eleventh edition

organizational behavior

stephen p. robbins

Chapter 11

Basic Approaches to Leadership
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E D I T I O N PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS

5. 6. Describe Fiedler’s contingency model. you should be able to: 1. Identify the limitations of behavioral theories. 3. 11–2 . Summarize leader-member exchange theory. Explain Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory. Contrast leadership and management.OBJECTIVES LEARNING After studying this chapter. 4. All rights reserved. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Summarize the conclusions of trait theories. 2.

you should be able to: 7. Identify the situational variables in the leaderparticipation model. 11–3 .O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) LEARNING After studying this chapter. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Describe the path-goal theory. All rights reserved. 8.

11–4 . © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. All rights reserved.

Trait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality. All rights reserved. social. physical. or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders. 11–5 . Leadership Traits: • Ambition and energy • The desire to lead • Honest and integrity • Self-confidence • Intelligence • High self-monitoring • Job-relevant knowledge © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.

Trait Theories Limitations: • No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. • Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. 11–6 . • Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. All rights reserved. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.

All rights reserved. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. not made. 11–7 . © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. • Trait theory: Leaders are born.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. respect for subordinate’s ideas. and regard for their feelings.Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. 11–8 . All rights reserved. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust.

Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job. 11–9 . © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations. taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members.

11–10 . All rights reserved.The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) E X H I B I T 11–1 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.

Scandinavian Studies Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. and generating and implementing change. 11–11 . effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior. Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee-orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. seeking new ideas. Their premise is that in a changing world.

Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is taskor relationship-oriented. 11–12 . © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Contingency Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. All rights reserved.

Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization.Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. fire. and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. promote. All rights reserved. 11–13 . trust. and give salary increases. includes power to hire. discipline.

11–14 . All rights reserved.Findings from Fiedler Model E X H I B I T 11–2 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.

Cognitive Resource Theory Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Research Support: • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. All rights reserved. 11–15 . • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.

11–16 . All rights reserved.Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Unwilling Able and Willing Follower readiness: ability and willingness Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.

11–17 .Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Follower Readiness Able Unwilling Willing Supportive Participative Monitoring Leadership Styles Unable Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings.Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders create in-groups and out-groups. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–18 . and greater job satisfaction. less turnover.

Leader-Member Exchange Theory E X H I B I T 11–3 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–19 . All rights reserved.

11–20 . All rights reserved. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.

11–21 .The Path-Goal Theory E X H I B I T 11–4 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 11–22 .Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.

Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model 1. Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified 11. 4. 5. 2. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement 10. 7. All rights reserved. Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision 12. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills E X H I B I T 11–5 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 6. 3. 11–23 . Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision 9. Importance of the decision Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision How well structured the problem is Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment Whether followers “buy into” the organization’s goals Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives 8.

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