrHvSefavSmMunfhvsuf tuste pOf..u .aom t&dyfta&mif .udk . csD. wpfnvHk.rSmMum.

tcef.rsm.cgvsuf .onf pdwfoabmtrSefyif xl.}} ]]'gjzifh b.vmMuolrsm. [dkcsif.f? ckawmh tqdyfawG tm.&JU aq.[lusif. vGefpGmoabmusoGm.aMumifh [lusif. ]]nDav.ESifhtwl aexdkifvmcJh&m [dkcsif.aomfvnf. aysmufatmif ukoNyD. wGif oufjyif.csí olu qdkav\/ ]]rif.ESD.ausmif.tm.u acgif.vdkUom ukEdkifcJhwmyg? 'gaMumifh bBuD.Zl.ESifh csef&DwdkUonf þwpfvrQ tcsdeftwGif.bdk. &Sif.atmif e*g.0 rwwf bl.[lusif.'Da&cJvuf0g.ckuJhodkU cJGcGm&cgeD. vlqdk.u acgif.pm..[lusif.onf vGefpGmxl.uG? olu rif.NyDudk. aq.\/ odkUr[kwfvQif toufyif ygoGm. rif. wpfcsufrQ wkefvSKyfoGm.onf a&Smifvifbk&m.rnf jzpfyg\/ xdktcsdefwGif [dkcsif. ]]'DrSm [lusif. aom ar. igh'Pf&mawmh vHk.. . qufvufjyKpkuko ae\/ olonf aemufxyf tm.ynm tqifhopf wpfckodkU a&mufoGm. ao&rSm raMumufbl.\/xdktcg [dkcsif.wGif olu [dkcsif.tm.awmfBuD.pm. .aq.awGudk tm. csef&DrSm cHEdkif&nf &SdolrdkUyif awmfao.tm.vnf.onf twefMumpOf..jyav\/ wpfcgwpf&H usef.bdk.qef.&JU'Pf&m aysmufoGm..apmif.fvdkU rif.í tyfpdkufaomfvnf. usihfpOfudk oif.vnf..? [dkrif.wpfa.fh aq.[lusif.ynmawmh vHk.u zGifhay.? 'DvdkeJU 'DESvHk.tm.ynmwGif 0goem ygvmíolonf tcsdef &wdkif.vHk. bmrS jyefrajymygacs .vHk.av..jynfhapaom aq.mufu cHEdkif&nf &SdNyD.bmrS pdwfraumif....NyD. jzpf&m .mufudk wpfa.wm r[kwfbl. owfypf&ef olESajrmaejyef\/ aemufqHk.vdkufNyD. auR.udk cspfvGef.vQif owfypf&ef pdwful.tm. qufwdkufpm.&JUq&m bdk.NyD.folzGifhay.rvnfaom ae&mrsm.[lusif.vavmufqdk&if igu rif.csuefawmhav\/ uRefawmf 'Pf&maysmufoGm.\/ odkUaomf ..jynfh vmav\/ odkif.tm.wmvJ}} [k [dkcsif.tm.tm.qef.[lusif.qDudk jyefydkUay.pdwfxJwGif .vdkU rif.omndwfNyD.usifhpOf oifay.aemuf ½kwfw&uf aygifudk wpfcsufykwfNyD.bdk.rS ajzMum.apmif.udk xyfvmMunfhrSmyg? wu.vuf0g.pmtkyfeJU aq.[lusif. csef&Dtm.fvdkrS ukvdkUr&bl. vHk.[lusif.0 rwdk.\/ 289 .mufr[kwfrSef.\ olUudk þodkU atmufuscHí ar.jzpfaeNyDuG}} usef.}} xdkUaemufwGif csef&Donf tcef.mufu OmPfaumif.f&ufrQ BudK.muf toufpGefUí cifrif&if.wmu usef. .vdkufao. rjzpfygeJU ? aemufxyf oHk.vHk.}} [ka&&Gwf aerdav\/ usef.wGif olonf tqihfopf wpfckodkU a&mufaomtcg usef.udk ar. ]]uRefawmhf&JU jyifytaMum&Spfckudk uRefawmfh&JU bdk.[lusif.u ar..usrf. ? igwdkUcJGcGmMu&awmhr.vdkufNyD. ukvdkU omaysmufw. vHk.[lusif.awmhacs/ aemufqHk.&JU jyifytaMum&Spfckudk zGifhay. ]]wpfa.rsm.mufpvHk.&if rif.'ku©a&mufatmif oufouf vkyfvdkufwmyJ}} [k qdkav\/ xdkpum. qufjyef\/ ]]nDav.ckrl usef.onf þorm.wpfrsdK.ajrhMuygacs/ csef&Du pum.rSm oHk.lcJhyHkrsm. zGifhajymvdkufavonf/ [dkcsif.onf wpfpwpfpjzifh aq.awmhonfudk awGU&\/ olonf q.odkU wufí a&Smifvif aepMumodkif.vmojzifh [dkcsif.cGef.NyD jzpfvdkU b.pm.w..udkyJ aus.[lusif.rSmyg .wJh bkef.0aysmufuif.[lusif. 'Pf&mudk aysmufatmif ukEdkifcJh NyD.[lusif.0rwdk..udk zGifh[ ajymjyvdkufavawmh\/ xdkodkUajymjy&mwGif usef.&JU q&mbdk.av\/ usef.vQif oluvGefpGmoabmuswwf\/ xdktcg olodorQ pd&Snf vuf&Snf usef.vdkufjyef\/ þodkUjzifh ckepf&ufcefU tm.&jyef\/ pifppf usef.owÅd&Sdw. . wpfa.f? aemufwpfa.xJodkU 0ifí [dkcsif.wuúodkvf aevif.Edkif"m.u rif.udkom zwf½SLavhvmaeawmh\/ oabmrayguf em. tjynfht0 jyefvnf &&Sdvm\ olu usef.f}} [k qdkav\/ usef.u odkif.vnf./ usef.rsm.vmNyD.BuD.&ufrQ pOf.NyD.tdyf&mrSm Edk.csdefwGif csef&Donf tm.udk.udkyg tm.oGm. 'Pf&m &aewmawmif rif.udk a&Smifvif aepMum odkif.udk pyfí csef&Dtm.udk ysHUESHYoGm. tyfpdkufaomfvnf..udk ar.ynm odyfawmfayr..fh bBuD.f qdkayr.*dkPf. OD..xJrS xGufvmav\/ xdkUaemuf csef&D\ rsufESmay:wGif aoG.Edkifavonf/xdktcgolUtwGuf aq.ESifh rmefESifh jyefvnf NzdK.a&miforf.xm.wif &rSmyg} [k qdkav\/ odkUaomf [dkcsif.odí ol\ tjzpf tysuftm.yif pdwfrcsrf. tcsdefwGif ESpfa.\/ [dkcsif.vmonfudk jrifaomf tHhMo wkefvSKyf oGm.

f? 'Dawmh tJ'Dwkef. ]]uRefawmf oleJU vHk.r.BuD.u uRefawmfhudk.udk xdvdkufwmeJU rif... ]]'gayr. a&mufwkef.&JU q&mbdk.u wpfzufowfudk .bl.f qdkygw. .wdkU pum.vdkufwm[m wu.f? 'Da&Smifvif bkef..atmif e*g.wuúodkvf aevif..&Tifusif. .f}} ]]aeygOD.&JUjyify taMum &Spfckudk yGifhatmif zGifhay.0ef q&mawmfBuD.f xJrSm tat.ajymjy vdkufav\/ [dkcsif.rvnfacs/ xdkUaMumifh . aoaocsmcsm ighudk jyefajymjyprf.EdkifwJhaemufawmh olU&JU odkif. rif.ausmif.HkMunfvGef.onf pdwf0ifpm.fhvkyf odEdkifrSmvJ}} 290 .."mwf tqdyf&Sdaewmudk od&rSmaygh? 'Dvdkod&JUom.udk oufouf 'ku©a&mufatmif vkyfwm trSefyJ igxifwm rrSm.vdkU 'Dtcsufudk owdvpfoGm.u rif.eJU rif.usd? cHk..? rif. }} odkUjzifh [lusif.aeNyDyJ? olu rif.u em.Edkif"m.ynm[m odyfjrifhrm.favmifaomtoHjzifh ."mwftqdyf ysHUESHUaeNyDqdkwm ol b.fh olu uRefawmhf vuf0g..u uRefawmfh&JU jyify taMum&Spfckudk yGifhatmif vkyfay.0rodygbl.vHk.bdk.udk rxdcif uwnf..bdk.awmifNyD.awmif olu uRefawmfhudk bmjzpfvdkU rsm.wm jzpfvdrfhr.&JUjyify taMum&Spfckudk yGifhatmif vkyfay.? 'geJursm. ]][kwfw.tm.u tajctaeawGudk tptqHk.fxJrSm tat.&JUvuf0g..fawmh rif. olUq&m bdk.u a&Smifvif&JU aepMum odkif.BuD. .&JUudk.fhES. 'gawmhvJ [kwfw.'ku©a&mufatmif vkyf&rSmvJ}} ]]tif.udk oufouf 'ku©a&mufatmif vkyfwmyJayghuG}} [k qdk\/ [lusif.pNrnf ajymqdkMuyHkutp tm..ESifh cHk.a&Smifvif bk&m.usifhpOfudk usifhNyD.vQif ½kwfw&uf us.pGm em.udk rif.fuG ? 'Dbkef.

uRefawmfhudk owfzdkUrvdkygbl.w.l qef.fwif ukocJhw. ? 'DrSm[lusif.rJh owfr.fqw kd m rif.f? igukovdkU touf&SifoGm.rSm "m.fwdkif rif.udk owfcsifaew.ynmudk csNyD..wJh vli.vGe.\/ olu oufjyif.? 'gayr.vHk.wpfcsufcs&if.wJhol[m ighudk jyefNyD.fi.udk'ku©a&mufatmif vkyfwmvJqdkwm awmhrodbl.odxm.r[kwfvm.? rif.aomf [lusif. ukoMunfw h myJ igh pdwfxJrSm qHk.udk aoaphcsifaeMuovdkygyJ? tm.jzwfxm.u wpfudk.rSm ausmpdrfhoGm.cJhwmygyJ}} ]]'gayr.&JU'Pf&mu odyx f . avhvmqnf..fwpfa.u aq.fvdkUr&Edkif awmhbl. tcef..oleJU rawGUzl.fxJu tqdyfawGudkawmh aysmufatmifukEdkifrSm r[kwfawmhygbl.vdkUwGufxm.rSmawmh ighESrav.fuG}} xdkpum. ]]uRefawmfudk.f? aus. .fh'Daumif[m aemufqHk.fvdkU qHk.odkif.yl.vmw.f? ighpdwfxJrSm 'DavmurS &SdwJh vlawGtm.fvdkrS u.jzwfxm.}} [dkcsif.awmh taMumif.Zl.udk owfvdkufw.b.yl.f ukeBf udK.udk u.armMunfhae\ twefMumrSyif aqG.fqdkwJh pdwfeJU aq.wmuawmh rif. owfypfr.vHk.fhwpfcgrS rif.? q&mBuD.ynmawG oifaeMuwm[m wjcm.uef.atmif e*g.fvHk.rif.vHk.? uRefawmf ao&awmhrSmyg? a[m'D avmurSm&SdwJh vlawGudk Munfh&wm 'DjyifvlawGtm.pHk [dkcsif.fwifr.pm.u jyifyodkUom ai.jrnfhaom toHjzifh qdkavonf/ ]]igi.(34) twdwfZmwfvrf.avjzpfaew.[if q&mBuD.f}} 291 .&efrlvmw.Edkif"m. ]]olu bmjzpfvdkU rif.&ufeJU oHk.bl.cgvsuf .fwkef.udk ukvdkUaysmufwmeJU wpfcgwnf.fh ukoav qdk.NyD.zdkUu igudk.u acgif.udkMum.mufudk igu oHk.f}} ]]wpfcgwkef.nrtdyfbJ u.f vdUk igu tpGr.od&UJ vm.cJhw.fvdkU rxifbl.ynmawGudk qnf.'Pf&m jynfhESufaeNyD.wuúodkvf aevif.vludk owfzdkUyJvm.f? 'gayr.

awGU&if toufi.foabmwlEdkifrSmvJuG? 'gayr.fwGif.wJU vlu b.eJU ighvkd q&mrsdK.avawmh\/ xdkaemufydkif.onf oufqdk. tm.udk cg.fh ighESrav.favmifaom toHjzifh .&Sd tat."mwftqdyfudk ukoae rSef.Muavawmh\/ tm. uvJhpm..folvJqdkwm rif.vGef.wuúodkvf aevif.pdwf0ifvmav\/ odkUESifh olu .xJodkU 0ifoGm.aewmyJ}} [k a&&Gwfrdavonf odkUjzifh [lusif.zdESdyfcsKyfcs.udk wwfonfhwdkif tusKd.onf [lusif..xHodkU av.muf jzpfaew.fuGm? tJ'D uwdopömu bmvJqdkawmh b.vHk. oifMum..fo h rm.onf csef&Dtm.Munfh&mcsef&Du þESpfrsm. .racs&bl.aqmifBuD.fawmhrS tJ'Dvludk oGm.\/ xdkUjyif tjcm.ygbl.fuG}} [lusif.\udk. uHqdk.u tHwpfcsufBudwfNyD.avmurSm emrnfBuD.NyD.rSm ighudk uwdwpfck awmif.&.od&JUvm.&if rif.aom tcsdeftwGif.p&maumif.wGif [dkcsif. vGefpGm oem.Zl. ]]aMomfvufpowfawmh ol[m 'Dvdktjzpfqdk.. ? 'DaeU igajymwJh pum. qdkav\/ ]]rif.awGudk wjcm. odvdkufav\/ [dkcsif..jrnfhaomt&dyfta. 292 .wGif qufvuf aeEdkifaMumif.&SmwJh ighnDrav.folUudkrS jyefrajymygbl.vdkuf\/ odkUaomf olUpdwf udk oljyefavQmhNyD.tHk.jzpfvmEdik w f . ynmudk oifMum.vdkufwm}} [dkcsif. pdwfyg0ifpm.cufcJeufeJaom aq.vludk b.? uRefawmf b.vdkU 'Dvdk jzpf&wmygyJuGm}} [kdcsif..u oufjyif.acgufrQ a&mufvm av\/ olonf usef.BuD.. awmfBuD.ay.fvdkU 'ku©a&mufae&ifawmif ighudkoGm.? olu odyfpdwfoabmxm.}} ]]ol[m 'DaeU odkif.ojzifh [dkcsif.? t&yfwumwGif olcdk. aoumeD.? "m. ]]pdwfcsyg q&mBuD.wGif aexdkifcJhonfrSm ESpfESpftcsdefrQ ausmfvGef vmcJhavonf/ xdkESpfESpfrQ tcsdeftwGif.eJU BuHKcJh&wmudk.folvJ? q&mBuD.oifay. tyfpdkufxdk. xif[yfaeojzifh vGefpGm pdwfxdcdkufaerSef.ESifhtwl vdyfjymukef. ]]a[h ..vmaMumif..vyfaom tcsdefwdkif.buftcef.wGif rsuf&nf0Jvmav\/ [lusif.udkvnf.vdk OmPf&nfrsdK.u &kwfw&uf a'goxGufNyD.wGif csef&Donf [lusif.cJhw.udk ½kwfw&uf yGwfoyfNyD.wJh em.u [lusif.0aysmufuif..onf jynfolrsm.rD.rSm 'ku©qif.usef. ]]tJ'Daus. orQudk wdkawmif.wpf*dkPf.}} [kajymvdkufavonf/ xdktcg [dkcsif.atmif. uvJhpm.jyrsm.NyD.f}} xdkUaemufwGifrl [dkcsif.rsdK.yJjzpf&r.u [lusif. .\rsufESmay:wGif emMunf.u .f}} xdktcg [dkcsif.racs&wmvJ}} [k aumifumiifum ar. ]]'Dvl b. [dkcsif. jyefceJU&ef pdwful.vufcHwwfajrmufvmaom tajctae&Sdvmavonf/ wpfaeUwGif [dkcsif. 'gaMumifhvJ tifrwef xl.cs&if.fvmojzifh jynfolwpf&yfvHk. [lusif.ig.onf [dkcsif.onf [dkcsif. ]]ighESrav.uef.qef.rxl.atmif e*g. txufvrf. wdkif.. aemuf . rw&m.rSom jyefvm &ef ajymjyav\/ [lusif.fawmhrS rajymyg eJU igjyefMum.&JU cspfolr[kwf&if cifyGef.tay:wGif oem.[kqdkvdkjcif.rSpí [dkcsif.wJh}} ]]tif.Edkif"m.eJU wu. [lusif. aqG. ulnDcdkif. xMuG aomif.csvdkuf qdkav\/ ]]aMomf .mifrsm.ao.wdkUESpfOD.tm. rGef*dkrsm.. oem.pnf. aumif. oufjyif.qdkvdkonfh oabmrSm[lusif.enf.&JU acgif.oGm...tm.ouJhodkU jzpfaeaMumif.vdkuf\/ [dkcsif.f}} ]]tpuawmh ig b.ESifh vHk.rd\ olUpdwfxJrSmvnf.onf OmPf&nfaumif.fi.tqHk.vnf&cufcJwJh pdwfxm. Budrf.wJh? 'gwifruao.udk taocuf? t&Sifcufjzpfatmif ESdyfpufrSmuG}} [k qdkav\/ [lusif.onf twGif.\ pdwfxJwGifrl þodkU aumufcsufcsrdav\/ ]][kwfNyD ? tJ'Dvl[m olUnDrav.NyD. olU&ifxJrSm udef. jyifyavmu\tajctaeudk ar.jynfwpfckvHk.ay. *dkPf.í tvGefvnf.onf pum.fh ESajrmp&maumif.f? 'gayr.u ½kwfw&ufus.vdkufwJh uav.qef.yif jzpfonf/ onfodkUjzifh [lusif.onf vGefpGmcifrif oGm.r&SnfEdkifoljzpfí þynmrsm.u igoabmrwl&if oltaoajzmifhrSm r[kwfbl.&JrSK taygif. twGif.fav..\acgif..w.uGm wu.av\/ [lusif.tay:wGifvnf.ícHae&aMumif.zkef.u bmjzpfvdkUolUudkoGm.odojzifh vdyfjymukef.ESifh [lusif.wpfa.ynmrsm.

aeaom tdrfazmfwpfa.\ &efolBuD.onfudk omawGU&ojzifh acsmif.pm.aemufaemuf jzpfvmojzifh olUtcef.udk BudK.yJ? igu olUtcef...xJodkU 0ifítdyfpufaevdkuf\/ aemufwpfaeU tdyf&mrS Edk.xJrSm bmjyóemay:aevdkUygvdrfh}} [k awG.yifrsm. twGif.\&efolawmfBuD.at.xGufí &SmazGMunfhvdkuf\/ tjyifbufwGif aq. olUaoG.&JU &efolwpfa.fvdkU igowif..fh tJ'D &efoludk olvHk. ?odkif.udk ½kwfw&uf rawGU&aomtcg xdwfvefUoGm.av\/ tcef..tcef.vdkU ajymwJhaemufawmh bmrSaMumufp&mrvdkygbl.ydwfxm...wHcg. tusdK.aomuf&ef tcef.hf bBuD. tMum.aeygaemf}} [lusif. wpfusrf.[dkcsif.0odkUa&mufaomtcg tcef.wpfcsuf[efUí . BuD.udk &SmNyD.udk vmNyD.\tcef.taMumif.? igzsm.aeaMumif.udk rawGUygacs/ [lusif.. ajymae wmygvdrfh? olwdkU *dkPf. ]]q&mBuD.onf aq.w. .w.u vdkufydkUav\/ csef&Donf [lusif.mufu bBuD.f? tpawmh rif.ESifh atmufvrf.rSm owif.avonf/olUpdwfxJrSm vnf.atmif e*g. owdxm..bufodkU avQmufoGm.rsm.Mum. udkprf.? apmapmuawmif uRefawmfvufzuf&nfMurf.pm..NyD.bJ &Sdav\/ [lusif. xm.*dkPf.usrf.yifvQif aq.mufudk awGU&í olu .w.eJU q&mBuD.ckefEIef.vnf.tem.wBuD...jcm.vdkufygao..}} [k ajymNyD.NyD..yrf.avmuwpfckvHk.\ twGif.vJacs/ xdkUjyif &ifqdkif&efvnf.wGif.onf tHhMooGm.twefMumatmif ajymaeonfudk awGU&onf/ nOfheufonfhwdkif rtdyfMuao. tjyifbufodkU xGufvdkuf\/ xdktcg ae0if&Dwa&m tcsdef jzpfaeonfudk awGU&\/ xdkUaMumifh [lusif.ygvm. ]]q&mBuD.f}} [k a&&GwfNyD.ydkUay..yif jyefajym\/ [lusif.&xm.rSm bBuD. emrnfBuD. wG i f pum.u qufvufíodcsifojzifh .udk cPa&Smifcdkif.rm.xJrSmyJ r[kwfvm. wpf a cguf a&muf & S d v mcsd e f w G i f [d k c sif .udk jyefajymjywmyJ? 'gayr.Munfhvdkufonf/ xl. &.tcsdefwGif ½kwfw&ufqdkav\/ ]]nDav.u rrIygbl.u wpfcsufrQ aMumifoGm. tjyifbufodkU ajy.wJh}} ]]at.? tck&uftwGif. ]]at.onf vHk.aumuG}} [k ar.u . oGm.ckuJhodkU [dkcsif.uG bmyJjzpfjzpf nDav.&Sd &Gmol&Gmom. 293 .tawmtwGif.zwf&if. a&mufvmrnfudk &ifwrrjzifh apmifhaecsdefjzpfí . ta&..um.onf þ&ufrsm.uGm}} [k qdkav\/ rSefygonf/ [dkcsif. ES i f h t wl twG i f .farmvsuf . r&Sdacs/ odkUjzifh [dkcsif. ]]udkBuD. wpfaeUwpfjcm. [dkcsif.rsm.ESifh teD.0 rrIygbl. .rS rl. &ef&Smvdrfhr.rSm vGefpGmudkufaeojzifh aq.rvdkU igpdwful.folvJ}} [k ar.? vrf.y#dyu©rsm. xdwfvefUoGm.udk a&avmif.aerd\/ aemufwpfaeU csef&Djyefaomtcg [lusif.cJhvdkU bBuD. ]]igtdyfwm odyfMumoGm.uko&ef vmonfudk rawGU&ay/ þaeUwGif[lusif.aeNyDxifw.onfudk rjrif&acs/ þodkUESifhyif ckepf&ufrQ ausmfvmav\/ þ&ufrsm. ajymjyavonf/ csef & D o nf aemuf q H k . ]]igvJ rodbl.*dkPf.wdkU bmrsm.ESifh cJGcGmumeD. buf tcef .wuúodkvf aevif.odkU 0ifvdkuf\/ odkUaomf [dkcsif.NyD.. a&mufvm&ef rqdkxm. ]]olUtcef.udp&ö SdvdkU 'DavmufMumatmif pum.f? 'gayr.xJudk t&ifr&SmbJeJU tjyifbufrSmom &Smaerdwmudk. [kwfom.jcif.0trSKt&mrajymif.ajymjy&ef [dkcsif.av\/ csef&Du .rsm. [dkcsif.vmaomtcg olUacgif.f}} [k cyfat.Edkif"m.[lusif. pdwfxJwGif vnf. jyifqifxm.&JU &efolu b.avonf/ tdrfazmfav.

u aemufqHk. q&mBuD..\toHu twGif.avonf/ xdktcg [dkcsif.cifAsm.u csufcsif.f bufqD odUk OD.f}} [k awG.. tcef.e. [dkcsif.. ]]rif.twGif.uefcGufa.NyD.vsmrsm.&w.'Dvdkvkyfygvm.udk aMumufp&m tvsif.\rsufESmwpfckvHk.u . 'Dtcef.muf? t0wftpm.f? q&mBuD.aeonfudkyg jrif&av\/ [lusif.pmtkyf wpftkyfudk pdwf0ifwpm.bmomyJ aq.rS [dkcsif.'DaeU 'DtcsdefupNyD.omoGm. pmtkyfudk ydwfírwfwwfx&yfvdkuf\/ olUpdwfxJwGif ..pufoGm.mufonf orm.fwdkifvJ 'Pf&m&oGm. tm.yg? ig bma&m*g &aew. ]]igraeUnu tdyfarmusaewkef.&av\ jrif.? igausmufa&m*g &aew.'Dvdyfjymukef.xJ 0ifrvmeJUawmh ? igoHk.udk &efjyKvdrfhr.awmfBuD.pm.ynmbufu wwfxm.uae v0ufavmuf tjyifudk cP xGufoGm. ]]q&mBuD.ygvm.wmyJ? 'g tpfudkBuD. ]]rvdkygbl.odkU ajy.jzifh [lusif.fvdkvkyfrvJ}} [kar..xJrS xGufoGm.Edkif"m.NyD? rif.faeonfudk awGU&NyD.}} xdktawG.}} [k toHjyKvdkufavonf/ xdktcg tcef. q&mBuD.usrf.rSm &efolBuD.NyD.loGm.fqkdwm rif.wm jzpfvdrfhr.onf aq.u olUtm.bl.mufu þvdka&m*grsdK. .rf.vkduf\/ 294 .f? b.fuG}} [l u sif . ]]q&mBuD. tcef.onf &efolaMumifh jzpf&onfudk r[kwfrSef. ]]aumif..f}} [k jyefajymav\/ [dkcsif. uRefawmf bmaq.. [lusif..folu q&mBuD.pyfay.trsm.ypfvdkuf yg? tif.a& .}} [k &dkaopGmajymNyD. jrif.twGuf xrif..wJh yef.rSm &efolBuD.eJU tdrfazmfuav..? 'grSr[kwf&if igh&JUa&m*gu rif.[if.jzifh zwf½SLaepOf jrif.f? rif.&if b.cGmoHrsm. csef&DuvJG&if vmwJholawG r&SdoavmufygyJ? tckvmwJh vlawGu q&mBuD.fh oludk.cGmoHawG Mum.r&Sd/ NyD..&ef twefwefajymaomfvnf. [dkcsif. tckvdk a&m*g&aewJhtcsdefrSm uRefawmfu a&Smif wdrf. .jyNyD.ig.pOf [lusif.eJU oefUpifatmif aq. ]][lusif.uG..atmif e*g.&rvJ}} [kar.rsm. ]]q&mBuD. [lusif.&JU &efolrsm.awmfBuD.wGif . ½kwfw&ufa&mufvmNyD.vHk.NyD}} xdkaeUnwGifjzpfonf/ tdrfazmfav. [dkcsif.&ufcefU MumvmcJh\/ þaeUwGif[lusif.xJodkU . jynfhESufaeavNyDjzpfyg\/ [lusif.onf [lusif. xd y f x d y f y smysm trl t &mjzif h [d k c sif .pdwfxJwGif .awG aemufwpfcg ightcef.u aq.xJudk vHk.qdo k vdk aq. 'DaeU aexdkifraumif..0r0ifvmygeJU}} [líom ajym&avawmh\/ þodkUjzifh av.[dkcsif..yif .av\/ [dkcsif.yg vdkufoGm. \ rsufESmwpfjyifvHk.usrf.tm.udkvJ a&aEG. vuf.u .oGm.uJhodkUorm.? rif.wGif teDpufuav.\a&m*gudk pdk. tdyf&mxufwGif NidrfoufpGm vJavsmif.aemuf [dkcsif.udk ul. wpfa.usrf.cef.[dkcsif.f}} [lusif..udk ½kww f &uf Mum.od&JUvm.0vufrcHonfhtqHk.xkwfEdkifcJhayr.. xGufcGmoGm. [lusif.aomfvnf.wuúodkvf aevif.wpfa.ao.onf ½kwfw&uf xdwfvefU oGm..w.awG tm.&ef ajymav\/ ]][lusif.u qufí .cef.udk jyKpkrmS vJ uRefawmfurS tenf.xJu rif.NyD.u vHk.wnfvmaeaMumif.? q&mBuD.. . \rsuf E S m ud k Munf h v d k u f \ rS e f y gonf / [d k c sif .[dkcsif.odaomf vGefpGm 0rf.&drfojzifh ..tm.vm.awG zwfaeayawmh}} [k qkdav\/ [lusif....tjrefqHk. ]]'DESpfawGrSm vdyfjymukef..0ifoGm.xifrdav\/ xdktcsdefwGifyif [dkcsif.xm.kwfvsuf EGrf..udk armif.odkU {nfhonfawG ta&muftayguftawmfenf.onf vlwcsdKU vdyjf ymuke.cGmoHrsm. ]][kwfuJh q&mBuD.vdkufavonf/ xdktcg [dkcsif.xJrS uJGtufpGm xGufay:vmavonf/ ]]rvdkygbl. xGufoGm..onf twGif. ightcef.a&? igaq. tcsufjyouJo h Ukd ay:xGufaeav\/ [lusif.vdrfhr.

vnf. aoG.ESifh vlu .mufu jrif.u vlawGygq&mBuD.rsm.ae&vdkU tdyf&mxJrSm vJaew.ESifh vlu xyfrHawmif. .r.frS touf&Sif&rSmyg? 'Dawmh nDav. ]]q&mBuD.jyKNyD. 'D r S m yJ a eNyD .0rukoay.rsm.abmifqDodkU axmufceJ [k vQdKU 0Sufvufeufwpfck vma&mufpdkufav\/ xdkvlu . wdkufcdkufay.aygufa&SUrSaeí [dkcsif.xm.BudK.k wGif a0ghceJ aoG.fvdkUajymvdkufyg} [lusif.lvdkufNyD. OD.oGm.ar.udkMum..ZmwfBudK.atmif e*g.ESiv hf l ud.udk.wGifvnf.odkU avQmufoGm.. [dkcsif.fhudkausmufa&m*g &aevdkU aemifBuD.NyD.NyD.u olwdkUtem.MunfhygOD.bGm.D pnf.xJrSaeí jyefatmf\/ xdkUaemuform.if.a.vdkuf\/ xdktcg a&Ta&mifwpfcsuf 0if.[lusif.oHk. pum.*dkPf. av\/ [lusif.uvnf..awmhrSyif &ifat.u .[dkcsif.rvdkUwJh}} [k vSrf.wpfcsuf tefusvmav\/ usef.NyDjzpf\/ [lusif.a&SUodkU a&mufoGm.yefoHjzifh qdkaejyef\/ xdktcg [lusif.ESpfaumif\ ausmxufwGif vdkufygvm\/ olwdkU\tusÐrsm.lNyD.a0.? olwdkUawGu 0gqef. u olUtem.mufteuf rsufESmrnf.csKyfBuD.atmfajym\/ [dkcsif.rnf.jyefrajymacs/ xdkpOf jrif. vlESpfa.muf p vH k . rS m þtouf t &G .. ajymjyav\/ xdkol oHk..mufu ..csNyD.udk udik x f m.q&mBuD.wdkU 'Djyiform. ]]aemifBuD.. xdkpum.cifAsm.yGifhyrm a&Ta&mifvQdKU0Sufvufeufjzpfonfudk awGU&\/ [lusif. yGifhbGm.tm.EdkifrSm r[kwfygbl.&Sd jrif. .f? q&mBuD. wHcg.&JU oabmxm.acgif..u ]tif..udk a&m*g ukcdkif. [dkcsif.} [líom oufjyif. ]]q&mBuD.. tp&S d o nf u d k awG U aomf vGefpGmtHhMooGm.yg}} [katmfajymav\/ [lusif.0g.rnf.wdkUudk b.acsmif..u vm&wmyg}} [kqdkjyef\/ [lusif.? 'gaMumifh aemifBuD.u tck rif..mufurl jrif.udkif xm.q&mu igwd k U ud k aysmuf a tmif uk o ay.onf [dkcsif.tqH. ol U &ef o l u d k 0d k i f ...u *dkPf.udk ay.rf. 295 .eJU awGUcsifygw. ]]'Dvdkqdk&if aemifBuD. jyefí NidrfoufoGm. a.vdkufyg? igwdkU[m a&Tyef. u.u .xufrS vlwpfa. vQdKU0Sufvufeufudk .fyGifho@mef yef.&JU wynfhawGyg}} xdv k o l nf pum.f}} [k awmif. rif. ]]usKyfwdkU oHk.EdkifaMumif.mufu vufudk ½kwfw&uf a0SU. q&mudk vm&SmaeNyD? 'gaMumifh rif.? q&mBuD.u wu.fwdkif a&m*gcHpm.vufeufudk oHñSyfjzifh qJGEkwf.Edkif"m.avawmhonf/ xd k v l v nf .wdkUvmwm tcsdefr[kwfbl.av\/ xdktcsdefwGif [lusif.? aus.jzifh eD&Jaeonfudk awGUvdu k &f av\/ jrif.fvdkrS ukoay.wGif ywfw.aom rsuEf mS rnf.awmh\/ olu tdrfa&SUodkU xGufMunfhvdkuf&m rsufESmESmrnf. ]]usKyfwdkUq&mBuD.abmifwGif pdkufaeaom vQdKU0Sufvufeufudk Munfhvdkuf&m Mu.&JU vufcsufaMumifh tckvkd jzpfvm&wmyg? tJ'aD &Tyef. [l u sif . wJtdrfa&SUodkU a&mufvmBuNyD jzpfyg\/ jrif.u q&mBuD.wuúodkvf aevif.a.mufu q&mBuD.odUk vsifjrefpmG oGm.ESifh vlwpfa.*dkPf. ]]'D .yef&ef jyKav\/ xdkpOf olUeHab. tcef.rsm.udk odcsifvSygw. ]]usKyfwdkUu c&D.&if igwd k U oH k .vdkuf\/ xdktcgusrSyif xdkvl\&ifbwfwGif Aavmifqlaeaom aoG.\tcef. 0ef .yg}} [k qdkav\/ rsufESmrnf.Zl.ay:wGif vJaeaom vlwpfa.u wHcg..ESifhvluyif .onfudk awGU&NyD. tultnDawmif. uRefawmfwdkUudk aq..u vHk.NyD.f? aemifBuD.NyD.yGib hf mG . [dkcsif.wdkUudk rukEdkifwmyg}} [k qdk\/ xdktcg rsufESmrnf. k w f ikd w f iG v f nf..udk tck oGm.awmfBuD.rnf.vufoGm.rnf. ol\&ifbwfESifh aemufausm&Sd taMumajcmufckudk ydwfay.cifAsm.u .bGm. f r QES i f h þa&G U þrQ tpG r f .As? tck q&mBuD.vnf.awmfawGqDoGm..ukoay.u wHcg.&JU emrnfudk odyg&ap}} ]]usKyfemrnfudkawmh rajymyg&apeJU? usKyfuawmh 0gqef.em.

ndwfMunfh&if..wdkUuvJ a&Tyef.fwpfa.atmif e*g.vQif cef.odkUa&mufatmif ypfEdkif&efcufcJvS\/ .av\/ þa&Tyef.u igeJU bmrSrqdkifbl. ]][kwfygw..wuúodkvf aevif.vnf.}} [k ar.wpfa.u usefusufu q&mBuD. [dkcsif.muf wJGíawmifxdyfqDodkU avQmufwufvmMuonfudk awGU&\/ [lusif.bGm.ukoay.? cHkwHk*dkPf.muf&JU aoa&. 'Pf&mudk.pm.olrsm.odkU qdkufa&mufvmawmh\/ xdktcgrsufESmwpfckvHk.onf xdkodkU atmfajym&if./ xdktcsdefrSmyif vlav.azmufypfvTwfEdkifonfudk jrifaomf [lusif.. olUtem.jym.&SmMuyg}} [lusif.mufcefUonf wpfa.ck[dkcsif.twGif.tkyfxm.ESifhtwl ajray:odkU ½kwfw&uf vJusoGm.&jyef\/ NyD. ]]q&mBuD.zdkU rvdkbl.vQdKU0Sufvufeufudk .u .udk awGUNyD.mufu xdyfajymifaeaom vlBuD.}} [k qdkojzifh [lusif.rS 00zdkifhzdkifh vlu cHk.ajcmuf a.udk tomvSyfí vQdKU0Sufvufeufudk ypfay. [dkcsif. jyefay.mufonfvnf.udkvJ olwdkU pdk.a.? igh&JU aoa&.udkjyefajymjy\/ xdktcg[dkcsif. [lusif.onf olUrsufESmudk y0geufjzifh zHk.rDrSmyif jrif.rqHk.odkU uokwfu.}} [kajymNyD.uf oGm.f}} [kajzNyD.vQdKU0Suf vufeufudk ypfvdkufaomvludk acgif. . ta0.u wu.aom 'Pf&m&xm. vSdrfhoHrsm.NyDvm. cef. &Sifa&.fhudk a&m*gtjyif.fay:wGifrl 'Pf&m vHk.mufu xdyfajymifaeaom vlBuD.udk xGif.\tcef. vufeufrSm vGefpGmxufjrufaomfvnf. zdkU tultnDvmawmif.? cifAsm.bD..mufudk Munfhvdkuf&m xdkoltm.mufrSm oduRrf.u .vSnf.vJ odkif.vQif [dkcsif.. udk.0r&Sday/ olwdkUudk Munfh&onfrSm tm.xifvdkufrd\/ odkUaomf olwdkU\ rsufESmwGif aoG.}} [kar. wpfa..lítjyifbufodkU xGufvm&jyef\/ olonf a&Tyef. 0gxdefaeaom vli.wpfa.Edkif"m.rDyif xdkvli. ]]'DvloHk. tHhMooGm.a.fonf ayGUcsDvmaom vlBuD.onf xdka&Tyef. ]]ighudk tJ'Dvufeufjyprf.ae&vdkU cifAsm. ]]q&mBuD.mufudk wpfa.av\/ 296 .ig.ay:rS qif.ydwfrSm aysmhaysmif. ojzifh þodkU azmufxGufNyD....ig.ae&vdkU}} olUpum.av\/ rSefonf/ þvlESpfa.wdkUudk vHk.udk aq.. ..yGifh bGm.wHk*dkPf. 0wfxm.tm.&Sifa&.vdkuf\/ vl0BuD.vufpowfawmh 'Dorm.vSrsm.vHk. apmapmu pum. usefusufbufodkU vSnfhí .u .vGef. Muonf r[kwfygvm. ajcmufa..fwul xGif. .vHk. ]]cifAsm.awmfudk tjrefqHk..awmfBuD.mufteuf a&SUqHk.vSnf.u tjyifbufwGif &yfíapmifhaepOf [dkcsif.Muolrsm. jzpf[efwl\/ [lusif..vdkuf\/ xdktcsdefwGif [dkcsif.&JU vufcsufeJU 'Pf&m&vmMuwmyJvm.0gxdefaeaom vli. wwfwmudk.mufudk ayGUcsDíjrif.onf/ ]]tif.tm.vSnf.vSnfh MunfhvdkufcsdefwGif jrif.u tHhMoojzifh .onf þrQrsm.azmufí vQdKU0Sufvufeufudk tjyifodkU azmif.qkwfaeNyD.vdkuf&jyef\/ [lusif.udk awGUaomf rsufarSmifMuKwf vsuftHhMoaerd\/ xdkUaemuf oluvSrf.fpD &&Sdxm.onfudk awGU&onf/ [lusif. ]]q&mBuD.mufudk ayGUcsDíjrif.Muonfudk awGU&\/ olwdkUonf ukefonfrsm. [dkcsif.}} [krSwfcsuf csrdav\/ xdkUaemuf[lusif.vmNyD.ig.olUtem.ynmaumif.aumif.wdkU tcsdef&Sdwkef. NyHK.onf awmufajymifaom 0wfaumif. Mum.oGm.rS usefusufESifh a&Tyef.í atmfajymav\/ ]]q&mBuD. vufeufudk xdkvltm.fwpfa.u cef.rqHk.muf rJhNyHK.odkU qdkufa&mufvmawmh\/ xdktcg rsufESmwpfckvHk.ajcmuf a.u ausmufa&m*g cHpm.0ruko ay.ceJ jyefypfay.&if.aemufxyf a&mufvmaom xdkvlav.qD..Mu[efwl yg\/ xdkvl av. }} pum.&drfay.txef cHpm. 'Djyiform.'Pf&m &xm.qD.u tvG.vSnf.qD. vdkufMuav\/ olwdkUoHk.. [dkcsif.&Sdygovm.Edkifygbl. jzpfrnf[k[lusif.mufudk wpfa.

'gayr.\tar. odEdkif\/ xdktcg aemufxyf rdef.u xGufcGmoGm. aeav\/ olwdkUtm.aew. usda&Smifrl\ toHrSef.muf\ toHudkyg Mum.fvdkU}} olu [lusif.muf a&muf&SdvmMujyef\/ xdkolrsm.yghrvm.\/ pdwfxJrSvnf.hf orm.xHaq..rrSm toufvGefpGm i. tckvdk 'Pf&m&atmifom vkyfNyD.fhtpm.f udk wpfNydKifwnf. ]]aMomf .&wmvJ}} [k awG.u .aerd\/ xdt k csdew f iG f 'Pf&m&vmoltm.r\pum.pGm yxr a&mufvmaomvlu [lusif.vdkuf&av\/ odkUESifhyif [lusif..zdwfac:Munfhygvm..bGm.av.f? a&Tyef.u ararhudk ukay.? &uf[l&wemqdkifu vefavmifyefu 'Pf&mudk ukoay. 'Pf&m udk.rSmyg}} [k ajymoHMum.av.}} [k a&&GwfoHudkyg Mum.aumif.vdkuf&\/ ]]azaz [dktdrfrSm rD. 'Djyiform.vnf.f xifw.ygbl.atmif e*g.u rukbl.f ynmu 'Davmufawmif aMumufp&maumif.awmfudk oGm. uHqdk.\/ xdktcg vl0BuD.vm. owfEikd w f myJ? bmjzpfvdkUrsm. ]]nDav.Mum. omrefuav.wuúodkvf aevif. ]]tif.Muolrsm..awmfBuD. .ygvm.Muay/ tm.}} 297 .cgvsuf .&ef vma&muf tultnD awmif.ípkNyHKaeMujyef av\/ [lusif.vdkuf&if araraysmuf oGm.&SmMuygvdkU uRefawmfajymwmaygh}} [k jyefajymav\/ [lusif.onf [lusif.0ifí .udk ta&.udk rajzbJ ajymvdkufjcif.f? cifAsm.? 'gaMumifh cifAsm.&NyD.vSwJh ighorD.}} ]]orD.onfESifh tBuD.kH í vSaJ vsmif.f}} xdkpOfuav.vdkuf&\/ usef.vH.onf xdkrdef.yGihf bGm.rSmyg}} ]]tif.. .vH..av\/ xdkUaMumifholu csufcsif. ]]nDav. a':av. 'Dred . ]]'Dval wGtm.rjyKbJ tdrfa&SU&Sd Z&yfav.zl.}} [kar. a&mufvmMuwm[m taMumif.q&mBuD.u f av..arar? orm.f r&JU toHukd igaumif.uav.r[kwfrSef. rarmygbl.yGifh bGm.wGifyif xdkrdef.onf wpfa.\ toHudkMum. orD.yif jzpfyg\/ xdktcsdefwGif OD.\toHrSm olUta':av.tus..wJah emufawmh 'Dval wGukd owfcsif&if tvG.. [dkcsif. q&mBuD.csoHESifhtwl .fawmhrS ukrSm r[kwfbl..oHudk Mum.r wpfa. q&mBuD..f}} [lusif. .yefygw. ]]cifAsm.vHk.awmfBuD.rxHrS oufjyif.u vGefpGmtHhMooGm.ygw.fvdkac:ovJ? q&mBuD.rodbl.udk oGm. wpfqufwnf.&JU emrnf b.f? a&mufNyD azaz}} uav.k onf wJtrd af &SUwGiyf if pk½.fao....mufrS xGufcGmroGm.acgif.[lusif. .fvdkawmfpyfovJ}} [k ar.xdkodkU ajymaepOf aemufxyf vlav.&Sd &r.mufygyJ? oluuRefawmhfudk ukwm ESpfESpf&SdoGm.eJU b. usefusufu acgif.&jyef\/ ]]orD. toHjyKvdkuf\/ ]]a':av.yJ oGm.qDudk vTwfNyD. ]]uRefawmfuvJ q&mBuD. ay.u Mum..u xdkrdef..jcif. armaeNyDvm.fpDESifh jzpfNyD..ygNyD? 'gayr.aMumif.usd a&Smifr&l UJ toHyjJ zpf&r.&.fh raysmufao.vif...rxHrS ]]orm.i. ]]a&Tyef.av\/ taMumif.zdkU tEl. xdkolrsm.[dkcsif.&ef ajymonfhwdkif wpfa.ukcdkif.k vdyjf ymuke.taMumif.mufrQ xGufcGmoGm.wdkU 'DrSmtcsdefukef cHaer.a.u .f wpfOD.usrf.bGm.HtcsdefodkU a&mufaomtcg ½kwfw&uftjyifbufrS ajcoHrsm...udk Mum.uav.vnf. [dkcsif.? q&mBuD.&JU odik .r.u ararhudk ukay.&JU rsufESmu ydkBuD. .&JU vlemwpfa. [dkcsif.tm... odojzifh olu ..vHk.u ararhudk ukay.rjyKawmhyJ aq.xJodkU oGm.}} [kjyefajym\/ [lusif. taotcsm odoGm.ukoay.awmfBuD.tnGwf awmif.f? 'DtoH[m a':av.av\/ [lusif.pmtkyfwpftkyfudk xkwfí zwfaevdkuf\/ nOfhoef.folvJ? 'Davmufawmif &ufpuf&ovm.u b. xdkae&mrSmyif ayuwfíaeaeMuav\/ odkUjzifh nae ae0if&Dwa&mtcsdefodkU a&mufvmav\/ odkUwdkifatmif xdkvlrsm.aeMuav\/ olwUkd xJrS wcsdKUrSm 'Pf&maMumifh NidrfoufpGmvSJavsmif. jzpfav\/ [lusif..ig.Mum.ygvm.armhítoHvm&m arQmfMunfhvdkuf&m rdef.u acgif.Edkif"m..fwkefvSKyfoGm.rl .vdkUajym&if b.

rav.[lusif. ]]rif..odkU a&mufvmav\/ usad &Smifro l nf [lwef.ae\/ usda&Smifrlonf uav.fvdkU igvHk. awGUpOfu [lusi.cJh&í usda&Smifrltay:wGif oHo.'DrSm a&mufaew.. xdktcgusrSyif usda&Smifrl\ EIwfrS ][m} ceJtmar!dwfjyKoHMum. vef.. ]]a':av.wdk.jzpfygvsuf .[lusif.f [lusi.[lusif.u olUudk arar[k ac:vdkufojzifh rsufESmeD&JoGm.EIwfrSvnf.ol jzpf&m olrudk..íxdef.vQif'Pf&mvnf.tqufrjywfqdk.ckrl usef.}} [k zdwfac:NyD.av. Mum. cPavmuf tem.jznf. om. rodatmifjzpfoGm. wdusrSefuefaom tyfpdkuf[efudk awGU&aomtcg oabmaygufoGm.wlOD.rav.av. wpfa.avQmufvmaeonfudk awGU&\/ cPtMumwGif [lusif.wmav}} [k tpazmfay.0rxifrdcJhrdbl..udk xkwfítyfpdkufukoay..u aiGtyfacsmif.ulvdkuf&av\/ xdkUaemuf usef.ay./ odkUjzifh usef.fvdkpum..qef.NyD.&rSef.vm. csifvd&Sef\ ZeD.av\/ ]]arar .u rdcifvJusawmhrnfudk jrifaomf ao.frSmvmítusdK.yif rodawmhacs/ xdkUaMumifh usda&Smifrl\ rsufESmwpfckvHk. xkw. onf usd a &S m if r l \ acsmif .vnf. txJ0ifNyD.faumif.ESD.wuúodkvf aevif.f rSm toufq.ESpf ausmfNyDjzpf&m vlysdKayguf t&G.eD&JoGm.[lusif.av\/ tyfacsmif.onfESifh usda&Smifrl\ydwfaeaom tqkwfav ½SL>yefrSm ½kwfw&uf yGifhoGm.u 'DjyifvleJU vuf0g. tjyifwGif va&mif xdefxdefvif.wGif use.fEpS cf efU om &Sad o.dkifvJusvkvk jzpfoGm.ckorD. ..[lusif.awmfBuD. olu orm.rsm.em.lvdkufygOD.uyif vsifjrefpGm0ifí az.0rxifcJh½Hkru olronf usef.i.u uRefawmftazeJU tarudk.trd ESpfa. oH r sm.fodkU cHpm.folr r[efEdkifawmhbJ .av\/ xdktcg olr\orD. fpum..vmonfudk cHpm.ESifh awGUqHk&vdrfhrnf[k vHk.[lusif.pm.av? [lwef.rvdkU vkyfao.awmif uRefawmhfudk qJGBudK.aomf ..fah v.uav? a':av..\ oGufvufvsifjrefNyD.rSm toufwpfq.&Sd&mtem.[lusif. usef. aMumufrufzG.xJodkU ydkUvdkufav\/ usda&Smifrlonf w[Gwf[Gwfjzifh acsmif.f[lusif.atmif e*g.mufudk vufqJGí va&mifatmufwGif wjznf. .cRefxufjrufwJh ynmyg &xm.wmudk.mufudkyg wJGvmaom tjzpfudkawG.avmif.csif.ay.xda&mufygrnfenf.cspfcif &if.o f Ukd yif a&muf&adS eNyDjzpf\/xdUk aMumifh usda&Smifrlonf usef.Muifemwwfaom pdwfapwemudkyg awGUcJh&í usda&Smifrl tay:wGif av.jzpfzG.&ef BudK.awmifay:wkef.cJh\/ .fudk owfaowkef.Edkif"m.av.vdkuf&av\/ usda&Smifrlonf tHhMo0rf.aom orD. odí .\/ NyD.rSm tifrwef xl.f tm. odvdkuf\/ xdkUaMumifholu .udkyg awGU&aom tcg pdwfxJrS b.av.[if? ararhudk olukay.av.fbuftqkwfwGif jyif.p ajym&rnfrSef..rsm. [l u sif .[lusif.[lusif.[lusif. ]]a':av. rif.}} usef.u uRefawmfudk rrSwfrdawmhbl. vGefpGmayghyg.. qd k .[lusif.mufudk tcef.av\/ usda&Smifro l nf usef.axmif v d k u f o nf E S i f h usd a &S m if r l \ b.u usda&Smifrl rrSwfrdrSef.. rif. qdkav\/ ]]vlav.faumif.? tckawmh rif.ckwpfzef usda&SmifrlESifh twl cspfpzG..u}} [ktxpftaihg jzpfaeav\/ þwGif usef.ompGmjzifh usef.pm. &xm.&\ trSefrl udsa&Smifrlonf þvdkae&mrsdK. arar}} usda&Smifrlonf usef.faom vufESpfbufjzifh zrf.tm.aeav\/ usef .rQ pdkuf0ifoGm.\/ .ud k em. f pl Of bmvkyrf nf[k rodaomfvnf.ckepfacsmif. ..NyD.vm. wpfa.ar. usda&Smifrl\ jrifhjrwfaom oem.awmifwiG f use.u .SOf½dkufcJhvdkUtckvdk tqkwfaMumrSm 'Pf&m&cJhwmyJ}} [k ajymNyD.u .fhudk.vSaom awmtkyfwdkufyJGwGif usda&Smifrl ESifh ywfoufaom oHo.apmif.[lusif. aiGtyfacsmif.av.rdí b.tm.u usda&Smifrlem.pm. ]]a':av.? uRefawmfu usef.av\/ xdkpOf uav.odkUuyfí wD.a&SUwGif orD..av\/ odkUaomf b.jyef\/ 298 .rsm.\ *dkPf.&SdcJhonf rSefaomfvnf. ½kwfw&uf rrSwfrdacs/ olronf wpfcsufrQ aMumifoGm.xefaom wkefcgrSK'Pfudk cHcJh&aMumif.rvdkUvm.

ygNyD}} [k qdk\/ usef.wpfa.ajymaomf &efa0u rsufvHk.uG.jzpfoltm..umckefayguf jrL. av\/ usef.aeavawmh\/ usef.[lusif.. xl.udk vmukocdkif. od\/ xdkodkU&SdpOf usda&Smifrlonf usef.rvJ}} [kvnf.qef./ olUpdwfxJwGif .udk ukoray.[lusif.rsm.uav. ud k Mum.u uRefrudk oabmrusbl.av\/ odkUjzifh usda&Smifrlu usef...MubJ 'DrmS yJ ayuwfaeMuwmyg? a':av.ESpcf efUom &Sad o..bufodkU vSnfhí avoHwdk.. Munfhae&if.xuf apmNyD.u ukoay.farmvsuf . ]]'DvdkqdkvJ rif. [dkcsif.u ..favmuf aumif.atmif e*g.pm.aom? uJ&h UJ aom trlt&mtvsif. tpfudkav. r&So d nfukd awGU&ojzifh pdwfoufomoGm.u rukay. .\/ olu ruk[kqdkvQif vSnfhírQyif rMunfhawmh/ .rav.tm. ]][Jh ..rS ½kwfw&uf usef.fwwfojzifh rsufESmxm.[lusif. .fpDjzifh vJavsmif.[lusif. [lusif.jyL.? bmjzpfvdkUvJ}} [k ar.muf wdk. NyD .uom uRefawmfu h kd . wD.rnf r[kwfrSef.rsm.NyD.? tcka':av..ckvnf.tm.tm.}} [k vSrf.vHk.fodkUrQ rzHk.udk ukoay.[lusif.awmfav. ]]tpfudku nDrav.jzifh usef. .\/ orD. ]]olwdkUu q&mBuD... [kwfvm..bJ aeonfhaemuf rdrdudkvnf.udkMum. ]]'DvlawGu a':av. \owif .? rif.Hk&ifuRefawmfwwfoavmufrSwf oavmufeJU a':av. þvlemrsm..a&mufvmwmqdkawmh olwdkUudk OD.awmfBuD. awG..HkMunfpdwf&SdoGm.wJh? olUtazu tareJU oli.udk awGU&ojzifh usef.[lusif.ay.pdwfyg a&maESmaeav\/ usda&Smifrlonf tjyifbufwGif'Pf&m udk.[lusif.&JU tpfudkav.f [lusi. &Smav\/ xdkUaemuf usef.awGcsnf.Zl.yghr.aeaom vlemrsm. [dkcsif.yif r[kwfygvm.tm.&JUtpfudkav. ckeftkyfí yg.? 'gawmif olwUkd xGurf oGm.ESifhom aygif. ]][lusif.&.íuav..[lusif.wJh nDrav.xl.rvnf[efjzifh .u &.vdkufygOD.. txifao.fh q&mBuD.uyJ ukay..&rSmaygh}} [k qdkav\/ 299 . pdwrf ukeaf o..oif.f}} usd a &S m if r l o nf orm.awmf B uD ..[lusif.mufudk awGU&ojzifh vGefpGm0rf.[lusif...udk oabmusygw.[lusif.wmyg? 'gayr..jzifh . .vdkufav\ usda&Smifrlu .\ rsufEmS wGif rdrt d m. ukay.wif&rSmaygh? orm. [d k c sif .vsuf em.aom nDrav.wpfa. ]][efusvdkufwm a':av.f&if.}} [k rdwfqufay.cJhaom vltm.uJhodkU r[kwfbJ vlBuD.u a&m*g a0'em cHpm.&if orm.pufaom rsufvHk.wuúodkvf aevif.fah v. . orD.Edkif"m.cktcsed w f iG f toufwpfq.ay/ odUk aomf olonfolUb0wpfavQmufwGif vlBuD..fh? tck ararh 'Pf&m remawmhbl.&SefUwefUESifhyif uav..u &. ]][if . orD.u odyfawmfwmuG.ompGmjzifh vufckyfvuf0g.tm.ae&vdkU olwUkd udk ukoray....aomf &efa0u 0rf.wdk.vJ tawmfhudk oufomoGm.wdk.f? uRefawmhfrSm nDrav.f onf .Edik yf gbl.omae\/ olUb0wpfavQmufwGif olESifh oduRrf.onf oGufvufcsufcsm cspfp&maumif. ]]orD.f}} [k qdkav\/ xdkpum. 'DvdkrvkyfeJU ? tpfudkav.fhudk 'Dvdkcspfp&maumif. ]]ighrSm wu. ½SKd.\ tyfpdkufynm udkawGUaomf . wpfa.aerd\/ use.[lusif.udkyJ aus. olu &efa0wJh}} usef. qufqHvmcJh&ojzifh tjcm.. rSm vlBuD.muf &cJh&if ? b. jzpf \ / þyk * ¾ d K vf o nf vG e f p G m pdwfaeoabmxm.}} [kqdk\/ xdktcg &efa0onf 0dkif.fcsif.udkwpfcsuf erf.vmwmaygh}} [k qdkav\/ usda&Smifro l nf usef. .u oabmrusbl.zl . odkUaomf þtajctaea&mufrSawmh b. ]]'gu rif.

ynmjzifh vufwnfhprf. wpfae&mwGifrl t½dk. usKyfwdkUudk ukoay.rSm aocsmygw.Zl..? cPavmuf tdyfNyD.fqakd wmh q&mav. Z&yfrS xGufvmav\/ olu usef.cJh&if q&mav..jyKwfaeNyD.wuúodkvf aevif.NyD.av\/ usef .aMuaq.onf usda&Smifrltm. ]]'Dae&mu q&mBuD.yg/ . rS OD .aESmifay.[lusif.wGif a&muf&Sdaeaom [dkcsif.axmifhwGif vJavsmif.usKyfuvJ olUvlemqdkwm olUcGifhjyKcsuf r&bJ ruko0Hhygbl.ud.rsm.. usef.... od k U jyef x G u f v mcsd e f w G i f r l 0gqef .awmfrsm.\ wynfhtzdkUrl cJ&mcJqpf r&SdvSay/ usef. *d k P f . ]]usKyfwdkUtm. armyef.udk t½dk. tcef.orm. yJjzpfygw.onf olwwfaom aq.ojzifh tjcm.aMuaom 'Pf&mudk uko&efrSm wu.csifae\/ odkUaomf olu [dkcsif.tzdkU ydkívG.atmif e*g.lvdkufygOD. usKyfwUkd udk ukoay. ½kwfw&uf owd&vdkufojzifh . vlemcef.[dkcsif.tem.ukoay..ygAsm}} [k use.aom orm.wGif olonf atmifjrifpGmpnf. ajr§mufyifí h aq.usifvSay/ odkUaomf twefMumvkyfaqmifvdkufaomtcg olUvufrsm.fulrnf r[kwfay/ odkUaomf þvdyfjymukef.yg}} [k qdkav\/ usef. awmfMum xHkaq.}} [kqdkvdkuf\/ xdkpOf vl0ukefonfu .[lusif.l vdkuf\/ &efa0rSmvnf.onf usda&Smifrl\ 'Pf&mrS t½dk.qdkovdk emrnf&SdMuolawGcsnf.awmfBuD. [dck sif.cJhjcif. pG m a&muf v maom vl u rwfwwfx&yfNyD. ruRrf.qef. 'Pf&mudk Munfhvdkuf\ usda&Smifrl\ 'Pf&mrSm t½dk.&JU ydkifeufjzpfw.[lusif.&ef wdu k w f eG .odkU ac:oGm. [l u sif ..tm.rSm vGefpGmxl.&if 'Pf&mu emvmvdrfhr.[m odkif.f? uJ .f tm.udyk J tm. ]]q&mav.fulvSay/ txl. q&mav.ajymonfhtwdkif.yif aMurGaeav\/ þodkU t½dk. a':av.f? usKyfwdkU&JU 'Pf&mom aysmufoGm. . r&Sdao..avmurSm tenf.vHk.&JU emrnfvJ odkif.f [lusi.[lusif.fawmh rvG.tm. xnfhíqufvkduf\/ olonf yxrtBudrf t½dk.jyKNyD.ck þolrsm.ynmjzifh rnfolUudktuste ukoay.ajyoGm.avmu rSm wpf[kefxdk..0g.Edkif"m...u ydkívsifjrefoGufvuf vmav\/ aemufqHk.oGm.f}} usda&Smifrlu usef.jzpfí vuftaetxm.aeNyD jzpfírdcifjzpfol usda&Smifrl\ &ifcGifwGif NidrfoufpGm tdyfarmusoGm..k yg&ap? aus. q&mBuD.f aeav\/ 300 .ausmfMum.f? aemufNyD.qufjcif.aom aq.u a&m*ga0'em &aew..tem.[lusif.trsm. . td r f a &S U cef .vdkufav\/ ]]uJ .

qef.jzpfaMumif.rvufrnf. cH&NyD.[lusif.wdkU 'Pf&m enf.udk Mum.ud k v nf .mufvQif wpfrsKd .ygyJ ? q&mBuD. awGU&aomaMumifhyif jzpfyg\/ xdkolrsm.k rSm wpfa.enf.rl xdo k t l m.? aq. [dkcsif.ygaygh? tif.u usKyfa&m*gudk rukay. "m. cH x m.&if tvum.tcsdK.aemufwcsdKUonf vuf0g. tcef. vH.mufrSmum.udk twif.mufrSmawmhrl tqkwfwpfbufpD wGif oHacsmif. wpfudk.\/ olu .frsdK.yifhul? uif.atmif vkyfay.xkwfí olwdkU\ 'Pf&mrsm..cHxm.wuúodkvf aevif. aom taMumoH k .pD 'Pf&m&xm.foljzpfí xdkpum.BuD .jcif.'Pf&m&chJNyD.í tHMh ooGm.aeNyD.mufrSmum. wcsdKUrSmrl tyfacsmif.aom 'Pf&mrsm. odkUr[kwf ysm.onf aq. wpfa. ck a e&mrsm.jcif.xJrS wcsdKUrSm arQmhBuD.jzif h rG r G a Muatmif txd k .omoGm.cHae&av\/ aemufwpfa.vdkufr.mifudkif.yg.jcif.[lusif.Edkif"m.udk rsdKcscdkif..vdkUvJ tvum.paom tqdyf&Sdtaumifq.f&G.rsm.f}} xdkUaemufwGif usef.cHcJh&\/ NyD... ]]usKyf emrnfBuD.&\/ 301 .yg.rsm.t"r® rsdKcscdkif. vGefpGmxl.udkufxm. 'gayr.fh 'Dvdkvkyfav? usKyfu cifAsm. cHxm.atmif e*g. a.Mu&av\/ wpfa.rsm.cefU 0dkif.onf i. oufomoGm. .aomfvGefpGm0rf.udk ppfaq.pD pdkuf½dkufxm.BuNyD.uko&ef tvG e f t a&.fnmESpfbuf&Sd eH½dk.rsm. b.fvHk.'PfaMumifh twGif.&Snfwpfacsmif.apmif.(35) vQdKU0Suf 'Pf&m usef. Munfhvdkuf\/ xdktcg olrsufv.&yg\/ taMumif.&\/ aemufqHk.jcif.kH rsufqefjyL.

Edkif"m.f onf xdt k jzpfukd jrifvu kd &f onfEiS hf tHMh ooGm...[lusif.odkU tvsiftjref ajy.vdu k f aomaMumifyh if jzpf\/ xdt k csed u f ol\OD. aemuf o l prf.pGma&muf&Sdvmaomvl odkUr[kwfaoG.awGeJU oGm. owd& vdkufav\/ xdktcg olUpdwfxJrS .udk xGi.udk tqdyjf zifh vdr.[dkcsif. &aewmrsm.oGm. usda&SmifrltwGuf csufcsif.ajymorQ ]tif.NyD. aemufxyfwpfzef oGm.ovm.wGif qHyifwpfacsmif. ? vl e mawG & J U a&m*gu od y f u d k x l . &atmifvyk w f v hJ [ l m wrifwum orm.vQif twefMumrSyif .oGm..vdkufygw.u olUacgif.tm.yif [dkcsif. usda&Smifrltm.? 'Dval wGukd 'Dvx kd .udk a&Tyef.[lusif.&Tifqdkolu 0ifvmNyD. vSonfh a&m*grsm. .onf usef.NyD.tqef..rsm.udk at.olUa':av.tm.f usaH y. tem.rQ raygufjcif.? cifAsm..tef ojzifh usef.aom ae&m wGiv f nf.oyfvdkU rawGUao.[lusif.udk.wuúodkvf aevif.aom vlemcef.ukoay.rSm vGefpGm.bGm.rSm jrefvdkuf aES. &Sdao. 'DvlawG&JU 'Pf&mu wu.u wu. vefxGufoGm. usef.. a&SUrSaeí vSrf.awmif.qef.jzihf usda&Smifrltm.vdkuf\/ [dkcsif.l qef.vdkufESifh rrSefruefvSKyf&Sm.f? tJ'DvlvJ aq.f vif.½dk..vdkuf? aysmhvdkuf? jyif..udk wpfckcsif.[lusif.ajymjyorQ taotcsmem.? olU rSm 'Djyif igprf.fqdkwm jzpfEdkifyghrvm.onf tjyifrS vlemvlrsm.pGmjzifh wHkUjyefav\/ ]]usKyf .yGifhbGm.oyfMunfhav\/ xdktcg olwkefvSKyfoGm. ]][if..aq.mufwnf.f? cifAsm..f [lusi.cifAsm}} tcef. rsuaf rSmifuw k v f suf pdwx f rJ S a&&Gwrf ad v\/ ]]tif.aeonfudk awGU&aomaMumifhyifjzpf yg\/ xdkUaMumifhusef.av\/ ]]q&mBuD.ckefEIef.r.[lusif. udk.xm.awmif ukEikd zf Ukd rvG. vufjzifh tqufrjywf ukwfjcpfae&av\/ xdkUaemuf usefusuf olUacgif. ½dk..udk tomxm.&yg\/ taMumif.}} ]]q&mBuD .rS xdyfajymifBuD.[lusif.rnfpdk.acgif.? ightaeeJU wpfrsdK.vQdK.awmfBuD.[lusif.u xdkodkU a&&GwfrdpOf ½kwfw&uf olUa':av..u'Pf&meJU vufarmif.udk prf. .qef.u usef.cJhonfh ydukef.wJh 'Pf&mtoD.vdkU r&bl. 'Davmuf'Pf&mavmufeJU ighudk vmprf. aq. pdrfh0ifvsuf&Sdav\ xdkUaMumifhta&jym. ykef.aewmudk.wmyJ jzpf&r.wJhvl jzpf&r.aemufvSnfhí Munfhvdkuf&m toH&SifrSm cHk.\tcef.}} [ka&&Gwfvdkuf\/ xdkpOfrSmyif usef.rl usda&Smifrl\ aoG.f } } [k tpcsD N yD .u 'Pf&m[m omref'Pf&mygyJvm.MunfhapNyD.atmif e*g.jzifh csnfaESmifxm.&JU ycHk.[lusif.rS vdyfjymukef.oD.[lusif..aeygvm.av\/ a&mufaomf tcef.odkUwdkif wjznf.tHhMozdkUaumif.jznf. cif A sm.udk b.u . ? cif A sm.yefaejyef\/ odkUaomf [dkcsif.ta&jym.fhudk xl.u 'Da&m*gtxl.f jyefNyD.wJh 'Pf&mrsm.onf xdktawG. tdyfaeNyDvm.NyD.xJrS [dkcsif.axmifí r&Si.? olwpfa. usefusuf jzpfaeonfudk awGU&av\ usefusuf\acgif.u ½kwfjcnf.fhtdrfudk.'Pf&myJ &cJhw.vJ vlUavmurSmae&vS&if ckepf&ufyJaygh 'gaMumifh cifAsm.f}} usef.fyJ rukEdkifvdkU tckvdk tcef. jyefajymjyavawmhonf/ [dck sif. ]]a':av.Hvsuf&SdNyD. qef .bGm.rSm a&Tyef. usda&Smifrl\ aoG.lcdkif.taMumif.m. ]]bmudpö&SdvdkUvJ [lusif.yGifhbGm.a&SUodkU ajy. &ef wdk.ynm wwfuRrf.wJh? vufpowfawmh cifAsm. use.atmfar.odkU OD.fhom.u ajymcdkif.}} usef.vQdK.}} usef.} vdkufítuste em.ckefESKef.. 302 .f azmufí twGif.m.&JU ynmudk prf.wHk*dkPf..u taMumydwfay. jyefvnfajymjyapav\/ xdktcg [dkcsif.u .ojzifh olUvufESpfbufudkyg oHBudK.ud k ruk E d k i f y gbl .aemufbufrS toHwpfoHxGufay:vm\/ ]]q&mBuD.ta&jym.vHk.atmif. uk v d k U &onf j zpf a p? r&onf j zpf a p? usKyf u cif A sm.u usefusuf\pum. tjrefqHk.oyfawGU&Sd&aom vGefpGmxl.awGUvdkufyg}} xdkpOf0gar*dkPf.axmifNyD. aeygw.fvdkrSukvdkU r&Edkifygbl.NyD. uGufNyD.yf gbl..

wdkUoabmwlvufcH&if ukocHMuzdkUygyJ}} usef. ]]trav.rl tenf. onf rdrd'Pf&mESifh rdrad 0'em jyif.fwifcsif&ifawmh igbmrS ruefUuGuyf gbl..i.rl .w.Edkif"m. tpmtdrf eH&HESifh tleH&Hrsm.udkpwif vdrf.wdkU tckvdk ightdrfrSm ayawNyD.wdk..&SdwmyJ? tdk.l }} [kqakd v\/ ydukef. avQmufae&mrS .NyDvJvdkU}} xdktcg ydukef. pyf[yfí usdKcsufNyD.ry.[lusif. pOfus½Hkjzifh usefusufrSm pl.f emw.&m usef.vJí xvmMu\/ odkUaomf olwdkU\ ajcvSrf.mufaom olu ajrBuD.u aq. .f raysmufbl. axmifjyav\/ yDukef.0 tmrbaEÅ rcHcsifygbl..rS a&muf&Sdvmaom cHk.f? aemufNyD.u ..Zl.&Tifu . ajymxm.fhvlwdkU ? 'Duav.ojzifh usefusuf\ OD.[lusif.pkyfaeaomaMumifh xdkolrSm tvl.AdkufxJ rsdKcscdkif.[lusif.rSm r[kwfbl.vif. . aqGUaqGUckefaeav\/ odkU aqGUaqGUckef&if.omoGm. yg.f vQifyif olwUkd onf rjiif.Munfhprf.MunfhvdkufMu\/ usef.&if. emvdkufwm ? awmuf .acgif.ae\/ taMumif..aompdwfaMumifh ajcvSrf. rif.Mujcif.m. .. ukoay.pyfrSvnf.? 'gayr.acgif.oyfNyD. taumifESpfq.fw. cH&olyif jzpfyg\/ xdk0rf.u olwdkUtm.udk. tu.ESifh tpmtdrfxJodkU a&mufNyD.rSm jyif.&TifESifh usefusufwdkUu usef. ae&jcif..fh uRefawmftwwfEdkifqHk.yg.f? tdk.w. .fvm.f? tm. yif jzpfyg\/ xdktcsdefwGif a&SUqHk.[lusif. aemifBuD.jzpfoGm..f? aoawmhr.oGm.udk ukoíraysmufvQif temay: temqifhí onfhxuf 'ku©ydkrdkcHpm. . aq. emvdkufwm? emvdkufwm ? tm.ar.Zdrf&Sd ao.f &G.frSm ausmuf½kyfvdk ililBuD.wdkU&JU 'Pf&mawGuvJ odyfudk xl.tm. ]]&ufESpfq.jznf.f u rif. ]]rif.uG? [if.usHay.fOD.Mu\ trSefrl olwdkUtm.vSrd ahf eonfukd awGU&\ rSeo f nf xdo k o l nf a&arQmhBuD.0g.tqHk.u olwdkU'Pf&mrsm.wmxufpm&if emwmurS ydkNyD. oGm.q&mav. rif.vHk..jznf. . pdwfaysmhNyD.0aq. tqdy&f nf aomufcikd .f? odyfaumif..wdkUawmh xifMuvdrfhr.xJodkU 0ifNyD. wwfajrmufw.wdkU tJ'Duav.f? tm. t½dktao wpfcsuf ay.f? igwjznf. vSrf.}} [k wdk.rSmyJvdkU? 'Dr.. vdrf.f}} [k watmfwnf.usufu q&mav.wBuD.u [dkcsif.wkUd udk yGiyhf iG v hf if.u acgif.mufpvHk. aeaevdkU bmrS tusdK..[lusif.u aq.yg.frsdK..0g.vGef. ]]'DrSmudk..fí usef...wdkUudk ukay. . atmf&if.[lusif...u usefusuf\acgif.tHBudwfí wJa&SUwGif acgufwHkU acgufjyef avQmufaeav\/ xdkpOf BudwfrSdwfcHpm.f? aemifBuD.udk ar.? emw.xl.jcif.ukcGifh ray.wHk*dkPf..yif jzpf\/ 303 .wGif olwdkUtm.BuD.uvlyJ ? olwUkd [lwef.wdUk udk u...w. nDav. rif.f? olu [lwef. wifygw.. bGm? bGm ? q .ay: wpfpufuav.prf.vHk. .av\/ [dkcsif.xefpmG cHpm.onfudk jrifawmhrSyif olUxufudk.? olightdrfrSmayawNyD. ighudk t&ifukay..wuúodkvf aevif.jzifh usef.azmfum usefusuf\ OD.qef.\ pdwfaeoabmxm.yif jzpfyg \/ xdkUaMumifholwdkUonf usef..aemf}} usef.u ..m.favmufMumoGm.qdkav\/ xdktcg usef.enf.tvdrfh a0'em cHpm.*dP k .f? uRefawmfu toufi.vdkU ao&ygawmhr.yghr.cgí ..pm..u wu.wGif aoG..f? 'gaMumifh aysmufr.m.? uRefawmfrsdK...fhudk tpGrf.aq.vufñdk.f? tJ emwmyJ aumif.. aoawmhr.f}} [k awmif. aewm b.yif tdrfjyifodkU ac:xkwfcJh\/ ]]uJ .Haom a0'em oufomaysmufuif. Mu\ xdkUaemufwGif olwdkUonf pdwfysuftm.pl.Muav\/ xdt k cdu k f wpfa.csifw.rsm.? igeJUvJ bmrSrqdik b f .rsm.vHk.yif jzpf&m .ay:wGif vl.frQ 0rf.&Tifu tm.[lusif.0rf.u qdkjyef\ / ]]'gayr.qdkwm uRefawmfhbufu vHk. ]]tm.atmif tvkt..udk trsm.bl. usef.aew.[lusif.NyD}} [k jyefajzvdkuf\/ xdktcg olwdkUESpfa.ae&olcsnf.fwHkUqkdif.\ cE¨mudk.av\ aq. wHkUqdkif..*dkPf. . atmfNyD.yg? ighacgif.fvdkU qdkyg&ap}} tm.o f vdk tawGUtBuHKvJ Eke..&rnf pdk.atmif e*g. BudK.udk odíolwdkUudk csufcsif. .f rif.rS usefusufu ]]nDav.ESpfacsmif.f vufcHMurnfholrsm.cktcsdew f iG f olwUkd tm.fh ightdrfxJrSmawmh vHk.xH vl..cef. .onf wjznf.q.rS .[lusif.ynm enf. rsufESmxm.tm. ]]ESpfESpfeJU ESpfv&SdoGm.Adkuf xJrS arQmhBuD. aemifBuD.uf ukocdkif.avsmhpGmjzifh xGufcGmMurnfjyKav\/ xdkpOfrSmyif [dkcsif. pum. tm..w..wmxufpm&if emwmurS ydkNyD.m. Zdrf&Sdao.rsm.vGef. aus.

oGm. b.laeMu&av\/ usda&Smifrl\ orD. aeUcif..jref.jzifh vlemrsm.av. xdkvltm.l tdyfpufvdkufav\/ oltdyf&mrS Edk.tm.rGefvmBuNyD jzpf\/ usda&Smifrlvnf.udkom vdkufvHzrf. ]]q&mBuD.[lusif.[lusif. ajymjyíyif jzpfyg\/ xdkaeUnwGif usef.aomf [dkcsif.. usda&SmifrlwkdU om.f? jrif.vSnf.jcif. aq.&nfEiS hf xdvQif t&nfaysmfomG .NyD. wpfa.[lusif.ESifh vlemrsm.oGm.wuúodkvf aevif.jzifh yg.í r&atmif jzpfaeaomaMumifh vnf..muf'Dvdk a&m*grsdK.fvl.[lusif.vHk. .rnf r[kwfaMumif. tcsdefusrSyif yxrtqifh ukoí NyD.Edik rf mS vJu.pm..rdí pdwfraumif.aMumif. usef. vma&mufí&efjyKrnfjzpfaMumif.\ tcef.\ 'Pf&m toD.}} [k atmf[pfajymav\/ xdkpum.lNyD.u tcsdefrD tqdyfajzaq.&av\/ Oyrm olu .aeU odik . iSm. tdyfraysmfawmhay/ aemufwpfaeUwdkifvQif olonf [dkcsif.tm.wpfusrf.&if bmrS rjzpfygbl.rSm vnf.qD.BuD.f&mom&Sdawmhrnf jzpfaMumif. tqdyfrdcH&aMumif.\/ xdkUaemuf olu wa&.yif usef.usdK.yif jzpfyg\/ odkUjzifh olonf tdyf&mrS vl.aeonfudk awGU&av\/ xdktcg usda&Smifrv l nf.wvHk.fenf. .[lusif.om.usrf.\ pum.trdESpfa..odkU ajy.vdkufrdav\/ taMumif.u *dkPf. vHk.pdwful.vdkuf&\/ aemufoHk.ESifhrQ ukoír&awmhrSef.udk a&Sma&Sm½SL½SL ajymjyav\/ þenf.csif. tESHUtjym.rSm 'DavmufMumatmif aevmwmrysif.[lusif.yGifh bGm.trdu tdyf&mrS Edk.&ufrQ MumaomtcgwGifrl aemufaeUeHeuf vif.ajyvnfywfygvm. ]]q&mBuD. odíoG.f apmifha&Smuf&rnfudk pOf.onf [dkcsif.vHk.udk Mum.pD. ]]jrif.vQif [dkcsif.NyD..muf ESifhtwl þvdyfjymukef.? wcsdKUrl ydkíqdk.fvv kd yk f tjyiftyudk oGm.vSaMumif.eyfpGm ar.tm.Edkif"m.[lusif. ½kwfw&uf wpfpHkwpfckudk owd&vdkuf\ tjcm.onf wpfnvHk.wGif qufvufaeygu aozG. &efa0onfrl bmrQ rodouJhodkU opfyifrsm.onf vlemrsm.trf. tvkyfrsm. od&SdaomaMumifhvnf.udkvnf.ESifh cJGcGm&awmhrnfhta&.cifAsm? wpfcgwav tjyifxGufNyD. csufcsif.u xdkvlcHpm.a&SUodkU oGm.vmavNyDjzpfyg\/ xdk tcsdefwGif usda&SmifrlwdkU om.tm..wGif ysH0Jaeaom vdyfjymuav.bGm.vmonfudk awGU&av\/ xkdtcg usef. jzpfMuaomfvnf.[lusif.vwfaomf vlemwcsdKUwpf0ufrSm oufomvmonfudk awGU&NyD.&if &ygw.. G }hf } [kjyefajym\/ [lusif.&nf wpfcGufudk .onf vGefpGm aMumufp&maumif.tcef.vQifvif. 0ifa&mufun l aD vonf/ pifppf vlemrsm.fvdkukrSmygvJ}} [kar.onfukd owd&vdkufjcif. vdkufem cH.tm. ukoay..warm tem.wpfpD.[lusif.\/ xdktcg [dkcsif. þyHkjzifh ig.[lusif. tMum.vmcJh&m rkd. odkif.ukoay.vm.NyD.wGif&Sdaeaom tqdyfrsm.udk awG.r[kw?f aq. .yGifhbGm.wdkufauR. cHpm. jzpfyg\/ xdkUjyif a&Tyef. usef.wdkufvdkufav\/ þodkUjzifh usef.NyD.? tbGm. ]][Jh .jzpfoGm. aemufrS odojzifh usef.aomf um.onf cPrQ aMumiftrf.ckrl olwdkUonf usef.Muolrsm.ajzMum.&ufrQ Mumvmav\/ vlem tm.? ighrmS a&m*geJUqdak wmh b.cifAsm.bGm. ? usda&Smifrlu a&Tyef.oGm.wdkU tvif.u qufí .av..onf [dkcsif.rsm.&av\/ odkUaomf olu wJhwdk.ae&&if b.onf ysm.axG.bl. b.}} [kqdkav\/ 304 .vmMu\/ usef.atmif e*g.fvdkU q&mBuD.tm.nmvSdrfhjzifh tdyfraysmfcJhjcif. ar..u ukoenf..f avmuwGif txdkuftavsmuf emrnfBuD.&ef usef. jrifhrm. tysif. aumif. . wu. .NyD.ae&aom a0'emudk MunfhNyD.[lusif. &efrS trSefwu.oGm.aMumif.vSnf.ftwGif. 'Dvdyfjymukef.f0dkufaom enf.aeav\/ usef..BuD.ar.udkom avvHkatmif ydwfeJU tvHkydwfNyD. acR..onf . ? xdkUaMumifh þvdyfjymukef.yif jzpf\/ xdkUaMumifh olonf ysm.wGif a&arQmhrsm.rS xGufcGmoGm. zwf½I cJ&h zl.pGm jzpfrdaomaMumifhyif jzpfyg\/ xdkUjyif rdrdudk..yifpifpif vif.ynmrSmvnf. uav.rmef*dkPf.vsuf wpfnvHk.vJ xí [dkcsif.udk wpfoa0rwdrf.oD.

a0oGm.xJodkU xdktawG.onf pdwfxJrS vGefpGmylyefae\/ þrdef.ydwfcH&pOf cPtwGif.[lusif..ovdk orD.rSef.cif a':av.fae &mudkyJoGm.fhudk pdwfaumif.[lusif..ckvnf.rSyJ}} [k pOf. tarav orD.onf usda&SmifrlwdkUom.vmNyD.vdkufyg? uRefawmf q&mBuD. tqdyfaq.aMumwGif usef.&.bGm. .\ cg.ydwfjcif.rS xdkvl\rsufESmudk Munfhvdkuf&m rsufESmwGify0geuf pnf.[lusif.&avawmh\/ usef. q.&eHUudk &onfESifhyif wpfacgif.vHk.Edkif"m.Edkifav\/ .}} usef.\ vuf0g.vJ uHqdk.yJvm.rSm aezdkUrvdkawmhbl.av.k wGif xHu k sOo f mG .fh ightzdkU b...&NyD.u [dkcsif. ]]vlav.foGm.pyfxJodkU twif.ydwfcH& onfhMum.rl rsufESmwGif y0geuf pnf.u usda&Smifrl\ ydwfaeaom taMumudk jyefajzay.NyD..trd tdyfpufaeaom wJav..vHk.vQif ol\nmvufwGif udkifxm.muf jzpfaeaomaMumifhyif jzpfyg\/ usef.odkU xGufvmcJh\/ a&mufaomf usda&Smifrl\ ycHk.aMumwGif tcsufusus ½dkufrdvdkuf&m [dkcsif.f? 'DaeU 'DtcsdefupNyD..rBuD.yif jyefvnf rajymEdkif awmhacs/ usef.u 'D&uftwGif. rxl.wpfa. uref. ½dkufcsuftrdcHvdkuf&ojzifh vGefpGm emusifum pum.wnf.xm.rSm ae&mwGifyif bdkif.bGm.EdkifonfESifh csufcsif.NyD.fvuf vSKyf&Sm.r..udk aMuuJGpGm Munfh&if.vSnhfMunfh&ef jyKav\/ xdktcdkuf bef.odvdkU ighudk xGufajy.u taMumxdk.u jyif. [dkcsif. aESmifxm. csufcsif. onf olUaemufbufrS ½kww f &uf avwd.u ½kwfw&uf ckefxGufvmav\/ [dkcsif. . .½Hkyif &Sdao. usda&Smifrludkyg taMumxkd.Edkifvuf0g.ceJ vJusoGm. rSm xdk.ívGwfrnf r[kwf[k awG.udk csufcsif.[lusif.lcJhaomfvnf.udk rapmifha&SmufEdkifawmhbl.Munhfvdkuf OD.vdkufrdav\/ xdkUaemuf usef.vJusoGm.[lusif.k oHwpfcsuf Mum.\ qdkvdk&if.f? reufjzefupNyD.av. xGufajy.u tHhMooHjzifh .olrSm orm.. .oGm.rdjyef\/ xdktawG. .av. tvdkvdk jyefyGifhoGm.apmif.oavmuf [dkcsif.xHrS xl. cHvdkuf&avawmh\/ wpfqufwnf.wdk.&ol jzpfaomfvnf.f? 'Dvdkqdk&if rdk..[dkcsif.ydwfvdkufav\/ usef.folvJ}} [k ar.f}} xdkpOf tqdyfaq. tu.yJ? 'gayr.jzifh 305 .rSm r[efEdkifbJ aysmhacG vJus oGm.frSef.u usda&Smifrl\ yg.f}} [k rSmav\/ usef.NyD.udkykwfí ]a':av.? þrdef.[lusif..apmif.rBuD.fh&SpfuGufxJrS wpfuGufukd xkwfí oHk. xnfh&ef jyKaeav\/ usda&SmifrlrSm yg.awmfBuD.u wu. .pm.aemufodkU tvefUwMum. cdkif.u usda&Smifrl\ yg. usef.aom orm. a&mufvmvQifrl rdrdyg ajy. jzpfaeonfudk awGU&av\/ xdkpOf [dkcsif.[lusif.ceJ toHwpfcsuf Mum. orD. us. . ]]{uEÅ q&mBuD.toHjyKvdkuf\ usda&Smifrlu zswfceJ Edk.olonf i.vHk.uGm? at.rBuD. ][lusif.[lusif.ckrdrdonf uHaumif.axmufrí þrdef. ]]a':av.ynmrsm.vHk.u b.cJh&ojzifh olUtaMumrsm.aMumudk ½dkufrdvdkuf&m [dkcsif.wdkU om.odvdkuf\/ olronf tdyfarmusvsuf&Sdaom orD.fía&Tyef.wuúodkvf aevif.rvif.[lusif.onf taMumydwfcHxm.eufeJaom odkif.pOf usef. [dkcsif..aESmifxm. jrnfhpGma&&Gwfvdkufrdav\/ ]]orD.[lusif.aomfvnf. wpfckawmh rif. ]]cifAsm.rBuD. olUudk "m.\ vuf0g.yif jzpfyg\/ olUvuf0g.\ cg.udk rSmvdkufr.. uav.udkñSpfíolr yg. xdkrdef..vnf. vdkufNyD.} [k wdk.onf [dkcsif.[lusif.rSm olU&efol vmr.u [dkcsif.½dkufcsufudk a&Smifwdrf.xdk.oabmaygufoGm. .pyfxJodkU a&mufvkqJqJrSmyif usef..u q&mBuD. taMumxdk.yif xckefum e*g.} [k ar. .\ rsufvHk.qef.&awmh\/ taMumif.awmf[dkcsif..rBuD.aom y0gudk zswfceJ zGifhMunfhvdkuf\/ xdktcg usef.\/ olUpdwfxJrSvnf..wpfvHk.apmif.trdudk ac:NyD.apmif.ESihf ycH.avawmh\/ pifppf usef.pyfudk [apvdkuf\/ NyD.aom aq.wGifyif &efolu usda&Smifrl\ vuf0g. aqG..vdkufjcif.[lusif.pyfxJodkU twif.udk oGm.&SdwJh uav.udk owfvdkufNyDvm.rSm cg.vdu k &f NyD.av.fpOfuyif &SufpGef. arar uHqdk.&Sm ygvm. ysHUvGifhvsuf&Sdav\/ NyD..uG.rl.wpfcsufcsí .udk oifMum.olonf udk.. rif. cifAsm.atmif e*g. ? olUacgif.u a&Tyef.vm.ygbl. rif.ig&JU a[m'Dvdyfjymukef.apmif.wmyJ jzpf&r.onfESifh twl rsufESmwGif pnf.udk usda&Smifrl\yg.u oufjyif.eJU csdefxm.udk wpfuGufwnf.pHk jyL.[lusif.ESifh tEdkif.yGifh bGm.xnfh&ef jyKaeav\/ usda&SmifrlrSm aq. r[kwfbJ rdef.av.yGifhbGm.xdk.ESifh wpf*dkPf.uwef.rsm. vSnhf Munf&h ef jyKpOfwiG o f Ul cg.

usef.jzifh Munfh&if.yif [dkcsif. [l u sif .[lusif.zGifhí .vdkufav\/ xdkUaemuf BudK.u aq.wuúodkvf aevif.vdkufvQifyif rnfrQ jyif.onf aq.rBuD.vHk.vHk.? q&mBuD.f .rSm tvGefaumif. &Tifvef.rBuD.. cH&onfudk tHhMopGm awGUvdkuf&av\/ olu 0rf.rSef.jzpfíwpfvHk.NyD q&mBuD. ]]'Daq.vdkuf\/ 306 .xJodkU Munhfvkduf&m [dkcsif.onfudk awGU&av\/ usef.rBuD.xJwGifyif xdkifvsuf&Sdonfudk awGU&\/ olonf rdef..vmcJh\/ rdef.\ajcaxmufwGif csnfaESmifxm.udk ½kww f &ufx. igh u d k tvsif r ajzeJ U OD . ckwifatmufwGif ajcvufrsm.udk jrifonfESifh . xJ o d k U 0if v d k u f o nf E S i f h q&mBuD .Edkif"m.qD tvsifpvdk ajy..udk z.}} ]]bmjzpfvdkUvJ q&mBuD.onf csufcsif.}} [k ar.. ]]aumif.rBuD.aom aq. ac:oGm.u [dkcsif.&ojzifh usef.[lusif. ac:csnf ? odyfaemufusaer.? olUudk a[m[dktHqJGxJu tqdyfajzaq.NyDvm.xm.NyD.awmufrQ rsufvHk. xd.aom tqdyfyifjzpfap csufcsif..apjcif.f? aq.oH.u Mum. \ tavmif . xdkrdef.oHjzifh qdkav\/ rdef. ? ol U ud k o m igh q D t jref q H k .u pum.qD ajy.pm.u usda&Smifrltm.mufom.tem. ]][dkrdef.&ygacs/ olonf cef.u xdkodkUtqufrjywf avmfaqmfae&m usef. q&mBuD.ygNyD? olb. rD.f&Sm.vnf.oGm. ? uRefawmf q&mBuD.ceJ wHcg.k udo k rl yg.vlvlyif vdkufcJh av\/ [dkcsif.aMumifh usef.udk b. csnfaESmifxm.w.odkU ajy.[lusif.MupdkU}} [k ajymNyD.awGU&vdrrhf nf[k pd.rsm.\/ xdkpOfrSmyif ckwifatmufrS ½kwfw&uf vGefpGmwdk.NyD.[lusif.oHk..yif wpfNydKifwnf.prf.\ tqdyfajzaq.. onfudk awGU&ojzifh ydwfudktvsiftjref ajzay. . ]]a':av.nif.\/ [lusif.udk qufrar.at.udk u.tm.vHk.u ckwifatmufodkU iHkUMunfhvdkuf&m [dkcsif.ompGmjzifh. ]]pm.vdkufprf.atmif e*g.\rsufESmrSm ½kwfjcnf.vHk.raeeJU ? jrefjrefoGm.í tcef.líxdkrdef. ESpfa.rBuD.}} ]][m .u ..\tcef.Mu&atmif olUudkyg wpfcgwnf.mifudkrQ rjrif&awmhacs/ pif p pf usef . ? rif.rBuD. [dkcsif.udk wGef. wdkufauR. oHk.k xnfah v\/ xdUk aemuf [lusif.oH vHk.ckuo hJ Ukd bmudrk Q rjrif&aomtcg pdwt f enf.av\/ ]]olUudk uRefawmf csKyfxm.oufomEdkifaMumif.ckrl [dkcsif..i.av\/ usef..rsm.0ifí .w.f oufomoGm.fr.? uRefawmfwdkU q&mBuD.rSm olUtcef.jzifh .rBuD.}} [dkcsif.rQ auR.u olUtm.udk wJGí [dkcsif. .vGefpGm tHhMo&av\/ odkUaomf olu [dkcsif.f}} [k ajymNyD.uwef..ac:csnf/ aeOD.NyD. aumif.awmhbJ rdef. tHhMovufpESifh yiftHqJGxJrS tqdyfajzaq.pyfwGifyg ydwfjzifhpnf..udk . [d k c sif . .wmvJ[if}} trSefrl rdef.aom BudK..u uref.ygovm. odoGm.udkqufí ajz&efjyKpOf [dkcsif. ]]q&mBuD.udk ajzay.udkyg auR. ES i f h yufyif.\ yg. onf tcef . ighudkjyefar.qD.csufcsif. ? jref j ref o G m .folu ighqD vmcdkif.k vH.aom toHwpfcsuf Mum.\ ajcESifhvufwdkU wGif csnfaESmifxm.qD oGm.[lusif..odkU a&mufaomf olu . ]]rif . jrefjrefaemf}} [dkcsif.av\/ a&mufaomf 0kef.&Sd&m vmcJhMuav\/ olwhdk ESpfOD.oGm.. ]]q&mBuD.udk aomufvdkufprf.. ]]oGm.jcif.od\ . oGm.0if.fuG oGm. ac:vmcJ h p rf .kd ydwNf yD.}} xdktcg[dkcsif.}} [ktrdefUay.k &drpf mG xifrw S cf &hJ m .0rMum.}} [k toHjyKvdkufav\/ odkUaomf wpfbufrS jyefxl....[lusif.eHUudk &onfESifh tqdyfajzaq.\ t&dyfa. aeaumif.aom BudK... aq.pyfxo J Ukd twif. [lusif.udk ajz&efjyKpOf [dkcsif...fvdkrS xGufajy.&jyefav\/ [dkcsif.raum}} [k ½kwfw&uf atmf[pfar..rajymawmh/ olr\taMumrsm.0if.\aemufwGifrl &efa0onf bmudkrQ rodovdk at.vdkUr&Edkifygbl.[dkcsif.

fvdkU ajymcJhNyD.rBuD. }} [k qdkavonf/ [dkcsif.jzifh rdef. jrjrom NyHK.yg xyfrHauR. tavQmhay.onf ajcvufvSKyf&Sm.udk ½kwfjcnf.f \toHwiG f rde.om. xlyloGm. . pdkufMunfh&if.rBuD. qdkav\/ [dck si.jyvdkuf\/ xdktNyHK..rpdkufouJhodkU at.rSm vHk..rBuD.tm. bmtqdyfpm.a&mifudk Munfhvdkuf\ NyD. ]]ig . rSmyg}} [dkcsif. qJGxkwfvdkuf\/ ESKwfrSvnf.jyifudk yGwfoyf&if. jzef. rde..odkU avQmufoGm.wGif [dkcsif..ftavQmh ay.tm. . rif.HkcJhbl.[lusif..vsuf aeyg\/ usef. rif. bmvkyfwmvJ}} [katmfar.[lusif.u ceJU&.\ qHyifudk yGwfoyf&if.fí . rif.tem.rpdkufawmh/ xdkrdef.f ay.tpHkudk wrifrSdwfNyD.tm.bufodkU qwfceJ vSnfhí .vdkuf\/ NyD..f &.avonf/ [dkcsif.? tckawmh rif.bk&ifu ighvdk tqdyfbk&ifudk EdkifEdkifr.f rBuD..MuifemaomtoH a&m.jyifay:odkU usa&mufoGm.EdkifawmhrSmvJ}} [dkcsif.0rxifrSwfojzifh ra&Smifwdrf.vQif .? b. rdef.oyfvdkuf\/ xdktcg wkefvSKyfaomtoHjzifh . .rqHk..rsm.NyD.tay: pd.udk igaysmufatmif ukoEdkifcJh&if rif.atmif e*g.ESifh usda&SmifrlwdkUrSmrl olwdkUESpfOD..f rxifygbl.rBuD..feJU&if.[lusif.fvdkaeao. ]][if .rvnfEdkifpGm yg.udk wpfbufodkUzswfceJ apmifhvSnfhí ][if..um.rBuD.rBuD.rBuD.u rif.mufwnf.ovJ[if? bm .axmif aerdMuav\/ 307 .fh eifvdkaq.u ..fhudk pdk.twGuf EIwfrSrajzyg/ rsufvHk.pum.ajymaeMuyHkudk tai.bmvdkU 'Dvdk vkyf&wmvJ[if}} rdef. ]]rif..rBuD.udk rajz/ usef.. jzpfav\/ xdktcg [dkcsif.\ vufrsm.fqdkwm eifb.u wcpfcpf &.vQif aoG.[lusif..u usda&Smifrl\ tar. ]][kwfygw..[lusif..tqHk.Munfhygvm. ]]'Dwpfcg rif.folu rif. ? eifu igh&JU tqdyfudk rajzEdkifovdk [efaqmifNyD.NyD.u rif.f}} rdef..u Muifemaom rsufvHk.fhES.}} usef. ]]&Sif .f rBuD.. em..udk igaysmufatmif ukay.NyD..aom olUyg..}} ]]jzef.wuúodkvf aevif.rBuD.eJUig aemufudkb.rsdK.om wpfckck jzpf&if iguaum b..rD [dkcsif.u usef. aq.rBuD. . ]]vGefcJhwJh q.udk ar.ae\/ odkUaomf rdef.pyfta[mif.}} rdef..\ yg.yif rdef.NyD. ]]b.trlt&mu cspfcifMuifemrSK >yrf.u pum.rSmaygh? tck ighudk..\ rsufcGHudk vSefíaoG..&JUudk.fESpfuwnf.puf usef.fvsuf .hfvkyf odovJ? eifu wu.rSm wpfa..w.eJU ½dkufwmvJ ajymprf.rBuD.pGmayGUcsDíckwifay:odUk wifay.ygw. .od&avonf/ rdef. .f[kwfvm.u rdef.fig tqdyfcwfawmh eifu b.&drfoGm.u vGefpGmcspfcif Muifemaom uEJGUuvs tNyHK.f q&m? olu .fhvkyf avmuBuD.NyDyJ? rif.udkyg prf.rSKwfNyD.u rdef.}} [k rdef..\ trlt&mu olUudk ta&. touf&Sif aeEdkifrSmvJuG. xm..[lusif.u usef.[lusif.ckef ESKef.apmif.udkvnf.}} usef.ay.ygNyD? 'gayr.. .NyDjzpfyg\/ usef.Suaf eonfukd tHMh opGm Mum.om.\ taMumudk ajzay.0 r.u xdktar.f? rif. jzpfaeav\/ xdkpOf [dkcsif.wdat.. pum..vmEdkifonfESifh csufcsif. ]]ig wu.rBuD.vdu k af v\/ xdkUaemufwGifrl [dkcsif.u .apmifuykd g MuifempGm NcHKvTr. ighudk vmNydKifwmudk. ta&.fawmhrS rNydKifygeJUawmhaemf}} [k qdk\ rdef.[lusif. bufodkUom vSnfhí .ay.udk igt½SHK.Edkif"m. tm.u olUudk 'Pf&m&atmif vkyfw.EdkifcJhacs/ usda&Smifrlu xdktjzpfudk jrifaomf "m. bmrS rylygeJUaemf? rif..udk tqdyfcwf&if.. [dkcsif.fhES.fhudk ighudk aysmufatmifuk EdkifcJh&if igt½IH....k. ]]odcsif&if eifh wynfhav... 'Pf&m&aeygvm.u vHk.u acgif. em.} ceJ oufjyif.? tif..rBuD.k &drf aMumifMh uaom oem. NyHK.udk vuf0g.wmyJuG. ]]iguom olrsm. .

[kwfvm. [kwf .&if...ygyJuG. ]]ol .onf [dkcsif.f}} usef.yefvm\/ usef.&drfvGefNyD. . ]]tdk .. .onf olUyg..bufodkU ½kwfw&ufvSnfhí t½dktaoay.[lusif..jzifh ESpfcsufrQ jzef. &Sdaom toHjzifh . vGifhjy. rif.? rauseyfjcif..rvnfwwfawmhygbl.u tHhMoaom toHjzifh . ig tpdk.[lusif.u em.u acgif. .. aemf}} [k awmif.av\/ [dkcsif..udk olUvuf0g.atmif e*g..udk ½dkufvdkufrdwm cGifhvTwfyguGm ..aomf olU&ifrS a'gotpdkiftcJ rsm..[lusif..}} [k jyefar..&avawmh\/ 308 .f vlav.u usef..fcJhwJh aus.oGm.wuúodkvf aevif.vdkU rif..}} [k qdkav\ xdktcg [dkcsif. ]]vlav. uRefawmfawmh bmrSudk em. q&m&JUZeD..ceJ ½dkufNyD. ]]vlav.faysmufysufoGm.u þodkU tav.u ighZeD.Edkif"m.rvnfjcif..ndwfí .. xdkpOf [dkcsif.&Sifyg}} [k qdkvdkuf&m usef. .... ]][kwfygw. odyf pdwfavmBuD.Zl.teufjyKí ajzvdkufoHudk Mum.[lusif.vnf.&JU toufudk u....? olu ighZeD. olu . ½kwfjcnf.

]]'DaeU jzpfysufwJh udpöeJU ywfoufNyD. tcef.ESifh usda&SmifrlwdkUtm.awGu aq.fvdkU <um.&JU jyóemu bGm. bmrS rodao...f ynmawG oifMum.bk&ifu ighZeD. avhvmcJhw.fu.awmh pdwfxJu auseyfaerdwm aygh? 'gayr..fvmawmh q&mu igwdkUESpfa.fay.mufudk u.bk&ifvUkd wifpm.0gjyaeovdk jzpfaewmaygh}} usda&Smifrlu em.f}} ]]'Dvekd UJ yJ wpfaeUusawmh ighZeD.&JU emrnfu 0rfeeful.wuúodkvf aevif.atmif e*g.wJh? igwdkUESpfa.[lusif.f? 'g . pGrf.xdkifESpfvHk.udk odawmh ighZeD.w. xdkifcdkif. acgif.f? oluawmh tqdyfynmudk avhvm vdkufpm..fh tJ'D tcsdefrSm ighESrav.fcJhay.udk rodrom cgvdkuf\ [dkcsif. ]]aemufydkif..(36) tqdyfbk&if aq.bk&if [dkcsif.fvdkufrdw.f tjrifrSef &oGm.vmMuawmhw.apvdkuf\/ xdkUaemufolu .fh}} ]]'geJUyJ igwdkUESpfa.awmif. usef.hf} 309 .rdw. u.odawmh ighudkcGifhvTwfvdkufygw.mufudk vufxyfay.muftawmhfudk tHhMoaeMurSmyJ 'Dudpöudk igxdrf0Suf rxm.muf[m igwdUk &JU q&mqDrmS odik .eJU*kPfodu©mudk apmfum.rSef.vJ igtrSefwu.fq. tqdyfbk&if xufydkNyD.aMumif. tultnD awmif..fav? tJ'DvdkeJUyJ ig[m vloHk.axmif&if.Edkif"m.fh igutJ'Dvdk wpfbufuaeNyD. 'gayr.yif ukvm.wdkUESpfa.f? tJ'Dwkef.f u ig[m aq.awmh iguvJ bkrod brodeJUbJ tJ'Dvludk u.f avmuom.wke.onf csufcsif.yefw.f qdkygawmhuG.ceJ ay:vmw.f? ighZeD. rif.uGm? a[m'D ighZeD.w.a.ovdk jzpfaewmayghuGm? igaq.fuG.cJhw.muf t&G.wl armifESrawGyg}} ]]igwdUk ESpaf ..udk oGm.f? ighudk odik .ac:Muovdk ighZeD.fuG.u ig[m usdK.aeawmh ighZeD.u qufí . igu ightrSm.fawmh *dkPf.awmh ygbl.u &uf&n S f tqdyw f u kd v f u kd w f hJ vlwpfa.ynmudyk J wpfzufowf oifMum.udv k yJ J tqdyb f &k ifvUkd emrnf ay.muf[m wu.lNyD.muf [m ighqu D v kd mNyD.

mufpvHk.vdk rdef.uav.cJh w.udk qufjyefav\/ tJ'Dvdk &Sef.f Edik cf b hJ .&Du vdrfnmvSnfhjzm.eJU ywfoufwJh vlawGuvJGNyD.ESpf wdkifwdkiftBuD.fh uRefr tqdyb f &k ifu t½H.atmif e*g. .aerd\/ [dkcsif.&Dudk .u igeJU pum.awmhbl.awmfBuD.y.favmufaumufuspfw.l pl.avhvm vdkufpm. ]]&Sef&Dqdkwm tifrwef emrnfBuD.f uae pdwq f .wrefawmf*dkPf.w.muf aygufcsvmw.mufb.bk&ifuyJ awmfovm.NyD.rpdkufawmhbl. tqdyfrdcHxm.f? 'gudk igu olUudktxifao.ajymorQ em. *dkPf. oHk.fqdkwm rif.jznf.fuG.fvdkU ighudk uwd awmif.f wJh &Se.f xufw.atmif ukay.f? tJ'D tqdyfu oHk.ayGvDvSwJh odkif.mufu ½IyfaxG.fav? olUtqdyfu odyfjyif.ESpfa.l ? uRefrwdUk ESpaf .? tqdyfbk&ifuyJ awmfovm.zdkU tultnD awmif.BudK.fox l uf ydNk yD. vdyfjymukef.aewmudk igb..fwifay.vdkufwmeJU ywfoufNyD.csKyfBuD. wpfcsuf csí olUpum.uG.kd NyD.wcsdKUudkvJ tqdyfcwfNyD. vufpowfawmh emrnfBuD.folUudkrS ukoray.f &Dukd igu rvJrG a&Smifom aysmufuif.xufwmyJudk.rS ao&r.wJh 0gqef..u olUpum.mufuawmh ta&SUyifv.. ighqDudkvmNyD.aeaom 0rfeeful.? 'gayr.pm. ajymjycsuft&qdk&if olUESrav.f? odkif.awmhygbl.atmif ukoay. ]]ighESrav. xGucf mG oGm.? &Se.wmvdkU xifNyD. pdwfavvGifhNyD.wm wpfaMumif. olUudk ukoay.&DvJ wjznf.qdkwm MunfhMu ao.&w.}} ]]aumif.awmhwmyJu?G odik . aq.?hf 'gaMumifh odyu f kd .wdkU vifr.f? b.f? aMomf .*dkPf.}} usda&Smifrlu [dkcsif.mufwnf. ]]'Dtqdyfbk&if 0rfeeful.xGufoGm.vm vIyf&Sm. [dkcsif.pGifhaxmif&if.fou l b.zdkU pdwful.fuG.&JU *dkPf.awmhwmyJuG. ESpfawGusawmh olu tqdyfynmudk ydkNyD.aemufqHk.fh olUudk igb.udk Munfhvdkuf\ olUpdwfxJrSrl ..rudk aMumufwJhae&mrSm pHygyJvm.vsufeJU tckorm.avmuxJudk wpfa.f &Dukd epfepfp.fqw kd m od&atmif NydKifMunfh Muao.&Dudk igu rvJTra&Smifom aysmufuif.u olUtwGuf ighqDu uwd awmif.}} ]]tJ'Daemufydkif.f? igwdkU tvif.Edik b f .wJh aemufrSm igu uwdwpfckudk cH. ighZeD.udk b.}} [k pOf.0HhyghrvJ? [if.f? ig bmwwfEdkifawmhrSmvJ? ighESrav.u ighqDudk vifr.? olu bmajymovJqdkawmh .&JU cE¨mudk.fudk &Sef.avmu u emrnfBuD.uawmh &Sef.u wu.&Sef.yk*¾dKvfawG jzpfwJhtwGuf tckvdk olwdkUudk.fvdkrS awGUatmif r&SmEdkifcJhygbl.fu ajrGuRef.lNyD.fh? olwdkUESpfa.axmif&if.yJ? odkif.}} [k rSwfcsufcsaerd\/ [dkcsif.rrsm.u tckawmh 0gqef.oGm..udk uwday. oGm.NyD .rrsdK. awmif.tpGr.f &D 'kua© &mufae&ifvJ u. cspfae&Sw.l uG.csKyfBuD.\pum.cJhw.wpfa..fh? olwdkUESpfa.Edkif"m.NyD jzpfvdkU igb.lcJhw.aMumihf csufcsif.ESpfMumrS wjznf.cJhNyD.awmfBuD.fholu vHk.olu 'DjyifvlawGudk tqdyfrcwfwmbJ awmfvSNyD? tif.udk tcJrausvdkU olUudk tqdyfcwf vdkufw.fhudk tpGrf.m.wmayghwJh? igu trsdK.folr[efrSef.ay.fh olu aowJt h xd &Se..0ta&.awmh tqdyfajyatmif ajzzdkU odyfcufcJwmeJU igvJ vufavQmhvdkuf&w.mufyJaygh olwdkUESpfa. pdwfxJwGif .rSm opömrJhpGm a&Smifwdrf.cJhwmudkyJ odxm.wm jzpfEdkifw.f 'ku©cHpm.cJh&ayr.eJU tJ'DtqdyfaMumifh olUudk.favmuf ½IyfaxG.yefayr. qdkwJh 310 .I ray.ukoay.f avmu uvlawG[m b.fwdkif ighqDvmNyD.fh tqdyfrsdK.NyD.fhudk 0gBuD.avmurSm 'Dvdk emrnfBuD. odwmvJ wpfaMumif.kwfrmwJh vlawGvJ ygaewmudk.rsdK. ckwifay:wGif vJavsmif. tom.u oufjyif.mufu odkif. 'DvlawGudk ighqD ñTefvdkufw.m.fvrkd S rjiif..fuG.&D&JU 'PfaMumifh aoqHk. b.kwrf mvGe.f? 'gaMumifh ol raocifrmS &Se.u orm..ocifBuD.t&nfawG ykyfyGvmNyD.wJh vlwcsdKUxJrSm 'Dvdk .? ighESrav.&r.fav}} usda&Smifrlu [dkcsif.pm.vdkuf&w.f &Dukd rowf&bl.wmaygh}} wJh ? aq.udk qufaejyefonf/ ]]vGefcJhwJh ckESpfESpfwkef.wuúodkvf aevif.wdkUvJ odMurSmaygh? 'Dawmh olUvdkrdef.fh}} ]]ighZeD.xefvGef.zdkU ajymwmudk igu vufcH&rSmaygh? 'gayr.fh ighZeD.fvdkvkyf pdwfcsEdkifrSmvJ 'Dawmh igolUudk vdkuf&Sm&wmaygh? 'gayr.tus.ESpfa.fh}} ]]&Sef.avmurSm wu.kwfrmwJh vlpm. ightay: ydkvdkU a'goxGuf aejyefyga&muGm}} ]]'geJU olu vdyjf ymuke.rsKd. [dkcsif.jznf.folu vkyfBuHzdkU? wpfpHkwpf&m 'ku©ay.vdkU'DvlawGudk aysmufatmif rukay..udk em.uvJ rdef.oGm.

atmif ukEdkifcJhw.BudrfoHk.y.[lusif.Mum.} ]]tif.&ifvJ igu touf &SifaeEdkifrSm r[kwfawmhbl.fvdkrS ukray.NyDwJh? tJ'D owif.f? 'Dwpfcgusawmh uRefrudk.MuygNyD? [lusif.bGm.csuf wdkufcdkufvdkUrS tJ'Dvl raobJ a&Smifwdrf. wu.fvdkU igrawGUzl. ygyJuGm}} 311 .ae&w.w.mufudk wpfa. vdkufvdkU tckqdk&if tJ'DvlawGvJ a&m*g'Pf&mawG tm.f aezdUk tBuHay.bGm.cifwpfnu tdyfaysmfoGm.wdkUygyJ}} usda&Smifrlonf em.opfwpfzef ajymjyNyD.muf a&mufaewmudk jrifawmh arhaq. oG.[lusif. &if&ufeJU a&Tyef.u pum.[lusif.udk wpfnavmuf arhatmif vkyfvdkufw.yg ydkí pdwf0ifpm.vdkufonfrSm aemufwpfaeU naeapmif.rSm tifrwefxl.f oabmaygufpjyKvm\/ [dkcsif. tenf.bGm.aerSef. odvdkufw.aom olrsm.f[lusif.yGifhbGm.f? rMumcifu csef&w D pfa.u a&Tyef. aewmayghuG.fh pdwfrcsvGef.u uRefrudk tNrJwrf.udk Mum.f? oHk.c&D.f udk tvmrSm vrf.fudk jyefNyD. ighudk olUawmifa0S.yGihf bGm.fh? 'gayr.pGmem.wm rMumao.fwdkif awmh b.wm rif.udkigu tvif.bGm.eJU 0dkif.udk qif.wdkU ZeD. xGufoGm.wdkUvJ odNyD.txd jzpf&onfudk .w.fav? 'DvlawGtm.f? tJ'D vifr.ynmutawmfhudk aMumufp&maumif.awGu wpfqifhigu ajzMum.qef.awmh xGufajy.mufudk owf&if oHk.pm.wpfae&mrS a&Tyef.yGifh bGm. ar.vif. wpfvSnfh? &.taMumif.f? a&Tyef.fyif xl.om oGm.cwfcwf tpfudkBuD.u pum.bGm.awmh olu 'DvlawGudk vTwfNyD.f}} usef.w.ighpdwfudk prf..mufMunfh&if.f&rvdk a'goxGuf&rvdk vdkjzpfaeavawmh\/ aMomf[dkcsif.i.atmif e*g..wuúodkvf aevif.yGifh bGm.rf.u uRefrudk aysmufatmif ukEdkifawmhrS uRefrutpfudkBuD.ygbl.Edkifbl.f? 'gayr.ckrSyif oabmaygufoGm.fh aemufaeUusawmh use.ESpfa.xJ ighZeD.vdkufjyefw..u ighudkzrf.fh? tJ'gu bmvJqdkawmh olu vlwpfa.}} usda&Smifrla&m usef.vdkU vm taMumif.qHk.awmhbl.&r.vmwJh owif.ukoay.BudrfoHk.vHk..[lusif. uqufí .udk 'Pf&m&atmif vkyf&ufw.awmhigu aq. vmar. 'Pf&mawGay:udk tqdyf&nfawG xnfhay.Edkif&if tJ'D vludk olaemufxyfowfzdkU rBudK.&ifvJ olUvufxJu vGwfrSm r[kwfbl.wGif OD.fvu kd Nf yD.aerSef.fenf.jyefava&m .u a&Tyef.axmifaeMu\/ [dkcsif.ceJ tdrfxJrSm tjyif vlwpfa.udk wpfvSnfh? wpfa.bGm. ]]tJ'v D kd igNiif.vdkU ighudk pdwftqdk.fhudk rodwwf vdkufwmuGm? rif.cwfNyD.uawmh wu.&if&uf aoqH.xJrmS yJ yke.muf uawmh q&mBuD.udk b.f? olvJyJ a>ruRef.cGef.&JU a&m*g'Pf&mawGuvJ wu. ]]'Dwpfcgawmh igb.fvdkvkyf&rvJuGm ? igom olUudkaysmufatmif uk&ifolu wpfoufvHk.ae&if.csufyJ &atmifowfw.bJ ighZeD.acgif.f? tJ'Dvdk ykef.armifESHum.awmh olu ig ausmufa&m*g cHpm. udpaö wGawmh rif.? olUudk rukEdkifvdkU olaooGm. ajrjyefUydkif. txifao.? 'gaMumifh qkyfvJpl.u ightay: rausreyf jzpfjyefyga&m? 'gaMumifh olu nwdkif.&JU odkif.folUudkrS ukoray. ukvdkufawmh aysmufoGm.k oGm.eJU usef..u csef&u D wpfqifh ighudkrSmvdkufwmu ola.&if.wJh ar.}} ]]'DvdkeJU ighZeD.u vJG&if? b.f? uRefrb.cdkif.yGib hf mG .wmaygh? olu ighudkajymw.u ighudk tusdK.u rajy. uwdudk cH.fuko&JyghrvJ? usef.musfm.qufjyefav\/ aemufydkif.fh a&Tyef.a& rif.yGifh bGm.bGm. r&Sif.bl.eJUqHMk uw. aysmufoGm.u jzKef. igcsufcsif.csKyfNyD.yGifhbGm.wJh a&m*g'Pf&mrsdK.0ef.fqNkd yD.fwJh . tqdyfcwfr.fvdk tqdyfrdsK.u aysmufuif. &ifqdkif&r.qdk.uG.wJh pdwf"mwfwpfrsdK.udk t½IH.udk cg.wrefawmf*dkPf.? 'DMum..f? olwdkU vifr.axmif&if.eJU ½dkufowfvdkuf&if taumif.m. jzpfaeawmh? igu vufudk.udk igb..BuD.f? 'gayr.f0dkufaom enf.vHk..pm..yGifh bGm.fvdkU oluqdkw.vdUk rMumcifrmS bJ q&mBuD.qef.u pum. tcef.u qufí .vJ ½kwfw&uf a&mufvmwmygyJ? ighZeD.usefusufwdkU vlodkufa&mufvmawmh a&Tyef.ay. ajymawmhw..qufjyef\/ ]]ighZeD.omrSm r[kwfbl.fuGm}} [dkcsif. pdwfcsrf.f? a&Tyef.aeav\/ usda&SmifrlESifh usef.fuG.vJ½l. &avawmh\/ [dkcsif.m. tJ'Daemufykdif.? pm.f qdkwmudk pOf. ighudk prf.us&if vlawGudk arhaq.m.fyHkb.vdkU? oabmraygufvdkU vmvmNyD.m.lcJhw.r. igodvdkufw.muf 'Dvyd jf ymuke.udk xGufajy. &Sdw.vnf.[lusif.vmMum. .ygay? xdkpOf [dkcsif.wmwJ?h NyD. xdktcgusrSyif rdrd.udkcsef&D ighqDtaMumif.fh tjzpfrdkU tckaecga&Tyef.fh igudk. MuwmyJaygh}} ]]tJ'DtxJrSm ighZeD.fwdkif uRefrudk.bGm.yGifh bGm.tqHk.f? tpfudkBuD.f? tpfudkBuD.vdkU ajymvdkufygw.rSm [dkcsif.Mur.cJhayr.jyefvmwm awGUawmh igodyf0rf.om a&mufvmNyD.vdkU ajymcJhzl.fav? 'gaMumifhvJ olwdkU vifr.bGm.Edkif"m. aooGm.

\ tdwfxJrS tqdyfxkyfwpfxkyfudk EdIuf.wkefvsuf acgif..xJu xGufoGm..pGm cHpm.fE..vdkufwmyJ aumif.ygw..fhudk toHk. ]]nDrav.u ½kwfw&uf tBuHwpfck &vdkufojzifh a&aEG.wGif 0rfeeful.fhES.jzifh jyefajymav\/ 0rfeeful.. ]]uJ . twdkif.&.. ]]'DESpfawGrSm olU&JU tqdyfynmuodyfudk wdk. ... ao &if igvJ &SifrSm r[kwfawmhbl.fwdkifawmh ajzaq.vQif . uRefrrSm ajzaq.fh ighudpöu 'Dvdk vkyfrSyJ NyD. ]]ig .&Sdw.awG a&.? 'Dawmh'Dwpfcg eifhudk ig t½IH.fuG.atmif e*g.} [dkcsif.f? tqdyu f kd 'Davmufrsm...yif jzpfyg\/ xdktcg 0rfeeful..tqHk..ygw. aomufvdkuf? uRefawmf ukay.lNyD.u tvefUwxdwfjzifh ..ae &av\/ 0rfeeful.yif olUAdkufxJürD.vdkufav\/ xdktcgusef.Murf.. .yif jzpfyg\/ trSefwu. xGufvmcJhMu\/ xdktcg [dkcsif.? igeifhtay: wu. rvdk csifawmhygbl.? rao&bl.xJrS csufcsif. tpfudkBuD.u EIwfjzifh .u q&muawmfudk acsmhMunfhygOD.oabmaygufojzifh EIwfjzifh . olUtqdyfudk ajzay.rusvdkU rif. rao&bl. .u usef.awmhrSmyg}} xdktcdkuf [lusif..... aomuf&ovm.udk a&. rif.fodyfrsm. ]]tpfuBkd uD.fav}} [dkcsif.&drfvmum . 'Daq...uG? 'Dawmh b.}} [dkcsif.wGif pdrfí ajzaq. tpfudkBuD..EdkifrSmvJ}} [dkcsif.rdojzifh pdwfxJrS .\ oabmxm.[lusif.u acgif.wdk.[lusif.}} usef..ESifh usda&SmifrlwdkU tcef.yJGay:wGif pma&. armhaomufcs vdkufavawmh\/ xdktcg 0rfeeful.muf 'Dtcef.&.f .&JU cifyGef.. ]]'DrSm0rfeeful..f tqdyfwuf aejcif.f? tckvdk jzpfae&wm[m uRefr&JU tjypfcsnf. ]]q&mBuD.xm.ay.wuúodkvf aevif..yef.f}} [dkcsif.eJU rNydKif awmhygbl.w.eJU twlwl ao&Gmudk oGm.f}} 312 .NrdKuf cH&ouJhodkU yljyif.r...nLoHjzifh ajymvdkufjcif..vQif .. tEdkif.u vuf&rf. ]]tpfudkBuD..&Sdovm.}} ]]oludk.fav? tjrefqHk. uRefrtdwfxJrSm ajzaq. vufrSrl vufzuf&nfMurf.fawmhrS tpfudkBuD.udk &dyfpm.f}} [dkcsif.fvdkU ighZeD.u ydkípdk.fvdkrS ajzvdkUr&awmhbl..u wpfudk. ]]tpfudkBuD.lzdkUyJ pdwful. ]]q&mBuD.dkvsuf .vm.enf.[lusif.&SdrSmaygh? 'gayr.u tEÅ&m..ay. xdktcg usef.[if tpfuBkd uD.yg tJ'DtqdyfrsdK.ayr.xJwGif vufñdk.}} [dkcsif.enf.pGyfí pm.onf olUZeD.cgNyD.fvHk.wdkUESpfa. b.fav? igaowmyJ aumif.u EIwfrS xdkodkUajymNyD..uef uav..fhudk ESpfESpfumum cspfcJhoavmuf eifu ighudk wpfcsdefvHk.u csufcsif. rSef.u pum.&.jzifh .onf[m wu.u vufjzifh .. ..? 'Dawmh rif.f 0rfeeful.fh olu aowmawmifrS ajymjyrSm r[kwfbl.[lusif. rif. ]]tif..}} [dkcsif.}} [k avoHwdk.vdkuf\/ ]]q&muawmf&JU tqdyfudk ajzzdkU ajzaq.í . 'Denf.ygyJ? tpfudkBuD.Edkif"m.u idk.aewmudk.[lusif. ]]tpfudkBuD.Muawmh? wu.}} usef.vm. . ]]'Dtqdyfudk b.u nnf.lNyD..\ taMumudk tvsifydwfvdkufNyD.&.u bmrQ rajymbJNyHK.u pdk.awmif igrodbl.hfvkyfNyD.xm.íom aeaevdkuf\/ csufcsif.u ..cgí . .wufvmawmh oltqdyfpm...? uRefr aemufwpfcg b. S v hf yk f vdu k w f mvJ tpfuBkd uD.&JU tqdyfudkawmif rajzEdkifawmhbl.&drfwBuD.. pyfvdkufygaemf}} [dkcsif.awmhr.

rS emrnfausmf a&Tyef.fudk tqdyfcwfNyD.\ rsufESmwpfckvHk.fvdk uk&rvJ[if}} [k pdk.0ifvmNyD.. rod/ tm.rDyif tcef.vdkuf\/ 0rfeeful.yGifh bGm.xJoUkd uokwu f .wHcg.bGm.&drfwBuD.bGm.qd.vHk.yif jzpfyg\/ a&Tyef. toufxGuf awmhrnfhyHkyif/ a&Tyef.ceJ yGifhoGm.aeaom tbGm. qdkovdk cg.NyD? ½kwfw&uf ajcwpfcsuf qefUvsuf arhajrm oGm..&dyf wufvsuf&SdNyD.if.. bmjzpfvdkU tckvdk udk. aMumiftrf.tdkrSm tjcm. .u tcef. .f}} 313 .[ef ar..bGm.fhoHk.yGifhbGm.vmNyD.qdk. wGefUvdrfoGm. wppjzifh wdk.tjyifbufqDrS acsmif.[lusif.fvHk.udk jrifonfESifh vGefpGm 0rf.NyD.yGifh bGm.if.onf wpfudk. jzpfaerdMuav\/ .\/ rMumrD tcsdeftwGif. xdktcsdefusrSyif usef.wuúodkvf aevif.}} usda&Smifrl toH rqHk.oGm. ½kwfjcnf.bGm.tm.onf [dkcsif.\ tajctae udkvsif jrefpGm tuJcwfNyD.\ tar.om.k oHrmS ydí k yDjyifaeav\/ xdpk Of usda&Smifro l nf tcef. owf&wmvJ tpfudkBuD. tcef.tdk wpfa.nif.acsmif.vdkuf&\/ wdwfqdwfaom nOfh.atmif e*g.tcdkuf [dkcsif.xJodkU a&muf&SdcsdefwGif [dkcsif.vdkufav\/ odkUaomf a&Tyef. ]]a&T .\xdkUaMumifh csufcsif.udk b..yGifhbGm..udk rnfolrQ jyefajz& aumif..if..avawmh\ 0rfeeful.vQif .HcsdefwGif .trf..udkif..onf [dkcsif.rSef.omoGm. ]]q&m .. touf½IoHvnf.f a>ruRef. a&Tyef.&.u 'dkif.yif aq. txdww f vefU toHjzifh .olr[kwf/ ta&SUyifv. .Munfh&if. ]]olbmvkyfaewmvJ}} [k ar.Edkif"m.xJodkU ajy..bGm.csufudk twdkif.fhudk.mufESifh touf q..onf usef.[lusif.tbGm.uf ajy.. q&muawmf? q&mBuD.. tcef. ½kwfw&ufcsKH.Mum.r wpfa.oH oHk.muf 0ifa&mufvmonfudk awGU&av\/ .enf.ESpfcefU&Sd uav.yGifh bGm.. trnf.udk ajymjyvdkufav\/ xdkpOfrSmyif .yJGcs idkvdkufav\/ ]]tpfudkBuD. a&Tyef.

rSm rdrcd ifyeG .wuúodkvf aevif.ckrdrd a&mufvmcsdefwGif [dkcsif. 0rfeeful.oHrsm.f[lusif.onf\ tqdyf'Pf&mudk rukoay.bGm. azmfpyfí [dkcsif.f tqdyf wufaeNyD.onf rdrdcifyGef..jyefoGm. ]]a&Tyef.tm.ynmum.oyfMunfh\/ ESvHk. tjyifodkU avQmufxGufoGm.[lusif. .ygav\/ xdktcgusrSyif use.oGm. .onf [dkcsif.udk awGUaomf 0rfeeful. wpf&efawmh at.udk prf. tjyifodkUa&mufpOf cPwGifyif tdrfhtjyifbuf qufudkufausmfqDrS acsmif.atmif e*g.vnf.udkvnf. .twdkif.yif pD. ukovdkufav\/ wpfqufwnf.f onftm.onf rdrdcifyGef.tm.NyD q&muawmf ? tif.wmyJ? ig uHqdk.vdkufav\/ .oG. þrQ aMumufcef. owfypf&efyif jzpfyg\/ taMumif.Edkif"m.omvGef. ]]vlav.f[lusif.onf twGuf uvJhpm.f}} [kqdk\ usef.bGm. q&mBuD..rdk. Mum.\ZeD.bGm.tm