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02/06/2014

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If the value of something is increased by x % then decreased by y % then resulting effect in percent : + x + y + xy/100 Example 1:

he Salary of a !or"er is first increased by 10% and thereafter decreased by #%\$ %hat is the overall change in percent\$

Solution:

overall change & + 10 ' # + (+10)('#)/100 & + *\$# % (increased) use (+) sign for increment and (') sign for decrement\$ Example +:

, shop"eeper mar"s the price of goods +0% more than the real price\$ -e allo!ed a discount of 10%\$ %hat profit or loss did he get. Solution:

/rofit or loss the shop"eeper get: +0 ' 10 + (++0)('10)/100 & + 0% (profit)

Example 1:

he side of a s2uare is increased by 10%\$ 3ind the percentage increase in area\$

Solution:

Increase in area & 10 + 10 + (10)(10)/100 & 45%\$

Example *:

Solution: percent change in area: ' +0 ' +0 + ('+0)('+0)/100 & '14% (decreased) Example #: If the price of a shirt is increased by 1#% than decreased by 1#%\$ %hat is percent change.If the radius of a circle is decreased by +0%\$ %hat percent change in area. Solution: percent change : + 1# ' 1# + (+1#)('1#)/100 & ' +\$+# % (decreased) Example 4: he length of a rectangle is increased by *0% and breadth is decreased by *0%\$ 3ind change in area\$ Solution: percent change in area: *0 ' *0 + ('*0)(+*0)/100 & '14%(decreased) Example 6: if a number is increased by +0% and again increased by +0%\$ 7y !hat percent should the number increased\$ Solution: .

: +# 100 + +# & +0% 9 Example 1: .percent increased: +0 + +0 + (++0)(++0)/100 & **%(increased) If the price of the comodity is increased or decreased by r% then reduction in the consuption so as not to increase the expenditure : r 100+ r x 100 Example 1: If the price of the sugar fall do!n by 10%\$ 7y ho! much percent must the householder increase its consuption so as not to decrease the expenditure\$ Solution: increase in consuption : 10 100 ' 10 x 100 & 11\$11% Example +: If .8s salary is +#% more than 7 then ho! much percent the 78s salary is less than that of .\$ Solution: 78s salary is less than that of .

8s salary is 10% less than that of 7 then ho! much percent is 78s salary is more than that of .o! if .x100x100x100 (100+x)(100+y)(100+<) !here . Solution: 78s salary is more than that of . is the amount left then find the initial amount : initial amount & .fter reducing 10% from a certain sum and then +0% from the remaining : there is =s 1400 left then find the original sum\$ .If .: 10 100 ' 10 x 100 & *+% Example *: If the price of petrol is increased by 10 percent: by ho! much petrol a car o!ner must reduce his consuption in oreder to maintain the same budget\$ Solution: reduction in consuption : 10 100 + 10 x 100 & 100/11% Shortcut 1: x% of a 2uantity is ta"en by the first: y% of the remaining is ta"en by the second and so on: . is the left amount\$ Example 1: .

x100x100x100 (100++0)(100++#) &9 . Solution: otal no of boo"s & 4100x100x100x100 (100'+0)(100'#0)(100'10) & ++#00 Shortcut *: Shortcut *: . man had =s *000 in his loc"er\$ !o years ago in the first year he deposited +0% of the amount in his loc"er\$ In second year he deposit +#% of increased amount find the left amount in the loc"er\$ Solution: left amount : *000 & . & =s 6+00 Example 1: In a library +0% of the boo"s are in hindi : #0% of the remaining are in English 10% of the remaining are in french: the remaining 4100 boo"s are in regional language: total no of boo"s !ould be.Solution: original sum & 1400x100x100x100 (100'10)(100'+0) & =s #000 Example +: .

candidate scores +#% and fails by 10 mar"s: !hile another candidate !ho scores #0% mar"s: gets +0 mar"s more than the minimum re2uired mar"s to pass the examination\$ 3ind the maximum mar"s for the examination\$ Solution: >aximum mar"s & 100(10 + +0) #0 ' +# & +00 Shortcut 4: If 8a8 articles are bought for =s 8b8 and sell them 8c8 for =s 8d8\$ hen profit or loss made by the vender: axd'bxc bxc x 100 Example 1: If a man purchase 11 orange for =s 10 and sell them 10 for =s 11\$ -o! much profit or loss did he made. candidate scoring x% in an examination fails by 8a8 mar"s: !hile another candidate !ho scores y% mar"s gets 8b8 mar"s more than then the minimum re2uired pass mar"s\$ hen the maximum mar"s for the examination are > & 100(a + b) y'x Example 1: . Solution: /rofit or loss made : 11 x 11 ' 10 x 10 10 x 10 ..

x 100 & +1% Example +: .t !hat price must he sell it to gain #%\$ Solution: S/ & #60 x (100 + #) 100 ' # & 410 Shortcut 0: . boy buys orange 5 for =s 14 and sell them 11 for =s +0\$ 3ind profit or loss percent\$ Solution: profit or loss percent made : 5 x +0 ' 11 x 14 11 x +0 x 100 & +#/11 %\$ Shortcut 6: Selling /rice(S/) & given(=s) x 100 (100 + ?) (100 + given) Example 1: 7y selling a horse for =s #60 a trader loses #%\$ .

@ost /rice(@/) & more amount(=s) x 100 Aifference in profit Example 1: >ahesh sold a boo" at a profit of 1+%\$ -ad he sold i for =s 10 more : 10% !ould have been gained\$ 3ind @/\$ Solution: @/ & 10 x 100 4 & 100 Example +: . man sold a horse at a loss of 6%\$ -ad he be able to sell it at a gain of 5%\$ It !ould have fetch 4* more\$ 3ind @ost /rice\$ Solution: -ere difference in /ercent is 5 ' ('6) & 14 -ence:@ost price & 4* x 100 14 & *00 principle & more money x 100 x more rate Example 1: . sum !as put at SI at a certain value for + years: had it been put at 1% higher rate: it !ould have fetch 100 more : find the sum\$ .

Solution: t& . Solution: t& *(0 ' 1) +'1 & +0 Example +: . sum of money double itself in 6 years : in ho! many years it !ill become * times of itself.Solution: sum & 100 x 100 +x1 & #000 Shortcut 10: ime & given time(n+ ' 1) (n1 ' 1) Example 1: . sum of money double itself in * years : in ho! many years !ill it become 0 times of itself .

6(* ' 1) +'1 & +1 Shortcut 10: ime and !or" : m1 x d1 x h1 x !+ & m+ x d+ x h+ x !1 !here : m1 : m+ & number of men or !omen given d1 : d+ & number of days given h1 : h+ & number of hours given !1 : !+ & any !or" given Example 1: 14 men can do a piece of !or" in 10 days\$ -o! many man are needed to complete the !or" in *0 days\$ Solution: here : m1 x d1 & m+ x d+ &9 14 x 10 & m+ x *0 &9 m+ & * hence * men are re2uired\$ Example +: *0 men can cut 40 trees in 0 hours\$ If 0 men leave the Bob : ho! many trees !ill be cut in 1+ hours\$ Solution: here : *0 x 0 x !+ & 1+ x 1+ x 40 &9 !+ &6+ hence 6+ trees !ill be cut\$ Example 1: If 1+ men and 14 boys can do a piece of !or" in # days and 11 men and +* boys can do it in * days: ho! long !ill 6 men and 10 boys ta"e to do it\$ Solution: .

is x y x 100 % of 7 Example 1: !o numbers are respectively +0% and +#% of a third number: !hat percentage is the first of the second\$ Solution: +0 . is x% of @ and 7 is y% of @ then .m1 x d1 x h1 x !+ & m+ x d+ x h+ x !1 #(1+m + 14b) & *(11m + +*b) 40m + 00 b & #+m +54b m & +b no!: (6m + 10b) x days & (1+m + 14b) x # or (6m + #m) x days & 40m + *0m days & 100/1+ & +#/1 days If t!o values are respectively x% and y% more than a third value: then the first is 100 + x 100 + y x 100 of the second Example 1: !o numbers are respectively +0% and #0% more than a third : !hat percentage is the first of the second Solution: 1+0 1#0 x 100 & 00% Shortcut 1+: If .

+# x 100 & 00% .

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