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Situation: Intrapartal Nursing Care

1. In the delivery room, Mrs. Oro Is 10 cm. Dilated- and the head is fast emerging. Her attending
physician has not yet arrived. The initial action the nurse must take after the head emerges is:

a. Support the head while the rest of the body is spontaneously delivered.
b. Push down on the fundus to help expel the infant.
c. Call the doctor STAT
d. Deliver the shoulder by turning the presenting part to internal rotation.

2. As labor progresses satisfactorily, it would be appropriate to administer pain medication with

cervical dilatation of:

a. 4 cm.
b. 3 cm.
c. 5 cm.
d. 7 cm.

3. Mrs. Oro is kept informed of the, progress of her delivery, the nurse anticipates the placenta to
be delivered within what period of time following delivery

a. 10-15 minutes
b. 3-10 minutes
c. 15-20 minutes
d. 1-3 minutes

4. Several minutes after the delivery, the placenta is still intact. The nurse will do which of these

a. Push gently, but firmly on the fundus

b. Call the nursing supervisor for help
c. Allow the infant to suck on the breast
b. Initiate separation by gently pulling on the cord.

5. The placenta has been delivered and the nurse now adds the medication ordered to the i.V.
solution which is:

a. Methergin
b. Oxytocin
c. Penicellin
d. Atropine

6. The nurse is giving health education to Felicity about discomfort of pregnancy. Which of the
following conditions is brought about by increased absorption of phosphorus?

a. Back pain
b. Leg cramps
c. Constipation
d. Heartburn

7. The nurse was Instructed to watch out for the occurrence of norma! physiologic changes of
pregnancy. Which of the following is usually observed during pregnancy?

a. Increased BP
b. Palpitation
c. Anemia
d. Blurred vision

8. Which of the following is TRUE about latent stage of tabor?

a. self-focused
b. effacemant 100%
c. dilatation for 2 hours
d. 3 cm cervical dilatation

9. What is the term that refers to menopausal stage of women?

a. cessation of menstruation
b. onset of'menstruation
c. excessive menstruation
d. intermittent menstruation

10 What structure of the body is responsible for the production of follicle-stimutattng hormone
a. hypothalamus
b. thymus
c. kidney
d. anterior pituitary gland

11. A primigravida asks the nurse, "When will I fee! the baby move?" The correct response of the
nurse is:

a. 3 mos
b. 5 mos.
c. 4 mos
d. 6rnos.

Situation: Rico. 1 month deliverd via NSVD

12. Mrs. Cadacia observed on Rico's buttocks, a gray color, What do you call this pigmentation in
the skin?

a. milia
b. telangiectatic nevi
c. erythema toxicum
d. mongolian spots
13. How would you define a word, "acrocyanosis?

a. cyanosis of hands and feet.

b. transient mottling when infant is exposed to the temperature.
c. fine, downy hair
d. thin, white mucus

14. How can you assess a child who is mentally retarded?

a. let .the child make story

b. observe for the developmental milestone
c. ask the mother what food the child is eating
d. ask the child to sing

15. What serves as sperm producers?

a. epididymis
b. Vas deferens
c. prostate gland
d. testes

Situation: Pediatric nursing.

16. In what psychosexuai development according to Freud is temper tantrum observed?

a. phallic
b. oral
c. anal
d. latency

17. The baby cries and the mother notices tiny, shiny and white specks on the mouth and hard
palate- The mother understood If she states:

a. "it is caused by milk curd

b. I'll use sterile gauzed in removing the crusts."
c. "I'll notify the dentist
d. "prevent infection"

18. The nurse is giving Instruction about neonatal care. Which of the following instruction is
most critical?

a. proper feeding
b. provide bathing
c. provide warm clothing
d. prevent infection

19. The mother notices a cheese-like substances in a neonate forehead. She asked the nurse if it
can be removed. The appropriate response is:
a. a soft towel and a baby oil can be used to remove the subslance
b. an alcohol and gauzed can removed it
c. it is a protected substance, leave It alone there
d. baby lotion can be used to remove it .

20. A 12-month old boy weighs 9 kgs. His birth weight was 3 kgms. "The mother asks if her
baby's weight Is appropriate to his age. The nurse's therapeutic response is:

a. He needs to take more milk for supplement

b. Weight must be doubled during this time
c. Weight is right because weight is tripled at this age
d. He is underweight for this age.

21. At the age of 2 years, which of the following teeth have not been erupted?
a. canine
b. pre-molar
c. molar
d. incisor

22. The mother asks the nurse when will the soft bone at the head be closed? The nurse response
would be:

a. 12-18wks
b. 2-3 mos.
c. 12-18 mos.
d. 14-18 wks

23. What is the most appropriate factor in toilet training?

a. age of child
b. developmental readiness of the child
c. available time
d. maternal flexibility

Situation: Medical - Surgical Nursing

24. In what area of the body will be affected by bed sore if the patient maintains supine position?

a. heels
b. ilium
c. sacrum
d. malleolus

25. Which of the following can you visualize in intravenous pyelogram (IVP )?

a. bladder
b. bladder and kidney
c. bladder, kidney , ureter
d. bladder and ureter

26. An anesthetic agent which has side effects of confusion and suicidal tendencies;

a. ether
b. ketalar
c. halothane
d. sodium pentothal

27. What instrument is not included in Mayo table?

a. retractor
b. tissue forcep
c. smooth forcep
d. towel forcep

Situation: The adolescent years have the potential to be very exciting as well as a different time for
both the child and his parents.

28. As stated by Erikson, the major concern of the adolescent years is the:

a. formation of romantic association

b. attainment of independence '
c. gratification of his needs
d. resolution of the crisis of personal identity

29. Parental actions which can help achieve the goal of adolescent years are all of the following,

a. permits increasing independence

b. discusses future plans with the adolescent
c. intolerance of .adolescent's need to be liked by peers
d. permits and encourages peer relationships

30. Here are teenagers today who engage In sex without realizing the repercussions of their
actions. Witch of the parental response would be appropriate for this problem?

a. Providing regular and open communication

b. Limiting the number of teenager's social activities
c. Inforcing stricter rules and punishment
d. Screening the teenager's company of friends

31. Some of the task of adolescent years include the following, except:

a. developing a personal Identity

b. advicing independence from patients
c. developing relationship with peers
d. unlimited expression of sexual drives
32. Which of the following statements best describe the nutritional profiie of the adolescent?

a. Rapid growth, desires company with meals

b. Rapid growth, eat meals alone
c. Slow but steady growth, poor eating habits
d. Stunted growth, voracious appetite

Situation: You are assigned a Rural Health Unit which is a training area for student nurse, in a
conference with the students, questions on the DOH programs such as:

33. The most effective measure of controlling schistosomlasis is;

a. casefinding and prompt treatment of cases

b. provision of sanitary toilets
c. environmental sanitation and environmental control
d. practice of hygiene

34. Rabies virus can be transmitted through:

a. Penetration of broken skin

b. contact with a pre-existing wound or scratch
c. penetration of intact mucosa
d. any of these modes of transmission

35. Which of the followimg statements about- diphtheria is false?

a. Immunity is often acquired through a complete immunization series of Diphtheria

b. infants born to immune mothers maybe protected up to 5 months
c. Diphtheria transmission Is Increased in hospital households, schools and other
crowded areas.
d. Recovery from clinical attack is always followed by a lasting Immunity to the

Situation: The following questions pertain to concepts on Community Health Nursing:

36. A logical approach used by the nurse in providing community health and communicable
nursing is:

a. problem solving
b. nursing process
c. logical nursing intervention
d. nursing assessment

37. Which of the following statement is wrong:

a. A nursing diagnosis is stated in terms of a problem and not a need

b. A nursing diagnosis describes a patient's health problem
c. A nursing process to the method of data gathering and diagnosing diseases
d. A component of the nursing process that pertains to the organization of data and describes the
nursing problem is the assessment

38. Debbie is experiencing dystocia, a painful, difficult and prolonged delivery. The nurse is
aware that the primary cause related to problems with all of these Except the.

a. Power
b. Prognosis
c. Passenger
d. Passageway

39. In dystocia, the nurse assessess:

1. contractions dropping intensity and frequency
2. progress of labor
3. vagina! exam
4. abdominal palpation and fetal position

a. 1,2 and 3
b. 1,2,3 and 4
c. 2,3 and 4
d. 1,3, and 4

40. The nursing intervention that Is most important in a patient on IV Morphine?

a. Monitor for hypertension

b. Monitor for decreased respiratlons
c. Monitor for cardiac rates
d. Monitor for hyperglycemia

Situation: A clinical instructor, Mrs. Romero is giving a pre-test on Psychiatric Nursing to third year
nursing students.

41. The fundamental concepts in Psychiatric nursing is seeing the patient as a whole organism
with distinct personality. The nurse should:

a. Respect the patient's moral values

b. Avoid labeling the patient as psychiatric entity
c. Understand the patient's family background
d. Uphold the patients right to make decisions

42. On crisis intervention, one of the important personal qualities . that can enhance the nurse's
effectiveness is:
a. Friendliness
b. Flexibility
c. Patience
d. Consistency

43. A technique In crisis intervention which 'involves using the clients emotion and values to his
own benefit in the therapeutic regmen Is known as:
a. clarification
b. reinforcement of behavior
c manipulation
d. Support defense

44. Family therapy is the treatment of choice in one of the following situatlons:

a. There is a need to uncover repressed feelings and concerns of the clients

b. There is a need to promote an environment adaptive to the individual client's needs
c. The primary problem Is related to marital conflict or sibling rivalry
d. The client requested for this type of therapy

Situation - This pertains to Intrapartum Care.

45. True labor contraction Is best described by this discomfort that:

a. starts over the fundus, radiating downward to the cervix

b. radiates upward and downward from the umbilicus
c. Is localized over the fundus of the uterus
d. begins In the lower back and the abdomen radiating over entire abdomen

46. The nurse performs vaginal exams on a laboring woman and records this data is correctiy
Interpreted as:

a. fetal presenting part is 1 cm. above the ischlal spines

b. cervical dilatation is 25% completed
c. progress of effacement is 5 cm. completed
d. fetal presenting part is 1 cm below the ischial spines

47.Monitoring the progress of labor in'the delivery room is a standard activity. The. nurse
prioritizes her work load by recognizing that a nulliparous mother in the first stage of labor
would expect these;

a. Latent phase is completed less than 20 hours

b. Maximum slope averages 4 to 5 hrs
c. Acceleration phase is 6 to 8 hours
d. Transition phase lasting no longer than 4 hours.

Situation - Growth and development is a human cycle with milestone to achieve.

48- Based on Erikson's theory, the primary developmental task of the middle years is:
a. to attain independence
b. to achieve generativity
c. to establish heterosexual relationship
d. to develop a sense of personal identity

49. Early adult age Is partlcular!y focused on achieving

a. independence from parental control
b. greater stability and life style
c. greater stability and life style
d. self-direction and self-appraisal

50. These are characteristics of a mature person, except;

a. practical and ambitious

b. accountable and responsible for his actions
c. feels comfortable with himself
d. acknowledges strengths and weaknesses .

51. The group at greatest risk for unmet needs is:

a. the very young and the very old

b. all age groups
c. the poor and the very rich
d. the adult and the aged

Situation -At the health center, the nurse conducts a, nutrition class, very lively question and answer
prevailed in this group meeting-

52.Amy, a pregnant mother from a sectarian group strictly adheres to a. vegetarian diet. The
vitamin supplement the nurse recommend Is

a. Vit.C
b. Vit B12
c. Vit D
d. Vit. A

53. For point of clarification a patient asks for the importance of Folic Acid in pregnancy. The
nurse explains that vitamin is especially needed during pregnancy as it:

a. assists in growth of heart and lungs

b. helps in coagulation of red blood cells
c. is essential for cell and RBC formation
d. helps in maternal circulation

54. In this mother's class, the nurse discusses about: specific needs during pregnancy and
lactation, She states that the daily servings required for the carbohydrates group are:

a. 4 servings
b. 6 servings
c. 2 servings
d. 3 servings

Situation - Charito de Lapaz, a PHN, is discussing with the mothers the different herbal medicines used
In the community.
55. It is effective for asthma, cough, and dysentery:

a. Yerba Buena
b. Lagundi
c. Sambong
d. Tsaang-gubat

56. lt is an anti-edema, diuretic and anti-urolithiasis.

a. Sambong
b. Tsaang-gubat
c. Niyug-niyogan
d. Akapulko

57. Its seeds are taken 2 hours after supper to expel round worms, which can cause ascariasis;

a. Akapulko
b. Bayabas
c. Niyug-niyogan
d. Bawang
58. It is effectively used for mild non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

a. bawang
b. Bayabas
c. Ulasimang Bato
d. ampalaya

59. The following are true in the preparation of herbal medicines, EXCEPT:

a. Avoid the use of Insecticides as may poison on plants

b. Stop giving the medication in case reaction such as allergy occurs
c. Use only the part of the plant being advocated
d. Use a day pot and cover while boiling at low heat.

Situation - Leo Leon, a carpenter has been complaining of headache for 2 days. his wife, a trained
BHW used the acupressure technique on Leo to relieve Mm of his discomfort.

60. Acupressure was started same 5.000 years ago by:

a. Germans
b. Filipinos
c. Chinese
d. Americans

Situation - In a mother class, several topics are discussed. Questions 15 to 20 pertain to these

61. According to the goals of Reproductive health, all are true, EXCEPT:
a. Every pregnancy should be Intended
b. Every birth be healthy
c. Every woman should be g|ven a condom to protect herself from pregnancy and other STDs
d. Every sex should be free or coercion and infection

62. It is record used when rendering prenatal care in the community,

a. Prenatal record
b. Home Based mother's record
c. Pink Card
d. Mother's book

63. Which of the following is given to the pregnant woman?

a. Chloroquine
b. Iron
c. iodized oil capsule
d. All of the above

64 All of the following should be observed in home deliveries, EXCEPT:

a. Clean hands
b. Clean sheets
c. Clean cord
d. Clean surface

65. What is the major cause of maternal death?

a. Infection
b. Hemorrhage
c. Prolonged labor
d. Retained placenta

66. The first postparturn should be done when:

a. After 48 hours
b. After 24 hours
c. After 3 days
d. Within 24 hours .

Situation: The following questions are Included In the review of EPI

67. It provides for compulsory basic immunization for infants and children below 8 years of age;

a. Presidential proclamation N.773

b. Republic Act 7846
c Presidertial Decree No, 996
d. Presidential Proclamation No.147
68. The vaccine should be given on:

a. 1 month
b. 6 months
c. 3 months
d. 9 months

69. How much Vit A should be given to 6-11 months old Infants who is experiencing Vit. A

a. 200,000 IU
b. 400.000 IU
c. 100,000 IU
d. 50,000 IU

70. Micronutrient supplementation is included In what program of the DOH?

a. Expanded program on Immunization

b. Reproductive Health
c. Araw ng Sangkap Pinoy
d. Sentrong sigla

Situation - Communicable Diseases are most prevalent in Brgy, Problemado, a group of PHN went to
the area to disseminate necessary information regarding early detection, control and cure of the
different communicable diseases.

71. It is the name for a comprehensive strategy which primary health services around the world
is using to detect and cure TB patients.

a. National TB program
b. Direct Observe Treatment Short Course (DOTS)
c. center for Communicable diseases
d. international TB control Organization

72. All but one is the early sign of leprosy:

a. Madarosis
b. Nasal obstruction or bleeding
c. Change In skin color
d. Ulcers that do not heal

73. Leprosy can be transmitted through

a. Blood
b. Sex
c. Semen
d. Prolonged skin to skin contact

74. The best method of prevention of TB and leprosy esp. among children is:
a. Taking INH for prophylaxis
b. Healthy environment
c. Good nutrition
d. BCG immunization

75. What is the host of schistosoma japonlcum?

a. Mosquitoes
b. Rats
c. Snails
d. Dogs

76.The drug cf choice for schistosomiasis:

a. Metrifonate
b. Praziquante
c. Hetrazan
d. Quinidine Sulfate

Situation - Ella Caidic Is pregnant with her first baby. She went to the clinic for check-up

77. According to Mrs. Caidic, her LMP is November 15, 2002. Using the Naegele's rule what is
her EDC
a. August 22, 2003
b. July 22, 2003
c. August 18, 2003
d. February 22, 2003

78. She Is so concerd about the development of varicose veins, which of the statement below
indicates a need for further education?

a. "I should wear support hose"

b. '"I should be wearing flat, non-slip shoes that have an arch support
c. "I should wear a pantyhose"
d. I can wear knee-high as long as I don't leave them on longer than 8 hours

79. She complained of leg cramps, which usually occurs at night. To provide relief, the nurse must
telI Mrs. Caidic to:

a. dorsiftex the foot white extending the knee when the cramps occur
b. dorsiflex the foot while flexing the knee when the cramps occur.
c. Plantar flex the foot while flexing the knee when cramps occur
d. plantar flex the foot while extending the knee when the cramps occur.
Managing Phobia:
1. Promote safety and security
2. Identify the cause of fear
3. Allow expression of feelings
4. Gradually introduce the individual to the feared object or situation in small doses.
5. Do not force the individaul to have contact with the feared of object, when the individual is not ready

-->Unlike false labor, true labor produces regular rhythmic contractions, abdominal
discomfort, progressive descent of the fetus, bloody show, and progressive effacement
and dilation of the cervix.
-->To help a mother break the suction of her breast-feeding infant, the nurse should teach
her to insert a finger at the corner of the infant’s mouth.
-->Administering high levels of oxygen to a premature neonate can cause blindness as a
result of retrolental fibroplasia.
-->Amniotomy is artificial rupture of the amniotic membranes.
-->During pregnancy, weight gain averages 25 to 30 lb (11 to 13.5 kg).
-->Rubella has a teratogenic effect on the fetus during the first trimester. It produces
abnormalities in up to 40% of cases without interrupting the pregnancy.
-->Immunity to rubella can be measured by a hemagglutination inhibition test (rubella titer).
This test identifies exposure to rubella infection and determines susceptibility in
pregnant women. In a woman, a titer greater than 1:8 indicates immunity.
-->When used to describe the degree of fetal descent during labor, floating means the
presenting part isn’t engaged in the pelvic inlet, but is freely movable (ballotable) above
the pelvic inlet.
-->When used to describe the degree of fetal descent, engagement means when the
largest diameter of the presenting part has passed through the pelvic inlet.
-->Fetal station indicates the location of the presenting part in relation to the ischial spine.
It’s described as –1, –2, –3, –4, or –5 to indicate the number of centimeters above the
level of the ischial spine; station –5 is at the pelvic inlet.
-->Fetal station also is described as +1, +2, +3, +4, or +5 to indicate the number of
centimeters it is below the level of the ischial spine; station 0 is at the level of the
ischial spine.
-->During the first stage of labor, the side-lying position usually provides the greatest
degree of comfort, although the patient may assume any comfortable position.
-->During delivery, if the umbilical cord can’t be loosened and slipped from around the
neonate’s neck, it should be clamped with two clamps and cut between the clamps.
-->An Apgar score of 7 to 10 indicates no immediate distress, 4 to 6 indicates
moderate distress, and 0 to 3 indicates severe distress.
-->To elicit Moro’s reflex, the nurse holds the neonate in both hands and suddenly, but
gently, drops the neonate’s head backward. Normally, the neonate abducts and
extends all extremities bilaterally and symmetrically, forms a C shape with the thumb
and forefinger, and first adducts and then flexes the extremities.
]-->Pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia) is an increase in blood pressure of
30/15 mm Hg over baseline or blood pressure of 140/95 mm Hg on two occasions
at least 6 hours apart accompanied by edema and albuminuria after 20 weeks’
-->Positive signs of pregnancy include ultrasound evidence, fetal heart tones, and fetal
movement felt by the examiner (not usually present until 4 months’ gestation
-->Goodell’s sign is softening of the cervix.
-->Quickening, a presumptive sign of pregnancy, occurs between 16 and 19 weeks’
-->Ovulation ceases during pregnancy.
-->Any vaginal bleeding during pregnancy should be considered a complication until
proven otherwise.
]-->To estimate the date of delivery using Nägele’s rule, the nurse counts backward 3
months from the first day of the last menstrual period and then adds 7 days to this
date. -3 +7 +1
f]-->At 12 weeks’ gestation, the fundus should be at the top of the symphysis pubis.
]-->Cow’s milk shouldn’t be given to infants younger than age 1 because it has a low
linoleic acid content and its protein is difficult for infants to digest.
]-->If jaundice is suspected in a neonate, the nurse should examine the infant under
natural window light. If natural light is unavailable, the nurse should examine the
infant under a white light.
]-->The three phases of a uterine contraction are increment, acme, and decrement.
-->The intensity of a labor contraction can be assessed by the indentability of the uterine
wall at the contraction’s peak. Intensity is graded as mild (uterine muscle is
somewhat tense), moderate (uterine muscle is moderately tense), or strong
(uterine muscle is boardlike).
]-->Chloasma, the mask of pregnancy, is pigmentation of a circumscribed area of skin
(usually over the bridge of the nose and cheeks) that occurs in some pregnant women.
]-->The gynecoid pelvis is most ideal for delivery. Other types include platypelloid
(flat), anthropoid (apelike), and android (malelike).
]-->Pregnant women should be advised that there is no safe level of alcohol intake.
]-->The frequency of uterine contractions, which is measured in minutes, is the time
from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next.
]-->Vitamin K is administered to neonates to prevent hemorrhagic disorders because a
neonate’s intestine can’t synthesize vitamin K.
]-->Before internal fetal monitoring can be performed, a pregnant patient’s cervix must be
dilated at least 2 cm, the amniotic membranes must be ruptured, and the fetus’s
presenting part (scalp or buttocks) must be at station –1 or lower, so that a small
electrode can be attached.
]-->Fetal alcohol syndrome presents in the first 24 hours after birth and produces lethargy,
seizures, poor sucking reflex, abdominal distention, and respiratory difficulty.
]-->Variability is any change in the fetal heart rate (FHR) from its normal rate of 120 to
160 beats/minute. Acceleration is increased FHR; deceleration is decreased FHR.
]-->In a neonate, the symptoms of heroin withdrawal may begin several hours to 4
days after birth.
]-->In a neonate, the symptoms of methadone withdrawal may begin 7 days to several
weeks after birth.
]-->In a neonate, the cardinal signs of narcotic withdrawal include coarse, flapping
tremors; sleepiness; restlessness; prolonged, persistent, high-pitched cry; and
]-->The nurse should count a neonate’s respirations for 1 full minute.
]-->Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) is used to treat neonates who are addicted to narcotics.
]-->The nurse should provide a dark, quiet environment for a neonate who is experiencing
narcotic withdrawal.
]-->In a premature neonate, signs of respiratory distress include nostril flaring, substernal
retractions, and inspiratory grunting.
]-->Respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease) develops in premature
infants because their pulmonary alveoli lack surfactant.
]-->Whenever an infant is being put down to sleep, the parent or caregiver should position
the infant on the back. (Remember back to sleep.)
]-->The male sperm contributes an X or a Y chromosome; the female ovum contributes an
X chromosome.
]-->Fertilization produces a total of 46 chromosomes, including an XY combination
(male) or an XX combination (female).
]-->The percentage of water in a neonate’s body is about 78% to 80%.
]-->To perform nasotracheal suctioning in an infant, the nurse positions the infant with
his neck slightly hyperextended in a “sniffing” position, with his chin up and his
head tilted back slightly.
]-->Organogenesis occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy, specifically, days 14 to
56 of gestation.
]-->After birth, the neonate’s umbilical cord is tied 1" (2.5 cm) from the abdominal wall with
a cotton cord, plastic clamp, or rubber band.
]-->Gravida is the number of pregnancies a woman has had, regardless of outcome.
]-->Para is the number of pregnancies that reached viability, regardless of whether the
fetus was delivered alive or stillborn. A fetus is considered viable at 20 weeks’
]-->An ectopic pregnancy is one that implants abnormally, outside the uterus.
]-->The first stage of labor begins with the onset of labor and ends with full cervical
dilation at 10 cm.
]-->The second stage of labor begins with full cervical dilation and ends with the
neonate’s birth.
-->The third stage of labor begins after the neonate’s birth and ends with expulsion
of the placenta.
In a full-term neonate, skin creases appear over two-thirds of the neonate’s feet. Preterm
neonates have heel creases that cover less than two-thirds of the feet.
]-->The fourth stage of labor (postpartum stabilization) lasts up to 4 hours after the
placenta is delivered. This time is needed to stabilize the mother’s physical and
emotional state after the stress of childbirth.
]-->At 20 weeks’ gestation, the fundus is at the level of the umbilicus.
]-->At 36 weeks’ gestation, the fundus is at the lower border of the rib cage.
]-->A premature neonate is one born before the end of the 37th week of gestation.
]-->Pregnancy-induced hypertension is a leading cause of maternal death in the United
]-->A habitual aborter is a woman who has had three or more consecutive spontaneous
]-->Threatened abortion occurs when bleeding is present without cervical dilation.
]-->A complete abortion occurs when all products of conception are expelled.
]-->Hydramnios (polyhydramnios) is excessive amniotic fluid (more than 2,000 ml in the
third trimester).
]-->Stress, dehydration, and fatigue may reduce a breast-feeding mother’s milk supply.
]-->During the transition phase of the first stage of labor, the cervix is dilated 8 to 10 cm
and contractions usually occur 2 to 3 minutes apart and last for 60 seconds.
]-->A nonstress test is considered nonreactive (positive) if fewer than two fetal heart
rate accelerations of at least 15 beats/minute occur in 20 minutes.
]-->A nonstress test is considered reactive (negative) if two or more fetal heart rate
accelerations of 15 beats/minute above baseline occur in 20 minutes.
-->A nonstress test is usually performed to assess fetal well-being in a pregnant patient
with a prolonged pregnancy (42 weeks or more), diabetes, a history of poor pregnancy
outcomes, or pregnancy-induced hypertension.
]-->A pregnant woman should drink at least eight 8-oz glasses (about 2,000 ml) of water
]-->When both breasts are used for breast-feeding, the infant usually doesn’t empty the
second breast. Therefore, the second breast should be used first at the next feeding.
]-->A low-birth-weight neonate weighs 2,500 g (5 lb 8 oz) or less at birth.
]-->A very-low-birth-weight neonate weighs 1,500 g (3 lb 5 oz) or less at birth.
]-->When teaching parents to provide umbilical cord care, the nurse should teach them to
clean the umbilical area with a cotton ball saturated with alcohol after every diaper
change to prevent infection and promote drying.
]-->Teenage mothers are more likely to have low-birth-weight neonates because they seek
prenatal care late in pregnancy (as a result of denial) and are more likely than older
mothers to have nutritional deficiencies.
]-->Linea nigra, a dark line that extends from the umbilicus to the mons pubis, commonly
appears during pregnancy and disappears after pregnancy.
-->Implantation in the uterus occurs 6 to 10 days after ovum fertilization.
-->Placenta previa is abnormally low implantation of the placenta so that it encroaches on
or covers the cervical os.
-->In complete (total) placenta previa, the placenta completely covers the cervical os.
-->In partial (incomplete or marginal) placenta previa, the placenta covers only a
portion of the cervical os.
-->Abruptio placentae is premature separation of a normally implanted placenta. It may
be partial or complete, and usually causes abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and a
boardlike abdomen.
-->Cutis marmorata is mottling or purple discoloration of the skin. It’s a transient
vasomotor response that occurs primarily in the arms and legs of infants who are
exposed to cold.
-->The classic triad of symptoms of preeclampsia are hypertension, edema, and
proteinuria. Additional symptoms of severe preeclampsia include hyperreflexia,
cerebral and vision disturbances, and epigastric pain.
-->Ortolani’s sign (an audible click or palpable jerk that occurs with thigh abduction)
confirms congenital hip dislocation in a neonate.
-->The first immunization for a neonate is the hepatitis B vaccine, which is
administered in the nursery shortly after birth.
-->If a patient misses a menstrual period while taking an oral contraceptive exactly as
prescribed, she should continue taking the contraceptive.
-->If a patient misses two consecutive menstrual periods while taking an oral
contraceptive, she should discontinue the contraceptive and take a pregnancy test.
-->If a patient who is taking an oral contraceptive misses a dose, she should take the pill
as soon as she remembers or take two at the next scheduled interval and continue
with the normal schedule.
-->If a patient who is taking an oral contraceptive misses two consecutive doses, she
should double the dose for 2 days and then resume her normal schedule. She also
should use an additional birth control method for 1 week.
-->Eclampsia is the occurrence of seizures that aren’t caused by a cerebral disorder in a
patient who has pregnancy-induced hypertension.
-->In placenta previa, bleeding is painless and seldom fatal on the first occasion, but it
becomes heavier with each subsequent episode.
-->Treatment for abruptio placentae is usually immediate cesarean delivery.
-->Drugs used to treat withdrawal symptoms in neonates include phenobarbital
(Luminal), camphorated opium tincture (paregoric), and diazepam (Valium).
-->Infants with Down syndrome typically have marked hypotonia, floppiness, slanted
eyes, excess skin on the back of the neck, flattened bridge of the nose, flat facial
features, spadelike hands, short and broad feet, small male genitalia, absence of
Moro’s reflex, and a simian crease on the hands.
-->The failure rate of a contraceptive is determined by the experience of 100 women for 1
year. It’s expressed as pregnancies per 100 woman-years.
-->The narrowest diameter of the pelvic inlet is the anteroposterior (diagonal
]-->The chorion is the outermost extraembryonic membrane that gives rise to the
-->The corpus luteum secretes large quantities of progesterone.
-->From the 8th week of gestation through delivery, the developing cells are known as
a fetus.
-->In an incomplete abortion, the fetus is expelled, but parts of the placenta and
membrane remain in the uterus.
-->The circumference of a neonate’s head is normally 2 to 3 cm greater than the
circumference of the chest.
-->After administering magnesium sulfate to a pregnant patient for hypertension or
preterm labor, the nurse should monitor the respiratory rate and deep tendon
-->During the first hour after birth (the period of reactivity), the neonate is alert and awake.
-->When a pregnant patient has undiagnosed vaginal bleeding, vaginal examination
should be avoided until ultrasonography rules out placenta previa.
-->After delivery, the first nursing action is to establish the neonate’s airway.
-->Nursing interventions for a patient with placenta previa include positioning the patient
on her left side for maximum fetal perfusion, monitoring fetal heart tones, and
administering I.V. fluids and oxygen, as ordered.
-->The specific gravity of a neonate’s urine is 1.003 to 1.030. A lower specific gravity
suggests overhydration; a higher one suggests dehydration.
-->The neonatal period extends from birth to day 28. It’s also called the first 4 weeks or
first month of life.
-->A woman who is breast-feeding should rub a mild emollient cream or a few drops of
breast milk (or colostrum) on the nipples after each feeding. She should let the breasts
air-dry to prevent them from cracking.
-->Breast-feeding mothers should increase their fluid intake to 2½ to 3 qt (2,500 to 3,000
ml) daily.
-->After feeding an infant with a cleft lip or palate, the nurse should rinse the infant’s
mouth with sterile water.
-->The nurse instills erythromycin in a neonate’s eyes primarily to prevent blindness
caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia.
-->Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been cultured in breast milk and can be
transmitted by an HIV-positive mother who breast-feeds her infant.
-->A fever in the first 24 hours postpartum is most likely caused by dehydration rather than
-->Preterm neonates or neonates who can’t maintain a skin temperature of at least
97.6° F (36.4° C) should receive care in an incubator (Isolette) or a radiant warmer.
In a radiant warmer, a heat-sensitive probe taped to the neonate’s skin activates the
heater unit automatically to maintain the desired temperature.
-->During labor, the resting phase between contractions is at least 30 seconds.
-->Lochia rubra is the vaginal discharge of almost pure blood that occurs during the first
few days after childbirth.
-->Lochia serosa is the serous vaginal discharge that occurs 4 to 7 days after
-->Lochia alba is the vaginal discharge of decreased blood and increased leukocytes
that’s the final stage of lochia. It occurs 7 to 10 days after childbirth.
-->Colostrum, the precursor of milk, is the first secretion from the breasts after delivery.
-->The length of the uterus increases from 2½" (6.3 cm) before pregnancy to 12½" (32 cm)
at term.
-->To estimate the true conjugate (the smallest inlet measurement of the pelvis), deduct
1.5 cm from the diagonal conjugate (usually 12 cm). A true conjugate of 10.5 cm
enables the fetal head (usually 10 cm) to pass.
-->The smallest outlet measurement of the pelvis is the intertuberous diameter, which is
the transverse diameter between the ischial tuberosities.
-->Electronic fetal monitoring is used to assess fetal well-being during labor. If
compromised fetal status is suspected, fetal blood pH may be evaluated by obtaining a
scalp sample.
-->In an emergency delivery, enough pressure should be applied to the emerging fetus’s
head to guide the descent and prevent a rapid change in pressure within the molded
fetal skull.
-->After delivery, a multiparous woman is more susceptible to bleeding than a primiparous
woman because her uterine muscles may be overstretched and may not contract
-->Neonates who are delivered by cesarean birth have a higher incidence of respiratory
distress syndrome.
-->The nurse should suggest ambulation to a postpartum patient who has gas pain and
-->Massaging the uterus helps to stimulate contractions after the placenta is delivered.
-->When providing phototherapy to a neonate, the nurse should cover the neonate’s eyes
and genital area.
-->The narcotic antagonist naloxone (Narcan) may be given to a neonate to correct
respiratory depression caused by narcotic administration to the mother during labor.
-->In a neonate, symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome include expiratory grunting or
whining, sandpaper breath sounds, and seesaw retractions.
-->Cerebral palsy presents as asymmetrical movement, irritability, and excessive, feeble
crying in a long, thin infant.
-->The nurse should assess a breech-birth neonate for hydrocephalus, hematomas,
fractures, and other anomalies caused by birth trauma.
-->When a patient is admitted to the unit in active labor, the nurse’s first action is to listen
for fetal heart tones.
-->In a neonate, long, brittle fingernails are a sign of postmaturity.
-->Desquamation (skin peeling) is common in postmature neonates.
-->A mother should allow her infant to breast-feed until the infant is satisfied. The time may
vary from 5 to 20 minutes.
-->Nitrazine paper is used to test the pH of vaginal discharge to determine the presence of
amniotic fluid.
-->A pregnant patient normally gains 2 to 5 lb (1 to 2.5 kg) during the first trimester and
slightly less than 1 lb (0.5 kg) per week during the last two trimesters.
-->Neonatal jaundice in the first 24 hours after birth is known as pathological jaundice and
is a sign of erythroblastosis fetalis.
-->A classic difference between abruptio placentae and placenta previa is the degree of
pain. Abruptio placentae causes pain, whereas placenta previa causes painless
-->Because a major role of the placenta is to function as a fetal lung, any condition that
interrupts normal blood flow to or from the placenta increases fetal partial pressure of
arterial carbon dioxide and decreases fetal pH.
-->Precipitate labor lasts for approximately 3 hours and ends with delivery of the neonate.
-->Methylergonovine (Methergine) is an oxytocic agent used to prevent and treat
postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine atony or subinvolution.
-->As emergency treatment for excessive uterine bleeding, 0.2 mg of methylergonovine
(Methergine) is injected I.V. over 1 minute while the patient’s blood pressure and
uterine contractions are monitored.
-->Braxton Hicks contractions are usually felt in the abdomen and don’t cause cervical
change. True labor contractions are felt in the front of the abdomen and back and lead
to progressive cervical dilation and effacement.
-->The average birth weight of neonates born to mothers who smoke is 6 oz (170 g) less
than that of neonates born to nonsmoking mothers.
-->Culdoscopy is visualization of the pelvic organs through the posterior vaginal fornix.
-->The nurse should teach a pregnant vegetarian to obtain protein from alternative
sources, such as nuts, soybeans, and legumes.
-->The nurse should instruct a pregnant patient to take only prescribed prenatal vitamins
because over-the-counter high-potency vitamins may harm the fetus.
-->High-sodium foods can cause fluid retention, especially in pregnant patients.
-->A pregnant patient can avoid constipation and hemorrhoids by adding fiber to her diet.
-->If a fetus has late decelerations (a sign of fetal hypoxia), the nurse should instruct the
mother to lie on her left side and then administer 8 to 10 L of oxygen per minute by
mask or cannula. The nurse should notify the physician. The side-lying position
removes pressure on the inferior vena cava.
-->Oxytocin (Pitocin) promotes lactation and uterine contractions.
-->Lanugo covers the fetus’s body until about 20 weeks’ gestation. Then it begins to
disappear from the face, trunk, arms, and legs, in that order.
]-->In a neonate, hypoglycemia causes temperature instability, hypotonia, jitteriness, and
seizures. Premature, postmature, small-for-gestational-age, and large-for-gestational-
age neonates are susceptible to this disorder.
]-->Neonates typically need to consume 50 to 55 cal per pound of body weight daily.
]-->Because oxytocin (Pitocin) stimulates powerful uterine contractions during labor, it
must be administered under close observation to help prevent maternal and fetal
]-->During fetal heart rate monitoring, variable decelerations indicate compression or
prolapse of the umbilical cord.
]-->Cytomegalovirus is the leading cause of congenital viral infection.
]-->Tocolytic therapy is indicated in premature labor, but contraindicated in fetal death,
fetal distress, or severe hemorrhage.
]-->Through ultrasonography, the biophysical profile assesses fetal well-being by
measuring fetal breathing movements, gross body movements, fetal tone, reactive fetal
heart rate (nonstress test), and qualitative amniotic fluid volume.
]-->A neonate whose mother has diabetes should be assessed for hyperinsulinism.
]-->In a patient with preeclampsia, epigastric pain is a late symptom and requires
immediate medical intervention.
]-->After a stillbirth, the mother should be allowed to hold the neonate to help her come to
terms with the death.
]-->Molding is the process by which the fetal head changes shape to facilitate movement
through the birth canal.
]-->If a woman receives a spinal block before delivery, the nurse should monitor the
patient’s blood pressure closely.
]-->If a woman suddenly becomes hypotensive during labor, the nurse should increase the
infusion rate of I.V. fluids as prescribed.
]-->The best technique for assessing jaundice in a neonate is to blanch the tip of the nose
or the area just above the umbilicus.
]-->During fetal heart monitoring, early deceleration is caused by compression of the head
during labor.
]-->After the placenta is delivered, the nurse may add oxytocin (Pitocin) to the patient’s I.V.
solution, as prescribed, to promote postpartum involution of the uterus and stimulate
]-->Pica is a craving to eat nonfood items, such as dirt, crayons, chalk, glue, starch, or
hair. It may occur during pregnancy and can endanger the fetus.
]-->A pregnant patient should take folic acid because this nutrient is required for rapid cell
]-->A woman who is taking clomiphene (Clomid) to induce ovulation should be informed of
the possibility of multiple births with this drug.
]-->If needed, cervical suturing is usually done between 14 and 18 weeks’ gestation to
reinforce an incompetent cervix and maintain pregnancy. The suturing is typically
removed by 35 weeks’ gestation.
]-->During the first trimester, a pregnant woman should avoid all drugs unless doing so
would adversely affect her health.
]-->Most drugs that a breast-feeding mother takes appear in breast milk.
]-->The Food and Drug Administration has established the following five categories of
drugs based on their potential for causing birth defects: A, no evidence of risk; B, no
risk found in animals, but no studies have been done in women; C, animal studies
have shown an adverse effect, but the drug may be beneficial to women despite the
potential risk; D, evidence of risk, but its benefits may outweigh its risks; and X, fetal
anomalies noted, and the risks clearly outweigh the potential benefits.
]-->A patient with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy commonly has sharp pain in the lower
abdomen, with spotting and cramping. She may have abdominal rigidity; rapid, shallow
respirations; tachycardia; and shock.
]-->A patient with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy commonly has sharp pain in the lower
abdomen, with spotting and cramping. She may have abdominal rigidity; rapid, shallow
respirations; tachycardia; and shock.
]-->The mechanics of delivery are engagement, descent and flexion, internal rotation,
extension, external rotation, restitution, and expulsion.
]-->A probable sign of pregnancy, McDonald’s sign is characterized by an ease in flexing
the body of the uterus against the cervix.
]-->Amenorrhea is a probable sign of pregnancy.
]-->A pregnant woman’s partner should avoid introducing air into the vagina during oral
sex because of the possibility of air embolism.
]-->The presence of human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine is a probable sign
of pregnancy.
]-->Radiography isn’t usually used in a pregnant woman because it may harm the
developing fetus. If radiography is essential, it should be performed only after 36
weeks’ gestation.
]-->A pregnant patient who has had rupture of the membranes or who is experiencing
vaginal bleeding shouldn’t engage in sexual intercourse.
]-->Milia may occur as pinpoint spots over a neonate’s nose.
]-->The duration of a contraction is timed from the moment that the uterine muscle begins
to tense to the moment that it reaches full relaxation. It’s measured in seconds.
]-->The union of a male and a female gamete produces a zygote, which divides into the
fertilized ovum.
]-->The first menstrual flow is called menarche and may be anovulatory (infertile).
]-->Spermatozoa (or their fragments) remain in the vagina for 72 hours after sexual
]-->Prolactin stimulates and sustains milk production.
]-->Strabismus is a normal finding in a neonate.
]-->A postpartum patient may resume sexual intercourse after the perineal or uterine
wounds heal (usually within 4 weeks after delivery).
]-->A pregnant staff member shouldn’t be assigned to work with a patient who has
cytomegalovirus infection because the virus can be transmitted to the fetus.
]-->Fetal demise is death of the fetus after viability.
]-->Respiratory distress syndrome develops in premature neonates because their alveoli
lack surfactant.
]-->The most common method of inducing labor after artificial rupture of the membranes is
oxytocin (Pitocin) infusion.
]-->After the amniotic membranes rupture, the initial nursing action is to assess the fetal
heart rate.
]-->The most common reasons for cesarean birth are malpresentation, fetal distress,
cephalopelvic disproportion, pregnancy-induced hypertension, previous cesarean birth,
and inadequate progress in labor.
]-->Amniocentesis increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, trauma to the fetus or
placenta, premature labor, infection, and Rh sensitization of the fetus.
]-->After amniocentesis, abdominal cramping or spontaneous vaginal bleeding may
indicate complications.
]-->To prevent her from developing Rh antibodies, an Rh-negative primigravida should
receive Rho(D) immune globulin (RhoGAM) after delivering an Rh-positive neonate.
]-->If a pregnant patient’s test results are negative for glucose but positive for acetone, the
nurse should assess the patient’s diet for inadequate caloric intake.
]-->If a pregnant patient’s test results are negative for glucose but positive for acetone, the
nurse should assess the patient’s diet for inadequate caloric intake.
]-->Rubella infection in a pregnant patient, especially during the first trimester, can lead to
spontaneous abortion or stillbirth as well as fetal cardiac and other birth defects.
]-->A pregnant patient should take an iron supplement to help prevent anemia.
]-->Direct antiglobulin (direct Coombs’) test is used to detect maternal antibodies attached
to red blood cells in the neonate.
]-->Nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy are caused by rising levels
of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin.
]-->Before discharging a patient who has had an abortion, the nurse should instruct her to
report bright red clots, bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days, or signs of infection, such
as a temperature of greater than 100° F (37.8° C), foul-smelling vaginal discharge,
severe uterine cramping, nausea, or vomiting.
]-->When informed that a patient’s amniotic membrane has broken, the nurse should
check fetal heart tones and then maternal vital signs.
]-->The duration of pregnancy averages 280 days, 40 weeks, 9 calendar months, or 10
lunar months.
]-->The initial weight loss for a healthy neonate is 5% to 10% of birth weight.
]-->The normal hemoglobin value in neonates is 17 to 20 g/dl.
]-->Crowning is the appearance of the fetus’s head when its largest diameter is encircled
by the vulvovaginal ring.
]-->A multipara is a woman who has had two or more pregnancies that progressed to
viability, regardless of whether the offspring were alive at birth.
]-->In a pregnant patient, preeclampsia may progress to eclampsia, which is characterized
by seizures and may lead to coma.
]-->The Apgar score is used to assess the neonate’s vital functions. It’s obtained at 1
minute and 5 minutes after delivery. The score is based on respiratory effort, heart rate,
muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color.
]-->Because of the anti-insulin effects of placental hormones, insulin requirements
increase during the third trimester.
]-->Gestational age can be estimated by ultrasound measurement of maternal abdominal
circumference, fetal femur length, and fetal head size. These measurements are most
accurate between 12 and 18 weeks’ gestation.
]-->Skeletal system abnormalities and ventricular septal defects are the most common
disorders of infants who are born to diabetic women. The incidence of congenital
malformation is three times higher in these infants than in those born to nondiabetic
]-->Skeletal system abnormalities and ventricular septal defects are the most common
disorders of infants who are born to diabetic women. The incidence of congenital
malformation is three times higher in these infants than in those born to nondiabetic
]-->The patient with preeclampsia usually has puffiness around the eyes or edema in the
hands (for example, “I can’t put my wedding ring on.”).
]-->Kegel exercises require contraction and relaxation of the perineal muscles. These
exercises help strengthen pelvic muscles and improve urine control in postpartum
]-->Symptoms of postpartum depression range from mild postpartum blues to intense,
suicidal, depressive psychosis.
]-->The preterm neonate may require gavage feedings because of a weak sucking reflex,
uncoordinated sucking, or respiratory distress.
]-->Acrocyanosis (blueness and coolness of the arms and legs) is normal in neonates
because of their immature peripheral circulatory system.
]-->To prevent ophthalmia neonatorum (a severe eye infection caused by maternal
gonorrhea), the nurse may administer one of three drugs, as prescribed, in the
neonate’s eyes: tetracycline, silver nitrate, or erythromycin.
]-->Neonatal testing for phenylketonuria is mandatory in most states.
]-->The nurse should place the neonate in a 30-degree Trendelenburg position to facilitate
mucus drainage.
]-->The nurse may suction the neonate’s nose and mouth as needed with a bulb syringe
or suction trap.
]-->To prevent heat loss, the nurse should place the neonate under a radiant warmer
during suctioning and initial delivery-room care, and then wrap the neonate in a
warmed blanket for transport to the nursery.
]-->The umbilical cord normally has two arteries and one vein.
]-->When providing care, the nurse should expose only one part of an infant’s body at a
]-->Lightening is settling of the fetal head into the brim of the pelvis.
]-->If the neonate is stable, the mother should be allowed to breast-feed within the
neonate’s first hour of life.
]-->The nurse should check the neonate’s temperature every 1 to 2 hours until it’s
maintained within normal limits.
]-->At birth, a neonate normally weighs 5 to 9 lb (2 to 4 kg), measures 18" to 22" (45.5 to
56 cm) in length, has a head circumference of 13½" to 14" (34 to 35.5 cm), and has a
chest circumference that’s 1" (2.5 cm) less than the head circumference.
]-->In the neonate, temperature normally ranges from 98° to 99° F (36.7° to 37.2° C),
apical pulse rate averages 120 to 160 beats/minute, and respirations are 40 to 60
]-->The diamond-shaped anterior fontanel usually closes between ages 12 and 18
months. The triangular posterior fontanel usually closes by age 2 months.
]-->In the neonate, a straight spine is normal. A tuft of hair over the spine is an abnormal
]-->Prostaglandin gel may be applied to the vagina or cervix to ripen an unfavorable cervix
before labor induction with oxytocin (Pitocin).
]-->Supernumerary nipples are occasionally seen on neonates. They usually appear along
a line that runs from each axilla, through the normal nipple area, and to the groin.
]-->Meconium is a material that collects in the fetus’s intestines and forms the neonate’s
first feces, which are black and tarry.
]-->The presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid during labor indicates possible fetal
distress and the need to evaluate the neonate for meconium aspiration.
]-->To assess a neonate’s rooting reflex, the nurse touches a finger to the cheek or the
corner of the mouth. Normally, the neonate turns his head toward the stimulus, opens
his mouth, and searches for the stimulus.
]-->Harlequin sign is present when a neonate who is lying on his side appears red on the
dependent side and pale on the upper side.
]-->Mongolian spots can range from brown to blue. Their color depends on how close
melanocytes are to the surface of the skin. They most commonly appear as patches
across the sacrum, buttocks, and legs.
]-->Mongolian spots are common in non-white infants and usually disappear by age 2 to 3
]-->Vernix caseosa is a cheeselike substance that covers and protects the fetus’s skin in
utero. It may be rubbed into the neonate’s skin or washed away in one or two baths.
-->Caput succedaneum is edema that develops in and under the fetal scalp during labor
and delivery. It resolves spontaneously and presents no danger to the neonate. The
edema doesn’t cross the suture line.
]-->Nevus flammeus, or port-wine stain, is a diffuse pink to dark bluish red lesion on a
neonate’s face or neck.
]-->The Guthrie test (a screening test for phenylketonuria) is most reliable if it’s done
between the second and sixth days after birth and is performed after the neonate has
ingested protein.
]-->To assess coordination of sucking and swallowing, the nurse should observe the
neonate’s first breast-feeding or sterile water bottle-feeding.
]-->To establish a milk supply pattern, the mother should breast-feed her infant at least
every 4 hours. During the first month, she should breast-feed 8 to 12 times daily
(demand feeding).
]-->To avoid contact with blood and other body fluids, the nurse should wear gloves when
handling the neonate until after the first bath is given.
]-->If a breast-fed infant is content, has good skin turgor, an adequate number of wet
diapers, and normal weight gain, the mother’s milk supply is assumed to be adequate.
]-->In the supine position, a pregnant patient’s enlarged uterus impairs venous return from
the lower half of the body to the heart, resulting in supine hypotensive syndrome, or
inferior vena cava syndrome.
]-->Tocolytic agents used to treat preterm labor include terbutaline (Brethine), ritodrine
(Yutopar), and magnesium sulfate.
]-->A pregnant woman who has hyperemesis gravidarum may require hospitalization to
treat dehydration and starvation.
]-->Diaphragmatic hernia is one of the most urgent neonatal surgical emergencies. By
compressing and displacing the lungs and heart, this disorder can cause respiratory
distress shortly after birth.
]-->Common complications of early pregnancy (up to 20 weeks’ gestation) include fetal
loss and serious threats to maternal health.
]-->Fetal embodiment is a maternal developmental task that occurs in the second
trimester. During this stage, the mother may complain that she never gets to sleep
because the fetus always gives her a thump when she tries.
]-->Visualization in pregnancy is a process in which the mother imagines what the child
she’s carrying is like and becomes acquainted with it.
]-->Hemodilution of pregnancy is the increase in blood volume that occurs during
pregnancy. The increased volume consists of plasma and causes an imbalance
between the ratio of red blood cells to plasma and a resultant decrease in hematocrit.
]-->Mean arterial pressure of greater than 100 mm Hg after 20 weeks of pregnancy is
considered hypertension.
]-->The treatment for supine hypotension syndrome (a condition that sometimes occurs in
pregnancy) is to have the patient lie on her left side.
]-->A contributing factor in dependent edema in the pregnant patient is the increase of
femoral venous pressure from 10 mm Hg (normal) to 18 mm Hg (high).
]-->Hyperpigmentation of the pregnant patient’s face, formerly called chloasma and now
referred to as melasma, fades after delivery.
]-->The hormone relaxin, which is secreted first by the corpus luteum and later by the
placenta, relaxes the connective tissue and cartilage of the symphysis pubis and the
sacroiliac joint to facilitate passage of the fetus during delivery.
]-->Progesterone maintains the integrity of the pregnancy by inhibiting uterine motility.
]-->Ladin’s sign, an early indication of pregnancy, causes softening of a spot on the
anterior portion of the uterus, just above the uterocervical juncture.
]-->During pregnancy, the abdominal line from the symphysis pubis to the umbilicus
changes from linea alba to linea nigra.
]-->In neonates, cold stress affects the circulatory, regulatory, and respiratory systems.
-->Obstetric data can be described by using the F/TPAL system:
-->F/T: Full-term delivery at 38 weeks or longer
-->P: Preterm delivery between 20 and 37 weeks
-->A: Abortion or loss of fetus before 20 weeks
-->L: Number of children living (if a child has died, further explanation is needed to
clarify the discrepancy in numbers).
-->Parity doesn’t refer to the number of infants delivered, only the number of deliveries.
-->Women who are carrying more than one fetus should be encouraged to gain 35 to 45 lb
(15.5 to 20.5 kg) during pregnancy.
-->The recommended amount of iron supplement for the pregnant patient is 30 to 60 mg
-->Drinking six alcoholic beverages a day or a single episode of binge drinking in the first
trimester can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
-->Chorionic villus sampling is performed at 8 to 12 weeks of pregnancy for early
identification of genetic defects.
-->In percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, a blood sample is obtained from the
umbilical cord to detect anemia, genetic defects, and blood incompatibility as well as to
assess the need for blood transfusions.
-->The period between contractions is referred to as the interval, or resting phase. During
this phase, the uterus and placenta fill with blood and allow for the exchange of
oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients.
-->In a patient who has hypertonic contractions, the uterus doesn’t have an opportunity to
relax and there is no interval between contractions. As a result, the fetus may
experience hypoxia or rapid delivery may occur.
-->Two qualities of the myometrium are elasticity, which allows it to stretch yet maintain its
tone, and contractility, which allows it to shorten and lengthen in a synchronized
-->During crowning, the presenting part of the fetus remains visible during the interval
between contractions.
-->Uterine atony is failure of the uterus to remain firmly contracted.
-->The major cause of uterine atony is a full bladder.
-->If the mother wishes to breast-feed, the neonate should be nursed as soon as possible
after delivery.
-->A smacking sound, milk dripping from the side of the mouth, and sucking noises all
indicate improper placement of the infant’s mouth over the nipple.
-->Before feeding is initiated, an infant should be burped to expel air from the stomach.
-->Most authorities strongly encourage the continuation of breast-feeding on both the
affected and the unaffected breast of patients with mastitis.
-->Neonates are nearsighted and focus on items that are held 10" to 12" (25 to 30.5 cm)
-->In a neonate, low-set ears are associated with chromosomal abnormalities such as
Down syndrome.
-->Meconium is usually passed in the first 24 hours; however, passage may take up to 72
-->Boys who are born with hypospadias shouldn’t be circumcised at birth because the
foreskin may be needed for constructive surgery.
-->In the neonate, the normal blood glucose level is 45 to 90 mg/dl.
-->Hepatitis B vaccine is usually given within 48 hours of birth.
-->Hepatitis B immune globulin is usually given within 12 hours of birth.
-->HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome is an unusual
variation of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
-->Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein is detectable at 7 weeks of gestation and peaks in the
third trimester. High levels detected between the 16th and 18th weeks are associated
with neural tube defects. Low levels are associated with Down syndrome.
-->An arrest of descent occurs when the fetus doesn’t descend through the pelvic cavity
during labor. It’s commonly associated with cephalopelvic disproportion, and cesarean
delivery may be required.
-->A late sign of preeclampsia is epigastric pain as a result of severe liver edema.
-->In the patient with preeclampsia, blood pressure returns to normal during the puerperal
-->To obtain an estriol level, urine is collected for 24 hours.
-->An estriol level is used to assess fetal well-being and maternal renal functioning as well
as to monitor a pregnancy that’s complicated by diabetes.
-->A pregnant patient with vaginal bleeding shouldn’t have a pelvic examination.
-->In the early stages of pregnancy, the finding of glucose in the urine may be related to
the increased shunting of glucose to the developing placenta, without a corresponding
increase in the reabsorption capability of the kidneys.
-->A patient who has premature rupture of the membranes is at significant risk for infection
if labor doesn’t begin within 24 hours.
-->Infants of diabetic mothers are susceptible to macrosomia as a result of increased
insulin production in the fetus.
-->To prevent heat loss in the neonate, the nurse should bathe one part of his body at a
time and keep the rest of the body covered.
-->A patient who has a cesarean delivery is at greater risk for infection than the patient
who gives birth vaginally.
-->The occurrence of thrush in the neonate is probably caused by contact with the
organism during delivery through the birth canal.
]-->The nurse should keep the sac of meningomyelocele moist with normal saline solution.
-->If fundal height is at least 2 cm less than expected, the cause may be growth
retardation, missed abortion, transverse lie, or false pregnancy.
-->Fundal height that exceeds expectations by more than 2 cm may be caused by multiple
gestation, polyhydramnios, uterine myomata, or a large baby.
-->A major developmental task for a woman during the first trimester of pregnancy is
accepting the pregnancy.
-->Unlike formula, breast milk offers the benefit of maternal antibodies.
-->Spontaneous rupture of the membranes increases the risk of a prolapsed umbilical
-->A clinical manifestation of a prolapsed umbilical cord is variable decelerations.
-->During labor, to relieve supine hypotension manifested by nausea and vomiting and
paleness, turn the patient on her left side.
-->If the ovum is fertilized by a spermatozoon carrying a Y chromosome, a male zygote is
-->Implantation occurs when the cellular walls of the blastocyte implants itself in the
endometrium, usually 7 to 9 days after fertilization.
-->Implantation occurs when the cellular walls of the blastocyte implants itself in the
endometrium, usually 7 to 9 days after fertilization.
-->Heart development in the embryo begins at 2 to 4 weeks and is complete by the end of
the embryonic stage.
-->Methergine stimulates uterine contractions.
-->The administration of folic acid during the early stages of gestation may prevent neural
tube defects.
-->With advanced maternal age, a common genetic problem is Down syndrome.
]-->With early maternal age, cephalopelvic disproportion commonly occurs.
]-->In the early postpartum period, the fundus should be midline at the umbilicus.
]-->A rubella vaccine shouldn’t be given to a pregnant woman. The vaccine can be
administered after delivery, but the patient should be instructed to avoid becoming
pregnant for 3 months.
]-->A 16-year-old girl who is pregnant is at risk for having a low-birth-weight neonate.
]-->The mother’s Rh factor should be determined before an amniocentesis is performed.
]-->Maternal hypotension is a complication of spinal block.
]-->After delivery, if the fundus is boggy and deviated to the right side, the patient should
empty her bladder.
]-->Before providing a specimen for a sperm count, the patient should avoid ejaculation for
48 to 72 hours.
]-->The hormone human chorionic gonadotropin is a marker for pregnancy.
]-->Painless vaginal bleeding during the last trimester of pregnancy may indicate placenta
]-->During the transition phase of labor, the woman usually is irritable and restless.
]-->Because women with diabetes have a higher incidence of birth anomalies than women
without diabetes, an alpha-fetoprotein level may be ordered at 15 to 17 weeks’
]-->To avoid puncturing the placenta, a vaginal examination shouldn’t be performed on a
pregnant patient who is bleeding.
]-->A patient who has postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine atony should be given
oxytocin as prescribed.
]-->Laceration of the vagina, cervix, or perineum produces bright red bleeding that often
comes in spurts. The bleeding is continuous, even when the fundus is firm.
]-->Hot compresses can help to relieve breast tenderness after breast-feeding.
]-->The fundus of a postpartum patient is massaged to stimulate contraction of the uterus
and prevent hemorrhage.
endif]-->A mother who has a positive human immunodeficiency virus test result shouldn’t
breast-feed her infant.
]-->Dinoprostone (Cervidil) is used to ripen the cervix.
]-->Breast-feeding of a premature neonate born at 32 weeks’ gestation can be
accomplished if the mother expresses milk and feeds the neonate by gavage.
]-->If a pregnant patient’s rubella titer is less than 1:8, she should be immunized after
]-->The administration of oxytocin (Pitocin) is stopped if the contractions are 90 seconds or
-->For an extramural delivery (one that takes place outside of a normal delivery center),
the priorities for care of the neonate include maintaining a patent airway, supporting
efforts to breathe, monitoring vital signs, and maintaining adequate body temperature.
]-->Subinvolution may occur if the bladder is distended after delivery.
]-->The nurse must place identification bands on both the mother and the neonate before
they leave the delivery room.
]-->Erythromycin is given at birth to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum.
]-->Pelvic-tilt exercises can help to prevent or relieve backache during pregnancy.
]-->Before performing a Leopold maneuver, the nurse should ask the patient to empty her

Posted by friendship at 5:54 AM

Labels: Maternal Nursing, Nursing Bullets, Obstetric Nursing
Nursing Bullets 1
• Odynophagia is painful swallowing, in the mouth (oropharynx) or esophagus. It can occur
with or without dysphagia, or difficult swallowing
• Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or
most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe
• Pyloroplasty is surgery to widen the opening of the end of the pylorus, which is found in
the lower portion of the stomach,
• Billroth I = gastroduodenal reconstruction
• Billroth II = gastrojejunal reconstruction
• ISOTONIC = the muscle shortens to produce contraction
• ISOMETRIC = NO CHANGE in muscle length
• ISOKINETIC = Involves muscle contraction or tension against a resistance
• Measure correct crutch length
Measure from the Anterior Axillary Fold to the HEEL of the foot then:
Add 1 inch (Kozier)
Add 2 inches (Brunner and Suddarth)
• Hyperalgesia—excessive sensitivity to pain
• Bruxism- commonly called night teeth-grinding occurring during stage 2 sleep
• Somnambulism- “sleepwalking"
• POLYSOMNOGRAPHY is the only method that can confirm sleep apnea.
• Urticaria - (or hives) is a skin condition, commonly caused by an allergic reaction, that is
characterized by raised red skin wheals
• Pruritus- is an itch or a sensation that makes a person want to scratch.
• CAUTION ---- Mnemonics for early detection for CANCER
C- Change in bowel/bladder habits
A- A sore that does not heal
U- Unusual bleeding
T- Thickening or lump in the breast
I- Indigestion
O- Obvious change in warts
N- Nagging cough and hoarseness
• Alopecia begins within 2 weeks of therapy. Regrowth within 8 weeks of termination
• Tenesmus is a feeling of incomplete defecation. It is experienced as an inability or difficulty
to empty the bowel at defecation.
Consists of the
1. SA node- the pacemaker
2. AV node- slowest conduction
3. Bundle of His – branches into the Right and the Left bundle branch
4. Purkinje fibers- fastest conduction
• The Heart sounds
1. S1- due to closure of the AV valves
2. S2- due to the closure of the semi-lunar valves
3. S3- due to increased ventricular filling
4. S4- due to forceful atrial contraction
• The lymphatic system also is part of the vascular system and the function of this system is to
collect the extravasated fluid from the tissues and returns it to the blood
• CARDIAC Proteins and enzymes
CK- MB ( creatine kinase). Elevates in MI within 4 hours, peaks in 18 hours and then declines
till 3 days
• Troponin I and T
Troponin I is usually utilized for MI. Elevates within 3-4 hours, peaks in 4-24 hours and
persists for 7 days to 3 weeks!
Normal value for Troponin I is less than 0.6 ng/mL
• Cholesterol= 200 mg/dL
• Triglycerides- 40- 150 mg/dL
• Ischemic changes may show ST depression and T wave inversion
• Nitrates- to dilate the coronary arteries
• Aspirin- to prevent thrombus formation
• Beta-blockers- to reduce BP and HR
• Calcium-channel blockers- to dilate coronary artery and reduce vasospasm
• After MI, Patients who are able to walk 3-4 mph are usually ready to resume sexual activities
• Infective endocarditis >> Osler’s nodes- painful nodules on fingerpads
• Infective endocarditis >> Roth’s spots- pale hemorrhages in the retina
1. Dyspnea on exertion
2. PND
3. Orthopnea
4. Pulmonary crackles/rales
5. cough with Pinkish, frothy sputum
6. Tachycardia
7. Cool extremities
8. Cyanosis
9. decreased peripheral pulses
10. Fatigue
11. Oliguria
12. signs of cerebral anoxia
1. Peripheral dependent, pitting edema
2. Weight gain
3. Distended neck vein
4. hepatomegaly
5. Ascites
6. Body weakness
7. Anorexia, nausea
8. Pulsus alternans
2. oliguria (less than 30 ml/hour)
3. tachycardia
4. narrow pulse pressure
5. weak peripheral pulses
6. cold clammy skin
7. changes in sensorium/LOC
8. pulmonary congestion
A condition where the heart is unable to pump blood due to accumulation of fluid in the
pericardial sac (pericardial effusion)
• BECK’s Triad- Jugular vein distention, hypotension and distant/muffled heart sound
• ANEURYSM - Dilation involving an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall
Saccular= when one side of the vessel is affected
Fusiform= when the entire segment becomes dilated

Infection= syphilis
Connective tissue disorder
Genetic disorder= Marfan’s Syndrome
• PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISEASE (PAOD) - Refers to arterial insufficiency
of the extremities usually secondary to peripheral atherosclerosis
Intermittent claudication is a clinical diagnosis given for muscle pain (ache, cramp, numbness
or sense of fatigue), classically calf muscle
• RAYNAUD’S DISEASE - A form of intermittent arteriolar VASOCONSTRICTION that
results in coldness, pain and pallor of the fingertips or toes
• Cheilosis (also called cheilitis) is a painful inflammation and cracking of the corners of the
mouth. It sometimes occurs on only one side of the mouth
• APLASTIC ANEMIA - A condition characterized by decreased number of RBC as well as
WBC and platelets
• Pernicious Anemia - Beefy, red, swollen tongue (Schilling’s test)
• Progesterone - maintains the uterine lining for implantation and relaxes all smooth muscles
• Relaxin - is the hormone that softens the muscles and joints of the pelvis
• Thyroxine - increases basal metabolic rates
• Buck's Traction - Skin traction
• Skeletal Traction - with Pins
• Vit. B2 (riboflavin) deficiency - scaly skin
• Vit. A deficiency - Night blindness
• Vit. D deficiency - Skeletal Pain
• Zinc deficiency - slow wound healing
• Selenium deficiency - heart damage
• Toxoplasmosis parasite - infection from inadequately cooked meat, eggs, or milk, ingestion
or inhaling the oocyst excreted in feline feces
• Sclerotherapy - injecttion of a sclerosing agent into a varicosity. The agent damages the
vessels and causes aseptic thrombosis, which result in vein closure.
• Deep Tendon Reflex Test
1+ - diminished
2+ - normal
3+ - increased, brisker-than-average
4+ very brisk, hyperactive
• Involution is a progressive descent of the uterus into the pelvic cavity that occurse at approx.
1cm per day.
• FHR can be first heard with fetoscope at 18 to 20 weeks gestation. 10 weeks with a doppler
• Folic acid rich food are peanuts, sunflower seeds and raisins
• Variable deceleration = cord compression
• Early deceleration = pressure on the fetal head during a contraction
• Later deceleration = uteroplacental insufficiency
• Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder.
• Pyelonephritis is an ascending urinary tract infection that has reached the pyelum (pelvis) of
the kidney (nephros in Greek).
• Partial weightbearing - 30% to 50% of the body weight on the affected limb
• Touch-down weight bearing allows the client to let the limb touch the floor but not bear
• Thyroid supplements for hypothyroidism should be taken in the morning to avoid insomia.
• Croup - dont administer cough syrup and cold medicines because they will dry and thicken
secretions. Sips of warm fluid will relax the vocal cords and thin the mucos.
• Koplik spots - small bluish-white spots with a red base found on the buccal mucosa
• German measles - pinkish-rose maculopapular rash on the face, neck and scalp. Reddish and
pinpoint petechiae spots found on the soft palate
• Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) [slapped cheek] - an intense, fiery-red, edematous rash
on the cheeks.
• Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) - rash on the palm and soles of the feed and on the
remainder of the body. Fever, headache, anorexia and restlessness. Meds given is Tetracycline
hydrochloride (achromycin)
• Thioguanine and thiotepa are antineoplastic medications
• Ticlopidine hydrochloride (Ticlid) is a platelet aggregation inhibitor
• Erythema marginatum is characterized by red skin lesions that start as flat or slightly raised
macules, usually over the trunk and that spread peripherally.
• Atrial fibrillation - Auscultating the apical pulse for an irregular rate while palpating the
radial pulse for pulse deficit
• Triple dye is used for initial cord care because it minimizes bateria and promotes drying.
• A low cardiac output will cause the increased build-up of blood in the heart and pulmonary
system, causing crackles to be heard in the lung fields.
• S3 heart sounds = ventricular gallop
• Trachoesophageal fistual = abdominal distension
• 3 stages of separation anxiety are PROTEST, DESPAIR AND DETACHMENT
• Anaphylactic shock = fatal allergic reaction
• Cardiac Tamponade - assessment findings include tachycardia, distant or muffled heart
sounds, jugular vein distention and falling blood pressure accompanied by pulsus paradoxus (
a drop in inspiratory BY by > 10 mmhg)
• Spironolactone (Aldactone) > pt. may experience body image changes due to threatened
sexual identity. These body image changes are related to decreased libido, gynecomastia in
males, and hirsutism in females.
• Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - fruity odor to the client's breath
• Rhonchi - occur as a result of the passing of air through fluid-filled narrow passages.
Rhonchi are sometimes referred to as "gurgles". Diseases with excess mucous product, such as
pnemonia are associated with rhonchi. Rhonchi are usually heard on expiration and may clear
with a cough.
• Urolithiasis is a condition in which crystals in the urine combine to form stones, also called
calculi or uroliths
• Hodgkin's disease is a type of lymphoma distinguished by the presence of a particular kind
of cancer cell called a Reed-Sternberg cell.
• Cardiogenic shock (left-sided heart failure) - includes altered sensorium, tachycardia,
hypotension, tachypnea, oliguria, and cold, clammy, cyanotic skin
• Ovarian cancer symptoms include abdominal discomfort, irreg. menses, flatulence, fullness
after a light mean and increase abdominal girth.
• Myocardial infarction:
-ST segment elevation usually occurs immediately or during the early stages of MI.
-The CK-MB isoenzyme begins to rise 3 to 6 hourse after MI.
-T wave depression and abnormal Q wave changes occur within several hours to several days
after the MI.
• Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) symptoms are "heart beating" in the abdomen when
supine or be able to feel the mass throbbing. A pulsatile mass may be palpated in the middle
and upper abdomen. A systolic bruit may be ausculated over the mass.
• Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome experiences an elevated in temperature ( sometimes up to
107 F) and parkinsonian symptoms
• Intermittent claudication usually refers to cramplike pains in the legs (usually the calf
muscles, but may be in the thigh.
• Cholinergic effect includes increase in salivation, lacrimation, urination and defecation,
bradycardia, hypotension and increaes muscle weakness
• Ventricular tachycardia is characterized by the absense of P waves, wide QRS complexes
(usually greater then 0.14 second) and a rate between 100 and 250 impulses per minute.
• Ventricular fibrillation is characterized by irregular, chaotic undulations of varying
amplitudes. There are no measurable rate and no visible P waves or QRS complexes.
• Inguinal hernia is a common defect that appears as a painless inguinal swelling when the
child cries or strains.
• Partial obstruction of the herniated loop of intestine - difficulty in defecating
• Phimosis - a dribbling stream, indicating an obstruction in the flow of urine
• Cryptorchidism - absense of the testes within the scrotum.
• Triamterene (Dyrenium) is a potassium-sparing diuretic. Side effects include frequent
urination and polyuria.
• Erythroblastosis fetalis is a hemolytic disease of the fetus or newborn resulting in excessive
destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) and stimulation of immature erythrocytes.
• Glycosylated hemoglobin values of 8% or less are acceptable

1. Mrs. Chua a 78 year old client is admitted with the diagnosis of mild chronic heart failure. The nurse
expects to hear when listening to client’s lungs indicative of chronic heart failure would be:
a. Stridor
b. Crackles
c. Wheezes
d. Friction rubs
2. Patrick who is hospitalized following a myocardial infarction asks the nurse why he is taking
morphine. The nurse explains that morphine:
a. Decrease anxiety and restlessness
b. Prevents shock and relieves pain
c. Dilates coronary blood vessels
d. Helps prevent fibrillation of the heart
3. Which of the following should the nurse teach the client about the signs of digitalis toxicity?
a. Increased appetite
b. Elevated blood pressure
c. Skin rash over the chest and back
d. Visual disturbances such as seeing yellow spots
4. Nurse Trisha teaches a client with heart failure to take oral Furosemide in the morning. The reason
for this is to help…
a. Retard rapid drug absorption
b. Excrete excessive fluids accumulated at night
c. Prevents sleep disturbances during night
d. Prevention of electrolyte imbalance
5. What would be the primary goal of therapy for a client with pulmonary edema and heart failure?
a. Enhance comfort
b. Increase cardiac output
c. Improve respiratory status
d. Peripheral edema decreased
6. Nurse Linda is caring for a client with head injury and monitoring the client with decerebrate
posturing. Which of the following is a characteristic of this type of posturing?
a. Upper extremity flexion with lower extremity flexion
b. Upper extremity flexion with lower extremity extension
c. Extension of the extremities after a stimulus
d. Flexion of the extremities after stimulus
7. A female client is taking Cascara Sagrada. Nurse Betty informs the client that the following maybe
experienced as side effects of this medication:
a. GI bleeding
b. Peptic ulcer disease
c. Abdominal cramps
d. Partial bowel obstruction
8. Dr. Marquez orders a continuous intravenous nitroglycerin infusion for the client suffering from
myocardial infarction. Which of the following is the most essential nursing action?
a. Monitoring urine output frequently
b. Monitoring blood pressure every 4 hours
c. Obtaining serum potassium levels daily
d. Obtaining infusion pump for the medication
9. During the second day of hospitalization of the client after a Myocardial Infarction. Which of the
following is an expected outcome?
a. Able to perform self-care activities without pain
b. Severe chest pain
c. Can recognize the risk factors of Myocardial Infarction
d. Can Participate in cardiac rehabilitation walking program
10. A 68 year old client is diagnosed with a right-sided brain attack and is admitted to the hospital. In
caring for this client, the nurse should plan to:
a. Application of elastic stockings to prevent flaccid by muscle
b. Use hand roll and extend the left upper extremity on a pillow to prevent contractions
c. Use a bed cradle to prevent dorsiflexion of feet
d. Do passive range of motion exercise
11. Nurse Liza is assigned to care for a client who has returned to the nursing unit after left
nephrectomy. Nurse Liza’s highest priority would be…
a. Hourly urine output
b. Temperature
c. Able to turn side to side
d. Able to sips clear liquid
12. A 64 year old male client with a long history of cardiovascular problem including hypertension and
angina is to be scheduled for cardiac catheterization. During pre cardiac catheterization teaching,
Nurse Cherry should inform the client that the primary purpose of the procedure is…..
a. To determine the existence of CHD
b. To visualize the disease process in the coronary arteries
c. To obtain the heart chambers pressure
d. To measure oxygen content of different heart chambers
13. During the first several hours after a cardiac catheterization, it would be most essential for nurse
Cherry to…
a. Elevate clients bed at 45°
b. Instruct the client to cough and deep breathe every 2 hours
c. Frequently monitor client’s apical pulse and blood pressure
d. Monitor clients temperature every hour
14. Kate who has undergone mitral valve replacement suddenly experiences continuous bleeding from
the surgical incision during postoperative period. Which of the following pharmaceutical agents
should Nurse Aiza prepare to administer to Kate?
a. Protamine Sulfate
b. Quinidine Sulfate
c. Vitamin C
d. Coumadin
15. In reducing the risk of endocarditis, good dental care is an important measure. To promote good
dental care in client with mitral stenosis in teaching plan should include proper use of…
a. Dental floss
b. Electric toothbrush
c. Manual toothbrush
d. Irrigation device
16. Among the following signs and symptoms, which would most likely be present in a client with
mitral gurgitation?
a. Altered level of consciousness
b. Exceptional Dyspnea
c. Increase creatine phospholinase concentration
d. Chest pain
17. Kris with a history of chronic infection of the urinary system complains of urinary frequency and
burning sensation. To figure out whether the current problem is in renal origin, the nurse should
assess whether the client has discomfort or pain in the…
a. Urinary meatus
b. Pain in the Labium
c. Suprapubic area
d. Right or left costovertebral angle
18. Nurse Perry is evaluating the renal function of a male client. After documenting urine volume and
characteristics, Nurse Perry assesses which signs as the best indicator of renal function.
a. Blood pressure
b. Consciousness
c. Distension of the bladder
d. Pulse rate
19. John suddenly experiences a seizure, and Nurse Gina notice that John exhibits uncontrollable
jerking movements. Nurse Gina documents that John experienced which type of seizure?
a. Tonic seizure
b. Absence seizure
c. Myoclonic seizure
d. Clonic seizure
20. Smoking cessation is critical strategy for the client with Burgher’s disease, Nurse Jasmin
anticipates that the male client will go home with a prescription for which medication?
a. Paracetamol
b. Ibuprofen
c. Nitroglycerin
d. Nicotine (Nicotrol)
21. Nurse Lilly has been assigned to a client with Raynaud’s disease. Nurse Lilly realizes that the
etiology of the disease is unknown but it is characterized by:
a. Episodic vasospastic disorder of capillaries
b. Episodic vasospastic disorder of small veins
c. Episodic vasospastic disorder of the aorta
d. Episodic vasospastic disorder of the small arteries
22. Nurse Jamie should explain to male client with diabetes that self-monitoring of blood glucose is
preferred to urine glucose testing because…
a. More accurate
b. Can be done by the client
c. It is easy to perform
d. It is not influenced by drugs
23. Jessie weighed 210 pounds on admission to the hospital. After 2 days of diuretic therapy, Jessie
weighs 205.5 pounds. The nurse could estimate the amount of fluid Jessie has lost…
a. 0.3 L
b. 1.5 L
c. 2.0 L
d. 3.5 L
24. Nurse Donna is aware that the shift of body fluids associated with Intravenous administration of
albumin occurs in the process of:
a. Osmosis
b. Diffusion
c. Active transport
d. Filtration
25. Myrna a 52 year old client with a fractured left tibia has a long leg cast and she is using crutches to
ambulate. Nurse Joy assesses for which sign and symptom that indicates complication associated
with crutch walking?
a. Left leg discomfort
b. Weak biceps brachii
c. Triceps muscle spasm
d. Forearm weakness
26. Which of the following statements should the nurse teach the neutropenic client and his family to
a. Performing oral hygiene after every meal
b. Using suppositories or enemas
c. Performing perineal hygiene after each bowel movement
d. Using a filter mask
27. A female client is experiencing painful and rigid abdomen and is diagnosed with perforated peptic
ulcer. A surgery has been scheduled and a nasogastric tube is inserted. The nurse should place the
client before surgery in
a. Sims position
b. Supine position
c. Semi-fowlers position
d. Dorsal recumbent position
28. Which nursing intervention ensures adequate ventilating exchange after surgery?
a. Remove the airway only when client is fully conscious
b. Assess for hypoventilation by auscultating the lungs
c. Position client laterally with the neck extended
d. Maintain humidified oxygen via nasal canula
29. George who has undergone thoracic surgery has chest tube connected to a water-seal drainage
system attached to suction. Presence of excessive bubbling is identified in water-seal chamber, the
nurse should…
a. “Strip” the chest tube catheter
b. Check the system for air leaks
c. Recognize the system is functioning correctly
d. Decrease the amount of suction pressure
30. A client who has been diagnosed of hypertension is being taught to restrict intake of sodium. The
nurse would know that the teachings are effective if the client states that…
a. I can eat celery sticks and carrots
b. I can eat broiled scallops
c. I can eat shredded wheat cereal
d. I can eat spaghetti on rye bread
31. A male client with a history of cirrhosis and alcoholism is admitted with severe dyspnea resulted to
ascites. The nurse should be aware that the ascites is most likely the result of increased…
a. Pressure in the portal vein
b. Production of serum albumin
c. Secretion of bile salts
d. Interstitial osmotic pressure
32. A newly admitted client is diagnosed with Hodgkin’s disease undergoes an excisional cervical
lymph node biopsy under local anesthesia. What does the nurse assess first after the procedure?
a. Vital signs
b. Incision site
c. Airway
d. Level of consciousness
33. A client has 15% blood loss. Which of the following nursing assessment findings indicates
hypovolemic shock?
a. Systolic blood pressure less than 90mm Hg
b. Pupils unequally dilated
c. Respiratory rate of 4 breath/min
d. Pulse rate less than 60bpm
34. Nurse Lucy is planning to give pre operative teaching to a client who will be undergoing
rhinoplasty. Which of the following should be included?
a. Results of the surgery will be immediately noticeable postoperatively
b. Normal saline nose drops will need to be administered preoperatively
c. After surgery, nasal packing will be in place 8 to 10 days
d. Aspirin containing medications should not be taken 14 days before surgery
35. Paul is admitted to the hospital due to metabolic acidosis caused by Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
The nurse prepares which of the following medications as an initial treatment for this problem?
a. Regular insulin
b. Potassium
c. Sodium bicarbonate
d. Calcium gluconate
36. Dr. Marquez tells a client that an increase intake of foods that are rich in Vitamin E and beta-
carotene are important for healthier skin. The nurse teaches the client that excellent food sources of
both of these substances are:
a. Fish and fruit jam
b. Oranges and grapefruit
c. Carrots and potatoes
d. Spinach and mangoes
37. A client has Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). The nurse should teach the client that after
every meals, the client should…
a. Rest in sitting position
b. Take a short walk
c. Drink plenty of water
d. Lie down at least 30 minutes
38. After gastroscopy, an adaptation that indicates major complication would be:
a. Nausea and vomiting
b. Abdominal distention
c. Increased GI motility
d. Difficulty in swallowing
39. A client who has undergone a cholecystectomy asks the nurse whether there are any dietary
restrictions that must be followed. Nurse Hilary would recognize that the dietary teaching was well
understood when the client tells a family member that:
a. “Most people need to eat a high protein diet for 12 months after surgery”
b. “I should not eat those foods that upset me before the surgery”
c. “I should avoid fatty foods as long as I live”
d. “Most people can tolerate regular diet after this type of surgery”
40. Nurse Rachel teaches a client who has been recently diagnosed with hepatitis A about untoward
signs and symptoms related to Hepatitis that may develop. The one that should be reported
immediately to the physician is:
a. Restlessness
b. Yellow urine
c. Nausea
d. Clay- colored stools
41. Which of the following antituberculosis drugs can damage the 8th cranial nerve?
a. Isoniazid (INH)
b. Paraoaminosalicylic acid (PAS)
c. Ethambutol hydrochloride (myambutol)
d. Streptomycin
42. The client asks Nurse Annie the causes of peptic ulcer. Nurse Annie responds that recent research
indicates that peptic ulcers are the result of which of the following:
a. Genetic defect in gastric mucosa
b. Stress
c. Diet high in fat
d. Helicobacter pylori infection
43. Ryan has undergone subtotal gastrectomy. The nurse should expect that nasogastric tube drainage
will be what color for about 12 to 24 hours after surgery?
a. Bile green
b. Bright red
c. Cloudy white
d. Dark brown
44. Nurse Joan is assigned to come for client who has just undergone eye surgery. Nurse Joan plans to
teach the client activities that are permitted during the post operative period. Which of the
following is best recommended for the client?
a. Watching circus
b. Bending over
c. Watching TV
d. Lifting objects
45. A client suffered from a lower leg injury and seeks treatment in the emergency room. There is a
prominent deformity to the lower aspect of the leg, and the injured leg appears shorter that the other
leg. The affected leg is painful, swollen and beginning to become ecchymotic. The nurse interprets
that the client is experiencing:
a. Fracture
b. Strain
c. Sprain
d. Contusion
46. Nurse Jenny is instilling an otic solution into an adult male client left ear. Nurse Jenny avoids doing
which of the following as part of the procedure
a. Pulling the auricle backward and upward
b. Warming the solution to room temperature
c. Pacing the tip of the dropper on the edge of ear canal
d. Placing client in side lying position
47. Nurse Bea should instruct the male client with an ileostomy to report immediately which of the
following symptom?
a. Absence of drainage from the ileostomy for 6 or more hours
b. Passage of liquid stool in the stoma
c. Occasional presence of undigested food
d. A temperature of 37.6 °C
48. Jerry has diagnosed with appendicitis. He develops a fever, hypotension and tachycardia. The nurse
suspects which of the following complications?
a. Intestinal obstruction
b. Peritonitis
c. Bowel ischemia
d. Deficient fluid volume
49. Which of the following compilations should the nurse carefully monitors a client with acute
a. Myocardial Infarction
b. Cirrhosis
c. Peptic ulcer
d. Pneumonia
50. Which of the following symptoms during the icteric phase of viral hepatitis should the nurse expect
the client to inhibit?
a. Watery stool
b. Yellow sclera
c. Tarry stool
d. Shortness of breath
1. B. Left sided heart failure causes fluid accumulation in the capillary network of the lung. Fluid
eventually enters alveolar spaces and causes crackling sounds at the end of inspiration.
2. B. Morphine is a central nervous system depressant used to relieve the pain associated with
myocardial infarction, it also decreases apprehension and prevents cardiogenic shock.
3. D. Seeing yellow spots and colored vision are common symptoms of digitalis toxicity
4. C. When diuretics are taken in the morning, client will void frequently during daytime and will
not need to void frequently at night.
5. B. The primary goal of therapy for the client with pulmonary edema or heart failure is
increasing cardiac output. Pulmonary edema is an acute medical emergency requiring
immediate intervention.
6. C. Decerebrate posturing is the extension of the extremities after a stimulus which may occur
with upper brain stem injury.
7. C. The most frequent side effects of Cascara Sagrada (Laxative) is abdominal cramps and
8. D. Administration of Intravenous Nitroglycerin infusion requires pump for accurate control of
9. A. By the 2nd day of hospitalization after suffering a Myocardial Infarction, Clients are able to
perform care without chest pain
10. B. The left side of the body will be affected in a right-sided brain attack.
11. A. After nephrectomy, it is necessary to measure urine output hourly. This is done to assess the
effectiveness of the remaining kidney also to detect renal failure early.
12. B. The lumen of the arteries can be assessed by cardiac catheterization. Angina is usually
caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries.
13. C. Blood pressure is monitored to detect hypotension which may indicate shock or hemorrhage.
Apical pulse is taken to detect dysrhythmias related to cardiac irritability.
14. A. Protamine Sulfate is used to prevent continuous bleeding in client who has undergone open
heart surgery.
15. C. The use of electronic toothbrush, irrigation device or dental floss may cause bleeding of
gums, allowing bacteria to enter and increasing the risk of endocarditis.
16. B. Weight gain due to retention of fluids and worsening heart failure causes exertional dyspnea
in clients with mitral regurgitation.
17. D. Discomfort or pain is a problem that originates in the kidney. It is felt at the costovertebral
angle on the affected side.
18. A. Perfusion can be best estimated by blood pressure, which is an indirect reflection of the
adequacy of cardiac output.
19. C. Myoclonic seizure is characterized by sudden uncontrollable jerking movements of a single
or multiple muscle group.
20. D. Nicotine (Nicotrol) is given in controlled and decreasing doses for the management of
nicotine withdrawal syndrome.
21. D. Raynaud’s disease is characterized by vasospasms of the small cutaneous arteries that
involves fingers and toes.
22. A. Urine testing provides an indirect measure that maybe influenced by kidney function while
blood glucose testing is a more direct and accurate measure.
23. C. One liter of fluid approximately weighs 2.2 pounds. A 4.5 pound weight loss equals to
approximately 2L.
24. A. Osmosis is the movement of fluid from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of
greater solute concentration.
25. D. Forearm muscle weakness is a probable sign of radial nerve injury caused by crutch pressure
on the axillae.
26. B. Neutropenic client is at risk for infection especially bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal
and respiratory tract.
27. C. Semi-fowlers position will localize the spilled stomach contents in the lower part of the
abdominal cavity.
28. C. Positioning the client laterally with the neck extended does not obstruct the airway so that
drainage of secretions and oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange can occur.
29. B. Excessive bubbling indicates an air leak which must be eliminated to permit lung expansion.
30. C. Wheat cereal has a low sodium content.
31. A. Enlarged cirrhotic liver impinges the portal system causing increased hydrostatic pressure
resulting to ascites.
32. C. Assessing for an open airway is the priority. The procedure involves the neck, the anesthesia
may have affected the swallowing reflex or the inflammation may have closed in on the airway
leading to ineffective air exchange.
33. A. Typical signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock includes systolic blood pressure of
less than 90 mm Hg.
34. D. Aspirin containing medications should not be taken 14 days before surgery to decrease the
risk of bleeding.
35. A. Metabolic acidosis is anaerobic metabolism caused by lack of ability of the body to use
circulating glucose. Administration of insulin corrects this problem.
36. D. Beta-carotene and Vitamin E are antioxidants which help to inhibit oxidation. Vitamin E is
found in the following foods: wheat germ, corn, nuts, seeds, olives, spinach, asparagus and
other green leafy vegetables. Food sources of beta-carotene include dark green vegetables,
carrots, mangoes and tomatoes.
37. A. Gravity speeds up digestion and prevents reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus.
38. B. Abdominal distension may be associated with pain, may indicate perforation, a complication
that could lead to peritonitis.
39. D. It may take 4 to 6 months to eat anything, but most people can eat anything they want.
40. D. Clay colored stools are indicative of hepatic obstruction
41. D. Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside and damage on the 8th cranial nerve (ototoxicity) is a
common side effect of aminoglycosides.
42. D. Most peptic ulcer is caused by Helicopter pylori which is a gram negative bacterium.
43. D. 12 to 24 hours after subtotal gastrectomy gastric drainage is normally brown, which indicates
digested food.
44. C. Watching TV is permissible because the eye does not need to move rapidly with this activity,
and it does not increase intraocular pressure.
45. A. Common signs and symptoms of fracture include pain, deformity, shortening of the
extremity, crepitus and swelling.
46. C. The dropper should not touch any object or any part of the client’s ear.
47. A. Sudden decrease in drainage or onset of severe abdominal pain should be reported
immediately to the physician because it could mean that obstruction has been developed.
48. B. Complications of acute appendicitis are peritonitis, perforation and abscess development.
49. D. A client with acute pancreatitis is prone to complications associated with respiratory system.
50. B. Liver inflammation and obstruction block the normal flow of bile. Excess bilirubin turns the
skin and sclera yellow and the urine dark and frothy
1. A client is scheduled for insertion of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Nurse Patricia consults the
physician about withholding which regularly scheduled medication on the day before the surgery?
a. Potassium Chloride
b. Warfarin Sodium
c. Furosemide
d. Docusate
2. A nurse is planning to assess the corneal reflex on unconscious client. Which of the following is the
safest stimulus to touch the client’s cornea?
a. Cotton buds
b. Sterile glove
c. Sterile tongue depressor
d. Wisp of cotton
3. A female client develops an infection at the catheter insertion site. The nurse in charge uses the
term “iatrogenic” when describing the infection because it resulted from:
a. Client’s developmental level
b. Therapeutic procedure
c. Poor hygiene
d. Inadequate dietary patterns
4. Nurse Carol is assessing a client with Parkinson’s disease. The nurse recognize bradykinesia when
the client exhibits:
a. Intentional tremor
b. Paralysis of limbs
c. Muscle spasm
d. Lack of spontaneous movement
5. A client who suffered from automobile accident complains of seeing frequent flashes of light. The
nurse should expect:
a. Myopia
b. Detached retina
c. Glaucoma
d. Scleroderma
6. Kate with severe head injury is being monitored by the nurse for increasing intracranial pressure
(ICP). Which finding should be most indicative sign of increasing intracranial pressure?
a. Intermittent tachycardia
b. Polydipsia
c. Tachypnea
d. Increased restlessness
7. A hospitalized client had a tonic-clonic seizure while walking in the hall. During the seizure the
nurse priority should be:
a. Hold the clients arms and leg firmly
b. Place the client immediately to soft surface
c. Protects the client’s head from injury
d. Attempt to insert a tongue depressor between the client’s teeth
8. A client has undergone right pneumonectomy. When turning the client, the nurse should plan to
position the client either:
a. Right side-lying position or supine
b. High fowlers
c. Right or left side lying position
d. Low fowler’s position
9. Nurse Jenny should caution a female client who is sexually active in taking Isoniazid (INH) because
the drug has which of the following side effects?
a. Prevents ovulation
b. Has a mutagenic effect on ova
c. Decreases the effectiveness of oral contraceptives
d. Increases the risk of vaginal infection
10. A client has undergone gastrectomy. Nurse Jovy is aware that the best position for the client is:
a. Left side lying
b. Low fowler’s
c. Prone
d. Supine
11. During the initial postoperative period of the client’s stoma. The nurse evaluates which of the
following observations should be reported immediately to the physician?
a. Stoma is dark red to purple
b. Stoma is oozes a small amount of blood
c. Stoma is lightly edematous
d. Stoma does not expel stool
12. Kate which has diagnosed with ulcerative colitis is following physician’s order for bed rest with
bathroom privileges. What is the rationale for this activity restriction?
a. Prevent injury
b. Promote rest and comfort
c. Reduce intestinal peristalsis
d. Conserve energy
13. Nurse KC should regularly assess the client’s ability to metabolize the total parenteral nutrition
(TPN) solution adequately by monitoring the client for which of the following signs:
a. Hyperglycemia
b. Hypoglycemia
c. Hypertension
d. Elevate blood urea nitrogen concentration
14. A female client has an acute pancreatitis. Which of the following signs and symptoms the nurse
would expect to see?
a. Constipation
b. Hypertension
c. Ascites
d. Jaundice
15. A client is suspected to develop tetany after a subtotal thyroidectomy. Which of the following
symptoms might indicate tetany?
a. Tingling in the fingers
b. Pain in hands and feet
c. Tension on the suture lines
d. Bleeding on the back of the dressing
16. A 58 year old woman has newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism. The nurse is aware that the signs
and symptoms of hypothyroidism include:
a. Diarrhea
b. Vomiting
c. Tachycardia
d. Weight gain
17. A client has undergone for an ileal conduit, the nurse in charge should closely monitor the client for
occurrence of which of the following complications related to pelvic surgery?
a. Ascites
b. Thrombophlebitis
c. Inguinal hernia
d. Peritonitis
18. Dr. Marquez is about to defibrillate a client in ventricular fibrillation and says in a loud voice
“clear”. What should be the action of the nurse?
a. Places conductive gel pads for defibrillation on the client’s chest
b. Turn off the mechanical ventilator
c. Shuts off the client’s IV infusion
d. Steps away from the bed and make sure all others have done the same
19. A client has been diagnosed with glomerulonephritis complains of thirst. The nurse should offer:
a. Juice
b. Ginger ale
c. Milk shake
d. Hard candy
20. A client with acute renal failure is aware that the most serious complication of this condition is:
a. Constipation
b. Anemia
c. Infection
d. Platelet dysfunction
21. Nurse Karen is caring for clients in the OR. The nurse is aware that the last physiologic function
that the client loss during the induction of anesthesia is:

a. Consciousness
b. Gag reflex
c. Respiratory movement
d. Corneal reflex
22. The nurse is assessing a client with pleural effusion. The nurse expect to find:
a. Deviation of the trachea towards the involved side
b. Reduced or absent of breath sounds at the base of the lung
c. Moist crackles at the posterior of the lungs
d. Increased resonance with percussion of the involved area
23. A client admitted with newly diagnosed with Hodgkin’s disease. Which of the following would the
nurse expect the client to report?
a. Lymph node pain
b. Weight gain
c. Night sweats
d. Headache
24. A client has suffered from fall and sustained a leg injury. Which appropriate question would the
nurse ask the client to help determine if the injury caused fracture?
a. “Is the pain sharp and continuous?”
b. “Is the pain dull ache?”
c. “Does the discomfort feel like a cramp?”
d. “Does the pain feel like the muscle was stretched?”
25. The Nurse is assessing the client’s casted extremity for signs of infection. Which of the following
findings is indicative of infection?
a. Edema
b. Weak distal pulse
c. Coolness of the skin
d. Presence of “hot spot” on the cast
26. Nurse Rhia is performing an otoscopic examination on a female client with a suspected diagnosis of
mastoiditis. Nurse Rhia would expect to note which of the following if this disorder is present?
a. Transparent tympanic membrane
b. Thick and immobile tympanic membrane
c. Pearly colored tympanic membrane
d. Mobile tympanic membrane
27. Nurse Jocelyn is caring for a client with nasogastric tube that is attached to low suction. Nurse
Jocelyn assesses the client for symptoms of which acid-base disorder?
a. Respiratory alkalosis
b. Respiratory acidosis
c. Metabolic acidosis
d. Metabolic alkalosis
28. A male adult client has undergone a lumbar puncture to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for
analysis. Which of the following values should be negative if the CSF is normal?
a. Red blood cells
b. White blood cells
c. Insulin
d. Protein
29. A client is suspected of developing diabetes insipidus. Which of the following is the most effective
a. Taking vital signs every 4 hours
b. Monitoring blood glucose
c. Assessing ABG values every other day
d. Measuring urine output hourly
30. A 58 year old client is suffering from acute phase of rheumatoid arthritis. Which of the following
would the nurse in charge identify as the lowest priority of the plan of care?
a. Prevent joint deformity
b. Maintaining usual ways of accomplishing task
c. Relieving pain
d. Preserving joint function
31. Among the following, which client is autotransfusion possible?
a. Client with AIDS
b. Client with ruptured bowel
c. Client who is in danger of cardiac arrest
d. Client with wound infection
32. Which of the following is not a sign of thromboembolism?
a. Edema
b. Swelling
c. Redness
d. Coolness
33. Nurse Becky is caring for client who begins to experience seizure while in bed. Which action
should the nurse implement to prevent aspiration?
a. Position the client on the side with head flexed forward
b. Elevate the head
c. Use tongue depressor between teeth
d. Loosen restrictive clothing
34. A client has undergone bone biopsy. Which nursing action should the nurse provide after the
a. Administer analgesics via IM
b. Monitor vital signs
c. Monitor the site for bleeding, swelling and hematoma formation
d. Keep area in neutral position
35. A client is suffering from low back pain. Which of the following exercises will strengthen the lower
back muscle of the client?
a. Tennis
b. Basketball
c. Diving
d. Swimming
36. A client with peptic ulcer is being assessed by the nurse for gastrointestinal perforation. The nurse
should monitor for:
a. (+) guaiac stool test
b. Slow, strong pulse
c. Sudden, severe abdominal pain
d. Increased bowel sounds
37. A client has undergone surgery for retinal detachment. Which of the following goal should be
a. Prevent an increase intraocular pressure
b. Alleviate pain
c. Maintain darkened room
d. Promote low-sodium diet
38. A Client with glaucoma has been prescribed with miotics. The nurse is aware that miotics is for:
a. Constricting pupil
b. Relaxing ciliary muscle
c. Constricting intraocular vessel
d. Paralyzing ciliary muscle
39. When suctioning an unconscious client, which nursing intervention should the nurse prioritize in
maintaining cerebral perfusion?
a. Administer diuretics
b. Administer analgesics
c. Provide hygiene
d. Hyperoxygenate before and after suctioning
40. When discussing breathing exercises with a postoperative client, Nurse Hazel should include which
of the following teaching?
a. Short frequent breaths
b. Exhale with mouth open
c. Exercise twice a day
d. Place hand on the abdomen and feel it rise
41. Louie, with burns over 35% of the body, complains of chilling. In promoting the client’s comfort,
the nurse should:
a. Maintain room humidity below 40%
b. Place top sheet on the client
c. Limit the occurrence of drafts
d. Keep room temperature at 80 degrees
42. Nurse Trish is aware that temporary heterograft (pig skin) is used to treat burns because this graft
a. Relieve pain and promote rapid epithelialization
b. Be sutured in place for better adherence
c. Debride necrotic epithelium
d. Concurrently used with topical antimicrobials
43. Mark has multiple abrasions and a laceration to the trunk and all four extremities says, “I can’t eat
all this food”. The food that the nurse should suggest to be eaten first should be:
a. Meat loaf and coffee
b. Meat loaf and strawberries
c. Tomato soup and apple pie
d. Tomato soup and buttered bread
44. Tony returns form surgery with permanent colostomy. During the first 24 hours the colostomy does
not drain. The nurse should be aware that:
a. Proper functioning of nasogastric suction
b. Presurgical decrease in fluid intake
c. Absence of gastrointestinal motility
d. Intestinal edema following surgery
45. When teaching a client about the signs of colorectal cancer, Nurse Trish stresses that the most
common complaint of persons with colorectal cancer is:
a. Abdominal pain
b. Hemorrhoids
c. Change in caliber of stools
d. Change in bowel habits
46. Louis develops peritonitis and sepsis after surgical repair of ruptures diverticulum. The nurse in
charge should expect an assessment of the client to reveal:
a. Tachycardia
b. Abdominal rigidity
c. Bradycardia
d. Increased bowel sounds
47. Immediately after liver biopsy, the client is placed on the right side, the nurse is aware that that this
position should be maintained because it will:
a. Help stop bleeding if any occurs
b. Reduce the fluid trapped in the biliary ducts
c. Position with greatest comfort
d. Promote circulating blood volume
48. Tony has diagnosed with hepatitis A. The information from the health history that is most likely
linked to hepatitis A is:
a. Exposed with arsenic compounds at work
b. Working as local plumber
c. Working at hemodialysis clinic
d. Dish washer in restaurants
49. Nurse Trish is aware that the laboratory test result that most likely would indicate acute pancreatitis
is an elevated:
a. Serum bilirubin level
b. Serum amylase level
c. Potassium level
d. Sodium level
50. Dr. Marquez orders serum electrolytes. To determine the effect of persistent vomiting, Nurse Trish
should be most concerned with monitoring the:
a. Chloride and sodium levels
b. Phosphate and calcium levels
c. Protein and magnesium levels
d. Sulfate and bicarbonate levels
1. B. In preoperative period, the nurse should consult with the physician about withholding Warfarin
Sodium to avoid occurrence of hemorrhage.
2. D. A client who is unconscious is at greater risk for corneal abrasion. For this reason, the safest
way to test the cornel reflex is by touching the cornea lightly with a wisp of cotton.
3. B. Iatrogenic infection is caused by the heath care provider or is induced inadvertently by medical
treatment or procedures.
4. D. Bradykinesia is slowing down from the initiation and execution of movement.
5. B. This symptom is caused by stimulation of retinal cells by ocular movement.
6. D. Restlessness indicates a lack of oxygen to the brain stem which impairs the reticular activating
7. C. Rhythmic contraction and relaxation associated with tonic-clonic seizure can cause repeated
banging of head.
8. A. Right side lying position or supine position permits ventilation of the remaining lung and prevent
fluid from draining into sutured bronchial stump.
9. C. Isoniazid (INH) interferes in the effectiveness of oral contraceptives and clients of childbearing
age should be counseled to use an alternative form of birth control while taking this drug.
10. B. A client who has had abdominal surgery is best placed in a low fowler’s position. This relaxes
abdominal muscles and provides maximum respiratory and cardiovascular function.
11. A. Dark red to purple stoma indicates inadequate blood supply.
12. C. The rationale for activity restriction is to help reduce the hypermotility of the colon.
13. A. During Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) administration, the client should be monitored
regularly for hyperglycemia.
14. D. Jaundice may be present in acute pancreatitis owing to obstruction of the biliary duct.
15. A. Tetany may occur after thyroidectomy if the parathyroid glands are accidentally injured or
16. D. Typical signs of hypothyroidism includes weight gain, fatigue, decreased energy, apathy, brittle
nails, dry skin, cold intolerance, constipation and numbness.
17. B. After a pelvic surgery, there is an increased chance of thrombophlebitits owing to the pelvic
manipulation that can interfere with circulation and promote venous stasis.
18. D. For the safety of all personnel, if the defibrillator paddles are being discharged, all personnel
must stand back and be clear of all the contact with the client or the client’s bed.
19. D. Hard candy will relieve thirst and increase carbohydrates but does not supply extra fluid.
20. C. Infection is responsible for one third of the traumatic or surgically induced death of clients with
renal failure as well as medical induced acute renal failure (ARF)
21. C. There is no respiratory movement in stage 4 of anesthesia, prior to this stage, respiration is
depressed but present.
22. B. Compression of the lung by fluid that accumulates at the base of the lungs reduces expansion
and air exchange.
23. C. Assessment of a client with Hodgkin’s disease most often reveals enlarged, painless lymph node,
fever, malaise and night sweats.
24. A. Fractured pain is generally described as sharp, continuous, and increasing in frequency.
25. D. Signs and symptoms of infection under a casted area include odor or purulent drainage and
the presence of “hot spot” which are areas on the cast that are warmer than the others.
26. B. Otoscopic examnation in a client with mastoiditis reveals a dull, red, thick and immobile
tymphanic membrane with or without perforation.
27. D. Loss of gastric fluid via nasogastric suction or vomiting causes metabolic alkalosis because of
the loss of hydrochloric acid which is a potent acid in the body.
28. A. The adult with normal cerebrospinal fluid has no red blood cells.
29. D. Measuring the urine output to detect excess amount and checking the specific gravity of urine
samples to determine urine concentration are appropriate measures to determine the onset of
diabetes insipidus.
30. B. The nurse should focus more on developing less stressful ways of accomplishing routine task.
31. C. Autotransfusion is acceptable for the client who is in danger of cardiac arrest.
32. D. The client with thromboembolism does not have coolness.
33. A. Positioning the client on one side with head flexed forward allows the tongue to fall forward and
facilitates drainage secretions therefore prevents aspiration.
34. C. Nursing care after bone biopsy includes close monitoring of the punctured site for bleeding,
swelling and hematoma formation.
35. D. Walking and swimming are very helpful in strengthening back muscles for the client suffering
from lower back pain.
36. C. Sudden, severe abdominal pain is the most indicative sign of perforation. When perforation of an
ulcer occurs, the nurse maybe unable to hear bowel sounds at all.
37. A. After surgery to correct a detached retina, prevention of increased intraocular pressure is the
priority goal.
38. A. Miotic agent constricts the pupil and contracts ciliary muscle. These effects widen the filtration
angle and permit increased out flow of aqueous humor.
39. D. It is a priority to hyperoxygenate the client before and after suctioning to prevent hypoxia and to
maintain cerebral perfusion.
40. D. Abdominal breathing improves lungs expansion
41. C. A Client with burns is very sensitive to temperature changes because heat is loss in the burn
42. A. The graft covers the nerve endings, which reduces pain and provides framework for granulation
43. B. Meat provides proteins and the fruit proteins vitamin C that both promote wound healing.
44. C. This is primarily caused by the trauma of intestinal manipulation and the depressive effects
anesthetics and analgesics.
45. D. Constipation, diarrhea, and/or constipation alternating with diarrhea are the most common
symptoms of colorectal cancer.
46. B. With increased intraabdominal pressure, the abdominal wall will become tender and rigid.
47. A. Pressure applied in the puncture site indicates that a biliary vessel was puncture which is a
common complication after liver biopsy.
48. B. Hepatitis A is primarily spread via fecal-oral route. Sewage polluted water may harbor the virus.
49. B. Amylase concentration is high in the pancreas and is elevated in the serum when the pancreas
becomes acutely inflamed and also it distinguishes pancreatitis from other acute abdominal
50. A. Sodium, which is concerned with the regulation of extracellular fluid volume, it is lost with
vomiting. Chloride, which balances cations in the extracellular compartments, is also lost with
vomiting, because sodium and chloride are parallel electrolytes, hyponatremia will accompany.

Sample Nursing Practice Test: Oncology

1. Lymph and blood are key mechanism by which cancer cells spread.
Angiogenesis, a mechanism by which tumor cells are ensured of blood
supply. The most common mechanism of metastasis is:

a. Angiogenesis

b. Direct Extension

c. Hematogenous

d. Lymphatic spread

2. Dietary factors contributing to the decreasing incidence of cancer are the

following, except:

a. High fiber and low fat

b. Vitamin E, C, zinc rich foods

c. Cruciferous and carotenoids vegetables

d. Low fiber and high fat diet

3. Schistosoma haematobium is associated with:

a. Bladder

b. Cholangiocarcinoma

c. Kaposi’s sarcoma

d. Ionizing radiation
4. A child who is on a course of chemotherapy for osteogenic carcinoma
develops neutropenia. It is important for the nurse to include which of these
measures in the child’s care plan?

a. Applying a lanolin based emollient to the child’s skin

b. Determining whether the child has pain in the lower extremities

c. Observing the child for signs of infection

d. Encouraging the child to drink fluids high in vitamin C

5. The nurse is teaching a wellness promotion course to make college

students. The nurse should indicate the importance of doing testicular self-
examination at which time?

a. weekly at the same time of the day

b. monthly after warm bath or shower

c. Whenever they experience pain in or itching of the scrotum

d. Every other month until the age of 40

6. A client receiving IV chemotherapy is experiencing nausea. Which of the

following would be best to lessen the severity of nausea?

a. Administer Antiemetics when the client complains of nausea

b. Offer warm liquids during chemotherapy

c. Administer Antiemetics before chemotherapy

d. Encourage the client to eat a full meal before receiving chemotherapy

7. The radiation oncologist marks specific locations for radiation treatment

using a semi-permanent type of ink. Treatment is usually given for how

a. 1 hour, 4 days per week, for for 1 to 2 weeks

b. Depends on the doctors order

c. 15 to 30 minutes, 5 days per week, for 2-7 weeks

d. 30 minutes to 1 hour, 3-5 days, for 3-5 weeks

8. Which of the following anticipatory guidance related to hair loss (alopecia)

and regrowth is true and correct except:

a. Loss of hair occurs over a period of days to weeks

b. Regrowth usually occurs 6 to 8 weeks after completion of therapy

c. Color and texture of regrown hair is no different from hair growth
prior to loss

d. Encourage client to obtain scarves, turbans, caps, and / or wigs prior to

hair loss

9. Which of the following clinical manifestations would be most significant

when assessing a patient who is suspected of having breast cancer?

a. Nipple discoloration

b. Breast enlargement

c. Breast tenderness

d. Nipple retraction

10. The following are characteristics of benign neoplasms. Select all that

a. Rate of growth is usually slow

b. Gains access to the blood and lymphatic channels and metastasizes to

other areas of the body

c. Tumor grows by expansion and does not infiltrate the surrounding

tissues; usually non-encapsulated

d. Localized phenomenon

e. Often causes extensive tissue damage

f. Does not usually cause death

Correct Answers: 1. D 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. C 7. C 8. C 9. D 10. A/D/F

A blood pressure cuff that’s too narrow can cause a falsely elevated blood
pressure reading.


When preparing a single injection for a patient whoϖ takes regular and neutral protein Hagedorn
insulin, the nurse should draw the regular insulin into the syringe first so that it does not
contaminate the regular insulin.

Rhonchi are the rumbling sounds heard on lungϖ auscultation. They are more pronounced
during expiration than during inspiration.

Gavage is forced feeding, usually through a gastric tubeϖ (a tube passed into the stomach
through the mouth).

According toϖ Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, physiologic needs (air, water, food, shelter, sex,
activity, and comfort) have the highest priority.

The safest and surestϖ way to verify a patient’s identity is to check the identification
band on his wrist.

In the therapeutic environment, the patient’s safety is theϖ primary concern.

Fluid oscillation in the tubing of a chest drainageϖ system indicates that the system is working

The nurse shouldϖ place a patient who has a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube in semi-Fowler

The nurse can elicit Trousseau’s sign by occluding theϖ brachial or radial artery. Hand and
finger spasms that occur during occlusion indicate Trousseau’s sign and suggest

For bloodϖ transfusion in an adult, the appropriate needle size is 16 to 20G.

ϖ Intractable pain is pain that incapacitates a patient and can’t be relieved by drugs.

In an emergency, consent for treatment can be obtained by fax,ϖ telephone, or other

telegraphic means.
Decibel is the unit of measurementϖ of sound.

Informed consent is required for any invasiveϖ procedure.

A patient who can’t write his name to give consent forϖ treatment must make an X in the
presence of two witnesses, such as a nurse, priest, or physician.

The Z-track I.M. injection technique seals theϖ drug deep into the muscle, thereby minimizing
skin irritation and staining. It requires a needle that’s 1" (2.5 cm) or longer.

In the event of fire,ϖ the acronym most often used is RACE. (R) Remove the patient. (A) Activate
the alarm. (C) Attempt to contain the fire by closing the door. (E) Extinguish the fire if it can be
done safely.

A registered nurse should assign aϖ licensed vocational nurse or licensed practical nurse to
perform bedside care, such as suctioning and drug administration.

If a patient can’t void,ϖ the first nursing action should be bladder palpation to assess for bladder
The patient who uses a cane should carry it on the unaffectedϖ side and advance it at the same
time as the affected extremity.

To fitϖ a supine patient for crutches, the nurse should measure from the axilla to the sole and
add 2" (5 cm) to that measurement.

Assessment begins with theϖ nurse’s first encounter with the patient and continues throughout
the patient’s stay. The nurse obtains assessment data through the health history, physical
examination, and review of diagnostic studies.

The appropriate needleϖ size for insulin injection is 25G and 5/8" long.

Residual urine isϖ urine that remains in the bladder after voiding. The amount of residual urine is
normally 50 to 100 ml.

The five stages of the nursing process areϖ assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning,
implementation, and evaluation.

Assessment is the stage of the nursing process in which theϖ nurse continuously collects data
to identify a patient’s actual and potential health needs.

Nursing diagnosis is the stage of the nursing process inϖ which the nurse makes a clinical
judgment about individual, family, or community responses to actual or potential health problems
or life processes.

ϖ Planning is the stage of the nursing process in which the nurse assigns priorities to nursing
diagnoses, defines short-term and long-term goals and expected outcomes, and establishes the
nursing care plan.

ϖ Implementation is the stage of the nursing process in which the nurse puts the nursing care
plan into action, delegates specific nursing interventions to members of the nursing team, and
charts patient responses to nursing interventions.

Evaluation is the stage of the nursing process in whichϖ the nurse compares objective and
subjective data with the outcome criteria and, if needed, modifies the nursing care plan.

Before administering any “asϖ needed” pain medication, the nurse should ask the patient to
indicate the location of the pain.

Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that they shouldn’tϖ receive blood components donated by other

To test visualϖ acuity, the nurse should ask the patient to cover each eye separately and to read
the eye chart with glasses and without, as appropriate.

Whenϖ providing oral care for an unconscious patient, to minimize the risk of aspiration, the
nurse should position the patient on the side.

Duringϖ assessment of distance vision, the patient should stand 20' (6.1 m) from the chart.
For a geriatric patient or one who is extremely ill, the ideal roomϖ temperature is 66° to 76° F
(18.8° to 24.4° C).

Normal room humidity isϖ 30% to 60%.

Hand washing is the single best method of limiting theϖ spread of microorganisms. Once gloves
are removed after routine contact with a patient, hands should be washed for 10 to 15 seconds.

To performϖ catheterization, the nurse should place a woman in the dorsal recumbent position.

A positive Homans’ sign may indicateϖ thrombophlebitis.

Electrolytes in a solution are measured inϖ milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). A milliequivalent is
the number of milligrams per 100 milliliters of a solution.

Metabolism occurs in twoϖ phases: anabolism (the constructive phase) and catabolism (the
destructive phase).

The basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy needed toϖ maintain essential body functions.
It’s measured when the patient is awake and resting, hasn’t eaten for 14 to 18 hours, and is in a
comfortable, warm environment.

The basal metabolic rate is expressed in calories consumedϖ per hour per kilogram of body

Dietary fiber (roughage), whichϖ is derived from cellulose, supplies bulk, maintains intestinal
motility, and helps to establish regular bowel habits.

Alcohol is metabolizedϖ primarily in the liver. Smaller amounts are metabolized by the kidneys
and lungs.

Petechiae are tiny, round, purplish red spots that appear on theϖ skin and mucous membranes
as a result of intradermal or submucosal hemorrhage.

Purpura is a purple discoloration of the skin that’sϖ caused by blood extravasation.

According to the standard precautionsϖ recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, the nurse shouldn’t recap needles after use. Most needle sticks result from missed
needle recapping.

The nurse administers a drug by I.V. push by using a needleϖ and syringe to deliver the dose
directly into a vein, I.V. tubing, or a catheter.

When changing the ties on a tracheostomy tube, the nurseϖ should leave the old ties in place
until the new ones are applied.

Aϖ nurse should have assistance when changing the ties on a tracheostomy tube.

A filter is always used for blood transfusions.ϖ

Aϖ four-point (quad) cane is indicated when a patient needs more stability than a regular cane
can provide.

A good way to begin a patient interview is toϖ ask, “What made you seek medical help?”

When caring for any patient,ϖ the nurse should follow standard precautions for handling blood
and body fluids.
Potassium (K+) is the most abundant cation in intracellularϖ fluid.

In the four-point, or alternating, gait, the patient first movesϖ the right crutch followed by the
left foot and then the left crutch followed by the right foot.

In the three-point gait, the patient moves two crutchesϖ and the affected leg simultaneously and
then moves the unaffected leg.

ϖ In the two-point gait, the patient moves the right leg and the left crutch simultaneously and
then moves the left leg and the right crutch simultaneously.
The vitamin B complex, the water-soluble vitamins thatϖ are essential for metabolism, include
thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), and cyanocobalamin (B12).

When being weighed, anϖ adult patient should be lightly dressed and shoeless.

Before taking anϖ adult’s temperature orally, the nurse should ensure that the patient hasn’t
smoked or consumed hot or cold substances in the previous 15 minutes.

ϖ The nurse shouldn’t take an adult’s temperature rectally if the patient has a cardiac disorder,
anal lesions, or bleeding hemorrhoids or has recently undergone rectal surgery.

In a patient who has a cardiac disorder,ϖ measuring temperature rectally may stimulate a vagal
response and lead to vasodilation and decreased cardiac output.

When recording pulseϖ amplitude and rhythm, the nurse should use these descriptive measures:
+3, bounding pulse (readily palpable and forceful); +2, normal pulse (easily palpable); +1,
thready or weak pulse (difficult to detect); and 0, absent pulse (not detectable).

The intraoperative period begins when a patient isϖ transferred to the operating room bed and
ends when the patient is admitted to the postanesthesia care unit.

On the morning of surgery, the nurseϖ should ensure that the informed consent form has been
signed; that the patient hasn’t taken anything by mouth since midnight, has taken a shower with
antimicrobial soap, has had mouth care (without swallowing the water), has removed common
jewelry, and has received preoperative medication as prescribed; and that vital signs have been
taken and recorded. Artificial limbs and other prostheses are usually removed.

Comfort measures, such as positioningϖ the patient, rubbing the patient’s back, and providing a
restful environment, may decrease the patient’s need for analgesics or may enhance their

A drug has three names: generic name, which is usedϖ in official publications; trade, or brand,
name (such as Tylenol), which is selected by the drug company; and chemical name, which
describes the drug’s chemical composition.

To avoid staining the teeth, the patient shouldϖ take a liquid iron preparation through a straw.

The nurse should useϖ the Z-track method to administer an I.M. injection of iron dextran

An organism may enter the body through the nose, mouth,ϖ rectum, urinary or reproductive
tract, or skin.

In descendingϖ order, the levels of consciousness are alertness, lethargy, stupor, light coma, and
deep coma.

To turn a patient by logrolling, the nurse folds theϖ patient’s arms across the chest; extends the
patient’s legs and inserts a pillow between them, if needed; places a draw sheet under the
patient; and turns the patient by slowly and gently pulling on the draw sheet.

The diaphragmϖ of the stethoscope is used to hear high-pitched sounds, such as breath sounds.
A slight difference in blood pressure (5 to 10 mm Hg) betweenϖ the right and the left arms is

The nurse should place the bloodϖ pressure cuff 1" (2.5 cm) above the antecubital fossa.

When instillingϖ ophthalmic ointments, the nurse should waste the first bead of ointment and
then apply the ointment from the inner canthus to the outer canthus.

Theϖ nurse should use a leg cuff to measure blood pressure in an obese patient.

If a blood pressure cuff is applied too loosely, the readingϖ will be falsely elevated.

Ptosis is drooping of the eyelid.ϖ

A tiltϖ table is useful for a patient with a spinal cord injury, orthostatic hypotension, or brain
damage because it can move the patient gradually from a horizontal to a vertical (upright)

To perform venipunctureϖ with the least injury to the vessel, the nurse should turn the bevel
upward when the vessel’s lumen is larger than the needle and turn it downward when the lumen is
only slightly larger than the needle.

To move a patient to the edgeϖ of the bed for transfer, the nurse should follow these steps: Move
the patient’s head and shoulders toward the edge of the bed. Move the patient’s feet and legs to
the edge of the bed (crescent position). Place both arms well under the patient’s hips, and
straighten the back while moving the patient toward the edge of the bed.

When being measured for crutches, a patient should wearϖ shoes.

The nurse should attach a restraint to the part of the bed frameϖ that moves with the head, not
to the mattress or side rails.

The mistϖ in a mist tent should never become so dense that it obscures clear visualization of the
patient’s respiratory pattern.

To administer heparinϖ subcutaneously, the nurse should follow these steps: Clean, but don’t
rub, the site with alcohol. Stretch the skin taut or pick up a well-defined skin fold. Hold the shaft
of the needle in a dart position. Insert the needle into the skin at a right (90-degree) angle. Firmly
depress the plunger, but don’t aspirate. Leave the needle in place for 10 seconds. Withdraw the
needle gently at the angle of insertion. Apply pressure to the injection site with an alcohol pad.

For a sigmoidoscopy, the nurse should place the patient in theϖ knee-chest position or Sims’
position, depending on the physician’s preference.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs must be met in theϖ following order: physiologic (oxygen, food,
water, sex, rest, and comfort), safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem and
recognition, and self-actualization.

When caring for a patient who has a nasogastricϖ tube, the nurse should apply a water-soluble
lubricant to the nostril to prevent soreness.

During gastric lavage, a nasogastriϖ c tube is inserted, the stomach is flushed, and ingested
substances are removed through the tube.
In documenting drainage on a surgical dressing, the nurse shouldϖ include the size, color, and
consistency of the drainage (for example, “10 mm of brown mucoid drainage noted on dressing”).

To elicit Babinski’s reflex,ϖ the nurse strokes the sole of the patient’s foot with a moderately
sharp object, such as a thumbnail.

A positive Babinski’s reflex is shown byϖ dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning out of the
other toes.

Whenϖ assessing a patient for bladder distention, the nurse should check the contour of the
lower abdomen for a rounded mass above the symphysis pubis.

Theϖ best way to prevent pressure ulcers is to reposition the bedridden patient at least every 2

Antiembolism stockings decompress the superficialϖ blood vessels, reducing the risk of thrombus

In adults, theϖ most convenient veins for venipuncture are the basilic and median cubital veins
in the antecubital space.

Two to three hours before beginning a tubeϖ feeding, the nurse should aspirate the patient’s
stomach contents to verify that gastric emptying is adequate.

People with type O blood are consideredϖ universal donors.

People with type AB blood are considered universalϖ recipients.

Hertz (Hz) is the unit of measurement of soundϖ frequency.

Hearing protection is required when the sound intensityϖ exceeds 84 dB. Double hearing
protection is required if it exceeds 104 dB.

Prothrombin, a clotting factor, is produced in the liver.ϖ

ϖ If a patient is menstruating when a urine sample is collected, the nurse should note this on the
laboratory request.

During lumbar puncture, the nurseϖ must note the initial intracranial pressure and the color of
the cerebrospinal fluid.

If a patient can’t cough to provide a sputum sample for culture,ϖ a heated aerosol treatment can
be used to help to obtain a sample.

Ifϖ eye ointment and eyedrops must be instilled in the same eye, the eyedrops should be
instilled first.

When leaving an isolation room, the nurse shouldϖ remove her gloves before her mask because
fewer pathogens are on the mask.

Skeletal traction, which is applied to a bone with wire pins orϖ tongs, is the most effective means
of traction.

The total parenteralϖ nutrition solution should be stored in a refrigerator and removed 30 to 60
minutes before use. Delivery of a chilled solution can cause pain, hypothermia, venous spasm,
and venous constriction.

Drugs aren’t routinely injectedϖ intramuscularly into edematous tissue because they may not be

ϖ When caring for a comatose patient, the nurse should explain each action to the patient in a
normal voice.

Dentures should be cleaned in a sink that’sϖ lined with a washcloth.

A patient should void within 8 hours afterϖ surgery.

An EEG identifies normal and abnormal brain waves.ϖ

ϖ Samples of feces for ova and parasite tests should be delivered to the laboratory without delay
and without refrigeration.

The autonomicϖ nervous system regulates the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

ϖ When providing tracheostomy care, the nurse should insert the catheter gently into the
tracheostomy tube. When withdrawing the catheter, the nurse should apply intermittent suction
for no more than 15 seconds and use a slight twisting motion.

A low-residue diet includes such foods as roasted chicken,ϖ rice, and pasta.

A rectal tube shouldn’t be inserted for longer than 20ϖ minutes because it can irritate the rectal
mucosa and cause loss of sphincter control.

A patient’s bed bath should proceed in this order: face, neck,ϖ arms, hands, chest, abdomen,
back, legs, perineum.

To prevent injuryϖ when lifting and moving a patient, the nurse should primarily use the upper
leg muscles.

Patient preparation for cholecystography includes ingestion ofϖ a contrast medium and a low-fat
evening meal.

While an occupied bed isϖ being changed, the patient should be covered with a bath blanket to
promote warmth and prevent exposure.

Anticipatory grief is mourning that occursϖ for an extended time when the patient realizes that
death is inevitable.
ϖ The following foods can alter the color of the feces: beets (red), cocoa (dark red or brown),
licorice (black), spinach (green), and meat protein (dark brown).

When preparing for a skull X-ray, the patient should remove allϖ jewelry and dentures.

The fight-or-flight response is a sympatheticϖ nervous system response.

Bronchovesicular breath sounds in peripheralϖ lung fields are abnormal and suggest pneumonia.

Wheezing is anϖ abnormal, high-pitched breath sound that’s accentuated on expiration.

ϖ Wax or a foreign body in the ear should be flushed out gently by irrigation with warm saline
If a patient complains that his hearing aid isϖ “not working,” the nurse should check the switch
first to see if it’s turned on and then check the batteries.

The nurse should grade hyperactive bicepsϖ and triceps reflexes as +4.

If two eye medications are prescribed forϖ twice-daily instillation, they should be administered 5
minutes apart.

ϖ In a postoperative patient, forcing fluids helps prevent constipation.

ϖ A nurse must provide care in accordance with standards of care established by the American
Nurses Association, state regulations, and facility policy.

The kilocalorie (kcal) is a unit of energy measurement thatϖ represents the amount of heat
needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1° C.

As nutrients move through the body, they undergo ingestion,ϖ digestion, absorption, transport,
cell metabolism, and excretion.

Theϖ body metabolizes alcohol at a fixed rate, regardless of serum concentration.

In an alcoholic beverage, proof reflects the percentageϖ of alcohol multiplied by 2. For example,
a 100-proof beverage contains 50% alcohol.

A living will is a witnessed document that states a patient’sϖ desire for certain types of care and
treatment. These decisions are based on the patient’s wishes and views on quality of life.

The nurse should flush aϖ peripheral heparin lock every 8 hours (if it wasn’t used during the
previous 8 hours) and as needed with normal saline solution to maintain patency.

ϖ Quality assurance is a method of determining whether nursing actions and practices meet
established standards.

The five rights of medicationϖ administration are the right patient, right drug, right dose, right
route of administration, and right time.

The evaluation phase of the nursingϖ process is to determine whether nursing interventions have
enabled the patient to meet the desired goals.

Outside of the hospital setting, onlyϖ the sublingual and translingual forms of nitroglycerin
should be used to relieve acute anginal attacks.

The implementation phase of the nursing processϖ involves recording the patient’s response to
the nursing plan, putting the nursing plan into action, delegating specific nursing interventions,
and coordinating the patient’s activities.

The Patient’s Bill of Rightsϖ offers patients guidance and protection by stating the responsibilities
of the hospital and its staff toward patients and their families during hospitalization.

To minimize omission and distortion of facts, theϖ nurse should record information as soon as it’s

Whenϖ assessing a patient’s health history, the nurse should record the current illness
chronologically, beginning with the onset of the problem and continuing to the present.

When assessing a patient’s health history, the nurseϖ should record the current illness
chronologically, beginning with the onset of the problem and continuing to the present.

A nurse shouldn’t give falseϖ assurance to a patient.

After receiving preoperative medication, aϖ patient isn’t competent to sign an informed consent

When liftingϖ a patient, a nurse uses the weight of her body instead of the strength in her arms.

A nurse may clarify a physician’s explanation about an operationϖ or a procedure to a patient,

but must refer questions about informed consent to the physician.

When obtaining a health history from an acutely ill orϖ agitated patient, the nurse should limit
questions to those that provide necessary information.

If a chest drainage system line is broken orϖ interrupted, the nurse should clamp the tube

The nurseϖ shouldn’t use her thumb to take a patient’s pulse rate because the thumb has a
pulse that may be confused with the patient’s pulse.

An inspiration andϖ an expiration count as one respiration.

Eupnea is normalϖ respiration.

During blood pressure measurement, the patient should restϖ the arm against a surface. Using
muscle strength to hold up the arm may raise the blood pressure.

Major, unalterable risk factors for coronary arteryϖ disease include heredity, sex, race, and age.

Inspection is the mostϖ frequently used assessment technique.

Family members of an elderly personϖ in a long-term care facility should transfer some personal
items (such as photographs, a favorite chair, and knickknacks) to the person’s room to provide a
comfortable atmosphere.

Pulsus alternans is a regular pulse rhythmϖ with alternating weak and strong beats. It occurs in
ventricular enlargement because the stroke volume varies with each heartbeat.

The upperϖ respiratory tract warms and humidifies inspired air and plays a role in taste, smell,
and mastication.
Signs of accessory muscle use include shoulderϖ elevation, intercostal muscle retraction, and
scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscle use during respiration.

When patients use axillary crutches,ϖ their palms should bear the brunt of the weight.

Activities of dailyϖ living include eating, bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and interacting

Normal gait has two phases: the stance phase, in which theϖ patient’s foot rests on the ground,
and the swing phase, in which the patient’s foot moves forward.

The phases of mitosis are prophase, metaphase,ϖ anaphase, and telophase.

The nurse should follow standard precautionsϖ in the routine care of all patients.

The nurse should use the bell ofϖ the stethoscope to listen for venous hums and cardiac

Theϖ nurse can assess a patient’s general knowledge by asking questions such as “Who is the
president of the United States?”

Cold packs are applied for theϖ first 20 to 48 hours after an injury; then heat is applied. During
cold application, the pack is applied for 20 minutes and then removed for 10 to 15 minutes to
prevent reflex dilation (rebound phenomenon) and frostbite injury.
The pons is located above the medulla and consists of white matterϖ (sensory and motor tracts)
and gray matter (reflex centers).

Theϖ autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles.

A correctlyϖ written patient goal expresses the desired patient behavior, criteria for
measurement, time frame for achievement, and conditions under which the behavior will occur.
It’s developed in collaboration with the patient.

ϖ Percussion causes five basic notes: tympany (loud intensity, as heard over a gastric air bubble
or puffed out cheek), hyperresonance (very loud, as heard over an emphysematous lung),
resonance (loud, as heard over a normal lung), dullness (medium intensity, as heard over the liver
or other solid organ), and flatness (soft, as heard over the thigh).

The optic disk is yellowishϖ pink and circular, with a distinct border.

A primary disability isϖ caused by a pathologic process. A secondary disability is caused by


Nurses are commonly held liable for failing to keep anϖ accurate count of sponges and other
devices during surgery.

The bestϖ dietary sources of vitamin B6 are liver, kidney, pork, soybeans, corn, and whole-grain

Iron-rich foods, such as organ meats, nuts,ϖ legumes, dried fruit, green leafy vegetables, eggs,
and whole grains, commonly have a low water content.

Collaboration is joint communication andϖ decision making between nurses and physicians. It’s
designed to meet patients’ needs by integrating the care regimens of both professions into one
comprehensive approach.

Bradycardia is a heart rate of fewer than 60ϖ beats/minute.

A nursing diagnosis is a statement of a patient’s actualϖ or potential health problem that can be
resolved, diminished, or otherwise changed by nursing interventions.

During the assessment phase of theϖ nursing process, the nurse collects and analyzes three
types of data: health history, physical examination, and laboratory and diagnostic test data.

ϖ The patient’s health history consists primarily of subjective data, information that’s supplied by
the patient.
The physical examination includesϖ objective data obtained by inspection, palpation, percussion,
and auscultation.

When documenting patient care, the nurse should writeϖ legibly, use only standard
abbreviations, and sign each entry. The nurse should never destroy or attempt to obliterate
documentation or leave vacant lines.

Factors that affect body temperature include time of day, age,ϖ physical activity, phase of
menstrual cycle, and pregnancy.

The mostϖ accessible and commonly used artery for measuring a patient’s pulse rate is the radial
artery. To take the pulse rate, the artery is compressed against the radius.

In a resting adult, the normal pulse rate is 60 to 100ϖ beats/minute. The rate is slightly faster in
women than in men and much faster in children than in adults.

Laboratory test results are an objectiveϖ form of assessment data.

The measurement systems most commonly used inϖ clinical practice are the metric system,
apothecaries’ system, and household system.

Before signing an informed consent form, the patient shouldϖ know whether other treatment
options are available and should understand what will occur during the preoperative,
intraoperative, and postoperative phases; the risks involved; and the possible complications. The
patient should also have a general idea of the time required from surgery to recovery. In addition,
he should have an opportunity to ask questions.

A patient must sign aϖ separate informed consent form for each procedure.

During percussion,ϖ the nurse uses quick, sharp tapping of the fingers or hands against body
surfaces to produce sounds. This procedure is done to determine the size, shape, position, and
density of underlying organs and tissues; elicit tenderness; or assess reflexes.

Ballottement is a form of light palpation involvingϖ gentle, repetitive bouncing of tissues against
the hand and feeling their rebound.

A foot cradle keeps bed linen off the patient’s feet toϖ prevent skin irritation and breakdown,
especially in a patient who has peripheral vascular disease or neuropathy.

Gastric lavage is flushingϖ of the stomach and removal of ingested substances through a
nasogastric tube. It’s used to treat poisoning or drug overdose.

During the evaluationϖ step of the nursing process, the nurse assesses the patient’s response to

Bruits commonly indicate life- or limb-threatening vascularϖ disease.

O.U. means each eye. O.D. is the right eye, and O.S. is theϖ left eye.

To remove a patient’s artificial eye, the nurse depresses theϖ lower lid.

The nurse should use a warm saline solution to clean anϖ artificial eye.

A thready pulse is very fine and scarcelyϖ perceptible.

Axillary temperature is usually 1° F lower than oralϖ temperature.

After suctioning a tracheostomy tube, the nurse mustϖ document the color, amount, consistency,
and odor of secretions.

On aϖ drug prescription, the abbreviation p.c. means that the drug should be administered after

After bladder irrigation, the nurse shouldϖ document the amount, color, and clarity of the urine
and the presence of clots or sediment.

After bladder irrigation, the nurse should document theϖ amount, color, and clarity of the urine
and the presence of clots or sediment.

Laws regarding patient self-determination vary from state toϖ state. Therefore, the nurse must
be familiar with the laws of the state in which she works.

Gauge is the inside diameter of a needle: the smaller theϖ gauge, the larger the diameter.

An adult normally has 32 permanentϖ teeth.

After turning a patient, the nurse should document the positionϖ used, the time that the patient
was turned, and the findings of skin assessment.

PERRLA is an abbreviation for normal pupil assessmentϖ findings: pupils equal, round, and
reactive to light with accommodation.

When percussing a patient’s chest for postural drainage,ϖ the nurse’s hands should be cupped.

When measuring a patient’s pulse,ϖ the nurse should assess its rate, rhythm, quality, and

Beforeϖ transferring a patient from a bed to a wheelchair, the nurse should push the wheelchair’s
footrests to the sides and lock its wheels.

When assessingϖ respirations, the nurse should document their rate, rhythm, depth, and quality.
For a subcutaneous injection, the nurse should use a 5/8" 25Gϖ needle.

The notation “AAϖ & O × 3” indicates that the patient is awake, alert, and oriented to person
(knows who he is), place (knows where he is), and time (knows the date and time).

Fluid intake includes allϖ fluids taken by mouth, including foods that are liquid at room
temperature, such as gelatin, custard, and ice cream; I.V. fluids; and fluids administered in
feeding tubes. Fluid output includes urine, vomitus, and drainage (such as from a nasogastric tube
or from a wound) as well as blood loss, diarrhea or feces, and perspiration.

After administering an intradermal injection, theϖ nurse shouldn’t massage the area because
massage can irritate the site and interfere with results.

When administering an intradermal injection,ϖ the nurse should hold the syringe almost flat
against the patient’s skin (at about a 15-degree angle), with the bevel up.

To obtain an accurateϖ blood pressure, the nurse should inflate the manometer to 20 to 30 mm
Hg above the disappearance of the radial pulse before releasing the cuff pressure.
The nurse should count an irregular pulse for 1 fullϖ minute.

A patient who is vomiting while lying down should be placed inϖ a lateral position to prevent
aspiration of vomitus.

Prophylaxis isϖ disease prevention.

Body alignment is achieved when body parts are inϖ proper relation to their natural position.

Trust is the foundation of aϖ nurse-patient relationship.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by theϖ circulating volume of blood on the arterial walls.

Malpractice is aϖ professional’s wrongful conduct, improper discharge of duties, or failure to

meet standards of care that causes harm to another.

As a general rule,ϖ nurses can’t refuse a patient care assignment; however, in most states, they
may refuse to participate in abortions.

A nurse can be found negligent if aϖ patient is injured because the nurse failed to perform a duty
that a reasonable and prudent person would perform or because the nurse performed an act that
a reasonable and prudent person wouldn’t perform.

States have enactedϖ Good Samaritan laws to encourage professionals to provide medical
assistance at the scene of an accident without fear of a lawsuit arising from the assistance. These
laws don’t apply to care provided in a health care facility.

Aϖ physician should sign verbal and telephone orders within the time established by facility
policy, usually 24 hours.

A competent adult has the right toϖ refuse lifesaving medical treatment; however, the individual
should be fully informed of the consequences of his refusal.

Although a patient’sϖ health record, or chart, is the health care facility’s physical property, its
contents belong to the patient.

Before a patient’s health record can beϖ released to a third party, the patient or the patient’s
legal guardian must give written consent.

Under the Controlled Substances Act, every dose of aϖ controlled drug that’s dispensed by the
pharmacy must be accounted for, whether the dose was administered to a patient or discarded

Aϖ nurse can’t perform duties that violate a rule or regulation established by a state licensing
board, even if they are authorized by a health care facility or physician.

To minimize interruptions during a patient interview, theϖ nurse should select a private room,
preferably one with a door that can be closed.

In categorizing nursing diagnoses, the nurse addressesϖ life-threatening problems first, followed
by potentially life-threatening concerns.

The major components of a nursing care plan are outcomeϖ criteria (patient goals) and nursing
Standing orders, orϖ protocols, establish guidelines for treating a specific disease or set of

In assessing a patient’s heart, the nurse normally finds theϖ point of maximal impulse at the
fifth intercostal space, near the apex.

ϖ The S1 heard on auscultation is caused by closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves.

To maintain package sterility, the nurse should open aϖ wrapper’s top flap away from the body,
open each side flap by touching only the outer part of the wrapper, and open the final flap by
grasping the turned-down corner and pulling it toward the body.

The nurse shouldn’t dry aϖ patient’s ear canal or remove wax with a cotton-tipped applicator
because it may force cerumen against the tympanic membrane.

A patient’s identificationϖ bracelet should remain in place until the patient has been discharged
from the health care facility and has left the premises.

The Controlledϖ Substances Act designated five categories, or schedules, that classify controlled
drugs according to their abuse potential.
Schedule I drugs, suchϖ as heroin, have a high abuse potential and have no currently accepted
medical use in the United States.

Schedule II drugs, such as morphine, opium,ϖ and meperidine (Demerol), have a high abuse
potential, but currently have accepted medical uses. Their use may lead to physical or
psychological dependence.
Schedule III drugs, such as paregoric and butabarbitalϖ (Butisol), have a lower abuse potential
than Schedule I or II drugs. Abuse of Schedule III drugs may lead to moderate or low physical or
psychological dependence, or both.

Schedule IV drugs, such as chloral hydrate, have aϖ low abuse potential compared with Schedule
III drugs.

Schedule V drugs,ϖ such as cough syrups that contain codeine, have the lowest abuse potential
of the controlled substances.

Activities of daily living are actions thatϖ the patient must perform every day to provide self-care
and to interact with society.

Testing of the six cardinal fields of gaze evaluates theϖ function of all extraocular muscles and
cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.

ϖ The six types of heart murmurs are graded from 1 to 6. A grade 6 heart murmur can be heard
with the stethoscope slightly raised from the chest.

Theϖ most important goal to include in a care plan is the patient’s goal.

ϖ Fruits are high in fiber and low in protein, and should be omitted from a low-residue diet.

The nurse should use an objective scale to assess andϖ quantify pain. Postoperative pain varies
greatly among individuals.

ϖ Postmortem care includes cleaning and preparing the deceased patient for family viewing,
arranging transportation to the morgue or funeral home, and determining the disposition of

The nurse should provide honest answersϖ to the patient’s questions.

Milk shouldn’t be included in a clearϖ liquid diet.

When caring for an infant, a child, or a confused patient,ϖ consistency in nursing personnel is

The hypothalamusϖ secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary gland.

The three membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord areϖ the dura mater, pia mater, and

A nasogastric tube is used toϖ remove fluid and gas from the small intestine preoperatively or

Psychologists, physical therapists, and chiropractorsϖ aren’t authorized to write prescriptions for

The area around aϖ stoma is cleaned with mild soap and water.

Vegetables have a high fiberϖ content.

The nurse should use a tuberculin syringe to administer aϖ subcutaneous injection of less than 1

For adults, subcutaneousϖ injections require a 25G 1" needle; for infants, children, elderly, or
very thin patients, they require a 25G to 27G ½" needle.

Before administering aϖ drug, the nurse should identify the patient by checking the identification
band and asking the patient to state his name.

To clean the skin before anϖ injection, the nurse uses a sterile alcohol swab to wipe from the
center of the site outward in a circular motion.

The nurse should inject heparin deepϖ into subcutaneous tissue at a 90-degree angle
(perpendicular to the skin) to prevent skin irritation.

If blood is aspirated into the syringe beforeϖ an I.M. injection, the nurse should withdraw the
needle, prepare another syringe, and repeat the procedure.

The nurse shouldn’t cut theϖ patient’s hair without written consent from the patient or an
appropriate relative.

If bleeding occurs after an injection, the nurse should applyϖ pressure until the bleeding stops. If
bruising occurs, the nurse should monitor the site for an enlarging hematoma.

When providing hair and scalp care,ϖ the nurse should begin combing at the end of the hair and
work toward the head.

The frequency of patient hair care depends on the length andϖ texture of the hair, the duration
of hospitalization, and the patient’s condition.

Proper function of a hearing aid requires careful handlingϖ during insertion and removal, regular
cleaning of the ear piece to prevent wax buildup, and prompt replacement of dead batteries.

The hearing aidϖ that’s marked with a blue dot is for the left ear; the one with a red dot is for
the right ear.

A hearing aid shouldn’t be exposed to heat or humidityϖ and shouldn’t be immersed in water.

The nurse should instruct theϖ patient to avoid using hair spray while wearing a hearing aid.

The fiveϖ branches of pharmacology are pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics,

pharmacotherapeutics, toxicology, and pharmacognosy.
The nurse shouldϖ remove heel protectors every 8 hours to inspect the foot for signs of skin

Heat is applied to promote vasodilation, which reduces painϖ caused by inflammation.

A sutured surgical incision is an example ofϖ healing by first intention (healing directly, without

ϖ Healing by secondary intention (healing by granulation) is closure of the wound when

granulation tissue fills the defect and allows reepithelialization to occur, beginning at the wound
edges and continuing to the center, until the entire wound is covered.
Keloid formation is an abnormality in healingϖ that’s characterized by overgrowth of scar tissue
at the wound site.

ϖ The nurse should administer procaine penicillin by deep I.M. injection in the upper outer portion
of the buttocks in the adult or in the midlateral thigh in the child. The nurse shouldn’t massage
the injection site.

An ascendingϖ colostomy drains fluid feces. A descending colostomy drains solid fecal matter.

A folded towel (scrotal bridge) can provide scrotal support forϖ the patient with scrotal edema
caused by vasectomy, epididymitis, or orchitis.

When giving an injection to a patient who has a bleedingϖ disorder, the nurse should use a
small-gauge needle and apply pressure to the site for 5 minutes after the injection.

Platelets are the smallest andϖ most fragile formed element of the blood and are essential for

To insert a nasogastric tube, the nurse instructs theϖ patient to tilt the head back slightly and
then inserts the tube. When the nurse feels the tube curving at the pharynx, the nurse should tell
the patient to tilt the head forward to close the trachea and open the esophagus by swallowing.
(Sips of water can facilitate this action.)

Families with loved ones inϖ intensive care units report that their four most important needs are
to have their questions answered honestly, to be assured that the best possible care is being
provided, to know the patient’s prognosis, and to feel that there is hope of recovery.

Double-bind communication occurs when the verbal messageϖ contradicts the nonverbal
message and the receiver is unsure of which message to respond to.

A nonjudgmental attitude displayed by a nurse shows thatϖ she neither approves nor
disapproves of the patient.
Target symptomsϖ are those that the patient finds most distressing.

A patient should beϖ advised to take aspirin on an empty stomach, with a full glass of water, and
should avoid acidic foods such as coffee, citrus fruits, and cola.

Forϖ every patient problem, there is a nursing diagnosis; for every nursing diagnosis, there is a
goal; and for every goal, there are interventions designed to make the goal a reality. The keys to
answering examination questions correctly are identifying the problem presented, formulating a
goal for the problem, and selecting the intervention from the choices provided that will enable the
patient to reach that goal.

Fidelity means loyalty and canϖ be shown as a commitment to the profession of nursing and to
the patient.

Administering an I.M. injection against the patient’s will andϖ without legal authority is battery.

An example of a third-party payerϖ is an insurance company.

The formula for calculating the drops perϖ minute for an I.V. infusion is as follows: (volume to be
infused × drip factor) ÷ time in minutes = drops/minute

On-call medication should be givenϖ within 5 minutes of the call.

Usually, the best method to determine aϖ patient’s cultural or spiritual needs is to ask him.

An incident reportϖ or unusual occurrence report isn’t part of a patient’s record, but is an in-
house document that’s used for the purpose of correcting the problem.

Critical pathways are a multidisciplinary guideline forϖ patient care.

When prioritizing nursing diagnoses, the followingϖ hierarchy should be used: Problems
associated with the airway, those concerning breathing, and those related to circulation.
The two nursing diagnoses thatϖ have the highest priority that the nurse can assign are
Ineffective airway clearance and Ineffective breathing pattern.

A subjective sign that aϖ sitz bath has been effective is the patient’s expression of decreased
pain or discomfort.

For the nursing diagnosis Deficient diversional activity toϖ be valid, the patient must state that
he’s “bored,” that he has “nothing to do,” or words to that effect.

The most appropriate nursing diagnosis for anϖ individual who doesn’t speak English is Impaired
verbal communication related to inability to speak dominant language (English).

The family of a patientϖ who has been diagnosed as hearing impaired should be instructed to
face the individual when they speak to him.

Before instilling medication intoϖ the ear of a patient who is up to age 3, the nurse should pull
the pinna down and back to straighten the eustachian tube.

To prevent injury to theϖ cornea when administering eyedrops, the nurse should waste the first
drop and instill the drug in the lower conjunctival sac.

After administering eyeϖ ointment, the nurse should twist the medication tube to detach the
When the nurse removes gloves and a mask, she should removeϖ the gloves first. They are
soiled and are likely to contain pathogens.

ϖ Crutches should be placed 6" (15.2 cm) in front of the patient and 6" to the side to form a
tripod arrangement.

Listening is the most effectiveϖ communication technique.

Before teaching any procedure to a patient,ϖ the nurse must assess the patient’s current
knowledge and willingness to learn.

Process recording is a method of evaluating one’s communicationϖ effectiveness.

When feeding an elderly patient, the nurse should limitϖ high-carbohydrate foods because of the
risk of glucose intolerance.

ϖ When feeding an elderly patient, essential foods should be given first.

ϖ Passive range of motion maintains joint mobility. Resistive exercises increase muscle mass.

Isometric exercises are performed on an extremity that’sϖ in a cast.

A back rub is an example of the gate-control theory ofϖ pain.

Anything that’s located below the waist is considered unsterile;ϖ a sterile field becomes unsterile
when it comes in contact with any unsterile item; a sterile field must be monitored continuously;
and a border of 1" (2.5 cm) around a sterile field is considered unsterile.

A “shift to theϖ left” is evident when the number of immature cells (bands) in the blood
increases to fight an infection.

A “shift to the right” is evident whenϖ the number of mature cells in the blood increases, as seen
in advanced liver disease and pernicious anemia.

Before administering preoperativeϖ medication, the nurse should ensure that an informed
consent form has been signed and attached to the patient’s record.

A nurse should spend noϖ more than 30 minutes per 8-hour shift providing care to a patient who
has a radiation implant.

A nurse shouldn’t be assigned to care for more thanϖ one patient who has a radiation implant.

Long-handled forceps and aϖ lead-lined container should be available in the room of a patient
who has a radiation implant.

Usually, patients who have the same infection andϖ are in strict isolation can share a room.

Diseases that require strictϖ isolation include chickenpox, diphtheria, and viral hemorrhagic
fevers such as Marburg disease.

For the patient who abides by Jewish custom, milk andϖ meat shouldn’t be served at the same

Whether the patient canϖ perform a procedure (psychomotor domain of learning) is a better
indicator of the effectiveness of patient teaching than whether the patient can simply state the
steps involved in the procedure (cognitive domain of learning).

ϖ According to Erik Erikson, developmental stages are trust versus mistrust (birth to 18 months),
autonomy versus shame and doubt (18 months to age 3), initiative versus guilt (ages 3 to 5),
industry versus inferiority (ages 5 to 12), identity versus identity diffusion (ages 12 to 18),
intimacy versus isolation (ages 18 to 25), generativity versus stagnation (ages 25 to 60), and ego
integrity versus despair (older than age 60).

When communicating with a hearing impairedϖ patient, the nurse should face him.

An appropriate nursing interventionϖ for the spouse of a patient who has a serious incapacitating
disease is to help him to mobilize a support system.

Hyperpyrexia is extreme elevation inϖ temperature above 106° F (41.1° C).

Milk is high in sodium and low inϖ iron.

When a patient expresses concern about a health-related issue,ϖ before addressing the concern,
the nurse should assess the patient’s level of knowledge.

The most effective way to reduce a fever is to administer anϖ antipyretic, which lowers the
temperature set point.

When a patient isϖ ill, it’s essential for the members of his family to maintain communication
about his health needs.

Ethnocentrism is the universal belief thatϖ one’s way of life is superior to others’.

When a nurse is communicatingϖ with a patient through an interpreter, the nurse should speak
to the patient and the interpreter.

In accordance with the “hot-cold” system used by someϖ Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other
Hispanic and Latino groups, most foods, beverages, herbs, and drugs are described as “cold.”

Prejudice is aϖ hostile attitude toward individuals of a particular group.

ϖ Discrimination is preferential treatment of individuals of a particular group. It’s usually

discussed in a negative sense.

Increased gastric motilityϖ interferes with the absorption of oral drugs.

The three phases of theϖ therapeutic relationship are orientation, working, and termination.

ϖ Patients often exhibit resistive and challenging behaviors in the orientation phase of the
therapeutic relationship.

Abdominal assessment isϖ performed in the following order: inspection, auscultation, palpation,
and percussion.

When measuring blood pressure in a neonate, the nurseϖ should select a cuff that’s no less than
one-half and no more than two-thirds the length of the extremity that’s used.

When administering a drug byϖ Z-track, the nurse shouldn’t use the same needle that was used
to draw the drug into the syringe because doing so could stain the skin.

Sites forϖ intradermal injection include the inner arm, the upper chest, and on the back, under
the scapula.

When evaluating whether an answer on an examinationϖ is correct, the nurse should consider
whether the action that’s described promotes autonomy (independence), safety, self-esteem, and
a sense of belonging.

When answering a question on the NCLEX examination, theϖ student should consider the cue
(the stimulus for a thought) and the inference (the thought) to determine whether the inference is
correct. When in doubt, the nurse should select an answer that indicates the need for further
information to eliminate ambiguity. For example, the patient complains of chest pain (the stimulus
for the thought) and the nurse infers that the patient is having cardiac pain (the thought). In this
case, the nurse hasn’t confirmed whether the pain is cardiac. It would be more appropriate to
make further assessments.

Veracity is truth and is an essential component of aϖ therapeutic relationship between a health

care provider and his patient.

Beneficence is the duty to do no harm and the duty to do good.ϖ There’s an obligation in patient
care to do no harm and an equal obligation to assist the patient.

Nonmaleficence is the duty to do no harm.ϖ

ϖ Frye’s ABCDE cascade provides a framework for prioritizing care by identifying the most
important treatment concerns.

A = Airway. This categoryϖ includes everything that affects a patent airway, including a foreign
object, fluid from an upper respiratory infection, and edema from trauma or an allergic reaction.

B = Breathing. This category includes everything that affectsϖ the breathing pattern, including
hyperventilation or hypoventilation and abnormal breathing patterns, such as Korsakoff’s, Biot’s,
or Cheyne-Stokes respiration.

C = Circulation. This category includesϖ everything that affects the circulation, including fluid
and electrolyte disturbances and disease processes that affect cardiac output.

D =ϖ Disease processes. If the patient has no problem with the airway, breathing, or circulation,
then the nurse should evaluate the disease processes, giving priority to the disease process that
poses the greatest immediate risk. For example, if a patient has terminal cancer and
hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia is a more immediate concern.

E = Everything else. This category includesϖ such issues as writing an incident report and
completing the patient chart. When evaluating needs, this category is never the highest priority.

Whenϖ answering a question on an NCLEX examination, the basic rule is “assess before action.”
The student should evaluate each possible answer carefully. Usually, several answers reflect the
implementation phase of nursing and one or two reflect the assessment phase. In this case, the
best choice is an assessment response unless a specific course of action is clearly indicated.

Ruleϖ utilitarianism is known as the “greatest good for the greatest number of people” theory.

Egalitarian theory emphasizes that equal access to goods andϖ services must be provided to the
less fortunate by an affluent society.

ϖ Active euthanasia is actively helping a person to die.

Brain death isϖ irreversible cessation of all brain function.

Passive euthanasia isϖ stopping the therapy that’s sustaining life.

A third-party payer is anϖ insurance company.

Utilization review is performed to determine whetherϖ the care provided to a patient was
appropriate and cost-effective.
A valueϖ cohort is a group of people who experienced an out-of-the-ordinary event that shaped
their values.

Voluntary euthanasia is actively helping a patientϖ to die at the patient’s request.

Bananas, citrus fruits, and potatoes areϖ good sources of potassium.

Good sources of magnesium include fish,ϖ nuts, and grains.

Beef, oysters, shrimp, scallops, spinach, beets, andϖ greens are good sources of iron.

Intrathecal injection is administeringϖ a drug through the spine.

When a patient asks a question or makes aϖ statement that’s emotionally charged, the nurse
should respond to the emotion behind the statement or question rather than to what’s being said
or asked.

The steps of the trajectory-nursing model are as follows:ϖ

– Step 1: Identifying the trajectory phase
– Step 2: Identifying the problems and establishing goals
– Step 3: Establishing a plan to meet the goals
– Step 4: Identifying factors that facilitate or hinder attainment of the goals
– Step 5: Implementing interventions
– Step 6: Evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions

A Hindu patient is likely to requestϖ a vegetarian diet.

Pain threshold, or pain sensation, is the initialϖ point at which a patient feels pain.

The difference between acute painϖ and chronic pain is its duration.

Referred pain is pain that’s felt atϖ a site other than its origin.

Alleviating pain by performing a backϖ massage is consistent with the gate control theory.

Romberg’s test is aϖ test for balance or gait.

Pain seems more intense at night because theϖ patient isn’t distracted by daily activities.

Older patients commonlyϖ don’t report pain because of fear of treatment, lifestyle changes, or
No pork or pork products are allowed in a Muslim diet.ϖ

ϖ Two goals of Healthy People 2010 are:

– Help individuals of all ages to increase the quality of life and the number of years of optimal
– Eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population.

A community nurse is serving as a patient’s advocate if sheϖ tells a malnourished patient to go

to a meal program at a local park.

ϖ If a patient isn’t following his treatment plan, the nurse should first ask why.

Falls are the leading cause of injury in elderly people.ϖ

ϖ Primary prevention is true prevention. Examples are immunizations, weight control, and
smoking cessation.

Secondary prevention is earlyϖ detection. Examples include purified protein derivative (PPD),
breast self-examination, testicular self-examination, and chest X-ray.

ϖ Tertiary prevention is treatment to prevent long-term complications.

Aϖ patient indicates that he’s coming to terms with having a chronic disease when he says, “I’m
never going to get any better.”

On noticing religiousϖ artifacts and literature on a patient’s night stand, a culturally aware nurse
would ask the patient the meaning of the items.

A Mexican patient mayϖ request the intervention of a curandero, or faith healer, who involves the
family in healing the patient.

In an infant, the normal hemoglobinϖ value is 12 g/dl.

The nitrogen balance estimates the difference betweenϖ the intake and use of protein.

Most of the absorption of water occursϖ in the large intestine.

Most nutrients are absorbed in the smallϖ intestine.

When assessing a patient’s eating habits, the nurse shouldϖ ask, “What have you eaten in the
last 24 hours?”

A vegan diet shouldϖ include an abundant supply of fiber.

A hypotonic enema softens theϖ feces, distends the colon, and stimulates peristalsis.

First-morningϖ urine provides the best sample to measure glucose, ketone, pH, and specific
gravity values.

To induce sleep, the first step is to minimizeϖ environmental stimuli.

Before moving a patient, the nurse should assessϖ the patient’s physical abilities and ability to
understand instructions as well as the amount of strength required to move the patient.

To lose 1 lbϖ (0.5 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his weekly intake by 3,500 calories
(approximately 500 calories daily). To lose 2 lb (1 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his
weekly caloric intake by 7,000 calories (approximately 1,000 calories daily).
To avoid shearing force injury, a patient who isϖ completely immobile is lifted on a sheet.

To insert a catheter from theϖ nose through the trachea for suction, the nurse should ask the
patient to swallow.

Vitamin C is needed for collagen production.ϖ

Only theϖ patient can describe his pain accurately.

Cutaneous stimulation createsϖ the release of endorphins that block the transmission of pain

ϖ Patient-controlled analgesia is a safe method to relieve acute pain caused by surgical incision,
traumatic injury, labor and delivery, or cancer.

Anϖ Asian American or European American typically places distance between himself and others
when communicating.

The patient who believes in aϖ scientific, or biomedical, approach to health is likely to expect a
drug, treatment, or surgery to cure illness.

Chronic illnesses occur in veryϖ young as well as middle-aged and very old people.

The trajectoryϖ framework for chronic illness states that preferences about daily life activities
affect treatment decisions.

Exacerbations of chronic diseaseϖ usually cause the patient to seek treatment and may lead to

School health programs provide cost-effective healthϖ care for low-income families and those
who have no health insurance.

ϖ Collegiality is the promotion of collaboration, development, and interdependence among

members of a profession.

A change agent is an individual whoϖ recognizes a need for change or is selected to make a
change within an established entity, such as a hospital.

The patients’ bill of rightsϖ was introduced by the American Hospital Association.

Abandonment isϖ premature termination of treatment without the patient’s permission and
without appropriate relief of symptoms.

Values clarification is a process thatϖ individuals use to prioritize their personal values.

Distributiveϖ justice is a principle that promotes equal treatment for all.

Milk andϖ milk products, poultry, grains, and fish are good sources of phosphate.

ϖ The best way to prevent falls at night in an oriented, but restless, elderly patient is to raise the
side rails.

By the end of the orientationϖ phase, the patient should begin to trust the nurse.

Falls in theϖ elderly are likely to be caused by poor vision.

Barriers toϖ communication include language deficits, sensory deficits, cognitive impairments,
structural deficits, and paralysis.

The three elementsϖ that are necessary for a fire are heat, oxygen, and combustible material.

Sebaceous glands lubricate the skin.ϖ

To check forϖ petechiae in a dark-skinned patient, the nurse should assess the oral mucosa.

To put on a sterile glove, the nurse should pick up the firstϖ glove at the folded border and
adjust the fingers when both gloves are on.

To increase patient comfort, the nurse should let the alcohol dryϖ before giving an intramuscular

Treatment for a stage 1 ulcerϖ on the heels includes heel protectors.

Seventh-Day Adventists areϖ usually vegetarians.

Endorphins are morphinelike substances thatϖ produce a feeling of well-being.

Pain tolerance is the maximum amountϖ and duration of pain that an individual is willing to


In a patient with hypokalemia (serum potassium levelϖ below 3.5 mEq/L), presenting signs and
symptoms include muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias.

During cardiac arrest, if an I.V. route isϖ unavailable, epinephrine can be administered
Perniciousϖ anemia results from the failure to absorb vitamin B12 in the GI tract and causes
primarily GI and neurologic signs and symptoms.

A patient who has aϖ pressure ulcer should consume a high-protein, high-calorie diet,
unless contraindicated.

The CK-MB isoenzyme level is used to assess tissueϖ damage in myocardial infarction.

After a 12-hour fast, the normalϖ fasting blood glucose level is 80 to 120 mg/dl.

A patient who isϖ experiencing digoxin toxicity may report nausea, vomiting, diplopia,
blurred vision, light flashes, and yellow-green halos around images.

Anuria isϖ daily urine output of less than 100 ml.

In remittent fever, the bodyϖ temperature varies over a 24-hour period, but remains

Risk ofϖ a fat embolism is greatest in the first 48 hours after the fracture of a long bone.
It’s manifested by respiratory distress.

To help venous bloodϖ return in a patient who is in shock, the nurse should elevate the
patient’s legs no more than 45 degrees. This procedure is contraindicated in a patient
with a head injury.

The pulse deficit is the difference between the apical andϖ radial pulse rates, when taken
simultaneously by two nurses.

Toϖ reduce the patient’s risk of vomiting and aspiration, the nurse should schedule
postural drainage before meals or 2 to 4 hours after meals.

Bloodϖ pressure can be measured directly by intra-arterial insertion of a catheter

connected to a pressure-monitoring device.

A positive Kernig’s sign,ϖ seen in meningitis, occurs when an attempt to flex the hip of a
recumbent patient causes painful spasms of the hamstring muscle and resistance to further
extension of the leg at the knee.

In a patient with a fractured,ϖ dislocated femur, treatment begins with reduction and
immobilization of the affected leg.

Herniated nucleus pulposus (intervertebral disk) mostϖ commonly occurs in the lumbar
and lumbosacral regions.

Laminectomy isϖ surgical removal of the herniated portion of an intervertebral disk.

ϖ Surgical treatment of a gastric ulcer includes severing the vagus nerve (vagotomy) to reduce
the amount of gastric acid secreted by the gastric cells.

Valsalva’s maneuver is forced exhalation against a closedϖ glottis, as when taking a deep
breath, blowing air out, or bearing down.

When mean arterial pressure falls below 60 mm Hg and systolicϖ blood pressure falls below 80
mm Hg, vital organ perfusion is seriously compromised.

Lidocaine (Xylocaine) is the drug of choice for reducing premature ventricular


A patient is at greatest risk of dying during the first 24 to 48 hours after a myocardial

ϖ During a myocardial infarction, the left ventricle usually sustains the greatest
The pain of a myocardial infarction results from myocardialϖ ischemia caused by anoxia.

For a patient in cardiac arrest, the firstϖ priority is to establish an airway.

The universal sign for choking isϖ clutching the hand to the throat.

For a patient who has heart failureϖ or cardiogenic pulmonary edema, nursing interventions
focus on decreasing venous return to the heart and increasing left ventricular output.
These interventions include placing the patient in high Fowler’s position and administering
oxygen, diuretics, and positive inotropic drugs as prescribed.

A positiveϖ tuberculin skin test is an induration of 10 mm or greater at the injection site.

The signs and symptoms of histoplasmosis, a chronic systemicϖ fungal infection, resemble those
of tuberculosis.

In burn victims, theϖ leading cause of death is respiratory compromise. The second leading
cause is infection.

The exocrine function of the pancreas is the secretion ofϖ enzymes used to digest
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

A patient whoϖ has hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) should consume a diet that’s moderately
high in fat and high in carbohydrate and protein, and should eat the largest meal in the

Esophageal balloon tamponade shouldn’t be inflated greater than 20 mm Hg.

Overproduction of prolactin by the pituitary gland can cause galactorrhea (excessive or

abnormal lactation) and amenorrhea (absence of menstruation).

Intermittent claudication (pain duringϖ ambulation or other movement that’s relieved with rest)
is a classic symptom of arterial insufficiency in the leg.
In bladder carcinoma, the most commonϖ finding is gross, painless hematuria.

Parenteral administration ofϖ heparin sodium is contraindicated in patients with renal

or liver disease, GI bleeding, or recent surgery or trauma; in pregnant patients; and in
women older than age 60.

Drugs that potentiate the effects of anticoagulantsϖ include aspirin, chloral hydrate,
glucagon, anabolic steroids, and chloramphenicol.

For a burn patient, care priorities includeϖ maintaining a patent airway, preventing or
correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, controlling pain, and preventing infection.
Elasticϖ stockings should be worn on both legs.

Active immunization is theϖ formation of antibodies within the body in response to vaccination
or exposure to disease.

Passive immunization is administration of antibodies thatϖ were preformed outside the body.

A patient who is receiving digoxinϖ (Lanoxin) shouldn’t receive a calcium preparation because
of the increased risk of digoxin toxicity. Concomitant use may affect cardiac contractility and lead
to arrhythmias.

Intermittent positive-pressure breathing is inflationϖ of the lung during inspiration with

compressed air or oxygen. The goal of this inflation is to keep the lung open.

Wristdrop is caused by paralysis ofϖ the extensor muscles in the forearm and hand.

Footdrop results fromϖ excessive plantar flexion and is usually a complication of prolonged bed

A patient who has gonorrhea may be treated with penicillin andϖ probenecid
(Benemid). Probenecid delays the excretion of penicillin and keeps this antibiotic in the
body longer.
In patients who haveϖ glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the red blood
cells can’t metabolize adequate amounts of glucose, and hemolysis occurs.

On-callϖ medication is medication that should be ready for immediate administration when the
call to administer it’s received.

If gagging, nausea, or vomitingϖ occurs when an airway is removed, the nurse should place
the patient in a lateral position with the upper arm supported on a pillow.

When aϖ postoperative patient arrives in the recovery room, the nurse should position the
patient on his side or with his head turned to the side and the chin extended.

In the immediate postoperative period, the nurse shouldϖ report a respiratory rate
greater than 30, temperature greater than 100° F (37.8° C) or below 97° F (36.1° C), or
a significant drop in blood pressure or rise in pulse rate from the baseline.

Irreversible brain damage mayϖ occur if the central nervous system is deprived of oxygen
for more than 4 minutes.

Treatment for polycythemia vera includes administering oxygen,ϖ radioisotope therapy,

or chemotherapy agents, such as chlorambucil and nitrogen mustard, to suppress bone
marrow growth.

A patient with acute renalϖ failure should receive a high-calorie diet that’s low in protein
as well as potassium and sodium.

Addison’s disease is caused by hypofunction ofϖ the adrenal gland and is characterized by
fatigue, anemia, weight loss, and bronze skin pigmentation. Without cortisol replacement
therapy, it’s usually fatal.

Glaucoma is managed conservatively with beta-adrenergic blockersϖ such as timolol

(Timoptic), which decrease sympathetic impulses to the eye, and with miotic eyedrops such as
pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine), which constrict the pupils.
Miotics effectively treat glaucoma by reducing intraocularϖ pressure. They do this by
constricting the pupil, contracting the ciliary muscles, opening the anterior chamber angle, and
increasing the outflow of aqueous humor.

While a patient is receiving heparin, the nurse shouldϖ monitor the partial thromboplastin

Urinary frequency,ϖ incontinence, or both can occur after catheter removal. Incontinence may be
manifested as dribbling.

When teaching a patient about colostomy care,ϖ the nurse should instruct the patient to
hang the irrigation reservoir 18" to 22" (45 to 55 cm) above the stoma, insert the
catheter 2" to 4" (5 to 10 cm) into the stoma, irrigate the stoma with 17 to 34 oz (503
to 1,005 ml) of water at a temperature of 105° to 110° F (40° to 43° C) once a day,
clean the area around the stoma with soap and water before applying a new bag, and
use a protective skin covering, such as a Stomahesive wafer, karaya paste, or karaya
ring, around the stoma.

The first sign of Hodgkin’s disease is painless, superficial lymphadenopathy, typically

found under one arm or on one side of the neck in the cervical chain.

To differentiate true cyanosisϖ from deposition of certain pigments, the nurse should press the
skin over the discolored area. Cyanotic skin blanches, but pigmented skin doesn’t.

Aϖ patient who has a gastric ulcer is most likely to report pain during or shortly after eating.

Widening pulse pressure is a sign of increasingϖ intracranial pressure. For example, the blood
pressure may rise from 120/80 to 160/60 mm Hg.
In a burn victim, a primary goal of wound care is to preventϖ contamination by microorganisms.

To prevent external rotation in aϖ patient who has had hip nailing, the nurse places trochanter
rolls from the knee to the ankle of the affected leg.

Severe hip pain after the insertionϖ of a hip prosthesis indicates dislodgment. If this
occurs, before calling the physician, the nurse should assess the patient for shortening of the leg,
external rotation, and absence of reflexes.

As much as 75% of renalϖ function is lost before blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels
rise above normal.

When compensatory efforts are present in acid-baseϖ balance, partial pressure of

arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3–) always point in the same
pH PaCO2 HCO3– = respiratoryϖ acidosis compensated
pH PaCO2 HCO3– = respiratory alkalosisϖ compensated
pH PaCO2 HCO3– = metabolic acidosis compensatedϖ
pH PaCO2ϖ HCO3– = metabolic alkalosis compensated.

Polyuria is urine output ofϖ 2,500 ml or more within 24 hours.

The presenting sign of pleuritis isϖ chest pain that is usually unilateral and related to
respiratory movement.

If a patient has a gastric drainage tube in place, the nurseϖ should expect the physician
to order potassium chloride.

An increasedϖ pulse rate is one of the first indications of respiratory difficulty. It occurs
because the heart attempts to compensate for a decreased oxygen supply to the tissues by
pumping more blood.

In an adult, a hemoglobin levelϖ below 11 mg/dl suggests iron deficiency anemia and
the need for further evaluation.

The normal partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood isϖ 95 mm Hg (plus or minus 5
mm Hg).

Vitamin C deficiency is characterizedϖ by brittle bones, pinpoint peripheral hemorrhages, and

friable gums with loosened teeth.

Clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism areϖ variable, but increased respiratory

rate, tachycardia, and hemoptysis are common.

Normally, intraocular pressure is 12 to 20 mm Hg. It can beϖ measured with a Schiøtz


In early hemorrhagic shock, bloodϖ pressure may be normal, but respiratory and pulse
rates are rapid. The patient may report thirst and may have clammy skin and piloerection (goose

Cool, moist, pale skin, as occurs in shock, results fromϖ diversion of blood from the skin to the
major organs.

To assessϖ capillary refill, the nurse applies pressure over the nail bed until blanching occurs,
quickly releases the pressure, and notes the rate at which blanching fades. Capillary refill
indicates perfusion, which decreases in shock, thereby lengthening refill time. Normal capillary
refill is less than 3 seconds.

Except for patients with renal failure, urine output of lessϖ than 30 ml/hour signifies
dehydration and the potential for shock.

Inϖ elderly patients, the most common fracture is hip fracture. Osteoporosis weakens the bones,
predisposing these patients to fracture, which usually results from a fall.

Before angiography, the nurse should ask the patientϖ whether he’s allergic to the
dye, shellfish, or iodine and advise him to take nothing by mouth for 8 hours before the

During myelography,ϖ approximately 10 to 15 ml of cerebrospinal fluid is removed for

laboratory studies and an equal amount of contrast media is injected.

Afterϖ angiography, the puncture site is covered with a pressure dressing and the affected part is
immobilized for 8 hours to decrease the risk of bleeding.

If a water-based medium was used during myelography, theϖ patient remains on bed
rest for 6 to 8 hours, with the head of the bed elevated 30 to 45 degrees. If an oil-based
medium was used, the patient remains flat in bed for 6 to 24 hours.
The level of amputation is determined byϖ estimating the maximum viable tissue (tissue with
adequate circulation) needed to develop a functional stump.

Heparin sodium is included in theϖ dialysate used for renal dialysis.

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea mayϖ indicate heart failure.

A patient who takes a cardiac glycϖ oside, such as digoxin, should consume a diet that includes
high-potassium foods.

ϖ The nurse should limit tracheobronchial suctioning to 10 to 15 seconds and should

make only two passes.

Before performing tracheobronchialϖ suctioning, the nurse should ventilate and

oxygenate the patient five to six times with a resuscitation bag and 100% oxygen. This
procedure is called bagging.

Signs and symptoms of pneumothorax include tachypnea,ϖ restlessness, hypotension,

and tracheal deviation.

The cardinal sign ofϖ toxic shock syndrome is rapid onset of a high fever.
A key sign of peptic ulcer is hematemesis, which can be bright red or dark red, with the
consistency of coffee grounds.

Signs and symptoms of a perforated peptic ulcerϖ include sudden, severe upper abdominal pain;
vomiting; and an extremely tender, rigid (boardlike) abdomen.

Constipation is a common adverse reaction to aluminum hydroxide.

For the first 24 hours after a myocardial infarction, the patient should use a bedside
commode and then progress to walking to the toilet, bathing, and taking short walks.

After aϖ myocardial infarction, the patient should avoid overexertion and add a new activity
daily, as tolerated without dyspnea.

In a patient with aϖ recent myocardial infarction, frothy, blood-tinged sputum suggests

pulmonary edema.

In a patient who has acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, theϖ primary purpose of

drugs is to prevent secondary infections.

In aϖ patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, suppression of the immune system

increases the risk of opportunistic infections, such as cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia, and thrush.

A patient with acquiredϖ immunodeficiency syndrome may have rapid weight loss, a sign of
wasting syndrome.

If the body doesn’t use glucose for energy, it metabolizesϖ fat and produces ketones.

Approximately 20% of patients withϖ Guillain-Barré syndrome have residual deficits,

such as mild motor weakness or diminished lower extremity reflexes.

Hypertension and hypokalemia areϖ the most significant clinical manifestations of

primary hyperaldosteronism.
ϖ After percutaneous aspiration of the bladder, the patient’s first void is usually pink;
however, urine with frank blood should be reported to the physician.

A urine culture that grows more than 100,000 colonies ofϖ bacteria per milliliter of urine
indicates infection.

A patient who isϖ undergoing dialysis should take a vitamin supplement and eat foods
that are high in calories, but low in protein, sodium, and potassium.

In a patientϖ who has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the most effective ways to reduce
thick secretions are to increase fluid intake to 2,500 ml/day and encourage ambulation.

The nurse should teach a patient with emphysema how toϖ perform pursed-lip breathing
because this slows expiration, prevents alveolar collapse, and helps to control the respiratory rate.

Clubbing of theϖ digits and a barrel chest may develop in a patient who has chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease.

A stroke (“brain attack”) disrupts the brain’s bloodϖ supply and may be caused by

In a patient who isϖ undergoing dialysis, desired outcomes are normal weight, normal serum
albumin level (3.5 to 5.5 g/dl), and adequate protein intake (1.2 to 1.5 g/kg of body
weight daily).

Intermittent peritoneal dialysis involves performingϖ three to seven treatments that

total 40 hours per week.

In a patientϖ with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the best way to administer
oxygen is by nasal cannula. The normal flow rate is 2 to 3 L/ minute.

Isoetharineϖ (Bronkosol) can be administered with a handheld nebulizer or by intermittent

positive-pressure breathing.

Brain death is irreversible cessationϖ of brain function.

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis requiresϖ four exchanges per day, 7 days
per week, for a total of 168 hours per week.

The classic adverse reactions to antihistamines are dry mouth,ϖ drowsiness, and blurred vision.

Because of the risk of paralytic ileus,ϖ a patient who has received a general anesthetic can’t take
anything by mouth until active bowel sounds are heard in all abdominal quadrants.

Theϖ level of alpha-fetoprotein, a tumor marker, is elevated in patients who have testicular germ
cell cancer.

Clinical manifestations of orchitis causedϖ by bacteria or mumps include high

temperature, chills, and sudden pain in the involved testis.

The level of prostate-specific antigen is elevated inϖ patients with benign prostatic
hyperplasia or prostate cancer.
Theϖ level of prostatic acid phosphatase is elevated in patients with advanced stages of prostate

Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine), a mydriatic, isϖ instilled in a patient’s eye to dilate the


To promote fluidϖ drainage and relieve edema in a patient with epididymitis, the nurse should
elevate the scrotum on a scrotal bridge.

Fluorescein staining isϖ commonly used to assess corneal abrasions because it outlines
superficial epithelial defects.

Presbyopia is loss of near vision as a result ofϖ the loss of elasticity of the crystalline

Transient ischemicϖ attacks are considered precursors to strokes.

A sign of acute appendicitis,ϖ McBurney’s sign is tenderness at McBurney’s point

(about 2" [5 cm] from the right anterior superior iliac spine on a line between the spine and the

When caring for a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome, theϖ nurse should focus on
respiratory interventions as the disease process advances.

Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include rectal bleeding,ϖ change in bowel habits,
intestinal obstruction, abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting.

Symptoms of prostatitis includeϖ frequent urination and dysuria.

A chancre is a painless, ulcerativeϖ lesion that develops during the primary stage of

During theϖ tertiary stage of syphilis, spirochetes invade the internal organs and cause
permanent damage.

In total parenteral nutrition, weight gain is theϖ most reliable indicator of a positive
response to therapy.

The nurseϖ may administer an I.V. fat emulsion through a central or peripheral catheter, but
shouldn’t use an in-line filter because the fat particles are too large to pass through the pores.

If a patient who has a prostatectomy is using aϖ Cunningham clamp, instruct him to

wash and dry his penis before applying the clamp. He should apply the clamp
horizontally and remove it at least every 4 hours to empty his bladder to prevent

If a woman has signsϖ of urinary tract infection during menopause, she should be
instructed to drink six to eight glasses of water per day, urinate before and after
intercourse, and perform Kegel exercises.

If a menopausal patient experiences a “hotϖ flash,” she should be instructed to seek a

cool, breezy location and sip a cool drink.

Cheilosis causes fissures at the angles of the mouth andϖ indicates a vitamin B2,
riboflavin, or iron deficiency.
Tetany mayϖ result from hypocalcemia caused by hypoparathyroidism.

A patient whoϖ has cervical cancer may experience vaginal bleeding for 1 to 3 months
after intracavitary radiation.

Ascites is the accumulation of fluid,ϖ containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes,
in the abdominal cavity. It’s commonly caused by cirrhosis.

Normal pulmonary artery pressure isϖ 10 to 25 mm Hg. Normal pulmonary artery

wedge pressure is 5 to 12 mm Hg.

After cardiac catheterization, the site is monitored for bleedingϖ and hematoma
formation, pulses distal to the site are palpated every 15 minutes for 1 hour, and the
patient is maintained on bed rest with the extremity extended for 8 hours.

Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder that’sϖ transmitted genetically in a sex-linked (X

chromosome) recessive pattern. Although girls and women may carry the defective gene,
hemophilia usually occurs only in boys and men.

Von Willebrand’s disease is an autosomal dominantϖ bleeding disorder that’s caused

by platelet dysfunction and factor VIII deficiency.

Sickle cell anemia is a congenital hemolytic anemia that’sϖ caused by defective

hemoglobin S molecules. It primarily affects blacks.

Sickle cell anemia has a homozygous inheritance pattern. Sickleϖ cell trait has a
heterozygous inheritance pattern.

Pel-Ebsteinϖ fever is a characteristic sign of Hodgkin’s disease. Fever recurs every few
days or weeks and alternates with afebrile periods.

Glucose-6-phosphateϖ dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder

that’s characterized by red blood cells that are deficient in G6PD, a critical enzyme in aerobic

Preferred sites for bone marrow aspiration areϖ the posterior superior iliac crest,
anterior iliac crest, and sternum.

ϖ During bone marrow harvesting, the donor receives general anesthesia and 400 to
800 ml of marrow is aspirated.

A butterfly rash across the bridge ofϖ the nose is a characteristic sign of systemic lupus

ϖ Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, destructive collagen disease characterized by

symmetric inflammation of the synovium that leads to joint swelling.

ϖ Screening for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies begins with the enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay. Results are confirmed by the Western blot test.

The CK-MB isoenzyme level increases 4 to 8 hours after aϖ myocardial infarction, peaks
at 12 to 24 hours, and returns to normal in 3 days.
Excessive intake of vitamin K may significantly antagonize theϖ anticoagulant effects
of warfarin (Coumadin). The patient should be cautioned to avoid eating an excessive
amount of leafy green vegetables.

A lymphϖ node biopsy that shows Reed-Sternberg cells provides a definitive diagnosis of
Hodgkin’s disease.

Bell’s palsy is unilateral facial weakness orϖ paralysis caused by a disturbance of the seventh
cranial (facial) nerve.

During an initial tuberculin skin test, lack of a whealϖ after injection of tuberculin purified protein
derivative indicates that the test dose was injected too deeply. The nurse should inject another
dose at least 2" (5 cm) from the initial site.

A tuberculin skin test should be readϖ 48 to 72 hours after administration.

In reading a tuberculin skin test,ϖ erythema without induration is usually not significant.

Death caused byϖ botulism usually results from delayed diagnosis and respiratory complications.

In a patient who has rabies, saliva contains the virusϖ and is a hazard for nurses who provide

A febrile nonhemolyticϖ reaction is the most common transfusion reaction.

Hypokalemiaϖ (abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood) may cause muscle
weakness or paralysis, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and GI disturbances.

Beriberi, a serious vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency,ϖ affects alcoholics who have poor dietary
habits. It’s epidemic in Asian countries where people subsist on unenriched rice. It’s characterized
by the phrase “I can’t,” indicating that the patient is too ill to do anything.

Excessive sedation may cause respiratory depression.ϖ

ϖ The primary postoperative concern is maintenance of a patent airway.

Ifϖ cyanosis occurs circumorally, sublingually, or in the nail bed, the oxygen saturation level (Sao
2) is less than 80%.

A rapid pulse rate in aϖ postoperative patient may indicate pain, bleeding, dehydration, or shock.

Increased pulse rate and blood pressure may indicate that aϖ patient is experiencing “silent
pain” (pain that can’t be expressed verbally, such as when a patient is recovering from

Lidocaineϖ (Xylocaine) exerts antiarrhythmic action by suppressing automaticity in the Purkinje

fibers and elevating the electrical stimulation threshold in the ventricles.

Cullen’s sign (a bluish discoloration around the umbilicus)ϖ is seen in patients who have a
perforated pancreas.

During theϖ postoperative period, the patient should cough and breathe deeply every 2 hours
unless otherwise contraindicated (for example, after craniotomy, cataract surgery, or throat

Before surgery, a patient’s respiratoryϖ volume may be measured by incentive spirometry. This
measurement becomes the patient’s postoperative goal for respiratory volume.

The postoperativeϖ patient should use incentive spirometry 10 to 12 times per hour and breathe

Before ambulating, a postoperative patient should dangle hisϖ legs over the side of the bed and
perform deep-breathing exercises.

ϖ During the patient’s first postoperative ambulation, the nurse should monitor the patient closely
and assist him as needed while he walks a few feet from the bed to a steady chair.

Hypovolemia occurs when 15% to 25% of the body’sϖ total blood volume is lost.

Signs and symptoms of hypovolemia includeϖ rapid, weak pulse; low blood pressure; cool,
clammy skin; shallow respirations; oliguria or anuria; and lethargy.

Acute pericarditis causes suddenϖ severe, constant pain over the anterior chest. The pain is
aggravated by inspiration.

Signs and symptoms of septicemia include fever, chills,ϖ rash, abdominal distention, prostration,
pain, headache, nausea, and diarrhea.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever causes a persistent high fever,ϖ nonpitting edema, and rash.

Patients who have undergone coronary arteryϖ bypass graft should sleep 6 to 10 hours per day,
take their temperature twice daily, and avoid lifting more than 10 lb (4.5 kg) for at least 6 weeks.

ϖ Claudication pain (pain on ambulation) is caused by arterial insufficiency as a result of

atheromatous plaque that obstructs arterial blood flow to the extremities.

Pacemakers can be powered by lithium batteries for up toϖ 10 years.

The patient shouldn’t void for 1 hour before percutaneousϖ suprapubic bladder aspiration to
ensure that sufficient urine remains in the bladder to make the procedure successful.

Left-sided heart failureϖ causes pulmonary congestion, pink-tinged sputum, and dyspnea.
(Remember L for left and lung.)

The current recommended blood cholesterol level is lessϖ than 200 mg/dl.

When caring for a patient who is having a seizure, theϖ nurse should follow these guidelines: (1)
Avoid restraining the patient, but help a standing patient to a lying position. (2) Loosen restrictive
clothing. (3) Place a pillow or another soft object under the patient’s head. (4) Clear the area of
hard objects. (5) Don’t force anything into the patient’s mouth, but maintain a patent airway. (6)
Reassure and reorient the patient after the seizure subsides.

Gingival hyperplasia, or overgrowth of gumϖ tissue, is an adverse reaction to phenytoin


With aging,ϖ most marrow in long bones becomes yellow, but it retains the capacity to convert
back to red.

Clinical manifestations of lymphedema include accumulationϖ of fluid in the legs.

Afterload is ventricular wall tension duringϖ systolic ejection. It’s increased in patients who have
septal hypertrophy, increased blood viscosity, and conditions that cause blockage of aortic or
pulmonary outflow.

Red blood cells can be stored frozen for up to 2ϖ years; however, they must be used within 24
hours of thawing.

For theϖ first 24 hours after amputation, the nurse should elevate the stump to prevent edema.

After hysterectomy, a womϖ an should avoid sexual intercourse for 3 weeks if a vaginal approach
was used and 6 weeks if the abdominal approach was used.

Parkinson’s disease characteristically causes progressive muscleϖ rigidity, akinesia, and

involuntary tremor.

Tonic-clonic seizures areϖ characterized by a loss of consciousness and alternating periods of

muscle contraction and relaxation.

Status epilepticus, a life-threateningϖ emergency, is a series of rapidly repeating seizures that

occur without intervening periods of consciousness.

The ideal donor for kidneyϖ transplantation is an identical twin. If an identical twin isn’t
available, a biological sibling is the next best choice.

Breast cancer is theϖ leading cancer among women; however, lung cancer accounts for more

The stages of cervical cancer are as follows: stage 0,ϖ carcinoma in situ; stage I, cancer
confined to the cervix; stage II, cancer extending beyond the cervix, but not to the pelvic wall;
stage III, cancer extending to the pelvic wall; and stage IV, cancer extending beyond the pelvis or
within the bladder or rectum.

One method used to estimate blood lossϖ after a hysterectomy is counting perineal pads.
Saturating more than one pad in 1 hour or eight pads in 24 hours is considered hemorrhaging.

ϖ Transurethral resection of the prostate is the most common procedure for treating benign
prostatic hyperplasia.

In a chest drainage system, theϖ water in the water-seal chamber normally rises when a patient
breathes in and falls when he breathes out.

Spinal fusion provides spinal stabilityϖ through a bone graft, usually from the iliac crest, that
fuses two or more vertebrae.

A patient who receives any type of transplant must take anϖ immunosuppressant drug for the
rest of his life.

Incentive spirometryϖ should be used 5 to 10 times an hour while the patient is awake.

Inϖ women, pelvic inflammatory disease is a common complication of gonorrhea.

Scoliosis is lateral S-shaped curvature of theϖ spine.

Signs and symptoms of the secondary stage of syphilis include aϖ rash on the palms and soles,
erosion of the oral mucosa, alopecia, and enlarged lymph nodes.

In a patient who is receiving total parenteral nutrition,ϖ the nurse should monitor glucose and
electrolyte levels.

Unlessϖ contraindicated, on admission to the postanesthesia care unit, a patient should be

turned on his side and his vital signs should be taken.

Edema isϖ treated by limiting fluid intake and eliminating excess fluid.

Aϖ patient who has had spinal anesthesia should remain flat for 12 to 24 hours. Vital signs and
neuromuscular function should be monitored.

A patientϖ who has maple syrup urine disease should avoid food containing the amino acids
leucine, isoleucine, and lysine.

A severe complication of a femurϖ fracture is excessive blood loss that results in shock.

To prepare aϖ patient for peritoneal dialysis, the nurse should ask the patient to void, measure
his vital signs, place him in a supine position, and using aseptic technique, insert a catheter
through the abdominal wall and into the peritoneal space.

If more than 3 L of dialysate solution return during peritonealϖ dialysis, the nurse should notify
the physician.

Hemodialysis is theϖ removal of certain elements from the blood by passing heparinized blood
through a semipermeable membrane to the dialysate bath, which contains all of the important
electrolytes in their ideal concentrations.

Gangrene usuallyϖ affects the digits first, and begins with skin color changes that progress from
gray-blue to dark brown or black.

Kidney function is assessed byϖ evaluating blood urea nitrogen (normal range is 8 to 20 mg/dl)
and serum creatinine (normal range is 0.6 to 1.3 mg/dl) levels.

A weight-bearingϖ transfer is appropriate only for a patient who has at least one leg that’s strong
enough to bear weight, such as a patient with hemiplegia or a single-leg amputation.

Overflow incontinence (voiding of 30 to 60 ml of urineϖ every 15 to 30 minutes) is a sign of

bladder distention.

The first signϖ of a pressure ulcer is reddened skin that blanches when pressure is applied.

Late signs and symptoms of sickle cell anemia includeϖ tachycardia, cardiomegaly, systolic and
diastolic murmurs, chronic fatigue, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly.

A mechanical ventilator, which canϖ maintain ventilation automatically for an extended period, is
indicated when a patient can’t maintain a safe PaO2 or PaCO2 level.

Two types ofϖ mechanical ventilators exist: negative-pressure ventilators, which apply negative
pressure around the chest wall, and positive-pressure ventilators, which deliver air under pressure
to the patient.

Angina pectoris isϖ characterized by substernal pain that lasts for 2 to 3 minutes. The pain,
which is caused by myocardial ischemia, may radiate to the neck, shoulders, or jaw; is described
as viselike, or constricting; and may be accompanied by severe apprehension or a feeling of
impending doom.

The diagnosis of an acuteϖ myocardial infarction is based on the patient’s signs and symptoms,
electrocardiogram tracings, troponin level, and cardiac enzyme studies.

ϖ The goal of treatment for a patient with angina pectoris is to reduce the heart’s workload,
thereby reducing the myocardial demand for oxygen and preventing myocardial infarction.

Nitroglycerin decreases the amount ofϖ blood that returns to the heart by increasing the capacity
of the venous bed.

The patient should take no more than three nitroglycerinϖ tablets in a 15-minute period.

Hemodialysis is usually performed 24ϖ hours before kidney transplantation.

Signs and symptoms of acute kidneyϖ transplant rejection are progressive enlargement and
tenderness at the transplant site, increased blood pressure, decreased urine output, elevated
serum creatinine level, and fever.

After a radical mastectomy, theϖ patient’s arm should be elevated (with the hand above the
elbow) on a pillow to enhance circulation and prevent edema.

Postoperative mastectomy careϖ includes teaching the patient arm exercises to facilitate lymph
drainage and prevent shortening of the muscle and contracture of the shoulder joint (frozen

After radical mastectomy, the patient should help preventϖ infection by making sure that no
blood pressure readings, injections, or venipunctures are performed on the affected arm.

For a patient who hasϖ undergone mastectomy and is susceptible to lymphedema, a program of
hand exercises can begin shortly after surgery, if prescribed. The program consists of opening and
closing the hand tightly six to eight times per hour and performing such tasks as washing the face
and combing the hair.

Signsϖ and symptoms of theophylline toxicity include vomiting, restlessness, and an apical pulse
rate of more than 200 beats/minute.

The nurse shouldn’tϖ induce vomiting in a person who has ingested poison and is having
seizures or is semiconscious or comatose.

Central venous pressure (CVP),ϖ which is the pressure in the right atrium and the great veins of
the thorax, is normally 2 to 8 mm Hg (or 5 to 12 cm H2O). CVP is used to assess right-sided
cardiac function.

CVP is monitored to assess the need for fluidϖ replacement in seriously ill patients, to estimate
blood volume deficits, and to evaluate circulatory pressure in the right atrium.

To prevent deep veinϖ thrombosis after surgery, the nurse should administer 5,000 units of
heparin subcutaneously every 8 to 12 hours, as prescribed.

Oral anticoagulants,ϖ such as warfarin (Coumadin) and dicumarol, disrupt natural blood clotting
mechanisms, prevent thrombus formation, and limit the extension of a formed thrombus.

Anticoagulants can’t dissolve a formed thrombus.ϖ

ϖ Anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated in a patient who has liver or kidney disease or GI

ulcers or who isn’t likely to return for follow-up visits.

The nurse can assess a patient for thrombophlebitis byϖ measuring the affected and unaffected
legs and comparing their sizes. The nurse should mark the measurement locations with a pen so
that the legs can be measured at the same place each day.

Drainage of more than 3,000 ml ofϖ fluid daily from a nasogastric tube may suggest intestinal
obstruction. Yellow drainage that has a foul odor may indicate small-bowel obstruction.

ϖ Preparation for sigmoidoscopy includes administering an enema 1 hour before the examination,
warming the scope in warm water or a sterilizer (if using a metal sigmoidoscope), and draping the
patient to expose the perineum.

ϖ Treatment for a patient with bleeding esophageal varices includes administering vasopressin
(Pitressin), giving an ice water lavage, aspirating blood from the stomach, using esophageal
balloon tamponade, providing parenteral nutrition, and administering blood transfusions, as

A trauma victim shouldn’tϖ be moved until a patent airway is established and the cervical spine
is immobilized.

After a mastectomy, lymphedema may cause a feeling ofϖ heaviness in the affected arm.

A dying patient shouldn’t be toldϖ exactly how long he’s expected to live, but should be told
something more general such as “Some people live 3 to 6 months, but others live longer.”

After eye surgery, a patient should avoid using makeup untilϖ otherwise instructed.

After a corneal transplant, the patient shouldϖ wear an eye shield when engaging in activities
such as playing with children or pets.

After a corneal transplant, the patient shouldn’t lie on theϖ affected site, bend at the waist, or
have sexual intercourse for 1 week. The patient must avoid getting soapsuds in the eye.

A Milwaukee brace isϖ used for patients who have structural scoliosis. The brace helps to halt the
progression of spinal curvature by providing longitudinal traction and lateral pressure. It should be
worn 23 hours a day.

Short-term measures used toϖ treat stomal retraction include stool softeners, irrigation, and
stomal dilatation.

A patient who has a colostomy should be advised to eat aϖ low-residue diet for 4 to 6 weeks and
then to add one food at a time to evaluate its effect.

To relieve postoperative hiccups, the patient shouldϖ breathe into a paper bag.

If a patient with an ileostomy has a blockedϖ lumen as a result of undigested high-fiber food, the
patient should be placed in the knee-chest position and the area below the stoma should be

During the initial interview and treatment of a patient withϖ syphilis, the patient’s sexual
contacts should be identified.

The nurseϖ shouldn’t administer morphine to a patient whose respiratory rate is less than 12

To prevent drying of the mucous membranes, oxygenϖ should be administered with hydration.

Flavoxate (Urispas) isϖ classified as a urinary tract spasmolytic.

Hypotension is a sign ofϖ cardiogenic shock in a patient with a myocardial infarction.

Theϖ predominant signs of mechanical ileus are cramping pain, vomiting, distention, and inability
to pass feces or flatus.

For a patient with a myocardialϖ infarction, the nurse should monitor fluid intake and output
meticulously. Too little intake causes dehydration, and too much may cause pulmonary edema.

Nitroglycerin relaxes smooth muscle, causing vasodilation andϖ relieving the chest pain
associated with myocardial infarction and angina.

The diagnosis of an acute myocardial infarction is based on theϖ patient’s signs and symptoms,
electrocardiogram tracings, and serum enzyme studies.

Arrhythmias are the predominant problem during the first 48ϖ hours after a myocardial

Clinical manifestations ofϖ malabsorption include weight loss, muscle wasting, bloating, and

Asparaginase, an enzyme that inhibits the synthesis ofϖ deoxyribonucleic acid and protein, is
used to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia.

To relieve a patient’s sore throat that’s caused byϖ nasogastric tube irritation, the nurse should
provide anesthetic lozenges, as prescribed.

For the first 12 to 24 hours after gastric surgery, theϖ stomach contents (obtained by suctioning)
are brown.

After gastricϖ suctioning is discontinued, a patient who is recovering from a subtotal gastrectomy
should receive a clear liquid diet.

The descending colon isϖ the preferred site for a permanent colostomy.

Valvular insufficiency inϖ the veins commonly causes varicosity.

A patient with a colostomy shouldϖ restrict fat and fibrous foods and should avoid foods that can
obstruct the stoma, such as corn, nuts, and cabbage.

A patient who is receivingϖ chemotherapy is placed in reverse isolation because the white blood
cell count may be depressed.

Symptoms of mitral valve stenosis are caused byϖ improper emptying of the left atrium.

Persistent bleeding after openϖ heart surgery may require the administration of protamine
sulfate to reverse the effects of heparin sodium used during surgery.

The nurse should teach aϖ patient with heart failure to take digoxin and other drugs as
prescribed, to restrict sodium intake, to restrict fluids as prescribed, to get adequate rest, to
increase walking and other activities gradually, to avoid extremes of temperature, to report signs
The nurse should check and maintain theϖ patency of all connections for a chest tube. If an air
leak is detected, the nurse should place one Kelly clamp near the insertion site. If the bubbling
stops, the leak is in the thoracic cavity and the physician should be notified immediately. If the
leak continues, the nurse should take a second clamp, work down the tube until the leak is
located, and stop the leak.

Inϖ two-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the rescuers administer 60 chest compressions

per minute and 1 breath for every 5 compressions.

Mitralϖ valve stenosis can result from rheumatic fever.

Atelectasis isϖ incomplete expansion of lung segments or lobules (clusters of alveoli). It may
cause the lung or lobe to collapse.

The nurse should instruct a patientϖ who has an ileal conduit to empty the collection device
frequently because the weight of the urine may cause the device to slip from the skin.

Aϖ patient who is receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be placed on a solid, flat


Brain damage occurs 4 to 6 minutes afterϖ cardiopulmonary function ceases.

Climacteric is the transition periodϖ during which a woman’s reproductive function diminishes
and gradually disappears.

After infratentorial surgery, the patient should remain onϖ his side, flat in bed.

In a patient who has an ulcer, milk isϖ contraindicated because its high calcium content
stimulates secretion of gastric acid.

A patient who has a positive test result forϖ human immunodeficiency virus has been exposed to
the virus associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but doesn’t necessarily
have AIDS.

A common complication after prostatectomy is circulatory failureϖ caused by bleeding.

In right-sided heart failure, a major focus ofϖ nursing care is decreasing the workload of the

Signs andϖ symptoms of digoxin toxicity include nausea, vomiting, confusion, and arrhythmias.

An asthma attack typically begins with wheezing, coughing,ϖ and increasing respiratory distress.

In a patient who is recoveringϖ from a tonsillectomy, frequent swallowing suggests hemorrhage.

ϖ Ileostomies and Hartmann’s colostomies are permanent stomas. Loop colostomies and double-
barrel colostomies are temporary ones.

A patient who has anϖ ileostomy should eat foods, such as spinach and parsley, because they act
as intestinal tract deodorizers.

An adrenalectomy can decrease steroidϖ production, which can cause extensive loss of sodium
and water.

Beforeϖ administering morphine (Duramorph) to a patient who is suspected of having a

myocardial infarction, the nurse should check the patient’s respiratory rate. If it’s less than 12
breaths/minute, emergency equipment should be readily available for intubation if respiratory
depression occurs.

A patient who is recovering from supratentorialϖ surgery is normally allowed out of bed 14 to 48
hours after surgery. A patient who is recovering from infratentorial surgery normally remains on
bed rest for 3 to 5 days.

After a patient undergoes a femoral-popliteal bypass graft,ϖ the nurse must closely monitor the
peripheral pulses distal to the operative site and circulation.

After a femoral-popliteal bypass graft, theϖ patient should initially be maintained in a semi-
Fowler position to avoid flexion of the graft site. Before discharge, the nurse should instruct the
patient to avoid positions that put pressure on the graft site until the next follow-up visit.

Of the five senses, hearing is the last to be lost inϖ a patient who is entering a coma.

Cholelithiasis causes an enlarged,ϖ edematous gallbladder with multiple stones and an elevated
bilirubin level.

The antiviral agent zidovudine (Retrovir) successfully slowsϖ replication of the human
immunodeficiency virus, thereby slowing the development of acquired immunodeficiency

Severe rheumatoid arthritisϖ causes marked edema and congestion, spindle-shaped joints, and
severe flexion deformities.

A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome shouldϖ advise his sexual partners of his
human immunodeficiency virus status and observe sexual precautions, such as abstinence or
condom use.

If aϖ radioactive implant becomes dislodged, the nurse should retrieve it with tongs, place it in a
lead-shielded container, and notify the radiology department.

A patient who is undergoing radiation therapy should patϖ his skin dry to avoid abrasions that
could easily become infected.
Duringϖ radiation therapy, a patient should have frequent blood tests, especially white blood cell
and platelet counts.

The nurse should administer an aluminumϖ hydroxide antacid at least 1 hour after an enteric-
coated drug because it can cause premature release of the enteric-coated drug in the stomach.

ϖ Acid-base balance is the body’s hydrogen ion concentration, a measure of the ratio of carbonic
acid to bicarbonate ions (1 part carbonic acid to 20 parts bicarbonate is normal).

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis causesϖ progressive atrophy and wasting of muscle groups that
eventually affects the respiratory muscles.

Metabolic acidosis is caused by abnormal loss ofϖ bicarbonate ions or excessive production or
retention of acid ions.

ϖ Hemianopsia is defective vision or blindness in one-half of the visual field of one or both eyes.

Systemic lupus erythematosus causes early-morningϖ joint stiffness and facial erythema in a
butterfly pattern.

After totalϖ knee replacement, the patient should remain in the semi-Fowler position, with the
affected leg elevated.

In a patient who is receiving transpyloricϖ feedings, the nurse should watch for dumping
syndrome and hypovolemic shock because the stomach is being bypassed.

If a total parenteral nutritionϖ infusion must be interrupted, the nurse should administer
dextrose 5% in water at a similar rate. Abrupt cessation can cause hypoglycemia.

Statusϖ epilepticus is treated with I.V. diazepam (Valium) and phenytoin (Dilantin).

Disequilibrium syndrome causes nausea, vomiting,ϖ restlessness, and twitching in patients who
are undergoing dialysis. It’s caused by a rapid fluid shift.

An indication that spinal shock is resolving isϖ the return of reflex activity in the arms and legs
below the level of injury.

Hypovolemia is the most common and fatal complication of severeϖ acute pancreatitis.

In a patient with stomatitis, oral care includesϖ rinsing the mouth with a mixture of equal parts
of hydrogen peroxide and water three times daily.

In otitis media, the tympanic membrane is bright redϖ and lacks its characteristic light reflex
(cone of light).

In patientsϖ who have pericardiocentesis, fluid is aspirated from the pericardial sac for analysis
or to relieve cardiac tamponade.

Urticaria is an early sign ofϖ hemolytic transfusion reaction.

During peritoneal dialysis, a return ofϖ brown dialysate suggests bowel perforation. The
physician should be notified immediately.

An early sign of ketoacidosis is polyuria, which is causedϖ by osmotic diuresis.

Patients who have multiple sclerosis shouldϖ visually inspect their extremities to ensure proper
alignment and freedom from injury.

Aspirated red bone marrow usually appears rust-red, withϖ visible fatty material and white bone

The Dick test detectsϖ scarlet fever antigens and immunity or susceptibility to scarlet fever. A
positive result indicates no immunity; a negative result indicates immunity.

The Schick test detects diphtheria antigens and immunityϖ or susceptibility to diphtheria. A
positive result indicates no immunity; a negative result indicates immunity.

The recommended adult dosage ofϖ sucralfate (Carafate) for duodenal ulcer is 1 g (1 tablet) four
times daily 1 hour before meals and at bedtime.

A patient with facial burns or smokeϖ or heat inhalation should be admitted to the hospital for
24-hour observation for delayed tracheal edema.

In addition to patient teaching,ϖ preparation for a colostomy includes withholding oral intake
overnight, performing bowel preparation, and administering a cleansing enema.

Theϖ physiologic changes caused by burn injuries can be divided into two stages: the
hypovolemic stage, during which intravascular fluid shifts into the interstitial space, and the
diuretic stage, during which capillary integrity and intravascular volume are restored, usually 48 to
72 hours after the injury.

The nurse should change total parenteral nutrition tubing everyϖ 24 hours and the peripheral I.V.
access site dressing every 72 hours.

Aϖ patient whose carbon monoxide level is 20% to 30% should be treated with 100% humidified

When in the room of a patient who is in isolationϖ for tuberculosis, staff and visitors should wear
ultrafilter masks.

ϖ When providing skin care immediately after pin insertion, the nurse’s primary concern is
prevention of bone infection.

After an amputation, moistϖ skin may indicate venous stasis; dry skin may indicate arterial

In a patient who is receiving dialysis, anϖ internal shunt is working if the nurse feels a thrill on
palpation or hears a bruit on auscultation.

In a patient with viral hepatitis, theϖ parenchymal, or Kupffer’s, cells of the liver become
severely inflamed, enlarged, and necrotic.
Early signs of acquired immunodeficiencyϖ syndrome include fatigue, night sweats, enlarged
lymph nodes, anorexia, weight loss, pallor, and fever.

When caring for a patient who has aϖ radioactive implant, health care workers should stay as far
away from the radiation source as possible. They should remember the axiom, “If you double the
distance, you quarter the dose.”

A patient who has Parkinson’s diseaseϖ should be instructed to walk with a broad-based gait.

The cardinalϖ signs of Parkinson’s disease are muscle rigidity, a tremor that begins in the fingers,
and akinesia.

In a patient with Parkinson’s disease, levodopaϖ (Dopar) is prescribed to compensate for the
dopamine deficiency.

Aϖ patient who has multiple sclerosis is at increased risk for pressure ulcers.

Pill-rolling tremor is a classic sign of Parkinson’sϖ disease.

For a patient with Parkinson’s disease, nursing interventionsϖ are palliative.

Fat embolism, a serious complication of a long-boneϖ fracture, causes fever, tachycardia,

tachypnea, and anxiety.

ϖ Metrorrhagia (bleeding between menstrual periods) may be the first sign of cervical cancer.

Mannitol is a hypertonic solution and anϖ osmotic diuretic that’s used in the treatment of
increased intracranial pressure.

The classic sign of an absence seizure is a vacant facialϖ expression.

Migraine headaches cause persistent, severe pain thatϖ usually occurs in the temporal region.

A patient who is in a bladderϖ retraining program should be given an opportunity to void every 2
hours during the day and twice at night.

In a patient with a head injury, a decreaseϖ in level of consciousness is a cardinal sign of

increased intracranial pressure.

Ergotamine (Ergomar) is most effective when taken during theϖ prodromal phase of a migraine
or vascular headache.

Treatment of acuteϖ pancreatitis includes nasogastric suctioning to decompress the stomach and
meperidine (Demerol) for pain.

Symptoms of hiatal hernia include aϖ feeling of fullness in the upper abdomen or chest,
heartburn, and pain similar to that of angina pectoris.

The incidence of cholelithiasis is higherϖ in women who have had children than in any other

Acetaminophenϖ (Tylenol) overdose can severely damage the liver.

The prominentϖ clinical signs of advanced cirrhosis are ascites and jaundice.

Theϖ first symptom of pancreatitis is steady epigastric pain or left upper quadrant pain that
radiates from the umbilical area or the back.

Somnambulism isϖ the medical term for sleepwalking.

Epinephrine (Adrenalin) is aϖ vasoconstrictor.

An untreated liver laceration or rupture can progressϖ rapidly to hypovolemic shock.

Obstipation is extreme, intractableϖ constipation caused by an intestinal obstruction.

The definitive testϖ for diagnosing cancer is biopsy with cytologic examination of the specimen.

Arthrography requires injection of a contrast medium and canϖ identify joint abnormalities.

Brompton’s cocktail is prescribed to helpϖ relieve pain in patients who have terminal cancer.

A sarcoma is aϖ malignant tumor in connective tissue.

Aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel)ϖ neutralizes gastric acid.

Subluxation is partial dislocation orϖ separation, with spontaneous reduction of a joint.

Barbiturates canϖ cause confusion and delirium in an elderly patient who has an organic brain

In a patient with arthritis, physical therapy is indicated toϖ promote optimal functioning.

Some patients who have hepatitis A may beϖ anicteric (without jaundice) and lack symptoms,
but some have headaches, jaundice, anorexia, fatigue, fever, and respiratory tract infection.

ϖ Hepatitis A is usually mild and won’t advance to a carrier state.

Inϖ the preicteric phase of all forms of hepatitis, the patient is highly contagious.

Enteric precautions are required for a patient who hasϖ hepatitis A.

Cholecystography is ineffective in a patient who hasϖ jaundice as a result of gallbladder disease.

The liver cells can’t transport the contrast medium to the biliary tract.

In a patient who has diabetesϖ insipidus, dehydration is a concern because diabetes causes

ϖ In a patient who has a reducible hernia, the protruding mass spontaneously retracts into the

To prevent purple glove syndrome, a nurseϖ shouldn’t administer I.V. phenytoin (Dilantin)
through a vein in the back of the hand, but should use a larger vessel.

During stage III of surgicalϖ anesthesia, unconsciousness occurs and surgery is permitted.
Types ofϖ regional anesthesia include spinal, caudal, intercostal, epidural, and brachial plexus.

The first step in managing drug overdose or drug toxicity is toϖ establish and maintain an

Respiratory paralysis occurs in stageϖ IV of anesthesia (toxic stage).

In stage I of anesthesia, the patientϖ is conscious and tranquil.

Dyspnea and sharp, stabbing pain thatϖ increases with respiration are symptoms of pleurisy,
which can be a complication of pneumonia or tuberculosis.

Vertigo is the major symptom of inner earϖ infection or disease.

Loud talking is a sign of hearingϖ impairment.

A patient who has an upper respiratory tract infectionϖ should blow his nose with both nostrils

A patient whoϖ has had a cataract removed can begin most normal activities in 3 or 4 days;
however, the patient shouldn’t bend and lift until a physician approves these activities.

Symptoms of corneal transplant rejection include eyeϖ irritation and decreasing visual field.

Graves’ diseaseϖ (hyperthyroidism) is manifested by weight loss, nervousness, dyspnea,

palpitations, heat intolerance, increased thirst, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), and goiter.

The four types of lipoprotein are chylomicrons (theϖ lowest-density lipoproteins), very-low-
density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and high-density lipoproteins. Health care
professionals use cholesterol level fractionation to assess a patient’s risk of coronary artery

If a patient who is taking amphotericin B (Fungizone) bladderϖ irrigations for a fungal infection
has systemic candidiasis and must receive I.V. fluconazole (Diflucan), the irrigations can be
discontinued because fluconazole treats the bladder infection as well.

Patients with adultϖ respiratory distress syndrome can have high peak inspiratory pressures.
Therefore, the nurse should monitor these patients closely for signs of spontaneous
pneumothorax, such as acute deterioration in oxygenation, absence of breath sounds on the
affected side, and crepitus beginning on the affected side.

Adverse reactions to cyclosporine (Sandimmune) include renal andϖ hepatic toxicity, central
nervous system changes (confusion and delirium), GI bleeding, and hypertension.

Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorderϖ in which the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate
of bone formation.

The hallmark of ulcerative colitis is recurrentϖ bloody diarrhea, which commonly contains pus
and mucus and alternates with asymptomatic remissions.
Safer sexual practices include massaging,ϖ hugging, body rubbing, friendly kissing (dry),
masturbating, hand-to-genital touching, wearing a condom, and limiting the number of sexual

ϖ Immunosuppressed patients who contract cytomegalovirus (CMV) are at risk for CMV
pneumonia and septicemia, which can be fatal.

Urinary tract infectionsϖ can cause urinary urgency and frequency, dysuria, abdominal cramps or
bladder spasms, and urethral itching.

Mammography is a radiographic techniqueϖ that’s used to detect breast cysts or tumors,

especially those that aren’t palpable on physical examination.

To promote early detection ofϖ testicular cancer, the nurse should palpate the testes during
routine physical examinations and encourage the patient to perform monthly self-examinations
during a warm shower.

Patients who have thalassemia minor require noϖ treatment. Those with thalassemia major
require frequent transfusions of red blood cells.

A high level of hepatitis Bϖ serum marker that persists for 3 months or more after the onset of
acute hepatitis B infection suggests chronic hepatitis or carrier status.

Neurogenic bladder dysfunction is causedϖ by disruption of nerve transmission to the bladder. It

may be caused by certain spinal cord injuries, diabetes, or multiple sclerosis.

Oxygen andϖ carbon dioxide move between the lungs and the bloodstream by diffusion.

ϖ To grade the severity of dyspnea, the following system is used: grade 1, shortness of breath on
mild exertion, such as walking up steps; grade 2, shortness of breath when walking a short
distance at a normal pace on level ground; grade 3, shortness of breath with mild daily activity,
such as shaving; grade 4, shortness of breath when supine (orthopnea).

A patient withϖ Crohn’s disease should consume a diet low in residue, fiber, and fat, and high in
calories, proteins, and carbohydrates. The patient also should take vitamin supplements,
especially vitamin K.

In the three-bottle urine collectionϖ method, the patient cleans the meatus and urinates 10 to 15
ml in the first bottle and 15 to 30 ml (midstream) in the second bottle. Then the physician
performs prostatic massage, and the patient voids into the third bottle.

Findings in the three-bottle urine collection method areϖ interpreted as follows: pus in the urine
(pyuria) in the first bottle indicates anterior urethritis; bacteria in the urine in the second bottle
indicate bladder infection; bacteria in the third bottle indicate prostatitis.

Signs andϖ symptoms of aortic stenosis include a loud, rough systolic murmur over the aortic
area; exertional dyspnea; fatigue; angina pectoris; arrhythmias; low blood pressure; and emboli.

Elective surgery is primarily a matter ofϖ choice. It isn’t essential to the patient’s survival, but it
may improve the patient’s health, comfort, or self-esteem.

Required surgery isϖ recommended by the physician. It may be delayed, but is inevitable.

ϖ Urgent surgery must be performed within 24 to 48 hours.

Emergencyϖ surgery must be performed immediately.

About 85% of arterial emboliϖ originate in the heart chambers.

Pulmonary embolism usually resultsϖ from thrombi dislodged from the leg veins.

The conscious interpretationϖ of pain occurs in the cerebral cortex.

To avoid interfering with newϖ cell growth, the dressing on a donor skin graft site shouldn’t be

A sequela is any abnormal condition that follows and is theϖ result of a disease, a treatment, or
an injury.

During sickle cellϖ crisis, patient care includes bed rest, oxygen therapy, analgesics as
prescribed, I.V. fluid monitoring, and thorough documentation of fluid intake and output.

A patient who has an ileal conduit should maintain a dailyϖ fluid intake of 2,000 ml.

In a closed chest drainage system, continuousϖ bubbling in the water seal chamber or bottle
indicates a leak.

ϖ Palpitation is a sensation of heart pounding or racing associated with normal emotional

responses and certain heart disorders.

Fat embolism is likelyϖ to occur within the first 24 hours after a long-bone fracture.

Footdropϖ can occur in a patient with a pelvic fracture as a result of peroneal nerve compression
against the head of the fibula.

To promote venous returnϖ after an amputation, the nurse should wrap an elastic bandage
around the distal end of the stump.

Water that accumulates in the tubing of a ventilatorϖ should be removed.

The most common route for theϖ administration of epinephrine to a patient who is having a
severe allergic reaction is the subcutaneous route.

The nurse should use Fowler’sϖ position for a patient who has abdominal pain caused by

ϖ The nurse shouldn’t give analgesics to a patient who has abdominal pain caused by appendicitis
because these drugs may mask the pain that accompanies a ruptured appendix.

The nurse shouldn’t give analgesics to a patient whoϖ has abdominal pain caused by appendicitis
because these drugs may mask the pain that accompanies a ruptured appendix.

As a last-ditch effort, aϖ barbiturate coma may be induced to reverse unrelenting increased

intracranial pressure (ICP), which is defined as acute ICP of greater than 40 mm Hg, persistent
elevation of ICP above 20 mm Hg, or rapidly deteriorating neurologic status.
The primary signs and symptoms of epiglottiditis are stridorϖ and progressive difficulty in

Salivation is the first stepϖ in the digestion of starch.

A patient who has a demand pacemaker shouldϖ measure the pulse rate before rising in the
morning, notify the physician if the pulse rate drops by 5 beats/minute, obtain a medical
identification card and bracelet, and resume normal activities, including sexual activity.

ϖ Transverse, or loop, colostomy is a temporary procedure that’s performed to divert the fecal
stream in a patient who has acute intestinal obstruction.

Normal values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate are 0 toϖ 15 mm/hour for men younger than
age 50 and 0 to 20 mm/hour for women younger than age 50.

A CK-MB level that’s more than 5% of total CK or more thanϖ 10 U/L suggests a myocardial

Propranolol (Inderal) blocksϖ sympathetic nerve stimuli that increase cardiac work during
exercise or stress, which reduces heart rate, blood pressure, and myocardial oxygen consumption.

After a myocardial infarction, electrocardiogram changesϖ (ST-segment elevation, T-wave

inversion, and Q-wave enlargement) usually appear in the first 24 hours, but may not appear until
the 5th or 6th day.

ϖ Cardiogenic shock is manifested by systolic blood pressure of less than 80 mm Hg, gray skin,
diaphoresis, cyanosis, weak pulse rate, tachycardia or bradycardia, and oliguria (less than 30 ml
of urine per hour).

Aϖ patient who is receiving a low-sodium diet shouldn’t eat cottage cheese, fish, canned beans,
chuck steak, chocolate pudding, Italian salad dressing, dill pickles, and beef broth.

High-potassium foods include dried prunes,ϖ watermelon (15.3 mEq/ portion), dried lima beans
(14.5 mEq/portion), soybeans, bananas, and oranges.

Kussmaul’s respirations are faster and deeperϖ than normal respirations and occur without
pauses, as in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Cheyne-Stokes respirations are characterized byϖ alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid
breathing. They occur in patients with central nervous system disorders.

Hyperventilation can result fromϖ an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal

volume, or both.

Apnea is the absence of spontaneousϖ respirations.

Before a thyroidectomy, a patient may receiveϖ potassium iodide, antithyroid drugs, and
propranolol (Inderal) to prevent thyroid storm during surgery.

The normal life span of red blood cellsϖ (erythrocytes) is 110 to 120 days.

Visual acuity of 20/100 means thatϖ the patient sees at 20' (6 m) what a person with normal
vision sees at 100' (30 m).
Urinary tract infections are more common in girls and women than inϖ boys and men because
the shorter urethra in the female urinary tract makes the bladder more accessible to bacteria,
especially Escherichia coli.

ϖ Penicillin is administered orally 1 to 2 hours before meals or 2 to 3 hours after meals because
food may interfere with the drug’s absorption.

Mildϖ reactions to local anesthetics may include palpitations, tinnitus, vertigo, apprehension,
confusion, and a metallic taste in the mouth.

About 22%ϖ of cardiac output goes to the kidneys.

To ensure accurate centralϖ venous pressure readings, the nurse should place the manometer or
transducer level with the phlebostatic axis.

A patient who has lostϖ 2,000 to 2,500 ml of blood will have a pulse rate of 140 beats/minute
(or higher), display a systolic blood pressure of 50 to 60 mm Hg, and appear confused and

Arterial blood is bright red, flows rapidly, and (becauseϖ it’s pumped directly from the heart)
spurts with each heartbeat.

Venousϖ blood is dark red and tends to ooze from a wound.

ϖ Orthostatic blood pressure is taken with the patient in the supine, sitting, and standing
positions, with 1 minute between each reading. A 10-mm Hg decrease in blood pressure or an
increase in pulse rate of 10 beats/ minute suggests volume depletion.

A pneumatic antishock garment should be used cautiously inϖ pregnant women and patients
with head injuries.

After a patient’sϖ circulating volume is restored, the nurse should remove the pneumatic
antishock garment gradually, starting with the abdominal chamber and followed by each leg. The
garment should be removed under a physician’s supervision.

Mostϖ hemolytic transfusion reactions associated with mismatching of ABO blood types stem
from identification number errors.

Warming of blood to more thanϖ 107° F (41.7° C) can cause hemolysis.

Cardiac output is the amount ofϖ blood ejected from the heart each minute. It’s expressed in
liters per minute.

Stroke volume is the volume of blood ejected from the heartϖ during systole.

Total parenteral nutrition solution contains dextrose,ϖ amino acids, and additives, such as
electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins.

The most common type of neurogenic shock is spinal shock. Itϖ usually occurs 30 to 60 minutes
after a spinal cord injury.
After aϖ spinal cord injury, peristalsis stops within 24 hours and usually returns within 3 to 4

Toxic shock syndrome is manifested by a temperature of atϖ least 102° F (38.8° C), an
erythematous rash, and systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg. From 1 to 2 weeks after
the onset of these signs, desquamation (especially on the palms and soles) occurs.
The signs andϖ symptoms of anaphylaxis are commonly caused by histamine release.

Theϖ most common cause of septic shock is gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli,
Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas organisms.

Bruits are vascular soundsϖ that resemble heart murmurs and result from turbulent blood flow
through a diseased or partially obstructed artery.

Urine pH is normally 4.5 toϖ 8.0.

Urine pH of greater than 8.0 can result from a urinary tractϖ infection, a high-alkali diet, or
systemic alkalosis.

Urine pH of lessϖ than 4.5 may be caused by a high-protein diet, fever, or metabolic acidosis.

Before a percutaneous renal biopsy, the patient should beϖ placed on a firm surface and
positioned on the abdomen. A sandbag is placed under the abdomen to stabilize the kidneys.

Nephrotic syndrome isϖ characterized by marked proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, mild to severe

dependent edema, ascites, and weight gain.

Underwater exercise is a form ofϖ therapy performed in a Hubbard tank.

Most women with trichomoniasisϖ have a malodorous, frothy, greenish gray vaginal discharge.
Other women may have no signs or symptoms.

Voiding cystourethrography may be performed toϖ detect bladder and urethral abnormalities.
Contrast medium is instilled by gentle syringe pressure through a urethral catheter, and overhead
X-ray films are taken to visualize bladder filling and excretion.

ϖ Cystourethrography may be performed to identify the cause of urinary tract infections,

congenital anomalies, and incontinence. It also is used to assess for prostate lobe hypertrophy in

Herpes simplex is characterizedϖ by recurrent episodes of blisters on the skin and mucous
membranes. It has two variations. In type 1, the blisters appear in the nasolabial region; in type
2, they appear on the genitals, anus, buttocks, and thighs.

Most patientsϖ with Chlamydia trachomatis infection are asymptomatic, but some have an
inflamed urethral meatus, dysuria, and urinary urgency and frequency.

Theϖ hypothalamus regulates the autonomic nervous system and endocrine functions.

A patient whose chest excursion is less than normal (3" toϖ 6" [7.5 to 15 cm]) must use
accessory muscles to breathe.
Signs andϖ symptoms of toxicity from thyroid replacement therapy include rapid pulse rate,
diaphoresis, irritability, weight loss, dysuria, and sleep disturbance.

ϖ The most common allergic reaction to penicillin is a rash.

An earlyϖ sign of aspirin toxicity is deep, rapid respirations.

The most seriousϖ and irreversible consequence of lead poisoning is mental retardation, which
results from neurologic damage.

To assess dehydration in the adult, theϖ nurse should check skin turgor on the sternum.

For a patient with aϖ peptic ulcer, the type of diet is less important than including foods in the
diet that the patient can tolerate.

A patient with a colostomyϖ must establish an irrigation schedule so that regular emptying of the
bowel occurs without stomal discharge between irrigations.

When usingϖ rotating tourniquets, the nurse shouldn’t restrict the blood supply to an arm or leg
for more than 45 minutes at a time.

A patient with diabetes shouldϖ eat high-fiber foods because they blunt the rise in glucose level
that normally follows a meal.

Jugular vein distention occurs in patients with heartϖ failure because the left ventricle can’t
empty the heart of blood as fast as blood enters from the right ventricle, resulting in congestion in
the entire venous system.

The leading causes of blindness in the United States areϖ diabetes mellitus and glaucoma.

After a thyroidectomy, the patientϖ should remain in the semi-Fowler position, with his head
neither hyperextended nor hyperflexed, to avoid pressure on the suture line. This position can be
achieved with the use of a cervical pillow.

Premenstrual syndrome mayϖ cause abdominal distention, engorged and painful breasts,
backache, headache, nervousness, irritability, restlessness, and tremors.

Treatment ofϖ dehiscence (pathologic opening of a wound) consists of covering the wound with a
moist sterile dressing and notifying the physician.

When a patient hasϖ a radical mastectomy, the ovaries also may be removed because they are a
source of estrogen, which stimulates tumor growth.

Atropine blocks the effectsϖ of acetylcholine, thereby obstructing its vagal effects on the
sinoatrial node and increasing heart rate.

Salicylates, particularly aspirin, areϖ the treatment of choice in rheumatoid arthritis because
they decrease inflammation and relieve joint pain.

Deep, intense pain that usuallyϖ worsens at night and is unrelated to movement suggests bone
Painϖ that follows prolonged or excessive exercise and subsides with rest suggests muscle pain.

The major hemodynamic changes associated with cardiogenicϖ shock are decreased left
ventricular function and decreased cardiac output.

Before thyroidectomy, the patient should be advised that he mayϖ experience hoarseness or loss
of his voice for several days after surgery.

Acceptable adverse effects of long-term steroid use includeϖ weight gain, acne, headaches,
fatigue, and increased urine retention.

ϖ Unacceptable adverse effects of long-term steroid use are dizziness on rising, nausea, vomiting,
thirst, and pain.

After a craniotomy, nursing careϖ includes maintaining normal intracranial pressure, maintaining
cerebral perfusion pressure, and preventing injury related to cerebral and cellular ischemia.

Folic acid and vitamin B12 are essential for nucleoproteinϖ synthesis and red blood cell

Immediately after intracranialϖ surgery, nursing care includes not giving the patient anything by
mouth until the gag and cough reflexes return, monitoring vital signs and assessing the level of
consciousness (LOC) for signs of increasing intracranial pressure, and administering analgesics
that don’t mask the LOC.

Chestϖ physiotherapy includes postural drainage, chest percussion and vibration, and coughing
and deep-breathing exercises.

Cushing’s syndrome results fromϖ excessive levels of adrenocortical hormones and is manifested
by fat pads on the face (moon face) and over the upper back (buffalo hump), acne, mood swings,
hirsutism, amenorrhea, and decreased libido.

To prevent an addisonianϖ crisis when discontinuing long-term prednisone (Deltasone) therapy,

the nurse should taper the dose slowly to allow for monitoring of disease flare-ups and for the
return of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function.

Pulsusϖ paradoxus is a pulse that becomes weak during inspiration and strong during expiration.
It may be a sign of cardiac tamponade.

Substances that areϖ expelled through portals of exit include saliva, mucus, feces, urine,
vomitus, blood, and vaginal and penile discharges.

A microorganism may beϖ transmitted directly, by contact with an infected body or droplets, or
indirectly, by contact with contaminated air, soil, water, or fluids.

Aϖ postmenopausal woman who receives estrogen therapy is at an increased risk for gallbladder
disease and breast cancer.

The approximate oxygenϖ concentrations delivered by a nasal cannula are as follows: 1 L =

24%, 2 L = 28%, 3 L = 32%, 4 L= 36%, and 5 L = 40%.

Cardinal features of diabetesϖ insipidus include polydipsia (excessive thirst) and polyuria
(increased urination to 5 L/24 hours).

A patient with low specificϖ gravity (1.001 to 1.005) may have an increased desire for cold

ϖ Diabetic coma can occur when the blood glucose level drops below 60 mg/dl.

For a patient with heart failure, the nurse should elevate theϖ head of the bed 8" to 12" (20 to
30 cm), provide a bedside commode, and administer cardiac glycosides and diuretics as

The primaryϖ reason to treat streptococcal sore throat with antibiotics is to protect the heart
valves and prevent rheumatic fever.

A patient with a nasalϖ fracture may lose consciousness during reduction.

Hoarseness and changeϖ in the voice are commonly the first signs of laryngeal cancer.

Theϖ lungs, colon, and rectum are among the most common cancer sites.

Theϖ most common preoperative problem in elderly patients is lower-than-normal total blood

Mannitol (Osmitrol), an osmotic diuretic, is administeredϖ to reduce intraocular or intracranial


When a stroke isϖ suspected, the nurse should place the patient on the affected side to promote
lung expansion on the unaffected side.

For a patient who has had chestϖ surgery, the nurse should recommend sitting upright and
performing coughing and deep-breathing exercises. These actions promote expansion of the
lungs, removal of secretions, and optimal pulmonary functioning.

During every sleepϖ cycle, the sleeper passes through four stages of nonrapid-eye-movement
sleep and one stage of rapid-eye-movement sleep.

A patient who is takingϖ calcifediol (Calderol) should avoid concomitant use of preparations that
contain vitamin D.

A patient should begin and end a 24-hour urine collectionϖ period with an empty bladder. For
example, if the physician orders urine to be collected from 0800 Thursday to 0800 Friday, the
urine voided at 0800 Thursday should be discarded and the urine voided at 0800 Friday should be

In a patient who is receiving digoxin (Lanoxin), a lowϖ potassium level increases the risk of
digoxin toxicity.

Blood ureaϖ nitrogen values normally range from 10 to 20 mg/dl.

Flurazepamϖ (Dalmane) toxicity is manifested by confusion, hallucinations, and ataxia.

A silent myocardial infarction is one that has noϖ symptoms.

Adverse reactions to verapamil (Isoptin) include dizziness,ϖ headache, constipation,

hypotension, and atrioventricular conduction disturbances. The drug also may increase the serum
digoxin level.

Whenϖ a rectal tube is used to relieve flatulence or enhance peristalsis, it should be inserted for
no longer than 20 minutes.

Yellowish green discharge on aϖ wound dressing indicates infection and should be cultured.

Sickle cellϖ crisis can cause severe abdominal, thoracic, muscular, and bone pain along with
painful swelling of soft tissue in the hands and feet.

Oral candidiasisϖ (thrush) is characterized by cream-colored or bluish white patches on the oral
mucous membrane.

Treatment for a patient with cysticϖ fibrosis may include drug therapy, exercises to improve
breathing and posture, exercises to facilitate mobilization of pulmonary secretions, a high-salt
diet, and pancreatic enzyme supplements with snacks and meals.

Pancreaticϖ cancer may cause weight loss, jaundice, and intermittent dull-to-severe epigastric

Metastasis is the spread of cancer from one organ orϖ body part to another through the
lymphatic system, circulation system, or cerebrospinal fluid.

The management of pulmonary edema focuses onϖ opening the airways, supporting ventilation
and perfusion, improving cardiac functioning, reducing preload, and reducing patient anxiety.

Factorsϖ that contribute to the death of patients with Alzheimer’s disease include infection,
malnutrition, and dehydration.

Hodgkin’s disease isϖ characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of cervical lymph

nodes and other lymphoid tissue as a result of proliferation of Reed-Sternberg cells, histiocytes,
and eosinophils.

Huntington’s disease (chorea) is aϖ hereditary disease characterized by degeneration in the

cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

A patient with Huntington’s disease may exhibit suicidalϖ ideation.

At discharge, an amputee should be able to demonstrate properϖ stump care and perform
stump-toughening exercises.

Acute tubularϖ necrosis is the most common cause of acute renal failure.

Commonϖ complications of ice water lavage are vomiting and aspiration.

Foodsϖ high in vitamin D include fortified milk, fish, liver, liver oil, herring, and egg yolk.

For a pelvic examination, the patient should be in theϖ lithotomy position, with the buttocks
extending 2½" (6.4 cm) past the end of the examination table.

If a patient can’t assume the lithotomy position forϖ a pelvic examination, she may lie on her left

A male examinerϖ should have a female assistant present during a vaginal examination for the
patient’s emotional comfort and the examiner’s legal protection.

ϖ Cervical secretions are clear and stretchy before ovulation and white and opaque after
ovulation. They’re normally odorless and don’t irritate the mucosa.

A patient with an ileostomy shouldn’t eat corn because it mayϖ obstruct the opening of the

Liver dysfunction affects theϖ metabolism of certain drugs.

Edema that accompanies burns andϖ malnutrition is caused by decreased osmotic pressure in
the capillaries.

Hyponatremia is most likely to occur as a complication ofϖ nasogastric suctioning.

In a man who has complete spinal cordϖ separation at S4, erection and ejaculation aren’t

The earlyϖ signs of pulmonary edema (dyspnea on exertion and coughing) reflect interstitial fluid
accumulation and decreased ventilation and alveolar perfusion.

ϖ Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) is a first-line drug used to control edema after spinal cord

For the patient who is recoveringϖ from an intracranial bleed, the nurse should maintain a quiet,
restful environment for the first few days.

Neurosyphilis is associated withϖ widespread damage to the central nervous system, including
general paresis, personality changes, slapping gait, and blindness.

A woman who has hadϖ a spinal cord injury can still become pregnant.

In a patient who hasϖ had a stroke, the most serious complication is increasing intracranial

A patient with an intracranial hemorrhage should undergoϖ arteriography to identify the site of
the bleeding.

Factors that affectϖ the action of drugs include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and

Before prescribing a drug for a woman of childbearing age,ϖ the prescriber should ask for the
date of her last menstrual period and ask if she may be pregnant.

Acidosis may cause insulin resistance.ϖ

Aϖ patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency may have acute hemolytic

anemia when given a sulfonamide.

The five basic activities ofϖ the digestive system are ingestion, movement of food, digestion,
absorption, and defecation.

Signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis include epigastricϖ pain, vomiting, bluish discoloration
of the left flank (Grey Turner’s sign), bluish discoloration of the periumbilical area (Cullen’s sign),
low-grade fever, tachycardia, and hypotension.

A patient with a gastric ulcer may haveϖ gnawing or burning epigastric pain.

To test the first cranialϖ nerve (olfactory nerve), the nurse should ask the patient to close his
eyes, occlude one nostril, and identify a nonirritating substance (such as peppermint or cinnamon)
by smell. Then the nurse should repeat the test with the patient’s other nostril occluded.

Salk and Sabin introduced the oral polioϖ vaccine.

A patient with a disease of the cerebellum or posterior columnϖ has an ataxic gait that’s
characterized by staggering and inability to remain steady when standing with the feet together.

In trauma patients,ϖ improved outcome is directly related to early re

suscitation, aggressive management of shock, and appropriate definitive care.

To check forϖ leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, the nurse should inspect the patient’s nose and
ears. If the patient can sit up, the nurse should observe him for leakage as the patient leans

Locked-in syndrome is complete paralysis as aϖ result of brain stem damage. Only the eyes can
be moved voluntarily.

ϖ Neck dissection, or surgical removal of the cervical lymph nodes, is performed to prevent the
spread of malignant tumors of the head and neck.

Aϖ patient with cholecystitis typically has right epigastric pain that may radiate to the right
scapula or shoulder; nausea; and vomiting, especially after eating a heavy meal.

Atropine is used preoperatively to reduceϖ secretions.

Serum calcium levels are normally 4.5 to 5.5ϖ mEq/L.

Suppressor T cells regulate overall immuneϖ response.

Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase andϖ alanine aminotransferase show whether the
liver is adequately detoxifying drugs.

Serum sodium levels are normally 135 to 145 mEq/L.ϖ

ϖ Serum potassium levels are normally 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L.

A patient who isϖ taking prednisone (Deltasone) should consume a salt-restricted diet that’s rich
in potassium and protein.
When performing continuous ambulatoryϖ peritoneal dialysis, the nurse must use sterile
technique when handling the catheter, send a peritoneal fluid sample for culture and sensitivity
testing every 24 hours, and report signs of infection and fluid imbalance.

Whenϖ working with patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the nurse should
wear goggles and a mask only if blood or another body fluid could splash onto the nurse’s face.

Blood spills that are infected with humanϖ immunodeficiency virus should be cleaned up with a
1:10 solution of sodium hypochlorite 5.25% (household bleach).

Raynaud’s phenomenon isϖ intermittent ischemic attacks in the fingers or toes. It causes severe
pallor and sometimes paresthesia and pain.

Intussusception (prolapse of oneϖ bowel segment into the lumen of another) causes sudden
epigastric pain, sausage-shaped abdominal swelling, passage of mucus and blood through the
rectum, shock, and hypotension.

Bence Jones protein occurs almostϖ exclusively in the urine of patients who have multiple

Gaucher’s disease is an autosomal disorder that’sϖ characterized by abnormal accumulation of

glucocerebrosides (lipid substances that contain glucose) in monocytes and macrocytes. It has
three forms: Type 1 is the adult form, type 2 is the infantile form, and type 3 is the juvenile form.

A patient with colon obstruction may have lower abdominal pain,ϖ constipation, increasing
distention, and vomiting.

Colchicineϖ (Colsalide) relieves inflammation and is used to treat gout.

Someϖ people have gout as a result of hyperuricemia because they can’t metabolize and excrete
purines normally.

A normal sperm count is 20 to 150ϖ million/ml.

A first-degree burn involves the stratum corneum layer ofϖ the epidermis and causes pain and

Sheehan’s syndrome isϖ hypopituitarism caused by a pituitary infarct after postpartum shock
and hemorrhage.

When caring for a patient who has had an asthma attack, theϖ nurse should place the patient in
Fowler’s or semi-Fowler’s position.

ϖ In elderly patients, the incidence of noncompliance with prescribed drug therapy is high. Many
elderly patients have diminished visual acuity, hearing loss, or forgetfulness, or need to take
multiple drugs.

Tuberculosis is aϖ reportable communicable disease that’s caused by infection with

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (an acid-fast bacillus).

For right-sided cardiacϖ catheterization, the physician passes a multilumen catheter through the
superior or inferior vena cava.

After a fracture, bone healing occurs inϖ these stages: hematoma formation, cellular
proliferation and callus formation, and ossification and remodeling.

A patient who is scheduled forϖ positron emission tomography should avoid alcohol, tobacco, and
caffeine for 24 hours before the test.

In a stroke, decreased oxygen destroys brainϖ cells.

A patient with glaucoma shouldn’t receive atropine sulfateϖ because it increases intraocular

The nurse should instruct aϖ patient who is hyperventilating to breathe into a paper bag.

Duringϖ intermittent positive-pressure breathing, the patient should bite down on the
mouthpiece, breathe normally, and let the machine do the work. After inspiration, the patient
should hold his breath for 3 or 4 seconds and exhale completely through the mouthpiece.

Flexion contractures of the hips mayϖ occur in a patient who sits in a wheelchair for a long time.

Nystagmusϖ is rapid horizontal or rotating eye movement.

After myelography, theϖ patient should remain recumbent for 24 hours.

The treatment of sprainsϖ and strains consists of applying ice immediately and elevating the arm
or leg above heart level.

An anticholinesterase agent shouldn’t be prescribedϖ for a patient who is taking morphine

because it can potentiate the effect of morphine and cause respiratory depression.

Myopia is nearsightedness.ϖ Hyperopia and presbyopia are two types of farsightedness.

The mostϖ effective contraceptive method is one that the woman selects for herself and uses

To perform Weber’s test for bone conduction, aϖ vibrating tuning fork is placed on top of the
patient’s head at midline. The patient should perceive the sound equally in both ears. In a patient
who has conductive hearing loss, the sound is heard in (lateralizes to) the ear that has conductive

In the Rinne test, bone conduction is tested byϖ placing a vibrating tuning fork on the mastoid
process of the temporal bone and air conduction is tested by holding the vibrating tuning fork ½"
(1.3 cm) from the external auditory meatus. These tests are alternated, at different frequencies,
until the tuning fork is no longer heard at one position.

ϖ After an amputation, the stump may shrink because of muscle atrophy and decreased
subcutaneous fat.

A patient who has deep vein thrombosis isϖ given heparin for 7 to 10 days, followed by 12 weeks
of warfarin (Coumadin) therapy.
After pneumonectomy, the patient should be positioned on theϖ operative side or on his back,
with his head slightly elevated.

Toϖ reduce the possibility of formation of new emboli or expansion of existing emboli, a patient
with deep vein thrombosis should receive heparin.

ϖ Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of coronary artery disease. It usually involves the
aorta and the femoral, coronary, and cerebral arteries.

ϖ Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal complication of deep vein thrombosis.

Chest pain is the most common symptom of pulmonaryϖ embolism.

The nurse should inform a patient who is takingϖ phenazopyridine (Pyridium) that this drug
colors urine orange or red.
ϖ Pneumothorax is a serious complication of central venous line placement; it’s caused by
inadvertent lung puncture.

Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniaϖ isn’t considered contagious because it only affects patients
who have a suppressed immune system.

To enhance drug absorption, the patientϖ should take regular erythromycin tablets with a full
glass of water 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal or should take enteric-coated tablets with
food. The patient should avoid taking either type of tablet with fruit juice.

ϖ Trismus, a sign of tetanus (lockjaw), causes painful spasms of the masticatory muscles,
difficulty opening the mouth, neck rigidity and stiffness, and dysphagia.

The nurse should place the patient in an upright positionϖ for thoracentesis. If this isn’t possible,
the nurse should position the patient on the unaffected side.

If gravity flow is used, the nurse should hangϖ a blood bag 3' (1 m) above the level of the
planned venipuncture site.

ϖ The nurse should place a patient who has a closed chest drainage system in the semi-Fowler

If blood isn’t transfused within 30 minutes, theϖ nurse should return it to the blood bank
because the refrigeration facilities on a nursing unit are inadequate for storing blood products.

Blood that’sϖ discolored and contains gas bubbles is contaminated with bacteria and shouldn’t be
transfused. Fifty percent of patients who receive contaminated blood die.

For massive, rapid blood transfusions and for exchangeϖ transfusions in neonates, blood should
be warmed to 98.7° F (37° C).

A chest tube permits air and fluid to drain from theϖ pleural space.

A handheld resuscitation bag is an inflatable deviceϖ that can be attached to a face mask or an
endotracheal or tracheostomy tube. It allows manual delivery of oxygen to the lungs of a patient
who can’t breathe independently.

Mechanical ventilation artificially controls or assistsϖ respiration.

The nurse should encourage a patient who has a closedϖ chest drainage system to cough
frequently and breathe deeply to help drain the pleural space and expand the lungs.

Tracheal suction removes secretionsϖ from the trachea and bronchi with a suction catheter.

During colostomyϖ irrigation, the irrigation bag should be hung 18" (45.7 cm) above the stoma.

The water used for colostomy irrigation should be 100° to 105° Fϖ (37.8° to 40.6° C).

An arterial embolism may cause pain, loss ofϖ sensory nerves, pallor, coolness, paralysis,
pulselessness, or paresthesia in the affected arm or leg.

Respiratory alkalosis results from conditionsϖ that cause hyperventilation and reduce the carbon
dioxide level in the arterial blood.

Mineral oil is contraindicated in a patient with appendicitis,ϖ acute surgical abdomen, fecal
impaction, or intestinal obstruction.

ϖ When using a Y-type administration set to transfuse packed red blood cells (RBCs), the nurse
can add normal saline solution to the bag to dilute the RBCs and make them less viscous.

Autotransfusion is collection,ϖ filtration, and reinfusion of the patient’s own blood.

Prepared I.V.ϖ solutions fall into three general categories: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic.
Isotonic solutions have a solute concentration that’s similar to body fluids; adding them to plasma
doesn’t change its osmolarity. Hypotonic solutions have a lower osmotic pressure than body fluids;
adding them to plasma decreases its osmolarity. Hypertonic solutions have a higher osmotic
pressure than body fluids; adding them to plasma increases its osmolarity.

ϖ Stress incontinence is involuntary leakage of urine triggered by a sudden physical strain, such
as a cough, sneeze, or quick movement.

Decreasedϖ renal function makes an elderly patient more susceptible to the development of
renal calculi.

The nurse should consider using shorter needles toϖ inject drugs in elderly patients because
these patients experience subcutaneous tissue redistribution and loss in areas, such as the
buttocks and deltoid muscles.

Urge incontinence is the inability to suppress a sudden urgeϖ to urinate.

Total incontinence is continuous, uncontrollable leakage ofϖ urine as a result of the bladder’s
inability to retain urine.

Protein,ϖ vitamin, and mineral needs usually remain constant as a person ages, but caloric
requirements decrease.

Four valves keep blood flowing in one directionϖ in the heart: two atrioventricular valves
(tricuspid and mitral) and two semilunar valves (pulmonic and aortic).

An elderly patient’s height mayϖ decrease because of narrowing of the intervertebral spaces and
exaggerated spinal curvature.
Constipation most commonly occurs when theϖ urge to defecate is suppressed and the muscles
associated with bowel movements remain contracted.

Gout develops in four stages: asymptomatic, acute,ϖ intercritical, and chronic.

Common postoperative complications includeϖ hemorrhage, infection, hypovolemia, septicemia,

septic shock, atelectasis, pneumonia, thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary embolism.

An insulin pumpϖ delivers a continuous infusion of insulin into a selected subcutaneous site,
commonly in the abdomen.

A common symptom of salicylate (aspirin)ϖ toxicity is tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

A frostbitten extremityϖ must be thawed rapidly, even if definitive treatment must be delayed.

Aϖ patient with Raynaud’s disease shouldn’t smoke cigarettes or other tobacco products.

Raynaud’s disease is a primary arteriospastic disorder thatϖ has no known cause. Raynaud’s
phenomenon, however, is caused by another disorder such as scleroderma.

To remove a foreign body from the eye, the nurseϖ should irrigate the eye with sterile normal
saline solution.

Whenϖ irrigating the eye, the nurse should direct the solution toward the lower conjunctival sac.

Emergency care for a corneal injury caused by aϖ caustic substance is flushing the eye with
copious amounts of water for 20 to 30 minutes.

Debridement is mechanical, chemical, or surgicalϖ removal of necrotic tissue from a wound.

Severe pain after cataractϖ surgery indicates bleeding in the eye.

A bivalve cast is cut intoϖ anterior and posterior portions to allow skin inspection.

After earϖ irrigation, the nurse should place the patient on the affected side to permit gravity to
drain fluid that remains in the ear.

If a patient with anϖ indwelling catheter has abdominal discomfort, the nurse should assess for
bladder distention, which may be caused by catheter blockage.

ϖ Continuous bladder irrigation helps prevent urinary tract obstruction by flushing out small blood
clots that form after prostate or bladder surgery.

The nurse should remove an indwelling catheter when bladderϖ decompression is no longer
needed, when the catheter is obstructed, or when the patient can resume voiding. The longer a
catheter remains in place, the greater the risk of urinary tract infection.

In an adult, the extent of a burnϖ injury is determined by using the Rule of Nines: the head and
neck are counted as 9%; each arm, as 9%; each leg, as 18%; the back of the trunk, as 18%; the
front of the trunk, as 18%; and the perineum, as 1%.
A deepϖ partial-thickness burn affects the epidermis and dermis.

In a patientϖ who is having an asthma attack, nursing interventions include administering

oxygen and bronchodilators as prescribed, placing the patient in the semi-Fowler position,
encouraging diaphragmatic breathing, and helping the patient to relax.

Prostate cancer is usually fatal if bone metastasisϖ occurs.

A strict vegetarian needs vitamin B12 supplements becauseϖ animals and animal products are
the only source of this vitamin.

ϖ Regular insulin is the only type of insulin that can be mixed with other types of insulin and can
be given I.V.

If a patient pulls out the outerϖ tracheostomy tube, the nurse should hold the tracheostomy
open with a surgical dilator until the physician provides appropriate care.

The medullaϖ oblongata is the part of the brain that controls the respiratory center.

For an unconscious patient, the nurse should perform passiveϖ range-of-motion exercises every
2 to 4 hours.

A timed-release drugϖ isn’t recommended for use in a patient who has an ileostomy because it
releases the drug at different rates along the GI tract.

The nurse isn’tϖ required to wear gloves when applying nitroglycerin paste; however, she should
wash her hands after applying this drug.

Before excretory urography, aϖ patient’s fluid intake is usually restricted after midnight.

A sodiumϖ polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) enema, which exchanges sodium ions for
potassium ions, is used to decrease the potassium level in a patient who has hyperkalemia.

If the color of a stoma is much lighter than whenϖ previously assessed, decreased circulation to
the stoma should be suspected.

Massage is contraindicated in a leg with a bloodϖ clot because it may dislodge the clot.

The first place a nurse canϖ detect jaundice in an adult is in the sclera.

Jaundice is caused byϖ excessive levels of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in the blood.

ϖ Mydriatic drugs are used primarily to dilate the pupils for intraocular examinations.

After eye surgery, the patient should be placed on theϖ unaffected side.

When assigning tasks to a licensed practical nurse,ϖ the registered nurse should delegate tasks
that are considered bedside nursing care, such as taking vital signs, changing simple dressings,
and giving baths.
Deep calf pain on dorsiflexion of the foot is a positive Homans’ϖ sign, which suggests venous
thrombosis or thrombophlebitis.

ϖ Ultra-short-acting barbiturates, such as thiopental (Pentothal), are used as injection anesthetics

when a short duration of anesthesia is needed such as outpatient surgery.

Atropine sulfate may be used as a preanestheticϖ drug to reduce secretions and minimize vagal

For a patientϖ with infectious mononucleosis, the nursing care plan should emphasize strict bed
rest during the acute febrile stage to ensure adequate rest.

During theϖ acute phase of infectious mononucleosis, the patient should curtail activities to
minimize the possibility of rupturing the enlarged spleen.

Dailyϖ application of a long-acting, transdermal nitroglycerin patch is a convenient, effective way

to prevent chronic angina.

The nurse must wear a cap,ϖ gloves, a gown, and a mask when providing wound care to a
patient with third-degree burns.

The nurse should expect to administer an analgesicϖ before bathing a burn patient.

The passage of black, tarry fecesϖ (melena) is a common sign of lower GI bleeding, but also may
occur in patients who have upper GI bleeding.

A patient who has a gastric ulcer shouldϖ avoid taking aspirin and aspirin-containing products
because they can irritate the gastric mucosa.

While administering chemotherapy agents with anϖ I.V. line, the nurse should discontinue the
infusion at the first sign of extravasation.

A low-fiber diet may contribute to the development ofϖ hemorrhoids.

A patient who has abdominal pain shouldn’t receive anϖ analgesic until the cause of the pain is

If surgeryϖ requires hair removal, the recommendation of the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention is that a depilatory be used to avoid skin abrasions and cuts.

For nasotracheal suctioning, the nurse should set wall suction atϖ 50 to 95 mm Hg for an infant,
95 to 115 mm Hg for a child, or 80 to 120 mm Hg for an adult.

After a myocardial infarction, a change in pulse rate andϖ rhythm may signal the onset of fatal

Treatment ofϖ epistaxis includes nasal packing, ice packs, cautery with silver nitrate, and
pressure on the nares.

Palliative treatment relieves or reduces theϖ intensity of uncomfortable symptoms, but doesn’t
cure the causative disorder.

Placing a postoperative patient in an uprightϖ position too quickly may cause hypotension.
Verapamil (Calan) andϖ diltiazem (Cardizem) slow the inflow of calcium to the heart, thereby
decreasing the risk of supraventricular tachycardia.

After cardiopulmonary bypassϖ graft, the patient will perform turning, coughing, deep breathing,
and wound splinting, and will use assistive breathing devices.

A patient who isϖ exposed to hepatitis B should receive 0.06 ml/kg I.M. of immune globulin
within 72 hours after exposure and a repeat dose at 28 days after exposure.

ϖ The nurse should advise a patient who is undergoing radiation therapy not to remove the
markings on the skin made by the radiation therapist because they are landmarks for treatment.

The most common symptom of osteoarthritis isϖ joint pain that’s relieved by rest, especially if
the pain occurs after exercise or weight bearing.

In adults, urine volume normally ranges from 800 toϖ 2,000 ml/day and averages between
1,200 and 1,500 ml/day.

Directlyϖ applied moist heat softens crusts and exudates, penetrates deeper than dry heat,
doesn’t dry the skin, and is usually more comfortable for the patient.

ϖ Tetracyclines are seldom considered drugs of choice for most common bacterial infections
because their overuse has led to the emergence of tetracycline-resistant bacteria.

Because light degrades nitroprussideϖ (Nitropress), the drug must be shielded from light. For
example, an I.V. bag that contains nitroprusside sodium should be wrapped in foil.

ϖ Cephalosporins should be used cautiously in patients who are allergic to penicillin. These
patients are more susceptible to hypersensitivity reactions.

If chloramphenicol and penicillin must be administeredϖ concomitantly, the nurse should give the
penicillin 1 or more hours before the chloramphenicol to avoid a reduction in penicillin’s
bactericidal activity.

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate measures the distance andϖ speed at which erythrocytes in
whole blood fall in a vertical tube in 1 hour. The rate at which they fall to the bottom of the tube
corresponds to the degree of inflammation.

When teaching a patient with myasthenia gravis aboutϖ pyridostigmine (Mestinon) therapy, the
nurse should stress the importance of taking the drug exactly as prescribed, on time, and in
evenly spaced doses to prevent a relapse and maximize the effect of the drug.

If an antibioticϖ must be administered into a peripheral heparin lock, the nurse should flush the
site with normal saline solution after the infusion to maintain I.V. patency.

The nurse should instruct a patient with angina to take aϖ nitroglycerin tablet before anticipated
stress or exercise or, if the angina is nocturnal, at bedtime.

Arterial blood gas analysis evaluates gasϖ exchange in the lungs (alveolar ventilation) by
measuring the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide and the pH of an arterial sample.

Theϖ normal serum magnesium level ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L.
Patientϖ preparation for a total cholesterol test includes an overnight fast and abstinence from
alcohol for 24 hours before the test.

Theϖ fasting plasma glucose test measures glucose levels after a 12- to 14-hour fast.

Normal blood pH ranges from 7.35 to 7.45. A blood pH higher thanϖ 7.45 indicates alkalemia;
one lower than 7.35 indicates acidemia.

ϖ During an acid perfusion test, a small amount of weak hydrochloric acid solution is infused with
a nasoesophageal tube. A positive test result (pain after infusion) suggests reflux esophagitis.

Normally, the partial pressureϖ of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) ranges from 35 to 45 mm Hg.
A PaCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg indicates acidemia as a result of hypoventilation; one less than
35 mm Hg indicates alkalemia as a result of hyperventilation.

Red cellϖ indices aid in the diagnosis and classification of anemia.

Normally,ϖ the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao 2) ranges from 80 to 100 mm Hg. A Pao 2
of 50 to 80 mm Hg indicates respiratory insufficiency. A Pao 2 of less than 50 mm Hg indicates
respiratory failure.

The white blood cell (WBC)ϖ differential evaluates WBC distribution and morphology and
provides more specific information about a patient’s immune system than the WBC count.

An exercise stress test (treadmill test, exerciseϖ electrocardiogram) continues until the patient
reaches a predetermined target heart rate or experiences chest pain, fatigue, or other signs of
exercise intolerance.

Alterable risk factors for coronary artery disease includeϖ cigarette smoking, hypertension, high
cholesterol or triglyceride levels, and diabetes.

The mediastinum is the space between the lungs thatϖ contains the heart, esophagus, trachea,
and other structures.

Majorϖ complications of acute myocardial infarction include arrhythmias, acute heart failure,
cardiogenic shock, thromboembolism, and left ventricular rupture.

The sinoatrial node is a cluster of hundreds of cells locatedϖ in the right atrial wall, near the
opening of the superior vena cava.

ϖ For one-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the ratio of compressions to ventilations is 15:2.

For two-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation, theϖ ratio of compressions to ventilations is 5:1.

A patient who hasϖ pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a candidate for cardioversion.

ϖ Echocardiography, a noninvasive test that directs ultra-high-frequency sound waves through

the chest wall and into the heart, evaluates cardiac structure and function and can show valve
deformities, tumors, septal defects, pericardial effusion, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Ataxia is impaired abilityϖ to coordinate movements. It’s caused by a cerebellar or spinal cord

On an electrocardiogram strip, each small block on theϖ horizontal axis represents 0.04 second.
Each large block (composed of five small blocks) represents 0.2 second.

Starling’s law states that the force ofϖ contraction of each heartbeat depends on the length of
the muscle fibers of the heart wall.

The therapeutic blood level for digoxin is 0.5 to 2.5ϖ ng/ml.

Pancrelipase (Pancrease) is used to treat cystic fibrosis andϖ chronic pancreatitis.

Treatment for mild to moderate varicose veinsϖ includes antiembolism stockings and an exercise
program that includes walking to minimize venous pooling.

An intoxicated patient isn’t consideredϖ competent to refuse required medical treatment and
shouldn’t be allowed to check out of a hospital against medical advice.

The primary differenceϖ between the pain of angina and that of a myocardial infarction is its

Gynecomastia is excessive mammary gland development andϖ increased breast size in boys and

Classic symptoms of Graves’ϖ disease are an enlarged thyroid, nervousness, heat intolerance,
weight loss despite increased appetite, sweating, diarrhea, tremor, and palpitations.

Generalized malaise is a common symptom of viral andϖ bacterial infections and depressive

Vitamin C and proteinϖ are the most important nutrients for wound healing.

A patient who hasϖ portal hypertension should receive vitamin K to promote active thrombin
formation by the liver. Thrombin reduces the risk of bleeding.

Theϖ nurse should administer a sedative cautiously to a patient with cirrhosis because the
damaged liver can’t metabolize drugs effectively.

ϖ Beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections should be treated aggressively to prevent

glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever, and other complications.

ϖ The most common nosocomial infection is a urinary tract infection.

ϖ The nurse should implement strict isolation precautions to protect a patient with a third-degree
burn that’s infected by Staphylococcus aureus.

Aϖ patient who is undergoing external radiation therapy shouldn’t apply cream or lotion to the
treatment site.

The most common vascular complication ofϖ diabetes mellitus is atherosclerosis.

Insulin deficiency may causeϖ hyperglycemia.

Signs of Parkinson’s disease include drooling, aϖ masklike expression, and a propulsive gait.

I.V. cholangiography isϖ contraindicated in a patient with hyperthyroidism, severe renal or

hepatic damage, tuberculosis, or iodine hypersensitivity.

Mirrors should beϖ removed from the room of a patient who has disfiguring wounds such as
facial burns.

A patient who has gouty arthritis should increase fluid intakeϖ to prevent calculi formation.

Anxiety is the most common cause of chestϖ pain.

A patient who is following a low-salt diet should avoid cannedϖ vegetables.

Bananas are a good source of potassium and should beϖ included in a low-salt diet for patients
who are taking a loop diuretic such as furosemide (Lasix).

The nurse should encourage a patient who is at riskϖ for pneumonia to turn frequently, cough,
and breathe deeply. These actions mobilize pulmonary secretions, promote alveolar gas exchange,
and help prevent atelectasis.

The nurse should notify the physician whenever a patient’sϖ blood pressure reaches 180/100
mm Hg.

Buck’s traction is used toϖ immobilize and reduce spasms in a fractured hip.

For a patient with aϖ fractured hip, the nurse should assess neurocirculatory status every 2

When caring for a patient with a fractured hip, the nurse shouldϖ use pillows or a trochanter roll
to maintain abduction.

Orthopnea is aϖ symptom of left-sided heart failure.

Although a fiberglass cast is moreϖ durable and dries more quickly than a plaster cast, it
typically causes skin irritation.

In an immobilized patient, the major circulatoryϖ complication is pulmonary embolism.

To relieve edema in a fracturedϖ limb, the patient should keep the limb elevated.

I.V. antibiotics areϖ the treatment of choice for a patient with osteomyelitis.

Blue dye inϖ cimetidine (Tagamet) can cause a false-positive result on a fecal occult blood test
such as a Hemoccult test.

The nurse should suspect elder abuse ifϖ wounds are inconsistent with the patient’s history,
multiple wounds are present, or wounds are in different stages of healing.

Immediately afterϖ amputation, patient care includes monitoring drainage from the stump,
positioning the affected limb, assisting with exercises prescribed by a physical therapist, and
wrapping and conditioning the stump.
A patient who isϖ prone to constipation should increase his bulk intake by eating whole-grain
cereals and fresh fruits and vegetables.

In theϖ pelvic examination of a sexual assault victim, the speculum should be lubricated with
water. Commercial lubricants retard sperm motility and interfere with specimen collection and

For a terminally ill patient,ϖ physical comfort is the top priority in nursing care.

Dorsiflexion ofϖ the foot provides immediate relief of leg cramps.

After cardiacϖ surgery, the patient should limit daily sodium intake to 2 g and daily cholesterol
intake to 300 mg.

Bleeding after intercourse is an earlyϖ sign of cervical cancer.

Oral antidiabetic agents, such asϖ chlorpropamide (Diabinese) and tolbutamide (Orinase),
stimulate insulin release from beta cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas.

Whenϖ visiting a patient who has a radiation implant, family members and friends must limit
their stay to 10 minutes. Visitors and nurses who are pregnant are restricted from entering the

Common causes of vaginal infectionϖ include using an antibiotic, an oral contraceptive, or a

corticosteroid; wearing tight-fitting panty hose; and having sexual intercourse with an infected

A patient with a radiation implant should remain in isolationϖ until the implant is removed. To
minimize radiation exposure, which increases with time, the nurse should carefully plan the time
spent with the patient.

Among cultural groups, Native Americans have the lowestϖ incidence of cancer.

The kidneys filter blood, selectively reabsorbϖ substances that are needed to maintain the
constancy of body fluid, and excrete metabolic wastes.

To prevent straining during defecation, docusateϖ (Colace) is the laxative of choice for patients
who are recovering from a myocardial infarction, rectal or cardiac surgery, or postpartum

After prostate surgery, a patient’s primary sources ofϖ pain are bladder spasms and irritation in
the area around the catheter.

ϖ Toxoplasmosis is more likely to affect a pregnant cat owner than other pregnant women
because cat feces in the litter box harbor the infecting organism.

Good food sources of folic acid include green leafyϖ vegetables, liver, and legumes.
The Glasgow Coma Scale evaluatesϖ verbal, eye, and motor responses to determine the patient’s
level of consciousness.

The nurse should place an unconscious patient in lowϖ Fowler’s position for intermittent
nasogastric tube feedings.

Laënnec’sϖ (alcoholic) cirrhosis is the most common type of cirrhosis.

Inϖ decorticate posturing, the patient’s arms are adducted and flexed, with the wrists and
fingers flexed on the chest. The legs are extended stiffly and rotated internally, with plantar
flexion of the feet.

Candidates forϖ surgery should receive nothing by mouth from midnight of the day before
surgery unless cleared by a physician.

Meperidine (Demerol) is an effectiveϖ analgesic to relieve the pain of nephrolithiasis (urinary


Anϖ injured patient with thrombocytopenia is at risk for life-threatening internal and external

The Trendelenburg test is used to check forϖ unilateral hip dislocation.

As soon as possible after death, theϖ patient should be placed in the supine position, with the
arms at the sides and the head on a pillow.

Vascular resistance depends on blood viscosity,ϖ vessel length and, most important, inside
vessel diameter.

Aϖ below-the-knee amputation leaves the knee intact for prosthesis application and allows a
more normal gait than above-the-knee amputation.

Cerebrospinalϖ fluid flows through and protects the four ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid
space, and the spinal canal.

Sodium regulatesϖ extracellular osmolality.

The heart and brain can maintain bloodϖ circulation in the early stages of shock.

After limb amputation,ϖ narcotic analgesics may not relieve “phantom limb” pain.

A patient whoϖ receives multiple blood transfusions is at risk for hypocalcemia.

ϖ Syphilis initially causes painless chancres (small, fluid-filled lesions) on the genitals and
sometimes on other parts of the body.

Exposure to aϖ radioactive source is controlled by time (limiting time spent with the patient),
distance (from the patient), and shield (a lead apron).

Jaundice is aϖ sign of dysfunction, not a disease.

Severe jaundice can cause brainϖ stem dysfunction if the unconjugated bilirubin level in blood is
elevated to 20 to 25 mg/dl.
The patient should take cimetidine (Tagamet) with meals toϖ help ensure a consistent
therapeutic effect.

When caring for a patientϖ with jaundice, the nurse should relieve pruritus by providing a
soothing lotion or a baking soda bath and should prevent injury by keeping the patient’s
fingernails short.
Type B hepatitis, which is usually transmittedϖ parenterally, also can be spread through contact
with human secretions and feces.

Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone that’s secreted by theϖ beta cells of the islets of
Langerhans in the pancreas in response to a rise in the blood glucose level.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrineϖ disorder that’s characterized by insulin deficiency or

resistance to insulin by body tissues.

A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is based on the classicϖ symptoms (polyuria, polyphagia, weight
loss, and polydipsia) and a random blood glucose level of more than 200 mg/dl or a fasting
plasma glucose level of more than 140 mg/dl when tested on two separate occasions.

A patient withϖ non–insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus produces some insulin and
normally doesn’t need exogenous insulin supplementation. Most patients with this type of diabetes
respond well to oral antidiabetic agents, which stimulate the pancreas to increase the synthesis
and release of insulin.

A patientϖ with insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus can’t produce endogenous insulin
and requires exogenous insulin administration to meet the body’s needs.

Rapid-acting insulins are clear; intermediate- and long-actingϖ insulins are turbid (cloudy).

Rapid-acting insulins begin to act in 30ϖ to 60 minutes, reach a peak concentration in 2 to 10

hours, and have a duration of action of 5 to 16 hours.

The best times to test a diabetic patient’sϖ glucose level are before each meal and at bedtime.

ϖ Intermediate-acting insulins begin to act in 1 to 2 hours, reach a peak concentration in 4 to 15

hours, and have a duration of action of 22 to 28 hours.

Long-acting insulins begin to act in 4 to 8 hours, reach a peakϖ concentration in 10 to 30 hours,

and have a duration of action of 36 hours or more.

If the results of a nonfasting glucose test show above-normalϖ glucose levels after glucose
administration, but the patient has normal plasma glucose levels otherwise, the patient has
impaired glucose tolerance.

ϖ Insulin requirements are increased by growth, pregnancy, increased food intake, stress,
surgery, infection, illness, increased insulin antibodies, and some drugs.

Insulin requirements are decreased by hypothyroidism, decreasedϖ food intake, exercise, and
some drugs.

Hypoglycemia occurs when theϖ blood glucose level is less than 50 mg/dl.

An insulin-resistant patientϖ is one who requires more than 200 units of insulin daily.
Hypoglycemiaϖ may occur 1 to 3 hours after the administration of a rapid-acting insulin, 4 to 18
hours after the administration of an intermediate-acting insulin, and 18 to 30 hours after the
administration of a long-acting insulin.

When theϖ blood glucose level decreases rapidly, the patient may experience sweating, tremors,
pallor, tachycardia, and palpitations.

Objective signs ofϖ hypoglycemia include slurred speech, lack of coordination, staggered gait,
seizures, and possibly, coma.

A conscious patient who hasϖ hypoglycemia should receive sugar in an easily digested form,
such as orange juice, candy, or lump sugar.

An unconscious patient who hasϖ hypoglycemia should receive an S.C. or I.M. injection of
glucagon as prescribed by a physician or 50% dextrose by I.V. injection.

A patient withϖ diabetes mellitus should inspect his feet daily for calluses, corns, and blisters. He
should also use warm water to wash his feet and trim his toenails straight across to prevent
ingrown toenails.

The early stage ofϖ ketoacidosis causes polyuria, polydipsia, anorexia, muscle cramps, and
vomiting. The late stage causes Kussmaul’s respirations, sweet breath odor, and stupor or coma.

An allergen is a substance that can cause a hypersensitivityϖ reaction.

A corrective lens for nearsightedness is concave.ϖ

ϖ Chronic untreated hypothyroidism or abrupt withdrawal of thyroid medication may lead to

myxedema coma.

Signs and symptoms of myxedema coma areϖ lethargy, stupor, decreased level of
consciousness, dry skin and hair, delayed deep tendon reflexes, progressive respiratory center
depression and cerebral hypoxia, weight gain, hypothermia, and hypoglycemia.

Nearsightednessϖ occurs when the focal point of a ray of light from an object that’s 20' (6 m)
away falls in front of the retina.

Farsightedness occurs when the focalϖ point of a ray of light from an object that’s 20' away falls
behind the retina.

A corrective lens for farsightedness is convex.ϖ

ϖ Refraction is clinical measurement of the error in eye focusing.

ϖ Adhesions are bands of granulation and scar tissue that develop in some patients after a
surgical incision.

The nurse should moisten an eye patch for anϖ unconscious patient because a dry patch may
irritate the cornea.

Aϖ patient who has had eye surgery shouldn’t bend over, comb his hair vigorously, or engage in
activity that increases intraocular pressure.
When caringϖ for a patient who has a penetrating eye injury, the nurse should patch both eyes
loosely with sterile gauze, administer an oral antibiotic (in high doses) and tetanus injection as
prescribed, and refer the patient to an ophthalmologist for follow-up.

Signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer include changes inϖ bowel habits, rectal bleeding,
abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, malaise, anemia, and constipation or diarrhea.

When climbing stairs withϖ crutches, the patient should lead with the uninvolved leg and follow
with the crutches and involved leg.

When descending stairs with crutches, theϖ patient should lead with the crutches and the
involved leg and follow with the uninvolved leg.

When surgery requires eyelash trimming, the nurseϖ should apply petroleum jelly to the scissor
blades so that the eyelashes will adhere to them.

Pain after a corneal transplant may indicate that theϖ dressing has been applied too tightly, the
graft has slipped, or the eye is hemorrhaging.

A patient with retinal detachment may reportϖ floating spots, flashes of light, and a sensation of
a veil or curtain coming down.

Immediate postoperative care for a patient with retinalϖ detachment includes maintaining the
eye patch and shield in place over the affected area and observing the area for drainage;
maintaining the patient in the position specified by the ophthalmologist (usually, lying on his
abdomen, with his head parallel to the floor and turned to the side); avoiding bumping the
patient’s head or bed; and encouraging deep breathing, but not coughing.

A patient with a cataract may have vision disturbances, suchϖ as image distortion, light glaring,
and gradual loss of vision.

Whenϖ talking to a hearing-impaired patient who can lip-read, the nurse should face the patient,
speak slowly and enunciate clearly, point to objects as needed, and avoid chewing gum.

Clinical manifestations of venous stasis ulcerϖ include hemosiderin deposits (visible in fair-
skinned individuals); dry, cracked skin; and infection.

The fluorescent treponemal antibody absorptionϖ test is a specific serologic test for syphilis.

To reduce fever, theϖ nurse may give the patient a sponge bath with tepid water (80° to 93° F
[26.7° to 33.9° C]).

When communicating with a patient who has had a stroke,ϖ the nurse should allow ample time
for the patient to speak and respond, face the patient’s unaffected side, avoid talking quickly, give
visual clues, supplement speech with gestures, and give instructions consistently.

The majorϖ complication of Bell’s palsy is keratitis (corneal inflammation), which results from
incomplete eye closure on the affected side.

ϖ Immunosuppressants are used to combat tissue rejection and help control autoimmune
After a unilateral stroke, a patient may be ableϖ to propel a wheelchair by using a heel-to-toe
movement with the unaffected leg and turning the wheel with the unaffected hand.

First-morning urine isϖ the most concentrated and most likely to show abnormalities. It should
be refrigerated to retard bacterial growth or, for microscopic examination, should be sent to the
laboratory immediately.

A patient who is recovering fromϖ a stroke should align his arms and legs correctly, wear high-
top sneakers to prevent footdrop and contracture, and use an egg crate, flotation, or pulsating
mattress to help prevent pressure ulcers.

After a fracture of the armϖ or leg, the bone may show complete union (normal healing),
delayed union (healing that takes longer than expected), or nonunion (failure to heal).

The most common complication of a hip fracture isϖ thromboembolism, which may occlude an
artery and cause the area it supplies to become cold and cyanotic.

Chloral hydrate suppositories should beϖ refrigerated.

Cast application usually requires two persons; itϖ shouldn’t be attempted alone.

A plaster cast reaches maximum strengthϖ in 48 hours; a synthetic cast, within 30 minutes
because it doesn’t require drying.

Severe pain indicates the development of a pressure ulcerϖ within a cast; the pain decreases
significantly after the ulcer develops.

Indications of circulatory interference are abnormal skinϖ coolness, cyanosis, and rubor or pallor.

During the postoperativeϖ phase, increasing pulse rate and decreasing blood pressure may
indicate hemorrhage and impending shock.

Orthopedic surgical wounds bleed moreϖ than other surgical wounds. The nurse can expect 200
to 500 ml of drainage during the first 24 hours and less than 30 ml each 8 hours for the next 48

A patient who has had hip surgery shouldn’t adduct or flex theϖ affected hip because flexion
greater than 90 degrees may cause dislocation.

The Hoyer lift, a hydraulic device, allows two persons toϖ lift and move a nonambulatory patient

A patient with carpalϖ tunnel syndrome, a complex of symptoms caused by compression of the
median nerve in the carpal tunnel, usually has weakness, pain, burning, numbness, or tingling in
one or both hands.

The nurse should instruct a patient who has hadϖ heatstroke to wear light-colored, loose-fitting
clothing when exposed to the sun; rest frequently; and drink plenty of fluids.

A conscious patientϖ with heat exhaustion or heatstroke should receive a solution of ½ teaspoon
of salt in 120 ml of water every 15 minutes for 1 hour.

An I.V. lineϖ inserted during an emergency or outside the hospital setting should be changed
within 24 hours.
After a tepid bath, the nurse should dry the patientϖ thoroughly to prevent chills.

The nurse should take the patient’sϖ temperature 30 minutes after completing a tepid bath.

Shower or bathϖ water shouldn’t exceed 105° F (40.6° C).

Dilatation and curettage isϖ widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of the
uterus with a curette.

When not in use, all central venous catheters must be cappedϖ with adaptors after flushing.

Care after dilatation and curettageϖ consists of bed rest for 1 day, mild analgesics for pain, and
use of a sterile pad for as long as bleeding persists.

If a patient feels faint during aϖ bath or shower, the nurse should turn off the water, cover the
patient, lower the patient’s head, and summon help.

A patient who is taking oralϖ contraceptives shouldn’t smoke because smoking can intensify the
drug’s adverse cardiovascular effect.

The use of soft restraints requires aϖ physician’s order and assessment and documentation of
the patient and affected limbs, according to facility policy.

A vest restraint should be usedϖ cautiously in a patient with heart failure or a respiratory
disorder. The restraint can tighten with movement, further limiting respiratory function. To ensure
patient safety, the least amount of restraint should be used.

If a piggyback system becomes dislodged, the nurse shouldϖ replace the entire piggyback
system with the appropriate solution and drug, as prescribed.

The nurse shouldn’t secure a restraint to a bed’s sideϖ rails because they might be lowered
inadvertently and cause patient injury or discomfort.

The nurse should assess a patient who has limb restraintsϖ every 30 minutes to detect signs of
impaired circulation.

ϖ The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends using a needleless system for
piggybacking an I.V. drug into the main I.V. line.

If a gownϖ is required, the nurse should put it on when she enters the patient’s room and
discard it when she leaves.

When changing the dressing of a patient whoϖ is in isolation, the nurse should wear two pairs of

Aϖ disposable bedpan and urinal should remain in the room of a patient who is in isolation and
be discarded on discharge or at the end of the isolation period.

Mycoses (fungal infections) may be systemic or deep (affectingϖ the internal organs),
subcutaneous (involving the skin), or superficial (growing on the outer layer of skin and hair).
The night before a sputumϖ specimen is to be collected by expectoration, the patient should
increase fluid intake to promote sputum production.

A sample of feces for an ova andϖ parasite study should be collected directly into a waterproof
container, covered with a lid, and sent to the laboratory immediately. If the patient is bedridden,
the sample can be collected into a clean, dry bedpan and then transferred with a tongue
depressor into a container.

When obtaining a sputum specimen forϖ testing, the nurse should instruct the patient to rinse
his mouth with clean water, cough deeply from his chest, and expectorate into a sterile container.

Tonometry allows indirect measurement of intraocularϖ pressure and aids in early detection of

Pulmonary functionϖ tests (a series of measurements that evaluate ventilatory function through
spirometric measurements) help to diagnose pulmonary dysfunction.

Afterϖ a liver biopsy, the patient should lie on the right side to compress the biopsy site and
decrease the possibility of bleeding.

A patient who hasϖ cirrhosis should follow a diet that restricts sodium, but provides protein and
vitamins (especially B, C, and K, and folate).

If 12 hours of gastricϖ suction don’t relieve bowel obstruction, surgery is indicated.

Theϖ nurse can puncture a nifedipine (Procardia) capsule with a needle, withdraw its liquid, and
instill it into the buccal pouch.

When administering wholeϖ blood or packed red blood cells (RBCs), the nurse should use a 16 to
20G needle or cannula to avoid RBC hemolysis.

Hirsutism is excessive body hair inϖ a masculine distribution.

One unit of whole blood or packed red bloodϖ cells is administered over 2 to 4 hours.

Scurvy is associated withϖ vitamin C deficiency.

A vitamin is an organic compound that usuallyϖ can’t be synthesized by the body and is needed
in metabolic processes.

ϖ Pulmonary embolism can be caused when thromboembolism of fat, blood, bone marrow, or
amniotic fluid obstructs the pulmonary artery.

Afterϖ maxillofacial surgery, a patient whose mandible and maxilla have been wired together
should keep a pair of scissors or wire cutters readily available so that he can cut the wires and
prevent aspiration if vomiting occurs.

ϖ Rapid instillation of fluid during colonic irrigation can cause abdominal cramping.

A collaborative relationship between health careϖ workers helps shorten the hospital stay and
increases patient satisfaction.
For elderly patients in a health care facility,ϖ predictable hazards include nighttime confusion
(sundowning), fractures from falling, immobility-induced pressure ulcers, prolonged
convalescence, and loss of home and support systems.

Respiratory tract infections, especiallyϖ viral infections, can trigger asthma attacks.

Oxygen therapy is used inϖ severe asthma attacks to prevent or treat hypoxemia.

During an asthmaϖ attack, the patient may prefer nasal prongs to a Venturi mask because of the
mask’s smothering effect.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease usuallyϖ develops over a period of years. In 95% of
patients, it results from smoking.

An early sign of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)ϖ is slowing of forced expiration. A
healthy person can empty the lungs in less than 4 seconds; a patient with COPD may take 6 to 10

Chronicϖ obstructive pulmonary disease eventually leads to structural changes in the lungs,
including overdistended alveoli and hyperinflated lungs.

ϖ Cellulitis causes localized heat, redness, swelling and, occasionally, fever, chills, and malaise.

Venous stasis may precipitateϖ thrombophlebitis.

Treatment of thrombophlebitis includes leg elevation,ϖ heat application, and possibly,

anticoagulant therapy.

A suctioningϖ machine should remain at the bedside of a patient who has had maxillofacial

For a bedridden patient with heart failure, the nurseϖ should check for edema in the sacral area.

In passive range-of-motionϖ exercises, the therapist moves the patient’s joints through as full a
range of motion as possible to improve or maintain joint mobility and help prevent contractures.

In resistance exercises, which allow muscle length toϖ change, the patient performs exercises
against resistance applied by the therapist.

In isometric exercises, the patient contracts musclesϖ against stable resistance, but without joint
movement. Muscle length remains the same, but strength and tone may increase.

Impetigo is a contagious,ϖ superficial, vesicopustular skin infection. Predisposing factors include

poor hygiene, anemia, malnutrition, and a warm climate.

Afterϖ cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) begins, it shouldn’t be interrupted, except when the
administrator is alone and must summon help. In this case, the administrator should perform CPR
for 1 minute before calling for help.

ϖ The tongue is the most common airway obstruction in an unconscious patient.

For adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the chest compressionϖ rate is 80 to 100 times per
A patient with ulcers should avoidϖ bedtime snacks because food may stimulate nocturnal

Inϖ angioplasty, a blood vessel is dilated with a balloon catheter that’s inserted through the skin
and the vessel’s lumen to the narrowed area. Once in place, the balloon is inflated to flatten
plaque against the vessel wall.

A full liquid diet supplies nutrients, fluids, andϖ calories in simple, easily digested foods, such as
apple juice, cream of wheat, milk, coffee, strained cream soup, high-protein gelatin, cranberry
juice, custard, and ice cream. It’s prescribed for patients who can’t tolerate a regular diet.

A pureed diet meets the patient’s nutritional needsϖ without including foods that are difficult to
chew or swallow. Food is blended to a semisolid consistency.

A soft, or light, diet is specificallyϖ designed for patients who have difficulty chewing or tolerating
a regular diet. It’s nutritionally adequate and consists of foods such as orange juice, cream of
wheat, scrambled eggs, enriched toast, cream of chicken soup, wheat bread, fruit cocktail, and
mushroom soup.

A regular diet is provided for patientsϖ who don’t require dietary modification.

A bland diet restricts foodsϖ that cause gastric irritation or produce acid secretion without
providing a neutralizing effect.

A clear liquid diet provides fluid and a gradualϖ return to a regular diet. This type of diet is
deficient in all nutrients and should be followed for only a short period.

Patients with a gastricϖ ulcer should avoid alcohol, caffeinated beverages, aspirin, and spicy

In active assistance exercises, the patient performs exercisesϖ with the therapist’s help.

Penicillinase is an enzyme produced byϖ certain bacteria. It converts penicillin into an inactive
product, increasing the bacteria’s resistance to the antibiotic.

Battle’s sign is a bluishϖ discoloration behind the ear in some patients who sustain a basilar skull

Crackles are nonmusical clicking or rattling noisesϖ that are heard during auscultation of
abnormal breath sounds. They are caused by air passing through fluid-filled airways.

Antibiotics aren’t effectiveϖ against viruses, protozoa, or parasites.

Most penicillins andϖ cephalosporins produce their antibiotic effects by cell wall inhibition.

When assessing a patient with an inguinal hernia, the nurseϖ should suspect strangulation if the
patient reports severe pain, nausea, and vomiting.

Phimosis is tightness of the prepuce of the penis thatϖ prevents retraction of the foreskin over
the glans.

Aminoglycosides areϖ natural antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria. They
must be used with caution because they can cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.

On scrotal examination, varicoceles and tumors don’tϖ transilluminate, but spermatoceles and
hydroceles do.

A hordeolumϖ (eyelid stye) is an infection of one or more sebaceous glands of the eyelid.

A chalazion is an eyelid mass that’s caused by chronicϖ inflammation of the meibomian gland.

During ophthalmoscopicϖ examination, the absence of the red reflex indicates a lens opacity
(cataract) or a detached retina.

Respiratory acidosis is associated withϖ conditions such as drug overdose, Guillain-Barré

syndrome, myasthenia gravis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pickwickian syndrome, and
kyphoscoliosis. Bullets

Respiratory alkalosis is associated with conditionsϖ such as high fever, severe hypoxia, asthma,
and pulmonary embolism.

ϖ Metabolic acidosis is associated with such conditions as renal failure, diarrhea, diabetic ketosis,
and lactic ketosis, and with high doses of acetazolamide (Diamox).

Gastrectomy is surgical excision of all or partϖ of the stomach to remove a chronic peptic ulcer,
stop hemorrhage in a perforated ulcer, or remove a malignant tumor.

Metabolic alkalosis is associatedϖ with nasogastric suctioning, excessive use of diuretics, and
steroid therapy.

Vitiligo (a benign, acquired skin disease) is marked by starkϖ white skin patches that are caused
by the destruction and loss of pigment cells.

Overdose or accidental overingestion of disulfiram (Antabuse)ϖ should be treated with gastric

aspiration or lavage and supportive therapy.

The causes of abdominal distention are represented by the sixϖ F’s: flatus, feces, fetus, fluid, fat,
and fatal (malignant) neoplasm.

ϖ A positive Murphy’s sign indicates cholecystitis.

Signs of appendicitisϖ include right abdominal pain, abdominal rigidity and rebound tenderness,
nausea, and anorexia.

Ascites can be detected when more than 500 ml of fluidϖ has collected in the intraperitoneal

For a patient with organicϖ brain syndrome or a senile disease, the ideal environment is stable
and limits confusion.
In a patient with organic brain syndrome, memoryϖ loss usually affects all spheres, but begins
with recent memory loss.

ϖ During cardiac catheterization, the patient may experience a thudding sensation in the chest, a
strong desire to cough, and a transient feeling of heat, usually in the face, as a result of injection
of the contrast medium.

Slightϖ bubbling in the suction column of a thoracic drainage system, such as a Pleur-evac unit,
indicates that the system is working properly. A lack of bubbling in the suction chamber indicates
inadequate suction.

ϖ Nutritional deficiency is a common finding in people who have a long history of alcohol abuse.

In the patient with varicose veins, graduatedϖ compression elastic stockings (30 to 40 mm Hg)
may be prescribed to promote venous return.

Nonviral hepatitis usually results from exposure toϖ certain chemicals or drugs.

Substantial elevation of the serumϖ transaminase level is a symptom of acute hepatitis.

Normal cardiacϖ output is 4 to 6 L/minute, with a stroke volume of 60 to 70 ml.

ϖ Excessive vomiting or removal of the stomach contents through suction can decrease the
potassium level and lead to hypokalemia.

As a heparinϖ antagonist, protamine is an antidote for heparin overdose.

If a patientϖ has a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, such as the purified protein
derivative test, the nurse should suspect current or past exposure. The nurse should ask the
patient about a history of tuberculosis (TB) and the presence of early signs and symptoms of TB,
such as low-grade fever, weight loss, night sweats, fatigue, and anorexia.
Signs and symptoms of acute rheumatic feverϖ include chorea, fever, carditis, migratory
polyarthritis, erythema marginatum (rash), and subcutaneous nodules.

Before undergoing any invasive dentalϖ procedure, the patient who has a history of rheumatic
fever should receive prophylactic penicillin therapy. This therapy helps to prevent contamination of
the blood with oral bacteria, which could migrate to the heart valves.

ϖ After a myocardial infarction, most patients can resume sexual activity when they can climb
two flights of stairs without fatigue or dyspnea.

ϖ Elderly patients are susceptible to orthostatic hypotension because the baroreceptors become
less sensitive to position changes as people age.

ϖ For the patient with suspected renal or urethral calculi, the nurse should strain the urine to
determine whether calculi have been passed.

Theϖ nurse should place the patient with ascites in the semi-Fowler position because it permits
maximum lung expansion.

For the patient who has ingestedϖ poison, the nurse should save the vomitus for analysis.

The earliestϖ signs of respiratory distress are increased respiratory rate and increased pulse
In adults, gastroenteritis is commonly self-limiting and causesϖ diarrhea, abdominal discomfort,
nausea, and vomiting.

Cardiac outputϖ equals stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate per minute.

Inϖ patients with acute meningitis, the cerebrospinal fluid protein level is elevated.

When a patient is suspected of having food poisoning, theϖ nurse should notify public health
authorities so that they can interview patients and food handlers and take samples of the
suspected contaminated food.

The patient who is receiving a potassium-wasting diuretic shouldϖ eat potassium-rich foods.

A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonaryϖ disease should receive low-level oxygen
administration by nasal cannula (2 to 3 L/minute) to avoid interfering with the hypoxic drive.

In metabolicϖ acidosis, the patient may have Kussmaul’s respirations because the rate and depth
of respirations increase to “blow off” excess carbonic acids.

Inϖ women, gonorrhea affects the vagina and fallopian tubes.

Afterϖ traumatic amputation, the greatest threats to the patient are blood loss and hypovolemic
shock. Initial interventions should control bleeding and replace fluid and blood as needed.

Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic drug thatϖ acts primarily on alpha, beta1, and beta2
receptors, causing vasoconstriction.

Epinephrine’s adverse effects include dyspnea,ϖ tachycardia, palpitations, headaches, and


A cardinal signϖ of pancreatitis is an elevated serum amylase level.

High colonicϖ irrigation is used to stimulate peristalsis and reduce flatulence.

ϖ Bleeding is the most common postoperative problem.

The patient canϖ control some colostomy odors by avoiding such foods as fish, eggs, onions,
beans, and cabbage and related vegetables.

When paralysis or comaϖ impairs or erases the corneal reflex, frequent eye care is performed to
keep the exposed cornea moist, preventing ulceration and inflammation.

ϖ Interventions for the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome include treating
existing infections and cancers, reducing the risk of opportunistic infections, maintaining adequate
nutrition and hydration, and providing emotional support to the patient and family.

Signs and symptoms ofϖ chlamydial infection are urinary frequency; thin, white vaginal or
urethral discharge; and cervical inflammation.

Chlamydial infection is the mostϖ prevalent sexually transmitted disease in the United States.

Theϖ pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone in the cranial cavity.
Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disorder that’sϖ characterized by impulse disturbances at
the myoneural junction.

ϖ Myasthenia gravis, which usually affects young women, causes extreme muscle weakness and
fatigability, difficulty chewing and talking, strabismus, and ptosis.

Hypothermia is a life-threatening disorder in which the body’sϖ core temperature drops below
95° F (35° C).

Signs and symptoms ofϖ hypopituitarism in adults may include gonadal failure, diabetes
insipidus, hypothyroidism, and adrenocortical insufficiency.

Reiter’s syndromeϖ causes a triad of symptoms: arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis.

ϖ For patients who have had a partial gastrectomy, a carbohydrate-restricted diet includes foods
that are high in protein and fats and restricts foods that are high in carbohydrates. High-
carbohydrate foods are digested quickly and are readily emptied from the stomach into the
duodenum, causing diarrhea and dumping syndrome.

A woman of childbearing age who is undergoing chemotherapyϖ should be encouraged to use a

contraceptive because of the risk of fetal damage if she becomes pregnant.

Pernicious anemia is vitamin B12 deficiencyϖ that’s caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, which is
produced by the gastric mucosal parietal cells.

To perform pursed-lip breathing, the patientϖ inhales through the nose and exhales slowly and
evenly against pursed lips while contracting the abdominal muscles.

A patient who is undergoingϖ chemotherapy should consume a high-calorie, high-protein diet.

Adverseϖ effects of chemotherapy include bone marrow depression, which causes anemia,
leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia; GI epithelial cell irritation, which causes GI ulceration,
bleeding, and vomiting; and destruction of hair follicles and skin, which causes alopecia and

The hemoglobin electrophoresisϖ test differentiates between sickle cell trait and sickle cell

ϖ The antibiotics erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline act by inhibiting protein synthesis in
susceptible organisms.

The nurse administersϖ oxygen as prescribed to the patient with heart failure to help overcome
hypoxia and dyspnea.

Signs and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction includeϖ decreased or absent bowel sounds,
abdominal distention, decreased flatus, and projectile vomiting.

The nurse should use both hands whenϖ ventilating a patient with a manual resuscitation bag.
One hand can deliver only 400 cc of air; two hands can deliver 1,000 cc of air.

Dosages ofϖ methylxanthine agents, such as theophylline (Theo-Dur) and aminophylline

(Aminophyllin), should be individualized based on serum drug level, patient response, and adverse
The patient should apply a transdermalϖ scopolamine patch (Transderm-Scop) at least 4 hours
before its antiemetic action is needed.

Early indications of gangrene are edema, pain, redness,ϖ darkening of the tissue, and coldness
in the affected body part.

Ipecacϖ syrup is the emetic of choice because of its effectiveness in evacuating the stomach and
relatively low incidence of adverse reactions.

Oral ironϖ (ferrous sulfate) may cause green to black feces.

Polycythemia veraϖ causes pruritus, painful fingers and toes, hyperuricemia, plethora (reddish
purple skin and mucosa), weakness, and easy fatigability.

Rheumaticϖ fever is usually preceded by a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, such

as scarlet fever, otitis media, streptococcal throat infection, impetigo, or tonsillitis.

A thyroid storm, or crisis, is an extreme form ofϖ hyperthyroidism.

It’s characterized by hyperpyrexia with a temperature of up to 106° F (41.1° C), diarrhea,
dehydration, tachycardia of up to 200 beats/minute, arrhythmias, extreme irritability,
hypotension, and delirium. It may lead to coma, shock, and death.

Tardive dyskinesia, an adverse reaction toϖ long-term use of antipsychotic drugs, causes
involuntary repetitive movements of the tongue, lips, extremities, and trunk.

Asthma is bronchoconstrictionϖ in response to allergens, such as food, pollen, and drugs;

irritants, such as smoke and paint fumes; infections; weather changes; exercise; or
gastroesophageal reflux. In the United States, about 5% of children have chronic asthma.

Blood cultures help identify the cause of endocarditis. Anϖ increased white blood cell count
suggests bacterial infection.

In aϖ patient who has acute aortic dissection, the nursing priority is to maintain the mean
arterial pressure between 60 and 65 mm Hg. A vasodilator such as nitroprusside (Nitropress) may
be needed to achieve this goal.

For aϖ patient with heart failure, one of the most important nursing diagnoses is decreased
cardiac output related to altered myocardial contractility, increased preload and afterload, and
altered rate, rhythm, or electrical conduction.

For a patient receiving peritoneal dialysis, the nurse mustϖ monitor body weight and blood urea
nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolyte levels.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, such as captoprilϖ (Capoten) and enalapril (Vasotec),

decrease blood pressure by interfering with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

A patient who has stableϖ ventricular tachycardia has a blood pressure and is conscious;
therefore, the patient’s cardiac output is being maintained, and the nurse must monitor the
patient’s vital signs continuously.

Angiotensin-converting enzymeϖ inhibitors inhibit the enzyme that converts angiotensin I into
angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor. Through this action, they reduce peripheral
arterial resistance and blood pressure.
In a patient who isϖ receiving a diuretic, the nurse should monitor serum electrolyte levels,
check vital signs, and observe for orthostatic hypotension.

Breastϖ self-examination is one of the most important health habits to teach a woman. It should
be performed 1 week after the menstrual period because that’s when hormonal effects, which can
cause breast lumps and tenderness, are reduced.

Postmenopausal women should choose a regular time each monthϖ to perform breast self-
examination (for example, on the same day of the month as the woman’s birthday).

The difference between acute and chronicϖ arterial disease is that the acute disease process is

ϖ When preparing the patient for chest tube removal, the nurse should explain that removal may
cause pain or a burning or pulling sensation.

Essentialϖ hypertensive renal disease is commonly characterized by progressive renal


Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is calculated using theϖ following formula, where S = systolic
pressure and D = diastolic pressure: MAP = [(D × 2) + S] ÷ 3

Symptoms of supine hypotension syndrome areϖ dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, and


An immunocompromisedϖ patient is at risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Doll’s eye movement is theϖ normal lag between head movement and eye movement.

Third spacing ofϖ fluid occurs when fluid shifts from the intravascular space to the interstitial
space and remains there.

Chronic pain is any pain that lasts longerϖ than 6 months. Acute pain lasts less than 6 months.
The mechanism of actionϖ of a phenothiazine derivative is to block dopamine receptors in the

Patients shouldn’t take bisacodyl, antacids, and dairy productsϖ all at the same time.

Advise the patient who is taking digoxin to avoidϖ foods that are high in fiber, such as bran
cereal and prunes.

A patientϖ who is taking diuretics should avoid foods that contain monosodium glutamate
because it can cause tightening of the chest and flushing of the face.

ϖ Furosemide (Lasix) should be taken 1 hour before meals.

A patient whoϖ is taking griseofulvin (Grisovin FP) should maintain a high-fat diet, which
enhances the secretion of bile.

Patients should take oral iron productsϖ with citrus drinks to enhance absorption.

Isoniazid should be taken onϖ an empty stomach, with a full glass of water.

Foods that are high inϖ protein decrease the absorption of levodopa.
A patient who is takingϖ tetracycline shouldn’t take iron supplements or antacids.

A patient whoϖ is taking warfarin (Coumadin) should avoid foods that are high in vitamin K, such
as liver and green leafy vegetables.

The normal value forϖ cholesterol is less than 200 mg/dl. The normal value for low-density
lipoproteins is 60 to 180 mg/dl; for high-density lipoproteins, it’s 30 to 80 mg/dl.

The normal cardiac output for an adult who weighs 155 lb (70.3ϖ kg) is 5 to 6 L/minute.

A pulmonary artery pressure catheterϖ (Swan-Ganz) measures the pressure in the cardiac

Severe chestϖ pain that’s aggravated by breathing and is described as “sharp,” “stabbing,” or
“knifelike” is consistent with pericarditis.

Water-hammer pulse is aϖ pulse that’s loud and bounding and rises and falls rapidly. It can be
caused by emotional excitement or aortic insufficiency.

Pathologic splitting ofϖ S2 is normally heard between inspiration and expiration. It occurs in right
bundle-branch block.

Pink, frothy sputum is associated with pulmonaryϖ edema. Frank hemoptysis may be associated
with pulmonary embolism.

Anϖ aortic aneurysm can be heard just over the umbilical area and can be detected as an
abdominal pulsation (bruit).

Heart murmurs are graded according toϖ the following system: grade 1 is faint and is heard after
the examiner “tunes in”; grade 2 is heard immediately; grade 3 is moderately loud; grade 4 is
loud; grade 5 is very loud, but is heard only with a stethoscope; and grade 6 is very loud and is
heard without a stethoscope.

Clot formation during cardiacϖ catheterization is minimized by the administration of 4,000 to

5,000 units of heparin.

Most complications that arise from cardiac catheterization areϖ associated with the puncture site.

Allergic symptoms associated withϖ iodine-based contrast media used in cardiac catheterization
include urticaria, nausea and vomiting, and flushing.

To ensure that blood flow hasn’tϖ been compromised, the nurse should mark the peripheral
pulses distal to the cutdown site to aid in locating the pulses after the procedure.
Theϖ extremity used for the cutdown site should remain straight for 4 to 6 hours. If an
antecubital vessel was used, an armboard is needed. If a femoral artery was used, the patient
should remain on bed rest for 6 to 12 hours.

If aϖ patient experiences numbness or tingling in the extremity after a cutdown, the physician
should be notified immediately.

After cardiacϖ catheterization, fluid intake should be encouraged to aid in flushing the contrast
medium through the kidneys.
In a patient who is undergoingϖ pulmonary artery catheterization, risks include pulmonary artery
infarction, pulmonary embolism, injury to the heart valves, and injury to the myocardium.

Pulmonary artery wedge pressure is a direct indicator ofϖ left ventricular pressure.

Pulmonary artery wedge pressure greater thanϖ 18 to 20 mm Hg indicates increased left

ventricular pressure, as seen in left-sided heart failure.

When measuring pulmonary artery wedgeϖ pressure, the nurse should place the patient in a
supine position, with the head of the bed elevated no more than 25 degrees.

Pulmonary artery pressure,ϖ which indicates right and left ventricular pressure, is taken with the
balloon deflated.

Pulmonary artery systolic pressure is the peak pressureϖ generated by the right ventricle.
Pulmonary artery diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure in the pulmonary artery.

Normal adult pulmonary arteryϖ systolic pressure is 15 to 25 mm Hg.

Normal adult pulmonary arteryϖ diastolic pressure is 8 to 12 mm Hg.

The normal oxygen saturationϖ of venous blood is 75%.

Central venous pressure is the amount ofϖ pressure in the superior vena cava and the right

Normal adultϖ central venous pressure is 2 to 8 mm Hg, or 3 to 10 cm H2O.

A decreaseϖ in central venous pressure indicates a fall in circulating fluid volume, as seen in

An increase in central venous pressure is associated with anϖ increase in circulating volume, as
seen in renal failure.

In a patientϖ who is on a ventilator, central venous pressure should be taken at the end of the
expiratory cycle.

To ensure an accurate baseline central venousϖ pressure reading, the zero point of the
transducer must be at the level of the right atrium.

A blood pressure reading obtained through intra-arterialϖ pressure monitoring may be 10 mm

Hg higher than one obtained with a blood pressure cuff.

In Mönckeberg’s sclerosis, calcium deposits form in theϖ medial layer of the arterial walls.

The symptoms associated withϖ coronary artery disease usually don’t appear until plaque has
narrowed the vessels by at least 75%.

Symptoms of coronary artery disease appearϖ only when there is an imbalance between the
demand for oxygenated blood and its availability.

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is anϖ invasive procedure in which a balloon-

tipped catheter is inserted into a blocked artery. When the balloon is inflated, it opens the artery
by compressing plaque against the artery’s intimal layer.
Before percutaneous transluminalϖ coronary angioplasty is performed, an anticoagulant (such as
aspirin) is usually administered to the patient. During the procedure, the patient is given heparin,
a calcium agonist, or nitroglycerin to reduce the risk of coronary artery spasms.

During coronary artery bypass graft surgery, a blocked coronaryϖ artery is bypassed by using
the saphenous vein from the patient’s thigh or lower leg.

When a vein is used to bypass an artery, the vein is reversed soϖ that the valves don’t interfere
with blood flow.

During a coronaryϖ artery bypass graft procedure, the patient’s heart is stopped to allow the
surgeon to sew the new vessel in place. Blood flow to the body is maintained with a
cardiopulmonary bypass.

During an anginal attack, the cells ofϖ the heart convert to anaerobic metabolism, which
produces lactic acid as a waste product. As the level of lactic acid increases, pain develops.

Painϖ that’s described as “sharp” or “knifelike” is not consistent with angina pectoris.

Anginal pain typically lasts for 5 minutes; however, attacksϖ associated with a heavy meal or
extreme emotional distress may last 15 to 20 minutes.

A pattern of “exertion-pain-rest-relief” is consistent withϖ stable angina.

Unlike stable angina, unstable angina can occur withoutϖ exertion and is considered a precursor
to a myocardial infarction.

Aϖ patient who is scheduled for a stress electrocardiogram should notify the staff if he has taken
nitrates. If he has, the test must be rescheduled.

Exercise equipment, such as a treadmill orϖ an exercise bike, is used for a stress
electrocardiogram. Activity is increased until the patient reaches 85% of his maximum heart rate.

In patientsϖ who take nitroglycerin for a long time, tolerance often develops and reduces the
effectiveness of nitrates. A 12-hour drug-free period is usually maintained at night.

Beta-adrenergic blockers, such as propranolol (Inderal), reduceϖ the workload on the heart,
thereby decreasing oxygen demand. They also slow the heart rate.

Calcium channel blockers include nifedipine (Procardia),ϖ which is used to treat angina;
verapamil (Calan, Isoptin), which is used primarily as an antiarrhythmic; and diltiazem
(Cardizem), which combines the effects of nifedipine and verapamil without the adverse effects.

Aϖ patient who has anginal pain that radiates or worsens and doesn’t subside should be
evaluated at an emergency medical facility.

Cardiac cells canϖ withstand 20 minutes of ischemia before cell death occurs.

During aϖ myocardial infarction, the most common site of injury is the anterior wall of the left
ventricle, near the apex.
After a myocardial infarction, theϖ infarcted tissue causes significant Q-wave changes on an
electrocardiogram. These changes remain evident even after the myocardium heals.

The levelϖ of CK-MB, an isoenzyme specific to the heart, increases 4 to 6 hours after a
myocardial infarction and peaks at 12 to 18 hours. It returns to normal in 3 to 4 days.

Patients who survive a myocardial infarction and have no otherϖ cardiovascular pathology
usually require 6 to 12 weeks for a full recovery.

After a myocardial infarction, the patient is at greatestϖ risk for sudden death during the first 24

After a myocardialϖ infarction, the first 6 hours is the crucial period for salvaging the

After a myocardial infarction, if the patient consistentlyϖ has more than three premature
ventricular contractions per minute, the physician should be notified.

After a myocardial infarction, increasing vascularϖ resistance through the use of vasopressors,
such as dopamine and levarterenol, can raise blood pressure.

Clinical manifestations of heart failureϖ include distended neck veins, weight gain, orthopnea,
crackles, and enlarged liver.

Risk factors associated with embolism are increased bloodϖ viscosity, decreased circulation,
prolonged bed rest, and increased blood coagulability.

Antiembolism stockings should be worn around the clock,ϖ but should be removed twice a day
for 30 minutes so that skin care can be performed.

Before the nurse puts antiembolism stockings back on theϖ patient, the patient should lie with
his feet elevated 6" (15.2 cm) for 20 minutes.

Dressler’s syndrome is known as late pericarditis because itϖ occurs approximately 6 weeks to 6
months after a myocardial infarction. It causes pericardial pain and a fever that lasts longer than
1 week.

Inϖ phase I after a myocardial infarction, for the first 24 hours, the patient is kept on a clear
liquid diet and bed rest with the use of a bedside commode.

In phase I after a myocardial infarction, onϖ the second day, the patient gets out of bed and
spends 15 to 20 minutes in a chair. The number of times that the patient goes to the chair and the
length of time he spends in the chair are increased depending on his endurance. In phase II, the
length of time that the patient spends out of bed and the distance to the chair are increased.

After transfer from the cardiac care unit, theϖ post-myocardial infarction patient is allowed to
walk the halls as his endurance increases.

Sexual intercourse with a known partner usually can beϖ resumed 4 to 8 weeks after a
myocardial infarction.
A patient underϖ cardiac care should avoid drinking alcoholic beverages or eating before
engaging in sexual intercourse.

The ambulation goal for a post-myocardialϖ infarction patient is 2 miles in 60 minutes.

A post-myocardialϖ infarction patient who doesn’t have a strenuous job may be able to return to
work full-time in 8 or 9 weeks.

Stroke volume is the amount of bloodϖ ejected from the heart with each heartbeat.

Afterload is the force thatϖ the ventricle must exert during systole to eject the stroke volume.

Theϖ three-point position (with the patient upright and leaning forward, with the hands on the
knees) is characteristic of orthopnea, as seen in left-sided heart failure.

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea indicates a severe form ofϖ pulmonary congestion in which the
patient awakens in the middle of the night with a feeling of being suffocated.

Clinical manifestations ofϖ pulmonary edema include breathlessness, nasal flaring, use of
accessory muscles to breath, and frothy sputum.
A late sign of heart failure is decreasedϖ cardiac output that causes decreased blood flow to the
kidneys and results in oliguria.

A late sign of heart failure is anasarca (generalizedϖ edema).

Dependent edema is an early sign of right-sided heart failure.ϖ It’s seen in the legs, where
increased capillary hydrostatic pressure overwhelms plasma protein, causing a shift of fluid from
the capillary beds to the interstitial spaces.

Dependent edema, which is most noticeable at theϖ end of the day, usually starts in the feet and
ankles and continues upward.

For the recumbent patient, edema is usually seen in theϖ presacral area.

Signs of urinary tract infection include frequency,ϖ urgency, and dysuria.

In tertiary-intention healing, wound closure isϖ delayed because of infection or edema.

A patient who has hadϖ supratentorial surgery should have the head of the bed elevated 30

An acid-ash diet acidifies urine.ϖ

Vitamin C andϖ cranberry juice acidify urine.

A patient who takes probenecidϖ (Colbenemid) for gout should be instructed to take the drug
with food.

ϖ If wound dehiscence is suspected, the nurse should instruct the patient to lie down and should
examine the wound and monitor the vital signs. Abnormal findings should be reported to the

Zoster immune globulin isϖ administered to stimulate immunity to varicella.

The mostϖ common symptoms associated with compartmental syndrome are pain that’s not
relieved by analgesics, loss of movement, loss of sensation, pain with passive movement, and lack
of pulse.

To help relieve muscle spasms in a patientϖ who has multiple sclerosis, the nurse should
administer baclofen (Lioresal) as ordered; give the patient a warm, soothing bath; and teach the
patient progressive relaxation techniques.

A patient who has a cervical injuryϖ and impairment at C5 should be able to lift his shoulders
and elbows partially, but has no sensation below the clavicle.

A patient who has cervicalϖ injury and impairment at C6 should be able to lift his shoulders,
elbows, and wrists partially, but has no sensation below the clavicle, except a small amount in the
arms and thumb.

A patient who has cervical injury and impairmentϖ at C7 should be able to lift his shoulders,
elbows, wrists, and hands partially, but has no sensation below the midchest.

Injuries to the spinal cord atϖ C3 and above may be fatal as a result of loss of innervation to the
diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Signs of meningeal irritation seen inϖ meningitis include nuchal rigidity, a positive Brudzinski’s
sign, and a positive Kernig’s sign.

Laboratory values that show pneumomeningitis include anϖ elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
protein level (more than 100 mg/dl), a decreased CSF glucose level (40 mg/dl), and an increased
white blood cell count.

Before undergoing magnetic resonance imaging, the patient shouldϖ remove all objects
containing metal, such as watches, underwire bras, and jewelry.

Usually food and medicine aren’t restricted beforeϖ magnetic resonance imaging.

Patients who are undergoing magneticϖ resonance imaging should know that they can ask
questions during the procedure; however, they may be asked to lie still at certain times.

If a contrastϖ medium is used during magnetic resonance imaging, the patient may experience
diuresis as the medium is flushed from the body.

The Tzanck test isϖ used to confirm herpes genitalis.

Hepatitis C is spread primarilyϖ through blood (for example, during transfusion or in people who
work with blood products), personal contact and, possibly, the fecal-oral route.

Theϖ best method for soaking an open, infected, draining wound is to use a hot-moist dressing.

Sputum culture is the confirmation test forϖ tuberculosis.

Dexamethasone (Decadron) is a steroidal anti-inflammatoryϖ that’s used to treat adrenal

Signs of increasedϖ intracranial pressure include alteration in level of consciousness,
restlessness, irritability, and pupillary changes.

The patient who hasϖ a lower limb amputation should be instructed to assume a prone position
at least twice a day.

During the first 24 hours after amputation, the residualϖ limb is elevated on a pillow. After that
time, the limb is placed flat to reduce the risk of hip flexion contractures.

A tourniquet should be inϖ full view at the bedside of the patient who has an amputation.

Anϖ emergency tracheostomy set should be kept at the bedside of a patient who is suspected of
having epiglottitis.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever isϖ spread through the bite of a tick harboring the Rickettsia

Aϖ patient who has acquired immunodeficiency syndrome shouldn’t share razors or toothbrushes
with others, but there are no special precautions for dinnerware or laundry services.

Because antifungal creams may stain clothing,ϖ patients who use them should use sanitary

An antifungal creamϖ should be inserted high in the vagina at bedtime.

A patient who isϖ having a seizure usually requires protection from the environment only;
however, anyone who needs airway management should be turned on his side.

Statusϖ epilepticus is treated with I.V. diphenylhydantoin.

A xenograft is aϖ skin graft from an animal.

The antidote for magnesium sulfate isϖ calcium gluconate 10%.

Allergic reactions to a blood transfusion areϖ flushing, wheezing, urticaria, and rash.

A patient who has a history ofϖ basal cell carcinoma should avoid sun exposure.

When potent,ϖ nitroglycerin causes a slight stinging sensation under the tongue.

Aϖ patient who appears to be “fighting the ventilator” is holding his breath or breathing out on
an inspiratory cycle.

An antineoplasticϖ drug that’s used to treat breast cancer is tamoxifen (Nolvadex).

ϖ Adverse effects of vincristine (Oncovin) are alopecia, nausea, and vomiting.

Increased urine output is an indication that a hypertensiveϖ crisis is normalizing.

If a patient who is receiving I.V. chemotherapyϖ has pain at the insertion site, the nurse should
stop the I.V. infusion immediately.

Extravasation is leakage of fluid into surrounding tissueϖ from a vein that’s being used for I.V.

Clinical signs ofϖ prostate cancer are dribbling, hesitancy, and decreased urinary force.

ϖ Cardiac glycosides increase cardiac contractility.

Adverse effects ofϖ cardiac glycosides include headache, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and
yellow-green halos around lights.

A T tube should be clamped duringϖ patient meals to aid in fat digestion.

A T tube usually remains inϖ place for 10 days.

During a vertigo attack, a patient who has Ménière’sϖ disease should be instructed to lie down
on his side with his eyes closed.

When maintaining a Jackson-Pratt drainage system, the nurseϖ should squeeze the reservoir and
expel the air before recapping the system.

The most common symptom associated with sleep apnea isϖ snoring.

Histamine is released during an inflammatoryϖ response.

When dealing with a patient who has a severe speechϖ impediment, the nurse should minimize
background noise and avoid interrupting the patient.

Fever and night sweats, hallmark signs of tuberculosis,ϖ may not be present in elderly patients
who have the disease.

A suitableϖ dressing for wound debridement is wet-to-dry.

Drinking warm milk atϖ bedtime aids sleeping because of the natural sedative effect of the
amino acid tryptophan.

The initial step in promoting sleep in a hospitalizedϖ patient is to minimize environmental


Before moving aϖ patient, the nurse should assess how much exertion the patient is permitted,
the patient’s physical ability, and his ability to understand instruction as well as her own strength
and ability to move the patient.

A patient who is in aϖ restraint should be checked every 30 minutes and the restraint loosened
every 2 hours to permit range of motion exercises for the extremities.

ϖ Antibiotics that are given four times a day should be given at 6 a.m., 12 p.m., 6 p.m., and 12
a.m. to minimize disruption of sleep.

Sundowner syndromeϖ is seen in patients who become more confused toward the evening. To
counter this tendency, the nurse should turn a light on.
For the patient who hasϖ somnambulism, the primary goal is to prevent injury by providing a
safe environment.

For the patient who has somnambulism, the primary goal isϖ to prevent injury by providing a
safe environment.

Naloxone (Narcan)ϖ should be kept at the bedside of the patient who is receiving patient-
controlled analgesia.
Hypnotic drugs decrease rapid eye movement sleep, but increaseϖ the overall amount of sleep.

A sudden wave of overwhelming sleepinessϖ is a symptom of narcolepsy.

A diabetic patient should be instructed toϖ buy shoes in the afternoon because feet are usually
largest at that time of day.

If surgery is scheduled late in the afternoon, the surgeon mayϖ approve a light breakfast.

A hearing aid is usually left in placeϖ during surgery to permit communication with the patient.
The operating room team should be notified of its presence.

The nurse should monitor theϖ patient for central nervous system depression for 24 hours after
the administration of nitrous oxide.

In the postanesthesia care unit, theϖ proper position of an adult is with the head to the side and
the chin extended upward. The Sims’ position also can be used unless contraindicated.

ϖ After a patient is admitted to the postanesthesia care unit, the first action is to assess the
patency of the airway.

If a patient is admitted to theϖ postanesthesia care unit without the pharyngeal reflex, he’s
positioned on his side. The nurse stays at the bedside until the gag reflex returns.

Inϖ the postanesthesia care unit, the patient’s vital signs are taken every 15 minutes routinely,
or more often if indicated, until the patient is stable.

In the postanesthesia care unit, the T tube should be unclampedϖ and attached to a drainage

After the patient receivesϖ anesthesia, the nurse must observe him for a drop in blood pressure
or evidence of labored breathing.
If a patient begins to go into shock during theϖ postanesthesia assessment, the nurse should
administer oxygen, place the patient in the Trendelenburg position, and increase the I.V. fluid rate
according to the physician’s order or the policy of the postanesthesia care unit.

Typesϖ of benign tumors include myxoma, fibroma, lipoma, osteoma, and chondroma.

Malignant tumors include sarcoma, basal cell carcinoma,ϖ fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma,

myxosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and adenocarcinoma.

For a cancer patient, palliative surgery is performedϖ to reduce pain, relieve airway obstruction,
relieve GI obstruction, prevent hemorrhage, relieve pressure on the brain and spinal cord, drain
abscesses, and remove or drain infected tumors.

A patient who is undergoing radiationϖ implant therapy should be kept in a private room to
reduce the risk of exposure to others, including nursing personnel.
After total knee replacementϖ surgery, the knee should be kept in maximum extension for 3

ϖ Partial weight bearing is allowed approximately 1 week after total knee replacement. Weight
bearing to the point of pain is allowed at 2 weeks.

ϖ Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with a decrease in salivation

and lacrimation. Clinical manifestations include dryness of the mouth, eyes, and vagina.

Normal values of cerebrospinal fluid includeϖ the following: protein level, 15 to 45 mg/100 ml;
fasting glucose, 50 to 80 mg/100 ml; red blood cell count, 0; white blood cell count, 0 to 5/µl: pH,
7.3; potassium ion value, 2.9 mmol/L; chloride, 120 to 130 mEq/L.

Theϖ following mnemonic device can be used to identify whether a cranial nerve is a motor
nerve: I Some | II Say | III Marry | IV Money, | V but | VI My | VII Brother | VII Says | IX Bad | X
Business | XI Marry | XII Money.

Toϖ interpret the mnemonic device: If the word begins with an S, it’s a sensory nerve; if it starts
with an M, it’s a motor nerve; and if it starts with a B, it’s both a sensory and a motor nerve.

The Glasgow Coma Scale evaluatesϖ level of consciousness, pupil reaction, and motor activity. A
score between 3 and 15 is possible.

When assessing a patient’s pupils, the nurse shouldϖ remember that anisocoria, unequal pupils
of 1 mm or larger, occurs in approximately 17% of the population.

Homonymous hemianopsia is a visualϖ defect in which the patient sees only one-half of the
visual field with each eye. Therefore, the patient sees only one-half of a normal visual field.

Passive range-of-motion exercises are commonly started 24 hoursϖ after a stroke. They’re
performed four times per day.

In treating aϖ patient with a transient ischemic attack, the goal of medical management is to
prevent a stroke. The patient is administered antihypertensive drugs, antiplatelet drugs or aspirin
and, in some cases, warfarin (Coumadin).

ϖ A patient who has an intraperitoneal shunt should be observed for increased abdominal girth.

Digestion of carbohydrates begins in theϖ mouth.

Digestion of fats begins in the stomach, but occursϖ predominantly in the small intestine.

Dietary sources of magnesium areϖ fish, grains, and nuts.

A rough estimate of serum osmolarity is twiceϖ the serum sodium level.

In determining acid–base problems, the nurseϖ should first note the pH. If it’s above 7.45, it’s a
problem of alkalosis; if it’s below 7.35, it’s a problem of acidosis. The nurse should next look at
the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). This is the respiratory indicator. If the pH
indicates acidosis and the PaCO2 indicates acidosis as well (greater than 45 mm Hg), then there’s
a match, and the source of the problem is respiration. It’s called respiratory acidosis. If the pH
indicates alkalosis and the PaCO2 also indicates alkalosis (less than 35 mm Hg), then there’s a
match, and the source of the problem is respiration. This is called respiratory alkalosis. If the
PaCO2 is normal, then the nurse should look at the bicarbonate (HCO3–), which is the metabolic
indicator, and note whether it’s acidic (less than 22 mEq/L) or alkaline (greater than 26 mEq/L).
Determine which value the pH matches; it will determine whether the problem is metabolic
acidosis or metabolic alkalosis. If both the PaCO2 and HCO3– are abnormal, then the body is
compensating. If the pH has returned to normal, the body is in full compensation.

The Tensilon (edrophonium chloride) test is used toϖ confirm myasthenia gravis.

A masklike facial expression is a sign ofϖ myasthenia gravis and Parkinson’s disease.

Albumin is a colloid thatϖ aids in maintaining fluid within the vascular system. If albumin were
filtered out through the kidneys and into the urine, edema would occur.

Edemaϖ caused by water and trauma doesn’t cause pitting.

Dehydration isϖ water loss only; fluid volume deficit includes all fluids in the body.

ϖ The primary action of an oil retention enema is to lubricate the colon. The secondary action is
softening the feces.

A patient who uses a walkerϖ should be instructed to move the walker approximately 12" (30.5
cm) to the front and then advance into the walker.

Bradykinesia is a sign of Parkinson’sϖ disease.

Lordosis is backward arching curvature of the spine.ϖ

ϖ Kyphosis is forward curvature of the spine.

In a patient with anorexiaϖ nervosa, a positive response to therapy is sustained weight gain.

Theϖ drug in dialysate is heparin.

An autograft is a graft that’s removedϖ from one area of the body for transplantation to another.

Signs ofϖ cervical cancer include midmenses bleeding and postcoital bleeding.

ϖ After prostatectomy, a catheter is inserted to irrigate the bladder and keep urine straw-colored
or light pink, to put direct pressure on the operative side, and to maintain a patent urethra.

If a radiation implant becomesϖ dislodged, but remains in the patient, the nurse should notify
the physician.

The best method to reduce the risk for atelectasis is toϖ encourage the patient to walk.

Atelectasis usually occurs 24 to 48ϖ hours after surgery.

Patients who are at the greatest risk forϖ atelectasis are those who have had high abdominal
surgery, such as cholecystectomy.

A persistent decrease in oxygen to the kidneysϖ causes erythropoiesis.

Rhonchi and crackles indicate ineffective airwayϖ clearance.

Wheezing indicates bronchospasms.ϖ

Clinicalϖ signs and symptoms of hypoxemia are restlessness (usually the first sign), agitation,
dyspnea, and disorientation.

Common adverse effects ofϖ opioids are constipation and respiratory depression.

Disuseϖ osteoporosis is caused by demineralization of calcium as a result of prolonged bed rest.

The best way to prevent disuse osteoporosis is to encourageϖ the patient to walk.

A cane should be carried on the unaffected sideϖ and advanced with the affected extremity.

Steroids shouldn’t be used inϖ patients who have chickenpox or shingles because they may
cause adverse effects.

Seroconversion occurs approximately 3 to 6 months afterϖ exposure to human immunodeficiency


Therapy with the antiviralϖ agent zidovudine is initiated when the CD4+ T-cell count is 500
cells/µl or less.

In a light-skinned person, Kaposi’s sarcoma causes a purplishϖ discoloration of the skin. In a

dark-skinned person, the discoloration is dark brown to black.

After an esophageal balloon tamponade is in place, itϖ should be inflated to 20 mm Hg.

A patient who has Kaposi’s sarcomaϖ should avoid acidic or highly seasoned foods.

The treatment forϖ oral candidiasis is amphotericin B (Fungizone) or fluconazole (Diflucan).

A sign of respiratory failure is vital capacity of lessϖ than 15 ml/kg and respiratory rate of
greater than 30 breaths/minute or less than 8 breaths/ minute.

For left-sided cardiac catheterization, theϖ catheter is threaded through the descending aorta,
aortic arch, ascending aorta, aortic valve, and left ventricle.

For right-sided cardiacϖ catheterization, the catheter is threaded through the superior vena cava,
right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary capillaries.

ϖ Anemia can be divided into four groups according to its cause: blood loss, impaired production
of red blood cells (RBCs), increased destruction of RBCs, and nutritional deficiencies.

Aspirin, ibuprofen, phenobarbital,ϖ lithium, colchicine, lead, and chloramphenicol can cause
aplastic anemia.

After a patient undergoes bone marrow aspiration, the nurseϖ should apply direct pressure to
the site for 3 to 5 minutes to reduce the risk of bleeding.

Fresh frozen plasma is thawed to 98.6° F (37° C) beforeϖ infusion.

Signs of thrombocytopenia include petechiae, ecchymoses,ϖ hematuria, and gingival bleeding.

A patient who has thrombocytopeniaϖ should be taught to use a soft toothbrush and use an
electric razor.

ϖ Signs of fluid overload include increased central venous pressure, increased pulse rate,
distended jugular veins, and bounding pulse.

Aϖ patient who has leukopenia (or any other patient who is at an increased risk for infection)
should avoid eating raw meat, fresh fruit, and fresh vegetables.

To prevent a severe graft-versus-host reaction, which isϖ most commonly seen in patients older
than age 30, the donor marrow is treated with monoclonal antibodies before transplantation.

The four most commonϖ signs of hypoglycemia reported by patients are nervousness, mental
disorientation, weakness, and perspiration.

Prolonged attacks ofϖ hypoglycemia in a diabetic patient can result in brain damage.

ϖ Activities that increase intracranial pressure include coughing, sneezing, straining to pass feces,
bending over, and blowing the nose.

Treatmentϖ for bleeding esophageal varices includes vasopressin, esophageal tamponade, iced
saline lavage, and vitamin K.

Hepatitis C (also known asϖ blood-transfusion hepatitis) is a parenterally transmitted form of

hepatitis that has a high incidence of carrier status.

The nurse should beϖ concerned about fluid and electrolyte problems in the patient who has
ascites, edema, decreased urine output, or low blood pressure.

The nurse shouldϖ be concerned about GI bleeding, low blood pressure, and increased heart rate
in a patient who is hemorrhaging.

The nurse should be concerned aboutϖ generalized malaise, cloudy urine, purulent drainage,
tachycardia, and increased temperature in a patient who has an infection.

In a patientϖ who has edema or ascites, the serum electrolyte level should be monitored. The
patient also should be weighed daily; have his abdominal girth measured with a centimeter tape
at the same location, using the umbilicus as a checkpoint; have his intake and output measured;
and have his blood pressure taken at least every 4 hours.

Endogenous sources of ammonia include azotemia, GI bleeding,ϖ catabolism, and constipation.

Exogenous sources of ammonia includeϖ protein, blood transfusion, and amino acids.

The following histologicϖ grading system is used to classify cancers: grade 1, well-differentiated;
grade 2, moderately well-differentiated; grade 3, poorly differentiated; and grade 4, very poorly
The following grading system is used toϖ classify tumors: T0, no evidence of a primary tumor;
TIS, tumor in situ; and T1, T2, T3, and T4, according to the size and involvement of the tumor;
the higher the number, the greater the involvement.

Pheochromocytoma is aϖ catecholamine-secreting neoplasm of the adrenal medulla. It causes

excessive production of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Clinicalϖ manifestations of pheochromocytoma include visual disturbances, headaches,

hypertension, and elevated serum glucose level.

The patient shouldn’tϖ consume any caffeine-containing products, such as cola, coffee, or tea,
for at least 8 hours before obtaining a 24-hour urine sample for vanillylmandelic acid.

A patient who is taking ColBenemid (probenecid and colchicine)ϖ for gout should increase his
fluid intake to 2,000 ml/day.

A mioticϖ such as pilocarpine is administered to a patient with glaucoma to increase the outflow
of aqueous humor, which decreases intraocular tension.

The drugϖ that’s most commonly used to treat streptococcal pharyngitis and rheumatic fever is

A patient with gout should avoid purine-containingϖ foods, such as liver and other organ meats.

A patient who undergoesϖ magnetic resonance imaging lies on a flat platform that moves
through a magnetic field.

Laboratory values in patients who have bacterial meningitisϖ include increased white blood cell
count, increased protein and lactic acid levels, and decreased glucose level.

Mannitol is a hypertonic osmoticϖ diuretic that decreases intracranial pressure.

The best method toϖ debride a wound is to use a wet-to-dry dressing and remove the dressing
after it dries.

The greatest risk for respiratory complications occurs afterϖ chest wall injury, chest wall surgery,
or upper abdominal surgery.

ϖ Secondary methods to prevent postoperative respiratory complications include having the

patient use an incentive spirometer, turning the patient, advising the patient to cough and breathe
deeply, and providing hydration.

Aϖ characteristic of allergic inspiratory and expiratory wheezing is a dry, hacking, nonproductive


The incubation period for Rocky Mountainϖ spotted fever is 7 to 14 days.

Miconazole (Monistat) vaginalϖ suppository should be administered with the patient lying flat.

Theϖ nurse should place the patient who is having a seizure on his side.

ϖ Signs of hip dislocation are one leg that’s shorter than the other and one leg that’s externally
Anticholinergic medication is administeredϖ before surgery to diminish secretion of saliva and
gastric juices.

ϖ Extrapyramidal syndrome in a patient with Parkinson’s disease is usually caused by a deficiency

of dopamine in the substantia nigra.

In a burn patient,ϖ the order of concern is airway, circulation, pain, and infection.

ϖ Hyperkalemia normally occurs during the hypovolemic phase in a patient who has a serious
burn injury.

Black feces in the burn patient are commonlyϖ related to Curling’s ulcer.

In a patient with burn injury, immediateϖ care of a full-thickness skin graft includes covering the
site with a bulky dressing.

The donor site of a skin graft should be left exposed to theϖ air.

Leaking around a T tube should be reported immediately to theϖ physician.

A patient who has Ménière’s disease should consume aϖ low-sodium diet.

In any postoperative patient, the priority of concernϖ is airway, breathing, and circulation,
followed by self-care deficits.

ϖ The symptoms of myasthenia gravis are most likely related to nerve degeneration.

Symptoms of septic shock include cold, clammy skin;ϖ hypotension; and decreased urine output.

Ninety-five percent of womenϖ who have gonorrhea are asymptomatic.

An adverse sign in a patientϖ who has a Steinmann’s pin in the femur would be erythema,
edema, and pain around the pin site.

Signs of chronic glaucoma include halos around lights,ϖ gradual loss of peripheral vision, and
cloudy vision.

Signs of aϖ detached retina include a sensation of a veil (or curtain) in the line of sight.

Toxic levels of streptomycin can cause hearing loss.ϖ

Aϖ long-term effect of rheumatic fever is mitral valve damage.

Laboratoryϖ values noted in rheumatic fever include an antistreptolysin-O titer, the presence of
C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Crampy pain in the right lower quadrant of theϖ abdomen is a consistent finding in Crohn’s

Crampy pain in theϖ left lower quadrant of the abdomen is a consistent finding in diverticulitis.

In the icteric phase of hepatitis, urine is amber,ϖ feces are clay-colored, and the skin is yellow.
Signs of osteomyelitisϖ include pathologic fractures, shortening or lengthening of the bone, and
pain deep in the bone.

The laboratory test that would best reflect fluidϖ loss because of a burn would be hematocrit.

A patient who has acuteϖ pancreatitis should take nothing by mouth and undergo gastric suction
to decompress the stomach.

A mist tent is used to increase the hydrationϖ of secretions.

A patient who is receiving levodopa should avoidϖ foods that contain pyridoxine (vitamin B6),
such as beans, tuna, and beef liver, because this vitamin decreases the effectiveness of levodopa.

A patientϖ who has a transactional injury at C3 requires positive ventilation.

Theϖ action of phenytoin (Dilantin) is potentiated when given with anticoagulants.

Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive disorder thatϖ persists throughout life.

A complication of ulcerative colitis isϖ perforation.

When a patient who has multiple sclerosis experiencesϖ diplopia, one eye should be patched.

A danger sign after hipϖ replacement is lack of reflexes in the affected extremity.

Aϖ clinical manifestation of a ruptured lumbar disk includes pain that shoots down the leg and
terminates in the popliteal space.

The most importantϖ nutritional need of the burn patient is I.V. fluid with electrolytes.

ϖ The patient who has systemic lupus erythematosus should avoid sunshine, hair spray, hair
coloring products, and dusting powder.

The best positionϖ for a patient who has low back pain is sitting in a straight-backed chair.

Clinical signs of ulcerative colitis include bloody, purulent,ϖ mucoid, and watery feces.

A patient who has a protein systemic shuntϖ must follow a lifelong protein-restricted diet.

A patient who has aϖ hiatal hernia should maintain an upright position after eating.
A suctionϖ apparatus should be kept at the bedside of a patient who is at risk for status

The leading cause of death in the burn patient isϖ respiratory compromise and infection.

In patients who have herpesϖ zoster, the primary concern is pain management.

The treatment for Rockyϖ Mountain spotted fever is tetracycline.

Strawberry tongue is a sign ofϖ scarlet fever.

If a patient has hemianopsia, the nurse should place theϖ call light, the meal tray, and other
items in his field of vision.
Theϖ best position for the patient after a craniotomy is semi-Fowler.

Signsϖ of renal trauma include flank pain, hematoma and, possibly, blood in the urine and
decreased urine output.

Flank pain and hematoma in the backϖ indicate renal hemorrhage in the trauma patient.

Natural diureticsϖ include coffee, tea, and grapefruit juice.

Central venous pressure ofϖ 18 cm H2O indicates hypervolemia.

Salmonellosis can be acquired byϖ eating contaminated meat such as chicken, or eggs.

Good sources ofϖ magnesium include fish, nuts, and grains.

Patients who have low bloodϖ urea nitrogen levels should be instructed to eat high-protein foods,
such as fish and chicken.

The nurse should monitor a patient who hasϖ Guillain-Barré syndrome for respiratory

A heating padϖ may provide comfort to a patient who has pelvic inflammatory disease.

ϖ After supratentorial surgery, the patient should be placed in the semi-Fowler position.

To prevent deep vein thrombosis, the patient should exerciseϖ his legs at least every 2 hours,
elevate the legs above the level of the heart while lying down, and ambulate with assistance.

After bronchoscopy, theϖ patient’s gag reflex should be checked.

In a patient withϖ mononucleosis, abdominal pain and pain that radiates to the left shoulder may
indicate a ruptured spleen.

For a skin graft to take, it must beϖ autologous.

Untreated retinal detachment leads to blindness.ϖ

Aϖ patient who has fibrocystic breast disease should consume a diet that’s low in caffeine and

A foul odor at the pin site of a patient who is inϖ skeletal traction indicates infection.

A muscle relaxant that’sϖ administered with oxygen may cause malignant hyperthermia and
respiratory depression.

Pain that occurs on movement of the cervix, together withϖ adnexal tenderness, suggests pelvic
inflammatory disease.

The goal ofϖ crisis intervention is to restore the person to a precrisis level of functioning and

Nephrotic syndrome causes proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, andϖ edema, and sometimes

hematuria, hypertension, and a decreased glomerular filtration rate.
Bowel sounds may be heard over a hernia, butϖ not over a hydrocele.

S1 is decreased in first-degree heart block. S2ϖ is decreased in aortic stenosis.

Gas in the colon may cause tympany inϖ the right upper quadrant, obscure liver dullness, and
lead to falsely decreased estimates of liver size.

In ataxia caused by loss of position sense,ϖ vision compensates for the sensory loss. The patient
stands well with the eyes open, but loses balance when they’re closed (positive Romberg test

Inability to recognize numbers when drawn on the hand with theϖ blunt end of a pen suggests a
lesion in the sensory cortex.

During theϖ late stage of multiple myeloma, the patient should be protected against pathological
fractures as a result of osteoporosis.

Tricyclicϖ antidepressants such as amitriptyline (Elavil) shouldn’t be administered to patients

with narrow-angle glaucoma, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or coronary artery disease.

Pulmonary embolism is characterized by a sudden, sharp,ϖ stabbing pain in the chest; dyspnea;
decreased breath sounds; and crackles or a pleural friction rub on auscultation.

Clinical manifestations ofϖ cardiac tamponade are hypotension and jugular vein distention.

To avoidϖ further damage, the nurse shouldn’t induce vomiting in a patient who has swallowed a
corrosive chemical, such as oven cleaner, drain cleaner, or kerosene.

A brilliant red reflex excludes most serious defects of theϖ cornea, aqueous chamber, lens, and
vitreous chamber.

Oral hypoglycemicϖ agents stimulate the islets of Langerhans to produce insulin.

To treatϖ wound dehiscence, the nurse should help the patient to lie in a supine position; cover
the protruding intestine with moist, sterile, normal saline packs; and change the packs frequently
to keep the area moist.

While a patient isϖ receiving an I.V. nitroglycerin drip, the nurse should monitor his blood
pressure every 15 minutes to detect hypotension.

Any type of fluid lossϖ can trigger a crisis in a patient with sickle cell anemia.

The patientϖ should rinse his mouth after using a corticosteroid inhaler to avoid steroid residue
and reduce oral fungal infections.

A patient with low levels ofϖ triiodothyronine and thyroxine may have fatigue, lethargy, cold
intolerance, constipation, and decreased libido.

During a sickle cell crisis,ϖ treatment includes pain management, hydration, and bed rest.

A patientϖ who is hyperventilating should rebreathe into a paper bag to increase the retention of
carbon dioxide.
Chorea is a major clinical manifestationϖ of central nervous system involvement caused by
rheumatic fever.

Choreaϖ causes constant jerky, uncontrolled movements; fidgeting; twisting; grimacing; and
loss of bowel and bladder control.

Severe diarrhea can causeϖ electrolyte deficiencies and metabolic acidosis.

To reduce the risk ofϖ hypercalcemia in a patient with metastatic bone cancer, the nurse should
help the patient ambulate, promote fluid intake to dilute urine, and limit the patient’s oral intake
of calcium.

Pain associated with aϖ myocardial infarction usually is described as “pressure” or as a “heavy”

or “squeezing” sensation in the midsternal area. The patient may report that the pain feels as
though someone is standing on his chest or as though an elephant is sitting on his chest.

Calcium and phosphorus levels are elevatedϖ until hyperparathyroidism is stabilized.

The pain associated withϖ carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment of the median nerve
at the wrist.

Pancreatic enzyme replacement enhances the absorption ofϖ protein.

Laminectomy with spinal fusion is performed to relieveϖ pressure on the spinal nerves and
stabilize the spine.

A transectionϖ injury of the spinal cord at any level causes paralysis below the level of the lesion.

For pulseless ventricular tachycardia, the patient should beϖ defibrillated immediately, with 200
joules, 300 joules, and then 360 joules given in rapid succession.

Pleural friction rub is heard in pleurisy,ϖ pneumonia, and plural infarction.

Wheezes are heard in emphysema,ϖ foreign body obstruction, and asthma.

Rhonchi are heard in pneumonia,ϖ emphysema, bronchitis, and bronchiectasis.

Crackles are heard inϖ pulmonary edema, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis.

Theϖ electrocardiogram of a patient with heart failure shows ventricular hypertrophy.

A decrease in the potassium level decreasesϖ the effectiveness of cardiac glycosides, increases
the possibility of digoxin toxicity, and can cause fatal cardiac arrhythmias.

A 12-leadϖ electrocardiogram reading should be obtained during a myocardial infarction or an

anginal attack.

The primary difference between angina and theϖ symptoms of a myocardial infarction (MI) is
that angina can be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin administration. The symptoms of an MI aren’t
relieved with rest, and the pain can last 30 minutes or longer.

Calcium channelϖ blockers include verapamil (Calan), diltiazem hydrochloride (Cardizem),

nifedipine (Procardia), and nicardipine hydrochloride (Cardene).

Afterϖ a myocardial infarction, electrocardiograph changes include elevations of the Q wave and
ST segment.

Antiarrhythmic agents include quinidine gluconateϖ (Quinaglute), lidocaine hydrochloride, and

procainamide hydrochloride (Pronestyl).

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors include captoprilϖ and enalapril maleate (Vasotec).

After a myocardial infarction, theϖ patient should avoid stressful activities and situations, such as
exertion, hot or cold temperatures, and emotional stress.

Antihypertensive drugsϖ include hydralazine hydrochloride (Apresoline) and methyldopa


Both parents must have a recessive gene for the offspring toϖ inherit the gene.

A dominant gene is a gene that only needs to beϖ present in one parent to have a 50–50 chance
of affecting each offspring.

Bronchodilators dilate the bronchioles and relax bronchiolarϖ smooth muscle.

The primary function of aldosterone is sodiumϖ reabsorption.

The goal of positive end-expiratory pressure is toϖ achieve adequate arterial oxygenation without
using a toxic level of inspired oxygen or compromising cardiac output.

Furosemide (Lasix) is a loopϖ diuretic. Its onset of action is 30 to 60 minutes, peak is achieved
at 1 to 2 hours, and duration is 6 to 8 hours for the I.M. or oral route.

ϖ Pregnancy, myocardial infarction, GI bleeding, bleeding disorders, and hemorrhoids are

contraindications to manual removal of fecal impaction.

ϖ Ambulation is the best method to prevent postoperative atelectasis. Other measures include
incentive spirometry and turning, coughing, and breathing deeply.

The blood urea nitrogen test and the creatinine clearance testϖ measure how effectively the
kidneys excrete these respective substances.

The first sign of respiratory distress or compromise isϖ restlessness.

The antidote for magnesium sulfate overdose is calciumϖ gluconate 10%.

The antidote for heparin overdose is protamineϖ sulfate.

An allergic reaction to a blood transfusion may includeϖ flushing, urticaria, wheezing, and a rash.
If the patient has any of these signs of a reaction, the nurse should stop the transfusion
immediately, keep the vein open with normal saline, and notify the physician.

A patient takingϖ digoxin and furosemide (Lasix) should call the physician if he experiences
muscle weakness.
A patient with basal cell carcinoma should avoidϖ exposure to the sun during the hottest time of
day (between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.).
A clinical manifestation of acute pain is diaphoresis.ϖ

ϖ Gardnerella vaginitis is a type of bacterial vaginosis that causes a thin, watery, milklike
discharge that has a fishy odor.

A patient who isϖ taking Flagyl (metronidazole) shouldn’t consume alcoholic beverages or use
preparations that contain alcohol because they may cause a disulfiram-like reaction (flushing,
headache, vomiting, and abdominal pain).

During theϖ administration of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, the patient feels a
tingling sensation.

In patients with glaucoma, the head of the bedϖ should be elevated in the semi-Fowler position
or as ordered after surgery to promote drainage of aqueous humor.

Postoperative care after peripheralϖ iridectomy includes administering drugs (steroids and
cycloplegics) as prescribed to decrease inflammation and dilate the pupils.

Retinopathyϖ refers to changes in retinal capillaries that decrease blood flow to the retina and
lead to ischemia, hemorrhage, and retinal detachment.

Kegelϖ exercises are recommended after surgery to improve the tone of the sphincter and pelvic

One of the treatments for trichomoniasis vaginalis isϖ metronidazole (Flagyl), which must be
prescribed for the patient and the patient’s sexual partner.

A common symptom after cataract laser surgeryϖ is blurred vision.

A patient with acute open-angle glaucoma may seeϖ halos around lights.

An Asian patient with diabetes mellitus usuallyϖ can drink ginseng tea.

To prevent otitis externa, the patientϖ should keep the ears dry when bathing.

Patients who receive prolongedϖ high doses of I.V. furosemide (Lasix) should be assessed for
tinnitus and hearing loss.

The treatment for toxic shock syndrome is I.V. fluidϖ administration to restore blood volume and
pressure and antibiotic therapy to eliminate infection.

In patients with glaucoma, beta-adrenergicϖ blockers facilitate the outflow of aqueous humor.

A man who loses oneϖ testicle should still be able to father a child.

Native Americans areϖ particularly susceptible to diabetes mellitus.

Blacks are particularlyϖ susceptible to hypertension.

Women with the greatest risk for cervicalϖ cancer are those whose mothers had cervical cancer,
followed by those whose female siblings had cervical cancer.
A postmenopausal woman shouldϖ perform breast self-examination on the same day each
month, for example, on the same day of the month as her birthday.

Middle-ear hearing loss usuallyϖ results from otosclerosis.

After testicular surgery, the patient shouldϖ use an ice pack for comfort.

A patient with chronic open-angle glaucomaϖ has tunnel vision. The nurse must be careful to
place items directly in front of him so that he can see them.

Clinical signs of bacterial pneumoniaϖ include shaking, chills, fever, and a cough that produces
purulent sputum.

Clinical manifestations of flail chest include paradoxicalϖ movement of the involved chest wall,
dyspnea, pain, and cyanosis.

ϖ Right-sided cardiac function is assessed by evaluating central venous pressure.

A patient with a pacemaker should immediately report anϖ increase in the pulse rate or a
slowing of the pulse rate of more than 4 to 5 beats/minute.

Dizziness, fainting, palpitation, hiccups, and chest painϖ indicate pacemaker failure.

Leukemia causes easy fatigability,ϖ generalized malaise, and pallor.

After cardiac catheterization, theϖ puncture, or cutdown, site should be monitored for hematoma

Kussmaul’s breathing is associated with diabeticϖ ketoacidosis.

If the nurse notices water in a ventilator tube, sheϖ should remove the water from the tube and
reconnect it.

Tamoxifen is anϖ antineoplastic drug that’s used to treat breast cancer.

The adverseϖ effects of vincristine (Oncovin) include alopecia, nausea, and vomiting.

Emphysema is characterized by destruction of the alveoli,ϖ enlargement of the distal air spaces,
and breakdown of the alveolar walls.

To keep secretions thin, the patient who has emphysema shouldϖ increase his fluid intake to
approximately 2.5 L/day.

The clinicalϖ manifestations of asthma are wheezing, dyspnea, hypoxemia, diaphoresis, and
increased heart and respiratory rate.

Extrinsic asthma is anϖ antigen–antibody reaction to allergens, such as pollen, animal, dander,
feathers, foods, house dust, or mites.

After endoscopy isϖ performed, the nurse should assess the patient for hemoptysis.

ϖ Increased urine output is an indication that a hypertensive crisis has resolved.

After radical mastectomy, the patient should be positionedϖ with the affected arm on pillows with
the hand elevated and aligned with the arm.

After pneumonectomy, the patient should perform arm exercises toϖ prevent frozen shoulder.

Left-sided heart failure causesϖ crackles, coughing, tachycardia, and fatigability. (Think of L to
remember Left and Lungs.) Bullets

Cardiac glycosides increase contractility andϖ cardiac output.

Right-sided heart failure causes edema, distended neckϖ veins, nocturia, and weakness.

Adverse effects of cardiac glycosidesϖ include cardiac disturbance, headache, hypotension, GI

symptoms, blurred vision, and yellow-green halos around lights.

A patient who is receivingϖ anticoagulant therapy should take acetaminophen (Tylenol) instead
of aspirin for pain relief.

Adequate humidification is important after laryngectomy.ϖ At home, the patient can use pans of
water or a cool mist vaporizer, especially in the bedroom.

Late symptoms of renal cancer include hematuria, flankϖ pain, and a palpable mass in the flank.

Heparin is givenϖ subcutaneously, usually in the lower abdominal fat pad.

In a patientϖ with sickle cell anemia, warm packs should be used over the extremities to relieve
pain. Cold packs may stimulate vasoconstriction and cause further ischemia. The extremities
should be placed on pillows for comfort.
Sickleϖ cell crisis causes sepsis (fever greater than 102° F [38.9° C], meningeal irritation,
tachypnea, tachycardia, and hypotension) and vaso-occlusive crisis (severe pain) with hypoxia
(partial pressure of arterial oxygen of less than 70 mm Hg).

Adverse effects of digoxin include headache, weakness, visionϖ disturbances, anorexia, and GI

To perform a tuberculosis test, aϖ 26-gauge needle is used with a 1-ml syringe.

Respiratory failure occursϖ when mucus blocks the alveoli or the airways of the lungs.

The patientϖ should be instructed not to cough during thoracentesis.

The patientϖ should be instructed not to cough during thoracentesis.

A patient whoϖ has thrombophlebitis should be placed in the Trendelenburg position.

ϖ Symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia include dyspnea and nonproductive cough.

To counteract vitamin B1 deficiency, a patient who hasϖ pernicious anemia should eat meat and
animal products.

A patient who isϖ on a ventilator and becomes restless should undergo suctioning.

ϖ Autologous bone marrow transplantation doesn’t cause graft-versus-host disease.

A patient who has mild thrombophlebitis is likely to have mildϖ cramping on exertion.

If the first attempt to perform colostomyϖ irrigation is unsuccessful, the procedure is repeated
with normal saline solution.

Breast enlargement, or gynecomastia, is an adverse effect ofϖ estrogen therapy.

In a patient who has leukemia, a low plateletϖ count may lead to hemorrhage.

After radical neck dissection, theϖ immediate concern is respiratory distress as a result of
tracheal edema.

After radical mastectomy, the patient’s arm should be elevatedϖ to prevent lymphedema.

Hypoventilation causes respiratoryϖ acidosis.

The high Fowler position is the best position for a patientϖ who has orthopnea.

A transient ischemic attack affects sensory andϖ motor function and may cause diplopia,
dysphagia, aphasia, and ataxia.

ϖ After mastectomy, the patient should squeeze a ball with the hand on the affected side.

Cholestyramine (Questran), which is used to reduce theϖ serum cholesterol level, may cause

Glucocoϖ rticoid, or steroid, therapy may mask the signs of infection.

Melanoma is mostϖ commonly seen in light-skinned people who work or spend time outdoors.

ϖ A patient who has a pacemaker should take his pulse at the same time every day.

A patient who has stomatitis should rinse his mouth with mouthwashϖ frequently.

An adverse effect of theophylline administration isϖ tachycardia.

The treatment for laryngotracheobronchitis includesϖ postural drainage before meals.

After radical neck dissection, a highϖ priority is providing a means of communication.

A high-fat dietϖ that includes red meat is a contributing factor for colorectal cancer.

ϖ After a modified radical mastectomy, the patient should be placed in the semi-Fowler position,
with the arm placed on a pillow.

Knifelike,ϖ stabbing pain in the chest may indicate pulmonary embolism.

Esophagealϖ cancer is associated with excessive alcohol consumption.

A patient whoϖ has pancytopenia and is undergoing chemotherapy may experience hemorrhage
and infection.
A grade I tumor is encapsulated and grows byϖ expansion.

Cancer of the pancreas causes anorexia, weight loss, andϖ jaundice.

Prolonged gastric suctioning can cause metabolicϖ alkalosis.

To measure the amount of residual urine, the nurse performsϖ straight catheterization after the
patient voids.

Dexamethasoneϖ (Decadron) is a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that’s used to treat brain


Long-term reduction in the delivery of oxygen to the kidneysϖ causes an increase in


A patient who subsists on cannedϖ foods and canned fish is at risk for sodium imbalance

ϖ Clinical signs and symptoms of hypoxia include confusion, diaphoresis, changes in blood
pressure, tachycardia, and tachypnea.

Red meat can cause aϖ false-positive result on fecal occult blood test.

Carbon monoxideϖ replaces hemoglobin in the red blood cells, decreasing the amount of oxygen
in the tissue.
Alkaline urine can result in urinary tract infection.ϖ

ϖ Bladder retraining is effective if it lengthens the intervals between urination.

Cheilosis is caused by riboflavin deficiency.ϖ

Theϖ concentration of oxygen in inspired air is reduced at high altitudes. As a result, dyspnea
may occur on exertion.

A patient who is receivingϖ enteric feeding should be assessed for abdominal distention.

Thiamineϖ deficiency causes neuropathy.

A patient who has abdominal distention asϖ a result of flatus can be treated with a carminative
enema (Harris flush).

Pernicious anemia is caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12, orϖ cobalamin.

After a barium enema, the patient is given aϖ laxative.

The appropriate I.V. fluid to correct a hypovolemic, or fluidϖ volume, deficit is normal saline

Serum albumin deficiencyϖ commonly occurs after burn injury.

Before giving a gastrostomy feeding,ϖ the nurse should inspect the patient’s stoma.

The most commonϖ intestinal bacteria identified in urinary tract infection is Escherichia coli.

Hyponatremia may occur in a patient who has a high fever andϖ drinks only water.
Folic acid deficiency causes muscle weakness as aϖ result of hypoxemia.

Dehydration causes increased respiration and heartϖ rate, followed by irritability and fussiness.

Glucocorticoids canϖ cause an electrolyte imbalance.

A decrease in potassium level decreasesϖ the effectiveness of cardiac glycosides, increases

possible digoxin toxicity, and can cause fatal cardiac arrhythmias.

Diuresis can cause decreasedϖ absorption of vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Protein deplet
ion causes aϖ decrease in lymphocyte count.

To prevent paraphimosis after theϖ insertion of a Foley catheter, the nurse should replace the

ϖ Loop diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix), decrease plasma levels of potassium and sodium.

After pyelography, the patient should drink plenty ofϖ fluids to promote the excretion of dye.

Potassium should be taken withϖ food and fluids.

Proper measurement of a nasogastric tube is from theϖ corner of the mouth to the ear lobe to
the tip of the sternum.

Fullϖ agonist analgesics include morphine, codeine, meperidine (Demerol), propoxyphene

(Darvon), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid).

Buprenorphine (Buprenex) is aϖ partial agonist analgesic.

Poor skin turgor is a clinical manifestationϖ of diabetes insipidus.

A patient who has Addison’s disease and isϖ receiving corticosteroid therapy may be at risk for

Toϖ assess a patient for hemorrhage after a thyroidectomy, the nurse should roll the patient onto
his side to examine the sides and back of the neck.

Aϖ patient who is receiving hormone therapy for hypothyroidism should take the drug at the
same time each day.

Hyperproteinemia may contribute to theϖ development of hepatic encephalopathy.

To minimize bleeding in aϖ patient who has liver dysfunction, small-gauge needles are used for

A patient who has cirrhosis of the liver and ascites shouldϖ follow a low-sodium diet.

Before an excretory urography, the nurse mustϖ ask the patient whether he’s allergic to iodine or
A buffaloϖ hump is an abnormal distribution of adipose tissue that occurs in Cushing’s syndrome.

Levothyroxine (Synthroid) is used as replacement therapy inϖ hypothyroidism.

Levothyroxine (Synthroid) treats, but doesn’t cure,ϖ hypothyroidism and must be taken for the
patient’s lifetime. It shouldn’t be taken with food because food may interfere with its absorption.

ϖ Imipramine (Tofranil) with concomitant use of barbiturates may result in enhanced CNS

A patient who is receiving levothyroxineϖ (Synthroid) therapy should report tachycardia to the

Theϖ signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia include muscle weakness, hypotension, shallow
respiration, apathy, and anorexia.

In a patient with well-controlledϖ diabetes, the 2-hour postprandial blood sugar level may be
139 mg/dl.

Aϖ patient who has diabetes mellitus should wash his feet daily in warm water and dry them
carefully, especially between the toes.

Acute pancreatitisϖ causes constant epigastric abdominal pain that radiates to the back and flank
and is more intense in the supine position.

Diabetic neuropathy is aϖ long-term complication of diabetes mellitus.

Portal vein hypertensionϖ is associated with liver cirrhosis.

After thyroidectomy, the nurseϖ should assess the patient for laryngeal damage manifested by

The patient with hypoparathyroidism hasϖ hypocalcemia.

A patient who has chronic pancreatitis should consume aϖ bland, low-fat diet.

A patient with hepatitis A should be on entericϖ precautions to prevent the spread of hepatitis A.

The patient who hasϖ liver disease is likely to have jaundice, which is caused by an increased
bilirubin level.

An adverse effect of phenytoin (Dilantin)ϖ administration is hyperplasia of the gingiva.

Hematemesis is a clinicalϖ sign of esophageal varices.

Fat destruction is the chemical processϖ that causes ketones to appear in urine.

The glucose tolerance test isϖ the definitive diagnostic test for diabetes.

Atelectasis and dehiscenceϖ are postoperative conditions associated with removal of the

After liver biopsy, the patient should be positioned onϖ his right side, with a pillow placed
underneath the liver border.
ϖ Categorized

Lugol’s solution is used to devascularize theϖ gland before thyroidectomy.

Cholecystitis causes low-grade fever, nauseaϖ and vomiting, guarding of the right upper
quadrant, and biliary pain that radiates to the right scapula.

Early symptoms of liver cirrhosisϖ include fatigue, anorexia, edema of the ankles in the evening,
epistaxis, and bleeding gums.

The clinical manifestations of diabetes insipidusϖ include polydipsia, polyuria, specific gravity of
1.001 to 1.005, and high serum osmolality.

The clinical manifestations of diabetes insipidus includeϖ polydipsia, polyuria, specific gravity of
1.001 to 1.005, and high serum osmolality.

Hypertension is a sign of rejection of a transplantedϖ kidney.

Lactulose is used to prevent and treat portal-systemicϖ encephalopathy.

Extracorporeal and intracorporeal shock waveϖ lithotripsy is the use of shock waves to perform
noninvasive destruction of biliary stones. It’s indicated in the treatment of symptomatic high-risk
patients who have few noncalcified cholesterol stones.

Decreasedϖ consciousness is a clinical sign of an increased ammonia level in a patient with

kidney failure or cirrhosis of the liver.

The pain medication that’sϖ given to patients who have acute pancreatitis is meperidine

ϖ Prochlorperazine (Compazine), meclizine, and trimethobenzamide (Tigan) are used to treat the
nausea and vomiting caused by cholecystitis.

Obese womenϖ are more susceptible to gallstones than any other group.

Metabolicϖ acidosis is a common finding in acute renal failure.

For aϖ patient who has acute pancreatitis, the most important nursing intervention is to maintain
his fluid and electrolyte balance.

After thyroidectomy, theϖ patient is monitored for hypocalcemia.

In end-stage cirrhosis of theϖ liver, the patient’s ammonia level is elevated.

In a patient who hasϖ liver cirrhosis, abdominal girth is measured with the superior iliac crest
used as a landmark.

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease have an insidiousϖ onset.

Fracture of the skull in the area of the cerebellum may causeϖ ataxia and inability to coordinate

Serum creatinine is theϖ laboratory test that provides the most specific indication of kidney

A patient who has bilateral adrenalectomy must take cortisoneϖ for the rest of his life.

Portal vein hypertension causes esophagealϖ varices.

Signs and symptoms of hypoxia include tachycardia, shortnessϖ of breath, cyanosis, and mottled

The three types of embolism areϖ air, fat, and thrombus.

Associations for patients who have hadϖ laryngeal cancer include the Lost Cord Club and the
New Voice Club.

ϖ Before discharge, a patient who has had a total laryngectomy must be able to perform
tracheostomy care and suctioning and use alternative means of communication.

The universal blood donor is O negative.ϖ

Theϖ universal blood recipient is AB positive.

Mucus in a colostomy bagϖ indicates that the colon is beginning to function.

After a vasectomy,ϖ the patient is considered sterile if he has no sperm cells.

Fatigue isϖ an adverse effect of radiation therapy.

To prevent dumping syndrome,ϖ the patient’s consumption of high-carbohydrate foods and

liquids should be limited.

Cryoprecipitate contains factors VIII and XIII and fibrinogenϖ and is used to treat hemophilia.

Insomnia is the most common sleepϖ disorder.

Bruxism is grinding of the teeth during sleep.ϖ

ϖ Elderly patients are at risk for osteoporosis because of age-related bone demineralization.

The clinical manifestations of local infection in anϖ extremity are tenderness, loss of use of the
extremity, erythema, edema, and warmth.

Clinical manifestations of systemic infection include fever andϖ swollen lymph nodes.

An immobile patient is predisposed to thrombusϖ formation because of increased blood stasis.

Urea is the chief endϖ product of amino acid metabolism.

Morphine and other opioids relieveϖ pain by binding to the nerve cells in the dorsal horn of the
spinal cord.

Trichomonas and Candida infections can be acquiredϖ nonsexually.

Presbycusis is progressive sensorineural hearing loss thatϖ occurs as part of the aging process.