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P. 1

Theory of Cosmic Strings|Views: 472|Likes: 5

Published by Manuel F. Presnilla

The existence of cosmic string was first proposed in 1976 by Tom Kibble, who drew on the theory of line vortices in superconductor to predict the formation of similar structures in the Universe at large as it expanded and cooled during the early phases of the Big Bang.

The existence of cosmic string was first proposed in 1976 by Tom Kibble, who drew on the theory of line vortices in superconductor to predict the formation of similar structures in the Universe at large as it expanded and cooled during the early phases of the Big Bang.

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/20518820/Theory-of-Cosmic-Strings

10/20/2011

text

original

The metric (7.28) due to an inﬁnite straight cosmic string is clearly not

asymptotically ﬂat, as the defect on the world sheet extends to spacelike inﬁnity

along the axis r = 0. (For future reference, a spacetime which at spacelike

inﬁnity has the same global geometry as (7.28) does at spacelike inﬁnity will be

said to be asymptotically ﬂat∗.) However, Jiri Biˇc´ak has constructed a coordinate

transformation, singular on the world sheet, which reduces the line element to

that of an asymptotically-ﬂat spacetime with axial symmetry [Bi90]. The result

may be little morethan a mathematicalcuriosity,but it does providean alternative

insight into the geometry of the bare straight-string metric.

The line element describing a general asymptotically-ﬂat vacuum spacetime

with axial symmetry can be written in the form:

ds2

= guu du2

+2guρ du dρ+2guθ du dθ −ρ2

(e2α

dθ2

+e−2α

sin2

θ dφ2

)

(7.103)

where u is a retarded time coordinate, θ and φ are polar angles along outgoing

null geodesics, and ρ is the luminosity distance [BvdBM62].

The constraint of asymptotic ﬂatness requires that the various metric

functions appearing in (7.103) fall off appropriately for large values of ρ and,

in particular, that

guu =1−2Mρ−1

+O(ρ−2

)

(7.104)

and

α =cρ−1

+O(ρ−2

).

(7.105)

Here, the functions M(u,θ) and c(u,θ) are the ‘mass’ and ‘news function’ of the

metric,respectively. Theasymptoticexpansionsfortheothertwometricfunctions

can be found by imposing the vacuum Einstein equations, which according to

[BvdBM62] give

guρ =1− 1

2c2

ρ−2

+O(ρ−3

)

(7.106)

and

guθ =c,θ+2ccotθ +O(ρ−1

).

(7.107)

268

The gravitational ﬁeld of an inﬁnite straight string

The straight-string metric (7.28) can be rewritten in the axisymmetric form

(7.103) by ﬁrst replacing (t,r,z) with an interim set of coordinates (U, R,θ)

deﬁned via the equations

r = R sinθ z = R cosθ and t =U + R.

(7.108)

The line element then becomes:

ds2

=dU2

+2dU dR− R2

dθ2

−(1−4µ)2

R2

sin2

θ dφ2

. (7.109)

Note that, because of the presence of the multiplier 1−4µ, this expression is still

asymptotically ﬂat∗ rather than strictly asymptotically ﬂat.

To reduce (7.109) to the asymptotically-ﬂat form (7.103) requires a rather

complicated transformation of coordinates which is only known in its asymptotic

form. The general structure of the transformation is:

U =uw(η,θ) R =ρx(η,θ) and θ = y(η,θ) (7.110)

where η =u/ρ.

If the constraints gρρ = gρθ = 0 are imposed, the expressions for guu, guρ

and guθ quickly reduce to

guu =w2

+2ηww,η+2wx,η+2xw,η

(7.111)

guρ = −η2

ww,η+wx −ηwx,η−ηxw,η

(7.112)

and

guθ =ρ(ηww,θ +wx,θ+xw,θ )

(7.113)

or, in terms of the potential ≡w2

+2η−1

wx,

guu =(η ),η guρ =−1

2η2

,η and guθ = 1

2u ,θ . (7.114)

The functions M(u,θ) and c(u,θ) can now be calculated by assuming an

asymptotic expansion for of the form

= A(θ)η−1

+ B(θ)+C(θ)η+O(η2

)

(7.115)

and comparing the expansions of (7.114) with (7.104)–(7.107). The result is

A(θ)=2 B(θ)=1 and C(θ)=−M/u =c2

/u2

(7.116)

where

c,θ+2ccotθ = 1

2B,θ u ≡0.

(7.117)

Hence,

c(u,θ)= Ku cosec2

θ

(7.118)

and

M(u,θ)=−K2

u cosec4

θ

(7.119)

The straight-string metric in ‘asymptotically-ﬂat’ form

269

where K is a constant of integration.

A particular value for K is ﬁxed by the requirement that

(1−4µ)2

x2

sin2

y =sin2

θ +O(η)

(7.120)

as then gφφ ≈ −ρ2

for large values of ρ, and the transformed line element is

strictly asymptotically ﬂat. However, in order to solve for K it is necessary to

concurrently solve the constraint equations gρρ =0 and gρθ =0 to leading order

in η.

Explicitly, the constraint equations read:

x2

(y,η )2

+2xw,η−2ηw,η x,η−η2

(w,η )2

=0

(7.121)

and

xw,θ+x2

y,η y,θ−ηx,η w,θ −ηw,η x,θ−η2

w,η w,θ =0

(7.122)

respectively. If w, x and y are expanded to linear order in η then the solution

which simultaneously satisﬁes (7.120), (7.121) and (7.122) has the limiting form

w =ψ − (ψ )2

2ψ η+O(η2

)

(7.123)

x =(ψ )−1

+ 1

2ψ {(ψ /ψ )2

−(ψ )2

+1}η+O(η2

) (7.124)

and

y =ψ −ψ η+O(η2

)

(7.125)

where

ψ(θ)=2tan−1

(|tanθ/2|1−4µ

).

(7.126)

At this point, the simplest way to calculate K is to substitute these formulae

into the equation for gθθ, which reads:

x2

(y,θ )2

−2ηw,θ x,θ−η2

(w,θ )2

≈e2cρ−1

=1+2ηK cosec2

θ +O(η2

).

(7.127)

Then

K = sin2

θ

2(ψ )2[(ψ )2

+3(ψ )2

−(ψ )4

−2ψ ψ ]≡−4µ(1−2µ). (7.128)

and the news and mass functions for the bare straight-string metric are

c(u,θ)=−4µ(1−2µ)u cosec2

θ

(7.129)

and

M(u,θ)=−16µ2

(1−2µ)2

u cosec4

θ.

(7.130)

270

The gravitational ﬁeld of an inﬁnite straight string

Note that, even to leading order in η, the coordinate transformation from

(U,r,θ) to (u,ρ,θ) is singular on the axis, as ψ ∼ 2(θ/2)1−4µ

for small θ, and

so the Jacobian determinant of the transformation is

|J(U,r,θ;u,ρ,θ)|=ψ +(ψ )2

/ψ +O(η)

≈24µ

16µ2

(1−4µ)θ−2−4µ

. (7.131)

This is, of course, unavoidable, given that the mass and news functions (7.118)

and (7.119) are both singular on the axis.

**Chapter 8
**

Introduction to Tensor Calculus & Continuum Mechanics

Metallurgical Design Information Sheet

The Seven Famous Unsolved Math Puzzles

Functional and Structural Tensor Analysis for Engineers

Dave's Math Tables

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