Cultivating Brand Equity

Step 1: Selecting Brand elements
Symbols Criteria

Step 2: Creating Associations
Integrated marketing communications Effective advertising communication Effective promotion, pricing, placement

Brand Elements
Summarize associations Aid retrieval of brand information Simplify new learning


Brand Elements
Brand names Elements URLs





Brand Elements Choice Criteria: General Considerations
Easily Recognized Easily Recalled

Flexible & Updateable

Credible & Suggestive Rich Visual & Verbal Imagery

Fun & Interesting Aesthetics

Protectable Legally Competitively Transferrable
Within & Across Product Categories Across Geographical Boundaries & Cultures

Brands. What’s in a Name ?

Brand Name
“Is there a particular type of name that will guarantee brand success ?

Some strong Brands
Coca Cola IBM Schweppes Marlboro Kodak Mercedes Lexus

Provided there is a consistent effort over time to give meaning to this name

Brand name must be chosen with a view to the brands future and destiny, not in relation to specific market and product situation at the time of its birth

Descriptive Names Most of the time managers want the brand name to describe what the product does The denotative names Brands don’t describe the products Brands distinguish the products

The Brand Name The name must serve to add extra meaning to convey the spirit of the brand

It must convey brands durable uniqueness and not just the characteristic of the temporary

The Brand Name

The Brand is not a product. Brand name therefore should not describe what the product does but reveal a difference.

The Brand Name This uniqueness has to do much more with the other facets of brand identity than with the physique Its culture, its personality, its relationships etc

Thinking about a new brand
Short & Simple Easy to Spell & Read Easy to Recognize & Remember Easy to Pronounce Can Pronounce in Only One Way Can Pronounce in All Languages Suggests Product Benefits Meets Packaging/Labeling Needs No Undesirable Imagery Always Timely Adapts to Any Advertising Medium Legally Available for Use

Brand Name
• • • • • • • • • • • • Short and simple Easy to spell and read Easy to recognize and remember Easy to pronounce Can be pronounced in only one way Can be pronounced in all languages (for international markets) Suggestive of product benefits Adaptable to packaging / labeling needs No undesirable imagery Always timely (does not get out-of-date) Adaptable to any advertising medium Legally available for use (not in use by another firm)

Brand Name Types
Actual words

Coined (Descriptive)

Coined (Abstract)

Acronym Names

Logos and Symbols
Word Marks:

Abstract Logos:

Literal Logos:

Apple Company was born on April 1, 1976

Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs were co-founders.

The name "Apple Computer" came from the music label of the Beatles, Apple records Company.

Steve Jobs came up with the name in early 1976.

In 1976, the first Apple logo was designed by Ron Wayne.

In 1977, Jobs asked the art designer Rob Janoff to design the new Apple logo. In 1997, Steve Jobs decided to drop the multi-colored Apple logo and replace it by a solid-colored logo.

Apples slogans
 "Changing the world - one person at a time" -

(mid-1980s)  "The computer for the rest of us" - (1984)  "The power to be your best" – (1980s and 1990s)

 "Think different" - (1997-2002)  "I think, therefore iMac", based on René Descartes famous line, "I think, therefore I am"
(Cogito ergo sum). (1998)

 "Everything is easier on a Mac" - (2002-)

Deciding to call it Apple they wanted to emphasize the unconventional nature of the brand. With this choice the brand demonstrated its value: in refusing to idolise computer science. Apple was in fact preparing to completely overturn the traditional human machine relationship. The machine had, indeed, to become, something to enjoy rather than to revere or fear.

The Brand Name A brand name that simply describes the product and products function will not be able to differentiate the brand from copies or generic products descriptive brand name boils down to making a brand a generic product in the long run

Consider Copy Phenomena

Like Vibramycine or Terramycine Ranitidine is zantac whereas cimetidine is Tagamet

Think internationally Suze is a bitter French vine just almost means sweet in German. Nike cannot be registered in many Arab countries 1300 common words in 7 European languages


Choose abstract names which, having no previous meaning can thus create their own.

Punch Lines
      

More car per car……….TATA Indica V2 Spoil yourself…………..TATA Indigo Lets make things better……Philips For a special journey called life…..Chevrolet The difference is German engineering….Corsa Express yourself……Airtel For Managing Tomorrow…..Business Today

Coke gets it wrong
The name Coca-Cola in China was first rendered as Ke-kou-ke-la. Unfortunately, the Coke company did not discover until after thousands of signs had been printed that the phrase means “bite the wax tadpole” or “female horse stuffed with wax” depending on the dialect.

Coke gets it right?
Coke then researched 40,000 Chinese characters and found a close phonetic equivalent “ko-kouko-le”, which can be loosely translated as “happiness in the mouth”. (competition in 1930s)

Pepsi and KFC
In Taiwan, the translation of the Pepsi slogan “Come alive with the Pepsi Generation” came out as “Pepsi will bring your ancestors back from the dead.” Also in Chinese, the Kentucky Fried Chicken slogan “finger-lickin’ good” came out as “eat your fingers off.”

Divided by a common language
In an effort to boost orange juice sales in predominantly continental breakfast eating England, a campaign was devised to extol the drink’s eye-opening, pick-me-up qualities. Hence the slogan, “Orange juice. It gets your pecker up”.

Sanitary & Phytosanitary (SPS) regulations
sanitary (human and animal health) measures and phytosanitary (plant health)

Often used as non-tariff barrier (NTB) eg fireblight – big dispute with Australia Essential to preserve good reputation of exports Eg Listeria in NZ cheese to Holland

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