РЕГИОНАЛЕН ИСТОРИЧЕСКИ МУЗЕЙ ”АКАДЕМИК ЙОРДАН ИВАНОВ” – КЮСТЕНДИЛ ЮГОЗАПАДЕН УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ”Н ЕОФИТ РИЛСКИ ” – БЛАГОЕВГРАД ACADEMICIAN YORDAN IVANOV

, ПРАВНО–ИСТОРИЧЕСКИ
REGIONAL HISTORICAL MUSEUM – KYUSTENDIL
ФАКУЛТЕТ

NEOPHIT RILSKY SOUTHWEST UNIVERSITY OF BLAGOEVGRAD, FACULTY OF LAW AND HISTORY СДРУЖЕНИЕ „БЪЛГАРСКА МУЗЕЙНА КАМАРА ”– БМК BULGARIAN MUSEUM CHAMBER ASSOCIATION (BMC)

HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN HPAK ΛEOVΣ ΣΩ THPOΣ Θ AΣIΩN

 

Studia in honorem Iliae Prokopov sexagenario ab amicis etПрокопов discipulis Изследвания в чест на Иля dedicata от приятелите и учениците му по случай
неговата 60-годишнина
Ediderunt:

Evgeni Paunov et Svetoslava Filipova
Съставители: ЕВГЕНИ ПАУНОВ и СВЕТОСЛАВА ФИЛИПОВА

СОФИЯ TIRNOVI MMXII 2012

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© Individual authors, 2012 © Evgeni Paunov and Svetoslava Filipova – editors, 2012 © Faber Publishers, 2012 ISBN 978-954-400-717-1

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced by any means (graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or any other information storage retrieval system) for re-distribution without prior permission in writing from the publisher or the editors, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and/or reviews. Editor’s note: The views and ideas expressed in this volume of contributions are exclusively those of the authors.
COLLECTION OF ЕSSAYS IN HONOUR OF ILYA PROKOPOV

• • • • • •

Compiled and edited by: Evgeni Paunov, Svetoslava Filipova Translation of abstracts: Evgeni Paunov, Diana Doncheva, Miroslava Taskova Layout of coin plates: Simeon Prokopov, Silviya Georgieva Layout and graphic design: Silviya Georgieva Cover design: Neyko Genchev Format: 60/84/8 Printer’s sheets: 57 Designed and printed by: FABER Publishers – Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria +359 62 600 650 www.faber-bg.com

Съдържание | Table of Contents І. Обща част | General section
Поздравителна листа | Tabula gratulatoria........................................................... 15 Списък на публикациите на Иля Прокопов | Bibliography to Date ................. 18 Няколко думи за Илята | Few Words for Ilya. ....................................................... 30 Academic CV of Ilya Prokopov. ................................................................................ 34 Избрани фотографии | Some Photographs.......................................................... 36

ІІ. Научна част | Contributions
А. Нумизматика | Numismatics
Alexandros R. A. Tzamalis. The Kneeling Bull Type from the “Thraco-Macedonian” Region.................................................................. 39 Александрос Тзамалис. Монетният тип приклекнал бик от „трако-македонския“ регион.................................................................. 58 Петър Делев. За тегловните стандарти на тежките сребърни монети на дероните. ....................................................................................... 61 Peter Delev. On the Weight Standards of the Heavy Silver Coinage of the Derrones................................................................................................ 72 Vyacheslav K. Peshekhonov, Nina A. Frolova. Silver Coins of Abdera and Maroneia of the 6th–4th Century BC in the Collection of the State Historical Museum in Moscow: An Updated View....................................... 73 Вячеслав Пешехонов, Нина Фролова. Сребърните монети на Абдера от VІ–ІV в. пр. н.е. и Маронея от колекцията на Държавния исторически музей (Москва) в светлината на новите изследвания...... 80 Маргарита Андонова. Тасос и „силеновата“ монетна серия VІ–ІV в. пр. Хр................................................................................................. 85 Margarita Andonova. The Island of Thasos and the Coinage of the Silenus Type, 6th – 4th Century BC. .............................................................................. 93 Ставри Топалов. Непубликуван тип среднономинална бронзова монета „силен и нимфа – вдлъбнат квадрат, разделен на четири“ ..................... 95 Stavri Topalov. Unpublished Type of “Silenos and Nymph / Quandripartite Incuse Square” Bronze Coin of Middle Denomination . ............................. 105

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Съдържание / Contents

Eftimija Pavlovska. А Сoin Hoard of the Paionian King Lycceios. ........................ 107 Евтимия Павловска. Монетно съкровище с тетрадрахми на пеонския цар Ликей ............................................................................... 116 Методи Манов. Монетосеченето на тракийското племе дентелети – нови наблюдения........................................................................................... 121 Metodi Manov. The Coinage of the Thracian Tribe of Denthelaetae – New Observations.......................................................................................... 135 Yannis Stoyas. Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA................................................................................... 143 Янис Стояс. Две особени тракийски монетосечения: DANTHLHTVN и MELSA............................................................................... 174 Michael H. Crawford. Coins with GRU: the Abbé Bertrand Capmartin de Chaupy and the Early Study of the Coinages of Italy..............................187 Майкъл Х. Кроуфърд. Монетите с надпис GRU: абат Бертран Капмартен дьо Шопи и най-ранните изследвания на монетосеченията в Италия.............................................194 Constantin A. Marinescu, Cathаrine C. Lorber. The “Black Sea” Tetradrachm Hoard........................................................................................ 197 Константин Маринеску, Катрин Лорбър. Нова находка с тетрадрахми от района на Черно море.................................................. 242 Иван Карайотов. Постумните сребърни и златни монети на Месамбрия и Одесос през ІІІ–І в. пр. Хр.............................................. 261 Ivan Karayotov. Les monnaies posthumes d’argent et d’or de Messambria et Odessos aux IIIe – Ier s. av. J.-C. . .............................................................. 280 Sophia Kremydi. The Bronze Coins of Lychnidоs................................................. 287 София Кремиди. Бронзовото монетосечене на Лихнид.................................. 296 Nikola Šeldarov. А Hoard of Bronze Coins of Philip V and Perseus from the Area of Gevgelija, Republic of Macedonia.................................... 299 Никола Шелдаров. Колективна находка с бронзови монети на Филип V и Персей от района на Гевгели, Република Македония........................ 305 François de Callataÿ. A Tetradrachm with the Legend QRAKWN Overstruck on an Athenian Stephanephoros Tetradrachm of APELLIKWN-GORGIAS (88/87 BC) and its Consequences for the Thasian Type Coinage............... 307 Франсоа дьо Калатай. Тетрадрахма с надпис QRAKWN препечатана върху атинска тетрадрахма на APELLIKWN-GORGIAS (88/87 г.) и последствията за монетосеченето от тасоски тип............................... 321

Съдържание / Contents

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David MacDonald. ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΡΑΚΩΝ Tetradrachm: Die Links and Dating.....................................................................................323 Дейвид Макдоналд. Тетрадрахмите ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΡΑΚΩΝ: връзки на монетните печати и датировка............................. 336 Yannis Touratsoglou. Coins of the Macedonian Cities in the FHW (Foundation of the Hellenic World) Collection........................................... 341 Янис Турацоглу. Монети на македонските градове в колекцията на фондация на елинския свят (FHW), Атина......................................... 361 Dubravka Ujes-Morgan. 1st Century BC Drachms of Apollonia and Dyrrhachium in the Territory of the Scordisci. A Prologue to the Roman Conquest of the Balkans........................................................................................................... 367 Дубравка Уйес-Морган. Драхмите на Аполония и Дирахион от І век пр. Хр. на територията на скордиските: пролог към римското завоевание на Балканите............................................................................ 387 Phillip Davis, Evgeni Paunov. Imitations of Republican Denarii from Moesia and Thrace............................................................................... 389 Филип Дейвис, Евгени Паунов. Имитации на републикански денари от Мизия и Тракия......................................................................... 406 Мариана Минкова. Монетна находка от II–I век пр. Хр. от село Найденово, община Братя Даскалови, Старозагорска област. .............. 415 Mariana Minkova. A 2nd – 1st Century BC Coin Hoard from the Village of Naydenovo, Municipality of Bratya Daskalovi, Stara Zagora District ....... 425 Sotir Ivanov. Circulation of Bronze Coins of Thessalonica from the 2nd Century BC to the 1st Century BC in the Territory of Southwest Bulgaria................. 431 Сотир Иванов. Циркулация на бронзовите монети на Тесалоника от II в. пр. Хр. до края на I в. пр. Хр. на територията на Югозападна България..... 441 Евгени Паунов. Монети и монетна циркулация в Кабиле и неговия хинтерланд, ~100 г. пр. Хр. – 98/117 г. сл. Хр.............................................. 443 Evgeni Paunov. Coins and Coin Circulation in Kabyle and its Hinterland, ca. 100 BC – AD 98/117....................................................................................481 Петър Бънов. Контрамаркирани римски бронзови монети от І в. от музея в Плевен........................................................................................ 489 Peter Banov. 1st AD Century Roman Countermarked Bronze Coins from the Museum in Pleven (Central North Bulgaria)............................... 502

......... ........... Ein Schatzfund mit frühbyzantinischen Münzen von Dulino.............................................................10 Съдържание / Contents Virgil Mihailescu-Bîrliba.........619 Alena Tenchova........................ 513 Svetoslava Filipova. A Hoard of Roman Antoniniani from Abritus.......................................... Roman Provincial Coins from the Excavations in the Arbanas Quarter of Radomir...................................... Похлупаче на териак от Мелник................................... Монетни находки от град Меричлери (средата на II – края на IV вeк).............. .......... Бронзови монети от района на римско селище в землището на село Владиня... Дюлино............... община Бяла................................. 592 Katerini Liampi.......................... Coin Finds from the Town of Merichleri (Mid–2nd – late 4th Century AD)............................. 648 ............................................... Ловешко........................... .......................................... град Янина .............. 539 Dilyana Boteva............. Region of Lovech . Съкровище с ранновизантийски монети от с........ Късноримска монетна находка от некропола „Елиника“ при Копани..... 565 Radoslav Gushterakliev.................................... Bronze Coins from a Roman Settlement near Vladinya....... Ioannina/2008.............. ........ Радомир (област Перник).. .........599 Катерини Лиампи.... Римски монети при „свободните“ племена извън провинция Дакия.. 547 Mariana Slavova....................................... 580 Георги Дзанев................... gemeinde von Bjala. 546 Мариaна Славова.................................................................................................................... Нумизматични данни за крепостната стена на Улпия Сердика при Марк Аврелий: въпроси и нови възможности?............ 581 Georgi Dzanev....................................... Numismatic Evidence about Ulpia Serdica’s Fortification wall under Marcus Aurelius: Questions and New Possibilities?... 632 Dochka Vladimirova-Aladzhova.. 561 Радослав Гущераклиев........ Roman Coins at the Free Tribes Outside Province of Dacia......... District of Pernik. 507 Въргил Михайлеску-Бърлиба...... 613 Алена Тенчова.......641 Дочка Владимирова-Аладжова................................................................................. Колективна находка на антониниани от Абритус... Lid for Theriac Drug Jars from Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria)........... Grave Hoard of Late Roman Period from the Site Ellinika at Kopani.... 534 Диляна Ботева.... Провинциални бронзови монети от разкопките в махала „Арбанас“............. 512 Светослава Филипова....

................ 767 Владимир Найденов................)... Dionysius of Byzantium – a Valuable Ancient Source for the History and Geography of Bosporus. 769 Vladimir Naydenov........ Narcis Torbov. 727 Александър Порталски.) и Керсеблепт (359–341 г... . Северният „път“ на медните слитъци през късната бронзова епоха ....................... Римски и късноантични лампи от колекцията на Регионалния Исторически музей в Плевен...... 729 Alexander Portalsky.......................................... 784 ........ 651 Ivan Yordanov.... The Odrysian Kings Kotys I (383/2 – 360/59 BC) and Kersebleptes (359–341 BC) as Rulers of Bosphorus and Hellespont.............. Νικοπόλις ή περὶ Αἷμον или Nicopolis ad Istrum.. 715 Kalin Porozhanov...... 740 Марио Иванов....... Стара история и археология | Ancient History and Archaeology Веселина Вандова....... .......................................... .. Димитровградско (разкопки 2011 г......... Νικοπόλις ἡ περὶ Αἷμον or Nicopolis ad Istrum............ Дионисий Византийски – ценен извор за географията и историята на Босфора в древността............ на Х век)..Съдържание / Contents 11 Иван Йорданов......................... Social and Cultural Identity in Province of Thrace according to the Grave Monuments.......... Неолитни гробове при с.) – владетели на Боспора и Хелеспонта. Roman and Late Antique Lamps from the Collection of Regional Historical Museum in Pleven............. A Seal of Unknown Byzantine Strategos of Thrake and Johanopolis Dating from 970–980s AD.761 Ivo Topalilov.....743 Mario Ivanov.. пр...................... Dimitrovgrad District (Campaign 2010)..... 671 Диана Дончева.......................... Нарцис Торбов................... 657 Veselina Vandova.......... Хр..... ............................................. 656 Б.......... Крум........................ Печат на неизвестен стратег от Тракия и Йоанопол (70–80-те г............ Социална и културна принадлежност в провинция Тракия според надгробните паметници................... Neolithic Burials near the Village of Krum.................... 705 Калин Порожанов....... The Northern “Journey” of Late Bronze Age Copper Ingots....... 666 Diana Doncheva.................... Одриските царе Котис І (383/2–360/359 г...................... 757 Иво Топалилов.................

... 897 Г.814 Мария Камишева............... 887 В..................901 Указател на авторите | Index of Contributors.......................................... . Back on the “Sacred territory” during the Antiquity and Late Antique Period in Southwestern Europe ...................... Показатели | Indices Приети съкращения | Abbreviations................ Roman Terracottae from Ulpia Oescus......................................................906 За съставителите | About the Editors......... Старозагорскo...................................... ...)............ ................................................... On the Footsteps of a Numismatist: Georgi Likov (1921–1994)................................................. 845 Галина Дянкова..................... 853 Дойчин Грозданов. По следите на един нумизмат: Георги Ликов (1921–1994).................... Кирилово.. Личности | Personalia Валентин Ликов....................................... Ранносредновековна яма от обект „Гороцветна“ / 2010: бележки за фортификацията на Пауталия–Велбъжд............ Early Mediaeval Pit from “Gorotzvetna” / 2010: Notes on the Fortification of Pautalia–Velbuzd.............. 807 Yunian Meshekov............. 832 Василка Паунова......................... Medieval Burials in Churches from Southern Bulgaria (11th – 14th c............................................. Stara Zagora District..........)......................................... Unpublished Monuments from the Sanctuary of Thracian Horseman near the Village of Kirilovo.......... Thraco-Roman Carriages from the Town of Tran: Problems of the Constriction and Reconstruction........... Трако-римски коли от гр.......801 Юниян Мешеков................ 827 Maria Kamisheva................... ............ 857 Doychin Grozdanov.........12 Съдържание / Contents Теодора Ковачева...................... 835 Vassilka Paunova.................................... Средновековни гробове в църкви от Южна България (ХІ–ХІV в................................... 849 Galina Dyankova................ 912 .................. Римски теракоти от Улпия Ескус...... Непубликувани паметници от светилището при с................. 791 Theodora Kovacheva.................... Трън – проблеми на конструкцията и реконструкцията............................... ....... 897 Valentin Likov............. Отново за „свещените участъци“ в Югоизточна Европа през античната и късноантичната епохи......

The heavy bronze pieces of the Danteletai (head of Dionysos l. the other on AE of Cassander). Thracian mythical ruler Melias. for starters. while the metrological data are assessed in context. a dating of this coinage in the middle of the third quarter of the 4th century BC (ca. became the stimulus for other specimens to be sought and for questions to be raised. Numismatic comparanda in stylistic terms are provided both for the reverse and the obverse. an attribution to “a Messa of the Apolloniates” that evolved later into Anchialos – are examined and are found lacking. this and some other possibilities towards certain civic issues are rejected.TWO PECULIAR THRACIAN COIN ISSUES: DANTHLHTVN AND MELSA1 [with 11 plates] Yannis STOYAS (Athens) Abstract Two rare coins kept in the collection of the Welfare Foundation for Social & Cultural Affairs (KIKPE). known and not so known pieces were traced. The few glimpses at a known provenance lead obviously to a focal area highlighted between the northern bank of the upper course of Hebros and the Haimos mountain ridge. I would like to particularly thank Evgeni Paunov who courteously helped me to obtain access to material and information. All things considered. at the University of Peloponnesos and Keeper of the KIKPE coin collection. and viewed in historical perspective. sword. The bronze coins with the legend MELSA (filleted bucranium / fish) present an even more difficult puzzle. Varna) and Andrew Meadows (American Numismatic Society. with curved sword and light shield. the fish in Bosporos. The challenge of the strange legend required some necessary commentary before giving a thorough inspection at the chances for a valid interpretation. New numismatic material was kindly provided by Igor Lazarenko (Archaeological Museum.g. Athens. Discussion follows at length on the filleted bucranium and the fish while searching also for stylistic comparanda. this may be a case of syncretism materialized in a period of dire straits. Certain options – e. This study was also benefited greatly on a number of matters by the generous assistance of Guentcho Banev. 339–335 BC?) is thought to be quite probable. the last king of Argos. due to the Celtic presence in Thrace after 1 I am very grateful to Vasso Penna. the Argive colonization at Keratios. shield) is scrutinized. Meltas. one on AE of Philip II. the role of ‘Emporion Pistiros’ (probably Adjiyska Vodenitsa. Ass. 143 . the marshy reed growing on Keratios’ shore. with ample literary references and correlation of archaeological parallels on occasion. Several elements are taken into account: the filleted bucranium. requiring further study on several levels. DANTHL/HTVN) constitute a remarkable issue for the Thracian monetary affairs. Then argumentation is pondered on the hypothesis that the legend should correspond to an unknown so far Thracian chieftain. First the variations of the ethnic name are discussed and then the iconography of the warrior (hair. The key for deciphering this riddle seems to lie by the northern coast of the Keratios near Byzantion. Prof. hints in the Roman provincial coin series of Byzantion. New York). who cordially granted me the right to publish the two KIKPE acquisitions. especially under the light of overstrike evidence (two pieces. All in all. The latter alongside with other kinds of evidence provide a terminus post quem in or after the last fifteen years of the 4th century BC. near Vetren) is also examined to an extent. / warrior r. close study of historical topography and other clues reveal that probably there is a connection between the site of Semystra and the MELSA coins.

Dr. which is not consistent with Yurukova’s publication (could 16.3 inv.2 mm (flan 6 mm thick). 23 mm. D1.6 2 3 4 5 6 For these slightly revised metric data and a better photo of the coin thanks are due to Dr. within dotted border. Yourukova 1999. Michael Matzke. In spite of my best efforts. archaeological data and other pieces of evidence. but it is seemingly implied that the BNB piece is the heavier. Museum Collection of the Bulgarian National Bank. T Danteletai Obv. clues provided rather reluctantly by the BNB collection are inconclusive. DANTHL. 23. factual and chronological commentary.80 be just a typo?) and however seems quite high. II. these were catalogued in the collection’s holdings of the area of Thrace in autumn 2010. for each coinage the specimens known so far are listed.. pl. Matzke commented (personal communication) that in December 1918 it was registered as “Alter Bestand”. Ἀγαθῇ τύχῃ. I tend to accept the weight given. 10.20 and VIII.4 D2. dedicated to a heroic cult. from Pazardzhik environs. 1918.55 is a typo-error for 15.95 given by Lederer for the Basel specimen. which would mean that it entered the Basel collection at the end of World War I. holding curved sword in r. Research was based on old and new numismatic material. no. 23. Yourukova 1999. Yourukova 1999. as well as an interpretation of the issues in question set against an historical context. 169–174. in fighting stance. 11 h2 (fig. 32–35. M. the coin was acquired in 1918. Yurukova as such: 18.80 – 15. at a moment of temporary shortage in small change (maybe some time in the years ca. at that point it had been already in the Museum’s holdings for quite a long time. alternatively. 20.99) of this piece.30 g. 19. The weights of the until then known pieces are reported by J. then follows iconographic and stylistic analysis. Maybe 18. Historisches Museum Basel. 2 h (fig. and light shield in l.8 mm. Yourukova 1999.20A. 2). 11 and 13. Konservator Münzkabinett of the Basel Museum.: Ivy-wreathed head of Dionysos l. 11. n. to l. 275–250 BC). First. to r. Since the next coin was reportedly found in the vicinity of Kos- . 578–579 (considered as fake).98 is very close to the actual weight (15. 15. I have tried to verify the weight of the BNB specimen and was notified by Mrs. It is not clear which weight corresponds to which coin.144 Yannis Stoyas 278 BC.98 g. 10. Ines Lazarova about a weight of 19. he impetus for the present essay originates from the identification of two rarities in the coin collection of the Welfare Foundation for Social and Cultural Affairs (KIKPE). 15. 5. concerning the provenance of the piece in question. However. Back in 1941 Lederer had published this first piece to appear with the following data: 15. proceeded to strike a brief coin issue. There is some uncertainty with the weights of this coin (BNB) and the next one (Galabov collection). the call for a Festschrift dedicated to Dr Ilya Prokopov came some time later to cause more motivation for a proper study on these two intriguing coinages which would hopefully consist a becoming homage to the person in the spotlight.: Warrior standing r. Lederer 1941. possibly in association of a religious festival or an important anniversary. 11.e.95 g. Sofia. 1). at the moment.. perhaps a sanctuary in the premises of Byzantion. Rev.30(?)5 g. Gérassimov 1955. i. Lederer 1943.99 g. According to Lederer. Athens. HTVN. while the attempted synthesis correlates the testimony of literary sources.4980.55 – 16.

no diameter or axis given.22.23. Polybios. ca. 11. See Lederer 1941.3: Denselatae). Cologne. 5. D4. Yourukova 1999. p. T.8.10. all struck obviously by the same pair of dies. Furthermore. These heavy bronze coins were issued by the Thracian tribe of the Danteletai. This much appreciated piece of information was accompanied by Mr Koychev’s interesting remark that most of the coins of the Danteletai come from that region.12. vol. this version of their name (�������� Δαντηλη̃ται��������������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������������ ) is attested only on the coins. no. 115–116.2 101. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 . ed. cf. see supra note 5. this piece should come from the area of Pazardzhik. Strabo. lot 71 = Topalov 2003.98(?)7 g (fig. inv. 170. 11. Numismatik Lanz München. 3 h (fig. 51. 84 (55 BC). the ending (Dentheletos) points to a Latin second-declension noun. which is relatively near to Kostenets. de Boor. 578.8 from Ihtiman environs. no. Flavian era). 51.10 D5. Unknown provenance. 15.11 AE coins. 40. 47). also a reference to the territory of Δενθελητικὴ Πεδιασία (‘lowland’ Dentheletike) in an inscription from Moesia Superior (IMS III. and Lederer 1943. as well as in Granius Licinianus’ Annales. 7.17 Dentheleti. 6th century AD).81 (2nd century AD).25. Sofia. 240. who saw in this a reason to question the authenticity of the only known coin until then. this is a Hellenic second-declension noun due to the ending of the attested form (Δενθηλήτους). 23. 22 mm.18 For the version of the ethnic name with the T doubts had been expressed by Gerasimov. Claudius Ptolemaeus also refers to the territory of Δανθηλητική. unknown current disposition. the Galabov’s specimen was found in the area of Ihtiman (Sofia province). 15.13 Δανθηλη̃ται. 54. No axis given. ed. 347.16 Denseletae. Polybios’ testimony was copied also by Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos much later (De legationibus. Auktion 150 (13 December 2010).19 Taking tenets (area of Ihtiman. but the ethnic appears in the literary sources in various forms:12 Δανθαλη̃ται. 2nd century AD) and by Stephanos Byzantios (Ethnika. see infra note 9).53. Gérassimov 1955.11. Livius. SEG 45. fr. 16. In trade. Cicero.4. 2nd century AD). 3. Svrljig. 35. According to Athanas Koychev (per litteras).9 Worn. cf. p.80 (or even 18. 3). the form Dansala (sing. In Pisonem. 217.14 Δενθηλη̃τοι.15 Δενθελη̃ται. a στρατηγία (strategia) in the province of Thracia (3.6. n.) on the funerary inscription of Titus Flavius Bassus.83 g. 74. KIKPE collection.03 g. Yourukova 1999. Cassius Dio (Rhomaike historia.953. Private collection of Georgi Galabov. 142–143. ed.3. formerly in a private Bulgarian collection).5.40). 26 mm (fig. Athens. 10. The earliest reference is by Theopompos (48 or FGrH 115.1. an eques alae Noricorum (CIL XIII 8308. 59 (weight misquoted. additionally. 4). For the α / ε alternation in Thracian onomastics see Janakieva 2007. 39.12 (early 1st century AD). 46–54 AD). 4th century BC) and it was repeated by Aelius Herodianus (Katholike prosodia. Meineke. in Plinius’ Naturalis historia (4. 5). Lentz. see also Detschew 1957. 231. The weight could alternatively be 16.5. early 3rd century AD). 221.55) g.3.20. p. 33 (with certain errors in the endings of the forms). where there is also another variation (4.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 145 D3.

no. tribe’.8.45. However. Dimitrov’s opinion. 63). the Thracian -τοκος is used aside from Hellenic influence (-δοκος) for the names of certain royal coin issues (e. . Nevertheless. τροπή... n.22 In an analogous fashion. it seems that theta was not commonly used in rendering Thracian.3) constitutes an incorrect phonetic transcription of the name of the Dentheleti26 is evidently untenable. and Duridanov 1995.v. Thucydides mentions that the Laiaioi were Paionians (loc. Amadokos). Furthermore. ‘human being. Duridanov 1995. 827: dentu-.or Dentou(Dimitrov 2009. 10. For an essential historical outline see BNP. Manov 1989. xv-xvi). 137.25 Nonetheless. 6. Regarding the τ / δ fluctuation. tropē) is not uncommon in the Hellenic language and probably echoes the original pronunciation of such a name in Thracian..Λαιαίων Παιόνων»).g. while “some inscriptions were made by Greek nationals” (Dimitrov 2009.3) and Iamphorynna (T. 11. 58. where the two place names are linked. Livius. 132. 122.F. such a phonetic change (Gr. Moreover. no. 128–129. However. This atypical legend alongside with other features of the warrior’s appearance perceived as irregularities were viewed by Gerasimov as mistakes rather pointing to a modern forgery. «Ἀγριᾶνας καὶ Λαιαίους καὶ ἄλλα ὅσα ἔθνη Παιονικὰ.25. 132. 174. cit. Dantheletae. 139–140. 177).» «. “the few examples containing θ. Vol. 136. s. especially early inscriptions. The etymology of the name is somewhat problematic. 122–124. Dimitrov 2009. cf. 134–137. Manov 1989. 4. certain personal names appearing on coins occasionally show a preference for T over D. 1. man’. the hypothesis that the tribal name Laiaioi cited by Thucydides (2.20 Gerasimov argued that the use of T instead of Q constitutes an anomaly that was difficult to occur at that time. Janakieva 2007. 213. the adoption of the form Δαντηλητῶν might express a kind of lingual conservatism perhaps characteristic of a rather detached area. see also Yourukova 1999. see also Gerov 1961. For an etymology see Detschew 1957. the reference made by Manov to the site of Dolna Koznitsa. denthe. Dimitrov 2009. Janakieva 2007.. tribe’.25. For a further comment on such matters cf. 245. 26. From a number of remnants of the Thracian language. 241.21 In fact.23 Moreover. cf. In several Thracian personal names are used the components –denthē-. is quite interesting. 226– 230. 9.. Μore chances might have a possible phonetic relevance between the name of the Δανθηλῆται/ Δενθηλῆτοι and the Δατύλεπτοι. 13. In P. Metokos. χ or ψ are due to foreign wordediting”. cf. 246 and Samothrakes 1963. 26. see Detschew 1957. The two names –Λαιαῖοι and Δανθαλῆται– cannot be related in linguistic terms27 and it is hard to find a plausible link between the events of the year 429/8 BC and the first reference to the Danthaletai which may have been scribed by Theopompos after almost a century.146 Yannis Stoyas for granted the dating proposed by Lederer (beginning of the 3rd century BC). Manov proposed an elaborate assumption that Φόρουννα (Polybios. ‘clan. ‘clan. while Theopompos states the Danthaletai to be Thracians (ἔθνος Θραικικόν).96. 241.28 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Lederer 1941. See supra n.24 but more importantly many things remain obscure about this ethnos and its place in history. 116: from the root g’ent(i)-. However. a Thracian ethnos simply mentioned by Hekataios (FGrH 1a.15) were two different sites and that the latter was the fortified centre of the Dentheleti. near Nevestino (Kyustendil province). fr. 835: g’enti(i)-. φ. but also not unusual for numismatic legends.

s.»). 6–7). second half of 6th century BC). West. for further discussion with interesting insights see Gkikaki 2011. the reverse type of the issue stands out for its distinctive character. cf. ed. no “Thracian” helmet with cheek-pieces (paragnathides) can be viewed.. In the Thucydidean view this was an already old-fashioned hairstyle at that time. Dindorf.37 There is no doubt that the man’s hair is fastened upwards. 106. 533 (Θρήϊκες ἀκρόκομοι). 321–329. Commentarii ad Homeri Iliadem pertinentes. ed. The terminology about such a hair style is not quite definite.35 Sometimes the term krobylos was also used for the crest of a helmet.6. 6..4. Electra.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 147 In any case. the coinage in question is extraordinary for being the first (and only during the Classical times) in the region of Thrace bearing a tribal ethnic name and struck in copper.29 Additionally. ed. 4. ἐγγύτατα τιαροειδῆ». Xenophon. regarding the warrior’s head. 1).1. the hair arrangement brings to mind that Thracians were called ἀκρόκομοι as early as in Homer’s Iliad. 801. Onomastikon. apparently the figure is barefoot. Contra Yourukova 1999.χρυσῶν τεττίγων ἐνέρσει κρωβύλον ἀναδούμενοι τῶν ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ τριχῶν. 175. no.6. Thessalian) kopis. 2nd century AD). ἀκρόκομος. the notion that the combatant wears greaves (knēmides) has to be rejected. n.ἀνέστησαν πρῶτον μὲν Θρᾷκες καὶ πρὸς .. τῶν δὲ παίδων σκορπίος». however. v. 2.3: «ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ τῶν μὲν ἀνδρῶν κρώβυλος. Likewise.κρωβύλον ἔχοντα κατὰ μέσον. Scholia in Xenophontem. cf. Vol. Krobylos is referred by Thucydides (1. It is of some importance that in 400 BC is attested by Xenophon the use of blades termed μάχαιραι by Thracians (Anabasis. Gerasimov’s comment about the Latin term cirrus refers. also in Hipponax (Iambi et elegi Graeci. 5. LSJ..28 (ἀκροκόμαι δὲ Θρᾷκες λέγονται. 7). τῶν δὲ γυναικῶν κόρυμβος. remarking that «Τινὲς δὲ οἴονται ἀκροκόμους λέγειν τοὺς ἐν ἄκρῳ τῆς κεφαλῆς κομῶντας. inhabitants of eastern Tripolitania in Libya. esp. the latter being more probable. p. Scholia in Thucydidem. Iulius Pollux. 73–101.e... ed. LSJ. which cannot be applied in general though..30 i.. a single-edged blade of this kind is usually called kopis (κοπὶς)38 or makhaira (μάχαιρα)39. Anabasis. X) that should have been issued by the Odrysai are tentatively dated in the 3rd century BC (SNG BM Black Sea 333B) or from the end of the 3rd century BC to the mid–2nd century BC and later (Topalov 2009.3) as a hairdressing manner used at Athens by rich old men. Herodotos. fr. See also Eustathios of Thessalonike. 10. See Euripides. pl. as he says (Gérassimov 1955. κρωβύλος. for such a sword dubbed Phthias (i. evidently a Thracian warrior is depicted. 1.. who employed golden cicada-shaped ornaments to fasten the knot of hair («.. –as the case in point– they tied up their hair in a top-knot31 (or shaved all their head except crown)32. s. The difference 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 The bronze coins with the legend ODROSVN (Youroukova 1976.e. van der Valk. referring to the ������������������������������������������������������������� hairdressing style ������������������������������������������ of the Makai. 1. esp.. v. 578. 95). The warrior holds in his right hand a curved sword. crest)33 or rather as κρώβυλος/κρωβύλος (roll or knot of hair on the crown of the head)34. 82. vol.13: «κράνη σκύτινα. οὐ μὴν καθειμένας εἰς βάθος τὰς τρίχας ἔχοντας».13: κρωβύλον· πλέγμα τριχῶν εἰς ὀξὺ λῆγον. cf. Hude.36 this is clearly not the case.4.5–6: «. for some distinction in terminology. 837. Δ. 5. tied with a ribbon in the form of a ‘bow knot’ and forming a roundish bun (fig. with a number of interesting features that call for comment (figs. 115. to a different chronological context. it could have been designated as λόφος (tuft of hair upon the crown. 1. As Lederer first noted.

12d (artistic reconstruction: from the left. near Sozopol. a passage in the αὐλὸν ὠρχήσαντο σὺν τοῖς ὅπλοις καὶ ἥλλοντο ὑψηλά τε καὶ κούφως καὶ ταῖς μαχαίραις ἐχρῶντο. Webber 2011.40 there is some attempt in modern literature to differentiate the two appellations based on the direction of the blade curvature. 254 (end of 4th – beginning of 3rd century BC). 42 and 43. Lipnitsa. Webber 2011. bottom right)..27. For a caveat regarding the use of makhaira/kopis to inflict downward slashing strokes from horseback see Barnes 2005.98. Webber 2001. n. the vivid description relates a war dance performed by two Thracian foot soldiers near Kotyora in Pontos).44 there is also a number of realia that shed some light concerning the emergence of curved blades in ancient Thrace already in the 5th century BC. 60. Another one from Vratsa province. Duvanli (Plovdiv province). 50.148 Yannis Stoyas is uncertain. striking foot soldiers from above: «Ὡς δὲ τοὺς ἐναντίους βλάπτειν. Golyamata Mogila. v.42 Makhairai or kopides were particularly handy for cavalrymen as overarm slashing swings of the curved blade could be very effective against infantry (fig. if any. n. Lee 2007. known through the testimony of Thucydides as makhairophoroi. cited by Archibald 1998. 8). 54. Pl.45 based on the archaeological finds. inv. 59–60. IG II² 1489. 52.49 Moreover. Pazardzhik province. end of 4th century BC).. 131. see also Lee 2007. 220. Kopis. μάχαιραν μὲν μᾶλλον ἢ ξίφος ἐπαινοῦμεν· ἐφ’ ὑψηλοῦ γὰρ ὄντι τῷ ἱππεῖ κοπίδος μᾶλλον ἡ πληγὴ ἢ ξίφους ἀρκέσει». 115. Vratsa province. a Thracian tribe mostly inhabiting the Rhodope region. Archibald 1998. 203. 60.41 but this looks like a doubtful a posteriori convention which in fact may be of minimal or no significance at all. Webber 2011. 203. 13. μαχαίρας». this might be the specimen found at Bashova Mogila. 109. Interestingly enough in this passage the two terms are used interchangeably.». National Museum of History. as the literary sources seem rather to alternate the terms than to distinguish them. 60. Archibald 1998.g. Webber 2003. 72. 37 (Athens. 50. where kopis is used as an adjective to makhaira: «κοπίδας. 7. 51. displayed in the Kazanluk museum.6 cm). Combat scene where long one-edged blades are depicted in overarm hacking motion. 30 (early 3rd century BC). 12.46 their use rather became more popular in the second half of the 4th century BC. According to the authors a kopis should be a forward-curving blade. Archibald 1998.. 43142. 15. Snodgrass 1967. 38 (sketch. n. There is even an example in Euripides. displayed in the Kabyle museum.. 23. n. no. 102–103. 60. 2.96. 241.2. Webber 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 . Known pre-Hellenistic examples of makhairai/kopides from Bulgaria: Vratsa province. 97. s. Tarassuk. 52. Dimitrova 2004. 355. 295. Blair 1986. 203. see infra nn. 64–65.43 Besides the presence of the Dioi. e. Webber 2011. 34. Sofia. 7. 119. Furthermore. However.29–30 (413 BC). 546. n. 256 (37. top left). 5th century BC. Xenophon (Peri hippikēs.4 (429/8 BC). Webber 2011. 2004.47 Such blades appear also on the frescoes of the Kazanluk Tomb48 and on a golden amphora from the Panagyurishte Treasure (late 4th – early 3rd century BC). Webber 2011. Kitov 2004. reference to a cavalry ‘sabre’ (μάχαιρα ἱππικὴ) is made by epigraphic testimonia. pl. while a makhaira would have a slight backwards curve. Webber 2001. 38 (sketch. Fol et al. kopis. 59–60. third and fifth figure in the eastern frieze of the tomb’s dromos). Cyclops. fig. Kopis with similar handle. 7th/6th century BC. 203. 86. n. no. 2. Gilt-decorated hilt in eagle’s head shape. n.11) advises that a rider should prefer to handle a makhaira / kopis over a straight sword.

Mossynoikoi (Xenophon. Curtius relates that at a crucial point Alexander launched Agrianian and Thracian light-armed troops (Agrianos et Thracas leviter armatos) against the elephants.16. 60. while the claim that a kopis is “sharply” curved is much debatable. 61–68. Libanius. in Kyrou Paideia.. perhaps the latter may indirectly echo the secures brought into the fray at the Hydaspes.Θρᾷκες πρῶτοι τὴν καλουμένην ἅρπην εὗρον (ἔστι δὲ μάχαιρα καμπύλη)». Webber 2003. 31.14. 1.). this name causes some further confusion as it has been 2011. 4. figs. Anabasis. 201. 18. 39–42 (with the caveat already mentioned). cf.51 After the phalanx also joined the melee. quis adpetebant beluarum manus. see also T.39.. ἢ πέλεκυς.29). Copidas vocabant gladios leviter curvatos. s. 374–380. s.54 this term is often used by Xenophon. ed. “. 8. Suda. σάγαρις· πελέκιον μονόστομον (one-edged axe). Webber 2011. figs. cf.. Anabasis. Scholia in Xenophontem. 200 BC).56 One can wonder what would be the name for such a blade in Thracian. It is well-known that the Agrianes were first-rate javelin throwers. 6.24–30. peltasts. falcibus similes. 10. Persians (Xenophon. cf. Anthologia Palatina. Curtius Rufus –although written in the 1st century AD– may offer an interesting connection. similar to falces”. 2. 4. v.2. ed.22: «κοπίδας καὶ σαγάρεις». esp.14. 5. fig.4. since Curtius does not clearly state that only Macedonians handled them.11 (rumpia. the other part translates as “slightly curved swords.6.καὶ σαγάρεις σιδηρᾶς». pl. etc. 1. v. 172–177. but the whole assumption is rather undermined by some misunderstanding. Lexicon. like the aforementioned Agrianians and the Thracae leviter armati. pl. who intercepted the latter with volleys of missiles.16–17). v. 48. 1. «. 12. Webber 2011.” Pace Webber 2011. cf. cited by Clemens of Alexandria (Stromata. 19. 42.4. securibus –id namque genus auxilii praeparatum erat– pedes amputare coeperunt.g. about ξίφη καὶ σαγάρεις Μακεδονικάς.16: «μάχαιρα δὲ ἢ σάγαρις ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ». 5. supra n. Later sources inform us that the Thracians were the first who invented a curved blade called harpe. Photios. 36). Schmidt. As e.50 While describing the Battle of the Hydaspes (326 BC). Hesychios of Alexandria. 1. Recently it was suggested that rhomphaiai should be meant for the slightly curved copides.57 However.) and kopis (sing.52 Usually the secures are rendered as “axes”. acc.28) and copides for attacking their trunks (8.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 149 Historiae of Q.13: κοπὶς ἢ πέλεκυς. the bloody outcome was sealed when there were used secures for hacking at the feet of the behemoths (8.76.).4. pl.55 according to later literary sources its definition is either kopis or axe.9: «ἐν κολεῷ κοπίδα ἢ σάγαριν» (“kopis or sagaris in sheath”). who casually interchanges it with kopis or makhaira.6–7) and 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 . could resort to their (curved) blades.1. Plutarch.53 It is quite possible that the Latin word securis corresponds actually to the Hellenic σάγαρις.5–7).5 (171 BC). Declamatio 23. 546.. there is some confusion between kopides (pl. according to Webber they resemble a lot with the 70 cm kopis in the Kabyle museum. after having thrown their javelins. see also supra n. This was a weapon employed by Scythians (Herodotos. The exact time of the appearance of the rhomphaia remains a problem. Additionally. In the text appears the form copidas (fem. σάγαρις: κοπὶς ἢ πέλεκυς. 1–2.215). for a double-edged blade («λυσιφλεβῆ τε σάγαριν ἀμφιθηγέα»). some figures in the eastern and the western frieze of the dromos of the Kazanluk Tomb may be holding rhomphaiai. which they called copides. σάγαρις: κοπίς.. Eusebius (Praeparatio evangelica..13: «. 12d and 12e (artistic reconstructions). Dindorf. Livius. s.14. There is no problem that these weapons were also used by Thracians. Aemilius Paulus. For the rhomphaia see indicatively Paunov 2005.94.2.75. 64–65. 21.

Suda.150 Yannis Stoyas also used for the weapon of the mythical hero Perseus.60 Not long ago an iron curved blade from Vratsa province (3rd/2nd century BC).8 cm). Cyprus. ca. In any case. 1888. v. Webber 2011. Lee 2007. See Webber 2001. 10. 51–52. due to its particular curving. 116. ‘sharp. σκαλμὸς (pin or thole to which the Greek oar was fastened by the tropōtēr. 296. s. Fol et al.64 Gerasimov saw right on this. s. it is quite difficult to discern if the blade held by the warrior on the Danteletai coins is either a “skalme” or a kopis. it should be stressed that there is no reason to suppose that the shield he carries is a crescent-shape pelte. a twisted leather thong). 9). as two of the Vratsa province blades called makhairai look similar to one published as “skalme”. Καὶ σιδηρολάβον δὲ αὐτήν τινες λέγουσιν. AE coin of Philip V of Macedonia. 1261ff. 78–79. 332–323 BC (Price 1991. See indicatively Snodgrass 1967. 78. AV stater of Alexander the Great. 38584.62 as well as perhaps to a blade depicted in the western frieze of the dromos of the Kazanluk Tomb. no. inv. 5. In Thrace another term for such a sickle-sword might be σκάλμη. For an etymological attempt to relate skalme to the Indo-European *(s)kel-. see infra nn. 101.g. 3. Returning now to the standing Thracian fighter. e. was published under the notion that it could correspond to the weapon called skalme (fig.165: «ξίφους δὲ ὄνομα ἔοικεν εἶναι βαρβαρικὸν ἡ σκάλμη»). n. v. Salamis. Θρακικὸν ξίφος ἐπικαμπές (curved).. Sofia. 12e (artistic reconstruction: third figure from the left). 95. a war-sickle. this also could be the case with the makhaira from Pleven (bottom center right).26–29). typically signifies an oblong oxhide-covered wicker shield. Webber 2003. Persian gerra were usually withy-made. The glimpse of the interior of the shield is revealing: it is held through the porpax. known already from Herodotos (7. however. This word. top left). although cf. to cut. fig. Webber 2011. LSJ. National Museum of History. is rather close to some other blades illustrated in a previous publication. 3136: symbol on reverse field). 59–63. 261 (38. 50..: reverse type). the visualization of a Xenophontian description (wicker Scamon (Fragmenta. fr. 38 (sketch. v. and though the shield is depicted rather in three-quarter profile. what is likely viewed is in essence a round or an oval shield. the gerron. 2004. which was commonly used by the Persians. Basic similarities exist with another kind of shield.66 Even so. This is generally considered a δρέπανον. see Paliga 2006. 83. vol. 171. although this was regularly oblong. A detailed description of such a blade is given by Achilles Tatius. Snodgrass 1967. ἀσπίδες Περσικαὶ ἐκ λύγων». no. 620. the harpe linked to the hero Perseus is commonly depicted on coins as a straight blade with a protruding vertical ‘hook’ on the cutting edge. Iulius Pollux comments that this name seems barbarian (Onomasticon. 546. 183.58 An intriguing testimony comes from a fragment of Troilos by Sophokles where the appellation σκάλμη is attested.7.1) and quite frequent in Xenophon. gripping the antilabe. cf. 221–179 BC (SNG Cop. 56.61 The shape of this item. Ta kata Leukippēn kai Kleitophōnta. Hesychios of Alexandria. even if it was considered as another flaw. to scratch’. s.61. II. 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 .8–9. no.59 it should be noted though that literary evidence for the shape of the blade is not solid. but the impression given on the better preserved specimens makes the latter more likely. sica. γέρροιν: «. Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum. σκάλμη· μάχαιρα Θρᾳκία. Sophokles.65 while the short horizontal lines on its inner surface show that it has definitely been made of wicker-work.63 Taking into account that differences appear minor in the depictions.

32.70. fig. Eusebius. Aemilius Paulus. Yourukova 1999.16. 2. 13. 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 Xenophon.1–6) describes the original bronze pelte («χαλκῆν πέλτην») that fell from the sky at the hands of legendary king Numa and calls ἀγκύλια (ancilia) those ritual peltai. cf. . Rhomaike archaiologia. cf. Stromata. ed. the essential features of a pelte were that it had no rim like a hoplon/aspis. 8. Euripides. Rose.9: «γέρρον δὲ εἰς τὴν ἀριστεράν. 311. dancers and singers in praise of the gods of war.. mainly because of the fact that the materials that had been used were mostly perishable.3: «.. have been found near Debnevo (Lovech province).1. in his Life of Aemilius Paulus. Fragmenta varia.22 (γέρρα καὶ κοπίδας καὶ σαγάρεις).6 (167 BC).44. 2. 48. «πολλὰ πελταστῶν τέλη»): «ἦν δὲ ἡ πέλτη ἀσπὶς ἴτυν οὐκ ἔχουσα (οὐδ’) ἐπίχαλκος (οὐδὲ βοὸς ἀλλ’) αἰγὸς (ἢ οἰὸς) δέρματι περιτεταμένη». It has been claimed that the pelte was an Illyrian invention. also 4. (normally) it was not bronze-faced. 52. for their shape was not circular but had indentations or cutouts.3. curved blade in the right)67 presents a certain affinity with the Dantēlētēs’ depiction. 10.5–7. 2. Plutarch refers to Thracian gerra included in Roman triumph..1–15 (Scholia Vaticana ad Euripidis Rhesum. 203. was discovered at Dolna Koznitsa (Kyustendil province). Praeparatio evangelica. Kyrou Paideia. n. Also. Fragmenta. ovoid shield. 15. 1..73 a flat. Dionysios of Halicarnassos while making a lengthy report on the Roman customs and more specifically on the Salii.1 (τόξῳ καὶ σαγάρει καὶ πέλτῃ). Strabo.2. 55.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 151 shield in the left.6. Information offered by later sources is also worth examining. See Aristotle. See supra n.». ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ἰλλυριοὶ τὴν καλουμένην πέλτην ἐξεῦρον». 56. cf. cf. n. cf. gives an interesting detail: each of them holds in his left a Thracian pelte («τῇ δ’ εὐωνύμῳ κατέχει πέλτην Θρᾳκίαν»). 5. made of leather and bronzefaced. 11. Alkestis.. Webber 2011..69 Plutarch (Numa. with its sides compressed”.70 According to a general view based on literary sources. lozenge-shaped) should actually mean oval. made from organic material and fixed with bronze nails.74 There may be some similarities with a couple of figures in the eastern frieze of the Kazanluk Tomb. κοπὶς δὲ ἢ σάγαρις εἰς τὴν δεξιάν». but the Thracians were the first who used peltai on horseback.75 but the Δαντηλήτης warrior on the coins appears to be holding a smaller.72 a gold ring dated to the 5th century BC which was found at Chernozem (Plovdiv province) is engraved with a nude warrior bearing a spear and a strangely rendered shield. also Strabo.498.71 On the other hand.Κρητικαὶ πέλται καὶ Θρᾴκια γέρρα»).68 This was a special pelte with a curious shape. Dionysios’s phrasing seems to imply an eightshaped shield. which might be somehow differentiated from the peltai («.26–29.75.6–7: «πρῶτοι πέλταις ἐπὶ ἵππων ἐχρήσαντο.70 (7 BC). it has been commented that the word ῥομβοειδὴς (rhombus-shaped.5. traces of a cresentic or round pelte.19 for a reference to a rhomboidal gerron (γέρρῳ ῥομβοειδεῖ). 204. 54. 3.ἡ δ’ ἐστὶ ῥομβοειδεῖ θυρεῷ στενωτέρας ἔχοντι τὰς λαγόνας ἐμφερής. Rhomaike archaiologia.. archaeological evidence is rather scarce. 498 (ζαχρύσου Θρηικίας πέλτης ἄναξ). Webber 2011. Dionysios describes it as “similar to a rhomboidal thureos.or sheep-skin. Archibald 1998. Clemens of Alexandria. and Scamon. nor it was covered with oxhide but with goat.

416. 167–168. but sometimes this can be a trait of conservatism of the engraver.05. XX (ca. See e. pl. BCD Coll. a spear and a large round shield (hoplon) is rendered on bronzes of Trikka (fig. 158. these hemidrachms and tetrachalka are dated ca. Thessaly. . compared to the Thracian warrior who wears a chitoniskos (fig. 400–344 BC. tab.2008). Stylistic analysis cannot lead to strict chronological criteria when discussing such different areas and coin productions which are affected by several factors (metal available.2011). BCD Coll. no.1–2 (AE chalkoi. bearing helmet and holding sword and hoplon/aspis is shown on an issue (silver obol) of Kierion dated ca.78 A warrior with a conical helmet.g. 423–424. Peloponnesos. 94. SNG Cop. First half of the 4th century BC. especially in nearby territories.05. 3.2011). or at some point later) as ‘Thracian gerron’. the arrangement of the legend in a similar fashion (OPON / TIVN). lot 1074. Thessaly. In a search of iconographic and stylistic comparanda for the warrior figure. comparanda can be seen on later Opuntian coins too. 34. first half of the 4th century BC. 386/5–375 BC).). A distant but interesting comparandum can be viewed on hemidrachms of Tegea showing a warrior (Kepheus?) with helmet.152 Yannis Stoyas probably not ribbed. 123. although this should be considered probably as a terminus post quem for the issue of the Danteletai. it would seem at first glance that not many counterparts can be readily traced. 219. but in heroic nudity (except for his helmet). etc). Focusing on details such as the rendering of the body.82 Regarding Dionysos’ head on the other side. Nomos 4 (10. BCD Coll. with a warrior bearing conical helmet. it could be an oval pelte or possibly a variation that might have been designated (then. Auction 96 (08. 10). Nomos 4 (10. 58. 245.2011). BCD Coll. lots 1347–1348. a terminus post quem could be seen on Abderitan drachms signed by Molpagores. See e. purpose and duration of minting. see Chryssanthaki-Nagle 2007. note that the shield is rimmed in 1228. 302–286 BC. 246. n. Thessaly.05.2). 3. lot 1730.80 Characteristic examples of comparanda can be provided by the large coin series of the Opountioi Lokroi illustrating Ajax. lot 1227 (AR drachm. 11). SNG Lockett 2531.2011). pace Mattingly 1996. a different version of a warrior appears on the reverse of the next lot (1360). LHS Numismatik. cf. ca. 253.76 Looking further. BCD Coll. May 1966. and Isaac 1986. A tetradrachm emission of Abdera issued in the name of Nikostratos. Here again the figure is standing right. 350–330 BC. 103–104.05. on certain silver and bronze issues of Pelinna appears a warrior (usually a peltast) advancing left77 and sometimes right.03. On the other hand. XIII (ca. spear and hoplon on the reverse. tab. the figure of Protesilaos on the coins of Phthiotides Thebai seems to set just a terminus ante quem for the Danteletai coinage. 350 BC. for a revised dating of this issue ca. shield. pl. lot 48 (AE.81 as well as the features of Demeter’s head (obv. Classical Numismatic Group. in Thessaly. 136–137. first half of the 4th century BC or earlier) and lots 1228. spear and large shield and dated ca. 386 BC. n. 80. Thessaly.g. Nomos 4 (10. for revised chronology: 377–374 BC.2006). e-auction 183 (05. large shield). 439–411/404? BC). the son of Oileus. 166.79 Another warrior. constitutes a numismatic antecedens that can be noted (fig. n. no.83 which are dated about the 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 May 1966. a close stylistic comparandum is dated in the 350s BC. 12). lot 1359. For the warrior. The depicted warrior cannot be a peltast.05. Nomos 4 (10. Figueira 1998. 123. see Chryssanthaki-Nagle 2007. The letter forms of the legend of the Danteletai issue seem very clear-cut and compact. holding sword and aspis. 411. n.

357–353 BC). 6 mm. 112. 355–352 BC). 7. 124. with a thick flan approx.90 Taking also into account the prolific. For the revised chronology (350? BC) see Psoma 2001. Dindorf. there is a number of Apollon heads on stater emissions that could be associated in style with the Dionysos head of the Danteletai. no. 14b)89 that are tentatively dated in the 360s/350s BC. Panathenaikos. 78. no. Some weights of Dalmatian coins (Herakleia. IV.91 The extant Danteletai specimens were struck at a most frequent weight of about 16 g (and the standard may go even higher). SNG Cop.86 but both look a bit earlier in style. Lorber 1990.87 The ivy-wreathed head of Dionysos on certain coin issues of Lamia presents affinities: these can be detected either on hemidrachms (rendering of the eye. but for which a lower chronology may actually be more suitable. no. For such heavy bronze coins attributed to Seuthes I see Topalov 2003. no. 60. r. n. III. Thessaly. Graham 1992. 275. such as the short-lived bronze emission of Galepsos (head of Dionysos l. 197–198 (ca. 77. 174). heavy bronze pieces of this kind have been coined very rarely in general and parallels are found rather exclusively92 in issues of certain Thracian rulers: Seuthes I (424–410/405 BC). and perhaps Issa?) look similar. oval jaw.)85 or the silver obols of Amphipolis (male young head. 92. n. Peter 1997.). 194ff. Peter 1997.7) that the Triballi were in collaboration with the Maronitans against the Abderitans. lifetime and posthumous. a possible likeness may be discerned on specimens struck ca. 384/3–359 BC). 134–135. ca.05. pl. 350/347–341 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 About this event it is attested in the Scholia of Aelius Aristides (ed. 171. 360/359 – before 357 BC). Thessaly. for sharing her remarks on the coins under discussion. BCD Coll. 13). there is some dissension whether Galepsos was located in the Thasian peraia (Loukopoulou 2004. 2. 405–391 BC). Special thanks are due to colleague Evangelia Georgiou. which is probably dated ca. 126.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 153 time of the Triballian raid of 375 BC. bound with tainia.84 A couple of issues of nearby mints can be also correlated. Nomos 4 (10. The gradual stylistic evolution observed on the series of the Chalcidic Koinon can offer useful insight as the closest resemblance can be rather spotted in Group V. coin production of Philip II of Macedonia. lot 1090. BCD Coll. Peter 1997. who is compiling the numismatic corpus of Lamia as a PhD study. 187. 76 (ca. 827–828..2011).05. see May 1966. 3. Robinson. XVI. No real link can be established with the Adriatic as proposed by Lederer (Lederer 1941. Laureate head of Apollon r. 241–243. 75–76. nos.95 Amatokos II (ca. but besides chronological and other problems the whole assumption cannot stand on historical grounds. 359–351 BC)96 and Teres III (ca. 132. 350 BC (fig.g. 631. n. 861. 89. 133.2011). 571). Liampi 2005. Liampi 2005. holding some reservations concerning the chronology of certain issues in the name of Philip. 64–65. 115. esp.94 Kotys I (ca. 14a)88 or obols (flowing hair on the neck. Le Rider 1977. n.. 125. . Pharos. 130 (old chronology: ca. pl. 236. fig. 340/336–328 BC at Pella (fig. 172. Chryssanthaki-Nagle 2007. 15). n. Nomos 4 (10. Ionios. 374) or in Chalcidice (Flensted-Jensen 2004. lot 1089. no.93 Metokos (Medokos or Amadokos I. fig. tab. Peter 1997. 16–19. Clement 1938. See e. smoothly arched eyebrow. 227ff.

173. pl. 151–152. 2008. 150. 16). 385–406. Based on the published material107 and according to the analysis applied. sometimes over 18 g.102 However. 173. Schönert-Geiss 1987. while two other denominations were also struck (tetartemoria and maybe hemiobols?). Wartenberg 1992.110 if they were struck afterwards. 386/5–348/7 BC. 197. All three values were of similar weight and module.. bronze currency was introduced at the beginning of the 4th century BC and the smaller unit was a chalkous with an average weight just above 1 g. over 17 g. the weight of the Danteletai pieces. 151. 2008. Psoma et al. 39.html (retrieved 6 August 2011). nos. cf. sometimes over 20 g – Teres III.97 Based on a sample of metrological data98 the royal issues in question present the following high values: Seuthes I. Odrysian rulers (particularly Amatokos II and Teres III) adopted Maronitan types for their coinages. nos. 162–163. Following the recent metrological revision of the Maronitan bronzes. close to 17 g – Amatokos II. see links and statistics sheets for each ruler through http://hourmo.108 Some reform occurred in the 360s–330s BC. Psoma et al. 151. especially with the appearance of a larger denomination (hemiobols?) with an average weight of just over 5 g109. 5–9. Besides the case of Seuthes I. 51. should make them bronze “diobols”. 169–170. 2008.104 There is even a stylistic similarity between a couple of the Dionysos’ heads on these tetradrachms105 and the Dionysos’ head of the Danteletai bronzes making a connection more reasonable (fig. 46. Schönert-Geiss 1987. 2008. These coins had been designated by SchönertGeiss as “tridrachms” at the Persian weight standard and assigned to the period ca. n. since there are no die links with the city’s series and they very few royal coins have been found in the excavations conducted there. based mostly on data assembled online by Yannis Hourmouziadis. Psoma et al.99 but their pieces were not struck at Maroneia. Schönert-Geiss 1987. 188. Especially the issue signed by Metrophanes (Schönert-Geiss 1987. signed by Pythonikos and dated in the 330s BC (26) or “from the third quarter of the 4th century BC” (135). 171–172. 188. 2008.15–17. over 18 g. over 15 g – Metokos. 2008. Psoma et al. 135. just over 16 g – Kotys I. 188. 389–393. 13ff. 170. they might constitute bronze 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 Peter 1997.106 it can be attempted to define the heavy denomination employed by the Danteletai. nn. Psoma et al. 131ff. 2008. 1 AE “diobol” corresponding to 2 obols X 8 chalkoi of ca. Psoma et al.25 g).101 perhaps hinting at a possible link. 16.eu/27_Reges_Thraciae/Index_Reges_Thraciae. Psoma et al.154 Yannis Stoyas BC). Psoma et al. Consequently.1 g. 18).100 Quite interestingly a Maronitan coin series struck in silver presents analogous weights (16. . 365–330s BC. 2008. 150–153. 167. pl. 53ff. 140–141.. 18. 38–39. if they were issued before the change. 1–1. differentiating only through obverse types and largely pointing to a currency of fiduciary character. 188. it has been suggested that these pieces should be instead tetradrachms minted at a reduced Attic weight standard103 and that they should be dated in the years ca. 35–36. 26–27.

154. Bouzek.5.115 On the basis of the only known locations of provenance for the Danteletai coins. focusing on archaeological data. Taneva 2000. and Tacheva 2007. new specimens found in the area of Pazardzhik and Vetren with these coin types and the ethnic DANTHL/HTVN.7 g. near Vetren (Septemvri area. located on the Aegean coast see Salviat 1999. For different approaches supposing that Pistiros and Pistyros were one and the same and. based on the consulted literature. 275–317.111 Notwithstanding. 259–273. 5. Strabon includes in the tribes who dwell about the Mount Haimos and at its foot some of the Maedi and the Dantheletai (7. Another case of argumentum ex absentia derived from Filipova et al. Archibald 2004. 4. but should be said for the circulation of these coins based on the little evidence available. moreover. Дентелети). at least partly.116 That seems to be no coincidence as the course of the diagonal route from Philippopolis (Plovdiv) to Serdikē (Sofia) is outlined.edu/symposium/Jennifer%20E_%20Johnston. The much later testimony of Plinius (Naturalis historia. the area of Pazardzhik emerges together with that of Ihtiman. Bravo. v.117 comes in effect under the spotlight. 895–896. were the famous inscription had been found. 254–259. A few things can. See supra nn...htm). 896. Upper Hebros valley). Chankowski 1999. Information provided by Evgeni Paunov (per litteras) with my sincere thanks.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 155 “trihemiobols”. . a little earlier.1–5. 47–53. in the west side of the Upper Strymon area which is often deemed the homeland of the tribe. quoting: “In the 1990s. this could be a case of monetary tokens or fiat money with a value fixed under agreement. This recently become prominent river port is commonly thought to be identified with ‘Emporion Pistiros’. 2009. Johnston 1999 (retrieved 17 July 2011 from http://classics. 888.40) places the Denseletae (alongside with the Maedi) on the right bank of the Strymon. For a so far last word in favour of Adjiyska Vodenitsa as Emporion Pistiros see: Bouzek. see also Archibald 2004.119 it seems that this site was a key point and played a significant role in the trade of a broader area. while in the middle the archaeological site of Adjiyska Vodenitsa. 656. Some reservations on the identification of the site as an emporion were expressed by Tsetskhladze.” (retrieved 20 June 2011). Tsetskhladze 2000. no. 2011.12). 235–240.118 Though no coins of the Danteletai have been traced there so far.kenyon. 233–246. regarding emporion Pistiros he would prefer the locality of Assardere.112 It may come a bit as a surprise but until nowadays no coins of the Danteletai have been published113 or are known to have been found in the territory of Kyustendil (Pautalia in Roman times).114 Nor any specimens are reported so far in the acquisitions of such a major museum as the Archaeological Museum of Plovdiv or in the holdings of the Pazardzhik History Museum. Domaradzka 2010b. the same applies for the Smolyan (Central Rhodope) area. Archibald 2004. however. Domaradzka 2007. An argumentum ex absentia derived from Prokopov et al.120 taking 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 1 AE “trihemiobol” (=1 ½ obol) reckoned at 3 AE hemiobols of ca. It is not clear if what appears to be an inconsistency. 592. On the other hand. 6 and 9. Supplementary information is found in the Bulgarian Wikipedia (s. could be due to shifts in the rather fragmentary geographical pattern of the Thracian tribes that were noted in the 1st century AD. 2 km to the south. Tsetskhladze 2002.

SEG 43 (1993). see also Zambon 2000. Bouzek. 593–594. especially after the victorious campaign of Philip against the Scythian ruler Ataias.126 All things considered. 351. 11. 153–154.124 Apollonia and Thasos. Zambon 2000. 205–216. 234–237. Domaradzka 2010a. 1267 (“near Haimos”). 30. 226. n. 588–595.125 in association to the eminent oracle supervised by the Bessi probably in the Haimos area. esp. 359–371. Loukopoulou 1999. 235. Alexander. esp. 9. Βησσοὶ are mentioned by Herodotos (7. 17). There was a preliminary report for Maronitan lead weight(s) found at Vetren – Pistiros (Archibald 1998. 14. The reference in the inscription to Dionysos is telling about the importance of his cult in these lands. 27. Heraclides Ponticus).123 it documents several commercial and other regulations between emporitai and Thracians. 6). Lazova 2002. On this matter see Boteva 2002. p. Relations of both kings with Maroneia have been already known since they adopted coin types of the city. Archibald 1998. with references to Maroneia. 69–74.121 The inscription could have been issued under the authority of Amadokos II122 or Teres III. Chankowski. combined with the partial absence and the reported concentration of the Danteletai coins (with the representation of Dionysos on them no less). . Yourukova 1999. The Tetrachoritai was perhaps a clan of the Bessi. n. 176. 335–337. Velkov.156 Yannis Stoyas also into account the important Pistiros – Vetren inscription (after 359 BC). favouring Teres III (as son of Kersobleptes) and a dating after 341/0 BC. it should be noted first that it would have been short-lived. 887. cf. Meineke.11. nn. ὡς Στράβων ἑβδόμῃ. 221–222. 2008. Tacheva 2007. Psoma et al. For the events see Archibald 1998. Veligianni-Terzi 2004.128 Either by the end of the same year or in 339 BC Antipatros and Parmenion led a successful operation against the Tetrachoritai.111) to control this Thracian oracle of Dionysos. 176. Plutarch. 2008. Domaradzka 1999. 74–75 (opting year 339 BC in n. Domaradzka 1996. Minchev 2003. Schwartz. n. and Alcestis. esp. οἱ Βεσσοί. 85–86. Tacheva 2007. Zambon 2000. 275–276. Archibald 1998. ed.129 by that time Macedonian control was consolidated in Thrace. the testimony of Strabon. 80. Domaradzka 1994. taking into account the use seemingly of only a pair of dies.130 In 335 BC the new king of Macedo121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 For the inscription and its importance see indicatively Velkov. 1–15. 968 (“on Haimos”. 233–234. which according to Boteva was located in Haimos – see Scholia in Euripidem. The assumption (Manov 1989. 339–342. 313–324. Domaradzka 2002. 291–297. Ethnika.1. Hecuba. something which is not confirmed after all – I would like to truly thank Dr Zosia Halina Archibald for this clarification (personal communication). Regarding the chronology of the issue. Archibald 2004. 246– 258. The striking of the coins probably took place after the final campaign of Philip II in Thrace (342–341 BC) and the fall of the Odrysian rulers Kersobleptes and Teres III. Psoma et al. n.127 A little later the Maedi revolted and young Alexander had to subjugate them (340 BC). Stephanos Byzantios. lead to a focal area highlighted between the northern bank of the upper course of Hebros and the Haimos mountain ridge (fig. 28. 5. Jordanov 2000. 126–127 and 136–137) that the Danthaletai at that time took the side of the Macedonians and the Agrianians is highly conjectural. 7–8. Veligianni-Terzi 2004. Οὗτοι λέγονται καὶ Τετράκωμοι». ed. 237–239. 592. 90). Domaradzka 1999. 618: «Τετραχωρῖται.

08 g. certain clues point to the third quarter of the 4th century BC. There is a crux in this passage («. fish struck on young male head r.κατὰ τὰ στενὰ τῆς ἀνόδου τῆς ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τῶν τε † ἐμπόρων πολλοὶ ὡπλισμένοι καὶ οἱ Θρᾷκες οἱ αὐτόνομοι. M1. inv.). 18 mm. the cessation of the Odrysian coin production alongside with an incident in the 330s should have caused the minting of their pieces (somewhere in the Thracian hinterland). the specific occasion that led to this brief issue has to be sought in the interregnum years. cf. Fixed Price List 29 (1997). then crossed over Hebros possibly into the area of ‘Emporion Pistiros’ and from there he advanced as it seems to the Etropole Pass on Haimos. Athens. Thus.g.5 («. 278) that followed Alexander in his thunderous campaign to the East.διελθὼν δὲ διὰ μέσης τῆς Θρᾴκης ἐνέβαλεν εἰς Ὀδρύσας (καὶ) Βέσσους καὶ Δενθηλήτους»). but taking into account the emporitai mentioned in the Vetren – Pistiros inscription things may be seen in perspective.8. For a similar occasion that Bessi and Dentheleti are mentioned in tandem. below MELSA. Rev. 30. perhaps ante 335 BC.. (obv. with the inference also of a time lag possible for the area in question. that year marked the end of the conquest of the Thracian lands by the Temenids.: Filleted bucranium facing. 23. Bucranium struck on young rider r. within dotted border. perhaps the Danthaletai followed suit and joined the conflict.6). Boteva 2000. practising in a sense their autonomy.: Fish l. before the rise of Seuthes III (ca. Polybios.133 Since the mountain pass had seemed to the traders and the Bessi as the right place to take a stand against the Macedonians. launched an offensive against the Triballoi and later the Getai. 9 h (fig. 18).1.. it should be noted however that Alexander’s army had rather cut across the country of the Danthaletai who probably were on good terms with the Bessi. 37..»). All in all. 28 and esp. Overstruck on AE coin of Philip II of Macedonia (SNG München 145. for the type). 1.136 131 132 133 134 135 136 Boteva 2002. It remains unkown if some Danteletai were recruited among the Thracians (see e. Jordanov 2000. 318. Kovacs.. 2 = Topalov 1998b. The route he followed is largely sketchy: he probably traversed the Nestos valley. no. 330–295 BC).Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 157 nia. it would be logical that the Danteletai issued their coinage after the collapse of the Odrysian kingdom. much later. 30..131 where he met resistance by “many of the traders equipped with arms” and by “the autonomous Thracians” (Arrian. .). above FILIPPOY (rev. As shown already through the stylistic analysis attempted. no. passed by the modern town Yakoruda and the Yundola col. In any case.135 KIKPE collection.134 Melsa(s) Obv. Alexander...132 The αὐτόνομοι Thracians could be again the Tetrachoritai. 6. Frank L. no.. 3 (from Bulgaria?).

Archaeological Museum. 16 mm (fig. Archaeological Museum. from Veliko Tarnovo district (?). 10–14. 4. Lazarenko has commented that such coins “are found often in the zone north from the town of Kavarna in Dobrudja.146 but since this intriguing piece is unpublished.) / fish and trident. 37. 18 mm. from Sozopol environs. no. Topalov 2007. struck perhaps by the same pair of dies? A supplementary list of extant specimens with scant documentation (non vidi) follows: • Private collection. AE coins. inv. Worn and corroded.). no. 2 h (fig. Mr I. 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 Topalov 2007. no. 37. Topalov 2007. Worn. 1 = Topalov 1998b. 1. 37. 5. The smaller coin issue under discussion was virtually unknown until quite recently. inv. however he states that possibly the coin was only shown there in a monthly meeting of collectors. 4 mm thick. 4 mm thick. 4. Topalov 1998b. above KASSAN. Classical Numismatic Group. lot 70.44 g. 17 mm. 36–49. I 4801. an additional piece of information is that there is also a single bronze with filleted bucranium facing (obv. no. Bucranium struck on head of Herakles r. 36–37.5 mm thick. from northeastern Bulgaria. 6.147 it is very peculiar in terms of the unusual obverse – reverse combination and of its uncanny legend. . no axis given.98 g. along the Euxine coast” (per literras). 4. 22). fish struck on lion seated r. Mail Bid Sale 88 (14 September 2011). 2. I should thank I. Lazarenko for bringing this detail into my knowledge (per litteras). Topalov 1998b. 3 h (fig.143 • Private collection(?). 289–302. no. However. 289. Topalov 1998b..141 • Private collection.140 M5. I 5393.. Topalov non vidit.5 mm. in exergue DROY.92 g. 17 mm. Topalov Collection. 4 mm thick.137 M3. No precise provenance for this and the next coin. 18 mm. no. Topalov 1998b. Topalov non vidit. no. Topalov 1998b. 16 mm. 19). from North-east Bulgaria. 15. Sofia. from Burgas district.138 In trade. no. Overstruck on AE coin of Cassander (SNG Alpha Bank 887). 3 h (fig.144 A recent report talks about 10–12 specimens kept in private Bulgarian collections. 21).158 Yannis Stoyas M2. it was not possible to include it in this study.139 M4. Varna.142 • Private collection. 20). MELSA (rev.30 g. 290. Varna.80 g. The coin was not noted as having been overstruck. 17 mm. 1. 5.145 It is most probably a larger denomination. 3. 4. 37. Topalov 1998a. attributed to an otherwise unknown Thracian chieftain Melsas.

nos. 79–80. 200. lead tesserae were used at Chersonesos apparently for control over free distributions related to religious festivals. which is characterized by a rather early stylization (fig. 2008. 27). 230b. lots 287.149 but according to the latest monograph the Chersonesian chalkoi were produced in the 390s BC (fig. Auktion 111 (25. 365–330s BC by Psoma et al. Numismatica Ars Classica. fig. 52ff. Much later. SNG Cop. 156. 170. bucranium / monogram (various).157 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 For example cf. BCD Coll. comes from a bronze issue of Histiaia (fig. BCD Coll. esp.11. 50. Kovalenko 2008. 123. 173. lot 380 = Numismatik Lanz München. 350–300 BC. 230. 129. 51. Kovalenko 2002. the description of the character of a μικροφιλότιμος (pettily-proud): «καὶ βοῦν θύσας τὸ προμετωπίδιον ἀπαντικρὺ τῆς εἰσόδου προσπατταλεῦσαι στέμμασι μεγάλοις περιδήσας. 205. nos. 42. a smooth band of cloth. Characters. Fol et al. 34ff. 344. May 1966. See e.2010). Auction 55 (08. Lokris – Phokis. lot 444. 357–354 BC). the type of the filleted frontal bucranium makes a notable appearance on the stater issue of Parmenon at Abdera. then falling down the sides. Auktion 21 (24. Numismatica Ars Classica. lot 414. the bronze coins of Tauric Chersonesos with filleted bucranium / fish.2010). closer stylistic comparanda can be found there. however in later issues such as those minted by Elateia in the late 4th century BC (fig. 2004. tab. belonging in the first half of the 3rd century BC. but as a supplementary symbol. 10 (ca. SNG Stancomb 457: ca. certain antecedentia could be mentioned. 350 BC. most notably for their close iconography.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 159 On the obverse.. SNG Cop. shown as a beaded ribbon draped across the forehead and looped around the horns.154 Insisting in the area of Phokis. 24).2007). bucranium / head of Hermes.3. there are different views for the dating of this issue. 350–340 BC).2010). Paunov 1998. BCD Coll. In contrast to the ταινία. such a knotted fillet could be called on occasion στέμμα (Lat. .. See e.2002). pl. pl.3. 21. 357/351–346 BC. 3: ca.. 25)155 and by Lilaia in the late 4th – early 3rd century BC (fig. probably by the end of the 3rd century BC. 26). etc. 431.2 and 289 (AE coins. no. Lokris – Phokis. many of which are dated in the period ca. 2–4. BCD Coll. 23a-b).g. SNG Black Sea 710: ca. In the much appreciated view of Sergei Kovalenko “these coins were circulating for a quite long period of time after their issue” (personal communication). in Theophrastos.7. 230d (first half of 4th century BC). such as.152 some of the Phokian (filleted) bucrania153 are somehow reminiscent in style of the (not filleted) bucrania adorning the silver phialai nos. 94–95 from the Rogozen Treasure.150 In Thrace. such an example is the “stater” emission of Neomenios at Maroneia. 199–200. Numismatica Ars Classica. the facing bucranium bears a sacrificial knotted fillet.10. infula). lot 534. ὅτι βοῦν ἔθυσε».148 Looking at the broad picture. 39–83.05. There is a whole series of them and the filleted bucranium is the most common type appearing in many combinations: head of Parthenos / bucranium. Kovalenko 2002. dated by Chryssanthaki-Nagle 2007.10. 515. 70. Auction 55 (08. 48. 226. Auction 55 (08. no. Schönert-Geiss 1987. club and the legend XER. this is deemed a double stater and is dated in ca. 40.151 Quite early are also several examples from the well known coin series of the Phokians. Euboia.156 Another similar example. ending in tassels.10. Münzen & Medaillen Deutschland. or l. There are also a few other examples of filleted bucrania on civic issues in Thrace. ὅπως οἱ εἰσιόντες ἴδωσιν. Lokris – Phokis. 369 BC. ca. 288. XVII.g. bucranium / dolphin r.

121–124.116b). 280–279 BC) and the parapet of the Arsinoeion at Samothrace (ca. 123. which are dated in the years ca. 37. 30). Zeuner 1963. fig. The rather sketchy rendering of the fish on the chalkoi makes difficult its identification. 3 (mistakenly referred as AR dr. 3.164 As far as the fish on the coins with legend MELSA is concerned. although as supplementary symbol. its identification is uncertain. 310–304/3 BC (fig. Athenaios.e. Close comparanda for the fish on the reverse are rather hard to find.165 After the appearance of the coins with the form MELSA became known. esp. 28–29.. See indicatively Detschew 1957. 28) or on the architrave of the old temple of Demeter at Pergamon (ca. the earlier example from Chersonesos has been already mentioned. 244–250. 23a-b. Deipnosophistai. -a) or an ethnic name in genitive plural of an abridged version such as Melsa[nōn]. no. fig. “of the Tyrans”.160 Yannis Stoyas Iconographic parallels can be sought also in other artistic forms and media during that transition from the late 4th to early 3rd century BC. 29). 69 (see fig. due to the poor preservation of most specimens.166 It has been discussed already at length in scholarship the possibility that the name of Mesambria may be a composite deriving from Melsos or Melsas (a mythical founder) and the Thracian word bria (village. 47–49.160 on the entablature of Ptolemaion (ca. For the latter cf. nos. fig.). fig. 86–87 (βρία). 1986. 280–270 BC. i. near Isperih (Razgrad province). from early on in the 3rd century strongly stylized triangular bucrania become common as decorative elements in architecture (βουκεφάλια). 2. SNG Black Sea 337ff. a connection was attempted with the debate regarding the etymology of Mesambria Pontica. 150 and fig. MacDonald 2005.) and Tyras using the ethnic TYRA (Tyra[nōn]. “of the Melsans”. s.5. See Karayotov 2009. in the legend).158 usually connected by a garland and alternating with rosettes159.). It is quite possible that it may belong to the family of the mackerels and the tunas (scombridae). esp.161 The bronze coin production of Pantikapaion has to offer issues with the depiction of a fish. 23. Messambria using the ethnic MEWA (Messa[mbrianōn]. SNG Stancomb 218ff. 2. 324).162 This fish is definitely a sturgeon163 and due to its distinctive long snout pointed at the tip. / lion’s head l. 142. 20. town). Stolba 2005. See supra n. βουκεφάλιον. 3. 269–263 BC).8. or Melsa[niōn]. fig. Such ornamental bucrania appear on the lintel over the entrance of the monumental Sveshtari Tomb. it appears to have a rather flat belly. Early 3rd century BC (bucrania without fillets). See e.g. esp. “of the Messambrians”. Fol et al. Nawotka 1994. it should be identified with the starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) or sevriuga. see Stolba 2005. trying to refute the view that Melsas could not be a Thracian name (cf. 118.167 This was supported on the 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 LSJ. SNG Black Sea 336 (TYRANON). based on the testimony of the coins in question. 295–296. Porozhanov 1999. The legend itself presents quite a challenge since it could be a personal name in genitive singular (Melsas. Börker 1975.2. v. 29) and 70 (head of beardless satyr l. a kind belonging to the γένος ὀξυρρύγχου (cf. sturgeon l.4 and 3. but one could not rely on this since the engraving may be very stylized (fig. 120. Karayotov . The painted bucrania on the frieze of the dome of the Kazanlak Tomb (although bound with a tainia) are well known.

324–326. nunc est Apollonia” (At the present day there are upon the coast Mesembria.170 It has to be taken into account also that the literary sources use only the form Μέλσος.. and Topalov 2007. 297. τῆς δὲ πόλεως βρίας καλουμένης θρᾳκιστί». See Topalov 1998b. Veligianni-Terzi 2004. See supra n.Μεσεμβρία δέ μυ (sic) πατρὶς ἀπὸ / [Μ]έλσα καὶ βρία. Karayotov 2009. Meineke. 40–41. for other variations of the name in even later sources see Nawotka 1994. at the time the minting occurred.nunc in ora Mesembria. Anchialum. mod. cf.. where Messa formerly stood. 446.. 136. Quoted through Stephanos Byzantios. Astice regio habuit oppidum Anthium. 321–323. “. Pomorie (Mesa)176 gave the name to a port of Apollonia Pontica (Messa of the Apolloniates) that later evolved into Anchialos.6. v. 6–7: . as Frank Kovacs had the courtesy to notify me. Note though that Strabo (7.1) gives a different name: «Μεσημβρία. 2nd century AD). See the map in Topalov 2007.173 This suggestion cannot be accepted for reasons that will become apparent infra. supra n. at the site where subsequently stood Anchialos. Μεσημβρία: «ἐκλήθη ἀπὸ Μέλσου. while the (Doric?) form Μέλσας. there were suggestions lately that the coins bearing the legend MELSA should have been issued by an unknown Thracian ruler of the 4th century171 or the 3rd century BC.. Ethnika.45)175 and infers that a Thracian settlement inland of mod. Nawotka 1994. at the present day Apollonia occupies its site). for requiring a linguistic transition rather not possible and being perhaps the outcome of fabrication of a Mesambrian scholar dated as late as the 1st century BC. -ου. doubts have been cast on this etymology. cf. Funerary inscription of a certain Ioulia. 20–21.169 However. Topalov sought to solve the problem in a rather elaborate fashion by suggesting that the coins in question were struck by a port called Melsa. 10 August 2011 (4th century BC). The modern term protopolis may fit more correctly the bria type of settlement.. Dimiter Draganov (per litteras. esp. 669. ubi Messa fuerat. Topalov 2007. l. 289–302. 56–58. . In any case. Βρία γὰρ τὴν πόλιν φασὶ Θρᾷκες». 164–165. see also the article by Prof. οἷον Μένα πόλις. Topalov 1998b. with my thanks for this feedback). there is also nothing relevant in record in the Department of Coins and Medals of the British Museum as Amelia Dowler kindly informed me. and Anchialos. On the other hand.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 161 basis of late sources such as Nikolaos Damaskenos (end of 1st century BC)168 and a late inscription (IGBulg I2 345. it had been proposed that the issue (ca. seems to appear only in the inscription mentioned. esp. 20 (4th–3rd century BC). Ivan Karayotov in the Burgas newspaper Morski Vestnik.172 Looking alternatively for a city instead of a person. Lovech). p.177 It is assumed that initially the Apollonian settlers had minted rare silver obols (facing helmet / wheel with 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 2009. s. τοῦ κτίσαντος Μένα καλουμένου. 49. 350 BC) may be attributed to a small inland town called Melsa (known as Melta in Roman times.. Argued by Prof. this attribution had been verbally communicated by the late Martin Price. it is even doubtful if Melta. esp. πρότερον δὲ Μενεβρία. ed. Preshlenov 2003. could be an issuing authority. 36–49. S. -α. 139. one more argument would be that on the reverse is seemingly depicted a sea fish and not a river fish.174 This theory is largely based on the later testimony of Plinius (4. The region of Astice formerly had a town called Anthium.

fig. XI. 87–88 (Philip II). I and II. 46–47. and posthumous bronze issues). 44. 142. in association with the capture of Anchialos by Mesambria and the swift restoration of the Apollonian control (cf. commenting that Anchialos is the only West Pontic city to do so. For the “seated lion” series see Valassiadis 2005. and M3. 92 (Cassander?). 74.181 The first one is struck upon a bronze ‘unit’182 of Philip II of Macedonia (young male head with tainia r. 9. 49. no. no. This should be an hexachalkon at the “Aeginetan” weight standard of 12 chalkoi. 316–305 BC. Topalov 1998b. esp. chronological clues for the MELSA issue are provided by the fact that two of the coins are overstruck on Macedonian bronzes. a good fellow and friend. first half of 2nd century BC). SNG Alpha Bank 887.180 However.). See Portolos 1996. tab. 49. I wish to thank Chrysanthos Valassiadis. Topalov 1998b. See Karayotov 2009.. pl. 7c. 413. it has been noted that the overstrikes occur frequently on coins of the latter (usually on pieces with head of Herakles r. 138–139 (unnoticed in the auction). 78–80. 143. but then goes in favour of the 2nd century BC. 200. 131. 2. 89 (Cassander). 24. at the same time a crucial terminus post quem is obtained. / lion seated r. 253. 136. and 90. 31). fig. above FILIPPOY. fig. In an analogous fashion there is quite a number of coins of Seuthes III overstruck on coins of Philip II. Psoma 2001.179 It is also remarked that fish are depicted on reverses known from the coin production of Anchialos during the imperial times. / young rider r. This should be a dichalkon at the “Attic” weight standard of 8 chalkoi. recognizable primarily by the “bovine”like folds of the lion’s mane which can be discerned just above the fish’s tail. 136. Onomastikon. it should be said that an attempt to include the MELSA issue in the coin production of Mesambria would appear awkward. See supra M1. nos. for sharing his expertise (PhD study currently under way) on the coinage of Cassander. 178. see also Peter 1997.186 The fact that the issuing authority of the MELSA coins proceeded to overstriking187 is of significance. Psoma 2001. 1. 411.162 Yannis Stoyas the legend MESZ). 112–113 (from 356 BC onwards. 45. Inspecting the possibilities. 187. fig. nn. most probably in or after the last fifteen years of the 4th century BC.. 1. and quite importantly. 32). Alexander III. no. precisely the variety illustrated. Lysimachos and Cassander. IGBulg I2 338 bis. 135–136 (auction obviously neglected). hinting perhaps at an exceptional situation wherein bronze currency was required. nn. based on the chronology and the metrology of the Mesambria bronze series188 the issue does not seem to fit and the alteration of the ethnic would be out of context. suggesting a brief issue with the name of the mythical founder of the original settlement. It is 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 Topalov 1998b.178 Discussion involves first a dating after 281 BC. Youroukova 1976. XIII. 83 (Lysimachos).185 This issue bears the name of Cassander without the royal title and is dated in the period ca. Iulius Pollux. tab. 132. nos. 197. It is under question if such bronze pieces were produced only during the reign of Philip II (360/359–336 BC) or if they continued after his death too.65.183 The other coin is struck upon a bronze ‘half-unit’184 of Cassander (head of Herakles r. 84–86. / lion seated r. . Table II. 405.

Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 163 also very questionable if a fort (φρούριον in IGBulg I2 338 bis. Only one possible parallel comes to mind and that may be compromised: the bronze issue attributed to a certain Bergaios (head of Silenos r. 13–16. l. 23: «Ἔνθα δύο σκύλακες πολιὴν μάρπτουσι θάλασσαν. cf. 7. placing Dionysopolis near Balchik and Krounoi near Kranevo. More importantly. Peter 1997. Naulochos (Roman Templum Iovis. 139. Psoma 2002. later. BERG).190 Even so. 758–760.6. 221–222. Isaac 1986..6. esp. 7. it has been proposed that the issue in question may actually belong to the city of Berge. most specimens seemingly come from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast (fig. Quite little is known for Bizone besides the fact that it was largely destroyed by earthquakes and tsunamis (Strabo. For a view on the problems in the historical topography of the nearby area see Gocheva 1996. . / fish r. 165. 104–105. 259–260. near the celebrated site of Byzantion.195 However. Four specimens from northeastern Bulgaria. Pomponius Mela 2. but only during the imperial times. 3. the piece reportedly coming from Veliko Tarnovo district probably does not originate from this region. mod. 171 and 172. near Kavarna). Coinage was produced at Anchialos. Patria Constantinopoleos. 14.193 The option that the pieces with the legend MELSA might comprise a civic issue should be considered. Dionysios Byzantios (2nd century AD) relates the Apollon’s omen concerning the site recommended199 for the establishment of a colony on the Keratios (Golden Horn) bay and identifying that spot at the junction of two streams.194 Having already rejected Mesambria and Anchialos. source and the proposed dating in the 2nd century BC simply cannot stand if the data of the overstrikes are taken into account. See respectively Strabo. Indicatively Preshlenov 2003. πολίχνιον in Strabon. and pseudo-Skymnos. In a passage of his Anaplous Bosporou.1. 33). See supra nn.1)189 or a port would have the potential and the right to mint coins. research towards this direction rather leads to a dead end. in lack of stronger clues. It can be rather admitted that the specific coin types do not seem pertinent to royal issues. Evidence of coin circulation remains indecisive. Obzor) is called a polichnion and the same is done for Bizone196 (probably at the site of Cape Chirakman. Based on scant and perhaps flimsy circulation evidence.197 overall. Hesychios Illoustrios. which is not adequately justified.1.192 although a local ruler is occasionally suggested. 7. 251. in the wait of more pieces with known provenance.198 The MELSA mystery may be resolved eventually by taking a look further south. The assumption for an otherwise unattested Thracian chieftain191 is less likely too. Plinius. Kydaros and 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 Isaac 1986. Dionysios Byzantios. / ἔνθ’ ἰχθὺς ἔλαφός τε νομὸν βόσκονται ἀν’ αὐτόν». the raison d’être comes from only one.22.44). 248. 4. could a case be made for another coastal city maybe with a Mesambrian connection? It is known that Mesambrians had settled north of Haimos at Naulochos and perhaps also at Bizone. two from southeastern Bulgaria.6. the name of the small town is referred as Anchialos in the inscription – in the wake of the supposed change to Melsa. 217–219.

a dating in ca. Patria. where «οἵ τε γὰρ ἔλαφοι κατιόντες. Patria. 17–20. Dionysios Byzantios. of Byzantion. ὠνόμασται δ’ ἀπό τινος ἥρωος ἐπιχωρίου καὶ ἔστι περὶ τὴν ἄγραν τῶν ἰχθύων ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἀναμάρτητος». mansio NW of Sofia. Dionysios Byzantios. Moreover. méldas. . 17: «Μελίας κόλπος. See e. 3–13. bucranium / trident. large module: no. 186. 11. In this source Melias is the Thracian king who sent Byzas to perform a hunting feat. σιτοῦνται τὸν ἑλείτην κάλαμον. where the name of the nymph is Semestrē (Σεμέστρη). this χωρίον which almost became a city («παρ’ ὀλίγον πόλις εἶναι») had been initially selected by the colonists. no.208 on which a filleted bucranium appears on obverse and three dolphins around the ethnic monogram on reverse (fig. meldà. bucranium / dolphins) is quite close and even brings to mind the other MELSA issue (bucranium / fish. cf.).209 During the imperial period there 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 Respectively mod. 7–12.164 Yannis Stoyas Barbyses. rich in fish. it is noted that at the junction of the two streams took place the ritual offering of the bull («τὸν ὑποταγέντα ταῦρον τῇ ἱερουργίᾳ προσφέρων»). 411–387/6 BC is suggested. from the adjacent necropolis of Çatalca. comes an interesting bucranium comparandum dated in the 3rd century BC (fig. Alibey deresi and Kâğithane deresi. There are also issues in the coin production of Byzantion. 36a-b-c). esp. Following an anthropological interpretation. 9. 34). e. 22–23.). the mother of the hero.. Illustrated: Schönert-Geiss 1970. but according to the legend a crow interrupted the sacrifice held there and flew to the eventual site (Bosporios akra) where Byzantion was founded (fig.202 on the spot where the two streams flowed into the estuary there was an altar dedicated to the nymph Semystra.203 In a similar story of the foundation of Byzantion narrated by Hesychios Illoustrios (6th century AD)204 certain aspects of the myth remain the same.. where a crow is mentioned in a similar role.g. 35). εὔθηρος μὲν ὡς οὐχ ἕτερος. the hero captured a bull and during its sacrifice an eagle.200 An idyllic place is described. 171.g. Patria. some details are different205 and new elements are added. this specific reference to the deers that fed on the marshy reed provides a rather surprising link. it is stated that it was named after a local hero («ἀπό τινος ἥρωος ἐπιχωρίου»). Burkert 1983. small module: no. 52–55. 5. the bull slaughtered may be a reflection of the ancestral king. 130. See Schönert-Geiss 1970. 1–15. although dated earlier. 825: Meldia. W. 3. 165–167. trident). since an etymology of the Thracian word melda(s) is ‘marsh reed’.206 intervened to point out the Bosporios akra. For a useful overview of the anthropological approaches on Hellenic sacrifice see Petropoulou 2008.». another striking clue: the filleted bucranium on the coins might signify the bull of Melias’ challenge to Byzas.. 930/2. 940 (rev.. It might be a coincidence but a nearby bay on the southern side of the Keratios was called Melias and was considered “rich in game like no other” and “regarding fishing quite unfailing”. which may be rather high. also Burkert 1983. 936 (obv... Duridanov 1995. his father was reportedly Poseidon.207 This mythological context should have had broad impact. Patria Constantinopoleos. in this version. After the name of the nymph who was the τροφός (nurse) of Keroessa. linguistic affinity to Lith. 4. the iconography of this group (bovine / trident.201 The site in question was called Semystra (Σημύστρα) and was directly connected to the myth of Byzas. 8. 24. cf. 128–130.

34.2) and might have fled to Tegea.2. one last word should be said concerning the chronology of the MELSA coin issue. n. Isaac 1986. 6. 24. Patria.g. 4.3. scombri). . 2–3: «Φασὶ μὲν Ἀργείους πρώτους. Diodoros. 130.45–46. daughter of Inachos. 123–124. 126–127. πήξασθαι τὰς οἰκήσεις ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ χωρίῳ». at the time of Kavaros. 260 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 Schönert-Geiss 1972.19. 23. 107–108. and Dumont 1976–77. 12.216 Although there are certain chronological problems. In perspective. thynni. 14.6. 99. 670–650 BC has been proposed. 52–55. that of Byzas. The precise circumstances that led to the coining of the bronzes in question remain elusive to an extent. things may seem a bit complicated but certain possibilities are open. See also Stolba 2005. Foley 1978. n..2–7. 218. 135.217 a dating in the period ca. etc. Through stylistic analysis of iconographical comparanda and assessment of overstrikes and other clues it has been hinted a time frame for the striking: end of the 4th century – early 3rd century BC. fig.14. 1347–1352 (Trajan). the Byzantians had to pay 80 talents annually. after the emergence of the Megarian colony this person should have passed rather into oblivion.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 165 is an abundance of issues that present on reverse two fish (fig. the fish depicted on the MELSA coins could belong to those famously mentioned in relation to Byzantion by Strabo (7. in the end. pelamydes. son of Lakedes. 37) or two fish and a dolphin.212 the link of this mythical figure to the Keratios brings one more twist in the discussion. 2. blending together at the site of Semystra the legend of king Melias with the Argive Meltas and a Thracian word for marshy reed (meldas)?220 In the shadow of another vague figure. 1361–1365 (Plotina). After the presence of the Celts in Thrace became permanent (278 BC). Hesychios.214 but the notion of an older Argive settlement at the Keras inlet215 gives an intriguing insight. Isaac 1986.211 The mother of the latter was Io. 118.18–20.13. 7. 139. 95. nos. 130 (latter part of the first quarter – early part of the second quarter of the 6th century BC). 1374– 1381 (Sabina). There is known a last (nominal) king of Argos named Meltas. 168. See Kelly 1976. For the τ / δ fluctuation see supra n. 166.213 the view about the foundation of Byzantion by the Megarians has been more commonly accepted. 28. 1309–1312 (Caligula). pl.218 If this is correct and if Byzantion was founded sometime in the second half of the 7th century BC. πηλαμύδες) and Plinius (9. 2012–2022.. Given this context. Patria. Might this be a case of syncretism. 13. See e. however the name of Meltas is not mentioned in this passage. Polybios. n. the bust of horned Keroessa is represented on pseudoautonomous emissions of the 2nd century AD. see also Kelly 1976.11. king of Argos. 96–119. this Meltas was ousted by the citizens (Pausanias. Veligianni-Terzi 2004. Dionysios Byzantios. Byzantion felt the impact in the form of a heavy tribute that ought to be paid for a several decades. Foley 1988. nos.210 In addition. According to Hesychios Illoustrios the Argives were the first colonists to reach Keratios. Schönert-Geiss 1972. 218. 18.219 could it be possible that Meltas was somehow involved? In that case.221 the city faced also a siege laid by Antiochos II (probably ca.1. 81.

see Topalov 2002. ed. 2004. Margaritae Tacheva. More probably. 27–31. About 22 km to the west of Byzantion there was a village (κώμη) close to the Athyras river. 3–11 (ca. 281–280 BC). Hansen and T. 90–91. attested usually as Melantias by later sources.225 referring to a person in the sphere of legend. For a rather contemporary and rather different example of using a -SA ending cf. 69. – In: K. D. 189.H. The affinity of the name Melantias (mod. D. 2002. 717. p. with a shared or syncretic tradition. . 885–899. 181. Z.224 For reasons that may have to do with the attendance of people also from the Black Sea coast and the Thracian hinterland. Dr. Demyanchuk 1999. – CJ 100/1. Yarımburgaz?) or any possible link may be. 139. Boteva (eds. s. no.8. Börker.2 (1975). Oxford. Sofia. Barnes 2005: BNP: Börker 1975: Boteva 2002: 222 223 224 225 Memnon of Heraclea. 23. There is also a (more Hellenized) legend variation SPARATEOY. 349–363. 244– 250. the coins with the name SPARATESA. at a time of temporary shortage in small change. Antonini Itinerarium. Ch. 61. How collective memory and private factions affected civic life is often something more or less to be guessed. A possible explanation would be that a certain occasion might have arisen during the second quarter of the 3rd century BC. however. Boteva. Leiden. by a lagoon).166 Yannis Stoyas BC). 245–246. Bukranion und Bukephalion.).H. cf. a sanctuary in the premises of Byzantion. 238–240. 1998. could have proceeded to coin a rather brief issue in order to service the festivities. Μελαντιὰς (or Melitias). the form MELSA could have been adopted.H. Archibald. BIBLIOGRAPHY & ABBREVIATIONS Numismatic Literature and the American Journal of Archaeology are followed for abbreviations commonly used in periodicals and catalogues. v. The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked. An attempt at identifying Alexander’s route towards the Danube in 335 BC. JUBILAEUS V: In honorem Prof. – AA 90. Agathias Scholastikos. H. Chronicon Paschale. esp. – In: M. Oxford. by or near the altar of Semystra. Boshnakov. 231.222 It seems that the economic trials of the Byzantians described by pseudoAristotle in Economics (1346b) and the consequent financial measures that were taken could belong to this period of dire straits. 168. For panegyris coinages see Psoma 2008. Nielsen (eds). ed. Archibald. 2005. Barnes. Suda. a fortuity or an a posteriori eventuality.35. Keydell.13 and 35. 10. Archibald 1998: Archibald 2004: Z. Inland Thrace. 43. 2003–. H. C.223 perhaps dedicated to a heroic cult. Lazarenko 2002–03.L. pp. such as a religious festival or an important anniversary. Dindorf. An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis. Tabula Peutingeriana (Melentiana. Livy 33. the coins in the name of Melsas were issued somewhere in the area of Eyüp – Kâğithane – Beyoğlu districts.18 revisited. Brill’s New Pauly: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World.

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е отсекло една къса серия монети. Внимателно изследване на историческата топография и други данни разкриват. Най-вероятно някое светилище в територията на Бизантион. както за типа на лицето. . че най-вероятно има връзка между обекта Semystra и монетите от типа MELSA. след това иконографията на война. Хр. блатните тръстики растящи край бреговете на Кератиос. Хр. пр. Особено значение за това имат следите от препечатване на монетите (два броя. Известните местонамирания на тези монети очертават един район северно от горното течение на река Марица и възможната роля на „емпорион Пистирос“ (вероятно в м. Поморие) са разгледани и отхвърлени. и аргоската колонизация на Кератиос. предложената дата на това монетосечене е средата на третата четвърт на ІV век пр. данни от автономните бронзови монети на Бизантион през римската епоха. вероятно става дума за синкретизъм в района на проливите поради келтското нашествие и присъствие в Тракия след 278 г. е. другата върху Касандър). някъде в периода около 275–250 г. Някои варианти за локализиране на това монетосечене – например на „някои си Меса. което наложи по-нататъшно изследване на няколко равнища. Мелтас. (около 339–335 г. с подробно разглеждане на наличните сведения на античните автори и известни археологически паралели. Няколко елемента са взети под внимание: букраниона с панделки. Разгледани са нашироко типът на волската глава с панделки и рибата. В началото са проследени и дискутирани вариантите на племенното име.?). Ветрен). тракийският митичен владетел Мелиас. Сумирано всичко това. С оглед на известните данни и историческа перспектива. тази и още няколко възможности за градско монетосечене също са отхвърлени. „Аджийска воденица“ при с. Проследени са всички известни екземпляри на това монетосечене. така и за опакото. посветено на култа към някой херой. в момент на временна липса на дребни монети. Дадени са сравнителни монетни примери. Те представляват сигурен terminus post quem – т. последният цар на Аргос.174 Yannis Stoyas Две особени тракийски монетосечения: DANTHLHTVN и MELSA (Summary) Янис СТОЯС (Aтина) Две редки монети от колекцията на фондация KIKPE – Атина станаха повод за тази статия и търсенето на други подобни екземпляри. Бронзовите монети с надпис MELSA (букранион украсен с шнур с възли насреща / риба наляво и надпис отдолу) представляват една още по-голяма загадка. потърсени са всички известни стилови аналогии. Ключът за разчитане на загадката изглежда е на северния бряг на Кератиос („Златният рог“) край Бизантион. една върху бронз на Филип ІІ Македонски. във връзка с религиозен фестивал или важна годишнина. който по-късно прераснал в Анхиало (дн. Хр. След това е разгледана възможността легендата да предава името на неизвестен тракийски владетел. от двете страни надпис DANTHL/HTVN) представляват едно забележително издание в тракийската нумизматика. рибите в Босфора. от Аполонийците“. Тежките бронзови монети на дантелетите (глава на Дионис наляво / войн с закривен меч и лек щит надясно. Странният вид на легендата изисква определен коментар преди да се потърсят всички възможности за логична интерпретация. в последните петнадесетина години на ІV век пр.

28. 30. Map of coastal Thrace. M1. 18. AV stater.Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 175 Key to plates / Captions 1. 14a-b. Numismatik Lanz München. 14. 24. 1918. AE (NAC 55. 20. Varna Museum.I. Chalcidic Koinon. inv. 391/2. Athens. (after CNG. 749–750. Nomos 4 (10. Byzantion.2011.05. Un port pour deux continents. tetradrachm – Nikostratos. The other figures are depicted in random scale.2008). no. tetradrachm. 18. 16. Pantikapaion. 13. in the name of Sabina. lot 70) – blow-up 3X. 33. MBS 60 (22. 1944.09. 19. inv. 14. 5. Paris 2009. K. 15. D1. Abdera. cols. Gorny & Mosch. Auktion 150 (13. after May 1966. KIKPE collection. American Numismatic Society. Sofia (photo courtesy of S. no. lot 71 – blow-up 3X. 08. Historisches Museum Basel. lot 70). lot 71. Iron curved sword (“skalme”). D1. Lokris–Phokis. Lokris–Phokis. Byzantion. 35.12. Topalov). inv. Private collection of Georgi Galabov. 2). Philip II. K. 174 (27. after Schönert-Geiss 1987. 08. BCD Coll. pl. . Çatalca district.2011). 261. Nomos 4 (10. 17.2010). 12. lot 380). AE. XIII. chalkoi. D3. 347. 34. Map of the Keratios or Keras kolpos (Golden Horn) area.2011). necropolis near Maltepe. Topalov Collection. inv. collection. 1). after Schönert-Geiss 1970. M3.10. 7.09. BCD Coll. lots 1089 (hemidrachm) and 1090 (obol).14371. AE (after CNG. no. after Fol et al. inv. Trikka. 36a-b-c. after May 1966. BCD Coll. BCD Coll. D5. 32.2002). inv. 2. Chersonesos. Iron curved sword (makhaira/kopis). after Yourukova 1999. 344. 15. 2004. Lokroi Opountioi (NAC. Terracotta filleted bucranium. lot 1200). MBS 88 (14. KIKPE collection. Part of the parapet of the Arsinoeion at Samothrace. lot 444). collection. 318. 21. no.10. after Yourukova 1999.2010).3). 18–22 (coins M1-M5) are depicted 1:1. no. 39. Thessaly. lot 414. AE (NAC 55.P.2011). Lokris–Phokis. M5. BCD Coll. Sofia.05. 27. inv. AE. blow-up 6X. Auktion 150 (13. 296. 3. ill. no. AE (Münzen & Medaillen Deutschland. Varna Museum. (ex Kovacs FPL 1997. Abdera. M4. lot 1223.10. 318 – reverse detail. 37. lot 42). D4. Elateia. 25. 62–63. D2. M2. 31. 930/2. I 4801.100. 1918. Macedonia. (after CNG.K. Olynthos. 219. Note: Figs.4980 – blow-up 3X. Athens. pl. (after Künker. 55 (08. 6. 29. no. 8.2007). Pl. Sofia. lot 178). pl. 22. ‘tetradrachm’ of Metrophanes. Map of the central Thrace region roughly highlighting the area of the Danteletai. D5. tracked down online. M2. no. lot 1359. 50. Lilaia. inv. 318 – blow-up 3X. MBS 88. Istanbul (after De Byzance à Istanbul.2010). M2. 936. nos. 4.E. Numismatik Lanz München. I 5393. Thessaly.100. 21 (24. 23a-b.P. nos. no. 10. 11. M3.12. Lamia.09. 1–5 (coins D1-D5). inv. stater – Parmenon. 9. pl.K. based on map in RE Bosporos 1. XVII.2010).05.10. Museum Collection of the Bulgarian National Bank.E. Historisches Museum Basel.14370 and 1944.2010. Histiaia.2010).4980. AE. no.I. Auktion 170 (13. Maroneia.05. after Snodgrass 1967. 940. SW of İnceğiz. no. 26.

176 Yannis Stoyas Plate 1 D1 D2 1 2 D3 D4 3 4 D5 5 .

Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 177 Plate 2 D5 6 D1 7 .

178 Yannis Stoyas Plate 3 8 9 10 11 12 .

Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 179 Plate 4 13 14 а 14 b 15 16 .

180 Yannis Stoyas Plate 5 17 .

Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 181 Plate 6 М1 М2 18 19 М3 М4 20 21 М5 22 23 а 23 b 24 25 26 27 .

182 Yannis Stoyas Plate 7 28 29 30 .

Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 183 Plate 8 31 32 .

184 Yannis Stoyas Plate 9 33 .

Two Peculiar Thracian Coin Issues: DANTHLHTVN and MELSA 185 Plate 10 34 .

186 Yannis Stoyas Plate 11 35 36 a 36 b 36 c 37 .

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