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INSTiTUTF TOI • 5. CAI v DEC 101931 .

. . 118 . . IV. PAGE Introductory Notice.. that it was not abandon the Customs of their Fathers. That those grievously sin who despise or neglect God's gracious Calling. IX. . . . .. 48 the Gods are worshipped... .. BOOK The Office of the Instructor. . 100 Instructions of Christ. XII. . 69 VII. The Philanthropy of the Instructor. Exhortation to abandon their Old Errors and listen to the 106 THE IBTSTKUCTOK. 73 VIII. .11 EXHOKTATION TO THE HEATHEN. Answer to the Objection of the Heathen. The Cruelty of the Sacrifices to the Gods.The True Doctrine is to be sought in the Prophets. 52 66 VI. I. . . . . Our Instructor's Treatment of our Sins. right to 85 .. The Absurdity and Impiety of the Heathen Mysteries and Fables about the Birth and Death of their Gods.. .. 26 III. . Exhortation to abandon the Impious Mysteries of Idolatry for the Adoration of the Divine Word and God the Father. . The Absurdity and Shamefulness of the Images by which Y. 113 115 III. . . .... . The Poets also bear Testimony to the Truth.. CONTENTS. I. . XL How great are the Benefits conferred on Man through the Advent of Christ. . 76 .. . II.. The Opinions of the Philosophers respecting God. By Divine Inspiration Philosophers sometimes hit on the Truth.. 80 X. . CHAP. . . I. .17 II.. ..

. . On .... 204 XIII. X. . Who Principles. V. are to Associate. 222 VII. ... Against Embellishing the Body.211 .. . . Frugality a good Provision for the Christian. . That the same God.. 278 27G III.. ... Shoes.... . Men and "Women alike under the Instructors Charge. On Costly Vessels. ..... the True Beauty.. 179 of Paternal Affection. IV. ... . The Instructor characterized by the severity and benignity . CONTENTS. On On Eating.. 181 181 I.. XII. . BOOK II. Similitudes and Examples a most important part of rk Instruction.. . 225 VIII. How to conduct ourselves at Feasts... . Qusenam de procreatione liberorum tractanda sint. ...On the use of Ointments and Crowns. The name " Children " does not imply Instruction in Ele- mentary and respecting His Instruction.. On Laughter. That the Word instructed by the Law and the Prophets. live together. XII.. . Against Men who Embellish themselves.. The Christian alone Rich.. is. . . 122 VII. 292 29G VI.. . .. 121 V.. Y. 215 . . ... ...001 ... . restrains from Sin 1G4 by threatening... BOOK III. On On Clothes. the Manner of the X. and saves Humanity by exhorting..... On Filthy Speaking... 210 XI. . .. .. With whom we .. Sin irrational. .. That it is the Prerogative of the same Power to be benefi- cent and to punish justly Instruction of the Logos. 186 200 III. by the same Word.. 2GG I. II. 244 255 . . . IV.. .. Behaviour in the Baths.. Against those who think that what is just is not good. 230 IX. PAGE IV. . 301 VIII. Directions for these who ... VI.. Virtue rational. XIII.. All who walk according to Truth are Children of God. the Instructor .. 219 VI.. II. . . 131 140 VIII. x\ gainst excessive Fondness for Jewels and Gold Orna- ments. Drinking... CHAP. .298 VII.. 174 XI.. also. . On Sleep... 155 IX. . .

. 325 Public Spectacles. 9 chap PAGE IX. 324 The Model Maiden. 374 376 ^ IX... 327 Going to Church. greater consequence than to Speak 381 I 202- ... 332 Prayer to the Psedagogus. CONTENTS. The Benefit of Culture. and the Kiss of Charity. .. Virtue.... .360 362 from God. Arts... of .. Hair.. The Sophistical Arts useless. . 326 Eeligion in Ordinary Life.. OK. 329 The Government of the Eyes... .. The Exercises suited to a good Life.. TV. . . Preface— The Author's Object— The Utility of Written Compositions.. . 343 To the Psedagogus. The . To Act well well. . Painting the Face. as well as Divine .... I. with Texts from Scripture. . The Eclectic Philosophy paves the way for Divine VIII.. proceed .. 328 Out of Church. Why we are to use the Bath. VII. 310 XI.. Against the Sophists. . 366 VI. . for the Understanding of 379 X. Anticipated and III. Knowledge. 315 Finger-rings. .... STEOMATA.. 319 Walking. . 364 ~*~ V... BOOK I. Philosophy the Handmaid of Theology. Human Answered. 346 THE MISCELLANIES. . 308 X. . Human Knowledge necessary the Scriptures... 315 317 .. 329 Love. .. 330 XII Continuation.. • Q1 O 313 . Life. Objections to the Xumber of Extracts from Philoso- phical Writings in these Books... Ear-rings. 325 Amusements and Associates...371 . .. 342 A Hymn to Christ the Saviour. 349 — II.. Clothes. A Compendious View of the Christian . .

In what respect Philosophy contributes to the compre- hension of Divine Truth. . CHAP. The Age.30 XXIV. though inferior to Christ. 389 XIV.. ' . Plato an Imitator of Moses in Framing Laws. 384 :388 -XIII. . 401 XVII. 4C7 XXIX. even in Correcting and Punishing.. . .. XV.... Moses rightly called a Divine Legislator. the Philosophers have attained to some portion of Truth. and Life of Moses... The Greek Philosophy in great part derived from the Barbarians. . 395 XVI. "•All that came before Me were thieves and robbers. Birth. .. . .. . XXI.. That the Inventors of other Arts were mostly Barbarians. far superior to the great Legis- lators of the Greeks.. . 448 XXIII.. The Jewish Institutions and Paws of far higher Anti- 418 quity than the Philosophy of the Greeks."' 410 XIX. On the saying of the Saviour.10 CONTEXTS.. . Minos and Lycurgus. aims at the Good of Men. .*' 406 . On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament. . . PAGE XL "What shun? is . He illustrates the Apostle's saving.. . The Mysteries of the Faith not to be divulged to All. I will destroy the wisdom of the wise.. . the Philosophy which the Apostle bids us XII. The Fourfold Division of the Mosaic Law. 4C1 XXVII..404 XXVIII. 391 . . That . The Greeks but Children compared with the Hebrews. xxv. . . All Sects of Philosophy contain a Germ of Truth. The Law. XVIII. How Moses discharged the Part of a Military Leader. . 413 XX. and.. Succession of Philosophers in Greece. 459 XXVI. .4.. . 421 XXII. . ..

extensively over Greece.d. lib. Bibl. The date of his birth is unknown. probably on the latter departing on his missionary tour to the East. The close of his career 1 2 Epiph. all appear to have been alive when he wrote ) can be with certainty identified. Italy. 3 He was also made a 4 presbyter of the church. viz. 202.d. and whom he de- scribes as the greatest of them all. 4 Hieron. he eagerly sought the instruc- tions of most eminent teachers for this purpose travelling its . Strom. i. 38 . 6. furnished with a letter of recommendation by Alexander bishop of Jerusalem. Returning to Alexandria. he succeeded his master Pantaenus in the catechetical school. 6. the illustrious head of the Catechetical School at Alexandria at the close of the second century. c. was originally a pagan philosopher. and other regions of the East. xxxii. He continued to teach with great distinction till a. de Viris illustrious. even then a great resort of Christian. 1 On embracing Christianity. Hser. of whom he speaks in terms of profound reverence. and especially clerical. Egypt. Hist. v. Lib. PantaBnus. Palestine. Only one of these teachers (who. pilgrims. It is also uncertain whether Alexandria or Athens was his birthplace. vi. either then or somewhat later. Ph. when the persecution under Severus compelled him to retire from Alexandria. somewhere about a. 189. 111. INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 11 . 3 Eusebius. from a reference in the 2 Stromata. Eccl. ITUS FLAVIUS CLEMENS. We also hear of him tra- velling to Antioch. c. In the beginning of the reign of Caracalla we find him at Jerusalem.

circumstances. With clearness and cogency of argu- ment. and for living a Christian life. The Miscellanies. The second and third books lay . is covered with obscurity. the means. or Stromata (^rpay- fiareU). and lovingly dwells on His benignity and philanthropy. classical allusion breathing throughout the spirit of philosophy and of the gospel. Combefisius. faithfulness. the Saviour of men. or Instructor. are among the most valuable remains of Christian antiquity. — a guide for the formation and development of Christian character. and the largest that belong to that early period. or Pivda- 1 gogus (7rai8a~/coy6$). It is the m'and aim of the whole work to set before the converts Christ as the only Instructor. is addressed to those who have been rescued from the darkness and pollutions of hea- thenism. contains a complete and withering exposure of the abominable licentiousness. and especially the personal Christ. Alexander bishop of Jerusalem. and to expound and enforce His precepts. He is supposed to have died about a. Clement sets forth in contrast the truth as taught in the inspired Scriptures. also Hippolytus. rules for the regula- tion of the Christian. and is an exhibition of Christian morals and man- ners. according to Baronius. the gross imposture and sordidness of paganism. the living "Word of God. in all the relations. methods. and. 2 1 IS TROD UCTOR Y NOTICE. The above is positively the sum of what we know of Cle- ments history. and abounding in passages of power and beauty. rich in felicitous and quotation. In the first book Clement exhi- bits the person. The Instructor. who is the Word and Son of God. the object of which is to win pagans to the Christian faith. the function. His three great works. and Bull. Origen.d. and . The Pcedagogus. the true God. It consists of three books. His wis- dom. Among his pupils were his distinguished successor in the Alexandrian school. and righteousness. The Exhortation to the Heathen (X070? 77 porpeTTT /co? 7rpb$" EWrjva?). The Exhortation. great earnestness and eloquence. 220. It is an elaborate and masterly work. and ends of the Instructor.

1 3 actions of life. or a proof of the influence of ascetic tendencies. appear unnecessary. Eccl. And they are very miscellaneous. . in opposition to gnosticism. They consist of the speculations of Greek philosophers. is. but all agree in regarding it as indicating the miscellaneous character of its contents. had been trained for it. etc. form a very valuable contribution to our knowledge of that period. . The delinea- tion of a life in all respects agreeable to the Word. vi. and often with caustic wit. 13. The disclosures which Clement. Blhl. The latter he affirms to be the source from which the 1 Eusebras. to furnish the materials for the construction of a true gnosis. and of those who cultivated the true Christian gnosis. Hist. The eighth book is lost that which appears under this name has plainly no connection with the rest of the Stromata. IN TROD UCTOB Y NOTICE. a Christian philosophy. with solemn sternness. and to lead on to this higher knowledge those who. and of quotations from sacred Scrip- ture. But and manners (a sort of "whole a code of Christian morals duty of man" and manual of good breeding combined) was emi- nently needed by those whose habits and characters had been moulded under the debasing and polluting influences of hea- thenism and who were bound. now that the gospel has transformed social and private life to the extent it has. on the basis of faith. to shape . was Tltov <&\avlov KXrjjLievTos twv Kara ttjv akrjOrj <f)i\ocro<fi[av ryvooariKoov v7TOfiV7]fjLdrco^ aTpcofiareL^ 1 — Titus Flavius Clement's miscellaneous collections of speculative (gnostic) notes bearing upon the true philosophy. drinking. sleeping. attempted here. and were aiming. 111. may. in the midst of the all but incredible licentiousness and luxury by which society around was incurably tainted. of heretics. their lives according to the principles of the gospel. The work consisted originally of eight books. entering most minutely into the details of dress. in accordance with this title. according to Eusebius and Photius. a truly Christian life. Various accounts have been given of the meaning of the distinctive word in the title (^TpcDfjLarevs) . eating. makes of the prevalent voluptuousness and vice. The aim of the work. Phot. by the dis- cipline of the Fssdagogus. The full title of the Stromata. bathing.

who ascended the imperial throne in a. and the Cohovtatio was written a short time before the Pcedagogus. 193.d. He describes philosophy as a divinely ordered preparation of the Greeks for faith in Christ. so multitudinous are the quotations and the references to authors in all departments. that. and of all countries. but declaring that the truth can be found in unity and completeness only in Christ. higher Christian knowledge is to be drawn as it was that : from which the germs of truth in Plato and the Hellenic philosophy were derived. and supplies materials of the greatest value for under- standing the various conflicting systems which Christianity had to combat. that the works in question could only have been composed 1 Hist. the most of whose works have perished. we learn that Clement received the appellation of ^rpcofiareu^ (the Stromatist). in opposition to the numerous body among Christians who regarded learning as useless and dangerous. He proclaims himself an eclectic. which happened in A. necessity and value of literature and philosophic culture for the attainment of true Christian knowledge. 6. 192 from which . It was regarded so much as the author's great work. . 202. In all probability. 194. The publication of the Paxlacjogus preceded by a short time that of the Stromata . The latest date to which he brings down his chronology in the first book is the death of Commodus. which may be separated from error . It is likely that the whole was composed ere Clement quitted Alexandria in a. on the testimony of Theodoret. as the law was for the Hebrews and shows the . The Stromata are written carelessly. and others. as it was from Him that all its scattered germs originally proceeded.d.d. and reigned till a. as is clear from statements made by Clement himself.14 INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 211. and even confusedly. Cassiodorus.D. Eccl. believing in the existence of fragments of truth in all sys- tems. vi.d. the first part of it was given to the world about a. 1 Eusebius concludes that lie wrote this work during the reign of Severus. So multifarious is the erudition. but the work is one of prodigious learn- ing.

are compositions of the same character. who "was — with God. as conducting them to that higher . that the disposition of the soul is the great essential. . as far as we can judge. and The Selec- tionsfrom the Prophetic Scriptures. 1 near an extensive library — hardly anywhere but in the vici- nity of the famous library of Alexandria. The Adumbrations. of which only a few stray fragments have been preserved. Other lost works of Clement are : The Treatise of Clement. Of these we have a few undoubted fragments. in opposition to those who interpreted our Lord's words to the young ruler as requiring the renunciation of worldly goods. on the Prophet Amos. and dwelt am on or us. moral. Ever before his eye is the grand form of the living personal Christ. to which those only who devote themselves assiduously to spiritual." Of course there is throughout plenty of false science. as training discipline and in the last. Of other numerous works of Clement. knowledge of the things of God. Who is the rich man that shall be saved? (t/<? 6 aco^ofievos ttXovglos) is the title of a practical treatise. the Word. which consisted of expositions of all the books of Scripture. Treatise on Easter. whom in the first work he exhibits draw- ing men from the superstitions and corruptions of heathenism to faith . and are supposed by some to have formed part of that work. —a museum of the fossil remains of the beauties and monstrosities of the world of pagan antiquity. On Providence. or Com- mentaries on some of the Catholic Epistles. 5 INTROD UCTOR Y NOTICE. The central connecting idea is that of the — Logos the Word — the Son of God . but who became man. as the Hypotyposes. in which Clement shows. the chief are the eight books of The Hypotyposes. the Stromatist. and frivolous and fanciful speculation. during all the epochs and phases of its his- tory. and intellec- tual culture can attain. them by precepts and in the second. and who was God. They are a store- house of curious ancient lore. The three compositions are really parts of one whole.

W. On Prophecy . . but of which otherwise we have no trace or mention On First : Principles . Preserved among Clement's works is a fragment called Epitomes of the Writings of Theodotus. L. To the newly baptized. Discussion on Fasting. Clement's quotations from Scripture are made from the Septuagint version. Against Heresies. often inaccurately from memory. together. use. collected together in Migne's edition . . Against the Judaizers. For this there are abundant materials. On Continence. The publishers are indebted to Dr. which greatly needs to be expurgated and amended. On Evil-speaking. On the Devil. On the Re- surrection. On the Origin of the Universe. however. Exhortation to Patience. and of the Eastern Doctrine. The works Clement present considerable difficulties to of the translator and one of the chief is the state of the text. most likely abridged extracts made by Clement for his own and giving considerable insight into Gnosticism. by various hands. Presbyters. On the Soul. On the Unity and Excellence of the Church . On the Offices of Bishops. or. in the copious annotations and disquisitions. On Marriage. On the Allegorical Interpretation of Members and Affections ichen ascribed to God. often with verbal adaptations and not rarely different texts are blended . corruptions the most obvious have been allowed to remain in the text. 6 — 1 IXTROD UCTOR Y NOTICE. Alexander for the poetical translations of the Hymns of Clement. Different Terms. where. and Widows . some- times from a different text from what we possess. Ecclesiastical Canon . or. The following are the names of treatises which Clement refers to as written or about to be written by him. On Angels. Deacons.

and sang on it as on a branch and the minstrel. I might tell you alsothe story of another. and a minstrel — Eunomos the Locrian and the Pythic grasshopper. and the other for having surrounded Thebes with walls by the power of music. — a lay unfettered by rule. a cun- ning master of his art (he also is the subject of a Hellenic legend). . a Thracian. MPHION of Thebes and Arion of Methymna were both minstrels. and both were renowned in story. the one for having allured the fishes. were chirping beneath the leaves along the hills. They are celebrated in song to this day in the chorus of the Greeks . when Eunomos sang the reptile's epitaph. warmed by the sun. to celebrate the death of the Pythic serpent. but to God All- wise. but they were singing not to that dead dragon. adapting his strain to the grass- . Another.tamed the wild beasts by the mere might of song — — and transplanted trees oaks by music. A solemn Hellenic assembly had met at Pytho. o- CHAPTER I. Whether his ode was a hymn in praise of the serpent. EXHORTATION TO ABANDON THE IMPIOUS MYSTERIES OF IDOLATRY FOR THE ADORATION OF THE DIVINE WORD AND GOD THE FATHER. or a dirge. better than the numbers of Eunomos. But there was a contest. I am not able to say. a brother these — the subject of a to myth. The grasshopper sprang on the neck of the instrument. The Locrian breaks a string. and Eunomos was playing the lyre in the summer time : it was when the grasshoppers. B . EXHOBTATION TO THE HEATHEN.

But the dramas and the raving poets. I. though but myths but by . Elcctr. now antiquated. lit. stretching out her very strong right hand. let us crown with ivy and distracted outright as they are. " For out of Sion shall go forth the law. Potter appeals to the use of giving a vnzprspoi. with Wisdom in all its brightness. a. and the mountains of the Odrysi. made up want of the missing string. in the sense of stronger. How. let me ask. as would seem. The scholiast in Klotz takes the words to mean that the hand is held over them. 455. down to the holy mount of God and let Truth.IS EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. . which is wisdom. and the rest of the demon crew. in Bacchic fashion. according to which also a brazen statue of Eunomos with his lyre. But let us bring from above out of heaven. and Sophocles. and is looked on with incredulous eyes ? And so Cithseron.-j. and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. let them abandon Helicon and Cithceron. light to the most distant points. and take up their abode in Sion. mysteries of deceit." 2 the celestial — Word. and deliver men from de- l lusion. hopper's song. as the fable represents. Truth. let us confine to Cithoeron and Helicon. with the satyrs. cast her rays all around on those that are involved in darkness. But of its own accord it flew to the lyre. And raising their eyes. . and of its own accord sang. appears to you disguised. you the records of miseries are turned into dramatic com- positions. I am pained at such calamities as form the subjects of tragedy. . and look- ing above. the true athlete crowned in the theatre of the whole 1 The Greek is v^zpn/. ii. and the initiatory rites of the Thracians. while Truth's shining face alone. and the sacred prophetic choir. as clue to themeaning here. was erected at Pytho. have you believed vain fables. highest. and was regarded by the Greeks as a musical performer. darting her . for their salvation. are hallowed and celebrated in hymns. and the frenzied rabble. now quite intoxicated.rr. For me. for the The grasshopper then was attracted by the song of Eunomos. and sup- posed animals to be charmed by music. and the Locrian's ally in the contest. 3.

has raised up a seed of piety. which has come to loose. v. and that Methymngean." and He. were the first to entice men to idols nay. nor Lydian. nor Dorian. 19 universe. 7 . that is. But not such is my song. As our witness. celebrating crimes in their orgies. — subjecting to the yoke of extremest bondage the truly noble freedom of those who lived as free citizens under heaven. To me. 2 Odyssey. the irascible to lions. to build up the . 1. who. let us adduce the voice of prophecy accordant with truth. and yet unworthy of the name. Luke iii. and that speedily." 1 Ps. therefore. possessed by a spirit of artful sorcery for purposes of destruction. . The silly are stocks and stones. — EXHORTATION TO TEE HEATHEN. 1 " Soother of pain. iii. Matt. the bitter bondage of tyrannizing demons and leading us back . Again. the most intractable of animals the frivolous among . that Thracian Orpheus. Luke iii. 1' 2 Sweet and true is the charm of persuasion which blends with this strain. of those stones — of the nations. 1. recalls to heaven those that had been cast prostrate to the earth. therefore. who plotted 4 against righteousness. statues and images. under the pretence of poetry corrupting human life. some venomous and false hypocrites. sensitive to virtue. It alone has tamed men. nor the Phrygian. xcvi. — men. 7. commiserating their great ignorance and hardness of heart who are petrified against the truth. 9 . and making human woes the materials of religious worship. by their songs and incantations. to the mild and loving yoke of piety. but the immortal measure of the new harmony which bears God's name —the new. the rapacious to wolves. seem to have been deceivers. 3 4 Matt. iii. 8. 220. stupidity of the nations with blocks of wood and stone. and still more senseless than stones is a man who is steeped in ignorance. xcviii. He once called "a brood of vipers. the Levitical song. and bewailing those who are crushed in ignorance and folly " For God is able of these stones to raise up children : 3 to Abraham. calmer of wrath. that Theban. deceivers to reptiles. nor that of Capito. producing forgetfulness of all ills. What my Eunomos sings is not the measure of Terpander. the voluptuous to swine. that — is. who trusted in stones. them answering to the fowls of the air.

so that the whole world might become harmony. has harmonized this uni- versal frame of things. and tuned the discord of the elements to harmonious arrangement. And this death- less strain. not being partakers of the true life. have come to life again. and from the extremities to the central part. It let loose the fluid ocean. but according to the paternal counsel of God. clothed in sheep-skins. he becomes a man of God. —who. which is like that invented by Jubal. — makes melody to God on this 1 3-5. . It also composed the universe into melodious order. He saved us. not by works of righteousness which we have done. —the support of the whole and the harmony of all. that were as dead. iii.20 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. The earth. it has established. And He who is of David. living in malice and envy. the Word of God. and yet has prevented it from encroaching on the land. but according to His mercy. and especially man. which are but lifeless instruments. simply by becoming listeners to this song. Others he figuratively calls wolves. and yet before him. hating one another/' Thus speaks the apostolic scripture " But after that the kindness and love of God our : Saviour to man appeared. Those. meaning thereby monsters of rapacity in human form. and all such blocks of stone. —reaching from the centre to the circumference. is a universe in miniature. which fired the zeal of David. men out of beasts. despising the lyre and harp. Tit. composed of body and soul. serving divers lusts and pleasures. it has moderated by the embrace of hre. which had been in a state of commotion. i: the celestial song has transformed into tractable men. But if one of those serpents even is willing to repent. and follows the Word. and having tuned by the Holy Spirit the uni- verse. again. hateful. harmoniously arrang- ing these the extreme tones of the universe. as the Dorian is blended with the Lydian strain and the harsh cold of the air . The violence of fire it has softened by the atmosphere. moreover. deceived." 1 Behold the mi^ht of the new son£r ! It has made men out of stones. and fixed the sea as its boundary. And so all such most savage beasts. not according to the Thracian music. For even we ourselves were sometime foolish. disobedient.

was so far from celebrating demons in song. For 2 " before the morning star was it . then. God's promise. the celestial Word. that . ex. the second breathe. — — man he sings accordant " For thou art my harp. and unstop the ears of the deaf. to exhibit God to the foolish. melodious. the harper whom we mentioned a little above. that in reality they were driven away by his music. who is the supramundane Wisdom. and to lead the lame or the erring to righteousness. then. and pipe. on the other hand. the Arcadians by the poets. 21 instrument of many and to this instrument I mean tones . after His own image. who describe them as older than 1 Probably a quotation from a hymn. 2 Ps. And do not suppose the song of salvation to be new. to reconcile disobedient children to their father. delights only in the salvation of men. but truth seems a new thing. And He Himself also. : and temple. Septuagint has. For wickedness feeds on men's destruction but truth. and the Word was with God. And David the king. shields. who exhorted to the truth and dissuaded from idols. when Saul was plagued with a demon. and the Word was God. surely. is the all- harmonious. the Lord. or. Thus. and of His bounty promises us the kingdom of heaven as a re- ward for learning and the only advantage He reaps is. . to put a stop to corruption. saves. Whether. the Phrygians are shown to be the most ancient people by the goats of the fable. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. harming nothing." 3 John i. you have His love: become partaker of His grace. the third contain the Lord. 3. 1. What. The Lord pities. then." and " in the beginning was the Word. You have. like the bee. The instrument of God loves mankind." J Error seems old. holy instrument of God. may sound. exhorts. " before the morning star. the New Song— desire ? To open the eyes of the blind. instructs." 1 — a harp for harmony a pipe by reason of — the Spirit — a temple by reason of the word so that the first . does this instrument —the Word of God. he cured him by merely playing. . we are saved. as a vessel or a house is new. admonishes. to conquer death. A beautiful breathing instrument of music the Lord made man.

we should live soberly. then. He. teaching us. enslaves and plagues men even till now inflicting. who in the beginning bestowed on us life as Creator when He formed us. — 22 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. such barbarous vengeance on them as those who are 1 11-10. lost as we already were. who u was ." and by whom all things were created. for "in the beginning was the Word. accord- ing to that inspired apostle of the Lord. he has been called by me the New Song. But now. to me. both God and man the Author of all blessings to us by whom we. this very Word has now appeared as man. looking for the blessed hope. Tit. are sent on our way to life eternal. This Word. The Saviour. has in recent days appeared. but inasmuch as He has now assumed the name Christ. in the beginning. from the beginning. in this present world. denying ungodliness and worldly lusts. He did not now for the first time pity us for our error. the Christ. His ap-at pearance. to live well. by his enchantments. He accomplished our sal- vation. but He pitied us from the first." This is the New Song. He was and is the divine source of all things . taught us to live well when He appeared as our Teacher . we the rational creatures — of the Word of God. that as God He might afterwards conduct us to the life which never ends. the cause of both our being at first (for He was in God) and of our well-being. with God. But before the foundation of the world were we. that. on whose account we date from the beginning. ii. For that wicked reptile monster. being taught . has appeared as our Teacher. has appeared for the Word. the moon . and godly. pre- existed in the eye of God before. righteously. who existed before. and appearing of the glory of the great 1 God and our Saviour Jesus Christ. consecrated of old. . who. the Egyptians by those who dream that this land first gave birth to gods and men : yet none of these at least existed before the world. and worthy of power. as seems . inasmuch as the Word was from the first. He alone being both. because destined to be in Him. The Word. u the grace of God which bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men. For." Well. finally. or. who is in Him that truly is. the manifestation of the Word that was and before the beginning.

but now plainly calls to salvation. may with truth be said to have taken and buried living men with those dead idols. for the men day needed signs and wonders. in another amputates. to stones. accordingly. and some- times He threatens. as He did by signs and winders in Egypt and the desert. just as a good physician treatssome of his patients with cataplasms. by men . while by Moses. He turns to the Word those who have ears to hear. and Isaiah. The Saviour has many tones of voice. 23 said to bind captives to corpses till they rot together. . By the fear which these inspired He addressed the hard-hearted. is one — and the same the Lord. lover of truth. which. learned in all wisdom. and many methods for the salvation of by threatening He admonishes." 1 and let us run to the Lord the Saviour. who now exhorts to salvation. and stocks. now brings thither the rest of mankind. Sometimes He upbraids. till both suffer corruption together. ii. too. some with fomentations in one case cuts open with . Therefore (for the seducer is one and the same) he that at the beginning brought Eve down to death. both by the bush and the cloud. of that He awed men by the fire when He made flame to burst from the pillar of cloud — a token at once of grace and 1 Eph. let us flee from " the prince of the power of the air. in another cauterizes. and such like idols. therefore. Some men He mourns over. as He has ever done. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. upbraiding He converts. binding fast with the miserable chain of superstition whomsoever he can draw to his side from their birth. 2. and the whole prophetic choir. in a way appealing more to reason. through the favour of divine love. Our ally and helper. by the voice of song He cheers. who from the beginning gave reve- lations by prophecy. This wicked tyrant and serpent. the lancet. In obedience to the apostolic injunction. in order if possible to cure the patient's diseased part or member. others He addresses with the voice of song. the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. some with rub- bing. by bewailing He pities. He spake by the burning bush. and images. attended the Hebrews like an hand- maid.

fear you obey. being in the form of God. He will deny that he is Christ. ii. 6. we may say. there is : if . exerting Him- self to save man. therefore. there is the light if you disobey. preparing for salvation. O voice ? Tell us also. 1 Phil. speaking Himself by — the mouth of the prophets. that thou mayest learn from man how man may become God. by referring both the voices to the same thing " Let her hear who has : 2 8 Isa. the Lord Himself shall speak to thee. and that voice the precursor of the Word : an inviting voice. " who. " Make straight the paths of the Lord." What criest thou. we should spurn His kindness and reject salvation? Does not John also invite to salvation. then. since humanity is nobler than the pillar or the . . the Lord — Himself speaking in Isaiah. John i. eternal life. —a voice urging men on to the in- heritance of the heavens." 1 He. as I think. This fecundity the angel's voice foretold . after them the prophets uttered their voice. But if thou dost not believe the prophets. the salvation in store for us to be. my friends. And now the Word Himself clearly speaks to thee. Is it not then monstrous. as John did to the wilderness. the Word of God . "Who of men art thou. I say." ° John is the forerunner.24 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. "The beseeching voice of the Word crying in the wilder- ness. in Elias. 23. that while God is ceaselessly exhortins. xl. thought it not robbery to be equal with God. is John ? In a word. became man. The Scripture makes all this cleai. but supposest both the men and the fire a myth. the fire but. By reason of this voice of the Word. us to virtue. the barren woman bears children. 3. but — humbled Himself. that on the appearance of this Word we should reap. 7. and is he not entirely a voice of exhortation? Let us then ask him. shaming thy unbelief yea. but will profess himself to be u a voice crying in 2 the wilderness. and this voice was also the precursor of the Lord preaching glad tidings to the barren woman." Who. and through which the barren and the desolate is childless no more. bush. as the fruit of this productiveness. and whence ?" He will not say Elias. The two voices which heralded the Lord's —that of the angel and that of John — intimate. the merciful God. and the desert becomes fruitful.

through whom alone God is beheld. both become mothers through the word. herald of the Word. and encircling them with the leaves of temperance. was made childless because of unbelief the barren woman : receives the husband. xi. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 25 not brought forth." which we who desire to understand God must 1 ' He may throw heaven's gates wide open to us. once blessed with many children. not leaves of laurel fillets interwoven with wool and purple but wreathing thy brows with right- . besought men to make themselves ready against the coming of the Christ of God." He says. are opened by the key of faith. liv. that the Word." 1 The angel announced to us the glad tidings of a husband. 4 Matt. "the door. John entreated us to recognise the husbandman. 27. For this husband of the barren woman. the light of truth.4 And I know well that He who has opened the door hitherto shut. the other of believers. 1 Isa. and this — husbandman of the desert who filled with divine power the barren woman and the desert is one and the same. 9. . mightby becoming the gospel. 1. break the mystic silence of the prophetic enigmas. will afterwards reveal what is within ." 5 3 John x. 2 And it was this which was signified by the dumbness of Zacharias. 2 Thig may be -| trailsi atec " f God the Christ. discover. and let her who has not had the pangs of childbirth utter her voice : for more are the children of the desolate. set thyself earnestly to find Christ. that For the gates of the Word being intellectual. But to the unbelieving the barren and the desert are For this reason John. eousness. No one knows God but the Son. to seek the husband. which waited for fruit in the person of the harbinger of Christ. For — because many were the children of the mother of noble race. and will show what we could not have known before. had we not entered in by Christ. than of her who hath an husband. yet the Hebrew woman. the one of fruits. But if thou desirest truly to see God. take to thyself means of purifica- tion worthy of Him. and the desert the husbandman then . the still reserved. " For I am. and he towhom the Son shall reveal Him.

And bring and place beside the Pythian those that divine by flour. the imperative of duispoa. consign to the region of antiquated fables. and the oracle there gone to decay with the oak itself. and stripped of their vainglory. Recount 2 to us also the useless oracles of that other kind of divination. the sacred oath. although at a late date. The fountain of Castalia is silent. Let the secret shrines of the Egyptians and the necromancies 1 "What this is. 3 The text has duiipw. but it is likely that the word is a cor- ruption of ispoiu oov-j. or the Dodonian copper. CHAPTER II. or the mouths of caverns full of monstro- sity. is not known . that of Amphiaraus. ' and the interpreters of dreams. ? will. which in classical Greek means "to hallow. in like manner. "unholy interpreters. of Amphilochus and if you . are shown with their fabulous legends to have run dry." "no longer count holy. and. THE ABSURDITY AND IMPIETY OF THE HEATHEN MYSTERIES AND FABLES ABOUT THE BIRTH AND DEATH OF THEIR GODS. or the Thesprotian caldron. but the verb here must be derived from the 1 ' adjective dvlepog. the Didymaean. XPLOEE not then too curiously the shrines of impiety. The Geran- 1 drvon. and the other fountain of Colophon . the augurs. the Pythian. once regarded sacred in the midst of desert sands. or rather madness. of Apollo." : 20 ." Eusebius reads dvupov. or the Cirrhsean tripod. 2 clffiinoTet xprKrrqptet. couple with them the expounders of prodigies. and be taken in the sense u deprive of their holiness. and those that divine by barley. all the rest of the springs of divination are dead. and the ventriloquists still held in honour by many. the Clarian.

I shall display. mystic rites. who instituted the orgies and mysteries of the Samothracians. For I will never be persuaded . having learned the cunning imposture from Odrysus. and the superstitious among the Greeks. Goats. You may understand mysteria in another way. The bacchanals hold their orgies in honour of the frenzied Dionysus. Moreover. for certainly fables of this sort hunt after the most barbarous of the Thracians. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. then. signifies a female serpent. The symbol of the Bacchic orgies is a consecrated serpent. the former to the wrath Demeter against Zeus. I don't grudge your mysteries the glory of funeral honours. the letters of the two words being interchanged . have been confederates in this art of soothsaying. . Demeter and Proserpine have become the heroines of a mystic drama and their wanderings. and grief. who Pollodorus says was . as mytheria (hunting fables). as it were. the (0/9777) of latter to the nefarious wickedness (fivo-os) relating to Diony- sus but if from Myus of Attica. who taught the mysteries of the mother of the gods. Eleusis celebrates by torchlight processions. Perish. tribution of the parts of butchered victims. as they say Alcibiades did. And what if I go over the mysteries % I will not divulge them in mockery. Insane devices truly are they all of unbelieving men. trained to divination . or that Phrygian Midas who. the most senseless of the Phrygians. celebrating their sacred frenzy by the eating of raw and go through the dis- flesh. according to the strict inter- pretation of the Hebrew term. the man who was the author of this imposture among men. but I will ex- pose right well by the word of truth the sorcery hidden in them and those so-called gods of yours. shrieking out the name of that Eva by whom error came into the world. too. or Eetion. I think that the derivation of orgies and mysteries ought to be traced. 27 of the Etruscans be consigned to darkness. whose are the . aspirated. and crows taught by men to give oracular responses to men. crowned with snakes. be he Dardanus. killed in hunting —no matter. and seizure. on the stage of life. com- municated it to his subjects. to the spectators of truth. the name lievia.

the plucking out of the hearts of sacrifices. And those initiated bring a piece of money to her. the as the parents of impious fables and of deadly superstition. celebrating her grief in son <*. mother or wife. that were cut off. as is said . because sprung from them. and Zeus' wanton embraces of his mother. that. having torn away the testicles of a ram. Such rites the Phrygians perform in honour of Attis and Cybele and the Corybantes. — And now. even from those of Uranus. also the entreaties of Zeus. And the story goes. pretending to have cut out his own. —I mean Aphrodite. The symbols of initia- tion into these rites. These I would instance prime authors of evil. that Zeus. on which account it is that she is called Brimo. lover of the virilia. And if you have been initiated. offered violence to the waves. not ashamed to tell what you are not ashamed to worship. as a courtesan's paramours do to her. I publish without reserve what has been involved in secrecy. s. by that Cyprian Islander Cinyras. the darling of Cinvras. brought them out and cast them at the breasts of Demeter. and deeds that we dare not name. and the drink of gall. Others say that Melampus the son of Amythaon imported the festi- vals of Ceres from Egypt into Greece. after being cut off. In the rites which celebrate this enjoyment of the sea. you will laugh ail the more at these fables of yours which have been held in honour. paying thus a fraudulent penalty for his violent embrace. who sowed in human life that seed of evil and ruin the mysteries. . — those lustful members. for it is time. I will prove their orgies to be full of imposture and quackery. 28 EXHORTATIOX TO THE HEATHEN. when set before you in a vacant hour. There is then the foam-born and Cyprus-born. Then there are the mysteries of Demeter. and the wrath of Demeter I know not what for the future I shall call her. Of members so lewd a worthy fruit — — Aphrodite is born. who dared to bring forth from night to the light of day the lewd orgies of Aphrodite in his eagerness to deify a strumpet of his own country. as a symbol of her birth a lump of salt and the phallus are handed to those who are initiated into the art of uncleanness.

for which reason. Zeus is both the father and the seducer of Kore. under the name of the herdsman's ox-goad. and the father of the bull the dragon. in the form of a bull. to her basket. . The token of the Sabazian mysteries to the initiated is " the deity gliding over the breast. the mother. 29 I know your laughter. — EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. speaking the Megaric tongue. this same Zeus has intercourse with his own daughter Pherephatta. although on account of the will excite exposure by no means inclined to laugh. to the reed wielded by the bacchanals. and the Titans having come upon them by stealth. he — who begot her. — after Ceres." — the deity being this serpent crawl- ing over the breasts of the initiated. in the Thesmophoria. —forgetting his former abominable wickedness. as I believe. I have carried 1 the Cernos. The mysteries of Dionysus are wholly inhuman . and her seizure by Pluto (Aidoneus). for while still a child. The scholiast says that it is a fan. 1 The cernos some take to be a vessel containing poppy. dramatizing in many forms the rape of Pherephatta (Proserpine). though. I have slipped into the bedroom. and has intercourse with her in the shape of a dragon. I have eaten out of the drum. they thrust out swine 1 This mythological story the women celebrate variously in different cities in the festivals called Thesmo- phoria and Scirophoria . as an idolatrous poet says : " The bull The dragon's father. to be sure. Proof surely this of the unbridled lust of Zeus. was discovered. however. Kore 1 is reared up to womanhood. and the rent in the earth. and the swine of Eubouleus that were swallowed up with the two goddesses . etc. 2 Proserpine or Pherephatta. and the Curetes danced around [his cradle] clashing their weapons. and having beguiled him with childish toys. his identity. And. in course of time." alluding. On a hill the herdsman's hidden ox-goad. Are not these signs a disgrace ? Are not the mysteries absurdity ? What if I add the rest? Demeter becomes a mother.. carried in sacrificial processions. Pherephatta has a child. I have drunk out of the cymbal. Do you wish me go into the story of Pherephatta's gathering of flowers.

1 The scholiast takes the pof&£o. and there deposited it. abstain from eating the seeds of the pomegranate which have on the ground. first boiled them down. head of the dead body with a purple cloth. and throwing into it the members of Dionysus. Those Corybantes also they call Cabiri and the ceremony . just as the women." But Zeus having appeared. . in celebrating the Thesmo- phoria. These mysteries are. and spinning-top. and limb-moving rattles. apples. and swung round so as to cause a whistling noise. itself they announce as the Cabiric mystery. from the vibrating of the heart: and the Titans who had torn him limb from limb. having speedily per- ceived the savour of the pieces of flesh that were being cooked. then know having killed their third brother. from the idea that pome- fallen granates sprang from the drops of the blood of Dionysus. and carrying it on the point of a spear. these very Titans tore him limb from limb when but a child. If you wish to inspect the orgies of the Corybantes. buried under the roots of it Olympus. in short. and then fixing them on spits. murders and funerals. they covered the that. give additional strangeness to the tragic occurrence. the Thracian Orpheus. tuft of wool. as the bard of this mystery. to mean a piece of wood attached to a cord. for they think that parsley grew from the Corybantic blood that flowed forth. having ab- to stracted the heart of Dionysus. looking-glass. top. crowned it. — that savour which your gods agree to have assigned to them as their perquisite. was called Pallas. says 11 Cone. And he —for he did not disobey Zeus — bore the dismembered corpse to Parnassus. resume our account. since he was a god. ball. his and consigns the members of Dionysus son Apollo to his to be interred. And the priests of these rites. setting a caldron on a tripod. And fair golden apples from the clear-toned Hesperides. These are dice. who are called kings of the sacred rites by those whose business it is to name them. 1 hoop. : 30 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHj. — the Titans with assails thunderbolt." And the useless symbols of this mystic rite it will not be useless to exhibit for condemnation. u held them over the fire. Athene (Minerva). by forbidding parsley with the roots from being placed on the table.

I repeat. and takes. And showed all that shape of the body which it is improper to name. They lived there as exiles. and Dusaules. wandering in quest of her daughter Core. because he was castrated. and in the — whole of Greece I blush to say it — the shameful legend about Demeter holds its ground ? For Demeter. And what is surprising at the Tyrrhenians. inclination to drink (for she was very sad). not improbably. thinking herself slighted. and Baubo having become annoyed. broke down with fatigue near Eleusis. Demeter is delighted at the sight. being thus initiated into these foul indignities. took it to — Etruria dealers in honourable wares truly. as evidence for this piece of turpitude : " Having thus spoken. and exhibited them to the goddess. from whom came the race of the Eumolpida? and that of the — — Heralds a race of Hierophants who flourished at Athens. not having any . The indigenous inhabitants then occupied Eleusis : their names were Baubo. she drew aside her garments. at the spectacle. . though with difficulty. . then (for I shall not refrain from the recital). EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. . This is even now prohibited to those who are initiated. and Triptolemus and besides. a place in Attica. Triptolemus was a herdsman. . when among the Athenians. These are the secret mysteries of the Athenians these Orpheus records. that you may have the great authority on the mysteries himself. reaches to her a refreshing draught and on her refusing it. I shall produce the very words of Orpheus. And some will have it. who were barbarians. Eumolpus a shepherd. having abstracted the box in which the penis of Bacchus was deposited. Well. and presenting the genitals and the box for the Tyrrhenians to worship. the — draught pleased. uncovered her secret parts. U For those two identical fratricides. Eumolpus and Eubouleus. that for this reason Dionysus was called Attis. lest they should appear to mimic the weeping god- dess. and Eubouleus a swineherd . the growth of puberty And with her own hand Baubo stripped herself under the breasts. Baubo having received Demeter hospitably. and sat down on a well overwhelmed with grief. employing themselves in communicating the precious teaching of their superstition.

"whom a fate they hope not for awaits after death. and ivy leaves? and besides. the magi. mysteries worthy of the ni^ht. Are they not sesame cakes. 32 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEX. and the magnanimous or rather silly people of the Erechthidas. round cakes and poppy seeds ? And further. embossed all over. and opinion. a veil for the pleasure of temperate men . and flame. . the initiated. I have received from the box . a woman's comb. and rods. That li^ht exposes Iacchus let thy mysteries be honoured." And in truth against these Heraclitus the Ephesian prophesies. I put it into the basket. the holy night is the tell-tale of the rites of licentiousness and the glare of torches reveals vicious . . the bacchanals. Law. which is a euphemism and mystic expression for a woman's secret parts. and branches. and lumps of salt. O Hierophant: reverence. a sword. as "the night- walkers. and observes with a spurious piety profane rites. O Torch-bearer. a lamp. are nugatory. the Lenaean revellers. but now for the initiated. I have drunk the cup. and divulge things not fit for speech. they celebrate sacrilegiously. which celebrates religiously mysteries that are no mysteries at all. then. And the mysteries of the dragon are an imposture. 1 This sentence is read variously in various editions. and out of the basket into the chest. the torches. and globular and flat cakes." These he threatens with what will follow death. are there not pomegranates. marjoram. indulgences. and the other Greeks besides. and pyramidal cakes. For what are regarded among men as mysteries. there are the unmentionable symbols of Themis. and becoming a goddess . having done. and predicts for them lire. And received the glancing cup in which was the draught." And the following is the token of the Eleusinian mys- teries : / have fasted. Blandly then the goddess laughed and laughed in her mind. and a serpent the symbol of Dionysus Bassareus ? And besides these. and command the orgies to be 1 hidden in niMit and darkness. O unblushing shamelessness ! Once on a time night was silent.Fine sights truly. Quench the flame. What are these mystic chests? for I must — expose their sacred things.

Such are the mysteries of the Atheists. and Hippo of Melos. and opinion . and besides these. they certainly suspected the error of the common which suspicion is no insignificant seed. becomes the germ of true wisdom. who lived a sober life. taking an image of Hercules made of wood (for he happened most likely to be cooking something at home). and Diagoras. and had a clearer insight than the rest of the world into the prevailing error respecting those gods. saying. condemning him as having become effeminate among the Greeks. who shot with an arrow one of his subjects who imitated among the Scythians the mystery of the Mother of the gods." 1 All honour to that king of the Scythians. that Cyrenian of the name of Theodoras. were called Atheists . as practised by the inhabitants of Cyzicus. " Come now3 1 Epk ii. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. and numbers of others. for if they did not arrive at the knowledge of the truth. and without God in the world. c . and pay shameless worship to a boy torn in pieces by the Titans. 12. . Wherefore the apostle reproves us. and to parts of the body that in truth cannot be mentioned for shame. And with reason I call those Atheists who know not the true God. having no hope. who have nothing but a name. it exposes and punishes what it is bidden. whoever Ana- charsis was. do not any more regard them as gods. Wherefore must by no means conceal it) I cannot (for I help wondering how Euhemerus of Agrigentum. held fast as they are in the double impiety. " And ye were strangers to the covenants of promise. or rather no existence at all. and a woman in distress. beating a drum and sounding a cymbal strung from his neck like a priest of Cybele. and Nicanor of Cyj:>rus. said. first in that they know not God. and a teacher of the disease of effeminacy to the rest of the Scythians. 33 The fire dissembles not . not acknow- ledging as God Him who truly is . One of these charges the Egyptians thus " If you believe them to be gods. do net : mourn or bewail them and if you mourn and bewail them." And another. as existing those gods that have no real existence. the other and second is the error of regarding those who and calling exist not.

as you did the twelve for Eurystheus. have turned man. . and shines resplendent . assumes many gods falsely so called. in place of the . as the 1 Euripides. from which we must endeavour to keep. and 7 ' deified them. beguiled by the contemplation of the heavens. in ignorance of his true father. . or emasculated man. a creature of heavenly origin. baffling our efforts to behold Thee. as the Athenians. — Indians and the moon. now is the time to undergo for us this thirteenth labour. Thou. and in the earth hast Thy seat. called grain Demeter. who makest the earth Thy chariot. but which now at length has leapt forth instantaneously from the darkness. and trusting to their sight alone. as the — son of a harlot. as has been expressed by one 1 in the following lines : " See'st thou tins lofty. obscured through ignorance. while they looked on the motions of the stars.34 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. Hercules . straightway O J were seized with admiration. Whoever Thou be. as the Phrygians. or son of a harlot. to him who. calling the stars gods from their motion (#eo? from Oelv) and worshipped the sun. as. and certainly pernicious. may claim many putative fathers. away from the heavenly life. And do you not see Moses. But sentiments erroneous. and make tins ready for Diagoras. and the vine Dionysus. the hierophant of the truth. and deviating from what is right. Others. by inducing him to cleave to earthly objects. only real God. There was an innate original communion between men and heaven." And whatever else the sons of the poets sing. the . enjoining that no eunuch. this boundless ether. should enter the con- gregation ? By the two first he alludes to the impious custom by which men were deprived both of divine energy and of their virility and by the third. and stretched him on the earth. For the extremes of ignorance are atheism and superstition. for example." and so cast it into the fire as a log of wood. pluck- ing the benignant fruits of earth-born plants. Holding the earth in the embrace of its humid arms/' And in these : ' . For some.

and Auxo. worshipping various forms of retribution and calamity. There is a sixth mode of introducing error and of manufacturing gods. reared for wrath. make idols of forms of the affections in your breasts. . Epimenides of joy. for the great love wherewith He loved us. 35 Thebans. which are Attic goddesses. and of whom Homer speaks in all that he says of the gods. and Lachesis. and having been buried with Christ. truth. and and hope as. 3-5. whose birth is the theme of which Hesiod sings in his Theogony. and cast him into the abyss. are no longer the nurslings of wrath. and the judges and avengers of crime. and love. We who have been rescued from and restored to the error. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN." For the Word is living. deified them. have through the philanthropy of the Word now become the sons of God. ii. we who were once the children of lawlessness. not understanding that it is God that does us good. a Clotho. and Thallo. and are fashioned in bodily shape. and speed your flight back to heaven. is exalted with God. and Asclepius the healer. but God. Others. are the creations of the tragic poets. old. according to which they number the twelve gods. 1 Eph. The last mode remains (for there are seven in all) that which takes — its rise from the divine beneficence towards men. Hence the Erinnyes. and the piacular deities. and Atropos. that now at length you may abandon your delusion. who raised at Athens the altars of Insult and Impudence. For. Thus. even as others. " For we also were once children of wrath. I wish to show thoroughly what like these gods of yours are. being rich in mercy. therefore. and Heimarmene. considering the penalties of wickedness. and the Eumenides. And some even of the philosophers. . These are the slippery and hurtful deviations from the truth which draw man down from heaven. —such as fear. such as a Dike. after the poets. to be sure. they have invented saviours in the persons of the Dioscuri. and Hercules the averter of evil. Other objects deified by men take their rise from events. But those who are still unbelieving are called children of wrath. when we were now dead in trespasses. quickened us together with 1 Christ.

Crete. Leave the darkness of night. the son of Zeus . Further. Butyou a poet of your own. distracted with grievous evils. having wickedly killed her father. And leaving the right and straight path.36 EXHOHTATIOX TO THE HEATHEX. and the others ap. foolish men. mortal men. the third the inventor of war. all helpers of their fellow-men." The most of what told of your gods is fabled and in- is vented . fourth. For there are those who reckon three Jupiters him of JEther in Arcadia. . And what were . the Arcadian. and lay hold on the light. You will never ease your soul of its miserable woes. as if it had been the fleece of a sheep. who similarly with those already mentioned have been so called. Aristotle calls the first Apollo. the daughter of Zeus. the daughter of Kronos . and Titanis. Empedocles of Agrigentum. one in Crete. the daughter of Pallas . . that in . the daughter of Hephasstus. who. the Egyptian. the Libyan Apollo. who is at once prophetic and poetic. the son of Magnes. from her mother above all. he specifies . stripping the crowd of deities of those terrifying and threat- ening masks of theirs. enjoins on us and truth enjoins them on us too.ain in Arcadia. and those things which are supposed to have taken place. the . to comes and says : u "Wherefore. the daughter of Kilus. the son of Corybas the third. the daughter of Oceanus. the son of Amnion and to these Didy. from mortals . you have gone away Through thorns and briars. the fourth. Why do ye wander ? Cease. And there are those that reckon five Athenes the Athenian. the son of Silenus (this one is called by the Arcadians Noniius) and in addition to these. disproving the rash opinions formed of them by showing the similarity of names. mus the grammarian adds a sixth. are recorded of vile men who lived licentious lives : M You walk in pride and madness. ." These counsels the Sybil. whom the Messenians have named Cory- phasia. : the second. and : the other two sons of Kronos and of these. And now how many Apollos are there? They are numberless. adorned herself with her father's skin. the son of Hephaestus and Athene (conse- quently Athene is no more a virgin) the second.

31. . 385. Asclepius was name. Otus and E phial tes." 2 Good luck attend the Carians. And the doctor was greedy of gold . from his grasp ." And the same in another place : " Fat sacrifices of asses' flesh delight Phcebus. maimed in his feet " His tottering knees were bowed beneath his weight. or all the Mercuries that are reckoned up. v. . He thirteen months in brazen fetters lay. xviii. and not only a brass-worker among the gods. 3 Iliad. This god. the Boeotian Pindar " Him even the gold glittering in his hands. whom Jupiter cast from Olympus. 2 Iliad. strongly bound. v. the native countries of your gods. accordingly. already death's capture. as Epichar- always changing sides. deluging your ears with these numerous names? At any rate. : : : : : EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. Amounting to a splendid fee. bane of men. from its divine threshold. as Apollodorus and Callimachus relate " Phcebus rises propitious to the Hyperboreans. 410. Mars. . blood-stained stormer of walls. When they offer sacrifices of asses to him. and implacable. Quickly took the breath from their breasts." 3 You have also a doctor. de- lives. And his flaming thunderbolt sealed their doom. I shall produce as a witness your own his poet. 37 I to mention the many Asclepiuses. others say he was an Arcadian. having shot his bolt through both." 1 — this deity. who sacrifice dogs to him ! And may the Scythians never leave off sacrificing asses. monstrate them to have been men." 1 Iliad. practised the art of working in brass. and their arts and and besides especially their sepulchres. mus says. having fallen on Lemnos. Homer says. was bound thirteen months 4i Mars had his sufferings by Aloeus' sons. who by the poets is held in the highest possible honour "Mars. But Saturnism Jove. was a Spartan Sophocles knew him for a Thracian ." Hephaestus. or theVulcans of fable ? Shall I not appear extravagant. Mars. persuaded To rescue a man.

" He therefore lies struck with liiihtnin^ in the regions of Cynosuris. 38 EXHOBTATIOX TO THE HEATHEX. therefore. being the progeny of Mars. hook-nosed. and was always quarrelling with his wife and Megaclo was vexed for her mother's sake. after living fifty-two years. bristling-haired. and was burned in a funeral pyre in GEta. and calls 1 Iliad. and death was decreed to him by fate but Pollux was immortal.and these Dioscuri were only two mortals. . . by casting the lightning flame at liis breast. being handmaids. read " small. . iii. have told the story of the Dioscuri . he who wrote the Cyprian poems says Castor was mortal. In Lacedsemon lay. dark. as tall. with greyish eyes and long hair. — those Muses. besides. Lord Derby's translation is used in extracts from the Iliad. Patroclus the Thurian. But Homer is more worthy of credit. the daughter of Makar. And Euripides " For Zeus was guilty of the murder of my sou Asclepius." Hercules. who spoke as above of both the Dioscuri and. Dicsearchus says that he was square-built. This he has poetically fabled. This Makar reigned over the Lesbians. And Hieronymus the philosopher describes 2 the make of his body. As for the Muses. proved Hercules to be a mere phantom : "The man Hercules. in three tragedies. What would she not do on her account ? Accordingly she hires those handmaids. was known by Homer himself as only a mortal man. muscular. were hired by Megaclo. in honour of whom whole states have already erected museums. accordingly. and there was buried. This Hercules." 1 And." but the true reading is doubtless " talL" . if Homer is worthy of credit " but they beneath the teeming earth. being so many in number. that Poseidon was wor- shipped as a physician in Tenos . their native land. expert in mighty deeds. and that Kronos settled in Sicily. robust and . in addition. and the rest of the poets and authors deify and worship. : : . came to his end. The mss. and Sophocles the younger. 243. Philochorus also says. whom Alcander calls the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne.

and Zeus is exposed. as a token of gratitude to them. and singing sweetly to soothed Makar. nor Zeuxippe. and indulge his lust on all. though so many. Chione. Alcyone. this is Phoebus. nor Prothoe. And all Olympus trembled at his nod. O Homer. And. the passions of your Poseidon were not satiated. fill me with admira- tion ! " He said. 39 them Mysse. who was so given to sexual pleasure. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. and their bonds. Such. O Homer and the nod . Call me Posei- don. This account is in Myrsilus of Lesbos. For he took his fill of women. Hippothoe. and their laughings. then. who spent so many nights in volup- 1 Iliad. and his locks are dishonoured. 527. Call me Apollo . nor Arsinoe. their servitudes too. both a holy prophet and a good adviser. and and furthermore. Wherefore Megaclo. . nor assiduously playing the lyre. and play melo- diously on the lyre. and the troop of damsels deflowered by him. their banquets . and their wounds. then. and put a it. And thy poems. and sufferings. hear the loves of your gods. Melanippe. on her mother's account erected brazen pillars. nor Hypsipyle. To what a pitch of licentiousness did that Zeus of yours proceed. according to the dialect of the iEolians. as to lust after all. stop to his ill-temper. and ordered them to be held in honour in all the temples. and nodded -with his shadowy brows Waved on the immortal head the ambrosial locks. which thou dost ascribe to him is most reverend. and their fights. i. and the in- credible tales of their licentiousness." 1 Thou makest Zeus venerable. with whom. are the Muses. But Sterope will not say that. But show him only a woman's girdle. above all. Alope. and lewd delights. let the Father of gods and men. nor Marpissa. . These she taught to sing deeds of the olden time. according to you. and myriads of others . their embraces. as the he-goat of the Thmuitss did of the she-goats. And they. And now. and tears. himself come. Amphitrite Amymone. For Daphne alone escaped the prophet and seduction.

But it is only the male deities. Let such gods as these be worshipped by your wives. that they may grow up to be men with the accursed likeness of fornication on them received from the gods. viii. and let them pray that their husbands be such as these — so temperate that. for modesty's sake. She contended with the ox-eyed Juno and the . but in one night deflowered the fifty daughters of Thestius. Pherephatta with Adonis. and thus was at once the debaucher and the bridegroom of so many virgins. tuousness with Alcmene ? For not even these nine nights were long to this insatiable monster. then. the goddesses blushing. and another Ganymede. Hercules.40 EXHORTATION TO THE HEAT1IEX. let us briefly go the round of the games. with Endymion. " The female deities stayed each in the house. and do ] Jluul. for shame. a whole lifetime were short enough for his lust that he might : beget for us the evil-averting god. It is not. bound in the chains of adultery Eos having disgraced herself with Tithonus. emulating them in the same practices. But come. But these aremore passionately licentious. that are impetuous in sexual indulgence. to look on Aphrodite when she had been guilty of adultery. Thetis with Peleus. without reason that the poets call him a cruel wretch and a nefarious scoundrel. crossed over to Cinyra and married Anchises. and laid snares for Phaethon. For your gods did not even abstain from boys. another Pelops. on the contrary. one having loved Hylas." 1 says Homer. Nereis with JEacus. 324. goddesses unrobed for the sake of the apple. and presented themselves naked before the shepherd. But. another Chrysippus. they may be like the gods. perhaps. another Hyacinthus. the son of Zeus —a true son of Zeus — was the offspring of that long night. who with hard toil accomplished the twelve labours in a long time. that he might decide which was the fairest. and debauching of boys. Such gods let your boys be trained to worship. And Aphro- dite having disgraced herself with Ares. It were tedious to recount his adul- teries of all sorts. and loved Adonis. . Selene . Demeter witli Jason. .

did not know the way a man. Nemean. he shaped the likeness of the membrum virile. In order to acquit himself of his promise to his lover. became public. games held in honour of the dead so also were the oracles. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. though not so in the opinion of Dionysus it was an Aphrodisian favour that : was asked of Dionysus as a reward. But the mysteries at Sagra 1 and in Alimus of Attica were confined to Athens. for the sake of 1 Meursius proposed to read. "For did they not make a procession in honour of Dionysus. and the Isthmian games bewail Melicerta. and promises to fulfil it should he return. the Isthmian. he departed and again returned he : did not find Prosymnus. pervading life with their deadly influence. Having learned the way. This is that Pluto and Dionysus in whose honour they give themselves up to frenzy. and finally the Olympian. a fiV-branch that to his hand.and the Olympian games. plxalloi are raised aloft in honour of Dionysus through the various cities. The god was not reluc- tant to grant the request made to him. . At Nemea another —a little boy. Archemorus —was buried . and confirms his promise with an oath. At the Isthmus the sea spit out a piece of miserable refuse . Pisa is the grave of the Phrygian charioteer." says Heraclitus. and the funeral games of the child are called Nemea. and sing most shameless songs in honour of the pudenda. as is probable. At Pytho the Pythian dragon is worshipped. for he had died. which are nothing else than the funeral sacrifices of Pelops. The mysteries were then. — not so much. the Zeus of Phidias claims for himself. and play the bacchanal. he rushes to his tomb. by name Prosymnus. came Cuttino. and Pythian. offers to tell him." . 41 away with those solemn assemblages at tombs. But those contests and phalloi consecrated to Dionysus were a world's shame. and the festival-assemblage of the serpent is called by the name Pythia. thus performing his promise to the dead man. O Hellenes of all tribes . As a mystic memorial of this incident. and burns with unnatural lust. and both . " at Agra. eagerly desiring to descend to Hades. in my opinion. not without reward. all would go wrong. For Dionysus. and sat over it. The reward was a disgraceful one.

Poseidon was a drudge to Laomedon and so was Apollo. of the silver bow. and the same Panyasis relates. Panyasis. too. And if there are wounds." And so on. was struck with an arrow by Hercules and Panyasis relates . and Apollo too. writing thus " Demeter underwent servitude. And fierce Mars Underwent it at the compulsion of his father. too. Homer says that Pluto even . therefore. Sosibius. as in every respect having human feelings. With reason. that by the same Hercules Hera the goddess of marriage was wounded in sandy Pylos. was unable to obtain his freedom from his former master and at that time the walls of Troy were . like a good- . Poseidon underwent it. Polemo. And we read of Aphrodite. there 1 The beams of Sol or the Sun is an emendation of Potter's. it remains for me to bring before you those amatory and sensuous deities of yours. like the Helots among the Lacedemonians. And Homer is not ashamed to speak of Athene as appearing to Ulysses with a golden lamp in her hand. and so did the famous lame god . read " the Elean Augeas^ . by introducing Aphro- dite uttering loud and shrill cries on account of her wound and describing the most warlike Ares himself as wounded in the stomach by Diomede. Agreeably to this. who. says that Athene was wounded by Ornytus nay. "With a mortal man for a year. : . tells us of gods in plenty besides those who acted as servants. intoxication. too. 42 EXHOBTATIOX TO THE HEATHEN. The MSS. for-nothing servant. as for the sake of the shameless ceremonial prac- tised. such as have become slaves of their passions are your gods ! Furthermore. Apollo came under the yoke of slavery to Admetus in PhersB. 1 that the beams of Sol were struck by the arrows of Hercules. Hercules to Omphale in Sardis." This Homer most distinctly shows. relates that Hercules was wounded in the hand by the sons of Hippocoon. in order to entice him to intercourse. M For theirs was a mortal body. built by them for the Phrraan. taking and setting a seat for Helen opposite the adulterer. like a wanton serving-wench.

in his hymns " For thy tomb. The Cretan. nor a licentious man the god : no longer flies. and the eagle. when the guest of Lycaon the Arcadian. The fable is exposed before you : Leda is dead. and never grew old. king. the violent. for the putrefaction of blood is called ichor. the author of omens. does not repent of his amatory exploits. and boys of better looks and manners than the Phrygian herdsman. the seducer. the inhuman. nor an eagle. the violator of right and of law. if they were immortal. and laughter. in whose country he was buried. self with human flesh unwittingly for the god did not know . as Leda is dead. the benign. Seek your Jupiter. and the swan. and had no wants. 43 is blood. or beget children. Jupiter himself. partook of a human table among the Ethiopians a table For he satiated him- rather inhuman and forbidden. more blooming than Semele. although reluctantly. his entertainer. be not distressed. would not devote themselves to love. — : EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. and served him up cooked before Zeus. or sleep. the protector of suppliants. the avenger of wrongs . Ransack not heaven. Accordingly mention is made of tables. I mean Callimachus. will — show him to you. the adulterer. the impious. a swan. Zeus is no longer a serpent. but earth. nor kisses. that Lycaon the Arcadian. had slain his son (his name was Nyctimus). although there arc strll many women. and the libertine. nor loves boys. and intercourse for men . This is Jupiter the good. nor offers violence. The Cretans fashioned !" For Zeus is dead. the patron of hospitality. the prophetic. to have grown old on our hands. nor is he taught continence. yet . the amatory. But perhaps when he was such he was a man but now these fables seem . Where is now that eagle ? where now that swan ? where now is Zeus himself ? He has grown old with his feathers for as yet he . rather the unjust. For the ichor of the poets is more repulsive than blood . And now even the superstitious seem. Where- fore cures and means of sustenance of which they stand in need must be furnished. more comely beautiful than Leda. and the serpent. and potations. the swan is dead.

Poor wretches that ye are. ! U EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEX. the gout) — in Laconica. or the cougher. is thy descent. reverenced in Elis. in Cyprus ? Do not the Argives sacrifice to Aphrodite Peribaso (the protectress). Polemo tells of an image of a yawning Apollo . they will be found to be but oaks and stones. opener of graves. of the guzzling Apollo.) The Argives and Spartans reverence Artemis Chelytis. There is also the temple of another Artemis Artemis Pod. viz. and at Methymna another Ar- temis had divine honours paid her. 163. the avenger. to have come to understand their error respecting the gods. which in their speech signifies to cough. in his book of the Brave and Fair. and to Fever. relates that Agamemnon kiii£ of the Hellenes erected the temple of Argennian Aphrodite. and the Romans sacrifice to Hercules. — agra (or. in honour of Argennus his friend. truly. other Zeus. the averter of flies. (I pass over the Argives. is worshipped by the Arcadians. who have filled with unholy jest- ing the whole compass of your life —a life in reality devoid of life Zeus the Baldhead worshipped in Argos and an- Is not . Commentators are generally agreed that the epithet is an obscene one. whom I call as witnesses against your unbelief.'"' and the 1 0<hjss. and to Terror. as Callimachus says in his Book of Causes . " For not from an ancient oak. One Agamemnon is said by Staphylus to be worshipped as a Jupiter in Sparta . Artemis Condylitis. named the Strangled. Do you imagine from what source these details have been quoted Only such as are furnished by yourselves are ? here adduced and you do not seem to recognise your own . as Sosibius says. and again of another image. nor from a rock. Then the Eleans sacrifice to Zeus. whom also they reckon among the attendants of Hercules. . xix. though what its precise meaning is they can only conjecture. 2 So Liddel and Scott. who worshipped Aphrodite. from yekvTreiv. But from men. writers." 1 But shortly after this. the averter of flies . and Phanocles. An Artemis.

a sow. and begot Myrmidon ? Polemo. what need is there further to say. in ac- cordance with ancient custom . How much better are the Egyptians. the Cynopolites a dog. who worship such gods as these ? For if they are beasts. . and the Thebans to weasels. the Egyptians whom I have now mentioned are divided in their objects of worship. too. or rather mock and insult themselves. derived from xolpoz. used metonymically for muliebria. as they have been already sufficiently exposed ? Further- more. the Heraclitopolites worship the ichneumon. And you. whom Nicander has somewhere called Kalliglutos (with beautiful rump). Such. and the Syracusans to Aphrodite Kallipygos. 45 Athenians to Aphrodite Heta^ra (the courtesan). are their gods . what are some of you. the daughter of Cletor. than the Greeks. the in- habitants of Sais and of Thebes a sheep. with regard to brute beasts ? For of your number the Thessalians pay divine homage to storks. the Leucopolites a wolf. and the maiotes — this is another fish — is worshipped by those who inhabit Elephantine : the Oxyrinchites likewise worship a fish which takes its name from their country. And of what sort these deities are. the Memphites Apis. such are they also who make mockery of the gods. too. they are not adulterous or libidinous. And again. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. which they call 1 An obscene epithet. and seek pleasure in nothing that is contrary to nature. The Syenites worship the braize- fish . who are altogether better than the Egyptians (I shrink from saying worse). Again. relates that the people who inhabit the Troad worship the mice of the country. the Men- desians a goat. since they have learned that Zeus in the likeness of an ant had inter- course with Eurymedusa. whom they have constituted the god of the muliebria —the patron of filthiness — and reli- giously honour as the author of licentiousness. who are never done laughing every day of your lives at the Egyptians. and fa{3a. for their assistance at the birth of Hercules. The Sicyonians reverence this deity. I 1 pass over in silence just now Dionysus Choiropsales. to press or rub. are not the Thessalians reported to worship ants. then. who in their towns and villages pay divine honours to the irrational creatures.

Hercules. who inhabit Phoenicia. 250. 4G EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. the guardians of articulate -speaking men. and Cyclseus and Leuco while the Median war was at its height. at the place where the promontory of Actium is. the great demons. u For thrice ten thousand are there in the all-nourishing earth Of demons immortal. in his work. since those you worship are not gods. indigenous demons who have obtained sacred honours may be discovered in crowds throughout your cities Menedemus among the Cythnians : . Is it not clear that they are those we have mentioned. in this second order [next the gods]. as you say. Sminthoi. For if the lickerish and impure are demons.*' If these are our guardians. Heraclides. O Boeotian. after the manner of flatterers. says that. i. they offer to the flies the sacrifice of an ox. Callistagoras among the Delians. Anius . Artemis. : . do not grudge. and those of more renown. Other demons in plenty may be brought to li<dit by any one who can look about him a little. but intent on your ruin. Pluto. as forsooth they have never tried their hand at sin themselves In that case ! verily the proverb may fitly be uttered " The father who took no admonition admonishes his son. enjoined the Platreans to sacrifice to Androcrates and Demo- crates. and others fishes. I. they prey on your substance. Demeter. Leto. Xor shall I forget the Samians : the Samians.*' 1 Who these guardians are. O Ascrsean. it is not because they have any ardour of kindly feeling towards us. . among the Tenians. Works and Days. of whom some revere doves. a hero affixed to the prow of ships is and the Pythian priestess worshipped . at Phalerus. Astrabacus . with as excessive veneration as the Eleans do Zeus. reverence the sheep. to tell. as Eupho- rion says. Well. among the Laconians. Apollo. then. 1 Hcsiod. Kore. and Zeus himself ? But it is from running away that they guard us. Xor shall I forget the Syrians. because they gnawed the strings of their enemies' bows . and the temple of Apollo of Actium. and from those mice Apollo has received his epithet of Sminthian. it seems to me demons who are requisite to ascertain if those are really ranked. or perhaps it is from sinning. Regarding the Building of Temples in Acarnania.

as there are demi-asses (mules) for you have no . 1 Iliad. iy." l What other speech would they utter. and demigods. if indeed the gods of the Egyptians. than that Homeric and poetic one which proclaims their liking for savoury odours and cookery? Such are your demons and gods. 49. if there are any so called. Such honour hath to us been ever paid. want of terms to make up compound names of impiety. should receive the faculty of speech. 47 enticed by the smoke. . These demons themselves indeed con- fess their own gluttony. and fat of lambs. saying : " For with drink-offerings due. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. My altar still liatli at their hands been fed. such as cats and weasels.

like plagues invading cities and nations. let us say in addition. as a burnt-sacrifice to the Erechtheus of Attica and Marias the Roman l sacrificed 1 Plutarch. offer a man Taurian Artemis. is said by Dosidas. Thus. slew men in sacrifice to Zeus. but gloating over human slaughter. a man of Achaia was slain in sacrifice to Peleus and Chiron. the people who inhabit the Tauric Cher- sonese. among whom was Theopompos. Anti- clides shows in his Homeward Journeys and that the Les- . now. who are a Cretan race. a noble victim. thinking that hecatombs of such a would give good omens. THE CRUELTY OF THE SACRIFICES TO THE GODS. And now. Pythocles informs us in his third book. CHAPTER III. they demanded cruel oblations. in Thessaly. These sacrifices Euripides represents in tragedies on the stage. —now in the armed contests for superiority in the stadia. and now in the numberless contests for renown in the wars providing for them- selves the means of pleasure. bians offered the like sacrifice to Dionysus. Aristomenes the Messenian slew three hundred human beings in honour of Ithometan number and quality Zeus. your gods were. That the Lyctii. The Phocaeans also (for I will not pass over such as they are). that at Pella. On Concord. that they might be able abun- dantly to satiate themselves with the murder of human beings. king of the Lacedemonians. in his treatise marvels. xx. sacrifice to the Tauric Artemis forthwith whatever strangers they lay hands on on their coasts who have been cast adrift on the sea. The Taurians. Monimus on relates. j"ELL. what inhuman demons. and hostile to the human race. not only delighting in the insanity of men. 43 .

Do thou." 1 But though you perceive and understand demons to be deadly and wicked. led him across the Halys to the stake. but not a lover of men. Your Phoebus was a lover of gifts. back he recoils in haste. why do you not turn out of their way. that you avoid wild beasts. iii. His limbs all trembling. but a sacrifice of this kind is murder and human butchery. He betrayed his friend Croesus. 1 Iliad. A deadly snake. — EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 49 their daughters. Philanthropic. — the former to Pherephatta. if one slays a man either at the altar or on the highway to Artemis or Zeus. if you fall in with a bear or lion % " As when some traveller spies. the demons appear. as Demaratus mentions in his first book on Tragic Subjects. and forgetting the reward he had got (so careful was he of his fame). instance. assuredly. Then why is it. for are but . from these examples and how shall those who revere the . and destroyers. The demons love men in such a way as to bring them to the fire [unquenchable]. haters of the human race. as Dorotheus relates in his first book of Italian Affairs. — other demons very like the former . O men. wisest of all creatures. 33. the latter to the evil-averting deities. that Cyrus and Solon were superior to oracular Apollo. and his cheek all pale. For a murder does not become a sacrifice by being committed in a particular spot. demons not be correspondingly pious ? The former are called by the fair name of saviours and the latter ask for safety . B . and forget that they them- selves are slaying men. plotters. v. who lovest the human race better. pity him that is bound on the pyre. Coiled in his path upon the mountain side. or turn them out of yours ? What truth can the wicked tell. You are not to call it a sacred sacrifice. any more than if he slew him for anger or covetousness. who demons and can show. imagining that they sacrifice with good omens to them. But O man. and art truer than Apollo. from those who plot against their safety. and get out of the way of the savage animals. or what good can they do any one ? I can then readily demonstrate that man is better than these gods of yours.

It is not the demon. by what plausible reasons those who first went astray were impelled to preach superstition to men. Whence I cannot help wondering. but make a thorough exposure of them. it became the originator of many demons. this is the only sense that can be put on the words. when they exhorted them to worship wicked demons. shall you find by proof this oracle to be. It beyond doubt that this Eros. knew not who Pan was till Philippid. 1 If we read y/tpiivripw. setting up images. again. but having gone on augment- ing and rushing along in fall flood. O Croesus. and was displayed in sacrificing hecatombs. "a memorial of gratified lust. a 50 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEX. was worshipped by no one till Charmus took a little boy and raised an altar to him in Academia. Be wise. O Cyrus."' . But do ye now at length quite give up your superstition." O Solon. he accepts your reward. at last. appointing solemn assemblies. whether it was Phoroneus or Merops. and after taking the gold plays false. and thou. became the fountain and of insensate wickedness . who is said to be among is the oldest of the gods. O Solon. then. when you are placed on the pyre. command the fire to be extinguished. Superstition. feeling ashamed to regard sepulchres witli religious veneration. In the temple of Athene in Larissa. the first to offer sacrifices to them. but the man that tells youambiguous oracles this. as was to be expected. The Athenians. Nothing but true. It is not that Solon utters. deifying thus unbridled lust. having taken its rise thus. But. declare truth . got the name of temples. You shall easily take him up. not being subsequently checked. in succeeding ages men invented for themselves gods to worship. "Look again to the end. the tombs which . or whoever else that raised temples and altars to them and besides. 1 — thing more seemly than the lust he had gratified and the . taught by suffering. we may translate. and building temples. as is fabled. though called by the august name of temples that told them. O Barbarian. But if we read xetpiorypto*. unquestionably. were . He whom you worship is an ingrate . then. lewdness of vice men called by the name of Eros. which were in reality tombs for I will not pass these: over in silence.

and at Athens. Following the Myn- dian Zeno." 1 1 Odyss. the daughters of Celeus. in his first book about Philopator. comes to this. the son of Eumolpus and Daira. it were unsuitable in this connection to pass over the sepulchre of Leucophryne. . as Antiochus says in the ninth book of his Histories. what misery is this you suffer? Your heads are enveloped in the darkness of night. is the grave of Acrisius . which is in the temple of the Delian Apollo. 51 on the Acropolis. were I to go over all the tombs which are held sacred by you. What of Erichthonius 1 was he not buried in the temple of Polias ? And Immarus. is that of Cecrops. And if no shame for these audacious impieties steals over you. as really you do. Ptolemy the son of Agesarchus. xx. Leanclrias says that Clearchus was buried in Miletus. " Poor wretches. Further. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. But time would not be sufficient for me. were they not interred in Eleusis ? Why should I enumerate to you the wives of the Hyper- boreans ? They were called Hyperoche and Laodice. 351 . v. in the Didymseum. your trust in the dead. on the Acropolis. which is reported to be the tomb of Telmisseus the seer. were they not buried in the pre- cincts of the Elusinium. who was buried in the temple of Artemis in Magnesia or the altar of Apollo in Telmessus. says that Cinyras and the descendants of Cinyras were interred in the temple of Aphrodite in Paphos. they were buried in the Artemisium in Delos. it that you are completely dead.which is under the Acropolis and . putting.

you will. and that of Polias at 52 . . proof as the point may demand must not be declined. That and stocks and. F. of dead matter — you have made images of human form. the Scythians worshipped their sabres. is now as clear as can be but such . set up blocks of wood still in conspicuous situations. as Aethlius says. was at first a plank. error increased. the Persians rivers. then. Anciently. artists not having yet applied them- selves to this specious pernicious art . — they got the name of Brete. and was afterwards dur- ing the government of Proclus carved into human shape. which were called Xoana. And some. of worshipping the senseless works of men's hands. find how truly silly is the custom in which you have been reared. the historian Varro says that in ancient times the Xoanon of Mars — the idol by which he was wor- — shipped was a spear. the Arabs stones. CHAPTER IV. belong- ing to other races more ancient. And when the Xoana began to be made in the likeness of men. and erected pillars of stone. That the statue of Zeus at Olympia. The ima^e of Artemis in Icarus was doubtless unwrought wood. THE ABSURDITY AND SHAMEFULNESS OF THE IMAGES BY WHICH THE GODS ARE WORSHIPPED. asyou go over them. a term derived from Brotos (man). to speak of stones — briefly. I take and set before you for in- spection these very images. by which you have produced a counterfeit of piety. but when art flourished. In Home. in addition. and that of the Citha?ronian Here was a felled tree-trunk and that of the Samian Here. and slandered the truth. from the carving of the material of which thev were made.

entertain called at Athens venerable. But that no one may suppose that I have passed over them through ignorance. are the work of Telesius the Athenian. which Phidias executed. as Polemo says in a letter. may be surprised to learn that the Pal- ladium which is called the Diopetes — that is. Demetrius. as I think they : were called Scyles and Dipoenus and these executed the . write down. they were the work of Bryxis. and the effigy of the Munychian Artemis in Sicyon. who relates this in the fifth part of his Cycle. whom indeed. as well as the lions that recline with them and if. and was the work of Simon the son of Eupalamus. — EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. as Polemon shows in the fourth of his books addressed to Timseus. as the Olympian Jove of other bones — those of the Indian wild beast. — do not dispute. and the image of Hercules in Tiryns. as we are told by Philochorus. both that the material was pear-tree and the artist was Argus. There were also two other sculptors of Crete. Nor need you doubt re- specting the images of Zeus and Apollo at Patara. Olympichus relates in his Samiaca. in the Delphics. worshipped in Tenos. perhaps. we hear to have been . writes of the image of Here in Tiryns. Whichever of these you like. statues of the Dioscuri in Argos. Many. I shall add that the image of Dionysus Morychus at Athens was made of the stones called Phellata. as some say. 53 Athens. Furthermore. in Lycia. is known by everybody. that of the gods not. I adduce as my authority Dionysius. in the second book of his Argolics. the statues nine cubits in height of Poseidon and Amphitrite. and Calos the one which they are reported to have had placed between them. and that both were fashioned by men. says that there were two Pal- ladia. you have in him another maker of images. Do any doubt. Scopas made two of the stone called Lychnis. and that the image of Here in Samos was formed by the chisel of Euclides. when I can point out to you the great deity himself. conspicuously above all. Why should I linger over these. fallen from — heaven which Diomede and Ulysses are related to have carried offfrom Troy and deposited at Demophoon. were executed of gold and ivory by Phidias. then. and show you who he was. I . And Apellas. was made of the bones of Pelops.

whence the darkish hue of the image and having mixed the . the name of which points to its connection with sepulture and its construc- tion from funeral materials. who employed in its execution a mixture of various materials. Another new deity was added to the number with great . which together make Osirapis. his ancestor.54 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. the courtesan having died in Canopus. to be executed in sumptuous style and the work was done by the artist Bry- . and had been fed by Ptolemy. Accord- ingly he ordered a statue of Osiris. moulded the Serapis. Having ground down and mixed together all these ingredients. and in addi- tion. has somehow slipped into the mistake of proving it to be an image fashioned by human hands. Ptolemy had her con- veyed there. not the Athenian. Isidore alone says that it was brought from the Seleucians. axis. near Antioch. placed it on the promontory which is now called Racotis where the temple of Serapis was held in honour. on his return to Egypt brought a number of craftsmen with him. king of the who won their favour by sending them corn from Egyptians. Egypt when they were perishing with famine and that this . whole with the colouring matter that was left over from the funeral of Osiris and Apis. but another of the same name. and topaz. idol was an imasfe of Pluto and Ptolemv. the statue. and silver. having subjugated the most of the Hellenic races. who also had been visited with a dearth of corn. Others say that the Serapis was a Pontic idol. tin and of Egyptian stones not one was wanting. and emerald. considered worthy of veneration ? Him they have dared to speak of as made without hands — I mean the Egyptian Serapis. the sacred enclosure borders on the spot and that Blistichis . while wishing to make out the Serapis to be ancient. and : there were fragments of sapphire. But Athenodorus the son of Sandon. He says that Sesostris the Egyptian king. compounded as it is of Osiris and Apis. and buried beneath the fore-mentioned shrine. For he had filings of gold. and hematite. and was transported with solemn pomp to Alexandria. and . bavins received . For some relate that he was sent as a present by the people of Sinope to Ptolemy Philadelphus. and lead. he gave to the composition a blue colour.

But the oracles of the great God. thou shalt linger by the streams of the Nile Solitary. SybiUlni. as follows : 41 Prostrate on the ground Ephesus shall wail. silent. Whom silly men called God. For just as temples are held in reverence. destitute as it is of fear and men now observe the sacred nights of Antinous. as the others are sepulchres of the gods. O man. whom he loved as Zeus loved Ganymede. Now the grave of the debauched boy is the temple and town of Antinous. and whose beauty was of a very rare order : for lust is not easily restrained.#ind Greece by was near being so in the king of the Romans/who deified Antinous. As teacher on this point. and pyramids. Do not play the tyrant. Remain and then I shall acknowledge thy beauty. Why reckon him among the gods. and falsely termed Prophet . Keep beauty pure. which are temples of the dead. and mausoleums. 253. And seeking a temple that has no longer an inhabitant. and labyrinths. Like dumb idols of sculptured stone. frenzied. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN." 1 She also predicts the ruin of the temple." 1 Vulg. not its tyrant. Be king over beauty. 55 religious pomp in Egypt. who was not made by men's hands. . thrice-wretched goddess." She says also that the temple of Isis and Serapis would be demolished and burned " Isis. on the sands of Acheron. nor offer foul insult to youth in its bloom. who is honoured on account of uncleanness ? And why do you command him to be lamented as a son % And why should you enlarge on his beauty ? Beauty blighted by vice is loathsome. the shameful character of which the lover who spent them with him knew well. so also are sepulchres. . I shall produce to you the Sybil prophetess : " Not the oracular lie of Phoebus. thou hast kept its image pure then will I worship that true : beauty which is the archetype of all who are beautiful. weeping by the shore. p. that it may be truly fair. foretelling that that of the Ephesian Artemis would be engulphed by earthquakes and rents in the ground. : . because free. over beauty.

glued. being motionless. and rich gold. Serapis. upbraiding images with their senselessness : u And to these images they pray. nor hear- ing. why worship them as gods ? And if they are thought to be endowed with sensation. and such as even from the first appear imperfect. filed. and place them before the doors. or blood. being at once honoured and fumigated. For if people upbraid them with being devoid of sensation. There are many creatures that have neither sirdit. covered with a heap of white stones. nailed. and place Aguieus as a doorkeeper. or touching. and feel compelled to pity as miserable wretches those that wander in the mazes of this folly :for if some living creatures have not all the senses. and erected it there. nor speech. who ascribed their greatest successes to Fortune. for example. or something analogous to smell or taste . which Nicander says is blind and uncouth yet are they superior to those utterly . took her statue to the privy. while images do not possess even one sense. Then she proceeds " And thou. polished. by which. and induce men . and regarded her as a very great deity. But images. assigning to the goddess as a fitting temple — the necessary. or smoke. senseless idols and images. why place them before the door ? The Romans. such as the genus of oysters. Shalt He a huge ruin in thrice-wretched Egypt. as moles and the shrew-mouse. hear at least your own philosopher. The sawed. they are blackened no more do . they for honour or insult. carved. with the same result as if one were to talk to the walls of his house. : — 56 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. I am at a loss to conceive how objects devoid of sense were deified. as worms and caterpillars. and are affected by the changes of the moon. senseless earth is dishonoured by the makers of images. — are melted. and senseless. inert. say." For are they not to be wondered at who worship stones. And these images are more worth- less than any animal. who change it by their art from its proper nature. care not a whit for either savoury odour. But sense- less wood and stone. as if capable of activity ? They worship Hermes as a god. the Ephesian Heraclitus. are bound. For they have some one sense." But if you attend not to the prophetess. hearing. which yet live and grow.

— God. any more than at pebbles heaped by the waves on the shore. to be erected in place of it. being lighter in summer and warmer in winter. being in difficulties for money. remarking face- tiously that the latter was better than the golden one. when involved in calamities. But it has happened that miscreants or enemies have assailed and set fire to temples. but an image that is perceived by the mind alone. or even to Athene Polias. appear wholly to neglect them. yielding to the pressure of misfortune. and if one has killed the Egyptian Apis. or Epidaurian Asclepius. I will therefore willingly forget such villany. I laugh at him killing their god. of less valuable material. the younger. than as a proof of the impotence of idols. the image is only dead matter shaped by the craftsman's hand. are found fault with by those gods by whose names the images are called. But and earthquakes are shrewd enough not to fire feel shy or frightened at either demons or idols. plated with gold. while pained at the outrage being perpetrated for the sake of gain. or the Egyptian Serapis but not even from . And again. having stripped off the golden mantle from the statue of Jupiter in Sicily. like it. 57 to worship and the makers of gods worship not gods and it . . ordered him to be clothed in a woollen one. has made such attempts. them have you learned the senselessness of images. in sooth. or any other madman. For. fifteen cubits in height. the superstitious worshippers of stones. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. yet. to be melted and one .and void their excrement on them. But ive have no sensible image of sensible matter. though they have learned by the event that senseless matter is not to be worshipped. demons. And the swallows and most birds fly to these statues. And Antiochus of Cyzicus. ordered the golden statue of Zeus. and plundered them of their votive gifts. but in my view earth and art. who alone is truly God. paying no respect either to Olympian Zeus. For Dionysius the tyrant. from base greed of gain. yet not wishing to . looking on acts like these more as deeds of covetousness. And if a Cambyses or a Darius. which go to make up images. become the victims of their super- stition and though despising the images. and melted even the images themselves.

was in her bloom. I know be capable of exposing and curing supersti- fire to tion. Pantarkes l is beautiful. but pri- 1 Pantarkes is said to have been the name of a boy lovxl by Phidias . again. And Praxiteles. And the Capitol in Rome was often wrapped in flames nor did the fire spare the . in the city of the Alexandrians. If thou art willing to abandon this folly. At Athens it demolished the temple of the Eleutherian Dionysus. by such facts. and to have his statue made horned — by the sculptors eager to disgrace the beauty of the human form by the addition of a horn. the element of fire shall light thy way. And when Phryne the courtesan. This same fire burned the temple in Argos. was styled Zeus by his wife Alcyone . It remains for you to judge whether you ought to worship courte- sans. Moved. made it form of Cratine. and as to the temple of Apollo at Delphi. and despising such fables. This is told as the preface of what the fire promises. and Mithridates of Pontus was also called Dionysus and Alexander wished to be consi- . first a storm assailed it. as this involved no danger from men. Ceux. and then the discerning fire utterly destroyed it. again. when he fashioned the statue of Aphrodite of Cnidus. the ancient kings unblushingly proclaimed themselves gods." "all-powerful. with Chrysis the priestess and that of Artemis in . but the man he loved. and thus taught that on account of their glory they were made immortal. the . like the that the miserable people might have the paramour of Praxi- teles to worship. And not kings only. Ptolemy the Fourth was called Dionysus. as Posidippus relates in his book about Cnidus. Ephesus the second time after the Amazons.58 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. . but as the word signifies "all-assisting. the Thes- pian. do they not shame those of you who are wise into despising matter? The Athenian Phidias inscribed on the finger of the Olympian Jove. And the makers of images. Alcyone. as I believe. temple of Serapis." it might also be made to apply to Zeus. sculptors at Athens made their Mercuries like Alcibiades. being by her husband styled Hera. It was not Zeus that was beautiful in his eyes. dered the son of Amnion. all the painters made their pictures of Aphrodite copies of the beauty of Phryne as. the son of Eolus. of whom he was enamoured.

What need is there for me to instance Alexarchus? He. This is the oracle of Hippo . and in process of time died and fable and time have . 59 vate persons dignified themselves with the names of deities. now that thou art dead. treat the myths about the gods with contempt." Well done. separated through the obscurity of time from the temporary . vote themselves extravagant honours. whom Destiny- Made. For somehow. his entrance into Athens is the temple of Demetrius the Alighter . he ascended the Acropolis. Hippo ! thou showest to us the delusion of men. showing to the old virgin the postures of the young courtesan. w hat is present is wont r to be despised through familiarity but what is past. as Aristus of Salamis relates. There is no cause for indignation. If they did not believe thee speaking. and used the dress of Hermes. and lay with her on the couch of Athene. The were once objects of your worship men. : . Nicagorus was styled Hermes. raised them to honour. and nup- tials with Athene assigned to him by the Athenians. being- . through death. And why mention Nica- gorus ? He was a native of Zela and lived in the [in Pontus]. who immortalized his own death. sinking into self- flattery. then. at the same time men themselves. assuming the air of equality with the gods. equal to the immortal gods. to whom they decreed divine worship in Cynosargus. as he himself testifies. as Menecrates the physician. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. But he disdained the goddess. and had one of his eyes knocked out. who took the name of Zens. let us consider it. And whilst whole nations. There is the case of the Macedonian Philip of Pella. let them become thy disciples. as he could not marry the statue and taking the courtesan Lamia. and being puffed up with vainglory. assumed the character of the sun- god. who was raised to the rank of the gods and where he alighted from his horse on . and he had a lame leg. and cities with all their inhabitants. And again that of Demetrius. and altars were raised to him everywhere. having been by profession a grammarian. days of Alexander. although his collar-bone was broken. at Hippo. For thisHippo ordered the following elegy to be inscribed on his tomb u This is the sepulchre of Hippo. the son of Amyntor.

or precious stones ? Are they not earth. I pray you. sinking downwards all to by their own weight. acknowledged by be of an earthy and watery nature. With reason. " Woe. . being in reality unclean and impure spirits. has styled them demons : " She her heavenward course pursued 2 To join the immortals in the abode of Jove. so that the present is viewed with distrust. are regarded as gods by posterity. "by Patroclus' hand to fall. laments for Sarpedon. you sink in the earth . robbing the divine of its true nature. can shades and demons be still reckoned gods. v. squinting divinities the Litse." 1 The will of Zeus was overruled and Zens being worsted. as far as in you lies. or steel. and weeping deities. Iliad. or brass. Why. and flitting about graves and tombs. ! Sarpedon. . your solemn assemblies. —a thing he could not obtain for himself ? The incorruptible being. about which they appear dimly. 433. or ivory. censure that attached to it. How in reason could men pray Zeus for a beautiful progeny. then. have you assigned the prerogatives of God to what are no gods? Why. therefore. and that pure and holy essence you have buried in the grave. let me ask. have you forsaken heaven to pay divine honour to earth ? What else is gold. daughters of Thersites rather than of Zeus. 22 . or silver. being reverenced through the long prevalence of delusion respecting them. bonds and wounds. being but shadowy phan- tasms ? Such things are your gods shades and shadows — and to these add those maimed. the past with admiration. . since Homer.. or iron. So that Bion — wittily. paying Athene and the other divinities sinister honour. wrinkled. ^sra occi/novocg olh'hov. and of the earth ? Are not all these things which you look on tixC progeny of one mother — the earth ? 1 2 Iliad. As grounds of your belief in these. then."' How. xvi. there are your mysteries. woe that fate decrees my best-belov'd. 60 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. i. Exactly in this way is it. is invested with honour by fiction. as I think — says. have you yourselves called them shades and demons. that the dead men of antiquity.

How peculiarly inherent deceit is in them. We must therefore approach as close as possible to the images. the pyre indicates Heracles. The ivory is beautiful. and embraces the image. A different Aphrodite in Cnidus was of stone. and had intercourse with the stone. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. of the material makes it capable of being turned to profitable account. from his art Demeter from her calamity Ino from her . Another person became ena- moured of it. and the matter is clothed with its shape and while the preciousness . is gold. For I hold it wrong to entrust my spirit's hopes to things destitute of the breath of life. not of worshipping it. Matter always needs art to fashion it. he understands it to be the golden Aphrodite. it is stone. So powerful is art to delude. Thus that Cyprian Pygmalion became enamoured of an image of ivory the image was : Aphrodite. and the latter in his book on Cnidus. This is related by Philostephanus. For the forms of the images are plainly stamped with the character- istic nature of demons. Zens from the swan . by seducing amorous men into the pit. . and inspect the pic- If one go round tures and images. Art . it is wood. But I have been in the habit of walking on the earth. is manifest from their very look. Posidippus relates this. have sunk into deepest darkness ? The Parian stone is beautiful. and beautiful. he will at a glance recognise your gods from their shameful forms Dionysus from his robe Hephaestus : . and by going after those created objects. if considered as to its origin. 61 Why. but the deity needs nothing. instead of the uncreated Deity. . have you. but it is not yet the Olympian Zeus. defaming the super-celestial region. it is only on account of its form that it comes to be deemed worthy of veneration. dragged religion to the ground. then. The Cyprian is made a con- quest of by the mere shape. The former of these authors. in his book on Cyprus. which has received shape from the artist's hand. but it is not yet Poseidon. Thy image. Art has come forward to do its work. foolish and silly men (for I will repeat it). by fashioning to yourselves gods of earth. head-dress Poseidon from his trident . and it was nude. it is earth. and if one sees a statue of a naked woman without an inscription.

the nuptials of the deities. or entombed himself with a lifeless paramour. or become enamoured of a demon and a stone. its wing is motionless. if it leads you not to the indulgence of amorous affections it leads you to : pay religious honour and worship to images and pictures. their carousals represented in comedy. Your makers of such mischievous toys the — sculptors and makers of images. is powerful. and a comely youth of the statue at Cnidus. apes are admired by those who feed and care for them. Such frenzy have mischief-working arts created in the minds of the insensate. that the pigeons flew to them and horses have neighed to well-executed . But it is with a different kind of spell that art deludes you. and ivory images. . reckoning them among the number of their domestics. Besides. but it cannot deceive reason. But the cow of Daxlalus. but let it not deceive man by passing itself off for truth. the Nereids. their adulteries celebrated in song. And now the Ma^i boast that the demons are the ministers of their impiety. and gold. waters. the rivers. allured the savage bull . They say that a girl became enamoured of an image. Nymphs. The horse stands quiet . AVell and good Let art receive its ! meed of praise. The doves on the picture were repre- sented so to the life by the painter's art. compelled him to mount a woman full of licentious passion. pictures of mares. You then will show yourselves inferior to apes by cleaving to stone. and Hamadryads and besides. and the poets — have introduced a motley crowd of divinities in the fields. and to pictures. and Oreads.C2 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. made of wood. the painters and workers in metal. the Naiads and in the sea . goddess. Satyrs and Pans : in the woods. nor those who live agreeably to reason. because nothing in the shape of images and girls' ornaments of wax or clay deceives them. and bursts of laughter over their cups. in the . and by their charms compelling them to be their slaves. On the other hand. the dove flutters not. and fountains. But it was the eyes of the spectators that were deceived by art for no one in his senses ever would have embraced a . and wood. The picture is like. and art having deceived him. their begetting and bringing forth of children that are re- counted. .

" But he. the peculiar people. . regarding licentiousness as religion and lying in ." Stop. the song It is not beautiful ! it teaches . viii. adultery. — a likeness which dwells with us. who once were not a people. and use a seal stamped— with an impression of the licentiousness of Zeus. the likeness of God. they adorn their bed-chambers with painted tablets hung up in them. urge me to cry out. the royal priesthood. wedded to impurity. what is sacred you have acted in comedies under the masks of demons. associates with us. Accordingly. ber of king Hephaestus. but are now the people of God who. feels for us. and dishonoured the bed and cham- . And in the hoops of their rings they cut a representation of the amorous bird that fluttered round Leda. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 63 which your authors introduce. 266. in the midst of their embraces. though I would fain be silent. — having a strong predilection for representations of effeminacy. But these are not the sentiments of the many but. sation of God who have learned to walk in newness of life. according to John. and we are prohibited from polluting our ears with hearing about adultery : for we are they who bear about with us. Oh the godlessness You have turned ! heaven into a stage the Divine has become a drama and . Such are 1 Odyss. We have become a consecrated offering to God for Christ's sake : we are the chosen generation. casting . O Homer." 1 Sing to us. . is a guest with us. . but have learned all from Him w hor came from above who have come to understand the dispen- . v. feels with us. off shame and fear. that beautiful song " About the amours of Ares and Venus with the beautiful crown : How first they slept together in the palace of Hephaestus Secretly and he gave many gifts. takes counsel with us. those who are beneath. began to sing beautifully. they depict in their houses the unnatural passions of the demons. are not of . in this living and moving image of our human nature. travestying true religion by your demon-worship [superstition]. the holy nation. they look on that Aphro- dite locked in the embrace of her paramour. bed. striking the lyre. Homer.

and 1 Sibyl." 1 For we arc expressly prohibited from exercising a deceptive art : " For thou shalt not make. 2 (A. who commit for- nication along with you for what one wishes. on the other hand. and naked girls. and valued what was worse. worthless seats of dumb stones. and with sacrifices Of quadrupeds. Your ears are debauched. such are the theologies of vice. but set them up and guard them with scrupulous care. according to the Athenian orator. Not only the use of these. your looks commit adultery before you embrace. Justin Martj?\ Cohort.N. you disbelieve everything that you may indulge your passions. ad Grtecos. Happy. and bipeds.). . 304. as if. so to say. your eyes commit fornication. they were the images of your gods. having been spectators indeed of virtue. painted naked in pictures disgraceful for filthiness. and have devoted to shame what is divine in this handiwork of God. English Transl. and the very hearing of them. are your other images ? Diminutive Pans. because you cannot bear a life of self-restraint. such are the instructions of your gods. And and images made by hands. p. p. and erecta pudenda. forsooth. but the sight of them. Stained with the life's-blood. O ye that have done violence to man." For can we possibly any longer suppose the Demeter. . You have hated what was better. and butcheries of wild beasts." says the prophet. alone are all those with one accord. " the likeness of anything which is in the heaven above or in the 2 earth beneath. consecrating these pillars of shamelessness at home.G4 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. and fowls. Ex. because licentiousness. and drunken Satyrs. And of what kind. de- picting on them equally the postures of Philsenis and the labours of Heracles. 81 . And more than this you are not ashamed in the eyes of all to look at repre- : sentations of all forms of licentiousness which are portrayed in public places. examples of your voluptuousness. that he thinks. we denounce as deserving the doom of oblivion. therefore. but actors of vice. Lib. xx. idols of stone. 4. and that ye may you have a craving after their believe in idols. " Who shall refuse to look on any temples And altars. but disbelieve God.

the prophetic word condemns this practice " For all the : gods of the nations are the images of demons but God made . For God alone made it. however. I know not how. and men. but who worship the objects that appear in the heavens and are apprehended by sight. Ps. But how shall I tell what God makes ? Behold the whole universe it is His work . or the hands of Apelles. and the heaven. and : the sun. to be gods " for by His . For if the heavenly bodies are not the works of men. which are but instruments for measuring time. and not rather regard the art of Leucippus. and pictures. 6. Accordingly. who indeed most nobly confess that man was made for the contemplation of the heavens. as from a sacred asylum. but set his desires on the Maker of the sun . they w ere certainly created for man. to be gods. and what is in heaven. which remains for him who would reach the portals of salvation is divine wisdom. which clothed the material with the form of the divine glory. and cities. and the mystic Iacchus of Praxiteles. xcvi. Ps. 4. — the sun and the moon. . 1 the heavens. worship God's work instead of God Himself." Some. viii. you exer- cise no care to guard against your becoming like images for stupidity. By the bare exercise of volition He truly creates His mere willing was followed by the springing into ." Human art. and angels. r Let none of you worship the sun. produces houses. who have fallen into error. then. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. the man who presses after salvation. and the rest of the starry choir. and all their host by the breath 2 of His mouth. word they were established. The only refuge. 5. and ships. being of what He willed. are the works of His fingers. 65 the Kore. as having a better honour? But title to the while you bestow the greatest pains that the image may be fashioned with the most exquisite beauty possible. because He alone is God. moreover. Consequently the choir of philo- sophers are in error. — absurdly imagining these. 3 How great is the power of God His bare volition was the ! creation of the universe. can be dragged by no demon. nor deify the universe. From this. xxxiii. with the utmost clearness and brevity. 1 2 3 Ps. but seek after the Creator of the universe.

in addition to those four elements. Parmenides of Elia introduced fire and earth as gods one of which. and. and Anaximenes. is Poseidon. too. the mother of these. as we pro- ceed. beyond doubt. fire. it has a dream of the truth. — CHAPTER V. I think. For this reason mainly. The elements were designated as the first prin- ciples of all things by some of them by Thales of Miletus. but a moist substance? the name being derived from posis (drink) as. and sacrifice to it as to Ares. who through an unwise wisdom worshipped matter. For what else. but revered water itself. Hippasus of Metapontum and Heraclitus of Ephesus supposed a divinity. also of Miletus. namely. who did not indeed pay religious honour to stocks and stones. so called. Empedocles of Agrigentum fell in with a multitude. the opinions of the philosophers. who celebrated air as the first principle of all things. but deified earth. although we are able to show. THE OPINIONS OF THE PHILOSOPHERS RESPECTING GOD. The Sauromatae. ET us then run over. a tribe of the GG . Atheists surely these are to be reckoned. through its making conceit an idol of matter . respecting the gods . as Eudoxus tells us in the second book of his Travels. The Scythians have a practice of this nature. who did not make an image of Poseidon. if you choose. to which they give boastful utterance. many fix a sword into the ground. we may dis- that cover philosophy itself. according to the original signification. and was fol- lowed afterwards by Diogenes of Apollonia. that even while deifying certain demons. the warlike Ares is . enumerates disagreement and agreement. from arsis (rising up) and ancvresis (destroying). : who celebrated water.

like the Greeks . however . as philosophers. the Macedonians. or the Sauromatse. or the Magi ? These. and the Athenian Archelaus. have eagerly sought after something higher and nobler. this practice being introduced by Artaxerxes. to pay sacred honours to fire ? or the Persians. or the Magi. who are said by Nymphodorus. to Damascus and Sardis. Anaxa- goras of Clazomence. but fire and water. of all things. then. passing over the elements. shows that it was after many successive periods of years that men worshipped images of human shape. and many of the inhabitants of Asia. much they think to keep clear of error in one form. and father of Ochus. worshipped fire . which were made for the service of man. some have descanted on the Infinite. but reverencing "these weak and beggarly elements. being ignorant of the great First Cause. from whom they have learned the impious doctrine of regarding as divine certain first principles. 67 Scythians. Let the philosophers. . worship a sabre. And of the rest of the philosophers who. This was also the case with Heraclitus and his followers. the unbeginning God. both of 1 Gal. and besides them. Nor have I failed to reveal their ignorance for. The Persian Magi. Ecbatana set the example of worshipping it to the Persians the Bactrians. as Ikesius says in his work on Mysteries. who first set up the image of Aphrodite Anaitis at Babylon and Susa and . They have not supposed stocks and stones to be images of the gods. . in his Barbaric Customs. sacrifice beneath the open sky. or the Medes." 1 as the apostle says. 9. the Maker and Creator of those very first principles. like the Egyptians . iv. regarding fire and water as the only images of the gods. who worshipped lire as the first cause . for this fire others named Hephaestus. as Diogenes relates in the first book of his Persica. of whom were Anaximander of Miletus. the son of Darius. they slide into it in another. Berosus. Dino tells us. own as their teachers the Per- sians. too. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. nor Ibises and Ichneumons. in the third book of his Chaldaics. Why specify the Sauromatae.

Nor do I think will it be taken ill. Democritus of Abdera. conjectures at one time heaven. the pupil of Aristotle. who say that the Divinity pervades all matter. while accepting these two. is an eighth. The father of this sect. moreover. and at an- other spirit. to advert to the Peripatetics. And that Eresian Theophrastus. Epicurus alone I shall gladly fo: who carries impiety to its full length. to be God. Xenocrates of Chalcedon indicates that the planets are seven gods. having reached this point. thinks that He who is called the Highest is the soul of the universe . that is. whom set Mind (vovs) above Infinity . and endowed with life (I will not keep silence as to their effrontery). of Heraclides of Pontus ? He is dragged everywhere to the images the — elEcoXa — of Democritus. and thinks that God takes no charge of the world. he supposes the soul of the world to be God. composed of all these. he con- futes himself. For by first limiting the sphere of Providence to the orbit of the moon. not knowing the Father of all things. What. inasmuch as he teaches that that which is without God is God. and thus clumsily disgrace philosophy. and so is pierced by his own sword. added to them images (eiBcoXa) . . while the Milesian Leucippus and the Chian Metrodorus apparently inculcated two first principles — fulness and vacuity.while Alcmgeon of Crotona supposed the stars to be gods.68 EXHORTATION TO THE HEA THE X. and then by supposing the universe to be God. even the vilest. and that the universe. Xor will I pass over those of the Porch.

BY DIVINE INSPIRATION PHILOSOPHERS SOMETIMES HIT ON THE TRUTH. their minds the impiety professed by those who. who avoid the practice of soothing our crying children. speaking of fabulous and monstrous shapes. Far from enjoining men to listen to such tales are we. or the air. in old wives' talk. to those men who have truly wandered. introducing. to be gods . and. I beseech you. wholly disown Plato. the Lord of the fire. not the works of God. not astronomy. or earth. and having 1 found Him. I seek after God. the Maker of the universe. or steel. though wise in their own have no more knowledge of the truth conceit. then. CHAPTER VI. or fire. dire and irretrievable? Why. a terrifying appa- rition of strange demons. prating loftily of the heavenly bodies in this much vaunted science of astrology. as it were. fill up life with idolatrous images. or this universe. For why (in the name of truth !) do you make those who believe you subject to ruin and corruption. by telling them fabulous being afraid of fostering in stories. is God to be searched out. or stones. How. that I long for. I beseech you ! For He can by no 1 Timseus. if you have no objection. talk of the wandering stars as gods? It is the Lord of the spirits. O Plato 1 " For both to find the Father and Maker of this universe is a work of difficulty . Him who lighted up the sun. than infants. by feigning the winds. to declare Him fully. as the saying is. Whom shall I take as a helper in my inquiry ? We do not." Why so? by Himself. or stocks. GREAT crowd of this description rushes on my mind. CO . is impossible.

then. says. For the unjust and unrighteous idols are hid at home in the bag. when He arises in the depths of the soul. Accordingly. 1 Deut. so also the knowledge of God measures and com- prehends truth. ^Yho sees all things. wherefore. and. But the only just measure is the only true God. they confess that God is one. " that a few of the men of intellect. too. so to speak. the eye of the soul itself is irradiated. a certain divine effluence has been instilled . in His own peculiar appropriate eminence. He has an existence true and eternal. means be expressed. Whence accordingly. 13. not without reason. 15. by whom alone. who is the measure of the truth of all existence. Undertake with me the in- quiry respecting the Good. then. " Tell me what I am to conceive God to be. ! first of gods. con- tinuing the self-same who measures all things. always just. who somewhere alludes to God thus "Around the Kino. Well done. of all are all things. unbe- gotten. And the truly holy Moses says: "There shall not be in thy bag a balance and a balance. and He is : the cause of all good things/' Who. and weighs . that is the Sun of the soul. By whom it is that we are able to see the other gods." Of the same sentiments is Plato.70 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. rais- ing their hands upwards to what we Greeks now call the air (rjip). in the polluted soul. Democritus. knows all things. is the King of all ? God. or God : He. healthful Word." deeming the balance and measure and number of the whole to be God. ought to be worshipped. Menander seems to me to have fallen into error when he said : M sun for thou." Euripides says. though reluctantly. espe- cially those who are occupied with intellectual pursuits. But do not flag. Plato Thou hast touched ! on the truth. and is Himself unseen. As." For the sun never could show me the true God but that . . whence He surveys all things. gives and takes away. and that somewhere above in the tracts of heaven. xxv. but a true and just balance shall be to thee. the things that are to be measured are contained in the measure. For into all men whatever. great or 1 small. and He is King of all. indestructible. called the whole expanse Zeus.

. therefore. 71 them by righteousness as in a balance. the Assyrians also have taught you many things but for the . who reigns for evermore. " "Who do not worship through vain deceits The works men. hasten to produce many others also. who declare the only true God to be God. even if thou wouldst conceal them." Whence. and given the same testimony as Socrates. And worship alone the Eternal. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. and your sentiments respecting God. is manifest but what He is in form is not revealed. and the end of all that is in being. of And images men. I know thy teachers. is that hint of the truth which thou givest? Whence this rich copiousness of diction. intended to be the source of light to all around. Him. and is Himself at rest. and silver. O Plato. if in any measure they have grasped the truth. grasping and sustaining universal nature in equilibrium. which Socrates had to drink. You have learned geo- metry from the Egyptians. purifying themselves with water. " God. the middle. he says. worship But raise to heaven pure arms When they rise from bed. but. led by their foolish inclinations. of gold. sun himself. avenging those who violate the divine law. The . are wiser than these . keeps the straight course. laws that are consistent with truth. of his being a disciple of Socrates that he says. as the old saying has it. and ivory. wherefore no one can know Him from an image. while He makes the circuit of nature and justice always follows . occupying the beginning. of wood and stone. . For Antisthenes did not think out this doctrine of the Cynics but it is in virtue. : . through His inspiration. : powerful He is who moves all things." And Xenophon the Athenian would have in his own person committed somewhat of the freely to writing truth. But he hints nothing less he says " How great and . O philo- sophy. astronomy from the Babylonians the charms of healing you have got from the Thracians . had he not been afraid of the cup of poison. which proclaims piety with oracular utterance % The tribes of the barbarians. " that God is not like to any . of dead Which other men. and brass." And let it not be this one man alone —Plato . you are indebted to the Hebrews.

written by those we have mentioned through the inspiration of God. useful. he is deprived of sight. who exhibits not a poetic theogony. pious. 72 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. the author of all His own forces and works. then. zealous. and selected by us. — . may suffice even for the man that has but small power to examine into truth. listen : That which is regular. fitting. profitable. does not deem it fitting to allow himself to be looked at but if any one audaciously gazes on him. but a true theology. We must not either keep the Pythagoreans in the back- ground. he clearly teaches of what nature God is and that the common opinion and religious customs enslave those that follow them. Helpful. safe." — For the knowledge of God. Or Asseus. fair. independent. but seek not after God. painless. agreeing with itself. just. who inhabits the vault of heaven ? 2\ay. the mind and — vital power of the whole world. is in the whole circle of existence. and Pie is not. pleasant." Whence. always beneficial That feels no fear or grief . the mover of all things. as I think. native of Asso. Self-governing. in all the entireness of His being. and Father of all. the giver of light in heaven. honourable Humble. flesh The true. men born mortal cannot even stand Before the rays of the sun. 2 1 The Sibyl. ever-during Mean is every one who looks to opinion "With the view of obtaining some advantage from it. does the son of Gryllus learn his wisdom? Is it not manifestly from the prophetess of the 1 Hebrews. who say : " God is one . meek.. . the immortal God. friendly Held in esteem. . but." 2 Cleanthes Pisadeus. these utterances. holy. who prophesies in the following style ? " "What can see with the eye the celestial. : . careful. surveying all nature. Perennial. . as some suppose. but within it . the Stoic philosopher. Grave. has not concealed what sentiments he entertained respecting God : " If you ask me what is the nature of the good. and blending in harmonious — union the whole. outside of this frame of things." Here. blameless.

" says Euripides. or brass. Are accustomed thus to practise religion. Him ever they propitiate first and last. And. : : :: CHAPTER VII. Who made both heaven and the far-stretching earth. says " One.' 7 Also on the stage they reveal the truth " Look on the ether and heaven. the son of G^agrus. Images of the gods of stone. THE POETS ALSO BEAR TESTIMONY TO THE TRUTH. And Sophocles. great gain to man. introduces a palinode of truth with true solemnity. or wood. And ocean's blue wave. as a consolation in our afflictions. Let whoever of those poets chooses advance first. or ivory ." In this venturous manner has he on the stage brought truth before the spectators." Thus also the Ascrsean Hesiod dimly speaks of God : " For He is the King of all. and regard that as God. but will rather own to God its deviations into fable. the son of Sophilus. and monarch Of the immortals and there is none that may . Have set up for ourselves. Or gold. Hail. appointing to those sacrifices and vain festal assemblages. ET poetry also approach to ns (for philosophy alone will not suffice) : poetry which is wholly occupied with falsehood —which scarcely will make con- fession of the truth. and his theology of idols. But the Thracian Orpheus. after his exposition of the orgies. one is God. though tardily singing the strain . and the mighty winds . in truth. hierophant and poet at once. But many of us mortals. Aratus considers that the power of God per- vades all things " That all may be secure. Father ! great marvel. deceived in heart. vie with Him in power.

But turn and retrace your steps. but He beholds all. Nevertheless. For the gods maintain her. but let the doors be closed. have given forth some utterances of truth. the same writer of comedy. that those who do or speak aught with- out the word of truth are like people compelled to walk with- out feet. at the most. offspring of the light-bringing moon." For such are the begging priests of Cybele. apply yourself to it. sagely declaring " If a man drags the Deity Whither he will by the sound of cymbals. tries to expose the impious arrogance of the prevailing error in the drama of the Priestess. they bear indeed witness that the force of truth is not hidden. introduce in their comedies. Let the strictures on your gods. Keeping right the seat of intellect and feeling . and propitiate God. and to the immortal King of the universe alone Direct your gaze. Menander." Then proceeding. For I think it has now become evident to all. " I shall utter to whom it is lawful . But looking to the divine word. Musseus. expressing his dissatisfac- tion with the common usages. says " No god pleases me that goes about With an old woman and enters houses v Carrying a trencher. the Greeks. endued with varied wisdom ." Thus far Orpheus at last understood that he had been in error: " But linger no longer. he clearly adds " He is one." Again. . which the poets. for instance. And let not these things "Which once appeared in your breast rob you of dear life . self -proceeding and from . and at the same time expose their own weakness in not having arrived at the end." For if. And in them He Himself exerts his activity : no mortal Beholds Him. in his drama of the Charioteer. and walk well In the straight path. For I will declare what is true. But do thou hear. impelled by the force of truth. Hence Antis- thenes replies appropriately to their request for alms " I do not maintain the mother of the gods. against all the profane. shame you into salvation. : : : : 74 EXHORTATION TO THE HEA THEX. having received certain scin- tillations of the divine word. man. the comic poet. Him alone all things proceed.

put to shameful rout The youthful Bacchus' nurses they in fear. they call Aphrodite dog-fly. . ! —: . Zeus. Poseidon. II. Apollo. 590. at one time mad. who fixes his eye on truth. Homer writes without reserve " He." 3 He introduces Heracles. in the groves Of lovely Nyssa. and Hephaestus a cripple. and are wont to rate them. who have given laws to mortals. he barefacedly brings the gods on the stage " How. " Who inhabits the sanctuary that is in the middle of the earth. 405. How should he not so represent the god who. — ." And not only Menander." 2 Worthy truly of the Socratic school is Euripides." 1 2 3 Orestes. other poets in great numbers. but Homer and Euripides. scattered by the hand Of fierce Lycurgus. iii. 4 II. Dropped each her thyrsus. and that soundly too. and also. Helen says to Aphrodite " Thy godship abdicate Renounce Olympus " ! 1 And of Dionysus. Ion. 75 He that does this is greater than the Deity But these are the instruments of audacity and means of living Invented by men. then. On one occasion. that even his barbarian host re- marked it ? In his drama of Ion. vi. : : : . with an ox-goad armed. the ruler of heaven. You will. expose your gods. . and despises the spectators of his plays. ate green figs to flesh. in order to make recompense for your misdeeds. and you. when entertained as a guest. For instance. You. not I. too." is thus exposed " Itwas in obedience to him that I killed her who brought me forth Him do you regard as stained with guilt put him to death — It was he that sinned. mid their frantic orgies. 132. uttering discordant howls. at another drunk and gluttonous. To be yourselves guilty of wrong ? — And if what will never take place. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. Dispensing most certain oracles to mortals. is it right for you. uninstructed as I was In right and justice. Have to empty your temples. 422. yet I will state the supposition You will give satisfaction to men for your adulteries.

And snows and ice." where. For falsehood is not dissipated by the bare presentation of the truth. CHAPTER VIII. The and institutions divine Scriptures of wisdom form the short road to salvation. of wordiness and seductiveness. and dismal sorrows. He truly is . one and the same voice remedying many evils. See. Devoid of em- bellishment. or 7G . but by the practical improvement of the truth it is ejected and put to flight. to go to the prophetic Scriptures for the oracles present us with the appliances necessary for the attainment of piety. and so establish the truth. and clearly exhort us to \the attainment of the salvation set before us. and winds. Thunderbolts. gifted with consummate wisdom. they raise up humanity strangled by wicked- ness. and earthquakes. follow no longer darkness and gloom . shows the light. plagues. Let the Sibyl prophetess. But why detail particulars ? He reigns over heaven. who sends rains. T is now time. Know. Jeremiah the prophet. then. the sun's sweet-glancing light shines gloriously. famines. of outward beauty of diction. choice we ought to make. He rules earth. as we have despatched in order the other points. in remarkable accordance with inspiration. teaching men to despise the casualties of life and with . they at once dissuade us from pernicious deceit. be the first to sing to ns the song of sal- vation : " So He is all sure and unerring Come. she com- pares delusion to darkness. THE TRUE DOCTRINE IS TO BE SOUGHT IN THE PROPHETS. and lay up wisdom in your hearts There is one God. : : — . and the knowledge of God to the sun and and subjecting both to comparison.

They have not known. too. quaking will seize thee. 30. " I am the Lord I who : . and be filled with amazement." What. their carved work. the associates of Moses. 1. then. And this utterance I will repeat " I am. I will not shrink from quoting " Lo. " The earth. out of my hands. xxxii. Deut." 4 Will you hear. : hold ye. and the heaven shall pass away but the word of the Lord endureth for ever." And once more by Isaiah. and come. 2. strike. and their carcases shall be meat for the fowls of heaven and the wild beasts of the earth and they shall putrefy before the. which they have loved and served and . they who set up the block of wood. Isa. xxx. 2. and there is no other God beside me. sun and the moon. . 4 Isa. 5 c Jer. I will kill." he says. 13. " Before Thy face the hills 3 shall melt. fire !" is the God " whose throne is heaven. " Who measure heaven with a shall span. 7 heaven." he says." And again by Isaiah. 20. I am He that appointeth the thunder. what this prophet says of idols % " And they shall be made a spectacle of in the face of the sun." 5 He says. lxvi. 77 rather the Holy Spirit in Jeremiah. Let us worship Him of whom the prophet says. xl. behold ye. ye that are saved from the nations. Jer. He open heaven. " shall grow old. says he. and I will make to live I will . Gather yourselves to- gether. 24. 1. speak righteousness. and I will heal and there is none who shall deliver . exhibits God. and His footstool the earth and if . EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. . and the whole earth with his hand % " 2 Behold God's greatness. " Am I aGod at hand. What the Holy Spirit says by Hosea. 6. viii. xxiii. and I not see him ? Do I not fill 1 heaven and earth? saith the Lord. " and not a God afar off ? Shall a man do ought in secret." he says. their city shall be burned down. as wax melteth before the This. too. and pray to gods who 1 2 3 Isa. 12." But do you wish to hear another seer ? f You have the whole prophetic choir. that I AM. 7 Amos iv. and : createth spirit and His hands have established the host of . announce truth. iv. that the elements and the world shall be destroyed. when again God wishes to show Himself by Moses " Be. lxiv. Take counsel together.

the man of God. as a fountain thy harvest shall come. and sayings from the writings of the son of the Hebrews. the Lord that bringeth light." all." 12 therefore be wise. Turn to me. * ?" s when wilt thou be aroused from sleep "but if thou show 9 thyself no sluggard. 11. 20. xi. " Hear. x. 18. vi. and is itself the first resurrection from our fall." for matter is devoid of sensation. and there is no other by . "has 11 raised up the world by His wisdom. Isa." r And. 10. and from His face proceed knowledge and under- O wilt thou lie in bed.of the threatenings " for the graven . I am God. and ye will be saved."' r Why repeat to you the mysteries of wisdom. G. 7 8 9 Prov. 19. 22." according to that blessed psalmist David . but so on. x. which is His w ord. 10. u Jcr. the master of w isdom ? r u The Lord created me the beginning of His G w ays. xlv. . 11. xl. 14. O sluggard " How long 7 standing. 21-23. u The Lord will shake the cities that are inhabited. 12. Isa. 1 Isa. the one Lord . in order to His works. saying. images and the works of men's hands shall wail. xi. and grasp the w orld in His hand like a nest. dissuading from all idolatry. vi. the benign light. O Lord thy God is Israel. 20." O CO and ' . 4 6 Isa. viii. 12 Deut. xlv. raises us up to the truth. Once more he says.78 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATIIEX. 2 myself I swear. 23. " The Lord giveth wisdom." for wisdom. 13. Prov. and a Saviour none : there is except me. Lord 10 For u the who created the earth by His power. Prov. and thou shalt worship the Lord thy God. and Him only shalt thou serve." as Jeremiah says." 1 Then proceeding : uI am God. beautifully exclaims. " To whom will ye liken the Lord. or to what likeness will ye compare Him ? Has not the artificer made the image. x. and there is not beside me a just God. and ye perish from the 2 3 Isa. "Now O men. even now beware. who have fallen prostrate T before idols. vi. x. 10 Prov. c Prov. or the goldsmith melted the gold and plated it with gold?" 3 — and Be not therefore idolaters." But against the worshippers of idols he is exasperated. 4." the " Word of the Father. or rather 4 they that trust in them. faith to and salvation. Whence Moses. lest the Lord be angry. 9. u lay hold on instruction. ye that are from the end of the earth. will not save them.

they glorified Him not as God. ii. iv. " . 5 This is made up of several passages. 2 and seek after a lie 1 What. and changed the glory of God into the likeness of corruptible man. ." 4 But you do not know God." 1 2 3 Ps. as Isa. 31. 79 way of righteousness. when they knew God. and how shall you escape the guilt of impiety ? Hear again the prophet speaking : " The sun shall and the heaven be darkened but the Almighty suffer eclipse. Ezek. has inspired the song of salvation. . 7. 21. and the heavens stretched out and drawn together shall be rolled as a parchment-skin (for these are the pro- phetic expressions). when His wrath has quickly kindled. 1. 10. will show thee : u Because that. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. i. Blessed are all they who put their trust in Him. 25. 3. in His surpassing pity. is the vanity. 4 Gen. xiji. 23." 3 And verily this is the God who " in the beginning made the heaven and the earth. Ps. how long will ye be slow of heart? Why do you love vanity. 10. 15. iii. " Sons of men. sounding like a battle march. neither were thankful but became vain in their imaginations. and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator. i. Rom. and what the lie ? The holy apostle of the Lord. 13. reprehending the Greeks. shall shine for ever while the powers of the heavens shall : be shaken. Joel ii. then." 1 But already the Lord. and the earth shall flee away from before 5 the face of the Lord. and worship the heaven. xxxii. 12.

—dreading wrath. — that is. that you may shun judgment threatened? Come. " Do not any longer/' he says. then will he be occupied with the Father's concerns. 11. but as a father. to salvation. CHAPTER IX. when he is enrolled and made a and receives one citizen. nor faint when thou art rebuked of Him. as I take it. 80 . loving grace. come. then. 21. Prow iii. 18." O surpassing 2 love for man Not as a teacher speaking to his pupils. and hasten to learn of Him. does the Lord gently admonish His children. then will he share the kingdom of the Father with His own dear Son. xii. Thus Moses 3 confesses that " he was filled with quaking and terror" while he listened to God speaking concerning the Word. And art not thou afraid as thou nearest the voice of the Divine TVord ? Art not thou distressed ? Do you not fear. you shall not receive the truly existent Father. then shall he be deemed worthy to be made His heir. nor as God to men. and be born again. nor shall you ever enter into the kingdom of heaven. "my son. 3 Heb. O my the young people For if you become not again as little chil- ! dren." j| COULD adduce ten thousand scriptures of which not " one away" 1 without being tittle shall pass fulfilled for the mouth of the Lord the Holy . not as ! a master to his domestics. eagerly striving after the hope set before us. despise the chastening of the Lord. "THAT THOSE GRIEVOUSLY SIX WHO DESPISE OR NEGLECT GOD'S GRACIOUS CALLING. to stand to him in the relation of father. For in what wav is a stranger permitted to enter ? Well. For 1 2 Matt v. as saith the Scripture. Spirit hath spoken these things.

you sink down into destruction . iv. you wait for punishment. 8. to work all uncleanness and concupiscence. Ps. " Awake. the more impious men are for He desires us from slaves to become sons. being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them. He awakes from the sleep of darkness. 4 5 Ps." He : 1 2 3 Matt. u To-day. and Christ shall give thee light. Eph. exhorts. admonishes . v. the Sun of the Resurrection. too. 9. : being past feeling. in the day of temptation in the wilderness. if ye will hear His voice." l Wherefore the blessed apostle says " I testify : in the Lord. 3. while . have given themselves over to lascivious- 2 ness. Eph. with ceaseless assiduity." He says. who hold high many myriads of angels.harden not your hearts. He confers everlasting life." festival with so We. who are reared by God. despise the Word. when your fathers proved me by trial. are first-born sons. terri- fies. because of the hardness of their heart who. who first of all other men attained to the knowledge of God. in the vanity of their mind. that ye walk no longer as the Gentiles walk. xcv. ex. composed of many good chil- dren . . 14. and his invocation of God. 46." 5 And what was the trial ! If you wish to learn. lest he unwittingly despise himself. rouses. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 17-19. what else remains for the unbelieving than judgment and condemna- tion ? And the Lord. 41. first severed from the devil. as in the provocation. and pre- fer the fire which the Lord " has prepared for the devil and his angels." and with His beams bestowsLet no one then life. urges. the Holy Spirit will show you " And saw my works. these are "the first-born enrolled in heaven. And now the more benevolent God is. He " who was born before the morning 4 star." 3 — Christ. " thou that sleepest. For the Scripture somewhere says. O the prodigious folly of being ashamed of the Lord He offers freedom." After the accusation of such a witness. having their understanding darkened. 81 this is the first-born church. you flee into bond- ! age He bestows salvation. they scorn to become sons. who are the genuine friends of the First-born. and arise from the dead. who first were wrenched away from our sins. F . xxv. and raises up those who have wandered in error.

the fabulous river of gold. by whom we behold God. 7. Let us then ever obey the voice of the divine word. " is . and have not known my ways. And day is the symbol of light and the light of . with your own re- 3 1 Ps. xcv. men is the Word. then. having followed the successor of Moses. . extends over eternity. You may. What. which John com- manded to make straight and to prepare. they shall not enter into my rest. xcv. having the promise of the life that now is. would you propose to purchase it ? Were one to estimate the value of the whole of Pactolus. O men. because of unbelief. u forty years. And to the end the to-day and the instruction continue and then the true to-day. while it is called to-day. And. 82 EXHORTATION TO THE HEA THEX. They do always err in heart. " if to-day we hear His voice. says. and err in heart. and for this end sends the Paraclete. and those He threatens. and said. 14. indeed. to those that have believed and obey. God is incensed. the never- . . for they are said not to have entered into the rest." : If eternal salvation were to be sold. and not receive the word with open ears. invites all men to the knowledge of the truth. though of inestimable value. Rightly. he would not have reckoned up a price equivalent to salvation. till." 2 And that to-day is lengthened out day by day. Wherefore I was grieved with that gene- ration. Do not. i. profitable for all things. and of that which is to come. should we ! any longer change grace into wrath. they learned by experience."' 1 Look to the threatening! Look to the ex- hortation ! Look to the punishment Why. and have not known the Lord's ways. grace will superabound while with those that have been unbelieving. if you choose. But the Lord. Ps. For the to-day signifies eternity. . however. ending day of God. then. purchase salvation. 1 Tim. for how much." according to Paul. though late. then. the old Hebrew wanderers in the desert received typically the end of the threatening . in His love to man. So I sware in my wrath. faint. and entertain God as a guest in pure spirits ? For great is the grace of His promise. 9-11. is this know- ledge ? Godliness and u godliness. that they could not be saved other- wise than by believing on Jesus.

" But the round whom the world's growths have fastened. when he says. " Thou. not the fatherland in heaven. the same apostle consequently calls u inspired of God. eagerly longing to see. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 5 Phil. 17. iii. rest. urging them on to salvation. iii. the lover of man. This recompense God cheerfully accepts . " from a child hast known the holy letters." 4 Those men that draw near through fear. like the old man of* Ithaca. for correction. and the writings or volumes that consist of those holy letters and syllables. that makes man as far as can be like God. "The kingdom of heaven is at hand. for reproof. ." For truly holy are those letters that sanctify and deify. xxxiv. for it says. not the truth." one will be 3 No so impressed by the exhortations of any of the saints. where Clem. for instruction in righteousness. " Come hither. iv. Thus also the apostle of the Lord. 15. and nothing but this. who is the Saviour of all men. make light of immortality. not the true light. or Paul. for ^arc/V. love and living faith. as not to believe the Lord Himself. 2 through faith that is in Christ Jesus. 6 Ps. but smoke. as he is by the words of the Lord Himself. 83 sources. 1 especially of those who believe. 8. has read Xptcro. 2 Tim. listen to O 1 2 3 1 Tim. becomes the interpreter of the divine voice. which will be reckoned a suit- able price. thoroughly furnished to every good work. being pro- fitable for doctrine. as the rocks on the sea-shore are covered over with sea- weed. O Timothy. is His only work the salvation — of man. " for we trust in the living God. or rather of faith. who alone can worthily assimilate man to God. He converts. 5. take care that ye be not apprehended empty. cries. " The Lord is at hand . which are able to make thee wise unto salvation. that the man of God may be perfect. experience will teach you Scripture will . This teaching the apostle knows as truly divine. children . 4 Matt." 5 But are ye so devoid of fear. iv. train you. 17. beseeching the Macedonians." he says. 10. designates God as our suitable teacher. iv. who in Christ's stead thus entreats : " Taste and see that Christ is God ?" 6 Faith will lead you in . Therefore He Himself. 16. But godliness. For this. 1 Tim.

xxxiv. seeking after the good Monad. that loveth to see good days?" It is we. as to those who already believe. Father. by being made good. hear ye who are near: the word has not been hidden from any light . 1 Ps. and crying Abba. is common. we shall say — we who are the devotees of good. reaching and resting in the same truth. follow after union." Then. let us who are many haste that we may be brought together into one love. ye who are far off. Let us haste to salvation. we who eagerly desire good things. to regeneration . and I will teach you the fear of the Lord. This. the true utterance of His children. issuing in the production of divine harmony out of a medley of sounds and division. 12. it shines a on all men. according to the union of the essential unity . then. . Hear. be- comes one symphony following one choir-leader and teacher. me.84 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEX. it briefly adds. conformably and let us. God accepts with gracious welcome — the first-fruits He receives from them." Xo one is a Cimmerian in respect to the word. u What man is he 1 that desireth life. The union of many in one. the Word.

to which our nurses accus- tomed us from the time of our birth ? Why do we increase or diminish our patrimony. yet are accompanied with pleasure. dash 85 . and. had not you been carried away by custom. CHAPTER X. and god- less. when infants. And why. the task I now attempt is the noblest. % For of all that I have under- taken to do. THAT IT WAS NOT RIGHT TO ABANDON THE CUSTOMS OF THEIR FATHERS. still and nursed by our mothers. rejecting custom as a deleterious druo. then. and seek Him who is truly our Father. and then shut your ears against us and just as unmanageable . if excesses in the indulgence of the pas- sions. and take the bit between their teeth. and betake ourselves to the truth. or do the things for which. and not keep it exactly the same as we got it? Why do we not still vomit on our parents' breasts. why do we not in the conduct of life abandon that usage which is evil. the greatest ever given by God to the human race. impelled by your folly. who seek to guide the chariot of your life. in your eager desire to shake yourselves clear of us. do we not still use our first nourishment. horses throw off the reins. you rush away from the arguments addressed to you. though pernicious and dangerous. would never have been hated and rejected. viz. but have corrected ourselves. UTyou say it is not creditable to subvert the customs handed down to us from our fathers. and provocative of passion. ANSWER TO THE OBJECTION OF THE HEATHEN. to demon- strate to you how inimical this insane and most wretched custom is to godliness. even if we did not fall in with good instructors ? Then. milk. we were 'laughed at. For a boon so great. even should our fathers feel hurt.

and heals his trans- gression. And seeing these things. By sad experience. is not this a brand plucked from the fire?" What an infatuated desire. For the author of evil. this is the truest. the Lord of the universe ? And will you not escape from those dungeons. the wicked shall receive meet punishment. of His great love to man. uttering cries of grief over her dear progeny. and regard the holy word of God as an accursed thin 2. and recovers the young one. and their suf- ferings to be worthy of pity rather than piety. lo. "^ 2 Iliad. useless ears. as described by Sophocles. serpent open its mouth to swallow the little bird. iii. who show the idol's temples to be in reality graves or prisons." And you know not that. " the mother 2 flutters round. as the mother-bird flies to one of her young that has fallen out of the nest and if a . on the other hand. ii. 315. and so the prophet Zecharias threatens him : " He that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke 1 thee. but evil custom. vain thoughts. Let any of you look at those who minister before the idols. and flee to the mercy that comes down from heaven ? iFor God. and not according to custom ? For God bestows life freely . that the good and godly shall obtain the good reward. who never come near a bath. after our depar- ture from this world. of all truths. not to worship them. towards the precipices of destruction. brings on the sinner unavailing remorse with punishment. therefore. rooted in men's minds Why do they flee to this fatal brand. when it is within their power to live nobly according to God. comes to the help of man. . for voluntary death is this. follows " The mind a blank. and let their nails grow to an extraordinary length." and God the Father seeks His creature. while. then. their persons disgraced with filthy and tattered clothes . their hair matted. The reward of your choice. : 86 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. These appear to me to bewail the gods. inasmuch as they held goodness in high esteem . torment has been prepared . 2. many of them castrated. even a child knows how superstition destroys and piety saves. and incites it to fly up to the nestrv 1 Zech. and will you not look up to the Ruler of all. with ! which they shall be burned. do you still continue blind. like wild beasts . and pursues the serpent.

speaking by Isaiah u There : 2 is an inheritance for those who serve the Lord. come to their master's call if he but whistle. as the sun does the eagles. and walk about in heaven and partake of the tree of life and immortality. who. then. Isa. behold. should be subject to another master. from foolishness to wisdom. and. and horses that have thrown their riders." Let us not then be enslaved or become swinish but. It is an enterprise of noble daring to take our way to God and the enjoyment of many ." Noble 1 2 Isa. thatyou men who are God's handiwork. ." What. of the Lord ? He remembers not our ill desert. serve the tyrant instead of the rightful — King the evil one in- stead of the good? For. according to Democritus. 87 Thus clogs that have strayed. from unrighteousness to right- eousness. the rain of salvation f Some there are. like mud better than pure water . He still pities. 17. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. lest the Lord discover us to be spurious. i. if it does not appear to you mon- strous. other good things is within the reach of the lovers of right- eousness. it is said. feed on foolish and useless delights swinish men. who have received your souls from Him. then. prefers to be in bondage ? Or who is he that pursues his way to Erebus. and it is in his to cultivate Paradise. " doat upon dirt. from godlessness to God. " know- eth his owner. from licentiousness to self-restraint. and. what man in his senses turns his back on good. and the ass his master's crib . when power to be a citizen of heaven. He still urges us to repentance. true children of the light. and attaches himself to evil ? What. u The ox/' it is said. let us raise our eyes and look on the light. in the name of truth. but Israel hath 1 not known me. like worms wallowing in marshes and mud in the streams of pleasure. track out their master by the scent . cleaving his way through the sky in the track of the luminous cloud. liv. And I would ask you. as . what is more. 3. like Elias. and pass from ignorance to knowledge. that may become a son of God. and belong wholly to God. who pursue eternal life. and. specially those things to which God Himself alludes. — For swine. Let us therefore repent. is he who flees from God to consort with demons 1 Who.

'" and " they shall be glad 3 in the kingdom of their Lord for ever and ever ! Amen. . by becoming lovers of the "Word. and thus our lovincr Father — the true Father— ceases not to exhort. . as might have been expected. 9." 2 3 1 Isa. which " eye hath not seen. who is a son of perdition. and those on the land. nor hath it entered into the heart of man. and fly with us on the wing of truth. . God shall be revealed to thee without price . train. come to the water and ye . saying. to illumination. What the bastard. and buy and drink without money. tell me. 17. The land I give thee." You O men. and desirable is this inheritance : not gold. all but crying out and saying. O child. and to whom alone He promises." What glory. Wherefore the Scripture." for it is not destined to corrup- tion. not silver. love us. " ye shall be righteous. 1." and it is thine too. He assigns to thee as thine own. heard. lv. if thou receive God. the threatening of punishment 1 Isa. and heaven too and all the living creatures in them I : freely bestow upon thee. to salvation. on the other hand. Thence praise- worthy works descend to us. hasten. which the moth and things of earth which assails. admonish.foredoomed to be the slave of mammon. " The land shall not be sold in perpetuity. the divine promise of grace you have have. has to buy money. reads. Only. He invites to the laver. and the sea. He gives thee all creatures that fly and swim. not raiment. nor ear heard. where Sept. and advises the best course : a Become righteous. come. liv. thirst for thy Father. ' - that have no money. convevincr the everlasting fjift of £race . These the Father has created for thy thankful enjoyment. This is the inheritance with which the eternal cove- nant of God invests us. Cor. For He ceases not to save. O blessed One." 1 says the Lord. my child. whose eye is dazzled by worldly wealth but it is that treasure of salvation to which we must . "The saints of the Lord shall inherit the glory of God and His power. Ye that thirst. ii. the truth is not made merchandise of. are assailed by the robber. proclaims good news to those who have believed. even to His for own son who loves the Father for whose sake He still works. "For the whole land is mine. : 88 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEX.

to have brought forward a witness inborn and competent. that " you may choose life. xxx. xxxiii. 20. if possible. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN." He says. 80 by these tlie Lord saves. the sword and fire not. materials of persuasion respecting the Word." 1 The Lord tries you. "But ye if obey me and are unwilling. i. chooses at once what is best. in fine. and whether this wise God and Christ should be followed and : this you think requires deliberation and doubt. that you may be wise have faith in us. Have faith in us. come and I will set before you in abundance. The only thing you make the subject of question is. which 1 2 3 Isa. For. as you . by which your minds are preoccupied. have in injury. But do you for your — ancestral customs. God instead of the evil one. For the mouth of the Lord the law— of truth. and know not what is worthy of God. do we not choose the better part. Deut. . You ought. whether God should be worshipped. Isa. Are you willing that I should be your good counsellor I Well. will ex- plain. and prefer wisdom to idolatry. 15. you ought to doubt whether you should get drunk." He counsels you as a father to obey God. " For if ye hear me. the word of the Lord hath — spoken these things. and from its own resources. u I have set before your face death and life. And let not any shame of this name preoccupy you." He says. divert you from the truth. But if. O men. as you have in drunkenness. faith. allow me to tell you. Why do we delay ? Why do we not shun the punishment ? Why do we not receive the free gift ? Why. you wish to trust them. that you may live. and take life in exchange for death ? " Behold. " and be willing. ye shall eat the good things of the 2 land :" this is the grace attached to obedience. — do you now hear what is the real state of the case as follows. . acknowledging the conspicuous trustworthiness of the virtues. but you get drunk before reflecting on the matter and whether you ought to do an injury. which of itself. shall devour you :" 3 this is the penalty of disobedience. 20. I. instead of occupying yourselves in painfully inquiring whether what is best ought to be followed. viz. when reflecting on the Good. i. but you do injury with the utmost readiness. do you hear. 11. teaching men by fear and grace.

After Alexander's death. For God is by no manner of means unrighteous. and worshippers of them. the divine sophist. said : " Men. or out of earth moulded soft flesh. Theocritus. 1 the working goddess. to ridicule before his fellow-citizens. Pay no more regard. when he becomes righteous in the highest possible degree u Go into the way. then." And. keep up your hearts as long as you see the gods dying sooner than men." Let the meaner artists. the holy Word being the judge. the whole tribe of you handicraftsmen. if you are rated by some of the low rabble who lead the dance of impiety. and the Lord of the universe prescribing the contest. and nobly strive in the arena of truth. whom they canonized as the thirteenth god. holding up the vain opinions entertained by men respecting the gods. makers of idols and worshippers of stones. truly. and attaches himself to them. and all that are engaged in mechanical arts. For 'tis no insignifi- cant prize." says a certain prophecy. are workers of the earth. . for example. is a far more wretched object than the very demons. does great men. None of these ever made a breathing image. being themselves of the earth. and your Praxiteles and Apelles too. u For then. and seduces them from salvation. and are driven on to the same pit by their folly and insanity. With fans duly placed. who. and Polycletus. but in the very highest degree righteous and nothing more resembles God than one of us . he who worships gods that are visible. Let your Phidias. when men put their trust in images. — : — 90 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. therefore. which showed him dead. I admire. Who worship Jove's fierce-eyed daughter. Theocritus was his name. Let harm to us then openly strip for the contest. Alexander of Macedon. and the promiscuous rabble of creatures begotten and born. u the affairs here turn out unfortu- nately. come. whose pretensions Babylon confuted. the guerdon of immortality which is set before us. For these have dared to deify men. fools that ye are'' fashioners of stones. as the demons are. too — for 1 will not stop calling — come. Who liquefied the marrow? or who solidified the bones? Who stretched the nerves? who distended the veins? 1 Minerva.

obtained a signal deliver- 1 Gen. 2G. Receive. the mind which is in man. greatly out of harmony with truth. engrossed with pleasures? To whom ' shall the Lord say. instead . is. the genuine Son of Mind. But do you still con- tinue in your sins. if we look to that which ismost common to thee and others seek Him who created — thee . ye polluted ones purify yourselves from custom. 91 Who poured the blood into them? Or who spread the skin? Who ever could have made eyes capable of seeing? Who breathed spirit into the lifeless form ? Who bestowed right- eousness ? Who promised immortality ? The Maker of the universe alone : the Great Artist and Father has formed us. stamped on all that follow it the mark of long-continued death. by devising many shapes of demons. are but a perishable impress of humanity. mani- festly wide of the truth. . and therefore rational but effigies sculptured in human form. Thou art a man. if you . is the senseless work of Attic hands. if you will yours. will only believe. which has made you bondage and unreasonable care. which is occupied with so much earnestness about matter. seems to me to be nothing else than full of insanity. the image of an image. That life. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. For the image of God is His Word. by . " Yours is the kingdom of heaven ? Yours. which has proved to the human . has. The pure must ascend to heaven. if we look to that which is thy peculiar prerogative — acknowledge thy Father. . the Divine Word. then. who is therefore said 1 to have been made "in the image and likeness of God. the and the image of the Word is the archetypal light of light . . and also of deadly plagues and hateful images. then. sprinkling yourselves with the drops of truth. whose choice is set on God. i. is fostered by taste vain opinion and ignorance. the water of the word wash. race the cause of unlawful rites and delusive shows. and comply with the brief terms of the announcement which the Ninevites having obeyed." assimilated to the Divine Word in the affections of the soul. And custom. the earthly image of that part of man which is visible and earth-born. of the destruction they looked for.thou art a son. such a living image as man But your Olympian Jove. true man.

As. instruction has been poured. namely piety. we say. adored in heaven. strait in truth. 92 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. for he has his own sense as his accuser for not having chosen the best part. counselling him to furnish himself with what is his sufficient provision for eternity. For man has been otherwise constituted by nature. is it said ? The Lord is the way. despised on earth broad. as he is. but leading from heaven. you are hurried to destruction u because : light is come into the world. . do ye awake and using your eyes a little. As those. and who deliberately maintains his incredulity in his soul. Practise husbandry. so as to have fellowship with God. and the expenditure you frivolously lavish on matter. . as he is. 19. Sail the sea. the more harm will his understanding do him . we invite him — born. you who are devoted to navigation. has ignorance as the excuse of his error but as for him into whose ears . consider what mean those stones which you worship. what is man's peculiar and distinguishing characteristic above other creatures. may I ascend to heaven. then. but leading back to heaven. clinging to it voluntarily till your last breath. a truly heavenly plant —to the knowledge of God. then. know God. even as you throw away your lives to death. then. if you are a husbandman . the wiser he appears to be. he that is uninstructed in the word. but set each animal to that for which it is by nature fitted so. as you are to evil custom. but while you till your fields. you are incapable even of yielding to the persuasions of those who commiserate you enslaved . ance. who orders what is right. a strait way. placing our finger on . . Your means and substance you squander on ignorance. who have been overpowered with sleep and drunkenness. we do not compel the horse to plough. and being. for the con- templation of heaven. Then. Not only unable to pity yourselves. How. strait." while they could sweep away those 1 John iii. and men have loved the darkness 1 rather than the light. or the bull to hunt. yet call the whilst on the heavenly Pilot. and. Has knowledge taken hold of vou while en^acred in militarv service ? Listen to the com- mander. having found no other end of your vain hope than this.

and Punishment. and fear. nor a year. pride. how can fire and water be gods 1 how can shooting stars and comets. and that of Amyetus % Is it not evident to all that they are stones. and that of Andocides. then. 203. is the Hermes of Typho. If. to cast aside these vain phantasies. more will you with propriety call Fortune. or Destiny. and Justice." For what. which last [as Plutus] painters represent as blind. farewell . nor Wealth are gods. nor time. then. as is the veritable Hermes himself ? As the Halo is not a god. while a providence exercised about 2 us is evidently the result of a divine power. Still further. can imagine Correction. And if Strife and Battle be not gods. by which each of those mentioned above is determined. nor Glory. then. in his right senses. and Intercourse. it remains only 1 Odyss. and Passion. nor Destiny are gods. which are produced by atmospheric changes ? He who calls Fortune a god. think you. but are states of the atmosphere and of the clouds and as. and Venus. O men. nor the Fates. Who. and bid adieu to evil custom. . : EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN-. and Beauty. and Retribution to be gods ? For neither the Furies." But adopting that in the text the argument is : . and wealth. 2 A translation in accordance with the Latin version would run thus : 14 While a certain previous conception of divine power is nevertheless discovered within us. let these be followed by Infamy. and as the Iris is not a god. a day is not a god. or the Fates goddesses. repeating this poetic utterance " Whither do I bear these abundant riches? and whither Do I myself wander ? " l If you wish. is held to be a God. 93 hindrances to salvation. and rains are not gods. no more are Ares and Enyo. likewise. nor of the images formed by human hands. and destitute of feel- ing. you were then nothing. since neither Government. But if you deify Modesty. which is made up of these. none of these. let Mm also so call Action. say to vain opinion : " Lying dreams. if the lightnings. and thunderbolts. and Love. so neither is sun nor moon. Therefore Sleep and Death cannot reasonably any more be regarded as twin deities. being merely changes which take place naturally in living creatures no . xiii.

but only things of wood and stone. was turned into stone for her love of Sodom. being deprived of the properties that belonged to it.94 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEX. that He alone who is truly God. how can it with justice be alienated? For that which is alienated. That power is not exercised by idols or heathen gods. we have heard. u Touch not the water which I bestow. For there are miserable wretches of human kind. that it is exercised by the one self-existent God. to ignore the Sovereign Ruler ? a Leave my earth. nor Suffering. and stocks. And those who are godless. Partake not of the fruits of the earth produced by my husbandry. nor Tree. u on the fruitful earth thrice ten thousand " demons. is also deprived of truth. but. " and the fulness thereof. acknowledge thy Master. and take beasts and stones for what they are. like the Hebrew woman called by the ancients Lot's wife. hard-hearted and foolish. x. and serpents are sacred things. The only other alternative is. 2G. But those who are insensible to this are like men who have drunk mandrake or some other drug. May God grant that you may at length awake from this slumber. Believe that these utterances are addressed to you from God. For. after the fashion of Niobe. and know God. Thou art God's creature. nor Action." Then why darest thou. for they are not endowed with sensation. who consider that God there is unquestionably a providence implying the exertion of divine power. and that neither Gold. that hold despotic sway over men insulting and violating life through the force of custom. . 1 . nor indeed mortal . nor Disease. while luxuriating in the bounties of the Lord. so as to render them capable of death. regard men as truly sacred. For there are. in sooth." Give to God recompense for your sus- tenance . "The earth 1 is the Lord's." the Lord will say to thee. on the contrary. are Sodomites. or. nor Fear. to express myself more mystically. 1 Ps. For think not that stones. not immortal. to acknowledge this. only truly is and subsists. 28. may appear in your eyes as a god. and men are not ." it is said. xxiv. addicted to impiety. 1 Cor. and birds. are ye not turned into a state of insensibility? This woman. What belongs to Him. nor Stone.

for no hindrance stands in the way of him who is bent on the knowledge of God. and to learn of Him . like the deaf adder. His . they persecute and while he is inviting them to cultivate righteousness. " is like the serpent. But the man of God. for it is vastly preferred to everything else. whose love to man is ineffable and His hatred of evil is inconceivable. nor pirate. nor want. alas." says the Scripture. are not pained. are not grieved. then. thus maimed as respects the truth. robber. nor fearing the penalty. but says nothing by man . can hinder him who eagerly strives after 1 the knowledge of God nor does any one who has conquered . nor poverty. blind in mind. 95 uttersHis voiee by the raven and the jackdaw. blessings on repentance. But ye. deaf in understanding. and honour the raven as a messenger of God. nor. nor obscurity. by fixing your choice on salvation. With justice. It is the height of wretchedness to be deprived of the help which comes from God. who croaks not. having treasured up his bliss in nothing but himself and God. anger augments punishment against sin His love bestows . . Hence this blindness of eyes and dulness of hearing are more grievous than other inflictions of the evil one . 1 The expression "conquered by brass or iron" is borrowed from Homer (II. neither welcoming the grace which comes from above. 534). have had no desire to see heaven and the Maker of heaven. 2 Matt. For " their mind. For he that is fired with ardour and admiration for righteousness. but speaks rationally and instructs lovingly. by brass or iron the true wisdom for himself choose to exchange it. where is neither 2 moth. 21. . have you been compared to those serpents who shut their ears against the charmers. have sought to hear the Creator of the universe. nor understand His power. viii. but the eternal Giver of good. Christ is able to save in every place. and iron were the metals of which arms were made. 20. For they believe not God. needs himself but little. Brass. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. O being O the lover of7 One who needs nothing. Neither childlessness. vi. the other robs them of divine in- struction. or copper. nor chatters. they try inhumanly to slay him. for the one deprives them of heavenly vision.

cease watching with outstretched head the heel of the righteous. 5. and receive that mild word of ours. Ps. • which stoppeth her ear. and will not hear the voice of the 1 charmers. Believe. Believe. Let us then seek. Only let us with our whole heart repent." a Raise your eyes from earth to the skies. 2 " They " seems to refer to sanctity and the word. that it may be granted to you to divest yourselves as much as possible of destruc- 2 tion. Him . God be magnified. u shall lick the dust.96 EXHORTATION TO TEE HEATHEN. lxxii. For where but in a soul that is wise can vou write truth ? where love ? where 1 Ps. Seek God. " Let all who seek Thee be glad and rejoice in Thee and ." says Scripture. . as they Hear me. have been divested of old acre." Believe Him who is man and God believe. 4." But allow yourselves to feel the influence of the charming strains of sanctity. and fills them with righteousness. all ye assembled people pour out all your hearts . O man. all ye of human kind. " For the enemies of the Lord. that we may be able with our whole heart to contain God. and do not stop your ears do not block up the avenues . established in righteousness. and your soul shall live. 4. Him who died believe. lxx. 3 4 5 Ps." 4 He says to those that have newly abandoned wickedness. in order that we may live. the living God. Ps. and hindering the way of truth. He who seeks God is busying himself about his own salvation. who alone is God of all men. who suffered and is adored. O man. that you may leave your holes and dwell in heaven. 9. before Him. 8. lxii." 5 A noble hymn of God an immortal man. Be wise and harmless. ye slaves. of hearing. Hast thou found God ? — then thou hast life. Excellent is the medicine of immortality ! Stop at length your grovel- ling reptile motions. Perchance the Lord will endow you with the wing of sim- plicity (for He has resolved to give wings to those that are earth-born). but lav to heart what is said. and reject the deadly poison. in is whom the oracles of truth are engraved. and receive salvation as your reward. . lviii. admire the sight. look up to heaven. let them say continually. "He pities them. The reward of seeking is life with God. " Trust in Him. Believe.

and the Spartan those of Lycurgus but if thou enrol : thyself as one of God's people. Luke vi. of life. So are you not ashamed for living through so many periods of life in impiety. then striplings. the Athe- nian follow the laws of Solon. then. 13-16 . I think. but never as yet were you good. those who have known the Son and good husbands to their wives. enter on the practice of piety. And what are the laws? "Thou shalt not kill thou shalt not commit adultery thou shalt not seduce . There are no tribes of flatterers among them. boys thou shalt not steal thou shalt not bear false witness . they are unable to know God. Let. good parents to their sons. have been redeemed from utter slavery. . God thy lawgiver. now that you have reached life's sunset and albeit at the close ." 3 How much better.. but do not counterfeit the truth. vi." x And the complements of these are those laws of reason and words of sanctity which are inscribed on men's hearts " Thou shalt love thy : neighbour as thyself to him who strikes thee on the cheek. G . and the Argive those of Phoro- neus. for by lust alone thou hast committed adultery. 1 Ex. tion wisdom. ought. v. If you have respect for old age. Fishes have no superstition : the birds worship not a single image . deprived as they are of reason. 97 reverence? where meekness? Those who have had these divine characters impressed on them. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 28. that the end of life may to you prove the beginning of salvation. those who . Deut. happier far the beasts than men involved in error ! who live in ignorance as you. acquire the knowledge of God. 3 Matt. then youths. as God regards you as innocent children. by which those who have betaken themselves to : the Father. heaven is thy country. xx. . 2 present also the other. 29. making yourselves more irrational than the irrational creatures? You were boys. thou shalt love the Lord thy God. 3. You have become old in superstition young. Oh. . be wise. those who remember the Bridegroom and good masters to their servants. . have proved good fathers to their children and ." "thou shalt not lust. . since. to regard wisdom as a fair port whence to embark. . to whatever lot in life they turn and likewise to deem it the calm haven of salva- . only they look with ad- miration on heaven. then men.

casting its radiance on the earth. endowed with all wisdom. but as to we delight in sweet things. who. but is very near us in our very homes. and the harshness of medicines strengthens people of weak stomach. therefore. while referring to it. having dawned from His Father's counsel quicker . For it was not without divine care that so great a work was accomplished in so brief a space by the Lord. is it for men from the beginning not to wish to desire things forbidden. as Moses. as boys when they have become men throw aside their toys. those bitter things which are distasteful to the palate are curative and healing. assuming the character of man.e council- chamber. lie that is made equal to the Lord of the universe because He was His Son. the divine power. says. For with a celerity unsurpassable. and prize them higher for the ngreeableness of the pleasure they yield. Nor is it difficult to approach. was in reality adored. 98 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. the clement. and the sa£. while truth con- ducts to heaven. the expiator of sin. and fashioning Himself in flesh. You yourself will spontaneously surmount the fri- volousness of custom. hath filled the universe with the seed of salvation. though despised as to appearance. while. thus custom pleases and tickles . And be not afraid lest the multitude of pleasing objects which rise beforeyou withdraw you from wisdom. it has its abode in three departments of our constitution — in the hands. which is embraced by these three things in all — will. not disbelieved in by all when He was first preached. Harsh it is at first. the Saviour. on the other hand. speech. He enacted the drama of human salvation for Pie was a true champion and a fellow-champion : with the creature. action. than to obtain their desires! But ye are not able endure the austerity of salvation . or impossible to attain. and a benevolence to which we have ready access. and the heart : a meet emblem this of truth. nor alto- gether unknown when. but custom pushes into the abyss. . but a good nurse of youth : and it is at once the decorous place where the house- hold maids and matrons dwell together. the Divine Word. the mouth. And being communicated most speedily to men. He that is truly most manifest Deity. and the Word was in God.

Whence He was and what Pie was. the Word. diffused over the whole face of the earth. 99 than the sun. . the universe has already become an ocean of blessings. the giver of peace. so to speak. the Reconciler. the fount of life. He showed by what He taught and exhibited. with the most perfect ease He made God shine on us. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. our Saviour. by whom. manifesting Himself as the Herald of the Covenant.

The Lord then wished to release him from his bonds. CHAPTER XL HOW GREAT ARE THE BENEFITS CONFERRED OX MAN THROUGH THE ADVENT OF CHRIST. I reckon. and grew old in disobedience . was found fettered to sins. with Athens and Greece. the divine beneficence. sported free. legislation. Man. and ! enslaved the tyrant death and. was as a child seduced by lusts. because he was the child of God but when he succumbed to pleasure (for . and clothing Himself — with flesh O divine mystery — vanquished the serpent. The man. since the "Word Himself has come to us from heaven. who believed the 100 . O mystic wonder The Lord was laid low. first dise. For you. man . heaven itself. the serpent allegorically signifies pleasure crawling on its belly. and man rose ! up and he that fell from Paradise receives as the reward . we need not. earthly wickedness nourished for fuel to the flames). and bound fast to corruption. salvation. has already be- come the domain of the Word. most marvellous of all. if agreeable to yon. Wherefore. beneficence. of obedience something greater [than Paradise] — namely. For if we have as our teacher Him that filled the universe with His holy energies in crea- tion. had his hands unloosed. and the whole world. go any more in search of human learning to Athens and the rest of Greece. dishonoured God. we have the Teacher from whom all instruction comes . Such was the influence of pleasure. that had been free by reason of simplicity. when in Para. and was set free. [OXTEMPLATE a little. prophecy. teaching. and to Ionia. that had been deceived by pleasure. and by disobeying his Father.

as. in the midst of 4 the church will I praise Thee. 2 iii. " In order that you may know well both God and man. And the one whole Christ is not divided " There : is neither barbarian." transformed by God's Holy Spirit. precious above gold and gems . Iliad. This. 15. is " a long- lived exhortation. nor Greek. vi. but the only command that is universal. Let us then admit the light." For how can it be other than desirable. 8 Ps. had we not known the Word. will not refuse to believe that we who have become the disciples of God have received the only true wisdom and that which the chiefs of philosophy only guessed . 28. " while the commandment of the Lord is far-shining. it is to be desired above honey and the a honey-comb. tends to the highest end. 23. v. He has been promised to the Father " I will declare Thy name to my brethren . fattened in darkness. xix. and become disciples/ . had the sun not been in existence. in order that we may live for ever. : EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. 1 Gal. xxii. and respect particular things. beget children . " enlightening the eyes. viz. Philosophy. receive sight." 2 u Sweet is the Word that gives us light. too." Praise and declare to me Thy Father God. to the Lord. and been illuminated by Him. 4 11. neither male nor 1 female. life. and over the whole course of existence. the other counsels and precepts are unimportant. Ps. . Thy utterances save Thy hymn teaches that . at. being that we live in accordance with it. the disciples of Christ have both apprehended and pro- claimed. however. receive thy light. 101 poetical fable which designated Minos the Cretan as the bosom friend of Zeus. nor Jew. and given keenness to the " light-bringing eyes " of the soul? For just as. wooing the eternal love of wisdom . — all that is necessary. at all times and in all circumstances. as the ancients say. night would have brooded over the universe notwithstanding the other luminaries of heaven so. and nourished for death. . but a new man. Further. if one may — marry. for example. take part in public affairs. is piety. that we j may admit God let us admit the light. 128." Receive Christ. we should have been nowise different from fowls that are being fed. since it has filled with light the mind which had been buried in dark- ness.

ignorance and removing the darkness ." and. . deifying man by heavenly teaching. and writing them on our hearts. gives place to the day of the Lord. and the west has given credence to the east. as a kind of house-rent for our dwelling here below. like " His Father. buried. shut up in the shadow of death. O light ! For in us. pervades equally all humanity. "I will be merciful to them. What laws does He inscribe ? all shall u That know God. and hiding itself in terror. that He may be gracious." says God. transplanting mortality into immortality. putting them in mind of the true sustenance . . as dimness of sight. and receive the Father from Thee." Let us put away. For this was the end of the new creation." and distils on them the dew of the truth. let us contemplate the only true God. O Lord." who drives His chariot over all. That light is eternal life and whatever partakes of it lives. from small to great." Let us receive the laws of life. I become u Thy l fellow-heir. 34. in darkness. He hath raised him to the skies. Sleepless light is now over all. fears the light. viz. 3 4 Heb. which obstructs. xxxi." since Thou " wert not ashamed of me as Thy 2 brother. let us comply with God's expos- tulations . who makes His sun to rise on all men. then. 33. putting His laws into our minds. " Pointing out the favourable signs and rousing the nations To good works. But night . But since Thou leadest me to the light. let us become acquainted with Him. the husbandman of God. sweeter than life here below. For u the Sun of Righteousness. and inalien- able inheritance of the Father. viii. 10-12 Jer. purer than the sun. 1 2 Rom. seeking God. And though God needs nothing. and through the cross brought death to life and having wrenched man from destruction. first raising our voice in this hymn of praise Hail. He hath changed sun- set into sunrise. light has shone forth from heaven. Heb. 17. let us render to Him the grateful recompense of a thankful heart and of piety. hitherto I have wandered in error. let us put away oblivion of the truth. viii." 3 having bestowed on us the truly great. and I find God through Thee. and translating earth to heaven — He. 11. : . 102 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. " and will not remember their sins. divine. ii. Aratus.

gather 1 II. seeks the prize. who to a pious and good child gives gentle counsels. and. the Saviour. claims the promise. 236. when sounded. those who have put faith in necromancers. and. He has rewarded your little faith. surrounded with corruption. you spend your lives in darkness. to ward off evil forsooth . and He has per- fire to mitted you to conduct a colony from here to heaven : with these important works of His hand. obeys the Father. and you not allow will the heavenly Word. doing nothing but eat. fulfils the com- mandment. But it has been God's fixed and constant purpose to save the flock of men for this end the good God sent the good Shepherd. to be bound on to you as an amulet. like moles. The loud trumpet. that is. And the Word. receive from them amulets and charms. A hundred oxen's worth for that of nine j" 1 that is. . and commands what is salutary for His child. cially now that we have come to know the most precious and venerable name of the good Father. loves his neighbour. air to breathe. This is the proclamation of righteousness : to those that obey. the heart. loves God. showed to men the height of salvation. by trusting in God's own charm. that either repenting they might be saved. judgment. and let the beams of knowledge arise to reveal and irradiate the hidden inner man. and rescued from sin ? for — sin is eternal death. He who obeys Him has the advantage in all things. breathing a strain of peace to the ends of the earth. But it is truth which cries. and benefits in such num- bers. Then. the familiar friend and fellow-heir of Christ espe. And shall not Christ. : EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. glad tidings . knows Him though wandering. "The light shall shine forth from the darkness. to those that disobey. collects the soldiers." Let the light then shine in the hidden part of man. or refus- ing to obey. having unfolded the truth. water to drink and also to sail on. do your work. 103 " Gold for brass. . for your little faith He gives you the earth of so great extent to till. the disciple of the Light. Surely utterly dull and blind. and proclaims war. they might be judged. follows God. a world to dwell in . be de- livered from passions which are the diseases of the mind. vi.

and is to the whole and perfect spirit of the soul the kind attendant on our ascent to heaven. which is the word of . The heavenly and truly divine love comes to men thus. abides with us till our last breath. He hath blown it. returning grateful thanks for the benefits we have received. " For while thou art yet speak- ing. This Christ desires. what is of the highest . 9. vi. lviii. service will any one be able to imitate God. the Word of incor- ruption. The Word of truth. yoked together. that have been baptized by the Word. is the exhortation I give you ? I urge you to be saved. and assigned to them the kingdom of heaven. kindled in the soul by the Divine Word. I this holy and blessed power. by His blood. Isa. 1 God. And who is He? Briefly learn. Wherefore this exhortation of the truth alone. that regenerates man by bringing him back to the truth — the goad that urges to salvation He who expels — destruction and pursues death He who builds up the — temple of God in men." let us sharpen. " Let us array ourselves in the armour of peace. salvation runs parallel with sincere willingness choice and life being. So the apostle in the spirit of peace commands. the soldiers of peace ? "Well. and by the word. like the most faithful of our friends. that He may cause God to take up 1 14-17. then." 2 O Behold. and we have heard. is it to become at once the imitator and the servant of the best of all beings for only by holy . " He will say. together His own soldiers. These are our invulnerable weapons: armed with these. am beside thee. He freely bestows life on you." it is said. so to speak. putting on the breastplate of righteousness. and honouring God through the Divine Word. and binding our brows with the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit. What. when in the soul itself the spark of true goodness. 2 Eph. one" let us quench with the sword-points dipped in water. is able to burst forth into flame and. by which God has fellowship with men ! Better far. . — 104 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. In one word. and to serve and worship Him only by imitating Him. let us face the evil one u the fiery darts of the evil . importance. The trumpet of Christ is His gospel. and taking the shield of faith. He has gathered the bloodless host of peace. then.

and present thyself to God as an offering of first-fruits. as a fading flower. but wisely cultivate the fruits of self-command. that there may be not the work alone. and be counted worthy of the kingdom. amusements abandon to the winds and the fire. Cleanse the temple and pleasures and . EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. . 105 His abode in men. . that the friend of Christ may be rendered worthy of the kingdom. but also the grace of God and both are requisite.

and be initiated into the sacred mysteries. she beguiles. lighting with music for the common ear. " Let not a woman with flowing train client you of your senses. . far-famed Ulysses. turns him away It chokes from truth. thou shalt be freed from destruction the word of God : will be thy pilot. EXHORTATION TO ABANDON THEIR OLD ERRORS AND LISTEN TO THE INSTRUCTIONS OF CHRIST. 10G . ' Odys." Sail past the song works death. a mischievous winnowing fan. With her flattering prattle seeking your hurt. de- corpses. Pleasure. it and you have overcome ruin bound to the wood of the: cross. 184. fellow-mariners. a gulf. and calls thee illustrious . man. a pit. xii. 226. great glor}. and come to the fruition of those things which are laid up in heaven 1 Odys. and the Holy Spirit will bring thee to anchor in the haven of heaven. or the mythic sirens. mariner. ET us then avoid custom as we 'would a dangerous headland. " Hie thee hither.of the Achaaans Moor the ship. Then shalt thou see my God. " Urge the ship beyond that smoke and billow." 2 She praises thee. Exert your will only. CHAPTER XII. let us shun this billow. that thou mayest hear a diviner voice. or the threatening Charybdis. 1' 1 Let us shun. Leave her to prey on the dead : a heavenly spirit comes to thy help : passby Pleasure. xii. heaped with bones and and in it sings a fair courtesan. and the courtesan tries to win to herself the glorv of the Greeks. . leads him away from life custom is : a snare. it vomits forth nre : it is a wicked island.

ii. and there revel on it not the Moenades. 9. The righteous are the chorus . leaving Thebes. 1 2 1 Cor. shalt see the heavens. intoxicated with mere ignorance." " And in sooth methinks I see two suns. old man. the sound of music issues forth. who saw not Thebes. night will fromflee thee. Come. raising a sober choral dance. I will show thee the Word. who was struck by the thunderbolt. I would pity him in his frantic intoxi- cation. shaded with forests of purity. and the mysteries of the Word. by whom the eyes of the blind recover sight. but the daughters of God. thou. —a mount of sobriety. come to thy senses. . This is the mountain beloved of God. and I survey ! the heavens and God . those that are called make haste. they ran and pursue the jubilant band . The maidens strike the lyre. the prophets speak . for the Lord welcomes a sinner's repentance. Bacclu 910. and not his death. allow thyself to be led to the truth. not crowned with ivy throw away the mitre. and thus frantic I would invite him to the sobriety of salvation. EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. Tiresias. and thou wilt see. will shed on thee a light brighter than the sun . 107 reserved for me. throw away the fawn-skin . !. away from thee both divination and Bacchic frenzy. not leaning on the thyrsus. not the sub- ject of tragedies like Cithseron. the music is a hymn of the King of the universe. the fair lambs. I become holy whilst I am initiated. but consecrated to dramas of the truth. nor have they 1 entered into the heart of any. which " ear hath not heard. eagerly desiring to receive the Father." 2 said one frenzy-stricken in the worship of idols. I give thee the staff [of the cross] on which to lean. Come thou O aged man. who celebrate the holy rites of the Word. and casting also. practising in their initiatory rites unholy division of flesh. O madman. believe. Eurip. fire will fear. Christ. the sisters of Semele. expounding them after thine own fashion. death will be gone . O truly sacred mysteries O stainless light My way is lighted with torches. the angels praise. And a double Thebes. Haste.

and show you the naked form of righteousness by which you ascend to God. the arm of the Lord. raising the hymn with us. rather whoever among men are endowed with reason. ledge of God. Take my yoke upon you. this God wills. — lovino. let us take His yoke. by which you throw off corruption. For I want. 108 EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. Come to me. . I anoint of faith. If it is thy wish. for to }*ou of all mortals I grant the enjoyment of immortality. this is the Son. that ye may become also like you with the unguent me. I desire to restore you according to the original model. 29. prays for and exhorts men. this the Word of God. that you may be put in your due rank under the one God and the one Word of God and . and learn of me. whose creator I am. to be kept safe for ever. let us run. my fellow-men us. both barbarians and Greeks." Let us haste. to conduct us to immortality. be thou also initiated and thou shalt join the choir along with angels around the unbegotten and indestructible and the only true God. Such are the revelries of my mysteries. which things there were images of old. and my burden 1 light. . the Word God. a Hear. the power of the universe. this is Christ. Let us haste. let us run. this is symphony. who is of eternal. 30. This am I. For my yoke is easy. and presents to the Father him who believes. but not all adequate. I want to impart to you this grace. and I will give you rest. The Lord is the hierophant. Come to me. This Jesus. ye myriad tribes. and seals while illuminating him who is initiated. all ye that labour and are heavy laden. do not only have the advantage of the irrational creatures in the possession of reason . my complete self. the will of the Father of . Let us love 1 Matt. bestowing on you the perfect boon of im- mortality and I confer on you both the Word and the know- . the one great High Priest of the one God and of His Father. the good charioteer of men. this the harmony of the Father. for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest to your souls. 28.and God-like images of the Word. I call on the whole race of men. xi. who are God. let us receive. by the will of the Father.

image of God but as the likeness consists in moral resemblance. Our helper is the Word. and hold in the highest estimation the manifest enormities and the utter impiety of folly. by driving now into heaven. It is time. ing on to truth with our teeth. because all things are God's. and thoughtless- ness. . frequently made by early Christian between the image and likeness of God. having learned that we . it will not be pleasing to God Himself if we value least those things which are worth most. and never let us be visited with such a craving for silver and gold. are the most excellent of His possessions. as they are. then. and glory. for us to say that the pious Christian alone is rich and wise. and thus call and believe him to be God's image. as a species of madness. Let us aspire. and idolatry. For not improperly the sons of the philo- sophers consider that the foolish are guilty of profanity and impiety in whatever they do and describing ignorance itself . and also His likeness. God and man. after what is good let us become God-loving men. the Word will say. and in the exercise of wisdom regard all things to be. and man be the friend of God for through the mediation of the Word has he been made the friend of God — then accordingly all things become man's. let us put con- fidence in Him. 109 Christ. — EXHORTATION TO THE HEATHEN. then. we must with all our might follow God. There is therefore no room to doubt. loving the Lord God. as for the Word of truth Himself. Man never loses the writers. and obtain the . and ignorance. hastening clearly to fulfil. and regarding this as our business all our life loner. what He shadowed forth before by riding into Jerusalem. allege that the multitude are nothing but madmen. And if what belongs to friends be reckoned common property. he . 1 having become 1 Clement here draws a distinction. and of noble birth. He led the colt with its parent. let us commit our- selves to God. and the common property of both the friends. and having yoked the team of humanity to God. For it will not. directs His chariot to immor- tality. greatest of all things which are incapable of being harmed — God and life. His and besides. A spectacle most beautiful to the Father is the eternal Son crowned with victory. whether it is better to be sane or insane but hold- .

He has adopted. and all sons of the Highest. and wishes to be called the Father of us alone. . though. 110 EXHORTATION TO THE IIEATHEX. and wise. I might have gone on to pour out what I had from God. . ." Good is the whole life of those who have known Christ." 1 For us. righteous and holy and wise by Jesus Christ. For discourses concerning the life which has no end. to choose which will profit you most — judgment or grace. of words. 1 Ps. holy. Such is then our position who are the attendants of Christ. when he says. 6. Ixxxii. Enough. u I said that ye are gods. such is their life. M As are men's wishes. and so far already like God. so are their deeds . Accordingly this grace is indicated by the prophet. And as their works. impelled by love to man. methinks. not of the un- believing. so are their -words As are their words. and he recovers it only when he becomes righteous. To you still remains this conclusion. yea us. may lose it. that I might exhort to what is the greatest of blessings — salvation. For I do not think there is even room for doubt which of these is the better nor is it allowable to compare life with destruction. are not readily brought to the end of their disclosures.



1. the Word. But now. He makes what had been prescribed the subject of persuasion. promising the cure of the passions within us. It is. through salvation we renew our youth. 1 " How good is God to Israel. BOOK I. rejoicing ex- ceedingly. When. and passions habits are the de- habits. singing with the hymning prophecy. 1 Ps. are the province of preceptive discourse while persuasive discourse applies itself to heal the passions. partment appropriated by hortatory discourse the guide to piety. then. . the heavenly guide. and abjuring our old opinions. one and the self-same word which rescues man from the custom of this world in which he has been reared. THE OFFICE OF THE INSTRUCTOR. like the ship's keel. S there are these three things in the case of man. is laid beneath for the building up of faith . Let us then designate this Word appropriately by the one name Tutor (or Pedagogue. For the whole of piety is hortatory. was inviting men to salvation. engendering in the kindred faculty of reason a yearning after now and to come. CHAPTER I. . H . again. however. being at once curative true life and preceptive. following in His own steps. actions. to such as are upright in heart!" All actions. lxxiii. or Instructor). which. THE INSTRUCTOR. in which. and trains him up in the one salvation of faith in God. the appellation of hortatory was properly applied to Him this same word was called rousing (the : whole from a part).

suited for efficacious discipline. is that whose province it is to teach. not to teach. who first exhorts. and that which is presented in the form of example which latter : is of two kinds. then. train and guide the soul to all requisite knowledge when it is made able to admit the revelation of the Word. not theoretical. explains and reveals. and by His benign commands. but not in the present instance. The Instructor being practical. His aim is thus to improve the soul. corresponding to the former duality. then trains. a beautiful arrangement is observed by the all-benig- nant Word. One. . — : 114 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book i. guiding the sick to the perfect knowledge of the truth. so also those who are diseased in soul require a pedagogue to cure our maladies and then a teacher. and to train up to it a virtuous. But our Educator l being practical. Hence accordingly ensues the healing of our passions. who is ill. for those of us who are diseased in body a physician is required. There is a wide difference between health and knowledge for the latter is produced by learning. and then persuades us to the energetic practice of our duties. and to the latter to health. in consequence of the assuagements of those examples . but to the former in such a way as to lead to knowledge. will not therefore learn any branch of in- struction till he is quite well. first exhorts to the attainment of right dispositions and character. that which assumes the form of counselling to obedience. Both are of the highest utility. Eagerly desiring. to . Although thissame word is didactic. and the other that we should reject and turn away from the opposite. to perfect us by a gradation conducive to salvation. the Pseda^ogue strengthening our souls. the former by healing. enjoining on us pure commandments. the one — having for its purpose that we should choose and imitate the good. As. in matters of doctrine. For the word which. as by gentle medicines. and exhibiting to such as come after representations of those who formerly wandered in error. 1 The jjelagogus. For neither to learners nor to the sick is each injunction invariably expressed similarly. then. not to an intellectual life. and finally teaches.

let us try to sin as little as possible. not to sin at all in any way. to renew the contest. our Instructor is like His Father God. stainless. And the Instructor. who is at the Father's right hand. not to fall into many involuntary offences. form of man. which we assert to be the prerogative of God alone . the Word who is God. advising the head to be 1 Num." 1 designating involuntary sin as sudden death. very beautifully says. let that be ranked last. Not to continue long in sins. vi. wherefore also He alone is judge. which is peculiar to those who have been excellently trained. and shall be shaved. 115 . and with a soul devoid of passion God in the . who is in the Father. through Moses: "If any one die suddenly by him. For nothing is so urgent in the first place as deliverance from passions and disorders. and with the form of God is God. our might to assimilate our souls. It is best. therefore. as I think. and then the checking of our liability to fall into sins that have become habitual. As far. O you. because He alone is sinless. blameless. as we can. the minister of His Father's will. He is to us a spotless image to Him we are to try with all . thirdly. whose son He is. my children. straight- way the head of his consecration shall be polluted. which is characteristic of the ^wise man . But this also is salutary to those who are called back to repentance. sinless. OUR INSTRUCTOR'S TREATMENT OF OUR SINS. however. He is wholly free from human passions . 9. And He says that it pollutes by defiling the soul : wherefore He prescribes the cure with all speed. CHAPTER II. OW. next to keep clear of voluntary transgressions.

But the paternal Word is the only Pseonian physician of human infirmities." by which manifestly sins are meant which are con- trary to reason." according to Democritus. therefore these things the Lord. " Therefore ." He said to the paralytic heals both "take the bed on which thou liest. may speed its way to repentance. The involuntary act He calls "sudden" the sin he calls "irrational. 3. vi. 2. lxxxvi. ii. the Wisdom. who made man. 2. for disobedience. when they said. the all-sufficient Physician of humanity. For with the highest propriety the help of bodily diseases is called the heal- ing art — an art acquired by human skill. Then after a few remarks He adds." 1 3 Mark Num. the Word of the Father. that we may be : saved ." Wherefore the Word. He would not have uttered these threaten in gs." " Therefore thus saith the Lord " u Because thou hast not heard these words. 2 Ps. which is contrary to reason. the Saviour." according to which the righteous judgment follows. This is shown conspicuously by the prophets. for I will cry to Thee all the day." and. O Lord. O my God. that we may be corrected. " Thy servant. Hence consider the expression of Scripture. these things saith the Lord " the sin that had been com- mitted before is held up to reprobation by the succeeding expression " therefore. u The days before are not reckoned irra- ] tional. in order to the prevention of sin. "Therefore. the Instructor. 11. : 116 THE INSTRUCTOR. and the holy charmer of the sick soul. who trusteth in Thee." For a while 2 the " physician's art. the Lord saith. and go away home. counselling the locks of ignorance which shade the reason to be shorn clean off." For prophecy is given by reason both of obedience and disobedience for obedience. . . Our Instructor. that reason (whose seat is in the brain). " Save. " Hadst thou not sinned. therefore cures the unnatural passions of the soul by means of exhortations. the Word. " Rise up. behold. cares for the whole nature of His creature. wisdom frees the soul from passion. [Book i. Pity me." But the good Instructor. body and soul. being left bare of the dense stuff of vice. " heals the diseases of the body. has taken the charge of us. instantly shaven: that is." it is said.

and occupies itself with the motions of the rest of the stars for man's behoof. its greatest work. having undergone resurrection. 23. And whatever in human actions is right and regular. 117 and straightway the infirm man received strength. a Thy 1 sins be forgiven thee. in course of time. is the rnsult of the inspiration of its rectitude and order. however. . " Lazarus.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. issued from his coffin such as he was ere he died. the heavens." We. and then busies itself with man himself. He says to us sinners. i John xi. be- came His had assigned us the best and most children. but being liberal in His gifts. which first circles about the world. on whom all its care is and regarding him as concentrated . as soon as He conceived the thought. and tempered the body with beauty and proportion. regulated his soul by wisdom and tem- perance. Further. And to the dead He said. go forth " and the dead man . He heals the soul itself — by precepts and gifts by precepts indeed. having secure rank by His orderly arrangement. and the sun's circuits.

man. or for man to arrive at the knowledge of God. then. If. and the love- charm is within even in man. training us not to sin. by His own hand. of whom man 118 . or was formed as being desirable on account of something else. forgiving our sins and . What." But it seems more likely that Clement refers to the ideal man in the divine mind. since he is His workmanship. than that unless he came into being. God had no other reason for creatine: him. it was not possible for God to be a good Creator. and which is is that very tiling called the inspiration [or breath] of God but if man was a . THE PHILANTHROPY OF THE INSTRUCTOR HE Lord ministers all good and all help.. For God would not have accomplished that on account of which man was created otherwise than by the creation of man and what . whom lie identifies elsewhere with the Logos. both as man and as God : as God. hidden power in willing God possessed. dtrctd-/. 48) translates. He carried fully out by the forth-putting of His might externally in the act of creating. l and 1 Bishop Kaye (Some Account of the Writings and Opinions of Clement of Alexandria. then. receiving from man what He made man . The other works of creation He made by the word of command alone. either was created by God Himself as being desirable on its own account. Man is therefore as justly dear to God. then He who is good loved what is good. was fashioned by Him. but man He framed by Himself. the uvdoa-rro. p. man is an object desirable for itself. and after His likeness.. " receiving from man that which made man (that on account of which man was made). and breathed into him what was peculiar to Himself. desirable object on account of something else. CHAPTER III.

the faith which is superabundant. and that which is desirable on his account is allied to him to whom it is desirable on his account and this. how He commands what is to be done. not . loved by God. we need a guide that cannot stumble or stray and our guide is the best." But the Word is keen-sighted. the Lord Himself distinctly confessing and saying. not only fulfilling what is commanded. . 1 John 2 s xvi." and again. is desirable for himself. the Word of faith. and to live in accordance with the injunctions of His will. and thus to perform the works of the Master according to His similitude. occupied in the contemplation of mysteries. then. the Master desires and declares. " And hast loved them as Thou hast loved me?" What. too. in For. but turning away from some examples. that is not light which enlightens not. " leading the blind into pits. and creation is repre- sented by God's seeing what He had previously within Him merely as a hidden power. blind. John xvii.] THE INSTRUCTOR. xv. who Now. because ye have loved me. But what is loveable. nor motion that moves not. then. and how He is disposed in deed and word. 23. is powerful and spiritual. Man. For how shall he not be loved for whose sake the only-begotten Son is sent from the Father's bosom. 14. 27. as the Scripture says. incumbent on us to return His love. and forbids the opposite. Plainly. . the other kind of discourse. nor loving which loves not. so neither was the image. it is lovingly guides us to that life which is best. As.Book i. wandering in life as in deep darkness. has already been shown. observing precision. " For the 1 Father Himself loveth you. whom God made. 119 whom He had He saw. and is not also loved by Him? And man has been proved to be loveable consequently man is . The reader will notice that Clement speaks of man as existing in the divine mind before his creation. But let it stand over for the present. and imitat- ing others as much as we can. Matt. or guarding against what is forbidden. and scans the recesses of the heart. and what He wished that came to pass and there is nothing which God cannot do. . then. is acceptable and liked. the didactic. then. and so fulfil what Scripture says as to our being made His image and likeness.

is that good which profits not. exhibited the same virtue. for His precepts are full of persuasion.120 THE IXSTRUCTOR. . both practical and contemplative. and His commands and counsels as the short and straight paths to immortality . Let us then aim at the fulfilment of the commandments by the works of the Lord . Wherefore let us regard the Word as law. [Book i. nor guides to salvation. not of fear. 1 John i. having openly 1 become flesh. 14. for the Word Himself also.

nor children without a tutor. but girls. is a common name of sim- plicity for the male and female animal. for by nature The child (kckqc&piov) is most loving. . one temperance. and understanding that the virtue of man and woman is the same. hope." he says. too. : . knowledge. in Rhapizomenaj appears to any one a sufficient authority. obedience. too. But without a shepherd. and are given in marriage. MEN AND WOMEN ALIKE UNDER THE INSTRUCTOR'S CHARGE. For if the God of both is one. marriage an equal yoke respiration. all alike. then." There the rewards of this social and holy life. 34. Common therefore. ircuhapiov. And those whose common. the w ord r for lambs. neither can sheep nor any other animal live. love. 1 Luke xx. which is based on conjugal union. if Menander the comic poet. one modesty . nor domestics without a master. " they marry. not for male and female. have common grace and a life is common salvation common to them are love and training. Amen. give ourselves to the Lord. clinging to what is surest. For this reason I think the Attics called. ET embracing mare and more this good ns. but for man. the cable of faith in Him. to men and women. . CHAPTER IV. sight. their food is common. " For in this world. not boys only." which alone the female is distinguished * in from the male . the sexual desire which divided humanity being re- moved. are laid up. hearing. is the name of man. obedience." "Apves. " but in that world it is so no more. the Master of both is also one one church. Now theLord Himself will feed us as His flock for ever. using it as a word of common gender . 121 . who thus speaks " My little daughter .

It remains for us to consider the children whom Scripture points to . and become as little children. and describes us in manifold figures of speech. for our imitation. The prophetic spirit also distinguishes us as children. have ye any meat?" 1 — addressing those that were already in the position of dis- ciples as children. We are the children. . and forbid them not to come to me. 4 Matt. xviii. 3." it is said. the simplicity that is in children. Suffer the children. In many ways Scripture celebrates us. saying. stand- ing on the shore. jIHAT. Matt." not in that place speaking figuratively of regeneration. Matt."" AVhat the expression means. xxi. with 2 3 1 John xxi. 14. Accordingly. and praise. "'And they brought to Him. Children. 9. xix. and cried. then. giving variety to the simplicity of the faith by diverse names. Paxlagogy is the training of children (7tulBcov aycoyrj). is clear from the word itself. " branches of olives or palms. but setting before us. 4. ALL WHO WALK ACCORDING TO TRUTH ARE CHILDREN OF GOD. in the gospel. says to the disciples'' —they happened to be fishing — "and called aloud." it is said. " children. and glory. then to give the psedagogue charge of them. 5. Hosanna to the Son of David Blessed is He that cometh in ! 4 the name of the Lord. that He might put His hands on them and bless them and when His disciples hindered them. ye shall not enter 3 into the kingdom of heaven . for of such is the kingdom of heaven. saying. CHAPTER V. Jesus said. the Lord Himself shall declare." light. " the Lord. 122 . " Plucking. u Except ye be converted. the children went forth to meet the Lord.

Again. 3. Prophecy also agrees with David accordingly says. xxi. 16 . 6 G Isa.Book i. and servant-girls iraiht- aicapLa and that those last also are. rendering His hearers to the more eager by the intimation that after a little He was to depart. as the Word was to ascend to heaven. Ps. in allusion to the prophecy just mentioned. we have mourned. 16. on account of the bloom . Again. there- fore. when He says. And the Scripture appears to me. And when He says. Matt. whatever else He added agreeably thereto. and ye have not danced. He calls them children for He says. 4 the Lord. hastening as He was Father. praise the name of the Lord. Matt. Called by the flattering name of young maidens. not men and the lambs He counts worthy . cxiii. c< Children. urging them to attend to Him. xi. 33. And it is not alone the gospel that holds these sentiments. 4 Ps. 17. 33. and ye have not lamented " 3 and . and w as an innocent and 1 2 3 Matt. comely. from which you may learn that beautiful. and freeborn young maidens are still called 7raiSicrKat. a . from the superior regard He has to that ten- derness and simplicity of disposition in men which constitutes innocence. of youth. viii. to hear that men who belong to the nations are sons in the Lord's sight? You do not in that case appear to give ear to the Attic dialect. again. it. He likens the kingdom of heaven to children sitting in the market-places and saying. John xiii. . " Praise. viii. Here am I. 18. and showing them that it was requisite that they should take more unsparing advantage of the truth than ever before. little while I am with you. as if they were sheep and lambs in nature. Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings Thou hast perfected praise ? " x In this way the Lord in the Gospels spurs on His disciples. xxv." Ii says also by Esaias. 123 supplication to the Lord for this is the meaning : of the ex- pression Hosanna when rendered into Greek." And. " as sucking calves. " We have piped unto you." ( He alludes to the simple children. of preference. and the children that God hath given me^ " ' Are you amazed. "Let my lambs stand on my right." Pie again alludes figuratively to us .] THE INSTRUCTOR. reproachfully to upbraid the thoughtless : " Have ye never read. then. children.

which shall know no old aire. that tread and stamp under foot the things of the world. He commands " two young pigeons or a pair of turtles to be : 2 offered for sin thus saying. 16. not such horses u as neigh after their neighbours' wives. xxiii. 15. Isa. but simple. jubilant by means of faith. 11. 5 are female-mad " but free and new-born. meek He. u the colt to the vine. For some- times He us children. And we who are little ones beino. But if the new man in Scripture is represented by the ass. ix. He says. this ass is also a colt. that the harmlessness and innocence and placable nature of these tender young birds are acceptable to God. that are under the yoke. are reared up by our divine colt-tamer. 4 •° Matt. whom He figuratively represents as a \iac. He added to it also young. 24. For the 2 1 Matt. meek. thy King cometh. which shall be blessed on the earth. and childlike and true). but. 37. And again. lxv. xv. 5 c Jcr. 8. " 124 THE INSTRUCTOR. xlix. and a young was not enough to have said colt. tell aloud. sometimes calls infants. Lev. [Book i. v. the timorousness of the turtle-doves typifies fear in reference to sin. and " a new people. 1 gentle dove/' the reference is again to us. and the eternity of simplicity. and bounding joyously to the Father alone . O daughter of Jerusalem: behold. to show the youth of humanity in Christ. Zech. And that He calls us chickens the Scripture testifies : u As 3 a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings. and at other times sons. by Moses. and ." and u a recent people. 9 ." it is said. Further. . not broken in by wickedness . ready to run to the truth. the TVord thus marvellously and mystically describing the simplicity of childhood. " And he bound. pure and simple. and riding on a beast of truly is G burden. "Rejoice greatly." " And my servants shall be called by a new " 4 name (a new name. sometimes chickens. 29. and explaining that like is an expia- tion for like." having bound this simple and childlike people to the word. 8. such colts."' Thus are we the Lord's chickens . and bring- ing salvation . He figuratively calls us colts unyoked to vice. xii." It colt alone. Gen. O daughter of Sion . x. Luke ii. swift to speed to salvation. 1G. fresh and eternal. Again. just.

" Whosoever shall humble himself as this little child. who are simple. Disci- pline (iraihay coy (a) we declare to be right guiding from childhood to virtue. saying. to express simplicity. And we also in truth. On the question arising among the apostles. crawling with the whole body about sense- less lusts but. 1. 3 Theodoret explains this to mean that. who are lovers of the horns of the unicorns." are His words to be understood as meaning a without learning. touching the earth on tiptoe so as to appear to be in the world. 125 vine produces wine.Book i. which are still more tender than sheep. Matt. so those brought up in the practice of piety worship only one God. loosed from the . stretching upwards in soul. and infants. then." 2 He does not then use the appellation of children on account of their very limited amount of understanding from their age. nor creep on the earth like serpents as before." 1 using the figurative appellation of lambs. who are infants. Nor. xl. the Spirit of Isaiah is He an unimpeachable witness : " His will feed flock like a shepherd. that have made progress in the word. And that He by the mouth also calls us lambs. if He says. " which of them should be the greater. 11. . as some have thought. xviii." We. honouring the fairest and most perfect objects in life with an appellation derived from the word child.] THE INSTRUCTOR. " Except ye become as these children. although this seems folly to those whose wits are whetted for wicked- ness. we pursue holy wisdom. bidding them dismiss anxious 1 2 Isa. world and our sins. and discipline ira&aytoyia. blood for the spirit. as the Word produces blood. He has proclaimed this utterance. are those called children who know Him who is God alone as their Father. Accordingly. To those. no longer roll on the ground." Jesus placed a little child in the midst. He will gather the lambs with His — arm. have named training iraiheia. ye shall not enter into the kingdom of God. as the animal referred to has only one horn. 3 and guileless. then. therefore. our Lord revealed more distinctly to us what is signified by the appellation of chil- dren. Rightly. and both drink for health to men —wine for the body. the same shall be the greater in the kingdom of heaven.

to Christ. iv. by applying to it the appellation man. but. are then made perfect when we are the church. which blow to our inflation and . and infancy and childishness with us. may grow . against the blasts of heresies. that I may present you as a chaste virgin .7Tio?). And he who fulfils this commandment is in reality a child and a son to God and to the world. having received Christ the head." :i whether as children or saints. to the other as beloved. and depend on the Father alone. speaking the truth in love. EpL. and of the knowledge of God. speaking to the following effect : "Till we all attain to the unity of the faith. vi. by their cunning in the stratagems of deceit . Ps. that to vi)iriov is not pre- 1 " 3 4 Matt. but to the Lord alone. to — the one as deceived. Directly in point is the instance of the apostle. 2. because He is perfect in righteousness. by David. Wherefore also in what follows He savs u Take no anxious thought for the : morrow sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. and exhorting them to adhere to theFather alone. that perfection is with the Lord. And if we have one Master in heaven. who is always teaching. writing the Corinthians : " For I have espoused you to one man. with respect to the appellation of infant (io. For in- stance. the only one perfect in righteousness and we who are children guarding ." 4 — saving these things in order to the edification of the body of Christ.12G THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book i. Thus prophecy hath honoured perfection. And writing to the Ephesians. he has unfolded in the clearest manner the point in question. 13-15. tossed toand fro by every wind of doctrine. v. xi. in imitation of children. care of the things of this world. 34. who says. not putting our trust in fathers who teach us otherwise. Then it is right to notice. as perfect in wicked- ness. . For so is the truth. as the Scripture says. 2 Cor. He says of the devil " The Lord abhors : 2 the man of blood ." he calls him man. 6. then by common consent those on the earth will be rightly called dis- ciples. who is the head and man. by the craft of men. who are always learning. to the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ : that we be no longer children. to a perfect man." 1 Thus : He enjoins them to lay aside the cares of this life.up to Him in all things. And the Lord is called man.

For He says. and destitute of hypocrisy. and he to whom the Son shall reveal Him." 3 For the name of child. the new people which we . though the sons of the grammarians make the vr\ a privative particle. 4 Matt. is not understood by us privatively. but upon him who isFor gentle and quiet?" such is the virgin speech. straightforward and upright in mind." 4 1 2 1 Thess. are. " Upon whom shall 2 I look. but simple towards evil. " When we might have been burden- some as the apostles of Christ. owns that he and furnishes a kind of definition of children. so rejoices. see how they utter blasphemy against the Lord. in regarding those as foolish who have betaken themselves to God." And we are tender who are pliant to the power of persuasion. and free of fraud. 27 . 127 dicated of the silly : for the silly man is called vrjTrvrios . xi. lxvi. which have sprung into being according to the new covenant. tender. For if they call us who follow after childhood foolish. which have newly become wise. . God was known lay the coming of Christ " For no man knoweth God but the : Son." and a child " tender-hearted. whence also a virgin is wont to be called " a tender bride. 3 Kom. then. and simple. For the new minds. Of late. which is the basis of simplicity and truth. for the ancient race was perverse and hard- hearted but the band of infants. and free of the stain of malice and perverseness. the apostle. is verjTTios (since he that is tender-hearted is called r/7rio?) ? as being one that has newly become gentle and meek in conduct. Isa. i^V^o?. guileless. in the Epistle to the Romans. " I would have you wise toward good. we were gentle (fjirtot) 1 among you. 7. and are mild. 2. when he says. Luke x. is delicate as a child." The child (^7rto?) is therefore gentle (^no?).Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. xvi. 6. But if. This the blessed Paul most clearly pointed out when he said. to speak. as a nurse cherisheth her children. and therefore more tender. and are easily drawn to goodness. On account of the hearts of the innocent. and vr)7uo<. which is rather the true sense. 19. ii. are in- fantile in the old folly. we glory in the name. 28. delicate. they themselves understand the desig- nation children of simple ones.

a lifelong spring-time. appears to me to represent a supramundane wisdom contemplating the mystery of sport." The mother draws the children to herself and we seek our mother the church. Whatever is feeble and tender. He was seen sporting with his wife and helpmeet Rebecca by the prying 2 king. of his own. and the lion's whelp. 12. are always young. laughter also assisted by endurance. because the truth that is in us. the new people are called young. Isaac means laughter. who : have become partakers of the new Word. so also shall I comfort you. Isa. and fondled on their knees . always new for those must necessarily be new. xxvi. O wise sport. and aids and fights for them and therefore He . "shall be borne upon their shoulders. 8. as one whom his mother com- 1 forteth. 1 2 Gen. [Book i. 13. " Their children/' it is said. whose name was Abimelech. are looked upon with pleasure by their fathers and mothers. and little the stag's fawn. . The king. . The word Isaac I also connect with child. lxvi. and the child of man. anger changing into help in the case of such : for thus horses' colts. Thus also the Father of the universe cherishes affection towards those who have fled to Him and having begotten them again by His Spirit . and our habits saturated with the truth. but Wisdom ever blooming. 128 THE INSTRUCTOR. having learned the new blessings and we have the exuberance of life's morning prime in this youth which knows no old age. whose lives are ordered in endurance. is kindly looked on. They interpret Rebecca to mean en- durance. therefore. in which we are always grow- ing to maturity in intelligence. . rejoice. always mild. and loves those alone. bestows on them the name of child. as needing help on account of its feebleness. and the king as spectator The spirit of those that are chil- ! dren in Christ. and the calves of cows. and is sweet and pleasant. ever is remains consistent and the same. And that which participates in eternity is wont to be assimilated to the in- corruptible : so that to us appertains the designation of the age of childhood. to the older people. And this is the divine sport. In contradistinction. and never changes. to the adoption of children. u Such a sport. cannot be touched by old age . knows them as gentle.

and the re- joicing. 129 Jove sports. who have been redeemed from corruption by the blood of the Lord. For Jesus rose again after His burial. namely. views the thanksgiving. who are the members of Christ. than to sport and be glad in the endurance of what is good. which was wanting to the church. subsisting as she does by the endurance of us believers. was the door by which the Lord showed Him- self ? The flesh by which He was manifested. delivered from death. holding festival with God ? That which is signified by the prophet may be interpreted differently. and the re- joicing on their account. who is Christ. of our rejoicing for salvation. and. For what other employment is seemly for a wise and perfect man. and the blessing. there is an intimation of the divinity of the Lord in His not being slain. And he laughed mystically. And where. then. as w as right. having suffered no harm. Furthermore. He also. The King. which is made perfect by her royal Head. as the Lord the wood of the cross." says Heraclitus. as the Scripture says. and a sacrifice as the Lord. but he was not immolated as the Lord. sporting and rejoicing with his spouse. And the witness of those that have endured to the end. for Abraham. for this cause surely. I shall adduce another consideration of the I . as Christ the Son of God.] THE INSTRUCTOR. like Isaac released from sacrifice. He is Isaac (for the narrative may be interpreted otherwise). who is a type of the Lord. in the administration of what is good. And in defence of the point to be established. to whom the stable name of endurance is given . as Isaac. then. the church. and looking through the window. — Book i. Isaac did everything but suffer. showing only His face. because she alone remains to all genera- tions. yielding the precedence in suffering r to the Word. is the mystic sport. a child as a son he was the son of . beholds from above our laughter. and furthermore the endurance which works together with them and their embrace views : His church. laughed. prophesying that the Lord should fill us with joy. and the salvation accompanied with decorous solace which brings us aid. Isaac only bore the wood of the sacrifice. rejoicing ever. and the gladness. who was the type of the Helper of our salvation.

and who wished in all points to be made like to us u the Lamb of God " Him. is this infant child ? He according to whose image we are made little children. the child of the Father. leading as a schoolmaster us as children. The Spirit calls the Lord Himself a child. on whose own shoulder the government be and His name has been called the shall . 29. Counsellor. 6. ix. John i. to us a child has been born. To this child additional testimony is borne by John. it has also called Him God the Word who — — became man for our sakes. " Luke vii. Prince of Peace that He might fulfil His discipline and of His peace . namely. . flighty God. And how shall not the discipline of this child be perfect. 28. Everlasting Father. Angel of great Counsel. — 130 THE INSTRUCTOR. to us a son has been given. G 1 Isa. u the greatest prophet among those born of women:" 2 " Behold the Lamb of God!" 3 For since Scripture calls the infant children lambs. — that is the Son of God. [Book i. then." 1 the great God! O the per- fect child The Son in the Father. : there shall be no end. : ful. which extends to all. 3G. thus prophesying by Esaias : " Lo. and the Father in the ! Son. By the same prophet is declared His greatness " Wonder." Who. who are His little ones? He has stretched forth to us those hands of His that are conspicuously worthy of trust. greatest weight.

35. baptized % It was necessary. For none can be superior to the Word. He is not then imper- fect who knows what is perfect. For we are not termed chil- dren and infants with reference to the childish and contemptible character of our education. or the teacher of the only Teacher." Let us then ask at the wise. — begotten to-day. CHAPTER VI. to fulfil the profession that pertained to humanity. u Thou art my beloved Son. on our regeneration. the perfect one. THE NAME CHILDREN DOES NOT IMPLY INSTRUCTION IN ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES. 36. He did not then learn anything more from him ? Certainly 1 In allusion apparently to John viii. there is some addition He requires yet to make. or what were most monstrous — imperfect ? If the latter. E have ample means of encountering those who are given to carping. For we were illuminated. accord- ing to ceconomic fore-ordination ? And if He was perfect. Straightway. which is to know God. since He is God. already perfect. He becomes perfect? Manifestly. and He is free. Well. as those who are inflated on account of knowledge have calum- niously alleged. they say. I assert. we at- tained that perfection after which we aspired. for so it was deemed right to speak to the Word. to-day have I begotten Thee. though reluctant. And do not reprehend me when I profess to know God . 1 For at the moment of the Lord's baptism there sounded a voice from heaven. But for Him to make any addition to His know- ledge is absurd. Most excellent. that the perfect Word born of the perfect Father was begotten in perfection. 131 . why was He. simultaneously with His baptism by John. Is Christ. as a testimony to the Beloved. Will they not then own.

and cometh not into con- 4 demnation. 2 %&ptaput. 9. —: 132 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book i. Salvation. of salvation. He consequently bestows perfect gifts. For the future of time is antici- pated by the power of His volition. arc- already perfect . He that heareth my words. Being perfect. whom He has called. and this" is named the world so also His counsel is the salvation of men. but hath passed from death to life. and washing washing. therefore. 1 Ps. I say unto you. iv. God is never weak. that is. so on His bare wishing to bestow grace. illuminated. 24. lxxxii. and whom He has saved and at one . But He is perfected by the washing — of baptism alone. we are illuminated . and the same time He called and saved them. accordingly. nation. we are made. u John v. "I. grace." in ." It is not then allowable to think of what is taught by Him as imperfect and what . 1 Thess. perfect. verily. whose exemplar Christ became." says He. and perfection. ensues the perfecting of His grace. and is by the descent of the Spirit? Such sanctified is the case. . "taught of God. G. and believeth on Him that sent me. who first have touched the confines of life. For as His will is work. being made perfect. The same also takes place in our case. and we already live who are separated from death. the result of His will. by which the penalties accruing to transgressions are remitted. Being baptized. hath eternal life. and all sons of the 2 Highest. by which we : cleanse away our sins. Further release from evils is the bep^nninp. We then alone. u Verily. As at His command all things were made." 1 This work is and illumi- variously called grace. 4. by which that holy light of salvation is beheld." Thus believing alone. . For what is yet wanting to him who knows God? For it were truly monstrous that that which is not complete should be called a gift (or act) of God's grace. we are made immortal. " have said that ye are gods. and this has been called the church. not. " John i. u For ye are." ( says the apostle. by which we see God clearly. is the following of Christ u For that which is Him is life. and regeneration. 4 6 viz. Now we call that perfect which wants nothing. He knows. we become sons being made sons. and illumination. is perfection in life for .

is delivered forthwith from darkness. unimpeded. that every one that seeth the Son. And he who is only regenerated — as the name necessarily indicates — and is enlightened. There is nothing intermediate between light and darkness. wdiich has appropriately been termed light. . to whom be thanks for ever and ever. But he has not yet received. now are ye light in the Lord. and I will raise him up in the 1 Eph. leave the pupil free . . 8. light . so to speak. " Once ye were darkness. do not supply tothem from without the light which they do not possess. and on the instant receives the light. a man. is the attempt generated in time . (puc. As. and the anticipation of that arrival. thus also we who are baptized. neither is the attempt and the final result but both have reference to the same thing. but the obtaining of the promise previously made. one and the same person is concerned in both. say they. <p<yc. the perfect gift. which is able to see the eternal light.have the eye of the spirit free. and . then. and believeth on Him. loves that . as those who try to remove a film that is over the eyes. Amen. and it is not the reception of some other thing. the Holy Spirit flowing down to us from above. when He said " For this is the will : of my Father. but removing the obstacle from the eyes. For we do not say that both take place together at the same time both the arrival — at the end. by which alone we contemplate the Divine. should have everlasting life . having wiped off the sins which obscure the light of the Divine Spirit. and the darkness comprehendeth him not. those who have shaken off sleep forthwith become all awake within . v. secured for eternity. For eternity and time are not the same.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. and full of light. 133 is learned from Him is the eternal salvation of the eternal Saviour. from which holiness proceeds. the final result is the attainment of the promise. This is the eternal adjustment of the vision. I also assent to this but he is in the light. Faith. since like loves like and that which is holy. But the end is reserved till the resurrection of those who believe. or rather." 1 Hence I am of opinion man was called by the 2 ancients c£c6?. Now the Lord Himself has most clearly revealed the equality of sal- vation.

1 Migne's text has cc7roz. For what ignorance has bound ill. shedding its mind.wJ/i. is by knowledge loosed well. I ask. we who were untaught become disciples. wait but having in anticipation grasped by faith that which is future. it is not wholly perfect. " Be it accord- be fulfilled ing to thy faith. . as it is perfect and complete in itself. This is the one grace of illumination. and which is preserved till the time that it shall end. what remains beyond the possession of eternal life } . our transgressions being taken away by one Pa?onian medicine. 40. Nothing is wanting to faith. Further. we believe that we are made perfect. So that in illu- mination what we receive is knowledge. But faith is not lame in any respect nor after our departure . 36. the abandonment of what is bad is the adopting 4 of what is better." As far as possible in this world. Matt. Wherefore He says. which makes ignorance disappear. As. there is the promise 3 . that our characters are not the same as before our washing. the baptism of the Word. then. and the end of know- ledge is rest —the last thing conceived as the object of aspira- tion. the moment we hear. If aught is wanting to it. those bonds are with all speed slackened by human faith and divine grace. then. those who have believed have life. in order that that may which was spoken. and re- ceived without distinction the earnest of future good. take place on the advent of this 1 2 = John vi. l last clay. and perplexity by finding a clear outlet. ix. from this world does it make us who have believed.. 1U THE INSTRUCTOR [Boo:: i. and are no longer entangled in evil." And where faith is. since knowledge And springs up with beams around the illumination. and the consummation of the promise is rest. inexperience comes to an end by experience. The darkness is ignorance. is the illumination we receive. after the resurrection we receive it as present. We are washed from all our sins. •'• He that believeth on the Son hath ' everlasting life. through which we fall into sins. then. which is what he means by the last day.x?. so by illumination must darkness disappear. 5 ' If. Know- ledge. ' John iii. 29. The emendation ac-o'/. and endows us with clear vision. Does this. purblind as to the truth. .^-J/zr is pre- ferable.

repenting of our sins. therefore. 1 faith is come.7 we are no longer O under a schoolmaster. that Thou hast hid these things from the 1 2 3 Gal. so that the law became our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ. children to the Father. 1 Cor." Nor were it absurd to employ the expressions of those who call the reminiscence of better things the filtration of the spirit. 13. (or natural) men " but all who have abandoned the desires . of the flesh are equal and spiritual before the Lord. Jesus therefore. speed back to the eternal light. re- nouncing our iniquities. For as many were baptized into Christ as have put on Christ. Accordingly. we also.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. whether 3 bond or free. then. speaking to the following effect : u Before faith came. And again he writes in another place " For by one spirit are we : all baptized into one body. God of heaven and earth. clear of all partiality : " For ye are all the children of God through faith in Christ Jesus." There are not. For instruction leads to faith. shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. 23-25. repentance for what is worse. but under the Word. Gal. and faith with baptism is trained by the Holy Spirit. iii. 26-28. 135 instruction % You cannot tell the time. there is neither bond nor free. In the same way. xii. said " I thank Thee. in the same Word some " illuminated (gnostics) and some animal . that we might be justified by faith but after that . that results from the reminiscence of what is better. we were kept under the law. . and the same fellowship between Him and all. iii. purified by baptism. For that faith is the one universal salvation of humanity. There follows of necessity. they confess that the spirit in repentance retraces its steps. the master of free choice ? Then he subjoined the utterance." Do you not hear that we are no longer under that law which was accompanied with fear. the apostle most clearly showed. and we have all drunk of one cup. rejoicing in spirit. un- derstanding by filtration the separation of what is baser. in him who has come to the recollection of what is better. : O Father. and that there is the same equality before the righteous and loving God. there is neither male nor female for : 2 ye are all one in Christ Jesus. There is neither Jew nor Greek. whether Jews or Greeks.

'^ " When I became a man/' again Paul says." points out his mode of life according to the law. xiii. 1 Cor. " . but in understanding be men. malice be children. 1 wise and prudent. as if lisping with the children. into banishment but . thinking themselves wise. and are rationally. ." Wherefore those things which have been concealed from the wise and prudent of this present world have been revealed to babes. according to which." And :J the expression. and hast revealed them to babes the Master and Teacher applying the name babes to us. who are terrified by fear as children are by bugbears and u men" to us who are obedient to the Word and masters of ourselves. as it were. who have put aside the old man." 6 It is not incomplete size of stature. are we the children of God. foolish as a child. who. and stripped off the gar- ment of wickedness. that the apostle. 11. as God's little one. . nor a definite measure of time. and may keep the man undefiled. holy people by regeneration. 4 I spake as a child. Truly. With the Greatest clearness the blessed Paul has solved for us this question in his First Epistle to the Corinthians. and put on the immortality of Christ that we may become a new. •" viz. a I put away childish things. he persecuted. nor additional secret teachings in things that are manly and more perfect. 2 sight. 3 1 Luke x. I thought as a child. frightened by terror. And a babe. 1 Cor. are inflated with pride. and speaking childish things he blasphemed the Word. 21. u Even so. be not children in understanding howbeit in . 136 THE INSTRUCTOR. is cleansed from fornication and wickedness.who himself professes to be a preacher of childishness. who are readier to embrace salvation than the wise in the world. but as being in its folly for the word vqinov has . two meanings. and are saved by voluntary choice. 20. Father for so it seemed good in Thy . . [Book i. thinking childish things. alludes to when he sends it. 11. and. Luke x. who have believed. And He ex- claims in exultation and exceeding joy. not irrationally. he applies the name u children " to those who are under the law. " When I was a child. 21. simple or iunocent as a child. then. xiii. writing thus : u Brethren. 4 1 Cor. not as having yet attained to the simplicity of child- hood. xiv.

"I will bring you into that good land which flows with milk and honey. 2." 2 What. whom alone the Scripture calls man. 1-5. till the time appointed by the father. . that is." may be elegantly expounded thus that is. How is the rest that comes after the meat. And we have still to explain what is said by the apostle : " I have fed you with milk (as children in Christ)." But the childhood which is in Christ is maturity. the rest of the man who is perfect and endowed with knowledge. as compared with the law. that is. For if the infancy which is characterized by the milk is the begin- ning of faith in Christ. 8.] THE INSTRUCTOR. I no longer entertain the . 137 Of this the apostle himself shall testify. God sent forth His Son." 4 A very great difficulty arises in reference to the comparison of these scriptures. when we consider. to redeem them that were under the law. : " but a son and if a son. calling as he does the Jews heirs according to the first covenant. he differeth nothing from a servant. but is under tutors and governors. then an heir through God. See how He has ad- 1 receive the adoption mitted those to be children who are under fear and sins but . when I was a Jew (for he was a : Hebrew by extraction) I thought as a child. then it is disparaged as childish and imperfect. Having reached this point. ivhen ive were children. but when the fulness of the time was come. that ive might of sons " by Him. and us heirs ac- cording to promise : " Now I say. iii. iii. So also ive. For it does not appear to me that the expression is to be taken in a Jewish sense for I shall oppose to it also that scripture. 1 2 3 1 4 Gal. 7nade tender the law." 3 . in contradistinction from the children that are under the law " For thou art no more a servant. as we have said before. Cor. but of a man. iv. of the law.Book i. iv. " When I was a child. of Christ. Gal. were in bondage under the rudiments of the ivorld . by call- ing them sons. though he be lord of all. sentiments of a child. Ex. as long as the heir is a child. made of a woman. we must defend our childhood. 7. when I followed the law but after becoming a man. not with meat for ye were not able. . then. " I put away childish things. ." he says. neither yet are ye now able. has conferred manhood on those who are under faith. is lacking to the son after inheritance ? Wherefore the expression.

and those newly instructed and not yet purified carnal whom . but as unto carnal. and brings to that consummation which cannot cease." says the 4 Lord. I have instilled into you the knowledge which. " I have given 1 Rev. 3 1 Cor. that which is spiritual : for such is the nourishing substance of milk swelling out from breasts of love. when he calls righteous men milk-fed (ya\aKro<pdyoi). let us add. mean something like this.i says meaning.So that the whole matter may be conceived thus : As nurses nourish new-born children on milk. 0. * j in v 5^ ] . and walk as men ? " " Wherefore also I have given vou milk to drink. is the symbol of perfect appropriation. 8. But the ex- pression. ii!. as minding equally with the heathen the things of the flesh "For whereas there is : among you envy and strife. brethren. the milk of Christ. even as unto babes 2 in Christ." that by separating the words in reading we may make out some such sense as this : I have instructed you in Christ with simple. "I have given you to drink" (eVcmo-a)._ . from instruction. " the Alpha and Omega. — namely. For those who are full-grown are said to drink. "'For my blood." In saying. For he called those who had already believed on the Holy Spirit spiritual. beginning and end " the . 2 1 Cor. u as children. iii. . the Lord again promises milk to the righteous." so that the carnal may be understood as those recently instructed. So also may we take the scripture u And I. the milk which is perfect is perfect nourish- ment. instilling intoyou spiritual nutriment. 138 THE INSTRUCTOR [Bo afrain distinguishedby infant milk ? Does not this. Wherefore also the same milk and honey were promised in the rest. therefore. and still babes in Christ. nourishes up to life eternal. that the "Word may be clearly shown to be 1 both." he . i. " is true drink. as explain- ing a parable. Word being figuratively represented as milk. and is not the expres- sion to be read somewhat to the following effect u I have fed : you icith milk in Christ " and after a slight stop. Rightly. could not speak unto : you as unto spiritual. and natural nourishment. then. with justice he calls still carnal. 1. Thus. . so do I also by the Word. Something like thisHomer oracularly declares against his will. true. therefore. are ye not carnal. babes to suck.

12. the perfect gladness in the Word. a but then face to face. x. but received from instruction " what ear s hath not heard." or that ear alone which " was rapt up into 4 the third heaven?" But it even then was commanded to preserve it unspoken. For the very same Word is fluid and mild as milk. and you the sheep. but the same in substance. 17." who have not per- ceived by the Spirit." regarding the meat not as something differentfrom the milk. " not meat." u But we are God-taught. . "For we are no more in the flesh. How then. like food. 9. remains to understand. who is the milk I And what follows next. Cor. 5 2 Cor. i. we shall see the promise face to face. for ye were not able. . are we not to regard the Lord as preserving consistency in the use of figurative speech. " I have given you milk to drink." as some suppose. How then are we not to regard the apostle as attaching this sense to the milk of the babes ! And if we who preside over the churches are shepherds after the image of the good Shepherd. for ye are not yet able. Jer. ix. And entertaining this view. 139 you milk to drink. when He speaks also of the milk of the flock ? And to this meaning we may secondly accommodate the expression. loving. for ye are still carnal. xiii. a For now we see as through a glass. nor hath entered into the mind of man. if that is truly the promise after our departure hence. face to face. having the face which is like an angel's. xii. Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. and let not the mighty man glory in his might . 9. as milk 1 3 1 1 Cor. which is universally diffused. or solid and compact as meat. envy. viii." has he not indicated the knowledge of the truth. " neither yet are ye now able. . we may regard the pro- clamation of the gospel. ii. 31 : 2 Cor. is the as it glorying in knowledge. 23 : 1 Cor." may indicate the clear revelation in the future world. and glory in the name of Christ. 4 2-4. and not given you food. hear the law of Scripture " Let not : the wise man glory in his wisdom. say they that they know u what eye hath not known. — desiring. but let him that glorieth glory in the Lord." the same apostle says." l Wherefore also he has added. Eom." minding the things of the flesh. But if human wisdom. wrath. feeling 2 jealousy. For with it [they say].

For whether it be the blood supplied to the foetus. in which faith is held as by a vital principle. it is as if blood flowed forth and the vitality of faith is destroyed. When 1 John vi. transmuted by a natural process of assimilation in the pregnancy of the mother. which from instruction is compacted into a foundation. which is the soul as also the Lord of flesh and blood. them understand that. [Book i. And this blood. in order that there may be no fear for the child. that is which is changed is the blood. And when hope expires. .140 THE INSTRUCTOR. being more substantial than hearing. If. faith. of faith. 54. [whether it be the one or the other] that formed into food desirable for the babe. and as meat. saying that by milk is meant the first lessons —as it were. ." describing distinctly by 1 metaphor the drinkable properties of faith and the promise. bidden by the all-nourishing and creat- ing God. the first food — and that by meat is meant those spiritual cognitions to w hich they attain by raising T themselves to knowledge. and sent through the navel of the mother. For in reality the blood of faith is hope. like a human being consisting of many members. they are brought by their own vainglorious wisdom to the true simplicity. being a kind of liquid flesh and milk is the sweeter and finer part of . too. blood. For of all the members. by means of which the Church. proceed to the already swelling breasts. when He said " Eat : ye my flesh. through the sympathy of parental affection. and of hope. For the blood is found to be an original product in man. . in the Gospel according to John. and by the heat of the spirits transmuted. brought this out by symbols. and the flesh and blood of Jesus. then. is likened to meat. the breasts have the most sympathy with the womb. is refreshed and grows. which. which is the body. and by a natural diffusion. and some have consequently ventured to call it the substance of the soul. and assimilates to the soul itself nourishment of this kind. Elsewhere the Lord. some would oppose. Blood. and drink my blood. effloresces and grows old. is welded together — and compacted of both. or whether it be the menses themselves shut out from their proper passage. in saying let that meat is solid food. is the moister part of flesh.

being taught to furnish the substance elaborated by nature in a way easily received for salutary nourishment. For the breasts are not like fountains full of milk. which till then looked straight to- . 141 there is parturition. the poets say. Book i. the substance of the blood. is poured into the natural hollows of the breasts and the spirit discharged . flowing in ready prepared.] THE INSTRUCTOR. the blood from the veins in the vicinity of the breasts. . it is like spiritual nourishment. the vessel by which blood was conveyed to the foetus is cut off: there is an obstruction of the flow. borne on with rushing motion. In every respect. is adopted instead of the reading in the text. Or if. or whiter than milk. now bend down towards the child. bright as the day of Christ. nourishing as life. is whitened by the breath. The moisture in our mouth. from the neighbouring arteries being mixed with it. and fretted by contact with the surrounding air. it becomes white by being agitated like a wave and by an interruption such . which have been opened in pregnancy. You will certainly find nothing else more nourishing. . then. form the milk in themselves. on the other hand. not to acknowledge that the blood is converted into that very bright and white substance by the breath! The change it suffers is in quality. And the nutriment suitable and wholesome for the new-formed and new-born babe is 1 The emendation d'7ro'h7ipr. In this way also the rivers. or sweeter. is supplied to the infant and the breasts. wards the husband. they are distended. which at the assaults of the winds. Milk being thus provided in parturition. The blood of the Word has been also exhibited as milk. but. and discharge it. which is sweet through grace. still remaining pure. What an absurdity 1 is it. and the blood receives an impulse towards the breasts and on a considerable rush taking place." Yet still the essence is supplied by the blood. not in essence. like what takes place with the sea. as this is changed by frothing it. by effecting a change in the nutriment. murmur forth foam.7t. too. " spits forth briny foam. accordingly. and change the blood to milk in a manner analogous to the change of blood into pus in ulceration.

O amazing mystery! We are enjoined to cast off the old and carnal corruption. — as manna. viz. 54. nurses call the first-poured drink of milk — by the same name as that food manna.142 THE INSTRUCTOR. But the Lord Christ. Himself became spiritual nourishment to the good. with the Word for childhood. which nourishes by the Word the young brood. and He offers His flesh and pours forth His blood. But she is at once virgin and mother pure — as a virgin. Even now. because alone she was not a woman. but blessed. nor selected when the kind and loving Father had rained down the Word. receiving Him if we can. Therefore she had not milk for the milk was . enshrining the . The blood points out 1 John vi. [Book i. discharge milk. flowed down from heaven on the ancient Hebrews. . Saviour in our souls. This mother. I love to call her the Church. when alone. receiving in exchange another new regimen. the fruit of the Virgin. she nurses them with holy milk. had not milk. and one is the only virgin mother. But you are not inclined to understand it thus. the nourisher and the Father of all that are generated and regenerated. and nothing is wanting for the children's growth. did not pronounce the breasts of women them to give nourishment." 1 Such is the suitable food which the Lord ministers. Hear it also in the following way. the body of Christ. the celestial food of angels. and tutor and nurse. on becoming mothers. O mystic marvel The universal Father is one. O amazing birth ! O holy swaddling bands The Word ! is all to the child. "Eat ye my flesh.'' He says. as also the old nutriment. and one the universal ! Word and the Holy Spirit is one and the same everywhere. And calling her children to her. this child fair and comely. " and drink my blood. The flesh figuratively represents to us the Holy Spirit. elaborated by God. for the flesh was created by Plim. 53. loving as a mother. which the Lord Himself brought forth in throes of the flesh. both father and mother. . that of Christ. which the Lord Himself swathed in His precious blood. but per- chance more generally. pregnant women. to hide Him within and that. Further. we may correct the affections of our flesh. in fact.

to save humanity and by Him. flee to . and exhibit strong pulsations conse. we.Book i. having its pores more open. then. for w^ari. The Word Himself. Wherefore also Peter says " Laying therefore aside all : malice. and our nourisher. through want of consideration of nature ? For in winter. The nutriment is the milk of the Father. and evil speaking. and the blood becomes milk. Christ. are greatly distended. the beloved One. desire the milk of the word. ii. " the care-soothing breast " of the Father. by •which alone we infants are nourished. the Spirit made flesh. Rec. . affords greater facility for diaphoretic action in the case of the food. The — — food that is. the food. as new-born babes. the Lord's nutriment. believing on God. and the milk is least abundant. With milk. we r are nursed directly we are born and as soon . Clement here reads Xpwzog. and all guile. transmuted and digested and changed into blood. and these. then how shall T they avoid being transfixed on their own spit. in the absence of exhalation. quently also nurses are then fullest of milk. the food of the babes —the Lord who is Spirit and Word. 1 1 Pet. and those only are truly blessed who suck this breast. hath shed His own blood for us. the body. 143 to us the Word. that on pregnancy blood passes into milk by a change which does not affect its substance. the digestion of the food results in the production of blood. and envy. when the air is condensed. for as rich blood the Word has been in- fused into life . and the union of both is the Lord. and the grape for the vine. that ye may grow by it to salvation if ye have tasted that the. the Lord Jesus that is. just as in old people yellow hair changes to grey. passes into the veins. and prevents the escape of the heat enclosed within. as blood is for a human being. the heavenly flesh sanctified. 1-3. supplies us children with the milk of love. the Word.. as is befitting." 1 And were one to concede to them that the meat w as something different from the milk. nor is the whole nutriment retained. then. the Word of God. in Text. If. Lord is Christ. gracious. And He alone.THE INSTRUCTOR. . But again in summer. And we have shown a little above.] . and hypocrisy. then. since neither is the blood full. then blood is a preparation for milk.

or milk solidified . receiving through what is material the pledge of the sacred food. 32-34. for to those babes that seek the Word. " gave you not that bread from heaven. vi. Christ Himself is food. and has been called a river of olive Paul. And the bread which I will give is my flesh. but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven. And since the Word is the gushing fountain of life. language. and giveth life to the world. who drink the milk of the word of the heavens. iii. " For l meats are done away with. Besides. even the Jerusalem above. Thus to Christ the fulfilling of His Father's will was food . we by receiving the good are honoured news of the hope of rest. [Book i. which I will give for the life of the world. 13. the completion of His own passion He called catachrestically "a cup. " I. Further. using appropriate figurative oil. For the bread of God is He that cometh down from heaven. the nutriment of the truth." He says.144 THE INSTRUCTOR. and members of the angelic choirs. the Word declares Himself to be the bread of heaven. represents figuratively the will of God. also liquid food is called drink . only to say that one substance supplies both articles of food. 2. 4 5 Matt. John vi. and the same thing may somehow be both meat and drink. for I am not concerned here to make a nice selection of an expression. according to the different aspects in which it is considered." says the Lord. etc. also. . 33. this nourishment on milk leads to the heavens. My meat is to do the will 3 of Him that sent me. 32. " have meat to eat that ye know not of." as the apostle himself says but . for children at the breast. and to us infants. Besides. " For Moses. the Father's breasts of love supply milk. just as cheese is the solidification of milk. inas- 1 2 3 1 Cor." for we drink in the word. similarly with milk. Hence seeking is called sucking ." You see another kind of food which. 1 Cor. xl 22." * Here is to be noted the mystery of the bread. and calling Him milk. milk alone suffices . rearing up citizens of heaven. John iv. it serves both for meat and drink. In truth. adds " I have given you : 2 to drink . as we are regenerated." 4 when He alone had to drink and drain it. 51. in which it is written that milk and honey fall in showers.

" x In His own Spirit He says He will deck the body of the Word by His own Spirit. " His garment in wine. the righteous interceding with God. And that the blood is the Word. Thus in many ways the Word is figuratively described. and the blood of old that interceded. The Lord isto give enjoyment to us who have all these.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. But since He said. and milk. consequently. which remains. as bread. so also the flesh of Christ. as the wheat springs up from decay and germination . absorbs the blood . and blood. xlix. as bread baked. as the rennet curdles milk. and blood is figuratively termed wine. and leaving only to destruction the lusts of the flesh. nourishing them up to immortality. K . " And the bread which I will give is my flesh. when we say that the Lord's blood is figuratively represented as milk." and since flesh is moistened with blood. and as flesh. and bread. it has risen through fire for the joy of the church." it is said. since it intimated that the Word was to suffer. is testified by the blood of Abel. and. had it not been regarded as the Word : for the righteous man of old is the type of the new righteous one . His robe in the blood of the grape. crumbled into a mixture of wine and water. Let no one then think it strange. as certainly He will nourish those who hunger for the Word. in truth. 145 much as He speaks of it as flesh. For is not figuratively represented as wine ? it a Who washes. we are bidden know that. those among men who are heavenly. this and the blood in it. and and food. effects the essential 1 Gen. For the blood would never have uttered a voice. inter- cedes in the place of the new blood. believed on Him. as meat. sympathy moistened and increased by the milk. Further. flesh. are by a mutual flesh. seizes on the wine and leaves the watery portion. the bread of heaven. that is. this will be shown But by and by more on clearly in the chapter the resurrection. that has risen through fire. 11. And the blood that is the Word cries to God. For the force that is in the seed coagulating the substances of the blood. And the pro- cess of formation of the seed in conception ensues when it has mingled with the pure residue of the menses.

by which we are redeemed . it becomes a living creature. [Book i. that the essential principle of the human body is blood. and makes it germinate. The contents of the stomach. brought forth a child. but extremes are adverse. 11 1 1 Cor." For if we have been regenerated unto Christ. that hence is derived the word aphrodisia. in copulation is turned into foam. . a coagulation of fluid . For a suitable blending con- duces to fruitf ulness . Further also. and deposited in the seminal veins. the child after birth is nourished by the same blood. then the same coagulated substance is changed into blood but . . and to be truly a mother. and tend to sterility. that the seed of an animal is in substance the foam of the blood. "I have given you milk to drink. too. by which also she receives a potent charm of affection. For the flow of milk is the product of the blood and the source of nourish. at first are milky. we are brought into union with Christ. iii. 1 says mystically. into rela- tionship through His blood. part of the formative process. which being by the natural heat of the male agitated and shaken out. therefore. and into sympathy. dried . it retains the seed. In all respects. : 14 Among men the bringing up of children Often produces stronger impulses to love than the procreating of them. 2. He who has re- generated us nourishes us with His own milk. it is by the natural and warm spirit by which the embryo is fashioned. And as the regeneration was conformably spiritual. and in all things. Some also hold the hypothesis. through His miidance . the Word for it is proper that what has procreated should forthwith supply nourishment to that which has been procreated. For Diogenes Apollionates will have it. 14G THE INSTRUCTOR. ment is the milk by which a woman is shown to have . For when the earth itself is flooded by excessive rain. Wherefore the Holy Spirit in the apostle. so also was the nutriment of man spiritual. From all this it is therefore evident. in consequence of the nourishment which flows from the Word and into immortality. using the voice of the Lord. the seed is swept away. while in consequence of scarcity it is up but when the sap is viscous. . when formed into a compact consistency in the womb.

in the time of the year which we call spring. And such as is the union of the Word with baptism. 10. as baptism for the remission of sins. II i. For these animals. not in consequence of any antipathy between them. : Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. straightway feel benefit . . 248. 147 The same blood and milk of the Lord is therefore the symbol of the Lord's passion and teaching. mixture is beneficial. And it is mixed naturally with honey also. as is shown by the distension of the veins of the swollen vessels and from . are first filled with blood." 3 Furthermore. for it receives it alone of all liquids. the blood being burnt and dried up by the heat. in addition to the above-mentioned milk. milk is mixed with sweet wine and the . But in summer. while we proclaim " Yet of a noble sire and noble blood I boast me sprung. Wherefore each of ns babes is permitted to make our boast in the Lord. as when suffering is mixed in the cup in order to immortality. xiv. the blood the milk flows more copiously. therefore. for the purpose of cleansing. yet we may learn it from the flocks and herds. and admits of mixture with water. " Sweeter than honey flowed the stream of speech. is already is clear . and the grass and meadows the air has are juicy and moist. as assuredly the spiritual washing has for the spiritual nutriment. Those. and so they have less milk. that swallow a little cold water. For the milk is curdled by the wine. and the saying. for the milk is prevented from souring by its combination with water. to And prophecy oft extols Him "above honey and the honey- comb. and this for cleansing along with sweet nutriment. is the agreement of milk with water . milk has a most natural affinity for water. Ps. Further. pre- vents the change. 113." 2 seems to me have been spoken of the Word. who is honey. and separated. when more humidity. but in consequence of the water taking kindly to the milk while it is undergoing digestion. For the Word blended with love at once cures our passions and cleanses our sins ." 1 And that milk produced from blood by a change. xix. and whatever adulteration is in it is drained 1 2 3 //. again.

"As many of 4 us as are perfect. Wherefore also he adds. along with those who are divine. butter of kine. s 12-14. but I follow after. inflated and boastful. if that I may apprehend that for which I am apprehended of Christ. Further. Wherefore also the Scripture says respecting the Lord." 2 And it occurs to me to wonder how some dare call themselves perfect and gnostics. and enlightens them. but as aspiring after perfection. 4 Phil. 14. iii. makes them grow. they sucked honey from the rock. And same way. are thus minded. forgetting the things which are behind. commits man to eternity. or am already perfect ." manifestly describing perfection as the renunciation of sin. and regeneration into the faith of the only perfect One. " Not that I have already attained. off. the spiritual communion of faith in the with suffering man.148 THE INSTRUCTOR. iii. I count not myself to have apprehended : but this one thing I do. [Book i." 1 and what follows He gave them. . drawing off as serous matter the lusts of the flesh. and from the solid rock. because he has been emancipated from his former life. 13. and milk of oil sheep. Phil. Brethren. 15. when Paul even owned respecting himself. immortalizing him. for the lamp. and forgetting our former sins. and strives after the better life. plainly indicating by this enigma the abundant unction of the Word. for the prize of the high calling in Christ 3 Jesus. But he that prophesies the birth of the child says " Butter : and honey shall He eat. vii. called butter. and stretching forth to those that are before. xxxii." And yet he reckons himself perfect. many also use the fat of milk. not as perfect in knowledge. " He fed them with the produce of the fields . I press toward the mark. since He alone it is who nourishes the infants. 1 2 Deut. 15. with ideas of themselves above the apostle. Isa. with fat of lambs.

we have shown that all of us are by Scripture called children . 3 -ruiouyayog. and training in the knowledge of the truth. thirdly. For there is the instruction of him who is led and learns. 16. the guidance . is appro- 3 priately called the Instructor (Psedagogue). what is taught. 2. With the greatest clearness. And the word " instruction" is employed variously. and not only so. then. " be one flock. for the Son is in Him. "And they shall all. and the Father is in the Son . CHAPTER VII. 149 . who leads the children to salvation. and that the Father of all alone is perfect. u I am the good Shepherd. enjoined. and one shepherd. 1 John x. He is Sometimes He calls Himself a shep- called Jesus. WHO THE INSTRUCTOR IS. as the commandments . but that we who have followed Christ are figuratively called babes . is hereby understood the Instructor. 2 John x." l According to a metaphor drawn from shepherds." 4 Now piety is instruction. INCE. who lead the sheep. For the babes are simple. AND RESPECTING HIS INSTRUCTION." it is said. being figuratively described as sheep. 11. the Word has spoken respecting Himself by Hosea : "I am your In- structor. and that of him who leads and teaches and there is. and says. 4 6 Kxioivrng ] Hos. it is time for us in due course to say who our Instructor is. TTcaoxyw/ix. and right guidance which leads to heaven. being the learning of the service of God. then." 2 The Word. itself and fourthly. herd. V. accordingly. who leads the children — the Shepherd who tends the babes.

They say that Phcenix was the instructor of Achilles. but the divine guidance is a possession which abides for ever. and Nausithous of Philip.and Leonides of Alex- ander. and women. will to those who believe happen in the Instructor. — his ears. 150 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book i. Those have not escaped our attention who are called royal instructors among the Persians . Adrastus was a fugitive. in general. But the children only learn the use of the bow. Leonides did not curtail the pride of Alexander. until He bring him— safe to anchor in the haven of heaven. wafted on by the . but sometimes. AVhat is called by men an ancestral custom passes away in a moment. And helmsman does not always just as the yield to the winds. opposes the whole force of the hurricanes . desiring to save the passengers . As therefore the general directs the phalanx. and Adrastus of the children of Croesus . But Phoenix was women- mad. was a lazy domestic. so the In- structor never yields to the blasts that blow in this world. and the pilot steers the vessel. stoutly holds on to the child's helm. favouring breeze of the Spirit of truth. and set over their sons. practised in intercourse like the wild boars. and Ticinnus. nor Xausithous reform the drunken Pel- lsean. Now the instruction which is of God is the right direction of truth to the contemplation of God. turning the prow towards them. the tutor of the children of Themistocles. through solicitude fbr us and. and on reaching maturity have sexual intercourse with sisters. They say also that he invented the Sicinnian dance. and the exhibition of holy deeds in everlasting perseverance. . . in number four. . whatever we ask in accordance with reason from God to be done for us. I mean. whom. nor commits the child to them like a vessel to make shipwreck on a wild and licentious course of life but. and mothers. so also the Instructor guides the chil- dren to a saving course of conduct. wives and courtesans innumerable. consulting the safety of his soldiers. No more was the Thracian Zopyrus able to check the fornication of Alcibiades but Zopyrus was a bought slave. the kings of the Persians select with the greatest care from all the Persians.

Again. . " His name. I trow. " against the evil one." This was the man who led." There is the communication of the Instructor's friendship. has the power of leading in and out 1 Is it not the Instructor ? This was He who appeared to Abraham. too. And He most manifestly appears as Jacob's instructor. spreads abroad her wings." He 4 is said. and thy seed. and anointed the athlete Jacob against evil. and kept him as the apple of His eye. has the Scripture exhibited the Instructor in the account it gives of His guidance. saying. "Why is it that thou askest my name? For He reserved the new name for the new people the babe — and was as yet unnamed. 1. and there wrestled with him a man (the Instructor) 5 till the morning. the Word. 15. 6 Now that the Word was at once Jacob's trainer and the Instructor of humanity [appears from this] " He asked." . xx. 151 But our Instructor is the holyGod Jesus. The loving God Himself is our Instructor. be accepted before me." Clearly. and said to him. Deut. the Lord God not having yet become 1 2 3 Gen. 5 Gen. who : 2 brought thee out of the land of Egypt. befitting " And be blameless and I will make my covenant between . c Or. The Lord alone led 1 them. 1." — it is said. 24. and I will bring thee back into this land : for I will not leave thee till I do what I have told thee. 10-12. xxxii. and said to him. xxviii. forms him into a faithful child. and brought. 4 Gen. then. xvii. and wrestled with. when He speaks in His own person. I am with thee. and shows her fond solicitude for her young. takes them. Tell me what is thy " name. and there was no strange god with them. "I am thy God. He says accordingly to him." Who. xxxii. " Lo." And he said. He led him about in the thirst of summer heat in a dry land. me and thee. 2. " He provided sufficiently for the people in the wilderness. He confesses Himself to be the Instructor "lam the Lord thy God. as an eagle protects her nest. Ex. and instructed him. Somewhere in song the Holy Spirit says with regard to Him. and bears them on her back. " And Jacob was left alone. who is the guide of all humanity. Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. to keep thee in all the way in which thou shalt go ." 3 and in a way most an instructor. to have wrestled with Him.

" 3 Here He is the teacher of the art of instruction. the Instructor." For the same who is Instructor is judge. "I will bring their sins on them that is. xxxii. structor of the new people by Himself. It was God." 2 See how the Instructor follows the righteous man. 4 Ex. hearing of the sins of others. Ex. He reproves. For the Lord says. that they may repent." 5 And let us as babes. new people has also been given a new covenant." 4 He says. was the sin which they committed ? " For in their wrath they slew men. him will I blot out of my book but now. 152 THE INSTRUCTOR. then. 33. place which I told thee. 34. 3. " In the day on which I will visit them. 34. xlix." 1 The face of God is the Word by whom God is manifested and made known. 23. and the 1 2 G Gen. and in their impetuosity they ham- strung bulls. Then also was he named Israel. keep from similar through dread of the threatening. Yet Jacob called the name of the place. . on the day on which I will sit as judge I will . go and lead this people into the . . to trip It is He also who teaches Moses to act as instructor." He says to Moses. Cursed be their anger. because he saw God the Lord. xxxii." representing the evangelical and commanding power of the Word. For it was really the Lord that was the instructor of the ancient people by Moses but He is the in. 33. then. face to face. and how He anoints the athlete. that we may not have to undergo like sufferings. man. For u the Lord willeth the repentance of the sinner rather than his death. teaching him up his antagonist. and the loving Word will not pass over their transgression in silence. xxxii. 32. transgressions." G Yriio. [Book i. who said to him again afterwards. but guarding the Lord's prerogative.. and judges those who disobey Him . Gen. 6 xviii. "Face of God. u God face to face and my life is preserved. c Ezek. u Fear not to go down into Egypt. and the Word was an angel but to the fresh and . " my angel shall go before thee. xlvi." " For I have seen. would train usmore lovingly than He ? Formerly the older people had an old covenant. 0. and the law disciplined the people with fear. " For behold. the Word. Gen. What." he says. 30. render the recompense of their sins. " If any one sin before me.

5. therefore. giving place to the perfect Instructor the Word. without ivhom nothing ivas. The newness of the word must not. Moses prophetically." Such allusions prophecy can make to us. 7. "Thou shalt fear the Lord God. and fear is turned to love. is the eternal work of the Word and it is not said to be given. i." This is my new covenant written in the old letter." not by Moses. " The law was 5 given through Moses. but now babes. 17. 3. through the recent fulfilment of the will of God. be made ground of reproach. by an allusion to Jesus 1 a z Deut. 2. 37. Now the law ancient grace given through Moses by the is Word. but eternal grace Mark the expressions of Scripture of the law only is it : said " was given . For this same Instructor said born 1 then." "Thou hast loved right- eousness. then." your own works. Presently. " I have set thee for a prophet to the nations. Wherefore it was only tem- porary . . " A prophet." pointing out Jesus the Son of God. from your old sins. i. " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God. 153 Word has appeared. destined in the eye of God to faith before the foundation of the world ." 2 Wherefore also this is enjoined on us " Cease from : . and committing to the people the commands of obedience. But the Lord hath also said in Jeremiah " Say not that I am a youth : before I : formed thee in the belly I knew thee. ." but to us Pie has addressed the exhortation. Jer. 5 John i. Wherefore also the Scripture says. and through Moses His servant. vi." "Learn to do well "Depart from evil. and truth were by Jesus Christ. " like me shall God raise up to you of your brethren. Wherefore also 4 He adds. according to which we are born now to calling and salvation." saying that he must prophesy. Matt. but by the Word.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. John i. and that mystic angel is — Jesus. and do good . sets before them the Instructor. 6 4 Jer." but truth being the grace of the Father. xxii. and before I brought 3 thee out of the womb I sanctified thee." says he. so that the appellation of "youth" should not become a reproach to those who are called babes. and hated iniquity. predicts both the name and the office of Instructor. 6 but to be by Jesus.

he predicts as that of the Instructor. Deut. Ps. And this same rod of instruction. for the name of Jesus predicted in the law was a shadow of Christ. " a rod out of the root of 3 Jesse." and. saving. and power of the Instructor " He shall not judge according to opinion. xviii. and not given me over to 4 death. 18. " There shall come forth. . "Him shall ye hear." See the care. and whom the rod heals not. 19. the rod may heal . Deut." Thus also the apostle."' He says by another prophet. who is the author of salvation. Ps. 1. 9. u What will come unto you with a rod. Such is the — power of the Instructor sacred. says. of authority . ex. that those whom the persuasive word heals not. 4. And by the same prophet He says : 5 " Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron." For to be chastised of the Lord. 4. 1 2 3 Isa. and the threatening heals not. xxiii. then. a rod of discipline. xi. : 154 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book i. in the Epistle to the Corinthians." him He threatens. 4 5 G 1 Ps. reprove the sinners of the earth. 3. iv." said some one else. Wherefore prophecy invests Him with a rod. soothing. and wisdom. nor according to report but He shall dispense judgment to the humble. He adds. and . in the spirit of meekness?" Also. "The 1 that Prophet. Cor. is deliverance from death. xviii. 7 8 Ps. 21. the son of Nun . "The Lord shall send the rod of strength out of Sion. 15. and instructed. consulting the advantage of the people. therefore. or in ye ? Shall I love. hath instructed me. of rule. being moved. the fire may devour." it is said. 2. " Thy rod and s staff have comforted me. cxviii. ii. the threatening may heal whom ." And by David : " The Lord instructing. 2 man who will not hear Such a name.

by reason of the rod. 1. the scripture "And he that feareth the which says. this stage some rise up. If. " In the beginning the Word was in God. Nothing. 14. saying that the Lord. therefore. the weakness of the flesh. for we are dust. misapprehending. xxi. Ps. and threatening. then. Nor does He wish anything not to exist which yet exists. 25. then." that is. : 2 member us. and fear. " For there is nothing which the Lord hates. the Lord the Instructor is most good and unimpeachable. Much more than the rest. the Word hates anything. God. 7. nothing exists. the cause of whose existence is not supplied by God. 155 . and the Word was God. sym- pathizing as He does from the exceeding greatness of His love with the nature of each man. Sympathize with us for Thou knowest from personal experience of suffering . is not good. and yet wish that which He hates to exist. 3 4 Wisd." 4 If then He hates none of the things which He has made. For He has said. the prophet prays in these words " Re. In this respect. John i. For more suitably to Him. CHAPTER VIIL AGAINST THOSE WHO THINK THAT WHAT IS JUST IS NOT GOOD. xi. and yet become the cause of existence to that which He wishes not to exist. — For both are one that is. He does not wish But it to exist. is hated by God. and 1 2 Ecclus. in that for us He became man." 3 For assuredly He does not hate anything." of His love. ciii. Nor does He wish anything not to exist. 1 Lord will turn to his and most of all. it follows that He loves them. as appears. oblivious heart. nor yet by the Word.

" say they. is righteousness. The Good. is better than what does not good purposely. and not as giving pleasure for . But nothing is better than God. And He shows this practically. . And to do good purposely. [Book i. not on account of its pleasing. For many of the . will He love man. 1 56 THE INSTR UCTOB. the noblest of all objects created by Him. God therefore cares for man. And the Good. both as virtue and as desirable for its own sake. God therefore does good. But he who loves anything wishes to do it good. And He does no good to man with- out caring for him. does good. and He does not care for him without taking care of him. And God is admitted to be good. with reason. and takes care of him. as also righteous- ness is not said to be good on account of its possessing virtue — for it is itself virtue —but on account of its being in itself and by itself good. " if the Lord loves man. For that which does good purposely. Consequently God does all good. is He angry and punishes?" We must therefore treat of this point with all possible brevity . has characteristics corre- sponding to all the aspects in which goodness is examined. But nothing is better than the Good. And that which does good must be every way better than that which does not good. for this mode of treat- ment is advantageous to the right training of the children. Righteousness. being a good thing. But the good is not said to be good. Righteousness is therefore a good thing. All which. And things which are characterizedby equal properties are equal and similar to each other. then. who is the true coadjutor of God's love to man. it does not judge in order to win favour. but dispenses to each according to his merits. but of its doing good. and is good. therefore. does nothing else than do good. In another way the useful is called good. occupying the place of a necessary help. is nothing elsethan to take care of man. a How then. in virtue of its being good. on account of its being possessed of virtue . both possessing equal properties equally. And the beneficial follows the useful. Therefore God is loving consequently the Word is loving. in instructing him by the Word. therefore. and a God-loving being.

and in addition. and captivity of the adversary. and by the inculcation of the sterner precepts.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. and drtyJxg. the friend in kindness. that He may effect their release from the slavery. the regimen of the diseased soul. the Word. reproach . doing so for the admonition of the officers under him. as it were. xJ Admonition is. the surgery of the passions of the soul and the passions are. by inflicting fines and corporeal punishments with chains and the extremest disgrace on offenders. the general of an army. but the enemy does so in scorn. not of ill-will.. And this latter constitutes the art of censure. reducing the ex- crescences of pride. with consummate art glides into censure by rebuke rousing the sluggishness . 157 passions are cured by punishment. an abscess of the . brings them peacefully to the sacred concord of citizenship. and purging the impurities of the lewdness of the life . and sometimes even by punishing indi- viduals with death. of the mind by His sharp words as by a scourge. these tend to salvation Furthermore. Heproach is like the application of medicines. in virtue of His being good. . And all and eternal health. in addition to the laudatory. Again 1 For dhydeioi. aims at good. prescribing what and forbidding what it must it must take. from hatred that the Lord chides men Himself suffered for us. there is the hortatory and the consolatory form . not. as it were. . so also. It is not. As. by admonishing those who throw off the restraints of His law. error. 1 truth. Now censure is a mark of good-will. as it were. then. restoring the patient to the healthy and true state of humanity. the Commander-in-chief of the universe. For both he who is a friend and he who is not. for He whom He might have destroyed for our faults. therefore. dissolving the callosities of the passions. there are the readings oivruhicc. as also by instruction in certain principles. there is the inculpatory and reproachful. For reproof is. For the Instructor also. which must be cut open by an incision of the lancet of reproof. in addition to persuasive discourse. Thus also He who is our great General.

14. that His fear may be among you. since the spirit of those who are justly punished is improved. 2. Ex." 1 Wherefore He adds plainly. [Book i. 6. are by denunciation roused to the truth. who had learned from this source. regarding whom Esaias also says. the Lord shows very clearly of Himself. and has been found to be for men's good. being as dead. to sense a hopeless blockhead is bringing earth to sensation." And this same AYord who inflicts punishment is judge. fructify. what acknowledged to be good. Now. xxii. "The Lord has assigned Him to our sins. Further." 5 plainly as a corrector and reformer of sins. " For the soul that feareth the Lord shall live. ac- cording to Plato. and. liii. 6-8. now with tightened. John xv. Accordingly it was very plainly saidby Moses. . Ecclas. and my Father is the husbandman. 1. xx. says beautifully u For all who suffer punishment are in : reality treated well." For the vine that is not pruned grows to wood. The Word the knife clears away — — the wanton shoots compelling the impulses of the soul to . reproof addressed to sinners has their salvation for its aim. when. for their hope 4 is in Him who saveth them. and those whom censure calls not forth to salva- tion. describing figuratively His manifold and in many ways serviceable culture. the word being harmoniously adjusted to each one's conduct. for they are benefited .158 THE INSTRUCTOR. — He says." Then He adds. xxxiv. that ye 3 sin not. " Every branch in me that beareth not fruit He taketh away and ." which of all things else is likest death. every branch that beareth fruit He pruneth. " For the stripes and correction of wisdom are in all time. " rousing the sleeper from deep sleep. now with relaxed cords. " I am the true vine. 15. " Be of good courage God has drawn : near to try you." And if those who are corrected receive good at the hands of justice. that it may bring 2 forth more fruit. 4 6 Isa." And Plato. 20. fear is just is itself does good. Wherefore He alone is 2 s 1 Ecclns." u For teaching a fool is gluing a potsherd and sharpening . not to indulge in lust. in turn He endeavours to exhort the same persons. So also man. For those who are not induced by praise are spurred on by censure .

what shall we say ? Is God unrighteous. wlio lias been appointed by the Father. curable tetanic incurvature. then. And this is a good device. 41. . 159 able to forgive our iniquities. threatening. and requite those who hate me. and is not as a serpent. with hunger. which the moment it fastens on its prey devours it. and he that is without fear cannot be justified. Plato. 28. the sword shall make them childless and . and shows what ought to be __done. and be eaten by birds and there shall be in. since it is not expedient that justice should be neglected on our account. who sins. God is without blame. and always exhorts humanity. and the blame lies with him 3 who chooses. to terrify lest we sin. He cuts off the approach to sin. Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. Without. therefore." 4 He says. but for the ends of justice . xxxii. justice to mine enemies. 23-25. and declaring what they shall suffer if they continue sinners. will not hate their own salvation. and my sword shall devour flesh from the blood of the wounded. out of their chambers shall be fear. iii. God. " will make an end of them they shall be consumed . c Deut. " I will sharpen my sword. . with his own free-will chooses punishment. and my hand shall lay hold on judgment and I will render ." 2 says the Scripture. " For the fear of the Lord drives away sins. 4 Rom. I will make mine arrows drunk with blood. " But if our unrighteous- ness commend the righteousness of God. xxxii. but will 1 2 3 Deut. is good. He manifestly is unwilling to inflict evil to execute His threatenings . 27. i. And the Lord speaks many a time and oft before He proceeds to act. Each one of us. that those who are not at enmity with the truth. but by inspiring men with fear. Ecclus. 42. still delaying. 5. then. ." 3 It is clear. And while He threatens. and do not hate the Word. I will send the teeth of wild beasts upon them. and shows His love to man." He says. He alone it is who is able to distinguish between disobedience and obedience. G. x. Rep. with the rage of serpents creeping on the earth. " For my arrows." * For the Divine Being is not angry in the way that some think but often restrains. who taketh vengeance ? God forbid. 617 E. Instructor of us all . And God does not inflict punishment from wrath.

as the book of Wisdom says. I require not many more words to prove." 2 See how God. there is peace and rejoicing. as we are . there is the introduction of evil. after adducing the evangelical utterance of the Lord. 11. the fire: and yet ye have not returned unto me. if thou continue in His goodness. xxxii. and by means of the plan He pursues of threatening silently. He speaks of Him as one. 41. therefore. u my face from them. The Lord. Amos iv. " I will avert. but where it is averted. as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah and ye shall . Revenge is retribution for evil."' But that God is good. all J willingly admit. therefore. "The crown of wisdom/' then. imposed for the advantage of him who takes the revenue. in virtue of His evil attends the being in nature good. in faith in Christ. art in me. for it is the correction of a refractory subject) . saith the Lord. and that the same God is just. good- 4 ness. does not wish to look on evil things . and I in Thee. severity: but upon thee. be as a brand plucked from." says Paul. But on His looking away. [Book i. seeks repent- ance . u I have overthrown you. iSow hatred of good man. xi. 3 Deut. who teaches us " to pray for those that despitefully use us.shows His own love for man. by the prophet Amos has the Lord unfolded His method of dealing savin 0". that they alsomay be one in us that the world also may be. 20." He says. And the glory which thou hast given me I have given them that they may be one. but I will not grant that He wishes to take vengeance. evil arises spontaneously through human unbelief. "That they all may be one as Thou. Father." that is. through His love of goodness. and show what shall happen to them. . Matt. " the goodness and severity of God: on them that fell. 22. . : lieve that Thou hast sent me. . 4 5 Rom. for He is good. v. escape the punishment of enmity.160 THE IXSTRUCTOB. 1 Ecclus. Wherefore I will grant that He punishes the disobedient (for punishment is for the good and advantage of him who is punished." 1 Very clearly. "is the fear of the Lord. accordingly. i. He will not desire us to take revenge. 22. u Behold." 3 For where the face of the Lord looks.

points out God. the world hath not known Thee but I have : known Thee. and Thou in me." 2 has its place. that the God and Father of our Lord Jesus is good. 35. to 4 love Him." conceived as Father. being good. and is to come. saying. and pouring forth wrath according to the abundance of His mercy. 1: Book l] THE INSTR UCTOF. xxv. by whom also. our Lord in the Gospel itself shall testify. and is." in which three divisions of time the onename (o cov). Now. 13. " Father. u So also is His reproof. "Be merciful. And that He who alone is God is also alone and truly righteous. even God having made known to us the face of righteousness in the person of Jesus. 3. 21. being his Word. Monad itself." having a demonstrative emphasis. 12. 17." 6 but as He is the Son in the Father. " who is. O righteous Father. who is 2 3 I John xvii. from their mutual relation. we know God. Wherefore also the particle " Thou. 36. Of this also the book of Wisdom plainly says. John xvii. which Thou hast given me for Thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world. for He alone is Lord of both. xx. " None is good. I will that they also whom Thou hast given me be with me where I am . and shows mercy to those that children. 7 8 9 Luke Ecclus. and will declare it. that they may be made per- 1 fect in one. and 5 others on the left. Ecclus. as by even scales." 9 Still further also He plainly says." God and beyond the one. iii. " He will judge. 4 5 6 Matt. xix. when He says." 7 — a good balance. 6. "For mercy and wrath are with Him. is called that which alone He is — " good . xvi." 8 For the aim of mercy and of reproof is the salvation of those who are reproved. xvi." For He who placed some " on the right hand. 24-26. 33. " who was. the Word Himself will again avouch " For He is kind : to the unthankful and the evil . " a man according to his works. 14. as your Father is merciful. that they may behold my glory. L . 21-23." and further. who alone truly is. Matt." This is He " that visits the iniquities of the fathers upon the them that hate Him. 3 And I have declared to them Thy name. 16 one : I in them. and above the is one. xx. He is called righteous. and these have known that Thou hast sent me." He says." Lord of propitia- tions. Ex. but my Father. 5. the name of power being measured by equality of love. vi. Ex.

2 Matt. appears by his saying. 21. witnessing further to the truth. . then." using both names to denote the same power. 17. Rom. Luke x. 4 5 Ps. And this was the import of the utterance. Wherefore also Paul says." except His Father. and good."' And the heavens belong to Him. same God. " He who 3 created the heavens dwells in the heavens . 4. He holds an even balance justly and rightly. And again he says." 9 who was Himself everything before the coming of the Son. again He says. Kom. who created the world. v. and on the unjust. for there is 7 no difference. " Heaven is Thy throne. " So that the law is holy. For the Holy Spirit has sung. in order to show that He is just. who art in heaven. "But now the righteousness of God manifested .'' 2 Here it is to be noted that He proclaims His Father to be good. 9. Ps. He is the Creator of the waters. 22. that you may without the law is better conceive of God. 26. It is indisputable. xi." G and again. And in respect of His doing so on all. and the Lord to be the Son of the Creator. 2o. vii." 4 And the Lord says in His prayer. then. " even the righteousness of God by the faith of Jesus Christ upon all that believe . iii." and. the works of Thy hands. iii. 4. who being one is manifested by many powers. thus. [Book i. and of the clouds. But " no one is good. It is this same Father of His. is not disputed. Johu xvii." And.1C2 THE INSTRUCTOR. "Xo man knew the Father. and 8 the commandment holy. Pie does so on just and unjust alike. 10. then. 5. vi. Matt. 12. that the Lord is the Son of the Creator. in heaven. 45. 8 9 7 Rom. " I will look to the heavens. and to be the Creator. he adds after a little." In respect of His sending rain. then the Lord is the Son of Him who is just. And if the Creator above all is confessed to be just. and that Jesus is the justifier of him who is of faith. 22 . "through the forbearance of God. viii. ii. K My 1 Father makes His sun to shine on all. And that the Creator is just." In addition to these. "Our Father. Very we conclude Him to be one and the clearly." and. and just. And as being good." And that he knows that what is just is good. So 3 1 Matt xix. ciii. "My Father sends rain on the just.

For this is the medicine of the divine love to man//by which the blush of modesty breaks forth. Great is the wisdom displayed in His instruction. and summons forth to better things those that are called . Besides. when it is the time to wound the apathetic soul not mortally. 1G3 that it is veritably clear that the God of all is only one good. for whose sake also the Word of God became man. but salutarily. God condescending to emotion on man's account . just Creator. the feel- ing of anger (if it is His admonition anger) is proper to call full of love to man. to whom be glory for ever and ever. For if one must censure.// But it is not inconsistent with the saving Word. to administer rebuke dictated by solicitude. For the one is not without testimony. it is necessary also to rebuke . and manifold the modes of His dealing in order to salvation. dissuades those that are hastening to do wrong from the attempt. and the grace which proceeds from the testimony is very great. when the other has been testified to . . and shame at sin super- venes. and exhorts them to turn to a better life.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. Amen. For the Instructor testifies to the good. securing exemption from everlasting death by a little pain. and the Son in the Father.

26. For those who speak with a man merely to please him. above aught else whatever. as a bird gathers her young 2 ones under her wings. the Lord acts towards us as we do towards our children. therefore. and let not thy face brighten towards them. therefore. using all the re- sources of wisdom. favour- ing. then. upbraiding. Let us now proceed to consider the mode of His loving discipline. I TH His power. xxiii. is the censure of loving care. that the Lord has in view. Ecclus. do him good for ever after. and pro- duces understanding. healing. " and bend them from their youth. promising. admonishing. seeing they do not pain him . as when He says in the gospel. blaming. CHAPTER IX. both sons and daughters. It is not immediate pleasure. the Instructor of all humanity. while those that speak for his good. and ye would not !" And again. with the aid of the prophetic testimony. vii. devotes Himself to the saving of the children. Admonition." l — although we love our children exceeding*. Hast thou daughters ? attend to their body. though they inflict pain for the time. 25. but future enjoyment. the 1 2 Matt." is the exhortation of the book of Wisdom. threatening. the Divine Word. have little love for him. curbing the irrational impulses of humanity. chidino-. THAT IT IS THE PREROGATIVE OF THE SAME POWER TO BE BENEFICENT AND TO PUNISH JUSTLY. 37. and as it were. ALSO THE MANNER OF THE INSTRUCTION OF THE LOGOS. To speak briefly. 164 . by many reins. Such is the Instructor in His admoni- tions. " Hast thou children? correct them. " How often would I have gathered thy children. reproving.

Upbraiding is censure on account of what is base." 1 For it is a very great proof of His love. though knowing well the shamelessness of the people that had kicked and bounded away. He notwithstanding exhorts them to repentance. 13. iv. ii. Ezek.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. " Go and tell Pharaoh to send my people forth . con- ciliating to what is noble. 13. 11 . 6." 3 For He shows both things : both His divinity in His foreknowledge of what would take place. vii." 7 . shows salvation side by side. nevertheless. teaching : for doctrines thecommandments of men. Understanding is the eye of the soul wherefore also Israel means. xi. " understood not " in the Septuagint. and His love in affording an opportunity for repentance to the self-deter- mination of the soul." " Further. 7. 19. 7. xxxii. O heaven and give ear. and thus sinned wilfully. 9. : 1 2 Jer. if peradventure they will hear. i. that. He shows their offence to be clearer. to Moses He says. by declaring that they understood. by Hosea. This is shown by Jeremiah : " They were female-mad horses each one neiglied after his . xxix. he that understands God. and says by Ezekiel. " Shall I not visit them ? for they them- selves were mingled with harlots." is And again. speak to them. and sacrificed with the initiated and the people that understood embraced a harlot. 18." 4 Here His loving care. saying. 165 Scripture admonishes. He admonishes also by Esaias. and burnt incense to Baal. " Son of man. neighbour's wife. 8. when He says. — God " that is. iii. O earth for the : . v. iii. "And they committed adultery with stock and stone. He says. 6 p rov . because " the fear 6 of the Lord the beginning of sense. having shown their sin. but I know that he will not send them forth. in His care for the people. . Complaint is censure of those who are regarded as despis- ing or neglecting. He employs this form when He says by Esaias " Hear. 4 Isa. 3 Ex. 9. 9. 7 Hos. thou dwellest in the midst of scorpions . Shall I not visit for these things ? saith the Lord : shall not my soul be avenged on such a nation as this ? " 5 He everywhere interweaves fear. u This people honour me with their lips." What follows is reproving censure"In vain do they worship me. but their heart is far from me. " he that sees . 29. 5 Jer.

children revolters. 13. if he that knows God." 3 Invective is a reproachful upbraiding. ii. He adds: "And they have forsaken me. Or. by the same " Jerusalem hath sinned a sin : therefore it became commotion. . 19. Lord hath spoken." For how shall we not regard it fearful. and have hewn out to them- 7 selves broken cisterns. 2 saith the Lord." And He says also Heaven was astonished by Jeremiah : " at this." 8 And He uses 9 the bitter and biting language of reproof in His consolations 1 2 3 4 Isa. and the ass. rebuke. and made 4 compacts. for which the text has ivtfaixrixor. undergoing the process of dyeing is wont to be previously treated with mordants. which will not be able to hold water. " Ye have forsaken the 6 Lord. but not by me . or chiding censure. The ox knoweth his owner. 1. . . This form of instruction He employs as in the highest degree necessary. will know him who feeds them. complained against the people on many grounds." He uses the very bitter 5 mordant of fear in each case repressing the people. i. 16. Isa. but they have disregarded me. bv reason of the feebleness of the faith of many. i. Israel is found to be more irrational than these ? And having. [Book i. 12. " Woe to you. xxx. 5 Lowth conjectures I^igto^uv or Ix/oro/*/^*. and the ass his master's crib but Israel hath not known : 1 me. 2. 166 THE INSTRUCTOR. 3. shall not recognise the Lord but while the ox . For He says by Esaias. i. I have begotten and brought up children. instead of civccGTo/xZy. 8. 13. Reproof is the bringing forward of sin. All that glorified her dis- honoured her. when they saw her baseness. and the earth shuddered exceedingly. 9 H." And again. 4. Thus saith the Lord. and have provoked the Holy One of Israel to anger. stupid and foolish animals. 6 8 Isa. i. Lam. and at the same time turning them to salvation as also wool that is . reads faxr/xov. but not by my Spirit. Jer. Ye have taken counsel. This mode of treatment the Instructor employs in Isaiah. the fountain of living waters. For my people have committed two evils they have forsaken me. ii. in order to prepare it for taking on a fast colour. when He says. laying it before one. by Jeremiah. 7 Jer.

7. i. 7 8 Matt. Jer. 9 the reference Nothing similar to this is found in the fourth Gospel ." For if you do not receive His love. xxiii. " Serpents. but let not 3 the oil of the sinner anoint my head. 7. wicked seed ! 8 And in the 9 Gospel by John He says. but this people is uncircumcised 5 in heart:" "for the people are disobedient. Henceforth ye shall not see me. " Let the righteous reprove and correct me . 5. despise not thou the chastening of the Lord nor faint when thou art rebuked of . And He employs de- nunciation as medicine." says 6 He. the Scripture says. therefore. 4. ." O blessed forbearance ! And again." x " For a man w ho is a sinner T 2 escapes reproof. and stonest them that are sent unto thee!" The reduplica- name gives strength to the rebuke. "in whom is not faith. which makes a man think. 107 by Solomon. children. 12. by the same : u All the heathen are uncircumcised. Luke iii. Denunciation is vehement speech. you. He uses this species in the Gospel : " O Jerusalem. tacitly alluding to the love for children that characterizes His instruction : " My son. iii. 9. 26. saying. Ecclus. Jerusalem. but says by Jeremiah. when He says : " The people whom I knew not served me. 10. 4 6 c xxx. This mode of in- struction He employs by David. " Ah. " Your house is left desolate for I say unto . Ps. 37-39. Neither from this form of instruction does he abstain. ye shall know His power. that killest the prophets. Blessed 7 is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Him : for whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth. sinful nation. ix. may be to the words of the Baptist. brood of vipers. vi. by Isaiah. and you not hear? So your ears are uncircumcised. iii. 21. and scourgeth every son whom He receiveth ." Consequently. xxxii. how does he persecute God's servants ! Where- fore He says. u How long shall I 4 cry. Jer. Isa. Sons of strangers lied to me. Isa. and at the hearing of the ear obeyed me. till ye shall say. Matt. cxli.] THE INSTRUCTOR." Visitation is severe rebuke.Book i." Accusation is censure of wrong-doers. and halted from 1 2 3 Prov. people full of sins. For he that tion of the knows God. " lawless sons." Bringing one to his senses ((frpevcocns) is censure.

and covenant-breaking Judah feared not. 6. 1. 12. xviii. iii. and didst not call me to the house. Indignation is a rightful upbraiding . iii. Jer. 6 6 4 Lam. He thereupon calls her back to an honourable life by filling her with shame. when He instructed said. v. healing. : u How did the city sit solitary that was full of people ! She that ruled over territories became as a widow 4 she came under tribute . 14." With consummate art. striking. 8. Is not this thy father " who acquired thee ? 7 He says also by Isaiah. " Faulty children. loving gifts. 4. 4. the system He pursues to inspire fear is the source of salvation." 5 " and graceful harlot And a fair 6 skilled in enchanted potions. 3. while He reproves. 168 THE INSTRUCTOR. He made use of this by Jeremiah." Objurgation is objurgatory censure. Jer. ° Deut. after applying to the virgin the opprobrious name of whoredom. and not wise. their ways. do ye thus requite the Lord ? This people is foolish. and by artful aid ministers salvation as under a veil. corrects. pitying. 2. she wept in the night." l And by Jeremiah : " And I gave her a writing a of divorcement. i. xxxii. Nahuin iii. 43-45. saying. who am thy father. Jer. He pities those who receive His instruction. and lord of thy virginity. " Thy princes are disobedient. companions of thieves. "Thou hadst a whore's forehead thou wast shameless towards all. not judging the orphans. i." Bewailing one's fate is latent censure." In fine. Of this help the Divine Instructor made use by Jeremiah. xviii. ." 9 And with such guidance He guarded the six hundred thousand footmen that were brought together in the hardness of heart in which they were found scourging. weeping. 13. in compassion and discipline " For : 1 2 3 Ps. and those who eagerly seek union with Ilim. 11." And a^ain : " And the house of Israel disregarded me . a generation crooked and perverse. [Book i. 5. . And it is the prerogative of goodness to save : " The mercy of the Lord is on all flesh. 23. 7 8 Isa. In this way He by Moses. following 8 after rewards. or upbraiding on account of ways exalted above what is right. Ecclus. and 3 the house of Judah lied to the Lord. . and teaches as a shepherd His flock.

" of the fountain of life. be a terror to him who sins not ? 4 " If thou doest evil. are the stripes of the soul. but well to recover from disease. but it is good also for the sinner to repent. blind. who is by nature good. So He commands by Solomon " Strike thou thy son with the rod. and other inflammatory effects of the passions." says the apostle. as also the original term implies. of one to lead us to the light . shall no 1 Ecclus. . Prov. And He administers not only mild. that thou : mayest deliver his soul from death. do not require him as long as they are strong but . because I tell you the : 5 truth ? " Thus also people in health do not require a phy- sician. but correct him with the rod 3 for he will not die. xxiii. and conscious of his own and of the weakness of his hearers. and leading to self-control those carried away to licentious- ness. 3. if bitter. by reason of his being unreproved in those respects in which he who is destined to be truly happy ought to be purest and best." For reproof and rebuke. 13." 2 And again : " Abstain not from chastising thy son. be afraid. and the most sovereign purification. need the Saviour. . xiii. u that he who is in the highest degree impure is uninstructed and base. Wherefore the apostle himself also in every case uses stringent language to the churches. 4. in accordance with what has been said." l is For it is indeed noble not to sin . to the Galatians " Am I your enemy. Wherefore also fear is salutary. we truly stand in need of the Saviour having wandered. those who are ill need his skill. 10. s Qal. chastising sins. to guide us . Thus knowing reproof to be the greatest also Plato." For if rulers are not a terror to a good work. observes. power for reformation. how shall God. of one . so His rebuke. 169 according to the greatness of His mercy. xxiii. preventing death. 12. thirsty. of which whosoever partakes. Sick. xvi. 4 Rom. 2 3 Prov. The bitter roots of fear then arrest the eating sores of our sins. Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. 14. iv. Thus also we who in our lives are ill of shameful lusts and reprehensible excesses. just as it is best to be always in good health. he says boldness. but also stringent medicines. after the Lord's example .

He wishes to save my flesh by enveloping it in the robe of immortality. 7 Matt. " They shall call me. is 4 " And I will be." He says. as sheep. 16. 14-1 G. "And if they pass over. And He is the Tutor of the children. we may tinue intractable and sinners to the end. lviii. Yea. as the garment to their skin. we need a shep- herd . 6 Isa. xxxiv. which above the clouds. 28 . which touches heaven. 2 1 John iv. 17." Such are the promises of the good Shepherd.1 70 THE INSTR UCTOE." saith the Lord. and that which is sick I will heal. and setting before them a salutary description of His wise solicitude " And that which is lame : I will bind up. xliii. which towers aloft. so that not con. 14. we need life. but to minister. by which the chaff due to the fire is separated 2 from the wheat. 5 " and I will say. For so He has said. Feed us. 2. Here am I. 9. the crowning wisdom of the all-holy Shepherd and Instructor. He says therefore by Ezekiel. 15. " For the fan is in the Lord's hand. 14. 1 longer thirst. the children. Master. Master. and so He has willed. 3 on my holy mountain. yea. " their Shepherd. when He figuratively represents Himself as the Shepherd of the sheep. . xxxiv. but may be separated from the chaff. directing His discourse to the elders. Matt. Such our is Instructor. sheep. For we who are passing over to immortality shall not fall into corruption. Luke iii. 6. 3 4 Ezek." and will be near them. fill us with righteousness. Ezek." "Wherefore He is ' " 8 introduced in the Gospel wearied. O Instructor." He says. [B ook i. Thine own pasture . Mark x. 8 John iv. 12 . and stored up in the paternal garner. for He shall sustain us. and that which has wandered I will turn back and I will feed them . and thus fall into condemnation." You may learn. and He hath anointed my body. of the omni- potent and paternal Word. if you will. feed us on Thy holy mountain the church." because toiling for us. " to be ministered unto. xx." Thou didst hear sooner than I expected. righteously good. iii. 45. we who are children need a tutor. " I came not." He says. while universal humanity stands need in of Jesus. 13. 6 Isa. they shall not G slip." dead.

10. For the straight and natural way which is indicated by the Iota of the name of Jesus is His goodness. He therefore tells by David the most manifest cause of the threatening " They believed not in His wonderful works. they sought after Him. Jer. but He who admonishes by the loving fear of righteousness is reverenced. 25. I also will come straight to you but if ye walk crooked. Wherefore also afterwards He assailed them more roughly in order. xx. His righteousness cried. therefore." * For him alone who does so He owns to be the good shepherd. His ownand beneficent exceedingly. from their impetuous rush towards death. which is firm and sure towards those who have believed at hearing: " When I called. I also will walk crooked. whose spirit was not faithful with God they kept not the : covenant of God. and . . vi. and heeded not my reproofs. the one of which is 1 Matt. 4 6 Ps. When He slew them. and would not walk in His law. to drag them back . .g. Lev. Generous. when He might have been Lord. while they despised His love for. if possible. in that." Thus He knew that they turned for fear. xxvi. David also says of them. lxxviii.h their Redeemer. ye obeyed not. 32-35. 28. i. 2 Here Clement gives the sense of various passages. lxxviii." 4 Such are the causes of provocation for which the Judge comes to inflict punishment on those that would not choose a life of goodness. 171 and promising Ci to give His life a ransom for many. Ps. and . Further. 24. saith the Lord . " If ye come straight to me. 2 . 8. saith the Lord of hosts mean- ing by the crooked ways the chastisements of sinners. that goodness which is always mild is despised. to men. is He who gives for us the greatest of all gifts.." Thus the Lord's reproof 3 is most beneficial. : for the most part. " A perverse and provoking race a race which set not their heart aright. e. God the Most Hia. He wished to be a brother man and so good was He that He died for us. . but set at nought my coun- sels. There is a twofold species of fear. 3 Prov. and turned and inquired early after God and remembered that God was their Helper. " : Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. and loving life .


accompanied with reverence, such as citizens show towards
good rulers, and we towards God, as also right-minded chil-
dren towards their fathers. u For an unbroken horse turns

out unmanageable, and a son who is let take his own way
turns out reckless." The other species of fear is accom-
panied with hatred, which slaves feel towards hard masters,
and the Hebrews felt, who made God a master, not a father.
And as far as piety is concerned, that which is voluntary and
spontaneous differs much, nay entirely, from what is forced.
" For He," it is said, u is merciful ; He will heal their sins,
and not destroy them, and fully turn away His anger, and not
kindle all His wrath." See how the justice of the Instructor,
which deals in rebukes, is shown and the goodness of God,;

which deals in compassions. Wherefore David that is, the —
Spirit by him —
embracing them both, sings of God Himself,
u Justice and judgment are the preparation of His throne

mercy and truth shall go before Thy face." He declares :

that it belongs to the same power both to judge and to do
good. For there is power over both together, and judgment
separates that which is just from its opposite. And He who
is truly God is just and good who is Himself all, and all is

He for He is God,
; the only God.
For as the mirror is not evil to an ugly man because it
shows him what like he is and as the physician is not evil

to the sick man because he tells him of his fever, for the —
physician is not the cause of the fever, but only points out the
fever ;
— He, that reproves, ill-disposed towards
so neither is

him who is For He does not put the trans-
diseased in soul.
gressions on him, but only shows the sins which are there ;

in order to turn him away from similar practices. So God
is good on His own account, and just also on ours, and He

is just because He is good. And His justice is shown to us
by His own "Word from there from above, whence the Father
was. For before He became Creator He was God He was ;

good. And therefore He wished to be Creator and Father.
And the nature of that love was the source of righteousness
— the cause, too, of His lighting up His sun, and sending
1 2 z
Ecclus. xxx. 8. Ps. lxxviii. 38. Ps. lxxxix. 14.

Book i.] THE INSTRUCTOR. 173

down His own Son. And He first announced the good
righteousness that from heaven, when He said, " No man

knoweth the Son, but the Father nor the Father, but the

Son." This mutual and reciprocal knowledge is the symbol
of primeval justice. Then came down to men both in
the letter and in the body, in the Word and in the law, con-
straining humanity to saving repentance for it was good.

But do you not obey God? Then blame yourself, who drag
to yourself the judge.
Luke x. 22.



F, then, we have shown that the plan of dealing strin-
gently with humanity is good and salutary, and
necessarily adopted by the Word, and conducive
to repentance and the prevention of sins ; we shall
have now to look in order at the mildness of the TTord. For
He has been demonstrated to be just. Pie sets before us His
own inclinations which invite to salvation ; by which, in
accordance with the Father's will, He wishes to make known
to us the good and the useful. Consider these. The good
(to Kokov) belongs to the panegyrical form of speech, the
useful to the persuasive. For the hortatory and the dehor-
tatory are a form of the persuasive, and the laudatory and
inculpatory of the panegyrical.
For the persuasive style of sentence in one form becomes
hortatory, and in another dehortatory. So also the panegy-
rical in one form becomes inculpatory, and in another lauda-

tory. xVnd in these exercises the Instructor, the Just One, who
has proposed our advantage as His aim, is chiefly occupied.
But the inculpatory and dehortatory forms of speech have
been already shown us; and we must now handle the per-
suasive and the laudatory, and, as on a beam, balance the
equal scales of justice. The exhortation to what is useful,
the Instructor employs by Solomon, to the following effect
" I exhort you, O
men ;and I utter my voice to the sons of
men. Hear me; for I will speak of excellent things;"
Prow viii. 4. 6.



and so on. And He counsels what is salutary : for counsel
lias for its end, choosing or refusing a certain course ; as He
does by David, when He says, " Blessed is the man who
walketh not in the counsels of the ungodly, and standeth not
in the way of sinners, and sitteth not in the chair of pesti-
lences ; but his will is in the law of the Lord." 1 And there
are three departments of counsel That which takes examples

from past times as what the Hebrews suffered when they

worshipped the golden calf, and what they suffered when
they committed fornication, and the like. The second, whose
meaning is understood from the present times, as being
apprehended by perception as it was said to those who

asked the Lord, " If He was the Christ, or shall we wait for
another % Go and tell John, the blind receive their sight,
the deaf hear, the lepers are cleansed, the dead are raised
up; and blessed is he who shall notbe offended in me." 2
Such was that which David said when he prophesied, " As
we have heard, so have we seen." And the third depart-
ment of counsel consists of what is future, by which we are
bidden guard against what is to happen ; as also that was
said, " They that fall into sins shall be cast into outer dark-
ness,where there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth," 4
and the like. So that from these things it is clear that the
Lord, going the round of all the methods of curative treat-
ment, calls humanity to salvation.
By encouragement He assuages sins, reducing lust, and at
the same time inspiring hope for salvation. For He says
by Ezekiel, " If ye return with your whole heart, and say,
Father, I will hear you, as a holy people." 5 And again He says,
" Come all to me, who labour, and are heavy laden, and I will
give you rest;" and that which is added the Lord speaks
in His own person. And very clearly He calls to goodness
by Solomon, when He says, " Blessed is the man who hath
found wisdom, and the mortal who hath found understand-
ing." "For the good is found by him who seeks it, and is
1 2
Ps. i. 1, 2. Matt. xi. 5, 6 ; Luke vii. 19, 22, 23.
8 Ps. xlviii. 8. 4
Matt. xxii. 13, xxv. 30.
6 Ezek. 6 7
xviii. xxxiii. Matt. xi. 28. Prov. iii. 13.


wont to be seen by him who has found it." By Jeremiah,
too, He sets forth prudence, when He says, " Blessed are
we, Israel ;what is pleasing to God is known by us ;" 2
for —
and it is known by the Word, by whom we are blessed and
wise. For wisdom and knowledge are mentioned by the
same prophet, when he says, " Hear, O Israel, the com-
mandments of life, and give ear to know understanding." 3
By Moses, too, by reason of the love He has to man, He
promises a gift to those who hasten to salvation. For He
says, " And I will bring you into the good land, which the
Lord sware to your fathers." 4 And further, "And I will
bring you into the holy mountain, and make you glad," He
says by Isaiah. And still another form of instruction is
benediction. u And blessed is he," He saith by David, " who
has not sinned and he shall be as the tree planted near the

channels of the waters, which will yield its fruit in its season,
and his leaf shall not wither" 6 (by this He made an allusion
to the resurrection) "and whatsoever he shall do shall prosper

with him." Such He wishes us to be, that we may be blessed.
Again, showing the opposite scale of the balance of justice, He
says, " But not so the ungodly not so —
but as the dust which ;

the wind sweeps away from the face of the earth."
By show-
ing the punishment of sinners, and their easy dispersion, and
carrying off by the wind, the Instructor dissuades from crime
by means of punishment and by holding up the merited ;

penalty, shows the benignity of His beneficence in the most
skilful way, in order that we may possess and enjoy its bless-
ings. He invites us to knowledge also, when He says by
Jeremiah, " Hadst thou walked in the way of God, thou
;" s
wouldst have dwelt forever in peace for, exhibiting there

the reward of knowledge, He calls the wise to the love of
it. And, granting pardon to him who has erred, He says,
"Turn, turn, as a grape-gatherer to his basket." 9 Do you
see the goodness of justice, in that it counsels to repentance ?

In Prov. ii. 4. 5, iii. 15, Jer. ii. 24, -we have the sense of these verses.
2 3 Baruch Deut. xxxi. 20.
Baruch iv. 4. iii. 9. *

6 6 Ps. 1-3. » Ps. 4.
Isa. lvi. 7. i. i.

8 9
Baruch iii. 13. Jer. vi. 9.


And still further, by Jeremiah, He enlightens in the truth
those who have erred. " Thus saith the Lord, Stand in the
ways, and look, and ask for the eternal paths of the Lord,
what is and ye shall find puri-
the good path, and walk in it,
fication for your souls." And in order to promote our sal-
vation, He leads us to repentance. Wherefore He says, " If
thou repent, the Lord will purify thy heart, and the heart of
thy seed." 2 We might have adduced, as supporters on this
question, the philosophers who say that only the perfect man
is worthy of praise, and the bad man of blame. But since
some slander beatitude, as neither itself taking any trouble,
nor giving any to any one else, thus not understanding its
love to man; on their account, and on account of those who do
not associate justice w ith goodness, the following remarks are

added. For it were a legitimate inference to say, that rebuke
and censure are suitable to men, since they say that all men
are bad but God alone is wise, from whom cometh wisdom,

and alone perfect, and therefore alone worthy of praise. But
I do not employ such language. I say, then, that praise or
blame, or whatever resembles praise or blame, are medicines
most essential of all to men. Some are ill to cure, and, like
iron, are wrought into shape with fire, and hammer, and anvil 7
that is, with threatening, and reproof, and chastisement while ;

others, cleaving to faith itself, as self-taught, and as acting of
their own free-will, grow by praise :

" For virtue that is praised
Grows like a tree."

And comprehending this, as it seems to me, the Samian
Pythagoras gives the injunction :

" When you have done base things, rebuke yourself;
But when you have done good things, be glad."

Chiding is also called admonishing and the etymology of ;

admonishing (yov6err](n<;) is (vov eV^6/z-aTtcr/xo?) putting of
understanding into one ; so that rebuking is bringing one
to one's senses.
But there are myriads of injunctions to be found, whose
aim is the attainment of what is good, and the avoidance of
1 2
Jer. vi. 16. Deut. xxx. 6.


178 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book i.

what is evil.
u For there
no peace to the wicked, saith the

Lord." 1
Wherefore by Solomon He commands the children
to beware : " My son, let not sinners deceive thee, and go not
after their ways and go not, if they entice thee, saying, Come

with us, share with us in innocent blood, and let us hide
unjustly the righteous man in the earth ; let us put him out
of sight all alive as he is into Hades." This is accordingly
likewise a prediction concerning the Lord's passion. And by
Ezekiel, the life supplies commandments :
u The soul that
sinneth shall die ; but he that doeth righteousness shall be
righteous. He upon the mountains, and hath not
eateth not
set his eyes on the devices of the house of Israel, and will not
defile his neighbour's wife, and will not approach to a woman

in her separation, and will not oppress a man, and will restore
the debtor's pledge, and will not take plunder he will give :

his bread to the hungry, and clothe the naked. His money
he will not give on usury, and will not take interest and he ;

will turn away his hand from wrong, and will execute righteous
judgment between a man and his neighbour. He has walked
in my statutes, and kept my judgments to do them. This is
a righteous man. He shall surely live, saith the Lord." ;

These words contain a description of the conduct of Christians,
a notable exhortation to the blessed life, which is the reward
of a life of goodness — everlasting life.
1 2 3
Isa. lvii. 21, xlviii. 22. Prov. i. 10-12. Ezek. xviii. 4-9.


HE mode and His instruction we have
of His love
shown as we could. Wherefore He Himself, de-
claring Himself very beautifully, likened Himself
to a grain of mustard-seed * and pointed out the

spirituality of the word that is sown, and the productiveness
of its nature, and the magnificence and conspicuousness of
the power of the word and besides, intimated that the pun-

gency and the purifying virtue of punishment are profitable
on account of its sharpness. By the little grain, as it is
figuratively called, He bestows salvation on all humanity
abundantly. Honey, being very sweet, generates bile, as
goodness begets contempt, which is the cause of sinning.
But mustard lessens bile, that is, anger, and stops inflamma-
tion, that is, pride. From which Word springs the true health

of the soul, and its eternal happy temperament (ev/cpacrla).
Accordingly, of old He instructed by Moses, and then by
the prophets. Moses, too, was a prophet. For the law is the
training of refractory children. " Having feasted to the full,"
accordingly, it is said, "they rose up to play;" senseless
repletion with victuals being called ^opraafjia (fodder), not
^pwfia (food). And when, having senselessly filled them-
selves, they senselessly played on that account the law was

given them, and terror ensued for the prevention of trans-
gressions and for the promotion of right actions, securing
attention, and so winning to obedience to the true Instructor,
being one and the same Word, and reducing to conformity
1 2
Matt. xiii. 31 Luke xiii. 19.
; Ex. xxxii. 6 1 Cor. x. 7.


180 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book i.

with the urgent demands of the law. For Paul savs that it
was given to be a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ." 1 So
that from this it is clear, that one alone, true, good, just, in
the image and likeness of the Father, His Son Jesus, the
Word of God, is our Instructor to whom God hath entrusted

us, as an affectionate father commits his children to a worthy
tutor, expressly charging us, " This is my beloved Son hear :

Him." The divine Instructor is trustworthy, adorned as
He is with three of the fairest ornaments knowledge, bene- —
volence, and authority of utterance with knowledge, for He ;

is the paternal wisdom " All wisdom is from the Lord, and

with Him for evermore ;"

with authority of utterance, for
He is God and Creator " For all things were made bv Him,

and without Him was not anything made
;" 3
and with bene- —
volence, for He alone gave Himself a sacrifice for us " For :

the good Shepherd giveth His life for the sheep;" and He
has so given it. Now, benevolence is nothing but wishing
to do good to one's neighbour for his sake.
3 4
Gal. iii. 24. 2
Matt. xvii. 5. John i. 3. John x. 11.



AYING now accomplished those things, it were a
fitting sequel that our instructor Jesus should
draw for us the model of the true life, and train
humanity in Christ.
Nor is the cast and character of the life He enjoins very
formidable nor is it made altogether easy by reason of His

benignity. He enjoins His commands, and at the same time
gives them such a character that they may be accomplished.
The view I take is, that He Himself formed man of the
dust, and regenerated him by water and made him grow by

his Spirit and trained him by His word to adoption and sal-

vation, directing him by sacred precepts in order that, trans-

forming earth-born man into a holy and heavenly being by His
advent, He might fulfil to the utmost that divine utterance,
" Let us make man in our own image and likeness." * And,
in truth, Christ became the perfect realization of what God
spake and the rest of humanity is conceived as being created

merely in His image.
But let us, O children of the good Father nurslings of —
the good Instructor —
fulfil the Father's will, listen to the

Word, and take on the impress of the truly saving life of
our Saviour and meditating on the heavenly mode of life

according to which we have been deified, let us anoint our-
selves with the perennial immortal bloom of gladness that —

ointment of sweet fragrance having a clear example of
immortality in the walk and conversation of the Lord and ;

Gen. i. 26.


simple and quiet sisters. And in the case of those who have been trained according to this influence. and faint not. acquire a superior dignity. resulting from the training of Christ. For such a training as is pursued by the Word is not overstrained. . Thus. and love of excellence. [Book i. and for girding up our loins. teaching each one of us to be his own storehouse. their regimen. their sleep. their going to bed. but peace and love. War needs great preparation. reproving evil. " Take no anxious thought for 1 to-morrow. require no arms nor excessive preparation. and devotes Himself to watching for the favourable moment. to whom alone it belongs to consider. seeing He has found out for men those rational medicines which produce vigour of the senses and salvation . and luxury craves profusion . Thou shalt be what thou dost not hope. 1 Matt. and servant to himself. following the footsteps of God. The Word is their sustenance. of an eternity of beatitude. For it is not in war. their sitting at table. and canst not conjecture. from whom we learn frugality and humi- lity. their food. love of man. so is there a generous disposition.182 THE INSTRUCTOR. For He says. therefore. and whose care it is to see to. suitable to the choice that is set upon moral love- liness. and the rest of their mode of life. and all that pertains to love of truth. and another for athletes . and for free and un- impeded readiness of our journey in order to the attainment . but is of the right tension. and moreover lead a life which provides for each day by itself. But labour. He makes preparation for a self-sufficing mode of life. And as there is one mode of training for philosophers. in a word. the Word has been called also the Saviour. the way and manner in which the life of men may be made more healthy. exposing the causes of evil affections. we must not retrograde into carelessness and sloth. another for orators. being assimilated to God by a participation in moral excellence. Our superintendence in instruction and discipline is the office of the Word." meaning that the man who has devoted himself to Christ ought to be sufficient to himself. And so. Besides. for simplicity. that we are trained. but in peace. their gait in walking. 34. vi.

who omits not those threatenings that point towards destruc- tion. . therefore. According to which image also we ought. and supplying all the antidotes of salvation to those who are diseased. For what else do we say is in- — cumbent on the rational creature I mean man than the — contemplation of the Divine? I say. the deepest obligations to Him.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. pointing out what we ought to abstain from. but discloses them. But how shall we not acknowledge the highest gratitude to the divine Instructor. that it is requisite to contemplate human nature. in the true way of living ? We must confess. 183 and striking at the roots of irrational lusts. and to live as the truth directs. who gives no advice bearing on their restoration to health. to live a real life. For the greatest and most regal work of God is the salvation of humanity. and to admire the Instructor and His injunctions. as suitable and harmonious to each other. and making the word and our deeds agree. who is not silent. The sick are vexed at a physician. too. and cuts off the impulses that tend to them and who indoctrinates in those counsels which result . conforming ourselves to the Instructor.

but an irrational animal. But that which is done right. 12. xxxiii." The man. and is rightly called (a/jidpTij/jLa) sin. 184 . Ecclus. What is fitting is incumbent. the first man sinned and dis- obeyed God. " And man became like to the beasts i" 1 being rightly regarded as irrational. necessarily. Nay. to crown all. CHAPTER XIII. 20. as desire disobedient to reason . disobedience in reference to reason is the generating cause of sin. xlix. so that. in obedience to reason. incumbent and fitting. whoever may be : sitting on him. whatever is done through error of reason is transgression. that obedience to reason — the Word —which we call faith. no longer speaks . the philosophers think fit to define the most generic passions thus lust. how shall we escape the conclusion. it is meant. therefore. And 1 2 Ps. pleasure. then. Accordingly. Whence Wisdom says u The horse for covering the libidi- : . will of necessity be the efficacious cause of duty? For virtue itself is a state of the soul rendered harmonious by reason in respect to the whole life. VIRTUE RATIONAL. VERYTHIXG that is contrary to right reason is sin. for he who transgresses against reason is no longer rational." 2 is Wherefore also it is added u He neighs. fear. given up to lusts by which he is ridden (as a horse by his rider). then. as an elation of the spirit disobedient to reason. he is likened to the beasts. the followers of the Stoics call irpoa^Kov and /caOfJKoV) that is. nous and the adulturer become like to an irrational beast. If. as weakness disobedient to reason . Since. 6. philosophy itself is pronounced to be»the cultiva- tion of right reason . it is said. SIX IRRATIONAL.

wing us for flight hence so. not in sayings. The system is the commandments of the Lord. and others. in which we are now trained. as in a sketch. whence. which is conceived of as the end (reXo?). some are ordained with reference to life. which relate to the blessed life yonder. as we read them out of the Scriptures. And the end of piety is eternal rest in God. Whence also duties are essential for divine discipline. have been written for ourselves. the same as counsels having truth for their aim. rightly adjusted to life everlasting. And since. . The right operation of piety perfects duty by works.Book l] THE INSTRUCTOR. train up to the ultimate goal of aspiration. according to just reasoning. Virtue is a will in conformity to God and Christ in life. some relate only to life here. others for the blessed life. The commandments issued with respect to natural life are published to the multitude . of those things taught by the Word — an unfailing energy which we have called faith. in an analogous manner. And Christian conduct is the operation of the rational soul in accordance with a correct judgment and aspiration after the truth. For the life of Christians. and furnished for our salvation. of those things which are necessary. And these being. And the beginning of eternity is our end. Moreover. 185 obedience founded on commands. of . being divine statutes and spiritual counsels. is a system of reasonable actions — that is. duties consist in actions. the soul's consort and ally. we have to consider. being adapted for ourselves and our neighbours. as is — they are. which. as being enjoined by God. but those that are suited for living well. as the ball rebounds on him that throws it by the repercussion. and from which eternal life springs. duties. which attains its destined end through the body. they turn back on us.

" But the Instructor enjoins us to eat that we may live. but about what is — proper and peculiar to man to purge the eye of the soul. nor is pleasure our aim . We must accordingly begin with our- selves. and from attention to the body itself to the mind. u whose life is their belly. ON EATING. And it is to be simple. but both are on account of our life here. to say how each of us ought to conduct himself in respect to his body. we must now compendiously describe what the man who is called a Christian ought to be during the whole of his life. For whenever any one. Wherefore also there is discrimination to be employed in reference to food. in truth. suiting precisely simple and artless children — as 186 . and to sanctify also his flesh. preserving a due regard to the symmetry of this work. • CHAPTER I. to our aim. acquires a clear view of what happens according to nature in man. and how we ought to regulate ourselves. BOOK II. EEPING. We have therefore. or rather how to regulate the body itself. which the Word is train- ing up to immortality. For neither is food our business. truly plain. live that they may eat. For he that is clean rid of those things which constitute him still dust. he will know that he is not to be earnestly occupied about external things. and nothing else. what else has he more serviceable than himself for walking in the way which leads to the comprehension of God? Some men. as the irrational creatures. then. who has been brought away by the Word from external things. and selecting the scrip- tureswhich bear on the usefulness of training CD for life.

from which come growth. and health. and the mullets in Sciathus. And the life to which it conduces consists of two things — health and strength . and the unmea- sured space of the air produce. not strength that is wrong or dangerous and wretched. Altering these by means of condiments. the turbots of Attica. and the useless art of making pastry. Anti- phanes. the beetroot . which glides into mischievous pleasures. We must therefore reject different varieties. the eels of the Mseander. and put themselves to a world of trouble to procure dainties from beyond seas. For people dare to call by the name of food their dabbling in luxuries. and through various absurd notions abjure mode- ration of diet. and right strength. not omitting the sprats found in Lipara. they purchase birds from Phasis. These gluttons. the gluttons gape for the sauces. 187 ministering to life. For my part. said that this variety of viands was the one cause of disease there being people who dislike . being conducive both to digestion and lightness of body. and the reddish-brown dried figs. while they are not ashamed to sing the praises of their delicacies. the truth. u Whatever earth and the depths of the sea. and the mussels of Pelorus. which en- gender various mischiefs. the Delian physician. the gluttons seem absolutely to sweep the world with a drag-net to gratify their luxurious tastes. In their greed and solicitude. on account of which the ill-starred Persian marched into Greece with five hundred thousand men. such as a depraved habit of body and disorders of the stomach. and wearing their whole life away at the pestle ." they cater for their gluttony. Besides these. and the thrushes of Daph- nis. and the Median peafowl. and the Mantinican turnip and furthermore. the oysters of Abydos. surrounded with the sound of hissing frying-pans. and the kids found in Melos. to which plainness of fare is most suitable. not to luxury. the Egyptian snipes. I am sorry for this disease.] THE INSTRUCTOR. giving themselves great trouble to get lampreys in the Straits of Sicily. as is that of athletes pro- duced by compulsory feeding. the taste being vitiated by an unhappy art— that of cookery.Book ii. that grows among the Ascraeans they seek out the cockles of : Methymna.

a name applied by the ancients to public enter- tainments. " But when thou makest an enter- 7 tainment. [Book ii. having expected that the promise of God might be bought with suppers. . which is beneath heaven. 13. "When thou art called to a wedding. with pots and pouring of sauce and . and nothing else." says the Scripture." says the apostle. •'». vi." for they belong to a false and base life. and such entertainments as are called by our- selves. 7 Luke xiv. speaking w ith unbridled tongue." for whose sake chiefly a supper ousht to be made. For it has driven them to sweet- meats. after the example of the Lord. They partake of luxurious dishes. But such entertainments the Lord has not called agapai. But we who seek the heavenly bread must rule the belly.188 THE INSTRUCTOR. cling to matter like fire. we name rightly suppers. vi. 13. by drink and delicacies and smoke desecrating that name. 10. 2 which "God shall destroy. 13. and much more the things which are agreeable to it. 8. There is no limit to epicurism among men. they are deceived in their idea. and banquets. fall into the lowest place. so that the necessary part of food becomes matter of reproach to luxury. More than that. inventing a multi- tude of desserts. 6 Love. dare to apply r 5 the name agape to pitiful suppers. and sugar-plums . For "meats are for the belly. or love-feast. and mortar. A man like this seems to me to be all jaw. Prov. justly execrat- ing gluttonous desires. namely bread. " A certain man made a 1 2 1 Cor. hunting after all manner of dishes. 3." and elsewhere. recline not on the highest couch . 6 Luke xiv. by straining off the nourishing part of the grain. "When thou makest a dinner or a 6 supper . dinners. which a little after go to the dunghill. call the poor. 3 4 odev. Dishonouring the good and saving work of the Word. but when thou art called. Gatherings for the sake of mirth. redolent of savour and sauces." 3 for on them depends this truly carnal and destructive life whence 4 some. an emendation for 1 Cor. "rich men's dainties. xxiii. they emasculate plain food. And further. the consecrated agave. " Desire 1 not. He says accordingly somewhere. " and again. 12. and honey-cakes.

" this is the celestial festival in the heavens. For they have not buried the mind beneath food. then. but the supper not love (agape) is only a proof of mutual and. in truth. Love. many things are on account of the supper. for the kingdom of God is not meat and drink. 7. For. fixing his regards here on the holy assembly of love. advantage from extravagance in viands. . But the earthly is called a supper. those who use the most frugal fare are the strongest and the healthiest. 4 1 Cor."" "Blessed is he who shall eat bread 3 in the kingdom of God. and have 4 not love. but wiser." But I perceive whence the specious appellation of suppers flowed : " from the gullets and furious love for suppers " — according to the comic poet. 2 1 Cor. xiii. But love (agape) is in truth celestial food. 189 1 great supper. Kom. shall possess the kingdom of God. 3 1 Luke xiv. for sustenance." says the apostle. For. " to many. 16. the banquet of reason. sophers are wiser than rich men. 17.which faileth not. " Let not." it is said. " I bestow all my goods.] THE INSTRUCTOR. 16. 6 . God and thy neighbour. xiv. not for pleasure since the body derives no . to be cast from heaven above to the ground into the midst of sauces. " It beareth all things. and stronger than their masters. endureth all things. " but righteousness." But the hardest of all cases is for charity. in order that the meal spoken ofmay not be conceived as ephemeral. the best of all. For the supper is made for love. quite the con- trary. reciprocal kindly feeling." For they have not yet learned that God has provided for His creature (man I mean) food and drink. and called many. and peace. as philo- . nor deceived it with pleasures." On this love alone depend the law and the Word and if u thou shalt love the Lord thy . and the noblest as domestics are healthier . 8. as has been shown from Scripture. I am nothing. 15. And do you imagine that I am thinking of a supper that is to be done away with? u For if.Book ii. your good be evil spoken of . 3." 5 He who eats of this meal. hopeth all things. the heavenly church. and joy in the Holy Ghost. xiii. and husbandmen than the proprietors and not only more robust. Luke xiv. is something pure and worthy of God. then. Love never faileth.

viii. insatiability. u But they made mirth." 1 And these joys have an inspiration of love from the public nutriment. gladiators. depriving them tacitly of the name of love {agape). and its communication. by Isaiah. distributes something from its resources to those near us. O Lord. 19. understandingthem as those who are (acruxjTovs) unsaved. But let the entertain- ment depend on love. killing calves. Besides. For it is said. and sacrificing sheep. daintiness. Nor is this a point which is beyond the sphere of discipline. xvi." "For the righteous shall not live by bread. Matt. iv. But the diet which exceeds sufficiency injures a man. flatterers. " Let the children whom Thou hast loved." as Wisdom says " and love is the keeping of the . denounces as wretched. saying. excluding the a. voracity. which. law. 17. People first called the abandoned aacorovs. unmixed with diverse varieties. Let us eat 2 z 1 Wiad. 4. u And the care of discipline work is is love. presiding over diet measured in due quantity. and so appear to me to indicate their end. [Book ii. Deut. Wisd. since their feasting was not in accordance with the word. weasels. as if they were not to live [hereafter] ? Those the Holy Spirit. and suitable for keeping awake.and the other life. and exquisitely prepared niceties of condiments. and the monstrous tribes of parasites —the one class surrendering reason. is not a supper. for the gratification of the belly. those dainty tastes. gluttony. the other friendship. greed. deteriorates his spirit. and treating the body in a healthful way. and renders his body prone to disease. Appropriate designations of such people as so indulge are flies. which trouble themselves about rich dishes. drive to practices of ill-repute. leading an ephemeral kind of life. vi. For those that are absorbed in pots. For love is a good nurse for com- munication having as its rich provision sufficiency. earth-born. which accustoms to everlasting dainties. then. . but it is Thy word 2 which preserves those who believe on Thee. the voracious beast. crawling on their bellies. 3 . learn that it is not the products of fruits that nourish man . are they not plainly abject. .190 THE INSTRUCTOR." 3 But let our diet be light and digestible. beasts in human shape after the image of their father. Love (agape).

for to-morrow we And that He reckons such die." 3 says the apostle. but that which goeth out of his mouth. we have to advert to what are called things sacrificed to idols. which deprives of sensation. is T defiled for meat commendeth us not to God. to partake of the tables of demons. 191 and drink. as prodigals." 4 : " For it is not that which entereth in that defileth a man. for those that have been made worthy to share divine and spiritual food. xv. without undue 2 3 1 Cor. viii. being w eak. 37. to the blood of which. and out of detestation of the demons to which they are dedicated.but meaning that death of salvation which is the recom- pense of sin. are we to loathe them and further. Matt. 11." says the apostle. "and to lead about wives?" But by keeping pleasures under command we prevent lusts. . after the fashion of the it rich man's son in the Gospel." luxury to be sin. 7 should. which is . 13. is the forgiveness of sin.Book ii. 1 Isa. that this power of yours never " become a stumbling-block to the weak. " Have we not power to eat and to drink. x. 7 Luke xv. " And your sin shall not be forgiven you till you die. is shown by what He adds. since the food of those who are saved and those who perish is separate. 7." Forwere not seemly that we. Polluted and abominable those things seem to me. fly " Souls from Erebus of inanimate corpses. xi. 32. 2 At this point. 4 5 G 1 Cor." 1 —not conveying the idea that death." it is said. abuse the Father's gifts . We must therefore abstain from these viands not for fear (because there is no power in them) but on account of our conscience. in order to show how we are enjoined to abstain from them." 5 The natural use of food is then indifferent. xxii." Odyss. too. u For I would not that ye should have fellowship with demons. Ecclus. 8. u nor if we eat not are we the worse. viii. See. 20. then. 1 Cor. but we should use them. u whose conscience. 11. 8. on account of . xviii. " For neither if we eat are we the better. holy. " Take no pleasure in abominable delicacies." 6 But it is in- consistent with reason.] THE INSTRUCTOR." says Wisdom. the instability of those who regard many things in a way that makes them prone to fall.

and regard them as a calamity. and let him who eateth not. not judge him who eateth. xiv. burying all the good of existence here in a life that by and by will end . xiv. and giveth God thanks ." Similarly he has enjoined to purchase u what is sold in the shambles. . and bending ever over tables. x. by a harmless and moderate participation in the social meeting . and we determine to go" (for it is a good thing not to mix with the dissolute). the food that comes from Christ shows that we ought to partake of. and he that eateth not. For we do not abolish social intercourse. leading a life of gluttony. when he says. But totally irrational. regarding the sumptuousness of what is put on the table as a matter of indifference. and giveth God thanks. to abstain wholly from various kinds of food. as becomes a Christian. therefore. " He that eateth. looking downwards on the earth. not despise him who eateth not ." 3 And a little way on he explains the reason of the command. the apostle bids us " eat what 1 is set before us. not to be slaves to them. in respect to which cooks are held in higher esteem than husbandmen. to feed themselves up for death. Rom. to 4 the Lord he eateth not. which." without curious questioning. despising the dainties. futile. For such is the agape. 3. and we are to partake of few and necessary things. asking no questions for conscience sake. 25. but look with suspicion on the snares of custom. and so taste of the only sure and pure delight. eateth to the Lord. Rom. to depend on that divine food above. as having command over ourselves. 2 1 Cor. but only are not to be taken up about them. courting voracity alone. For we are enjoined to reign and rule over meats. 27. 2 We are not." So that 3 4 1 1 Cor. fattening themselves like cattle.192 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book 11. 6. then. " Let him who eateth. as after a little destined to perish. out of respect to him who has invited us. and to satiate ourselves with the exhaustless con- templation of that which truly exists. It is an admirable thing. to raise our eyes aloft to what is true. Wherefore daintiness is to be shunned. attachment to them. " And if one of the unbelievers call us to a feast. and not human is it for those that are of the earth. x. We are to partake of what is set before us.

of whom are all things. " Destroy not the work of God for the sake of 6 food. not dependent on let them. we are all the more on this account to abstain from those dainty dishes . or an idolater. 14. viii. 1 Cor. For a voice will whisper to him. " It is good. 12. that " any one if called a brother be found a fornicator." says he. But. he does not sin. and one Lord Jesus. 20. 5 R 0in> xiv# 21. X . 4 with such an one not to eat. for whom Christ died and they that wound . only one true God. " through thy knowledge thy weak brother perishes. such as we ourselves have in Christ. carried round by the servants. saying. stretching out from the couch as from a nest. ix. If one partakes of them. Only him partake temperately. saying. and so exhibit ourselves as a bright pattern of virtue. all but pitching their faces into the dishes. 6 Rom.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR." as both he and the Pythagoreans acknowledge. I shall not eat it as long as the world lasts. v. 5 then. " Have we not power and to drink?" 2 And "we know" he says the to eat — truth — " that an idol is nothing in the world but we have . after the rich fare which is in the word and much sillier to make one's eyes . according to the common saying. 11. 4 1 Cor." he says. or an adulterer. 11. so to speak. the slaves of the delicacies. And if we would persuade any of our fellow-guests to virtue. 193 the right food is thanksgiving. dense. nor gaping after fine fare. neither to eat flesh nor to drink wine. darken the soul. the conscience of the weak brethren sin against Christ. in his solicitude for us. so that one's greed is. viii. 13. And he who gives thanks does not occupy his time in pleasures. And how foolish for people to raise themselves on the couches. looking with suspicion proceeding." 3 Thus the apostle. discriminates in the case of entertainments. " that they may 1 2 3 1 Cor. " that I may not make my brother stumble. 1 Cor." neither in discourse or food are we on the pollution thence to join." l I gain the man by a little self-restraint. x iv. For this is rather cha- racteristic of a beast and the fumes arising from them being . " For if any of such meats make a brother to stumble." For it is the mark of a silly mind to be amazed and stupified at what is presented at vulgar banquets. as on the tables of the demons. 6.

as if they were stowing away their victuals for provision for a journey. to besmear their hands with the condiments. as they are tightened with their insatiable greed. the apostle. 33. and besides. that both jaws are stuffed out at once. in such a hurry to feed them- selves full. and yaarpL- /jLapyla is excess with respect to food —insanity in reference to the belly. the other by exposing their own gre$d in the presence of those who have." 3 From all slavish habits and excess we must abstain. G Literally. for fidfr/os is a madman. Necessarily. as the name implies . let him eat at home. xi. 34. my brethren. checking those that transgress in their conduct at entertainments. Gluttony. . the food pushed with unsocial eagerness into their stomach. drunken. keeping the 1 1 Cor. wait for one another. not for digestion. the one by paining those who have not. called o^ofyayia. which in all things is an evil. when ye : come together to eat. shame themselves. but ravenously seizing ! For you may see such people. The apostle. that ye come not together to 2 condemnation. . and touch what is set before us in a decorous way . Excess. and shame those who have not?" 1 And among those who have. the perspiration running all over. xi. And both act badly . Have ye not houses to eat and to drink in 1 Or despise ye the church of God. the insatiable to whom nothing is sufficient. again breaks forth in a voice of displeasure " So that. [Book n. cramming themselves immoderately and shamelessly. and panting with their excess . is nothing but excess in the use of relishes {o^rov) . catch the wandering steam by breathing it in !" And how senseless. they. and another . the veins about the face raised. and XaifiapyLd is insanity with respect to the gullet . is very highly repre- hensible in the matter of food." the conduct to be expected from slaves. and to be constantly reaching to the sauce. in continuation. And if any one is hungry. 22. therefore. who eat shame- lessly and are insatiable.194 THE INSTRUCTOR. "slave-manners. 1 Cor. not like people tasting. 21. against those who have cast off shame and unsparingly abuse meals. says u For every one taketh beforehand in : eating his own supper and one is hungry. liker swine or dogs for gluttony than men.

drawing to the urgent point of the question the most beneficial fountain. and committing no indecorum in the act of swallowing but stretching out the . introducing a beautiful example of simple food. That fish then which. . hand at intervals in an orderly manner. And just as righteousness is not attained by avarice. And " whether ye eat or drink. 3 1 Cor. quickly fall into doing what is unlawful. For it is the very extreme of intemperance to confound the times whose uses are discordant. preserving the grace of the countenance undisturbed. 195 hand and couch and chin free of stains . 31. points to digestibleand God-given and moderate food. at the command of the Lord. formed by indulgence for the table of truth is far from las- .23. Nor is it suitable to eat and to drink simultaneously. For though it was chiefly for men's sake that all things were made.' might preserve " to ' 2 God the things which are God's." For those that do all that is lawful. do 1 all to the glory of God. in order to water those who have been planted by the Word. as it is not unsuitable to the flowers of the Word and we have often done this. 2 Matt. " For if it is lawful for me to partake of all 3 things. must guard We against speaking anything while eating : for the voice be- comes disagreeable and inarticulate when it is confined by full jaws . x. . Peter caught." The stater is capable of other explanations not unknown to us. and " rendering to Caesar the things which are Caesar's. gives forth a compressed utterance." aiming after true frugality. x. civious dainties. yet all things are not expedient. 21. xxii. . but the present is not a suitable occasion for their treatment.Book ii. rise He admonishes us to take away luxury and avarice. Let the mention we make for our present purpose suffice.] THE INSTRUCTOR. nor ilCor. pressed by the food and impeded in its natural energy. as the coin from the fish in order that He might displace vainglory and . which the Lord also seems to have hinted at when He blessed me to the loaves and the cooked fishes with which He feasted the disciples. by giving the stater to the tax-gatherers. And by those who from the water to the bait of righteousness. nor temperance by excess so neither is the regimen of a Christian . yet it is not good to use all things. and the tongue.

41-11. 3 A bulbous root. and the intention. cheese. the irrational creatures and not one thing whatever is wanting to them. and. at all times. For there is one God who feeds the fowls and the fishes.196 THE INSTRUCTOR. nourishing 2 1 Matt. For the occasion. as being wiser and we were made. eat and drink. all kinds of cooked food with- out sauces . . in the view of one who is rightly instructed and this is suitable. but also for social com- munication. bewitching the appetite. olives. But those who bend around inflammatory tables. but the belly of the wicked shall want. since they are readiest and . 25. No one is poor as regards neces- saries."and having eaten before them. materially turn the balance with reference to what is useful. which wealth is prone to choose." filled with the appetites of insatiable gluttony. xiii. and the time. For is there not within a temperate 3 simplicity a wholesome variety of eatables ! Bulbs. He spoke to them what He spoke. milk. those are the most suitable which are fit for immediate use without fire. as taught by Him to practise frugality. Have you anything to eat here ! said the Lord 4 to the disciples after the resurrection . 5. though "they take no thought for their food. For of articles of food. second to these are those which are simplest. and has influence in putting a stop to a life of gluttony. etc. not that wealth which sees clearly. but that we might devote ourselves to the knowledge of God. vi. Now lavish expense is adapted not for enjoyment alone. " gave Him a piece of broiled fish . and they. Wherefore we must guard against those articles of food which persuade us to eat when we are not hungrv. and the mode. let roast rather than boiled be set down. and a man is never overlooked. [Book 11. not that we might . Prov. fruits. sa}*s Luke. "For the just man who eats is satisfied 2 in his soul. certain herbs. And in addition to these. which grew wild. being their lords. in a word. 4 Luke xxiv." 1 And we are better than they. . much prized in Greece. it is not to be overlooked that those who feed according to the Word are not debarred from dainties in the shape of honey-combs. and if flesh is wanted. as we said before. but that abundance which makes a man blind with reference to gluttony. and more closely allied to God.

that herbs are not love. For the Instructor. . In all things. and there came a voice to him. are better than a calf with fraud. and a vessel let down on the earth by the four corners. " ate locusts and wild honey. and the worst and most abandoned of demons. 2 3 dxpolpuci." Peter ab- stained from swine " but a trance fell on him. 4 6 Matt." as is written . the carnal ones 1 A play here on the words svoxiyau and oxiy. Rise." This well reminds us of what was said above. " and he saw heaven opened. 17. but that 7 our meals are to be taken with love and in these the medium state is good.J THE INSTRUCTOR. indeed. The Jews had frugality enjoined on them by the law in the most systematic manner. who carried temperance to the extreme. are ruled by a most lickerish demon. without flesh. And Peter said. adding reasons — the spiritual ones hidden .Book ii. For God. And to be in no want of necessaries is the medium. 10-15." but the vain opinion respecting uncleanness. for I have never eaten what is common or unclean. this is the case. xv. when He created man. Acts x. And happiness is found in the practice of virtue. Not so. Lord. 2. the apostle Matthew partook of" ° " And herbs. 11. It is far better to be happy * than to have a demon dwelling with us. 197 their own diseases. and slay. ° Prov. and eat. And John. xv. and not least in the preparation made for feasting. with love. 3. by Moses. or love-feasts. And the voice him the second time. call not thou common. hard-shelled fruits. Gen. " For not what entereth into 4 the mouth defileth the man. and nuts. u All things shall be to you for meat. ix. deprived them of the use of innumerable things. and middle courses good. 7 In allusion to the agapse. He is therefore exactly like the one who is called the Ventriloquist-demon. and vegetables. since the extremes are dangerous." 3 The use of them is accordingly indifferent to us. For the desires which are in accordance with nature are bounded by sufficiency. Accord- 2 ingly. in the Acts of the Apostles. whom I shall not blush to call the Belly-demon. said. What God came again to hath cleansed. and all the four-footed beasts and creeping things of the earth and the fowls of heaven in it .

[Book ii. and others because alone of aquatic animals they were devoid of scales so that . For not one man under heaven. or were offered to idols. [consisting as it did] in being filled twice a day. very like the fish called ass." This was the sufficient sustenance of the Israelites. and never sleeping by night alone. 17-19. For then the spirit. with however admirable a natural genius he may be endowed. the life which is here called happy. full of Italian and Syracusan tables. some animals. or had been strangled for . And they say that the bodies of children. fanning the spark of the Hebrew philosophy when condemning a life of luxury. and foolish- ness. man and woman. Septuagint. to each a loaf of 1 bread. And of those that he permitted them to touch. he prohibited such as had died. Whence that truth- seeking philosopher Plato. burying as he does his 2 mind in his belly. to winch indeed they have trusted in the case of . divided to the whole host of Israel. 2 oj/oj. he appointed the opposite mode of life. till he should break down the propensity to indulgence arising from habit. if brought up from his youth in such practices. because they did not part the hoof. For since it is impossible for those who use dainties to abstain from partaking of them. perhaps the hake or cod. is not checked by abundance of food obstructing the freedom of its course. are made grow right by deficiency in to nourishment. the sacred ark in his city in the midst of the tabernacle and bidding all his subjects rejoice u before the Lord. . and a cake from the frying-pan. No one who uses it will ever study to become temperate. and others because they did not ruminate their food.198 THE INSTRUCTOR. and full feeding begets in the soul uneasiness. apparent. But that of the Gentiles was over-abundant. says : u On my coming hither. and whatever other accessories attend the mode of life. Aristotle 1 1 Kings vi." For Plato was not unacquainted with David. and forgetfulness. will ever turn out a wise man. Pleasure has often produced in men harm and pain . which. when shooting up to their height. to touch these was unlawful. and baked bread. who u placed . pleased me not by any means. altogether but a few were left appropriate for their food. which pervades the body in order to its growth.

19. alone of all creatures has its heart in its stomach." To them the apostle predicted no good when he said." 1 1 Phil. iii. 190 says. " whose God is their belly. who mind earthly things. This fish Epicharmus the comic poet calls " monster-paunch. . u whose end is destruction. whose glory is in their shame.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR." Such are the men who believe in their belly.

ON DRINKING. Accordingly. Num. the Spirit. create the necessity of other treatment. xx. . therefore. " lest the . This was a sicm to them. And to drink the blood of Jesus. was supplied by the Lord to the ancient Hebrews. the mixture of wine and water. a SE a wine. The and necessary beverage. the Spirit being the energetic principle of the Word. representing the great cluster the Word. For there is the blood of His flesh." says the apostle to Timothy. flowing from the smitten rock. little who drank water. and the spiritual. conducts to immortality. for the thirsty is water. temperate. i. is to become partaker of the Lord's immortality . natural. while the other. 200 . unobserved. And the blood of the Lord is twofold. Ex. the Word desired to be mixed with water. bruised for us. as wine is blended with water. by which we are redeemed from corruption . Afterwards the sacred vine produced the prophetic cluster. that by which we are anointed. " for thy stomach's sake n l . And the one. This was the simple drink of sobriety. And the mixture of both — of the water and of the Word 1 1 Tim. so is the Spirit with man. xvii. most properly applying its aid as a strengthen- ing tonic suitable to a sickly body enfeebled with watery humours and specifying " a little. For the blood of the grape — that is. . as His blood is mingled with salvation. 25. on account of its quantity. which. as blood is of flesh. CHAPTER II. nourishes to faith . 2 It was most requisite that in their wanderings they should be temperate. remedy should. when trained from wandering to their rest .

and young men inflamed from within become prone to the indulgence of vicious propensities . the medicine of temperance. and keep in the swelling members. and shameless pulsations follow abun- dance. For hence wild impulses and fiery and burning lusts habits are kindled . and let them abstain wholly from drink in order that their superfluous moisture may be absorbed and drunk up by the eating of dry food. And in the case of grown-up people. For it is not right to pour into the burning season of life the hottest of all liquids — wine — adding. from the immoderate use of liquids supplied in excessive quantity to the body. so that signs of injury appear in their body. let those with whom it agrees sometimes partake of dinner. For it is not . let the appetite be satisfied with a little water. The breasts and organs of generation. in truth. and flee as far as possible from wine. to the Word. as it were. fire to fire. who by faith partake of it are sanctified both in body and soul. that boys and girls should keep as much as possible away from this medi- cine. 201 is called Eucharist. inciting. I therefore admire those who have adopted an austere life.] THE INSTRUCTOR. by reason of which the Word became flesh. man.Book ii. It is proper. expand and swell in a shameful way. the spirit is joined to the soul. the Father's will has mystically compounded by the Spirit and the Word. For the divine mixture. shunning it as they would the danger of fire. therefore. already exhibiting beforehand the image of fornication and the body compels the wound of . For constant spitting and wiping off perspiration. try to quench the impulses of youth by removing the Bacchic fuel of the threatened danger and by pouring the antidote to the in- . the soul to inflame. For. And we must. the man of correct behaviour to transgression: and hence the voluptuousness of youth overpasses the bounds of modesty. inflamed with wine. tasting bread only. and who are fond of water. flesh. so keep down the burning soul. as far as possible. is the sign of excess. the members of lust coming to maturity sooner than they ought. flammation. And if thirst come on. and allay the agitation of lust when it is already in commotion.renowned and glorious grace and they . and hastening to evacuations. which is inspired by it and the .

as by anchors. They also may be permitted to indulge in pleasantry at feasts. much less temperate. about supper-time. and their body unmoved and unshaken by wine. and others for purposes of relaxation and enjoy- ment. to warm by the harmless medicine of the vine the chill of age. to leave off betimes. it suits divine studies not to be heavy with wine. For old men's passions are not. when we are no longer en^a^ed in more serious readings." according to the comic poet. intemperate potations. in his book On Long Life (for so I remem- ber). It is fitting. But even then it must only be a little wine that is to be used for we must not go on to . that some apply wine by way of physic. acrothorakes. their memory active. that we may attain to a longer life. proper that water should be supplied in too great profusion . . [Book 11. collected into a mass. which the decay of time has produced. People in such a state are called by those who are 1 skilful in these matters. But towards evening. they stand with greater ease the storm of passions which rushes down from intem- perance. then. Those who are already advanced in life may partake more hilariously of the bowl. Some regard the clause here as an interpolation. And. for fear of tripping.202 THE INSTRUCTOR. For being moored by reason and time. But them also let the limit of their potations to be the point up to which they keep their reason unwavering. for the sake of health alone. stirred to such agitation as to drive them to the shipwreck of drunkenness. besides. It is well. but ground down in order to digestion and this takes place when the victuals are . One Artorius. in order that the food may not be drowned. " For unmixed wine is far from compelling a man to be wise. therefore. thinks that drink should be taken only till the food be moistened. Then also the air becomes colder than it is during the day so that the failing natural warmth requires to be nourished by the introduction of heat. for themost part. For first wine makes the man who has drunk it more 1 The exact derivation of acrothoralces is matter of doubt. wine may be used. and only a small portion is evacuated. But we have the authority of Aristotle and Erotian for believing that it was applied to those who were slightly drunk.

dis- solves the foul excrementitious matters by its warmth. frequently fancies the substance of one object to be manifold. swimming through the quantity and compelled of moisture . kinder to his domestics. u And. For both are works of God . and empty of sense. and not pour it in as water from love of wine. For both have the same effect on the sight. cannot accurately obtain a perception of the object. they think that everything is revolving round them. xxxl." 1 And it is best to mix the wine with as much water as possible. . w hen drunk in moderate sufficiency. then. being warm. And the feet are carried from beneath the man as by a flood. more agreeable to his boon companions. 2 p en theus in Euripides.and so get enervated to drunkenness. " for every intoxicated man. What evil words he with his will hath said. because life consists of what is necessary and of what is useful. and to be used in abundance. conduces together to health. And likes to pour forth much silly speech And is wont to hear unwillingly. being disturbed by the heat of the wine. and not to have recourse to it as to water. and more pleasant to his friends. 36. which. For wine intoxicated. It has therefore been well said. the eyes roll wildly. With water. and hiccuping and vomiting and maudlin nonsense follow . Bacch. By an immoderate quantity of wine the tongue is impeded the lips are relaxed . And there is no difference between moving the eye or the object seen. of water and of wine. " Is conquered by anger." 1 Ecclus. as it were. " joy of the soul and A heart was wine created from the beginning. 3 Attributed to Sophocles. and so the mixture of both. on account of the fluctuation." 3 according to the tragedy." said the Theban old man in his cups. For the sight. and having sweet juices when duly mixed. in truth. which is the neces- sary of life. and mixes the acrid and base humours with agreeable scents. there is also to be mixed the useful. and cannot count distant objects as single. the sight.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. 203 benignant than before. But when he becomes violent instead. to deceive. 2 methinks I see two suns.

so called from the head shaking (Kcipa irdWeiv). staggering.204 THE INSTRUCTOR. u As the furnace tests the steel blade in the process of dipping. no sensible man ever thinks it requisite to shut For as his eyes before going to sleep. baths. which comprehends all that relates to the oversight of the flock of men. 38. It has been appropriately said. my friends. xxxi." 1 Where- fore most people say that you ought to relax over your cups. not even if we are asleep for He ought to be invited even to our sleep. in reference to life. think excess in drinking to be the happiest life and their life is nothing but revel. which is knowledge of things divine and human. . is constantly with us. 1 2 Ecclus. lest conviviality imperceptibly degenerate to drunken- ness. and postpone serious business till morning. idleness. vomiting drink on one another in the name of good fellowship . with crowns round their necks like wine jars. can never quit those who belong to Him. full of the effects of their debauch. to act the part of director (poedagogue) to wine- drinking. It is well. Ecclus. I however think that then especially ought reason to be introduced to mix in the feast. dreading lest we also become a like spectacle and laughing-stock to others. and others. ourselves to what is better. fect wisdom. dirty. . pale in the face. always accomplishing its own proper work. 31. so neither can any one rightly wish reason to be absent from the festive board. [Book ii. debauchery. or can well study to lull it asleep till But the Word business is begun. lousness (KpaL7ra\7j) is the discomfort and nausea that follow a debauch. we live. art and so. You may see some of them. and still above yesterday's bout pouring another bout to last till next morning. u Much wine drunk abounds in irritation and all manner of mistakes. intoxication the disorder that results from such use crapu. so wine tests the heart of the haughty. it is well to make our acquaintance with this picture at the greatest possible distance from and to frame it. livid. xxx. while . becomes. drink." 2 A debauch is the immoderate use of wine. Wisdom cried. the product of which is a good life. half- drunk. And before tragedy. excess. But the miserable wretches who expel temperance from conviviality. For per- . urinals.

21. .] THE INSTRUCTOR. and commands her not a children. who has unavailing remorse?" You see. who has contentions. by the mention of the blood-shot eyes. Prov. in His solicitude for our salvation. Prov."' For the wounds of the sinner are the rents of the garment of the flesh. says He. announcing to him death in the Lord. a mark which appears on— corpses. "And the drunkard. " thy mouth will then speak perverse things. the holes made by lusts.s. forbids us. " Drink not wine to drunkenness. and in the hallucinations of debauchery) the divine Wisdom looks on with contempt. and thou liest down as in the heart of the sea. 30. "Be wine-bibber. 29. and has been rent asunder from salvation. And to its threatening it adds again : " Whose are red eyes? Those. and has abandoned and given himself to drunken- ness. that has been torn away all round. "shall be clothed in and be ashamed of his drunkenness in the rao. nor spend your money in the purchase of flesh for every drunkard and fornicator shall come to beggary. presence of onlookers. the lover of wine. 20." he says. who despises the Word Himself. For forge t- fulness of the things which tend to true life turns the scale towards destruction. and says : 1 Prov. by reason of which it will not be easy to save the garment. and as the steers- man of a ship in the midst of huge billows. and hunt out the places where drinking goes on?" Here he shows the lover of drink to be already dead to the Word. through which the shame of the soul within is seen namely sin. is it not. and l every sluggard shall be clothed in tatters and rags. but is steeped in wine. 2 3 xxiii. who has clamour. Because." Wherefore ? you will ask." For every one that is not awake to wisdom. which is spent in idleness." Hence. in agitation about voluptuous indulgences. is a sluggard. poetry comes to our help. too. who has disgusting 3 babblings. So he adds these most monitory words: "Who has woes. who tarry long at their wine. in all his raggedness.Book ii. xxiii. You see what threatening Scripture has pronounced against him. xxiii. the Instructor. that has rotted away in many lusts. With reason therefore. 205 Such a life as this (if life it must be called.

as the north or south wind agitates the Libyan waves. in order to the fulfilment of the predestined time. that is. u Be not drunk with wine. lias named wine the symbol of the sacred blood . '•Let wine which has strength equal to fire come to men. You see the danger of shipwreck. driven by itself into voluptuous indulgences. in which there is much excess " . 1. till. He gave life to the watery element of the meaning of the law. . to right reason. [Book n. drowned in The heart is much drink. blinded by the darkness of the tempest. For. the mixture of the old law and of the new word. filling with His blood the doer of it who is of Adam. the whole world . therefore. in which when the body has once been sunken like a ship. and on other occasions as a medicine for the intestines. is . dashing on the rocks beneath the sea. it says : " Intemperate is wine.206 THE IXSTRUCTOR. xx. The Scrip- ture." * It is agreeable. to drink on account of the cold of winter. is tossed about on the surge of drunkenness. having drifted away from the haven of truth. accordingly. as we are to use food to satisfy hunger. over- whelmed in the mighty billows of wine and the helmsman." And so on. and insolent is drunken- ness. therefore. the apostle enjoins. Soul-deceiving wine is the ruin of those who drink it. it perishes."' And further " "Wine wandering in speech shows all secrets. supplying piety with drink from the vine of truth. Then will it agitate them. which swells aloft and buried in the trough of the sea. ." And thus shall our soul be 1 Prov. He did not give permission to get drunk. so also are we to use drink to satisfy thirst. it descends to the depths of turpitude. taking the most careful precautions against a slip : u for the introduction of wine is perilous. The excess of drunkenness is compared to the danger of the sea. but reproving the base tippling with the dregs of wine. With reason. For if He made water wine at the marriage. by the term excess (acwria) intimating the inconsistence of drunkenness with salvation {aacoc-^ov). till the numbness is dispelled from those who are subject to feel it . the human mind.

4. and 1 dvdoapiccg." 2 Amos vi. We must not therefore trouble ourselves to procure Chian wine if it is absent. an Egyptian wine. what else similar he adds by way of reproach. and the insular Naxian. 6. Some suppose the word to be derived from the name of a town : " The Anthosmian. and dry. a river of India so called. For there are the fra- grant Thasian wine. nor before drinking making the eyes roll with unseemly motion . and luminous . or Ariousian when it is not at hand. and is not humid with the exhalations. not greedily grasping the cup. nor from intemperance are we cup at a draught nor be- to drain the . forming a mass like a cloud. where the soul even before drunkenness is insane in its desires. and craves means suitable for supplying the want. Especial regard is to be paid to decency (as the myth represents Athene. For thirst is a sensation of want. and the soul and itself is wisest best when dry. Importations of wines from beyond seas are for an appetite enfeebled by excess. that rise from wine. out of regard to it. These are many names." another wine of the land of Italy. and not sumptuous liquor. And thus. sprinkle the chin. and sweet Syracusan wine. the product of the cultivation of the one God. unless they were to import water also. 207 pure." he says and . so does water too. whoever she was. The Holy Spirit. — our face all but filling the bowl. makes people lovers of it. when taken. and recline on an ivory couch. nor splash the garments while gulping down all the liquor at once. like the foolish Persian kings? The Choaspes. and a sweet Cretan wine. For the temperate drinker. too. and the pleasant-breathing Lesbian. and Mendu- sian. pronounces the rich to be wretched on account of their luxury 2 " Those that drink strained wine. For why should not the wine of their own country satisfy men's desires. one wine suffices. the " highly l perfumed and flavoured. uttering His voice by Amos. was that from which the best water for — — drinking the Choaspian was got.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. . is it fit for contemplation. As wine. giving up the pleasure of the flute because of the unseemli- ness of the sight) : so that we are to drink without contor- tions of the face.

Your drink is not being taken from you. and by its being drawn in with a great deal of breath. are greatly addicted to intoxication. is not taken away by taking time. feasting for lawful enjoyment. " Be not mighty. was man. xxxi. come many/' 1 The Scythians. in an orderly way. " at wine for wine has over. u Take. and the Thracians. For that which intem- perance greedily seizes. And He blessed the wine. It is given you. 29. He tells us again. . too. as were being poured into an earthenware if it vessel. In what manner do you think the Lord drank when He became man for our sakes ? As shamelesslv as we ? "Was it not with decorum and propriety 1 "Was it not deliberately ? For rest assured. 30. eagerness in drinking is a practice injurious to the partaker." he says. Matt. by draining it down with gaping throat. till I drink it with you in the kingdom of my Father. 23 . for the remission of sins" — the holy stream of gladness. But we." But 2 that it was wine which was drunk by the Lord. . and waits you. He showed again. . And that he who drinks ought to observe moderation. while the throat makes a noise through the rapidity of ingurgitation. Mark xiv. Be not eager to burst.208 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book ii. all of them warlike races. He clearly showed by what He taught at feasts. drowned For the gurgling occasioned by the drink in it. reproaching the Jews for their hardness of 1 2 Ecclus. and think that it is an honourable. when He said to His disciples. that our friendships may be shown in a way truly appropriate to the name. saying. He figuratively calls the Word u shed for many. the Celts. And that it was wine which was the thing blessed. Do not haste to mischief. when He spake con- cerning Himself. my friend. Your thirst is satiated. drink : this is my blood " — the blood of the vine. is a shameful and unseemly spectacle of in- temperance. He Himself also partook of wine for He. by taking the beverage in small portions. observing decorum. happy pur- suit to engage in. xxvi. drink sober cups of friendship. For He did not teach affected by wine. u I will not drink of the fruit of this vine. even if you drink slower. the Iberians. In addition to this. the people of peace. rushing with violence. not to wantonness.

which is numbered before the wandering star. that their lips may not be rent apart by stretching them on broad drinking cups. and so widening the mouth. a friend of publi- cans. O ." He says. xi. 1 Cor." For a woman is quickly drawn down to licentiousness." it is said. 11. But always must we conduct ourselves as in the Lord's presence. as the apostle in indignation said to the Corinthians. Behold a glutton and a wine-bibber. xxvi. lest both fall. throw back their heads and bare their necks indecently. For nothing dis- graceful is proper for man. to whom it brings shame even to reflect of what nature she is. rather like slaves. forsooth. but we forbid studying to drink from them alone.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. as if a drunken woman were the wrath of God. But by no manner of means are women to be allowed to uncover and exhibit any part of their person. as I think and distending the throat in swallow- . making a profession. the men by being excited to look. and cutting up by the roots the dangerous appetites that are in them. this is not to eat the Lord's supper. counselling women what to use with indifference comes in the way. which regurgitates so as to produce hiccup. Let the rush of air. who endowed with reason. xi. 20. gulp down the liquor as if to make bare all they can to their boon companions and drawing hiccups like men. or . if she only set her choice on pleasures. But women. as arrogant . And wehave not prohibited drinking from ala- bastra . Ecclus. they by drawing on them- selves the eyes of the men. the star called by the mathematicians Acephalus (headless). 209 heart : " For the Son of man. and they say. his head resting on his breast. 19. then. lest He say to us. Why ? " Because 2 she will not conceal her shame. seems to be a type of the 1 2 3 Matt. ing." 3 To me. drinking in an unseemly way out of alabastra quite too narrow in the mouth. of aiming at the graceful." * Let this be held fast by us against those that are called Encratites. " An intoxicated woman is great wrath. " came. is much less for woman. be emitted silently. revel in luxurious riot. " When ye come together.

with a great fall to the liver and the heart. so the brain. 22. to voluptuousness and anger as the sons : of the poets say Hephasstus was hurled by Zeus from heaven to earth. that. that is. giving a most comprehensive compend. [Book ii. we might guard with all our might against drunkenness. the voluptuous. -where. For which cause they who covered the shame of his drunkenness are blessed by the Lord. c See Ecclus. Shem and Japheth. 23. with the clear and written description of his trans- gression before us. falls down from above. "Wherefore also Noah's intoxication was recorded in writ- ing. xxxi. Touro/ff. however." it is said. gluttonous. but among the intestinal appetites. xxxi. an emendation for tovtu. and he will rest in his bed. 3 u The trouble of sleeplessness. The Scripture accordingly. xi. 4 are with an insatiable man. 5 3 Iliad. For just as Elpenor broke his 2 neck through intoxication. . 4 Ecclus. i.210 THE INSTRUCTOR. 65. and cholic. and those that are prone to x drunkenness. has ex- pressed all in one word " To an instructed man sufficiency : 6 is wine." 1 2 Odrjss. and bile. 589. dizzied bv drunken- ness. enslaved to lust and anger. we have a different reading. For in such the faculty of reasoning is not situated in the head.

On the other hand. For if you pour any warm liquid into them. the material changes its quality. as having nothing whatever worth our pains. and tripods fashioned of ivory. " For the time is short. then. Away. CHAPTER III. injuring the mixture. proofs of tasteless luxury. and ebony. difficult to keep. and the rich potion is hurtful. and wine-coolers. vessels . and 1 Canthari." as says the 1 Limpet-shaped cups. and bed-clothes of purple and other colours difficult to produce. with Thericleian cups and Antigonides. ND so the use of cups made of silver and gold. if you pour in what is cold. and the endless shapes of drinking vessels. being only a deception of the vision. on the whole. and others for other uses which I am ashamed to name. and goblets. both publicly and privately. 211 . is out of place. ON COSTLY VESSELS. and folding- doors of beds studded with sold and variegated with tortoise- shell. are an invidious possession when they exceed what is necessary. seldom to be acquired. of easily cleft cedar and thyine wood. too. the vessels becoming hot. and of others inlaid with precious stones. And silver couches. cunning devices of envy — and effeminacy. The elaborate vanity. For. and pans and vinegar- saucers. gold and silver. are all to be relinquished. and couches with silver feet and inlaid with ivory. to touch them is painful. is to be banished from our well-ordered constitution. some for serving food. more apt to break on account of the art. and Lepastse. and not adapted for use. teaching us to fear while we drink. and wine-pourers also. of silver and gold. and trenchers and bowls and besides these. of vessels in glass chased.

not make a ridiculous figure. nor to possess a useless vessel which is not for some necessary purpose. 2 follow me. This then remains that we do. says. confession towards Him who suffered. 30. For my part. of which let use. who plainly lays it down as a law. apostle. and the lords of the wild beasts on the earth. What prevents those who are capable of considering what is similar from entertaining the same sentiments with respect to household utensils. and gone down to Hades. that a man is not to labour for wealth of gold or silver. u Where are the rulers of the nations. Explaining this he adds.212 THE INSTRUCTOR. and the possession of a variety of things may be done away with. and were full of care ? There is no finding of their works." how do you not think that senseless display is by the Lord's authority to be banished? Wherefore also the Lord says. therefore. vii." Follow God. Matt. addressing boasters and lovers of their own selves. who treasured up among silver and gold. who sport the birds of heaven. but we employ the material which is serviceable for agriculture. not expense. be the measure ? For tell me. and they that buy as though they possessed not. which is good. 1 Cor. [Book ii. For though such of us as cultivate the soil need a mattock and plough. what alone — cannot be taken away faith towards God. and moderate so that the same thing may serve for many purposes. xix. possessed of that which is thine. but wretched within." Such is the reward of display. stripped of fading dis- play. in reference to which God says." l And if he speaks thus of marriage. . as some are seen in the public spectacles outwardly anointed strikingly for imposing effect. in whom men trusted. 21. stripped of arrogance. They have 3 vanished. and come. and give to the poor . who fashioned silver and gold. and there was no end of their substance. none of us will make a pickaxe of silver or a sickle of gold. beneficence towards men. " It remains that they more clearly. iii. 29. Excellently. " Multiply. the Divine Scripture. which is the most precious of possessions. I approve of Plato. does the table-knife not cut unless it be studded with 1 2 3 Baruch 16-19. " Sell what thou hast. that have wives be as though they had none. not what is costly.

For He made use. and harmonious with this one scheme. nor using vessels of gold and silver. The things 1 2 Or. — minded God. girded with a linen towel He. through the stupidity of luxury. . I say comprehensively. and clothes. as when we call for a weapon for the fight f What if the basin be of earthen- ware? will it not receive the dirt of the hands ? or the footpan the dirt of the foot ? Will the table that is fashioned with ivory feet be indignant at bearing a three-halfpenny loaf ? Will the lamp not dispense light because it is the work of the potter. not digging metals from the earth. the lowly. not extra- vagance His aim. and every- thing else belonging to the house. and Lord of the universe. Yet to con- demn. what senseless conceit See. vessels exhaling the odour of rust such fumes — 1 as the rust of smoking metal gives off. as is serviceable and suitable to one's person. time of life. that one must follow the institutions of the Christian man. the author of mischief. proud.Book ii. and use with ease. and washed their feet. that their possessions and furniture should exhibit the tokens of one beautiful 2 life and that each individually should be . 213 silver. frugality. but teaching us how to quench thirst easily. skin coverlet being amply sufficient to spread on the bed. The Lord ate from a common bowl. and communicate freely. there is no need of purple or scarlet coverings. He asked to drink of the Samaritan woman. not seeking regal gold. seen in faith. that is.] THE INSTRUCTOR. What we acojuire without difficulty. keep easily. in food. For it becomes those that are servants of one God. which shows no difference. He did not bring down a silver foot-bathfrom heaven. For in fine. what a prodigious error. ! and made the disciples recline on the grass on the ground. kk'Kov. who drew the water from the well in an earthenware vessel. . notwithstanding. and vessels. age. practising all other things which are conformable to this uniform mode of life. pursuits. we praise. not of the goldsmith ? I affirm that truckle-beds afford no worse repose than the ivory couch and the goat. And He ate and drank at feasts. and have its handle made of ivory? Or must we forge Indian steel in order to divide meat.

214 THE INSTRUCTOR. and consequently cheap things are better than dear. u gathereth into a bag with holes. the regal gold. which." it is said." For silly are they who. magnanimity is not to be proud of wealth. and he who giveth to no one. about which many casting their eyes. For it is plainly wrong to care much about what any one who likes may buy from the market. [Book ir. which one may attain to by a few things. the immortal Word. which are useful are preferable. take delight in what they have hoarded up. but in heaven. and use for sufficiency." But the best riches is poverty of desires and the true . nor is it sold in the market-place. and living proudly through luxury. and a thing to make one laugh outright. Boasting about one's plate is utterly base. . while some coveted. 1 Tim. is a stronghold of evil." l Such is he who gathers corn and shuts it up . i. but to despise it. and for silly rich women to get gold receptacles for excrements made . and 2 pierced themselves through with many sorrows. " that all that we possess is given to us for use. . But those who are in earnest about salva- tion must settle this beforehand in their mind. It is a farce. so that being rich. In fine. from greed. for men to bring in silver urine-vases and chamber-pots of crystal as they usher in their counsellors. 1 Hag. they have erred from the faith. wealth. sick for the things of the world. " He that gathereth wages. 6. vi. But now love of money is found to be the stronghold of evil. they will never reach the kingdom of heaven. they cannot even ease themselves except in superb way. 10. I would that in their whole life they deemed gold fit for dung. But wisdom is not bought with coin of earth. when not pro- perly governed. And it is sold for true coin. becomes poorer.which the apostle says " is the root of all evils.

and Egyptian clapping of hands. and seduced by music into the toils. CHAPTER IV. 2 Rom. A night spent over drink invites drunkenness. we should put on the armour of light. xiii. as it were. and dances. of sorrow. rouses lust. And every improper sight and 1 The reading uKvaig is here adopted." Let the pipe be resigned to the shepherds. and make a noise on the instruments of delusion . walking honestly as in the day. For. The passage is obscure. For revelry is an inebriating pipe. And let love. and psalteries. they become quite immodest and intract- able. HOW TO CONDUCT OURSELVES AT FEASTS. For if people occupy their time with pipes. " putting off the works of darkness. for plainly such a banquet. and senseless passions. and the flute to the superstitious who are engrossed in idolatry. 12. and intoxication. be re- moved from our choir. For the apostle decrees that. For we have heard of stags being charmed by the pipe. 215 . being more suitable to beasts than men. 13. and foolish vigils. in truth. Burlesque singing is the boon com- panion of drunkenness. not spending our time in rioting and drunkenness. ET revelry keep away from our rational entertain- ments. such instruments are to be banished from a tempe- rate banquet. too. that is. and is audacious in deeds of shame. as seems to me. that revel in intem- perance. when hunted by the huntsman. and choirs. is a theatre of drunkenness. the chain * of an amatory bridge. And when mares are being covered. beat on cymbals and drums. and the more irrational portion of mankind. a tune is played on the flute — nuptial song. and such disorderly frivolities. in chambering and wan- 2 tonness.

the Cretans the lyre. the psaltery " for the tongue is the psaltery of the Lord. in truth. the Etruscans use the trumpet. sound. " Praise Him with sound of trumpet. drawing to perturbation of mind. "And praise Him on the lyre. cl 3-5." for with sound of trumpet He shall raise the dead. and when struck by the Spirit. therefore. by which calls it has received harmonious tension. it gives forth human voices. the Word alone by which we honour God. the Sicilians the pectides. is what we employ. if you investigate. inflaming to lusts. For the various spells of the broken strains and plaintive numbers of the Carian muse corrupt men's morals. In their wars. service. guard against whatever pleasure titillates eye and ear. sings. the Egyptians the drum. u Praise Him on the clashing cymbals. or rousing wrath.216 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book ii. . and effeminates. and trumpet. you will find to be warlike. the Lacedaemonians the flute. and the Arabians the cymbal. is privation of sensation must by all means be excluded and we must be on our . and every shameful sensation of licentiousness —which. u Praise Him on the chords and organ." 1 By the lyre is meant the mouth struck by the Spirit. There- foreHe cried to humanity. which those expert in war and contemners of the fear of God were wont to make use of also in the choruses at their festive assemblies . or kindling up amours. u Praise Him on . the Thracians the horn. while other instruments. and flute. which resounds with the pulsation of the lips. "'Praise with the timbrel and the dance. to speak in a word. and timbrel." refers to the church meditating on the resurrection of the dead in the resounding skin. and its nerves are the strings. The distinguishing from such revelry the divine Spirit." He calls the tongue the cymbal of the mouth. that by such strains they might raise their de- 1 Pa. as it were by a plectrum." because He cares for every breathing thing which He hath made. the Arcadians the pipe." Our body He an organ. "Let every breath praise the Lord. The one instrument of peace. For man is truly a pacific instrument . by the licentious and mis- chievous art of music. We no longer employ the ancient psaltery.

And even if you wish to sing and play to the harp or lyre. For " if thou shalt love the Lord thy God. ye righteous praise is comely to the up. For the psalm is a melodious and sober blessing. and hymns." And again. 2 p s> xxx iii. " What- soever ye do in word or deed. " because in His command all His good pleasure 4 is done. The apostle 3 calls the psalm " a spiritual song. and sometimes also taking turns in the 1 Col. Sing to Him ." let its first manifestation be towards God in thanksgiving and psalmody. a new song. For says the apostle. and so go straight to sleep. Thou shalt imitate the righteous Hebrew king in his thanksgiving to God. In the present instance He is a guest with us. iii. . " Re- joice in the Lord." and then " thy neighbour. Wisd. 16." 2 says the prophecy. right. Col. u Teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom. all together raising the pcean with the voice. before partaking of food. " And confess to Him in songs of the lips.] THE INSTRUCTOR." Further. after T the manner of the Hebrew psalms. 16. a song w as sung called a skolion. that we should bless the Creator of all . " Confess to the Lord on the harp play to Him on a psaltery of ten strings. to persons. But our genial feeling in drinking be let twofold." he says." And this Word suits and conforms Himself to seasons. Sirach xxxix. 20. 19 . and the second towards our neighbour in decorous fellowship. and there is no deficiency in His salvation. giving thanks to God and His Father. before partaking of sleep. and spiritual songs. to places. iii." Finally. 3 4 Epb.Book ii. v. who is manifested by the element of the decad % And as it is befitting. so also in drinking it is suitable to praise Him on partaking of His creatures. 23. among the ancient Greeks." This is our thankful revelry. i_3. having enjoyed His grace and love. in their banquets over the brimming cups. in accordance with the law. . do all in the name of the Lord Jesus. sing- ing with grace in your heart to God. 217 jectecl minds. there is no blame. in psalms." And does not the ten-stringed psaltery indi- cate the Word Jesus. it is a sacred duty to give thanks to God. " Let the Word of the Lord dwell in 1 you richly. For the apostle adds again.

u Let them praise/' it is said. 3. but we are to banish as far as possible from our robust mind those liquid har- monies. and let our songs be hymns to God. cxlix. Ps. 1 3 Ps. song while they drank healths round while those that were . But grave and modest strains say farewell to the turbulence of drunkenness. through pernicious arts in the modulations of tones. train to effeminacy and scurrility. and let them play to Him on the timbrel and psaltery.218 THE INSTRUCTOR. 1. which. "The Lord will take pleasure in His people." 1 And what is the choir which plays ? The Spirit will show thee : u Let His praise be in the congregation (church) of the saints : them be "joyful in their King. and to florid and meretricious music. [Book n. 4. But let ama- torv songs be banished far away." 2 And again let he adds. Chromatic harmonies are therefore to be abandoned to im- modest revels. cxlix. " His name in the dance. Ps. . . more musical than the rest sang to the lyre. cxlix. 2."' For temperate harmonies are to be admitted .


EOPLE who are imitators of ludicrous sensations,
or rather of such as deserve derision, are to be
driven from our polity [or society].
For since all forms of speech flow from mind
and manners, ludicrous expressions could not be uttered, did
they not proceed from ludicrous practices. For the saying,
" It is not a good tree which produces corrupt fruit, nor a
corrupt tree which produces good fruit," is to be applied in
this case. For speech is the fruit of the mind. If, then,
wags are to be ejected from our society, we ourselves must
by no manner of means be allowed to stir up laughter. For
it were absurd to be found imitators of things of which we

are prohibited to be listeners; and still more absurd for a
man to set about making himself a laughing-stock, that is,
the butt of insult and derision. For if we could not endure
to make a ridiculous figure, such as we see some do in pro-
cessions,how could we with any propriety bear to have the
inner man made a ridiculous figure of, and that to one's face?
Wherefore we ought never of our own accord to assume a
ludicrous character. And how, then, can we devote ourselves
to being and appearing ridiculous in our conversation, thereby
travestying speech, which is the most precious of all human
endowments I It is therefore disgraceful to set one's self to
do this since the conversation of wags of this description is

not fit for our ears, inasmuch as by the very expressions used
it familiarizes us with shameful actions.

Pleasantry is allowable, not waggery. Besides, even laughter
Matt. vii. 18 ; Luke vi. 43.


220 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book il

must be kept in check ; when given vent to in the right
manner it indicates orderliness, but when it issues differently
itshows a want of restraint.
For, in a word, whatever things are natural to men we
must not eradicate from them, but rather impose on them
limits and suitable times. For man is not to laugh on all

occasions because he is a laughing animal, any more than the
horse neighs on all occasions because he is a neighing animal.
But as rational beings, we are to regulate ourselves suitably,
harmoniously relaxing the austerity and over-tension of our
serious pursuits, not inharmoniously breaking them up alto-
For the seemly relaxation of the countenance in a harmoni-

ous manner as of a musical instrument is called a smile. —
So also is laughter on the face of well-regulated men termed.
But the discordant relaxation of countenance in the case of
women is called a giggle, and is meretricious laughter; in the
case of men, a guffaw, and is savage and insulting laughter.
"A fool raises his voice in laughter,"
says the Scripture ; but
a clever man smiles almost imperceptibly. The clever man in
this case he calls wise, inasmuch as he is differently affected
from the fool. But, on the other hand, one needs not be
gloomy, only grave. For I certainly prefer a man to smile
who has a stern countenance than the reverse; for so his
laughter will be less apt to become the object of ridicule.
Smiling even requires to be made the subject of discipline.
If it is at what is disgraceful, we ought to blush rather than
smile, lest we seem to take pleasure in it by sympathy if at ;

what is painful, it is fitting to look sad rather than to seem
pleased. For to do the former is a sign of rational human
thought ; the other infers suspicion of cruelty.
We are not to laugh perpetually, for that is going beyond
bounds nor in the presence of elderly persons, or others

worthy of respect, unless they indulge in pleasantry for our
amusement. Nor are we to laugh before all and sundry,
nor in every place, nor to every one, nor about everything.
For to children and women especially laughter is the cause
Eccliis. xxi. 23.


of slipping into scandal. And even to appear stern serves to
keep those about us at their distance. For gravity can ward
off the approaches of licentiousness by a mere look. All
senseless people, to speak in a word, wine
" Commands both to laugh luxuriously and to dance,"
changing effeminate manners to softness. We must consider,
too, how consequently freedom of speech leads impropriety
on to filthy speaking.
" And he uttered a word which had been better unsaid." 1
Especially, therefore, in liquor crafty men's characters are
wont to be seen through, stripped as they are of their mask
through the caitiff licence of intoxication, through which
reason, weighed down in the soul itself by drunkenness, is
lulled to sleep, and unruly passions are roused, which over-
master the feebleness of the mind.
1 Odyss. xiv. 461.



ROM filthy speaking we ourselves must entirely
and stop the mouths of those who practise
by stern looks and averting the face, and by

what we call making a mock of one often also :

by a harsher mode of speech. " For what proceedeth out of
the mouth," He says, " defileth a man,"
shows him to be —
unclean, and heathenish, and untrained, and licentious, and
not select, and proper, and honourable, and temperate.
And as a similar rule holds with regard to hearing and
seeing in the case of what is obscene, the divine Instructor,
following the same course with both, arrays those children
who are engaged in the struggle in words of modesty, as
car-guards, so that the pulsation of fornication may not
penetrate to the bruising of the soul ; and He directs the
eyes to the sight of what is honourable, saying that it is

better to make
a slip with the feet than with the eyes. This
filthy speaking the apostle beats off, saying, " Let no corrupt
communication proceed out of your mouth, but what is good." 2
And again, " As becometh saints, let not filthiness be named
among you, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which things are
not seemly, but rather giving of thanks."' And if " he that
calls his brother a fool be in danger of the judgment," what

shall we pronounce regarding him who speaks what is foolish ?
Is it not written respecting such :
" Whosoever shall speak
an word, shall give an account to the Lord in the day
of judgment?"
And again, " By thy speech thou shalt be
Matt. xv. 18. Eph. iv. 29.
Eph. v. 3, 4. * Matt. v. 22.

Book ii.] THE INSTRUCTOR. 223

justified," He says, " and by thy speech thou shalt be con-
demned." What, then, are the salutary ear-guards, and
what the regulations for slippery eyes ? Conversations with
the righteous, preoccupying and forearming the ears against
those that would lead away from the truth.
" Evil communications corrupt good manners,"

says Poetry. More nobly the apostle says, u Be haters of the
evil ; cleave to the good." For he who associates with the
saints shall From shameful
be sanctified. things addressed
to the ears, and words and sights, we must entirely abstain.
And much more must we keep pure from shameful deeds on :

the one hand, from exhibiting and exposing certain parts of
the body which we ought not and on the other, from inspec-

tion of the forbidden parts. For the modest son could not bear
to look on the shameful exposure of the righteous man and ;

modesty covered what intoxication exposed the spectacle of —
the transgression of ignorance.
No less ought we to keep
pure from calumnious reports, to which the ears of those who
have believed in Christ ouMit to be inaccessible.
It is on this account, as appears to me, that the Instructor
does not permit us to give utterance to aught unseemly, for-
tifying us at an early stage against licentiousness. For He
isadmirable always at cutting out the roots of sins, such as,
" Thou shalt not commit adultery," by " Thou shalt not
lust." For adultery is the fruit of lust, which is the evil
root. And so likewise also in this instance the Instructor
censures licence in names, and thus cuts off the licentious
intercourse of excess. For licence in names produces the
desire of being indecorous in conduct and the observance

of modesty in names is a training in resistance to lasci-
viousness. We have shown in a more exhaustive treatise,

that neither in thenames nor in the members of intercourse
and nuptial embraces, to which appellations not in common
use are applied, is there the designation of what is really
For neither are knee and leg, and such other members,
1 2
Matt. xiii. 36. Rom. xii. 9.
3 4
Gen. ix. 23. Ex. xx. 14, 17.

224 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book n.

nor are the names applied to them, and the activity put forth
by them, obscene. And even the secret parts of man are to
be regarded as objects suggestive of modesty, not shame.
It is their unlawful activity that is shameful, and deserving
ignominy, and reproach, and punishment. For the only
thing that is in reality shameful is wickedness, and what is

done through it. In accordance with these remarks, conver-
sation about deeds of wickedness is appropriately termed filthy
[shameful] speaking, as talk about adultery and paederasty
and the like. Frivolous prating, too, is to be put to silence.
u For," it is said, u in much speaking thou shalt not escape
1 u Sins of the tongue, therefore, shall be punished."
u There is who is silent, and is found wise and there is
he ;

that is hated for much speech." But still more, the prater
makes himself the object of disgust. u For he that multi-
plied speech abominates his own soul."
1 2 3 Ecclus. xx. 8.
Prov. x. 19. Ecclus. xx. 5.



ET us keep away from us jibing, the originator

of insult, from which strifes and contentions and
enmities burst forth. Insult, we have said, is the
servant of drunkenness. A man is judged, not
from his deeds alone, but from his words. " In a banquet,"
it is said,
u reprove not thy neighbour, nor say to him a word
of reproach." For if we are enjoined especially to associate
with saints, a sin to jibe at a saint
it is :
" For from the mouth
of the foolish," says the Scripture, " is a staff of insult," —

meaning by staff the prop of insult, on which insult leans and
rests. Whence I admire
the apostle, who, in reference to this,
exhorts us not to utter " scurrilous nor unsuitable words.""
For if the assemblies at festivals take place on account of
and the end of a banquet is friendliness towards
those who meet, and meat and drink accompany affection,
how should not conversation be conducted in a rational man-
ner, and puzzling people with questions be avoided from
affection % For if we meet together for the purpose of in-
creasing our good-will to each other, why should we stir up
enmity by jibing ? It is better to be silent than to contradict,
and thereby add sin to ignorance. " Blessed," in truth, " is
the man who has not made a slip with his mouth, and has not
been pierced by the pain of sin ;" 4 or has repented of what
he has said amiss, or has spoken so as to wound no one. On
the whole, let young men and young women altogether keep
away from such festivals, that they may not make a slip in
respect to what is unsuitable. For things to which their ears
1 Ecclus. xxxi. 41. 2
Prov. xiv. 3.
s 4
Eph. v. 4. Ecclus. xiv. 1.


226 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book ii.

are unaccustomed, and unseemly sights, inflame the mind,
while faith within them is still wavering and the instability

of their age conspires to make them easily carried away by
lust. Sometimes also they are the cause of others stumbling,
by displaying the dangerous charms of their time of life.
For Wisdom appears to enjoin well " Sit not at all with a

married woman, and recline not on the elbow with her;"
that is, do not sup nor eat with her frequently. Wherefore
he adds, u And do not join company with her in wine, lest thy
heart incline to her, and by thy blood slide to ruin." For the
licence of intoxication is dangerous, and prone to deflower.
And he names u a married woman," because the danger is

greater to him who attempts to break the connubial bond.
But any necessity arises, commanding the presence of

married women, let them be well clothed without by raiment,—
within by modesty. But as for such as are unmarried, it is

the extremest scandal for them to be present at a banquet of
men, especially men under the influence of wine. And let
the men, fixing their eyes on the couch, and leaning without
moving on their elbows, be present with their ears alone and ;

if they sit, let them not have their feet crossed, nor place one

thigh on another, nor apply the hand to the chin. For it
is vulgar not to bear one's self without support, and conse-

quently a fault in a young man. And perpetually moving
and changing one's position is a sign of frivolousness. It is
the part of a temperate man also, in eating and drinking, to
take a small portion, and deliberately, not eagerly, both at the
beginning and during the courses, and to leave off betimes,
and so show his indifference. " Eat," it is said, u like a man
what is set before you. Be the first to stop for the sake of
regimen ; and, if seated in the midst of several people, do not
stretch out your hand before them." You must never rush
forward under the influence of gluttony ; nor must you,
though desirous, reach out your hand till some time, inas-
much as by greed one shows an uncontrolled appetite. Xor
are you, in the midst of the repast, to exhibit yourselves
hugging your food like wild beasts ; nor helping yourselves
Ecclus. ix. 12. 2
Ecclus. ix. 13. 3
Ecclus. xxxi. 19-21.

Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. 227

to too much sauce, for man is not by nature a sauce-con-
sumer, but a bread-eater. A temperate man, too, must rise
before the general company, and retire quietly from the
banquet. " For at the time for rising," it is said, " be not
the last ; haste home." * The twelve, having called together
the multitude of the disciples, said, " It is not meet for us to
leave the word of God and serve tables." If they avoided
this, much more did they shun gluttony. And the apostles
themselves, writing to the brethren at Antioch, and in Syria
and Cilicia, said: u It seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and
to us, to lay upon you no other burden than these necessary
things, to abstain from things offered to idols, and from blood,
and from things strangled, and from fornication, from which,
if you keep yourselves, ye shall do well." But we must
guard against drunkenness as against hemlock for both drag ;

down to death. We must also check excessive laughter and
immoderate tears. For often people under the influence of
wine, after laughing immoderately, then are, I know not how,
by some impulse of intoxication moved to tears for both ;

effeminacy and violence are discordant with the word. And
elderly people, looking on the young as children, may, though
but very rarely, be playful with them, joking with them to
train them in good behaviour. For example, before a bashful
and silent youth, one might by way of pleasantry speak thus :

" This son of mine (I mean one who is silent) is perpetually
talking." For a joke such as this enhances the youth's
modesty, by showing the good qualities that belong to him
playfully, by censure of the bad qualities, which do not. For
this device is instructive, confirming as it does what is present
by what is not present. Such, certainly, is the intention of
him who says that a water-drinker and a sober man gets in-
toxicated and drunk. But if there are those who like to jest
at people, we must be silent, and dispense with superfluous
words like full cups. For such sport is dangerous. u The
mouth of the impetuous approaches to contrition." 4 "Thou
shalt not receive a foolish report, nor shalt thou agree with an
1 2
Ecclus. xxxii. 15. Acts vi. 2.
3 Acts xv. 23, 28, 29. 4
Prov. x. 14.

228 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book ir.

unjust person to be an unjust witness," neither in calumnies
nor in injurious speeches, much less evil practices. I also
should think it right to impose a limit on the speech of rightly
regulated persons, who are impelled to speak to one who main-
tains a conversation with them. K For silence is the excellence
of women, and the safe prize of the young ; but good speech
is characteristic of experienced, mature age. Speak, old man,
at a banquet, for it is becoming to you. But speak without
embarrassment, and with accuracy of knowledge. Youth,
Wisdom also commands thee. Speak,you must, with hesi-

tation, on being twice asked ; sum up your discourse in a few
words." But let both speakers regulate their discourse ac-
cording to just proportion. For loudness of utterance is most
insane ; while an inaudible utterance is characteristic of a
senseless man, for people will not hear: the one is the mark
of pusillanimity, the other of arrogance. Let contentiousness
in words, for the sake of a useless triumph, be banished; for
our aim isfrom perturbation. Such is the mean-
to be free
ing of the phrase, " Peace to thee." Answer not a word be-
fore you hear. An enervated voice is the sign of effeminacy.
But modulation in the voice is characteristic of a w ise man, r

who keeps his utterance from loudness, from drawling, from
rapidity, from prolixity. For we ought not to speak long or
much, nor ought we to speak frivolously. Nor must we con-
verse rapidly and rashly. For the voice itself, so to speak,
ought to receive its just dues and those who are vociferous ;

and clamorous ought to be silenced. For this reason, the wise
Ulysses chastised Thersites with stripes :

" Only Thersites, with unmeasured words,
Of which he had good store, to rute the chiefs.
Not over-seemly, but wherewith he thought
To move the crowd to laughter, brawled aloud." 3

" For dreadful in his destruction is a loquacious man." And
it is with triflers as with old shoes : all the rest is worn away
by evil ; the tongue only is left for destruction. Where-
fore Wisdom gives these most useful exhortations :
" Do not
1 2
Prov. xxiv. 28; Ex. xxiii. 1. Ecclus. xxxii. 10, 11, 13.
3 4
Ecclus. ix. 25.
Iliad, ii. 213.

beginning with God. ix. are to be shunned. and wiping one's nose at an entertainment. and not gaping and yawning like the tragic masks. and attend unbridled fornication. and the turning and movement of the neck. are to be given up by men." Further. 229 talk trifles in the multitude of the elders. To wish to add to the noises. it lays down the law for our regulation somewhat thus : " Do not repeat your words 1 in your prayer. who scrape their teeth. So the disturbance of hiccup may be avoided by making the respirations gently. and sounds made through the fingers. In a word." Chirruping and whistling. by which domestics are called. For many wipe their noses and spit even whilst supping. the mouth being composed becomingly. 25. being irra- tional signs. For respect is assuredly to be had to the guests. and the motions of the hands in con- versation. bleeding the wounds. for thus the threatening symptoms of the ball of wind will be dissipated in the most seemly way.Book ii. tranquillity. any one is attacked with sneezing. we are not to copy oxen and asses. too. Scratching the ears and the irritation of sneezing are swinish itchings. the Christian is charac- terized by composure. and violent clearing of the throat. calmness. whose manger and dung- hill are together. and peace. is the sign of arrogance and disorderliness. just as in the case of If hiccup. he must not startle those near him with the explo- sion. and so give proof of his bad breeding but the hiccup . eradicating frivolousness. are dis- agreeable to themselves and detestable to their neighbours. lest they turn in disgust from such which argues want of restraint. too.] THE INSTRUCTOR. by managing its egress so as also to conceal anything which the air forcibly expelled may bring up with it. be decorous. . Those. Frequent rational spitting. For filthiness. is to be quietly transmitted with the expiration of the breath. instead of diminish- ing them. Both shameful sights and shameful conversation about them are to be shunned. Let the look be steady. 1 Ecclus.

and refreshed Him and I know that the ancient . x. therefore. 5 . etc. OX THE USE OF OINTMENTS AND GEOWN& HE use of crowns and ointments is not necessary for us . of whom also the Holy Spirit foretells in the psalm.s. since. Luke vii. I know that the woman brought to the sacred supper " an 1 alabaster box of ointment. are figuratively called the feet of the Lord. P. His feet. He came to the ends of the earth. having. 47. BrN especially on the approach of night. " For their sound hath gone forth to the ends of the earth. hair. for it impels to pleasures and indulgences. who travelled over the world and preached the gospel. 18. But the woman not having yet received the Word (for she was still a sinner). she wiped off the superfluous ointment. 3 4 Ps. where the apostles. xix. according to prophecy. xxvi. Horn. with her . 7." 3 And if I seem not to insist too much. the feet of the Lord which were anointed are the apostles. arrived . while she ex- pended on the Lord tears of repentance " wherefore her sins : * are forgiven. cxxxii." This may be a symbol of the Lord's teaching. For the feet anointed with fragrant ointment mea. CHAPTER VIII. 230 . 4 "Let us adore at the place where His feet stood. preached by them. Those. received the fragrant unction of the Holy Ghost. and of His suffering. kings of the Hebrews were crowned with gold and precious stones." that is." and anointed the feet of the Lord. honoured the Lord with what she thought the most precious thing in her possession the — ointment and with the ornament of her person. And tears are repentance 2 1 Matt.i divine instruction travelling with renown to the ends of the earth.

23. who always makes us to triumph in Christ. by whom the Lord was anointed on the feet. and despatching them to do good deeds. the from whom comes the mercy (e\eo?) which reaches us. that by the oil He means that disciple to whom was shown mercy. on account of the Lord." J You see the treacherous guest. This the apostle most clearly showed. when the Lord went to His passion. making them beforehand fair and pure by His power. xxvi. in them that 1 2 3 Matt. it shows the Lord's passion. and the work of sweet savour reaching to all was proclaimed for the passion of the Lord has filled us . who have believed in Him. pointed out their pilgrim- age for the benefit of the nations. with sweet fragrance. . the deserted. For he was a hypocrite. wdiat the anointed feet prophesied — the treason of Judas. Besides. therefore. For the dead are anointed. " This people honour me with their lips . This was. the same shall betray me. 5. 13. and by the tainted and poisoned oil the traitor. and the affliction in patience which. And the dishe- velled hair is mourning Jerusalem. Isa.] THE INSTRUCTOR. then. for whom the prophetic lamentations were uttered. which is adulterated oil." It is not improbable. But the ointment. and this same Judas betrayed the Master with a kiss. and to whom He has forgiven our sins. And 3 the Saviour Himself washing the feet of the disciples. " Thanks be to God. attends preaching. is the traitor Judas. being released from His sojourn in the world. the old vainglory being done away with by reason of the new faith. and the Hebrews with guilt. and maketh manifest the savour of His knowledge by us in every place. For we are to God a sweet savour of the Lord. if you understand it mystically thus : the oil (eXaiov) is Lord Himself. 231 and the loosened hair proclaimed deliverance from the love of finery. Then the ointment breathed on them its fragrance. giving a treacherous kiss. when he said. And He reproves that people respecting whom it was said. in imitation of another hypocrite of old. but their heart is 2 far from me. And the tears are we repentant sinners.Book ii. John xiii. The Lord Himself shall teach us thatJudas the deceitful is meant " He that : dippeth with me in the dish. xxix.

and the ointment prepared from roses and the others which women use besides. again. to the exhaustless variety of fragrance. their bed-clothes." l And the kings of the Jews using gold and precious stones and a varie- gated crown.232 THE INSTRUCTOR. point out the Word Himself. were unconsciously adorned with the head of the Lord. Of these ointments there are endless varieties. And they fumi- gate and sprinkle their clothes. to one a savour of death unto death. . He asked an answer to a sophis- tical proposition in the following terms : " A horse anointed with ointment is not injured in his excellence as a horse. Nard is in high estimation with them. in his excellence as a dog. scents for rubbing and for fumigating for day by day their . and their houses. Luxury all but compels vessels for the meanest uses to smell of perfume. But the dog and horse take no account of the ointment. the words of Aristippus the Cyrenian. are saved. who admits not the poison of corruption. its use is more censurable. the Metallian. or pearl." For a merchant was present. the Plangonian and the Psagdian of Egypt. after the image of the Lord. ii. Simonides is not ashamed in Iambic lines to say. applying girlish scents to their persons. 2 Cor." he added. Wherefore also they are redolent of an excessive luxuriousness. appear to me to be rightly so averse to perfumes on 1 14-16. The Magi. whilst in the case of those whose perceptions are more rational. nor is a dog which has been anointed. to the other a savour of life unto life. too. and so finished. accordingly. Aris- tippus w as T a luxurious man. fades not as a flower. too. the symbol of royalty. thoughts are directed to the gratification of insatiable desire. And this crown. ** I was anointed with ointments and perfumes. I know. both moist and dry. such as the Brenthian. and that from the cypress. the unguent made from lilies. gold. The gold. or emerald. And with nard. There are some who. They use. and the royal . is the incorruptible Word. no more is a man. and them that are lost . annoyed bestowed on at the attention this. The precious stone. [Book ii. the anointed ones wearing Christ symbolically on the head. brought to Him on His birth.

but of nobleness and goodness. but it is highly requisite for the men who belong to us to give forth the odour not of ointments. we unconsciously give access into the soul to that excess which we have driven away. For excessive anointings with unguents savour of a funeral. And we as have abandoned luxury in taste. And let woman breathe the odour of the true royal ointment. it turns out to deadly combat. : hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows 1 myrrh. as to banish their compounders and vendors from well-regulated states. and banish. For it is not right that ensnaring garments and unguents should be admitted into the city of truth . xlv. the dyers of flower-coloured wools. If. and some it summons to the fight and those who were formerly friends. as through unwatched doors. Ointment being smooth oil. and let a few unguents be selected by women. do you not think that it is calculated to render noble manners effeminate ? Certainly. This ointment of pleasant fragrance Christ prepares for His disciples. too. that of Christ. and stacte. we say that the Lord the great High Priest offers to God the incense of sweet fragrance. thy God. then. when anointed with it. as is mentioned by David " Wherefore God. the senses. Yet oil itself is inimical to bees and insects and some men it benefits. and cassia from thy garments.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. not of unguents and scented powders . and find delight in the holy unguent. like vultures or like beetles (for these. they say." But let us not unconsciously abominate unguents. on the altar. die) . let us not imagine that this is a sacrifice and sweet fragrance of incense but let us understand it to mean. the spiritual fragrance. so certainly do we renounce voluptuousness in sights and odours lest through . 1 Ps. such as will not be overpowering to a husband. the Spirit. 233 account of their rendering manhood effeminate. and not of connubial life. com- pounding the ointment of celestial aromatic ingredients. when smeared with ointment. 9. that the Lord lays the accept- able offering of love. . Wherefore also the Lord Himself is anointed with an oint- ment. and let her always be anointed with the ambrosial chrism of modesty.

But since we assign no place to pleasure which is linked to no use serviceable to life. his ears. and the art of healing is of the . and is a drug provocative of the passions. u for the Most High made him . As oxen are pulled by rings and ropes. both by his food. The former is effeminate. while anointing with ointment is in some cases Aristippus the philo- beneficial. so is the voluptuary by fumigations and unguents." The rubbing of the feet also with the fatness of warming or cooling unguents is practised on account of its beneficial effects . For there are sweet scents which neither make the head heavy nor provoke love. but ointment is to be employed as a medicine and help in order to bring up the strength when enfeebled. come let us also distinguish here too. and against catarrhs. Rubbing one's self with ointment is entirely different from anointing one's self with ointment. But attention to sweet scents is which draws us into sensual lust. To resume : oil itself suffices to lubricate the skin. and ennui. accordingly. and by his nostrils too. his conversation.234 THE INSTRUCTOR. But pleasure to which no utility attaches. For the a bait licentious man is led on every hand. are salutary. nourishing the brain when labouring under indisposition. For their use is not wholly to be laid aside. when anointed with ointment. if we require oil for this purpose. but. his jaws. selecting what is useful. and remove any heavy smell from the body. as the comic poet says " The nostrils are anointed . along with moderation. and are not redolent of embraces and licentious companionship. in the case of those who are thus saturated. One must not therefore refrigerate himself with flowers when he wishes to supple his nerves. and the sweet scents of crowns. and strengthening the stomach. so consequently. by his eyes. an attraction and flow take place from the head to the inferior members. sopher. his bed. said " that the wretched Cincedi deserved to perish miserably for bring- ing the utility of ointment into bad repute. induces the suspicion of meretricious habits. and relax the nerves." " Honour the physician for his usefulness. and colds." says the Scripture. it being A most essential thing for health to fill the brain with good odours. [Book ir.

and making it grey. those who crown themselves destroy the pleasure there is in flowers : for they enjoy neither the sight of them. But to adorn one's self with " a crown woven from the fresh mead. grow speedily greyer by the perfumes they use. in trying to escape grey hair. physicians. so also the temperate scent the licentious by the super- fluous perfume of unguents." Then he adds. Do not encircle my head with a crown.Book ii. were unfit for a man of temperance. also. A man ought not therefore to cool himself with flowers. become grey % And as dogs with fine sense of smell track the wild beasts by the scent." and wear it at home.] THE INSTRUCTOR. 2. for in the spring-time it is delightful to while away the time on the dewy meads. 235 Lord. For if greyness is an exsiccation of the hair. or lilies. which are of a drying nature. how can we any longer retain a liking for unguents. who dye their grey hair and anoint their silly locks. For we are by no means to care for the exciting properties of unguents. "And the compounder of unguents will make the mixture. 1." * since unguents have been given manifestly for use. or violets. Wherefore also those that anoint themselves become drier. since they put . or defect of heat. Such a use of crowns. the dryness drinking up the moisture which is the natural nutriment of the hair. while soft and many-coloured flowers are in bloom. determining by physiology that the brain is cold. For it is not suitable to fill the wanton hair with rose-leaves. may salutarily warm the chill. or other such flowers. enjoy a natural and pure fragrance. and. xxxviii. and the dryness makes them greyer. stripping the sward of its flowr ers. so that the warm exhalation passing gently through. not for voluptuousness. For a crown encircling the head cools the hair. And women. 7. like the bees. since God hath per- mitted the production of oil for the mitigation of men's pains. both on account of its moisture and its coolness. . since they wear the crown above their eyes nor their fragrance. 1 Ecclus. has degenerated to scenes of revelry and intoxication. approve of anointing the breast and the points of the nostrils. Besides. through which ladies. Accordingly. but to choose what is useful in them.

" Children's children are the crown of old men. some injurious. some beneficial. For the fragrance ascending and exhaling naturally. whoever touches them is cooled by the former. but noteven to indulge in much wine. and passes swiftly away. and it is meet by the enjoy- to glorify the Creator ment of the sight of beautiful objects. and not luxury. by their odours. for both fade. xvii. But we who are not only not permitted to drink with others to intoxication. Wherefore also it quickly fades. it is said and our glory is . The ivy is cooling nux emits a stupefying effluvium. volatilizing the effusions of the head. avenged by remorse. . so also have flowers their individual properties. Further. and the crown of the whole church is Christ. as in Paradise. inflamed by the latter. But the use of crowns did not exist at all amon£ the ancient Greeks . And the effluvia of roses and violets being mildly cool. 6. As beauty. [Book h. do not need the crocus or the flower of the cypress to lead us to an easy sleep. both the flower and beauty. . the fragrance being carried away. . It becomes us who truly follow the Scripture to enjoy ourselves temperately. so also the flower delights when looked at . In one word. relieve and prevent headaches. and . We must regard the woman's crown to be her husband. warm the brain. some also danger- ous. and the husband's crown to be marriage and the flowers of marriage the children of both. the en- joyment of them except by sight is a crime. Very soon their evanescence is proved . The use of them is injurious. which the divine husbandman plucks from meadows of flesh.236 THE INSTRUCTOR. it induces a torpor (vdpKTjv) in the nerves. The rose is hence said to have received its name (poBov) because it emits a copious stream (pedfia) of odour (oBooSij). as the etymology shows. But at the games there was at first 1 Prov. which is naturally cold. As roots and plants. the flowers away above the organs of respiration. the Father of all. the organ of respiration is left destitute of enjoyment. The narcissus is a flower with a heavy odour the name evinces this. Many of them also. for neither the suitors nor the luxurious Phgeaceans used them." 1 And the glory of children is their fathers.

we must keep from them for conscience sake. For revellers do not without crowns celebrate their orgies and when once they are encircled with . for there is no ap- proaching to the Word without blood. third. Greece after theMedian war having given herself up to luxury. who once were barren. but because has been dedicated to idols. and idols. But it is also a type of faith. the rising up to applaud . and Artemis in the myrtle. . who are trained by the Word are restrained from the use of crowns and do not think that this Word. ought to be bound about. and senseless people have taken them not for their own proper and grateful use. who have heard that the Lord was crowned with 1 thorns. Further. it in us. which has its seat in the brain. on the same account. We must have no communion with demons. heaven alone is competent to produce were irrational it. that Here delights in the lily. the crown. For if the flowers were made especially for man. of life in respect of the substance of the wood. to crown ourselves with flowers." They say. xxvii. This flower the earth is not able to bear. too. then. too. insulting thus the sacred passion of the Lord. and Sappho crowns the Muses with the rose : " For thou dost not share in roses from Pieria. by this fact giving testimony to their being dead. Those. For this reason they crown the dead. flowers. at last they are inflamed excessively." speaking of the earth-born divinities . not because the crown is the symbol of the recklessness of revelry. The crown is the symbol of untroubled tranquillity. .Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR 237 the gift to the athletes . the strewing with leaves . 29. but have abused them to the thankless service of demons. of danger in respect of the thorn. Sophocles it accordingly called the narcissus " the ancient coronet of the great gods. of joy in respect of the appellation of crown. Nor must we crown the living image of God after the manner of dead idols. second. But this platted crown 1 Matt. For the Lord's crown pro- phetically pointed to us. For the fair crown of amaranth is laid up for those who have lived well. but are placed around Him through the church of which He is the Head. lastly.

hoped to reduce the Word to disgrace and Him whom they crucified as a male- . It is a symbol. of the Lord's successful work. 3. factor they crowned as a king. which knew not God. the Lord was again mystically crowned with 1 2 Isa. too. testi- fying to their own ignorance. they understood not that this very thing. defends them. who is exalted above every name. For the glory of those who have not believed on the Lord fades. and the flower withers. with the diadem of righteousness by the ever-blooming thorn. and wished His power to be manifested to Moses. For being hard of heart. . which was not circumcised in understanding. all our iniquities by which we were pierced. forfeited the place of the true Israel.238 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book ii. fades. This crown is the flower of those who have believed on the glorified One. He having borne on His head. I can also show you another mystic meaning in it. when the Word ended the siring of the law and His stav with men. whose darkness was not en- lightened. deservedly . xv. For He by His own passion rescued us from offences. and figs from thistles. Whom they provoked to show Himself to be the Lord. being hostile to those who plot against Him. but covers with blood and chastises those who have not believed. they shall know to be the loving God the Lord. i. where is thy sting?" 2 And *'• we eat grapes from thorns. which they called the disgrace of the Lord. Wherefore the Man on whom they believed not. denied the Lord. For when the Almighty Lord of the universe began to legislate by the Word. This diadem. the Just. and such like thorns and having destroyed the devil. to Him when up they bore witness. while those to whom He stretched forth His hands the disobedient and — unfruitful people — lie lacerates into wounds. 1 Cor. And they crowned Jesus raised aloft. was a prophecy wisely uttered a The : Lord was not known by the people" 1 which erred. O Death. persecuted God. by encir- lifted cling Him. said in triumph. coerces them and friendly to those who form the church. and the plait of perversity is untied. a godlike vision of light that had assumed a shape was shown him in the burning bush (the bush is a thorny plant) but . the princely part of His body. 55. and sins.

these also were created for our use." it is said. aperient. made and myrtle berries. 17. and honey. of myrtle stopping effusions from the body and that from roses is . enough for people to enjoy the fragrance of it is flowers but let them not crown themselves with them. But I have made a digression from the psedagogic style of speech. and oil. And if some say. in order that the Word beheld at first in the bush. 239 thorn. The Susinian ointment is made from various kinds of lilies. To resume. xxxix. is there in flowers to those that do not use them? let them know. " Hear me. and the benefit derived from unguents and perfumes. and are most useful.] THE INSTRUCTOR. the beginning and the end of time. and bless the Lord for His works. and fine flour of wheat. On His departure from this world to the place whence He came. moistening. then. antibilious. 32. and clothing. refrigerating." 1 2 Ecclus. 19. He repeated the beginning of His old descent.Book ii. the Son of the Father. " and grow as a rose planted by the streams of waters. are not to be overlooked. 31. and milk. emollient. " Water." 1 We should have much to say respecting them. then. who is truly one. then : we have showed that in the department of medicine. — all these 2 things are for the good of the godly. and afterwards taken up crowned by the thorn. The Narcissinian is made from the narcissus. and not for the excesses of luxury. The Myrsinian. For. the blood of the grape. and is equally beneficial with the Susinian. for healing. . and sometimes also for moderate recrea- tion. He Himself being one. in a word. the delight derived from flowers. xxxix. And if a concession must be made. and fire. and it is warming. Ecclus. were we to speak of flowers and odours as made for necessary purposes. The Scripture therefore says. and give forth a sweet fragrance like frankincense. For the Father takes great care of man. abstergent. 18. and introduced the didactic. and gives to him alone His own art. What pleasure. that unguents are prepared from them. . subtle. I return accordingly to my subject. might show the whole to be the work of one power. drawing. and iron. is a styptic.

Magnificence of bed-clothes. the body having left the soul. We must not occupy our thoughts about these things. and smooth carpets worked with gold. and long fine robes of purple. but solicitude about them is prohibited. and render themselves fitter for emergencies. contributes to the digestion of the food. and costly fleecy cloaks. but rather for burning it up. besides the reproach of voluptuousness. digest food more easily. CHAPTER IX. For after the repast. sleeping on downy feathers is injurious. jOW. gold-em- broidered carpets. and manu- factured rugs of purple. and the ivory on beds. For. are to be banished. having given thanks to God for our participation in our enjoy- ments. silver-footed couches argue great ostentation . in due course. in brance of the precepts of temperance. we are to go to remem- sleep. affording a kind of natural gymnasium for sleep. and couches softer than sleep. we must now say. for a natural gymnasium for sleep. for the use of them is not forbidden to those who possess them . and mantles of thick pile. ON SLEEP. More- over. is not permissible for holy men. For they are not convenient for sleepers turning in them. having this. on account of the softness of the bedding. when our bodies fall down as into a yawning hollow. our talk must be turned to sleep. for happiness is not 210 . on account of the bed rising into a hill on either side of the body. being a lazy contrivance for rest. and for the [happy] passing of the day. and so destroying the nutriment. Nor are they suitable for the digestion of the food. as it were. But stretching one's self on even couches. And those that can roll on other beds.

" Let your loins be girt about." 1 — unless circumstances compel. by avoiding the extremes [of too much indulgence and too much endur- ance]. but in order to rest from action. Luke xii. when He cometh. Especially is a moderate softness in the bed suitable for manhood . But let not the couch be elaborate. but by the chiefs of the ancient Greeks. On the other hand. to warm us. Wherefore I sav that it ought not to be allowed to come on us for the sake of indul- gence. and so constructed that. any more than if he were not alive." 2 For there is no use of a sleeping man. it savours of cynic vanity for a man to act as Diomede. for elaborate turnings form occasionally p>aths for creeping things which twine themselves about the incisions of the work. and so make themselves like the angels. Blessed are those servants whom the Lord. they may straight- way open to him. must therefore We sleep so as to be easily awaked. But he who has the light watches. and let it have smooth feet ." 3 nor sleep. "And he stretched himself under a -wild bull's hide. but for its relaxation. 35-37. — And in conformity with reason." But a man asleep is worth nothing. whom we call " watchers. since darkness does not. to protect us . shall find watching. " and darkness seizes not on him. 5. But why speak on the of these ? Jacob slept ground. Such frugality and self-help was practised not by private individuals alone.Book ii. and a stone served him for a pillow and then was . Wherefore we ought often to rise by night and bless God. itmay be comfortable : if it is warm. and do not slip off. and such an one 1 2 3 Iliad. he counted worthy to behold the vision that was above man. For blessed are they who watch for Him. Q . xvi. for sleep ought not to be for the total enervation of the bodv. 241 to be found in them. as there is not of a dead man. 155. and comes and knocks. the bed which we use must be simple and frugal. For it is said. if cold. that when he returns from the marriage. John i. Ulysses rectified the unevenness of the nuptial couch with a stone. like to men that watch for their lord. He that is illu- minated is therefore awake towards God .] THE INSTRUCTOR. and your lamps burning and ye yourselves .

and the snoring rolled in the bed-clothes." that is. 34. a condition of stupidity. " who shall hear me. and they that be drunken. viii." 2 u Let us not then sleep. are drunken in the night. nor of the darkness." says the Scripture. "For what was made in Him was life. daily observ- ing the posts of my entrances. reserving to himself only what in this respect is conducive to his own health and that is not very the light bv the closing of the eyelids. 5-8. v. 3. will keep awake for as long time as possible. For much sleep brings advantage neither to our bodies nor our souls nor is it suitable at all to . those processes which have truth for their object. but turning in on ourselves. " and be sober." But whoever of us is most solicitous for living the true life. But. But devotion to activity begets an everlasting vigil after toils. 2 Prov. and for enter- taining noble sentiments. For they that sleep. cut- tin o. and receiving its streams. For the oppression of sleep is like death. and gazing on the truth itself.242 THE INSTRUCTOR. Let not food weigh us down. by filling the mind with ten thousand phantasies. as do others. r may be injured as little as possible by sleep. 1 Thess. and the man who shall keep my ways. [Book n. 3 1 John i. . sleep in the night . who are sons of the true light." 1 "Blessed is the man. but let us watch. in the dark- ness of ignorance. lives. although agreeable to nature. on the other hand. and the rumblings of pained stomachs. close the door against this light . For ye are all children of the light. and the snortings of those who are stuffed with food. which forces us into insensibility. but lighten us that w e . let temperance raise us as from the abyss beneath to the enterprises of wakefulness. 4. And the cause is too much which drags the rational part of man down to food. illumining the eyes of the hidden man. as those that swim with weights hanging to them are weighed down. let us clearly and intelligibly reveal such dreams as are true. Let not us. cover over the clear-seeing eye of the soul." says Wisdom. But the hiccuping of those who are loaded with wine. . then. and children of the day 3 we are not of the night. u But let us who are of the day be sober. watching at my doors.

we shall sleep the more soberly. For it is ceaselessly active. in the view of itself. For the soul to cease from activity within itself. him who reflects rightly. to another begin his art. and by perpetual converse with Him inoculating the body with wakefulness. therefore. such dreams as are true. and all of us should. and overpowered by sleep. and from the practice of wakefulness it grasps the eternity of life. were destruction to it. the women handle the distaff. are manifestations of frivolous uneasiness of soul. undistracted for the time by the affections of the body. had he not been intoxicated by his daughters. If. are the thoughts of a sober soul. We. fight against sleep. and counselling with itself in the best manner. ought not to sleep the livelong night but they ought to rise by night.Book ii. uselessness. we cut off the causes of great tendency to sleep. who assign the best part of the night to wake- then. the soul the whilst not acting through the body. and one devote himself to literature. we must know this. that the need of sleep is not in the soul. 243 Now. For those who have the sleepless Word dwelling in them. Wherefore always contemplating God. And in addition to all. so to speak. but exercising intelligence within Thus also. so that through wakeful- ness we may partake of life for a longer period. and yawn- ing. But the body is relieved by being resigned to rest. must by no manner of means sleep by day and fits of . . just Lot (for I pass over at present the account of the economy of regeneration) would not have been drawn into that unhallowed intercourse.] THE INSTRUCTOR. fulness. accustoming our- selves to this gently and gradually. it raises man to equality with angelic grace. especially when the days are coming an end. and napping and stretching one's self.

7. DE PROCREATIOXE LIBERORUM TRACTANDA SIXT." Non est quaalibet terra apta ad suscipienda semina quod si etiam sit quaelibet. xiv. ut boni sint liberi : quemadmodum agricolas seminis quidem quod nutrimenti habendi curam dejectionis causa est. quae simul habet insitas naturae rationes. iis scopus est et institutum. Videte itaque quomodo sapientissimus Moyses infrugiferam ali- qaando sationem symbolice repulerit " Non comedes. hie vero propter Deum plan tat ac seminat. ignomiuia afficere. Multo . qui juncti sunt matri- monii . qui terram colit animatam: ille enim ed tempus alimentum expetens. nee hyamam. fructuum perceptio. in. neque eis sequalem gustare libi- dinem haec enim animalia ad explendum coitum venereum : 1 For obvious reasons. we have given the greater part of this chapter in the Latin version. i. Dixit enim u Multiplicemini . 244 . neque semen est contumelia afficiendum. non tamen : eidem agricolse. CHAPTER X. autem melior est agricola. Deut. curam gerens. EMPUS autem opportunurn conjunctionis solis iis relinquitur considerandum. 2 3 Gen. absque ratione praeternaturalibus man- dando meatibus. agricolas officio fungitur et ille : quidem propter se. 27." Xon vult homines esse qualitatis eorum participes. quod quidem dux est et princeps generationis. gerat agriculture autem finis est. 1 QJJMSAM. quatenus homo co-opera- tur ad generationem hominis. Neque vero seminandum est supra petram. estque substantia." 2 ubi hoc subaudiendum est : u Et ea ratione fit homo Dei imago. leporem. hie vero ut universum permaneat. Quae sunt autem secundum naturam rationes. liberorum susceptio : finis autem. valde est impium. qui autem matrimonio juncti sunt. : 3 quiens.

liabentem foramina : et ea ratione dum leporis esum prohibet. produces a kind of colouring of the feathers. though till then obstructed arteries. and a chatterer from a singing-bird. But they do not alter their nature itself. and a little after it evaporates in the rigour of winter. not to cast it into a new shape. which becomes yellow from black. When. the song of the voice of birds. again. injured by the cold. it is freed from its confined condition. Ac leporem quidem dicunt quotannis multiplicare anum. significat se dehortari puerorum amorem. Well. as a flower when its colour fades. which being very much confined. to the explanation of what has been symbolically spoken. both in said to colour and voice. and spring now becomes . sicut nonnulli existimarunt. quos vixit. but now gives forth a r shrill note and the voice flows wide. For nature never can be forced to change. 24 5 feruntur insano quodam furore. Similarly also the nightingale changes by turns both its colour and note. that we must not resemble these animals but I do not assent . Hysenam auteiri vicissim singulis annis masculinum sexum mutare in femi- ninum : significare autem non esse illi ad adulteria prorum- pendum. and is carried through the dilated. qui ab hyaena abstinet. the breath is assimilated to the surrounding air and relaxed in spring. Though many birds are change with the seasons. in consequence of the outer skin being thickened by the surrounding air. press hard on the breath . is enfeebled. naturam : idem enim animal non habet simul ambo pudenda maris et feminaa. Nequaquam hysenam unquam mutare ergo credendum est. qui prodigiose . it w arbles no longer a dying melody. And in like manner the voice itself. What once has been impressed on it. pro numero annorum. I also agree that the consummately wise Moses confessedly indicates by the prohibition before us. like new clothes. For. as the blackbird (fcocravcpos). may not be transformed into the opposite by passion. emits a stifled sound. the arteries about the neck being compressed and filled.] THE INSTR UCTOR. But the new crop of feathers. and passion is wont to deface the form.Book ii. so as in the transformation to become female from male. For passion is not nature.

qui est praeter naturam similiter autem et masculi eorum. quando aversi fuerint meatus. sordes in aures. et inter et feminam. quod sit insigniter pathica : masculus enim vicissim et agit. libidinosi. adnatum est ei quoddam carneum tuberculum. amorem puerorum repellens. Sola ergo varia in hyaenis natura. cum in eis largiter redundet ea. 26. qui in utilem aliquam desinat partem. quae praeter naturam est.240 THE INSTRUCTOR. eum appellare bestiam. Hoc ipsum autem et masculo et feminam hyaena? adnatum est. masculi in masculos turpitudinem operantes. u in perturbationes ignominiae 1 nam et feminae eorum : mutaverunt naturalem usum in eum.' ut ait Apos- tolus. vitandos esse cum masculis concubitus. exar- serunt in desiderio sui inter se invicem. sub cauda ante excrernenti meatum. sedes coluoret. quam oportuit. quae inanem excipiat libidinem. Hac etiam ratione mihi videtur Plato in Phcvdro. : hyaena inquam. hancmarem masculo-feminam naturam innovarunt." At vero ne quidem libidinosissimis animantibus concessit natura in excrernenti meatum semen immittere urina enim in vesicam excernitur. erroris sui in se recipientes. superfluo coitui super- fluam hanc partem excogitavit. est salacissimum. 27. [Book ii. qui se volup- tatibus dedunt. et infrugiferas sationes. ut qui non animadverterint. humefactum : alimentum in ventrem. quadrupedum coeunt more. et filios ? seminare conantur. satio. quam sit filiorum amans omnium mater et genetrix Natura quoniam enim hoc animal. 1 Rom. et mercedem. lacryma vero in oculum. Impios "autem tradidit Deus. Nullum autem meatum habet haec figura carnis. exinde autem excaecatur concavitas non fuit enim res fabricata ad genera- : tionem. Valde autem fallun- tur. sanguis in ven as. vel rectum intestinum tantum habet in : magnam concavitatem. et ideo est etiam aliquantisper concavum. i. hermaphrodites finxerunt. qui in concipiendo fetu occupati sunt. per quam excrementa exponun- tur. . vel in matricem inquam. quod frenum mordentcs. femi- nino pudendo figura persimile. et patitur unde etiam rarissime inveniri potest hyaena femina : : non enim frequenter concipit hoc animal. relicto usu naturali. Ilinc nobis manifestum atque adeo in confesso est. ut prurientibus partibus inserviat. mucus in nares defertur fini autem : recti intestini.

et salit. sed ad id effunden- acl dum fecerit. sapienti allegoria reprehendit cultum simulacrorum vere enim oportet ab idol is esse puram domum Dei viventis. adhuc lactans habet enim matricem. angeli. androgynorum conjunctiones. qui est fructus libidinis. qua? id per partium prohibet constitutionem. alternisque initibus. adulteriis et libidine abstinere. Logi itaque praescriptum totis viribus observandum. . 2 prum non inf eres. earn a tergo aggrediens : est enim ex iis. Rursus Moyses lepore quoque vesci prohibet. 9. Mala3 enim cupiditati nomen est vftpis. quando dicit " Spelunca hyaenas facta est domns : 1 mea. et quae natura coalescere non pos- sunt. li petulantia . est ei sufficiens sedes ad receptaculum coitus (quidquid enim est vacuum. sicut ante diximus." Libidines autem supplicium notum nobis facient illi. assidente femina. 14. postquam autem peperit. hujus nos senigmatis adhortata est prohibitio. et non per senigmata Moyses prohibuit. Concipit autem singulis mensibus. neque quidquam contra leges ullo modo faciendum est. neque mandata sunt infirmanda. ipsam naturam sequen- tibus. ad nos admonendos scripta sunt. ut qure masculum non semen suscipiendum. et non : unus solus ma trie is vacuus sinus. "petulantem" vocavit Plato. et superfetat init autem." inquiens. 2 Ex. . per ipsum loqueils Spiritus. Jeremias autem. 8. A vehementibus ergo appetitionibus. statim a quovis initur lepore (neque enim uno contenta est matrimonio) et rursus concipit. mutuisque congressionibus. ut cum utertun gerunt. et cum prsegnantibus feminis conjunctionibus. Quse enim veteribus acciderunt. qui probro illos afficere voluerunt. describentes. " et eqaum cupidi- tatis.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. " Non non moachaberis pueris stu- fornicaberis ." id quod ex mortuis constabat corporibus detestans ali- mentum. quae retro insiliunt. matricis desiderio teneatnr et libidine furiat quocirca hunt . altera pars . ne eisdem 1 Jer. Omni enim tempore coit lepus. 247 et Venerem prseposteram. xx. xii. desiclerat repleri) verum accidit. evidenti hoc indicio ignem. cum "Facti estis legisset. Iclcirco aperte. et parit . puerorumque stupris. eis superfetationes. Ii eos. una cum ipsa civitate combusserunt. qui Sodomam accesserunt. mihi equi f urentes in feminas. cui sunt duo sinus. 3 Jer. hoc est. v.

ne in poenas similes incidamus. 2 Irrita autem sunt ct adulterina concubinarum semina. Veneris utamur consuetudine." ex qua sola tibi licet carnis voluptates percipere ad suscipiendam legitimam successionem. dominari." 1 Accedit his. nobis uti permisit permisit autem appetere liberorum procrea- : tionem. Et ideo " " non esse in petris et lapidibus seminandum dicit. ventrique et iis quae sunt infra ventrem. Ne semina. [Book ii. 22. nas intueri tanquam proprias filias : voluptates quippe continere. ex divinis Scripturis colligens prseclarus Plato consuluit lege illinc accepta " Et : uxori proximi tui non dabis concubitum seminis. . ubi non vis tibi nasci quod seminatum est. xviii. ut nunquam cum adolescentibus perinde ac cum feminis. Oportet autem filios existimare. Quicumque autem. ut confitentur Stoici. 20. Ante omnia enim recte habet. neque tanquam si cornibus semen mandes seminandum est. et caveamus. quod tt ab omni quoque arvo feminino esse abstinendum" prosterquam a proprio. est maximi imperii. per- sequuntur. utile est. si forte 1 Lev. quod modum excedit. "quoniam nunquam actis radicibus genitalem sit semen naturam suscepturum. xviii. Neque ullam omnino tange mulierem. pueros uxores autem alie- . qua coitur. labuntur in eo quod est secundum naturam. qui a Moyse factus est philosoplius. ut polluaris apud ipsam. ita etiam legitimis nuptiis. seipsos Iredentes. Ha?c enim Logo sola sunt legitima. Eis quidem certe. quam qualibet alia. teneamur vitiis. in earn. qui divini muneris in producendo opificio sunt participes.248 THE INSTRUCTOR. qui sunt prseter leges. quantum convenit. semen non est abjiciendum. et decet." Logos itaque per Moysen apertissime pra?cepit " Et cum masculo : non dormies feminino concubitu: est enim abominatio. Si enim ne digitum quidem temere movere permittit sapienti ratio. . quod hac corporis parte magis. particulam dominatus est obtinendus ? Atque hac quidem de causa videtur esse nominatum puden- dum. per congressus. prosterquam tuam ipsius uxorem. natura enim sicut alimentis. quo- modo non multo magis iis. Lev. neque injuria afficiendum. qui sapientiam persequuntur. cum pudore utendum sit. Hie ipse ergo Moyses cum ipsis quoque prohibet uxoribus congredi.

quousque pepererint. in procreatione sobolis occupata?. si quis ea etiam ntatur in conjugio. si degenerat. . cum ad banc veneream intemperantiam deflexerit. Matrix itaque sitiens fabricari filiorum procreationem. et quod mox homo futurum est. Re vera enim matrix sub vesica quidem collocata. Nefas est operantem jam naturam adhuc molestia ergo afficere. quod rectum appellatur. qua? prius in amicis versabantur complexibus. in quod venit .Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. six. Neque vero ullum unquam induxit veterum Hebrasorum coeuntem cum sua uxore prsBgnante." dicitur. Ejus autem appetitiones. et injusta. et simul universarum . polluere est a?quum. voluptatum studium in qua? omnia tvrannidem obtinet . et incesta in coitum pro- pensio : qua? cum aucta fuerit. publica. Kursus autem Moyses abducit viros a prcegnantibus. superflue ad petulantem prorumpendo libidinem. posita. probrosumque et vituperandum negat coitum. semen suscipit. His autem cognate? innumerabiles augentur affectiones. id est "lascivia. Non enim purgamento corporis genitale semen. Sola enim voluptas. 249 eas detineant purgationes menstrua?. et a ratione aliena. quo nomine significatur libidinosa. semen. in quibus fit fetus conceptio. cupiditas. deinde : semen suscipit. et. inquinamentis inundare ac obruere. \ayveia. Petulantia autem. post sationem ore clauso omnino jam libidinem exciudens. matricis sulcis privetur. ilia autem rursus inanis redditur. amor in mulieres luxus quoque. ex quibus mores intemperantes ad summum pro- vehuntur. super intestinum autem. qua? multa quidem habet nomina. Dicit autem Scriptura " Parantur intempe- : rantibus flagella. magna simul morborum convenit obsoniorum desiderium. est prseter leges. qua? expurgantur. extendit collum inter humeros in vesica et os colli. et supplicia humeris insipientium :" 1 vires 1 Prov. semen autem generationis ineptumque redditur. qua? quidem Deum non puduit. impletum occluditur. Neque vero nobis turpe est ad auditorum utilitatem nominare partes. et muitas species. operantur una cum Opifice. cum partu purgata f uerit fructu autem deposito. 29. intro conversse. vinolentia et multitudo. nee sordido materia? profluvio.

magnitudini ascribuntur ? exinanitionis ejusque. " Quomodo adhuc se haberet ad res vene- reas. " Parvam epilepsiam" dicebat 4* coitum" sophista Abderites morbum immedicabilem existimans. qui interroganti. ejusque constantem tolerantiam. t6 Amove a servis tuis spes lc inanes. ii. et in iis. qui posteriori delectatur parte non dolosa meretrix. qui abstinent. vel omnino a matrimonio purum esse oportet in qusestione enim id versatur. nobis declaratum est in libro De continentia. nee ulla : ejusmodi alia voluptatis bellua. ilia vero a coitu abducta circamaguntur." 2 Homo ergo tantum exinanitur semine. vocans u hu- meros insipientium. et hoc a . non ad solam enim Cratetis Peram. xxiii." Vide damni magnitndinem totus homo per exinanitionem coitus abstra- : hitur. Annon enim consequuntur resolutiones. Jam vero offundit etiam ealimnem sensibus. Lepide ergo ille. " homo enim ex homine nascitur et evellitur. cupiditates averte a me. nee scortator libidinosus. Multa ergo nobis per totam vitam seminetur. 6. et tantum non trahuntur. et vires enervat. intemperantiae." respondit : " Bona verba. et indeeoras. ." Quocirca. quorum hi quidem. quae in exercitatione versantur. et caro ex carne mea. vel jungi matrimonio. Gen. sed etiam ad nostram civitatem non navigat stultus parasitus. tanquam ab agresti et insano domino." Longe ergo sunt arcenda multifaria insidiatorum maleficia . . et in vehementi congressus intensione disrumpi. quemadmodum nutrimento." 2 1 Eccliis." inquit. occupatio. corporibus . omnibus viribus et omni impetu tandem quasi enervata. quse bona sit et honesta. quantus videtur corpore enim generationis initium id. 5. an ducenda sit uxor. 1 Ventris appetitio et coitus ne me apprehendant. ita etiam tanquam re necessaria ? Ex eo ergo videri coitu semper uti. Quod si hoc ipsum. [Book ir. veniat in considerationem : quo- modo libere permittetur. 4. in certaminibus superant adversarios . 23. qua? quod abscedit. Dicit enim : " Hoc nunc os ex ossibus meis. Patet hoc et in ani- mantibus rationis expertibus.250 THE INSTRUCTOR. est quod recedit quin etiam conturbat ebullitio materia3 et com- : pagem corporis labefactat et commovet. In sum ma ergo. qua3So : ego vero lubentissime isthinc. profugi. possunt nervi tanquam stamina distrain.

et eorum qua) interdiu facere convenit. immodeste sese ac imtem- peranter gerere oportet. sed verecundia. tanquam in tenebris. in animo est includenda. ut quae sit lux rationis. quam ad liberorum procreationem. multo magis tuae uxori honestas est ostendenda. et lectionis. quae est et praeter leges et a ratione aliena. quando orationis. galli more coeat. verbi gratia. Si enim honestatem exercere oportet. Aliter autem coire. improbis et malitiosis lamus artibus eae enim. quod ex non tol- divina providentia nascitur. et hominum genus. operam tempus est. Non semper autem concedit tempus natura. et post gratiarum actionem. ut fornicationem celent. cum in cubile . simul cum fetu omnem lmmanitatem perdunt. iis Paedagogo opus f uerit. voluit esse : deditos voluptatl. Caeterum. exitialia : medicamenta adhibentes. Neque vero noctu. ut non interdiu mystica naturae celebrentur orgia. senectutem. Vespere autem oportet post convivium quiescere. inhonestas vitando conjunctiones : et quod caste cum proximis verseris. 251 Verum concedatur quidem et admittatur matrimonium : vult enim Dominus lmmanum genus repleri . quo diuturnior. Pudore autem nos afficiat Paedagogus. si et ab initio cupiditates contineamus. puerilem aetatem. tanquam ad coitum natos. Nihil enim a Penelope telam texente differemus. ut peragatur congressus matrimonii est enim eo desiderabilior conjunctio. quas prudenter intro- ducit temporis commoditates. est facere injuriam naturae . et His enim nondum concessit. Matrimonium autem est filiorum procreationis appetitio.] THE INSTRUCTOR. aut ex foro mane rediens. Estote libidinosi nee vos. Secundum naturam autem nobis vita universa processerit. diligenter observare. Sed non vult homines semper dare operam matrimonio. illos autem non vult amplius uxores ducere.Book ir. quae prorsus in perniciem ducunt. si interdiu quidem texamus dog- mata temperantiae noctu autem ea resolvamus. venerimus. sed non dicit. non inordinata seminis excretio. fide . nee ut aliquis ex ecclesia." Aliquocl tempus ad seminandum opportunum liabent quoque ration is expertia animantia. quibus uxores ducere concessum est. qua quidem oportet magistra. quae fit Deo pro bonis quae percepimus. inquam. clamans per Ezechielem " Circumcidamini fornicationem : vestram.

quae custoditur. plane hnpura. dignum e domo adsit testimonium. turris est mortis iis. qui ea utuntur. Impudi- corum vero verborum." adulterium. " Doraura " autem. et cum corpore consenescit nonnunquam . scribit Tecum et adulterium est. and darkness is the veil of their vicious prac- h. Foedus. quod committitur in meretrice. Non enim potest aliquid honestum ab ea existimari. dicit Scriptura : "Mulier meretrix apro similis reputabitur. et " urbem. et hujusmodi lasciviarum nomina ne sunt quidem memoranda." Xam et qui legitimus. quern non keserit.2o2 THE IXSTRUCTOB. amorisque irritamenta exstinguuntur saepe poenitentia. know them to be sins. qui aperte dicit u Fornicatio autem et omnis immunditia. " Mortem autem dixit " quaesitam. For many think sucli things to be pleasures only which are against nature. autem etiam praasenescit. Quae autem viro subjecta est. flaccescente jam libidine. qui est praeter leges." Capro. meretriciorum- que osculorum. -ne nominetur quidem in vobis. amorque saepe vertitur in odium. [Book ir. est periculosus. vel : plura habendi cupiditas. meretricis com- n paravit affectionem. . val apro. Quin etiam quae est apud vos poetica. exiguo tempore floret. quodam- modo ea exprobrans. nisi qua- tenus in liberorum procreatione versatur. v. apud quam honestas in acribus illis non probatur certo quasi testimonio voluptatibus. De eo autem. urbs pessima. beatum sequentibus Apostolum. quando reprehensionem senserit satietas. nee tetra invisaque stupra tulerunt Ulla unquam maribus. femineusque. quando matrimonialem temperantiam meretricias vitiaverint libidines. Bene- volentia autem qua3 praaceps fertur ad congressionem. And those who are better than they. such as these sins of theirs. Lcontra autem pudicos admiratur : Quos desiderium tenuit nee turpe cubilis Altering. etturpium figurarum. tecum coitusque nefandu?. sicut 1 decet sanctos." in qua suam exercent intem- perantiam. recte autem cum eo agitur. Amantium enim corda sunt volucria. but are overcome by pleasures. 3." Eecte ergo videtur dixisse quispiam : " Nulli quidem profuit coitus.

in the degree in which he sins. and no one sees my sins. Who seeth us V' 2 For one may escape the light of sense. 10 vii. and cast their glance into hidden parts. For lie violates his marriage adulterously who uses it in a meretricious way. Who seeth me? darkness is around me. has now licentiousness wholly attached to him. is confessedly to sin. and the walls are my covering. becomes worse and is of less estimation than before and he who has been . veil our selves with the darkness for the . 15. then. For how. . but that of the mind it is impossible to escape. " For the darkness. 5." although for one to attempt even to practise concealment. put off modesty at the same time that you put off your clothes . as is right. and is abandoned by the Word as a dead body by the spirit. is probably referred to. says Heraclitus. who says in his soul. Why do I fear lest the Highest will remember V 1 Most wretched is such a man. u The man who ascends his bed. For what is holy. speaking by Isaiah u Woe be : to those who take counsel in secret. which look on all the ways of men. because it is never right for the just man to divest himself of continence." says the Scripture. For. this 1 2 3 Ecclus. can one escape the notice of that which never sets ? Let us by no means. besides making himself worse and less thought of." Thus again the Instructor threatens them. and thinking that he will escape the observation of God. directlywrongs not so much his neighbour if he com- mits adultery. dreading men's eyes alone. 18. For he who sins. But it is always lawful for the pure to touch the pure. I pray. The thoughts of good men 4 Scripture has named "sleepless lamps. Do not. and say. with reference to what he does." it is said. crying.] THE INSTRUCTOR. xxix." And the very night itself is illumi- nated by temperate reason. light dwells in us. lo. and hears not the voice of the Instructor. as himself.Book ii. John i. overcome by base pleasures. " that brighter ten thousand times than the sun are the eyes of the Most High. xxiii. 253 tices. u com- 3 prehendeth it not. because he has committed adultery. " For he knoweth not. abhors to be polluted. 19. Wherefore he who commits fornication is wholly dead to God. 4 Wisd. Isa. And every one who sins.

" 1 But having done with the works of the flesh. Adversus aliam autem intemperantiam. are types which correct our lusts. 4 5 Ecclus. 30. <K)od a He who averts his eyes from pleasure crowns his life. . and : 4 abstain from thine appetites. qui uxorem duxit. which rushes into licentiousness. 2 G 1 Matt. the Logos —by association with their vices. Ecclus. more daring. the Jewish. serere permissum *st quando tempus . when the insatiableness of desire. But the experiences of those who have committed fornication. the Pedagogue warns us most distinctly " Go not after thy lusts. ut qui tunc sit agricola. Moreover. for wine and women will remove the wise and he that cleaves to harlots will become . 15. Corruption and the worm shall inherit him. therefore. " For in this world they marry and are given in marriage. the Deity dwelling in them — that is. as far as in them lies. the flesh itself being pure. ratio. vi. 30. That is. per quam accensaa libidines pro- . being trained to self- restraint. sementem admittit. and having been clothed with immortality. who are consecrated to God must never live mortally (OvrjTw). and he shall be held up as public example to greater shame.254 THE INSTRUCTOR. 5. 1 Cor. and made free from the love of corruption. 3." Non est ergo justum vinci a rebus venereis. xviii. shall consign the man to everlasting chastity. nee a ratione alienis appetitionibus moveri." as Paul says." 5 — And a^ain for he wearies not of doino. nee libidinibus stolide inhiare. [Book ii. we pursue after that which is according to the measure of the angels.siliunt ad voluptates. mystically called those Atheists who destroy and pollute. u Nor. xix. mortal shall put on immortality . nee desiderare pollui. 2. Plato. " is it meet to make the members members of an of Christ the harlot nor must the temple of God be made the temple of base 3 affections. Ei autem soli. Fert etiam auxilium penuria satietatis. as I have already said." Remember the four and twenty thousand that were rejected for fornication. Thus in the Philebus. who had been the disciple of the 2 barbarian philosophy. optimum quidem est medicamentum. Those. xxii.

I ask. and thirdly. 4 Luke xii. . saying. 6 Luke xii. that of things external. The Lord Himself. 2 Luke xii. more gay-coloured. dividing His pre- cepts into what relates to the body. 22. What. I say. and the body more than raiment. which belongs to the third division. what ye shall eat. that not even Solomon was arrayed as one of these. which is to-day in the field. x. external things. (^X ))? an d disciplines the soul. than flowers ? What. nor weave." 2 And He adds a plain example of instruction " Consider the ravens : for they : neither sow nor reap. 3 Luke xii. how they spin not. 28. 24. but appears as part of chap. and to-morrow is cast into the oven. For this is shown from the 1 Chap. " Are ye not better than 4 the fowls?" Thus far as to food. O ye of little faith!" 6 Here the particle what (rl) banishes variety in food. how much more will He clothe you." And Solomon the king plumed himself exceedingly on his riches. nor yet for your body. is not a separate chapter in the Greek. what ye shall put on for the life is more than meat." . therefore. " Take no thought 7 for your life (^vxfi). 27. xi. more delightful than lilies or roses ? " And if God so clothe the grass. CHAPTER XL 1 ON CLOTHES. 6 Luke xii. jHEREFOKE neither are we to provide for ourselves costly clothing any more than variety of food. saying. " Consider the lilies. 24. counsels us to provide external things on account of the body and manages the body by the soul . But I say unto you. the soul. 23. which have neither storehouse nor barn and God feedeth them. . more graceful. Similarly He enjoins with respect to clothing.

and the voluptuousness. and painting with rouge and white lead. For having said. u Seek not what ye shall eat. ftsrsapog. u Neither be ye of doubtful (or lofty) 1 mind. has been said of those unornamental lovers of orna- ments ? For the field is the world." He added. eyes. Scripture declares to be of the devil. u Seek ye the kingdom of God. and exquisite working of gold. we are naturally given to seeking. And what are these things which He Luxury. Whatever is beyond that. Wherefore He says very beautifully. and the materials of sustenance shall be added to you. " Take no thought what things ye shall eat. of want. The subjoined expression makes the meaning plain. but let us excite it to the discovery of truth. and still more. [Book il scripture. dainty feeding. as being necessaries. of staining the . and what are we to superfluities in general. as unnecessary . and we who are bedewed by the grace of God are the grass and though cut down. dry and moist. or what things ye shall drink." And if. gluttony. Now eating. in a word." The nations are the dissolute and the foolish. we . is the sign of superfluity. and dveing of wool. voluptuous- specifies ? ness. rich cooking. repletion.25 THE INSTRUCTOR." If. is the sign of necessity . leads away from the truth." Now pride and luxury make men waverers (or raise them aloft) from the truth . " Your Father knoweth that ye need these. and variety of colours. that what was quoted a little above respecting the grass. or what ye shall drink. For He says. as we have said." For to take thought of these things argues greed and luxury. of artificial hair and wreathed curls and furthermore. let us not destroy the faculty of seeking by directing it to luxury. considered merely by itself. which indulges in superfluities. " And 2 all these things do the nations of the world seek after. and fastidiousness about gems. He says. and plucking out hairs. and dyeing of the hair. imagine ousdit to be said of love of ornament. These are the *" What V And of bare sustenance. He takes away anxious care for clothes and food. . and the wicked arts that are employed in such deceptions ? May we not very well suspect. then. And what is superfluous.

becomes us to rouse ourselves and haste to that which is truly beautiful and comely. forsooth. wore tunics reaching to the feet. that is. who was clothed in purple and scarlet. and allowing courtesans alone to deck themselves. interdicting respect- able women from love of ornament. I admire that ancient city of the Lacedaemonians which permitted harlots alone to wear flowered clothes." This was the hay. On the other hand. and desire to grasp this alone. leaving the ornaments of earth to the world.] THE INSTRUCTOil 257 spring up again. while the other flourished again in the Father's bosom. not knowledge. oJf . not the beautiful itself. and who under a fair name again practise idolatry. to show their effeminacy. therefore. flourish- ing for a little. " There was a certain man. as will be shown at greater length in the book On the Resurrection. full of sores. who affected a polished mode of life." Those. " very rich. as those who by opinion." said the Lord. attached to ephemeral pleasure. Well. loving ornament. desiring to be filled with the crumbs which from the rich man's table. dream of the nature of the beautiful and so life . "And a certain poor man named Lazarus was laid at the- rich man's gate. are to be 1 banished far from the truth.Book ii. loving praise. because based on the reasons of things. and bidding them fare- 1 Clement uses here Platonic language. which may be true or may be false. love of finery. here is to them only a deep sleep of ignorance from which it . and hxiorvifAVi knowledge sure and certain. and ornaments of gold. to show their origin from the soil. Now rivalry of these archons extended also to the other Ionians. . being made partaker of the fire . whom Homer." This is the fell grass. the rich man was punished in Hades. in the ostentation of licentious- ness. and being- everything but truth-loving. But hay figuratively designates the vulgar rabble. the archons of the Athenians. narrating. enjoying himself splendidly every day. forgetting their manhood.j meaning opinion estab- lished on no scientific basis. who are devoted to the image of the beautiful. and had on the crobulus —a kind of knot of the hair adorned with a fastening of gold grasshoppers. good for nothing but to be burned with fire. calls " Long- robed.

desire more. they may be permitted to use softer clothes. in addition to the fact that reproach in manners springs from it. For these superfluous and diaphanous ma- terials are the proof of aweak mind. and adhering as it were to the flesh. though not seeing the body itself. farewell to embroidery of gold and Indian silks and elaborate Bombyces (silks). then. from which a long filament is produced. well before we fall quite asleep.and of curious texture in the weaving bidding . takes its form more easily. For it is common to both to be covered. which cannot conceal the shape of the body. And if some accommodation is to be made. provided they put out of the way fabrics foolishly thin. as it is to eat and drink. being common. falling close to the body. we judge that the provision ought to be similar. see that one kind be not assigned to men and another to women. And the agreeableness of the colour .258 THE INSTRUCTOR. But this must not be yielded to. for they are of no service against cold nor . For it is remote is also to both from necessity and truth. Dyeing of clothes be rejected. a new transformation into a third form which they call larva. by which often men reared up in bad habits become more effeminate than women. [Book ii. as the spiders thread from the spider. so also their coverings ought to be similar although such a covering ought to be : assumed as is requisite for covering the eyes of women. we ought to blame the habit of that evil training. For as it is common to both to require things to cover them. lest the inclemency of the air injure us. I say. for defence against excess of cold and intensity of heat. For the use of colours is not beneficial. that man requires clothes for nothing else than the covering of the body. on account of their weakness. then from it is produced a hairy caterpillar after which the creature suffers . For such clothing. is no more a covering. so that the whole make of the body is visible to spectators. The necessity. For if the female sex. receives its shape. which is at first a worm. has it anything for covering more than other clothing. And if this is the object of clothing. except the opprobrium alone. For luxurious cloth- ing. and marks out the woman's figure. then. covering as they do the shame of the body with a slender veil.

11. But for those who and unstained within. have been invented with much trouble for mischievous voluptuousness. painted?" The Instructor expressly admonishes. But those that w ait at r 1 2 Dan. and be not elated on account of 3 any glory. " Boast not of the clothing of your garment. He says in the Gospel : u Lo. and that piece of luxury which has its name from beasts (figured on and that saffron-coloured it).Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR 259 afflicts greedy eyes. . they who live in gorgeous apparel and luxury are in earthly palaces. and those costly and many-coloured garments of flaring membranes. and those too. beneath 2 the altar. Daniel the prophet says. and another green. inflaming them to senseless blindness. " who sit covered with flowers. the natural colour of truth should suffice. and His 1 vesture was white as snow. where are love of display. Such clothing is for looking at. deriding those who are clothed in luxurious garments. 9." Accordingly. with gold. as the comic poet says " Useful for tragedians. xi. love of popularity. It says also. vii. " For what prudent thing can these women have done. "I saw the souls of those that had witnessed. it is most are white suitable to use white and simple garments. not for life." says the comedy. " Thrones were set. and scarlet. 25." And our ought to be anything rather than a pageant. wearing a saffron-coloured dress. Clearly and plainly. 8 Ecclus. along with purple and silver plate. variegated that are purple. and there was given to each a white robe. Eev. a rose-coloured. But garments which are like flowers are to be abandoned to Bacchic fooleries. and to those of the rites of initiation. and another of olive. Luke vii. therefore. ointment-dipped robe. we are to bid farewell to. vi. 9. 4 4. with the art itself. not for covering. life Therefore the dye of Sardis. Garments." The Apocalypse says also that the Lord Himself appeared wearing such a robe. and ten thousand other dyes." 4 He says in perishable palaces." And if it were necessary to seek for any other colour. and upon them sat one like the Ancient of days. as it is unlawful. and flattery and deceit.

to delight the 1 Prodicus. and mien are depicted as studiously framed to give pleasure. white-robed and pure. Vice. but the chaste married woman divides her life between God and her husband. sings." it is not luxurious raiment that he indicates . and her care is not divided. the court of heaven around the King of all. exchanging her husband for the world. " Vriio received gold prized above her dear husband. let us weave apparel pleasant and soft to the touch. the flesh. Virtue. and the elect are the golden tassels. brightened up with colour not her own and her gait . but he shows the immortal adorn- ment. But the other. clad in cloth of gold. like pictures. on the contrary. that is. girt with golden fringes. "If in this we must relax somewhat in the case of women. of the island of Ceus.2 GO THE INSTRUCTOR. As therefore she who is unmarried devotes herself to God alone. dress is to be preferred. are sanctified in the immortal vesture of the Spirit. viz." . And if such 2 must be woven for the women. sincerely serves God. the queen stood at Thy right hand. I mean Eriphyle. while she who is otherwise disposed is devoted entirely to marriage. to passion : in the same way I think the chaste wife. forming a sketch of wanton women. that is. speaking of the if the Lord by David. in which the guileless Jesus shines conspicuous as cold. dowered with modesty). the church . that is. she falls away from God and from chaste wedlock. of those that have found mercy." 1 Wherefore I admire the Ceian sophist. who delineated like and suitable images of Virtue and Vice. after the fashion of that Argive courtesan. And Word. But he who follows the Word will not addict himself to any base pleasure wherefore also what is useful in the article of . representing the former of these. and so put on incorruptibility. he introduces dressed in superfluous attire. not flowered. woven of faith. but when she becomes fond of finery. 2 Or by a conjectural emendation of the text. [Book ii. standing simply. when she devotes herself to her husband. adorned with modesty alone (for such ought to be the true wife. " The daughters of kings made Thee glad by honour . viz.

when stripped. But to drag one's clothes. letting them down to the soles of 1 Various kinds of robes. 2Alluding to the practice of covering the fleeces of sheep with sldns when the wool was very fine. It is the height of foolish ostentation to be in a flutter about peploi. and often was clad in sackcloth. 2. " Ye Though Miletus boast. For. the garb of humility." says Homer. 261 eye. and xystides. xx. and are sheep's wool. I am ashamed when I see so much wealth lavished on the covering of the secret parts. and fastened 4 the sheepskin with a girdle made of hair. 8. For the picture fades in course of time. i. was naked and barefooted. let us condemn sumptuousness of clothing. about which many rave. and retired to the solitude of the desert. 5 another prophet. been created for us." and tunics. 6 Jer. saying." Italy be praised. . bat trained by the Word." and was clad in it. to live in calmness with God. For 3 he also " ate locusts and wild honey. the lowly and chaste ways of the . Lord. he had only "a linen girdle. chose " camel's hair. since sheep have ." For as well-nurtured bodies. to prevent it being soiled by exposure. For primeval man in paradise provided a covering for his shame of branches and leaves and now. in truth." sweet and spiritual fare preparing. as he was. and " what covers shame. i. 5 Isa. show their vigour more manifestly. and 1 ephaptides. and render the fabrics of the garments weak and . xiii. be 2 protected beneath skins. and the wool. For how possibly could he have worn a purple robe. this is not favourable to economy. far from all frivolous pursuits — from all false show of good from all — meanness ? Elias used a sheepskin mantle. and the washing and steeping in the medicated juices of the dye wear away the wool. 6. and " cloaks. making himself an example of frugality and simplicity of life. And if you call Jeremiah. when not involved in ostentatious fooleries. who turned away from the pomp of cities.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOB. The blessed John. And Esaias. 3 Mark 4 2 Chron. let us not be as silly as sheep. 1. so also beauty of character shows its magnanimity. despising the locks of sheep as savouring of luxury. yet are we not to set our hearts on it.

and not only because it is prohibited to expose the ankle. for it is a wicked thing for beauty to be a snare to men. impeding activity in walking. 2. we must keep clear of all strangeness. . Thoagh you may with great propriety use the language addressed to him who said. is a piece of consummate foppery.262 THE INSTRUCTOR. And your face is comely. putting on light as a garment. In such another robe the Spirit arrayed the Lord through David. so in the use of them we must beware of extravagance. since even those emasculated creatures the dancers. And. Would it were possible to abolish purple in dress. who transfer their dumb shameless profligacy to the stage. his feet. [Book ii. the oracles of the Lord. in truth. in the fashioning of our clothes. then. in But the the manufacture of all the rest of their dress. resplendent with the rays of truth. by praises. thus inflaming the lusts. but it is not for the public gaze. so as not to turn the eyes of spectators on the face of those that wear it ! women. For neither is it seemly for the clothes to be above the knee. as they say was the case with the Lace- daemonian virgins becoming for any part of a woman . those women who are crazy about 1 Ps. and elaborate motions of figures. the garment sweeping the surface dirt of the ground like a broom . but because it has also been enjoined that the head should be veiled and the face covered . Your thighs are beauti- ful . when he sang thus u Thou wert clothed with confession and : comeliness." As. seemly for a Nor is it woman to wish to make herself conspicuous. have made everything of purple. that many-flowered coat shows the flowers of wisdom. was the reply. hunt after grounds of censure . but. nor is it to be exposed. by using a purple veil. do not despise the dress which flows away to such indignity whose curious vestments. for myhusband alone. civ. Yes . the varied and unfading Scriptures. fringes. and appendages of . but only for him who has married me." But I do not wish chaste women to afford cause for such praises to those who. show the trailing of sordid effeminacy. If one should adduce the garment of the Lord reaching down to the foot. a Your arm is beautiful yes.

But crafty women and effeminate men. and the vicinity of the Lacedaemonian Sea. from fools who. what is really good.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. are held in high esteem. in my judgment. a single dress at the price of ten thousand talents. But now. 263 these stupid and luxurious purples. and the body to the clothes. I say nothing of the 2 linens made of Amorgos and Byssus. they prove themselves to be of less use and less value than cloth. would never fetch a thousand Attic drachms. who blend these deceptive dyes with dainty fabrics. carry their insane desiresbeyond all bounds. On account of this purple. v. 83. The covering ought. and the purple fishes themselves. Why in the world do you seek after what is rare and costly. 1 2 Iliad. the soul to the body." 1 according to the poetic saying. like people out of their wits. in preference to what is at hand and cheap ? It is because you know not what is really beautiful. and export their fine linens no longer from Egypt. because their blood produces purple. Flax grown in the island of Amorgos. as they do. the body of these ladies. . Luxury has out- stripped nomenclature. quite the contrary. if sold. " purple (dark) death has seized. Buying. but some other kinds from the land of the Hebrews and the Cilicians. imagine black to be white. Tyre and Sidon. then. and seek with eagerness shows instead of realities. are very much desired . and their dyers and purple-fishers. as the image is superior to the temple. to show that which is covered to be better than itself.

partly for defence in case of stumbling against objects. showing also in this matter great luxuriousness. woman is a tender thing. and Persian and Tyrrhenian buskins and setting before us the right aim. carve on them amorous em- braces. " Wearing boots is near neighbour to wear- ing bonds. therefore. with our truth. they ought for the most part to wear shoes . Women are to be allowed a white shoe. easily hurt. Many. except when on a journey. must be bidden to gold-plated and jewelled mischievous devices of sandals. and for saving the sole of the foot from the roughnesses of hilly paths. AVhen on a journey." 2G4 . Farewell. Base. and best 1 virofoZfoffcct tw felsG0xi. and Attic and Sicyonian half-boots. Further. as if they would by their walk communicate to the earth harmonious movement. for it is not suitable for the foot to be shown naked : besides. except when he on military service. But for a man bare feet are quite in keeping. in truth. we are bound to select what is in accordance with nature. CHAPTER XII. as is the habit . For the use of shoes is partly for covering. and impress on it the wanton- ness of their spirit. OMEN fond of display act in the same manner with regard to shoes. OX SHOES. they require nailed shoes. and then a greased shoe must be used." To go with bare feet is most suitable for exercise. too. "For being shod is near is 1 neighbour to being bound. are those sandals on which golden ornaments are fastened but they are thought worth having nails driven into the soles in winding rows.

] THE INSTRUCTOR. Luke iii." For he who exhibited to the Hebrews the type of the true philosophy wore no elaborate shoes. But if we are not on a journey. 16. . Mark i. will be shown elsewhere. unless where necessity prevents. 1 2 xostiirohg. 1 we may use slippers or white shoes . 265 adapted for health and ease. As a witness for simplicity in shoes let John suffice. and cannot endure bare feet. What else this may imply.Book ii. as I think. on account of their bringing the feet near the dust. who avowed that " he was not worthy to un- 2 loose the latchet of the Lord's shoes. 7 . dusty-f oots the Attics called them.

and the Milesian " Emerald. most precious ware. and is about the bigness of a fish's eye of large size. on seeing the fire. ame- thysts. particles of the earth. the eye that watches in the flesh. Thus children. and out of it is produced the pearl. jT is childish to admire excessively dark or green stones. is only characteristic of silly people. And the wretched creatures are not ashamed athaving bestowed the greatest pains about this little oyster. This is produced in a kind to of oyster like mussels. indi- 266 . AGAINST EXCESSIVE FONDNESS FOR JETTELS AND GOLD ORNAMENTS. For to rush after stones that are pellucid and of peculiar colours. and stained glass. too. — the transparent Word. whom the Scripture has somewhere called a pearl. the Word of God. re- generated by water." And the highly prized pearl has invaded the women's apart- ments an extravagant extent. We have heard. rush to it. by whom the flesh. and things cast out by the sea on foreign shores. ceraunites. by being made like precious stones. the pure and pellucid Jesus. CHAPTER XIII. that the Jerusalem above is walled with sacred stones . who are attracted by things that have a striking show. For that oyster that is in the water covers the flesh all round. and we allow that the twelve gates of the celestial city. Such is the case with the stones which silly women wear fastened to chains and set in necklaces. topaz. jaspers. attracted by its bright- ness :not understanding through senselessness the danger of touching it. becomes precious. when they might adorn themselves with the sacred jewel.

" says the apostle. With these symbolically. are dug up by those among us who are condemned to death. vi. But that which is squandered on foolish lusts is to be reckoned waste. For the colours are laid on in precious stones." x But if all things have been conferred on you. which is spiritually built. the immortality and sanctity of being. u I possess. adducing the astounding apology. Wherefore ants dig. 1 Cor. and made all things for all. and ye seek not God but gold which is hidden. and all things allowed you. For this is the true luxury — the treasured wealth. therefore. But ye busy yourselves about what you need not. not expenditure. as is meet. " For whom were these things made. gape all they can for jewels. . and "if all things are 2 lawful. such as water and air. 267 cate the transcendent grace of the apostolic voice. " Thou shalt love thy — neighbour as thyself" is perfect.Book il] THE INSTRUCTOR. " I have it by me. and these colours are precious . By that brilliancy of stones. and possess in abun- dance : why then should I not enjoy 1 " is suitable neither to the man. the city of the saints. ismeant the inimitable brilliancy of the spirit. and not for the rich to appropriate an undue share. But these women. and griffins guard gold. For 1 2 Matt. why may I not enjoy it?" and. who comprehend not the symbolism of Scripture. and water. therefore. God brought our race into communion by first imparting what was His own. and the sea hides the pearl-stone. is walled. then. when He gave His own Word. if not for us ?" Such are the utter- ances of those who are totally ignorant of the will of God. But more worthy of love is that " I : have why should I not give to those who need ? " For such : — an one one who fulfils the command. and jewels. u Seek first the kingdom of heaven. He supplies free to all and what is not necessary He has hid in the earth . while the other parts remain of earthy material. x. That expression. nor to society. All things therefore are common. seeing it expressly cries. But you also oppose Scripture. For first necessaries. and all these things shall be added unto you. « Why may I not use what God hath exhibited ? " and. the whole heaven is lighted up. 23. common to all. 33. . yet all things are not expedient. Behold.

ma. while many are in want. and manliness. and godliness. . temperate. and He has determined that the use should be common. Laden with store of gold. whenever the character like a beam of light gleams in the form. that only the beautiful is good. the liberty of use. which is far from caring for virtue. But now even the soldiers wish to be decked with gold. to do away with this allegation : Who."' 1 But the love of ornament. rejecting adornment itself entirely. we must seek after what can be most readily procured. with a view to the use of what is necessary.268 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book ii. not he who is rich. than to live sumptuously ! How much wiser to spend money on human beings. Wherefore also only the virtuous man is really beautiful and £ood. will have the more sumptuous things. there- fore. than lifeless ornaments ! Whom have lands ever benefited so much as conferring favours has? It remains for us. For in the soul alone are beauty and deformity shown. if all select the simpler ? Men. And excellence alone appears through the beautiful body. then. he who is just. And it is monstrous for one to live in luxury. And the excellence of man is righteousness. and blossoms out in the flesh. not having read that poetical saying " With childish folly to the war he came. And it is laid down as a doe. I know -well. exhibiting the amiable comeliness of self-control. For the beauty of each plant and animal consists in its individual excellence. is to be utterly expelled. But if it be impossible for all to exercise self- restraint. and temperance. then. and show the inner woman beautiful. they must accordingly utterly cast off ornaments as girls'gewgaws. ii. How much more glorious is it to do good to many. In fine. 872. bidding a long farewell to these superfluities. For thev ouirht to be adorned within. good. I would say. yet. if they make use of them impartially and in- differently. 1 Iliad. The beautiful man is. and in a word. when the love of the beautiful has changed to empty show. hut only so far as necessary .but claims the body for itself. God has given to us. than on jewels and gold ! How much more useful to acquire decorous friends.

Aristophanes in the Thesmoplioriazousce exhibits the whole array of female ornament in a catalogue : f 1 EA7io/3. For is not the golden necklace a and do not the necklets which collar. then. and effeminate. therefore." In terms of strongest censure. Accordingly the comic poet Nicostratus says. but the exhibiting of yourselves fettered ? For if the material does away with the reproach. and a kind of a golden fetter. shading it with gold.] THE INSTRUCTOR 2 GO For applying things unsuitable to the body. the endurance [of your fetters] is a thing indifferent. those who voluntarily put themselves into bonds seem to glory in rich calamities. so also has ornament of gold maddened other women to vicious practices. x anklets. then..Book ii. collars. serpents. too. is this coveted adorning of yourselves. rings. ear-rings. but what is pompous. referring to ornaments as nothing but the badge of adultery.oi/ by conjecture.. they call catheters occupy the place of chains ? and indeed among the Attics they are called by this very name. bracelets. O ladies. For Homer called those. and by fashioning lampreys and serpents for decoration. But now women are not ashamed to wear the most manifest badges of the evil one. " Chains. the barbarians malefactors are bound with gold. as more suitable to the connection than 'Exxtfiopov or 'EA£/3o/3oy. as if they were and a habit of falsehood suitable. Perchance also it is such chains that the poetic fable says were thrown around Aphrodite when committing adultery. For as the serpent deceived Eve. luxurious. and truly childlike. begets a practice of lying and shows not what is decorous. in fastening around themselves ten thousand rich chains as they say that among . . though Hellebore may be intended as a comic ending. Hellebore of the MS. golden chains. using as a bait the form of the serpent." What else. The ungraceful things round the feet of women. To me. Philemon in the Synephebus called ankle-fetters " Conspicuous garments. And they know not how great is their transgression. simple. But these women obscure true beauty. The women seem to me to emulate these rich prisoners.

drink." But I have not yet mentioned the principal of them. 20. and saying to himself. To these the Spirit prophesies by Zephaniah : " And their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the Lord's anger. Fans. i. " Boy. Zeph. . compelled to wonder how those who bear such a burden are not worried to death. The rich man hoarding up in his barns. said to him. 1 Luke vii. emulating the art of the evil one. but richly got up. helicters. Girdle. round tunic. " Thou hast much goods laid up for many years eat. necklaces. it is suitable to adorn themselves not with gold. Fetters. soft garment. but with the 3 Word. the painter. chains. foolish trouble ! O silly craze for display ! They squander mere- triciously wealth on what is disgraceful : and in their love for ostentation disfigure God's gifts. natron. being incapable of painting her beautiful. bands. Bosses. Then what ? "Ear-pendants. Mallow-coloured cluster-shaped anklets Buckles." I am weary and vexed enumerating the multitude of at ornaments and I am . hair-net. that gold is discovered and brought to light. jewellery. " Snoods. back-band. Paints for the eyes. 19. not truly beautiful. of man. 3 Logos is identified with reason and it is by reason. band. 18."' "For this night they shall take of thee thy soul whose then shall those things which thou hast prepared be?" 1 Apelles. through whom alone the gold comes to light. seals. Sardian stones. [Book ii. . fillets. Barathrum. fine purple border. rings. shawl." the Lord in the Gospel plainly called "fool. Back-veil. paint. you have made her rich. or the ingenuity . olisbi. necklets. seeing one of his pupils painting a figure loaded with gold colour to represent Helen. Long robe.270 THE INSTRUCTOR. powders. ear-rings. clasps."" But for those women who have been trained under Christ." Such Helens are the ladies of the present day. tunic. and steel Pumice-stone. be merry.

an appearance. an image. not a reality. as often. that is. then. or only melted them. or becometh women professing gold. would have been the ancient Hebrews. as the name shows. saith 3 the Lord. and paid it idolatrous worship. therefore. granting that they are beautiful. " They made to Baal things of silver and gold. And most distinctly threatening. Hos. had they cast away their women's ornaments. ii. He says. " In like manner also. is not conspicuous. For sim- plicity. u I will punish her for the days of Baalim. of the want of beauty]. ornaments. nor commit idolatry through a specious pretext. " And she went after her lovers. 8. 10).Book ii. but (which godliness) with good works. Let not art contend against nature . It is suitable. when He said. let not falsehood strive with truth. or costly array. The lust which commits fornication with gold be- comes an idol. of what they do not possess [i. the blessed Peter 4 says. But they taught our women most expressively to keep clear of orna- ments. and she put on her ear-rings and her necklaces." And He subjoined the cause of the adornment. let us not take part in this meretricious adornment. says. that women adorn themselves not with braids. 271 Happy.e." Eesigning. And if they are by nature ugly. therefore. is not inflated 1 sfBaAoi/. upbraiding the Hebrews by the prophet. 4 By mistake for Paul. Most admirably. 9. nature suffices. but forgot me. ii. ii. ." For it is with reason that he bids decking of themselves to be kept far from them. these baubles to the wicked master of cunning himself. they are con- victed. therefore. Clement quotes here. in which they offered sacrifice 2 for her. and by furnishing from whatever is at hand the enjoyment sought from superfluities. For. but having cast their gold into the form of an ox.] THE INSTRUCTOR. Hence the Word. and is tested by fire for which alone luxury . For in reality simplicity provides for sanctity. for women who serve Christ to adopt simplicity. from memory (1 Tim. 2 3 Hos." that is. as being an idol. the things they apply to themselves. they consequently reaped no advantage either from their art or their attempt. 1 is reserved. by reducing redundancies to equality.

4 1 iii. or puffed up in aught. and free of excess. And let not their ears be pierced. such are the chains which God forges. Cor.272 TEE INSTRUCTOR [Book ii. and their nurse "Independence. Nor could there be any better ornament for the ears than true instruction. Let there. . be in the fruits of thy hands. a For he that giveth to the poor. and by itself furnishes what contri- butes to the blessed life. x. in order to attach to them ear-rings and ear-drops. and gentle. make a man a hearer and contemplator of divine and sacred things. And sufficiency and is a condition which reaches its proper end without excess or defect." For she is the true decoration. 3 more valuable than precious stones." 1 "And the hands of the manly shall be enriched. And eyes anointed by the Word. and acts of economy. "Happy is the man who hath found wisdom. 9. and ears pierced for perception. but is altogether even. And on your and a journey- feet let active readiness to well-doing appear. and equal. ." 1 Prow xix. Modesty and chastity are collars and necklaces." and this is a condition which is satisfied with what is necessary. s Prov. ing to righteousness. The mother of these is Justice. so is sufficient. then." says the Spirit by Solomon " for it is better : to buy her than treasures of gold and silver and she is . and are free in bestowing it. contrary to nature. ii. 13-15. the Word truly exhibiting the true beauty " which 4 eye hath not seen nor ear heard before. sacred order. 17. 4. and the mortal who knows understanding." 2 Manly He calls those who despise wealth. lendeth to God. Prov. liberal communication. For it is not right to force nature against her wishes. which finds its way naturally into the passages of hearing.

too. as appears. the sacred stole of the body. and by requiring as few things as possible. which is many-shaped the third department. know God and knowing God. " But he became moist water. and rejoices most when He sees us bright with the ornament of intelligence and then. to licentiousness. " At first he was a lion with ample beard. the varying sea-god. pleasures overflow. But the irascible part. adulteries. rejoices in him who is arrayed in chastity. to seductions. And appetite." 1 While he yet retained the ornament. being brutal. and a tree of lofty branches. not by wearing gold or long robes. is the inner man. beauty fades. S . he will be made . A man no longer appears like a strong wild beast. Now. BOOK III. • CHAPTER I. he will self. which is the ruler of this man that is seen. who changed himself now into one shape." Passions break out. the hair of the chin showed him to be a man. dwells near to insanity. in another respect. or a big sow. which is called the reasoning faculty." Love of ornament has degenerated to wantonness. Since then the soul consists of three divisions . God guides. iv. the intellect. and 1 Odyss. like God. God alone is in need of nothing. And that one. a pard. now into another and it allures to . is above Proteus. T is then. the greatest of all lessons to know one'sFor if one knows himself. 11 But after that a serpent. 457. ON THE TRUE BEAUTY. but by well-doing.

rightly said. Paul says. And the flesh being a slave. But the compassionate God Himself set the flesh free. speaking of the Lord. There another beauty of men love. " doth not behave itself unseemly : " for a figure which is not one's own. he does not ornament himself : his is beauty. becomes and fabricates For lust all things. Heraclitus. the holy embellishment of eternity — immortality. Wherefore he add?. and wishes to cheat. and is against nature. releasing it from destruction. as Paul testifies. how can one with any reason adorn the handmaid like a pimp? For that which is of flesh has the form of a servant. and is kind . But that man with whom the Word dwells does not alter him- self. when the amorous storms of lust blow on it before the coming of autumn. does not get himself up he has the form which is of : the Word . And the Mediator executes the Father's will for the Mediator is the Word. . and gods are men/' For the Word Himself is the manifest mystery God : in man. is unseemly. the look of superfluity and uselessness — vaunting one's is self. and the Word. u suffers long. since God so wills. as is clearly explained: "seeketh not." servant. 1 Cor. " Men are gods. of one's self out as it does. ii. vaunteth not itself. [Book hi. " And love. 4. from love. but the love of finerv seeks what is not its own. falls quicker than the leaf on the ground. And that the Lord Himself was uncomely in aspect. endowed it with incorruptibility. " Because He emptied Him- calling the outward man l self. he is beautiful . too. 7. for it is and that man becomes God." — according to the apostle. and is withered by destruction. God .274 THE INSTRUCTOR. and from bitter and deadly bondage. and man God. being apart from God. he is made like to God . but what is artificial is not one's own. : our Teacher." it is said. " what is not her own. the 1 2 Phil. so as to conceal the man. is not puffed up. and. the Saviour of men His Servant." For truth calls that its own which belongs to it . who is common : to both — the Son of God. xiii. previous to the Lord becoming a servant and wearing flesh. envieth 2 not . then. the true beauty. is." For the decking — carrying. taking the form of a servant. arraying the flesh in this.

which He exhibited. and He had no form nor comeliness but His form was mean. . inferior to .] THE INSTRUCTOR. men. the flesh —immortality. 1 Isa. — which in the former is beneficence . but the true beauty of both soul and body." 1 Yet who was more admirable than the Lord? But it was not the beauty of the flesh visible to the eye. 3. 2.Book hi. in the latter that is. 275 Spirit testifies by Esaias : " And we saw Him. liii.

and silver. looking grave. amber. AGAINST EMBELLISHING THE BODY. the halls are surrounded with many pillars and the walls . are unawares all waste in the inner depths. The god of the Egyptians appears a beast rolling on a purple couch. the aspect of the outward man. But those women who beautify the outside. will not be found within. and dyeing their hair. or a serpent of the country. and . but quite worthy of a den. then. painting their eyes. seek the image that is the inhabitant of the temple. remove a little of the veil to show the god. and. and glitter with parti-coloured gems from India and Ethiopia. or a crocodile. he will give you a hearty laugh at the object of worship.embroidered hangings. a hole. and there is no want of artistic painting and the temples gleam with gold. CHAPTER II. So those women who wear gold. gleam with foreign stones. But if you enter the penetralia of the enclosure. For the deity that is sought. in haste to behold something better. or the dirt. T is not. and engaged in anointing their cheeks. and singing a pasan in the Egyptian tongue. but a cat. and groves and sacred fields adjoining . and the shrines are veiled with gold. as is the case with the ornaments of the Egyptians among whom temples with their porticos and vestibules are carefully constructed. we may say also the flesh with the adornment of temperance. to whom you have rushed. but the soul that is to be decorated with the ornament of goodness. and practising the 276 . or some such beast unworthy of the temple. and if any priest of those that offer sacrifice there. occupying themselves in curling at their locks.

For he will not find the image of God dwelling within. for light aid what they have put on.Book hi. And that deceitful serpent. the dye. Un- awares the poor wretches destroy their own beauty. as is meet . filling all and injecting his own venom with deadly poisons . he will be dis- gusted. — in truth. of deception. Such women care little for keeping at home with their husbands. they chill the skin. their flesh. and plastering themselves over with certain compositions. —I mean the head-dress. which has .] THE INSTRUCTOR. racking. the veil. stain her cheeks. For love of display is not for a lady. imitate the Egyptians. the paint. by the introduction of what is spurious." nor. the gold. The woman who dyes her hair yellow. this pander of a dragon has changed women into whores. furrow the flesh with poisons. Wherefore they are seen to be yellow from the use of cosmetics. and susceptible to disease. man- gling. the clothes. Accordingly they season the flesh like a pernicious sauce and the day they bestow on the toilet shut . and. I would add. for no chaste Woman ought to make her hair yellow. with the view of finding within the true beauty. and with curiously prepared washes. At the dawn of day. Menander the comic poet expels from the house : " Now get out of this house. And the true beast will thus be detected — an ape smeared with white paint. but a courtesan. nor paint her eyes. decking the covering of flesh. they spend its supplies on their lusts. thus blighting their own beauty. devouring the understand- ing part of man through vanity. that they may have many witnesses of their seemingly fair appearance . I know well. —that is. has the soul as its hole. but loosing their husbands' purse-strings. up in their rooms. the cosmetics. the web consisting of them. 277 other pernicious arts of luxury. But if one withdraw the veil of the temple. they spend their time with their bought slaves. so as not to be caught decking themselves. in order to attract their infatuated lovers. But in the evening this spurious beauty creeps out to candle- drunkenness and the dimness of the light as out of a hole. but instead of it a fornicator and adulteress has occupied the shrine of the soul. devoting the whole day to their toilet.

she is combed. She goes back. then. and are framed against the rubbing of themselves with cosmetics. in Malthaca. " For first. sitting like painted things to be looked at. besmears herself . they be- come lazy in housekeeping. She is soaped. reproves them. as if the beauty given by Him were nothing worth. So they dishonour the Creator of men. All else is in their eyes superfluous. which with extrava- gance of statement shame the obstinacy of their impudence. She washes herself. ridicules the meretriciousness of women in words that apply to them all." 44 Isone of them little ? She stitches cork into her shoe-sole. how shall they not be rejected by the truth ? Accordingly another comic poet. And if aught is wrong. And I cannot for shame come to the assistance of women held up to such ridicule in comedy. Isone tall V She wears a thin sole. robes herself. and accusations on the 1 part of children?" In the same way. As you might expect. she goes back. not once. Then she rains her husband. is rubbed. Lysistrata. she is here. who use crocodiles' excrement. decks herself. causing the over- throw of houses. " What can we women do wise or brilliant. not as if made for domestic economy. being now in a melting state. Alexis. . For he was not very far beyond the mark. saying " She comes. and rub their cheeks with white lead.278 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book hi. Anoints herself. She has come. These. she goes out. and anoint themselves with the froth of putrid humours. For I shall adduce his words. I say. she advances. who are disgusting even to the heathen poets for their fashions. been shaded with poisons. do they deserve to perish. outraging the character of gentlewomen . she washes herself. And goes out keeping her head down on her shoulder 1 Aristophanes. chokes [with vexation]. looks in the glass. who sit with hair dyed yellow. and stain their eyebrows with soot. Antiphanes the comic poet. the ruin of nuptials. she approaches." Thrice. in comparison with gain and the spoiling of neighbours. "Wherefore in the comic poet the sensible woman says.

The divine Instructor enjoins us not to approach to another's river. Has one yellow eyebrows ? She stains them with soot. And by and by I will fortify them with the divine Scriptures. such as the nurses we see in the comic poets. "A full table and repeated cups " are enough to satisfy greed. ." He says. "Abstain from water that is another's. For he who does not escape notice is wont to abstain from sins. whether she will or not.Book in. so also cosmetics and dyes indicate that the soul is deeply diseased. are not of such magnitude as fondness for finery." the wanton that flows to all. So that she must keep them apart the whilst. on account of the shame of reproof. Has one any part of the body beautiful ? She shows it bare. since the Word most strenuously wishes to save us. With a slender sprig of myrtle between her lips. That those present may see what a pretty mouth she has __7 . as it were." I set these quotations from the comic poets before yon. she passes the day withiu. the protuberance of the stomach in front. happen to be black ? She smears them with ceruse. 1 and that years of life may be added to us. meaning by the figurative expression " another's river. both by not hunting after the pleasure that belongs to another.] THE INSTRUCTOR. Just as the plastered hand and the anointed eye exhibit from their very look the suspicion of a person in illness. though great vices. to render it straight. and by diverting our inclinations." "another's wife. She draws back." admonishing us to shun the stream of " voluptuousness. ix. Love of dainties and love of wine. by these poles. 18. " and drink not of another's well. Has she beautiful teeth? She must needs lau^h. so that the spectators May exclaim on her fine shape behind. Has shea prominent stomach? By making additions. Like what cooks have always at hand when they have goats' heads to sell. 279 This takesaway from her height. But if not in the humour for laughing. 1 Prov. Do they. and out of licentiousness gives herself up to meretricious enjoy- ment with all." that we may live long. Is one very white-skinned ? She rouges. Has one no flanks ? She has something sewed on to her.

are crazy about their figures. are fond of gold. hunting after those that. nor yet Pactolus flowing with gold not . not in heart.280 THE INSTRUCT OB. 30. and bought. If any one were to call these courtesans. but would be still poor. he would make no mistake. 2 Cor." says the Word by Jeremiah. iv. and anoint thine eyes with stibium. blind too % Having. in mane. ii. are not those women that are crazy about him. [Book hi. 2 dress to please others. nor the freight that comes from India and Ethiopia. and many specta- tors. 1 Thess. and elaborate braidings. as if inferior to the brute creation. rejoicing in ornament that is their own. and have a fellow-feeling with him. and strolling in the temples. that they may be seen conspicuously by all. so do gaudy colours the adulteress. and painted beauty ? Head-dresses and varieties of head-dresses. for the things that are seen are temporal. woman. and the rest of the animals. but the things that are not 4 seen are eternal. But us the Word enjoins u to look not on the things that are seen. and costly specimens of mirrors. they push on to shame- lessness. 17. should think herself so unlovely as to need foreign. are necessary to them. is that 1 2 3 4 Wealth. nor the Tyrian Sea. iv. for they turn their faces into masks. Such people are ready to die with their gold. And if Plutus l is blind. but the things that are not seen . Is it not monstrous. in vain is thy beauty. neither the gold that is above the earth and below it is suffi- cient." But what passes beyond the bounds of absurdity. " For though thou clothe thyself in scarlet. birds. — are characteristic of women who have lost all sense of shame. For as the brand shows the slave. and deck thyself with ornaments of gold. For those that glory in their looks. in which they arrange their costume. like silly children. then. no limit to their lust. Jer. and pageants. 18. . For the theatre. and loitering in the streets. even were a man to become a Midas would he be satisfied. craving other wealth. that while horses. and jewels. and natural colour. spring and bound from the grass and meadows. and infinite modes of dressing the hair. But to those who and purple. and varied plumage .

For as the Greek fable has it. what thinks He of spurious beaut}^. not by sight. then. who had despised the substance which he had possessed at home. For * man looketh on the eyes.Book in. the Lord counts the natural beauty of the body inferior to that of the soul.] THE INSTRUCTOR. it was not a fortunate thing for the beau- tiful Narcissus to have been the beholder of his own image. 2 Cor. being delighted with him. " He that judged the goddesses. and possessions." 2 Very clearly the Lord accordingly teaches by Abraham. The spouse adorned herself mystically for her royal husband . 7. in order to the falsifying of their face ? Likewise also. And that decoration makes women courtesans. And therefore also He called him His friend." And he anointed not him that was comely in person. And if Moses commanded men to make not an image to represent God by art. and on seeing the eldest of his sons to be fair and tall. but the Lord into the heart. how can these women be right. having come*from Phrygia 2 i 1 Sam. but him that was comely in soul. If. but her beauty turns out the redemption price of a people that were about to be massacred. produced the anointing oil. and all wealth. 281 they have invented mirrors for this artificial shape of theirs. rejecting utterly as He does all falsehood ? u For we walk by faith. and very opulent . that he who follows God must despise country. The de- ception rather requires a veil thrown over it. xvi. v. As the myth of the Argives has it. and men effeminate and adulterers. For he was of good parentage. Esther alone we find justly adorned. 7. " Look not to his appearance. the Lord said to him. when Samuel the prophet was sent to anoint one of the sons of Jesse for king. as if it were some excellent work or masterpiece. the tragic poet is a witness thus discoursino. and so with three hundred and eighteen servants of his own he subdued the four kings who had taken Lot captive. by making him a stranger. who by their own reflection produce an imitation of their own likeness. . and relations. nor the height of his stature : for I have rejected him.

slides down into licentiousness. and the summits of many-fountained . And the streams of the rivers are choked with dead bodies. departed." Breasts are beaten in lamentations." What an end was it that ensued to them. and the plains are crowded with dead the bar. To Lacedsemon. and all was thrown into confusion by a barbarian boy.282 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book in." 1 adulterous beauty ! Barbarian finery and effeminate luxury overthrew Greece Lacedaemonian chastity was cor- . of continents a protracted war breaks out. : barian assails the fleet with outrage . . O Homer. and the cities of the Trojans. inexperienced boy. "'Travel not by lust into adultery. not having learned to drive. Ida. to the folds of Ida. Where. nor one to say. 71. Loving. "Do not commit adultery. The whole of Hellas puts to sea the ocean is burdened with the weight . by whom alone the chariot of fire is miided. and fierce battles . Nor mount the seat. arrayed in flowery vestments. They had no instructor to restrain their lusts. display proved Jove's daughter a courtesan. "Influence not thy passions by desire of adornment. are waged. and luxury. Helen. and grief desolates the land and all the feet. wickedness prevails. instructed by the Word. and the ships of the Achosans. "Lust not. carrying away her he loved. rupted by clothes. and gets a fall as the due reward of its transgression." or further. Glittering with gold and barbaric luxury. An example 1 2 lpltigenia in Aulis. who would not restrain their self-will Two ! continents were convulsed by unrestrained pleasures. and the eye of that poetic Jove looks on the Thracians : " The barbarian plains drink noble blood. and what woes they endured. having found that Menelaus was away from home." 2 Heaven delights in two charioteers. Phaethon of Euripides. For the mind is carried awav by pleasure and the unsullied principle of reason. and graceful beauty barbaric . when not . shall we flee and stand ? Show us a spot of ground that is not shaken ! " Touch not the reins." nor. shake." or.

Book hi. 283 of this are the angels. vi. 1 Gen. and so from heaven to earth. fell The Shechemites. The grave was their punish- ment. and the monument of their ignominy leads to salvation. too. 2. were punished by an overthrow for dishonouring the holy virgin. who renounced the beauty of God for a beauty which fades. 1.] THE INSTRUCTOR. .

If nothing is left undone by them. and adepts at this meretricious fornication make a deal of money openly by those who plaster themselves. has luxury advanced. they are not in health . " Come. neither shall any tiling be left unspoken by me. Diogenes. whose whole body is made smooth by the violent tuggings of pitch-plasters. these fickle wretches do reckless and nefarious deeds. but inclining to voluptuous- ness. It is utterly impossible to get beyond such effrontery. AGAINST MEN WHO EMBELLISH THEMSELVES. and pluck out hairs from these womanish creatures. detesting thebloom of manliness." says the Sibyl. addicted to both kinds of venery. nor before themselves. then. being men. when he was being sold. O such an extent. destitute of hair. For not beino. haters of hair. clothed in fine and transparent garments. said very manfully. CHAPTER III. chewing mastich. What can one say on seeing them ? Like one who judges people by their foreheads. feeling no shame before the onlookers or those who approach. " Living for unholy acts of audacity. but men also are infected with the disease. Fur their service the towns are full of those who take out hair by pitch-plasters. he will divine them to be adulterers and effeminate. shave. Such are those addicted to base passions. cutting their hair in an ungentle- manly and meretricious way. and give their hair to be pulled out in all ways by those who make it their trade. free of the love of finery. and adorn- ing their locks like women. And shops are erected and opened everywhere. theybecome effeminate. 284 . that not only are the female sex deranged about this frivolous pursuit. smelling of perfume. chicling like a teacher one of these degenerate creatures.

20-24. which .] THE INSTRUCTOR. 9. for the sake of fine effect. the head covered with grey hairs. xxv. buy for yourself a man. do these godless ones with God. the old man (not the hoary man.Book in. For it is not dreadful. 1 " And none other. v. been taught by Him. He who is older than all things. 36. to arrange his hair at the looking-glass. a man hastes to the end. then. But though they do doctor the hair cleverly. It is not. : concerning the former conversation. " can make the hair white or 2 black. " But ye have not so learned Christ if so be that ye have heard Him. and anointing of grey locks. Eph." says Scripture and the hoary hair of ." But for one who is a man to comb himself and shave him- self with a razor. but him that is) corrupt according to deceitful lusts and be renewed (not by dyeings and ornaments). it is not dreadful to appear old." says the Lord. since He is the eternal aged One. their countenance is the blossom of large experience. 6. The more. work in rivalry then. these are practices of abandoned effeminates and their . when you are not able to shut your eyes to the fact that you are so. not possible for him to show the it is soul true who has a fraudulent head. that like serpents they divest themselves of the old age of their head by painting and renovating themselves. when they trans- mute the hair made white by Him ? " The crown of old men 3 is great experience." chastising his meretri- ciousness by an ambiguous speech. as the truth is in Jesus that ye put off." says the prophet. But for those who are men and smooth themselves. iv. pluck hairs out i Dan. or rather violently oppose Him. in the spirit of your mind and put on the new man. vii. and dyeing them yellow." How. the more truly venerable is he. nor will they elude death by tricking time. 2 Matt. of His head was as pure wool. having God alone as his senior. they will not escape wrinkles. feminine combing of themselves let alone. Prophecy has called him the " Ancient of days and the hair . 3 4 Ecclus. and have . 285 youngster. . but . to shave his cheeks. For is a thing to be they think. But these dishonour the reverence of age. 4 after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. how ignoble to shave for ! As dyeing of hair.

conciliat- ing confidence. This is a device of enervated men. This. But the embellishment of . For God wished women to be smooth. like the lions. he has decked with combs. and hang them from their necks. So also cocks. vet out of effeminate desire they enwreath their latches and fringes with leaves of gold . hairiness. producing grey hairs. and discriminating judgments that are hoary with wisdom. with shaggy breasts. ! unless you saw them naked. per- fect than imperfect. and endowed him. Whatever smoothness and softness was in him He abstracted from his side when He formed the woman Eve. and rejoice in their locks alone growing spontaneously. the beard. and dispersed hair over man's whole body. as an attribute of manhood. Wherefore males have both more hair and more heat than females. as to her suffering. and by the vigour of long experience give strength to old age.286 THE INSTRUCTOR. with a beard. how womanly And. animals that are entire than the emasculated. the mark man. his help in generation and household management. And to him has been assigned action. or. is older than Eve. delighted with a venerable look. and smooth them. for what is shaggy is drier and warmer than what is smooth. while he (for he had parted with all smoothness) remained a man. For although not allowed to wear sold. getting certain spherical figures of the same metal made. which fight in defence of the hens. of them. — a sign this of strength and rule. these locks. who are dragged to the women's apartments. as a horse in his mane. But wisdom. of the by which he is seen to be a man. the admirable flower of venerable wisdom. and. For this is a meretricious and impious form of snare. then. they fasten them to their ankles. In this God deemed it right that he should excel. has honoured gravity of countenance with grey hairs. and is the token of the superior nature. adapted to the reception of seed. in truth. as it were helmets and so high a value does God set on . [Book m. you would suppose them to be women. attain maturity with time. amphibious and lecherous beasts. that He orders them to make their appearance on men simultaneously with discretion. but has adorned man. and shows himself man. It is therefore impious to desecrate the symbol of manhood.

" a harlot of the daughters of Israel ." But the pitch does good.] THE INSTRUCTOR. Deut. it defames.Book hi. is it not the extreme of licentiousness? For those who engage in such practices in public will scarcely behave with modesty to any at home. No one who would wish to appear entertains right sentiments a fornicator. say I.isvYiu seems to be here used in a middle. and in the act of bending back and bending down. and those on the whole body. the uncovering openly of nature's unmentionable parts. xxiii. But the using of pitch to pluck out hair (I shrink from even mentioning the shamelessness connected with this process)." said the Word by Moses. " But the very hairs of your head l are all numbered. voluntarily choose to do this. For he who in the light manhood. stepping out and bending back- wards in shameful postures. I say. too. 5. is the act of an effeminate person. according to His purpose. is the act of an adulterer and both must be driven as far as . There must be therefore no plucking out. — if to attract women. " Know ye not yourselves.»Totpt9f<. . were he not the victim of that vice. " There shall not be. and in the gymnasium. yet not ashamed of themselves. 30." says the apostle. not a passive sense. No one would. u For if God foreknew those who are called." says the Lord those on the chin. where the prowess of man is tested : the following of this unnatural practice. Their want of shame in public attests their un- bridled licentiousness in private. to be conformed to the image of His Son. which has counted 2 them in according" to His will. t 3 4 2 Cor. according to the blessed 1 Matt. if it is to attract men. x. it is said." for whose sake. there shall not 4 be a fornicator of the sons of Israel. 2 tyx. I know not how we could have dared to dishonour. are numbered. possible from our society. as x. and study to defame the beauty of his form. contrary to God's appointment. 287 smoothing (for I am warned by the Word). xiii. a that Christ Jesus is in you?" 3 Whom. of day denies his will prove himself manifestly a woman by night. 17. Nay.Yi uivog is sometimes. had we known as dwelling in us.ocTccpi(){*Y}f. conducting themselves without shame in the midst of the youth.

but lusts. are at once wives and husbands no passage is closed against : libidinousness and their promiscuous lechery is a public . forces everything. often without their know- ledge. contrary to nature women . and lasciviousness is diffused over the cities. Alas for such wickedness ! Besides. offering their own flesh for hire for lewd pleasure. it has disgraced man. Luxury has deranged all things .288 THE INSTRUCTOR." are they not godless who treat with indig- nity the body which form with the Lord ? is of like The man. and luxury is domesticated. viii. [Book in. They who commit adultery against nature think themselves i Rom. if com- pelled. having become law. must adorn. He has appointed " Him to be the first-born among 1 many brethren. I pity the boys possessed by the slave-dealers. they would. have intercourse with a son that has debauched himself. attempts everything. act the part of women. crable indulgence in pleasure they call a thing indifferent.But they are not treated with ignominy by themselves. and daughters that are prostitutes and licence in lust shows . die rather than do ? But life has reached this pitch of licentiousness through the wantonness of wickedness. his mind. if they were men. But how disgusting are those who willingly practise the things to which. 28. Men play the part of women. that which is the most beautiful thing in man. A luxurious niceness seeks everything. . that are decked for dishonour. For unmindful of children fathers. and women that of men. O miserable spec- tacle ! horrible conduct Such are the trophies of your ! social licentiousness which are exhibited the evidence of these : deeds are the prostitutes. coerces nature. taught to deny their sex. them to be the men that have begotten them. of theirs that have been exposed. Beside them women stand in the stews. These things your wise laws allow people may sin legally and the exe- : . which every day he ought to exhibit in greater comeliness. who would be beautiful. the wretches know not how many tragedies the uncertainty of intercourse produces. and should pluck out not hairs. apostle. but by command the wretches are adorned for base gain. 29. institution. and boys.

they purchase death for a small sum of money. then. walk. and the result is notorious the : whole earth has now become full of fornication and wicked- ness. whose voices are feeble. The miserable dealers in these wares sail. and effeminate (yvviBesi). 29. xix. and whose clothes are womanish both in feel and dye." 1 Such was predicted of old. dragging on themselves inevitable calamity. 27. cxxxiii. 3 Ecclus. and the land become full of wickedness. like wine or oil . the : 3 step of his foot. the laugh of his teeth. shoes. will not women with strong propensities to lust practise. and others.] THE INSTRUCTOR 289 free from aciulterv. youth is most graceful. plucking out the rest of their hair. lest the land fall to whoredom." For these. " For from his look shall a man be known. their clothes. contrary to the law of nature. for the most part. to preserve peace also with his hair. xix. to cause her to be a whore. but lewd wretches (/3aTa\ot). all but binding their locks 1 Lev." says the Scripture. man's natural and noble ornament. only dress that on the head. when they look on men perpetrating such enor- mities ? Rather we ought not to call such as these men. tell tales of him. u Do not prostitute thy daughter. traffic in pleasures as they do in bread and sauce. And it becomes him who is rightly trained. and. look. cut of their hair." By and by he is anointed. 2G. 2 Ps. And such creatures are manifestly shown to be what they are from their external appearance. "A youth with his first beard for : with this. on whom peace has pitched its tent. T .Book hi. For it is not lawful to pluck out the beard. What. 2. according to the righteous- ness of the law. bringing a cargo of fornication. form. I admire the ancient legislators of the Romans : these detested effeminacy of conduct :and the giving of the body to feminine purposes. delighting in the beard " on which descended" the prophetic "ointment" 2 with which Aaron was honoured. Avenging iustice follows their audacious deeds. not heeding the words of Moses. they judged worthy of the extremest penalty. " and from meeting a man the man is known the dress of a man. farmore wretched.

gentler than the barbarians. Perish. the Celts and Scythians wear their hair long. as is reported of furious wolves. then. he asks his horse for suste- nance . when injured. As clear witnesses will be produced by the German. For human blood has become a partaker of the Word : it is a participant of grace by the 1 Hesiod. To the nomad the horse is at once conveyance and sustenance and the warlike youth of . And if drink fail the barbarians. like but are armed by their hair in the fight and boars even are . . O man. to touch blood. 2 and by the Scythian. them when they see them bristling their hair. And when faint with hunger. leaving its luxurious ease. carrying and nourishing their masters at the same time. 2 Of which they drink. but sweep bravely over the desert. " The fleecy sheep are loaded with their wool." 1 And their wool the loving Father has made abundant for thy use. The bushy hair of the barbarian has something fearful in and its auburn (J. the Rhine. they do not spare even their blood. and he offers his veins. threatens war. the Scythian man leads a frugal life. Works and Days. the waggon. [Book hi. they milk them . And these. For a house and less encumbered than the waggon.290 THE INSTRUCTOR. and mounting it. Of the nations. Both these barbarian races hate luxury. Sometimes the Scythian despises even the waggon its size seems sumptuousness to the barbarian and : . he takes his horse. with filletswomen. sufficient. made imposing by their mane the hunters are afraid of . Lions dory * n their skasgy hair. but do not deck themselves. and supplies his master with all — he possesses his blood. run at the same time. bear no remembrance of the wrong. They sit on breeding camels and these feed and . 232. the hue being somewhat akin to blood. i. the Arabians (these are other nomads) are mounted on camels. carrying their masters the whilst. and after that their food is spent.av66v) colour it . having taught thee to shear their fleeces. whose body is nothing but flesh elabo- rated of blood. is borne where he wishes. and bear the house with them. the savage beasts whose food is blood ! For it is unlawful for men.

address the Lord. But I approve the simplicity of the barbarians loving an : unencumbered life. Man may. the barbarians have abandoned luxury. though naked in body. and any one injure him. naked of vanity. 291 Spirit. aiming only at salvation. — Such the Lord calls us to be naked of finery. wrenched from our sins.] THE INSTRUCTOR. he will not escape un- if noticed. bearing only the wood of life. .Book hi.

and must find fault with having large numbers of domestics. And male and female assistants at the toilet are employed about the ladies — some for the mirrors. men have recourse to servants. and honey- cakes. to indulge not one in pleasure. and of others to divide the meat skilfully into pieces. and bakers. others for the combs. The Word. . l "take your daughters to be perfumers. and cooks. others guard the gold. viiL 13. UT reallv I have unwittingly deviated in spirit from the order. and make ready what is needed to furnish the festive table others rub down the horses and . like cattle. like griffins others keen : the silver. "who shall. some for the head-dresses. But a true eunuch is who is unable. and these panders serve without suspicion those that wish to be free to enjoy their pleasures.'' 1 1 Sam. purchasing a great crowd of line cooks. a crowd of cup-bearers exert themselves in their service. 202 . promised not a loving lord. from whom they milk away their beauty. Many are eunuchs. testifying by the prophet Samuel to the Jews. : and the compounders and makers of sweetmeats. because of the belief that they are unable to indulge in lust. and of people to lay out the table." He says. avoiding working with their own hands and serving themselves. but threatened to give them a self-willed and voluptuous tyrant. WITH WHOM WE ARE TO ASSOCIATE. CHAPTER IV. carvers and seasoners. and herds of beautiful boys. others are occupied with their too nume- rous clothes. And the staff of servants is separated into many divi- sions some labour for their gluttony. and custards. but one who is unwilling. to which I must now revert. and wipe the cups. For. who had transgressed when the people asked for a king.

" in the streets of the city. on account of not wishing to be seen." it is said. and wearing out body and soul with their false acts and words. insinuating 1 Ex. learning charms and incantations from soothsayers. but disorder . not desiring a peaceful administra- tion. But those who impose on women. and giving up themselves as a vessel of pleasure to those that wish to indulge in wantonness and exchanging . and looking keenly round on all that direct their eyes towards them. and begging priests. They know not that they are cheating themselves."" For that is. 31. u for evil. spending their time with fortune-tellers. J THE INSTRUCTOR. spend the day with the them. are no- where. for it were commendable if out of such feelings they put themselves under a covering . a Look not round. ings over their cups. . " Thou shalt not be with many. and dis- reputable old women and they keep up old wives' whisper- . that they purchase bearers. And some men they keep by others they are kept and others are promised . who bear aloft on their shoulders women's But workers in wool.Book hi. in a multitude. And these women are carried about over the temples. a lonely place. where no wise man is present. and female work and housekeeping. they show their manners . sacrificing and practising divination day by day. to the ruin of the nuptial bonds. in truth. 293 ruling by the law of war. . though there be a crowd of the licentious in it. they think what is the most shameful ruin a great stroke of business. . So. opening the curtain. disgrace this superficial propriety by their dangerous restlessness. and weavers. nor give thyself to a wl multitude for wisdom shows itself among few. Ecclus. litters. and spinners. And there are many ministers to this meretricious licentiousness. and often bending forth from within. telling them silly amatory stories. And there are many Celts. 2. their purity for the foulest outrage. but it is out of luxuriousness that they are carried on their domestics' shoulders. xxiii. and desire to make a show." it is said. But it is not for grounds of propriety. them by the diviners. and wander not in its lonely places. xi.

filthy in language. giggling and whispering. [Book hi. or covetous apostle. and look askance at a just old man. and in the fear of the Lord let thy boast remain.' 1 And in another place. as if they had got anger dwelling in their nostrils." But these women delight in intercourse with the effeminate. when inflamed by any provocation. And though maintain- ing parrots and curlews. playing with satyrs. 22. make a sound in their nose like a frog. but in those wretches which are a burden on the earth. ministers of adultery. Whence the Scripture most strenuously exhorts. man." says the "that no fornicator. and these women. or those that follow the rabble of abominable creatures to destruction. to which Homer applies this epithet. pride themselves not in their husbands. xi. more refined But those who are than these keep Indian birds and Median pea-fowls. but they expose children that are born at home. another from another. For the licentious rush readily into uncleanness. u Introduce not every one into thy house. "Let just men be thy 2 guests. And sometimes. " For know this well. or unclean person. delighting in monsters. like swine rushing to that part of the hold of the ship which is depressed. Ecclus. and shamelessly making through their noses sounds of lewdness and fornication to provoke lust. And crowds of abominable creatures (/aiWSe?) flow in. they do not receive the orphan child. They laugh when they hear Thersites. the precursor of fornication. ix. themselves. either these fornicators. purchasing Thersiteses highly valued. in allusion to Thersites. 31. and take up the young and prefer irrational to rational creatures of birds." Away with fornication. and 4 recline with peak-headed creatures . who is lovelier in my estimation than a monster purchased for money. for the snares of the crafty are many.294 THE INSTRUCTOR. endeavour- ing to please by lewd words and attitudes. and overlook the chaste widow. . inciting to laughter. men enough for lewd offices. of unbridled tongue. hath any inheritance in the kingdom a of Christ and of God. v. who is an idolater. 4 <po£*V. who is of far higher value than a Melitiean pup. 3. filthy in body. one from one quarter. . Ecclus. although they ought to undertake the maintenance of old 1 2 3 Epli.

Prov. 17. ye have done it to me.] THE INSTRUCTOR. prefer ignorance to wisdom. "humbles a man. turning their wealth into stone. . " 1 and this. 40. 4. . xxv. " He that pitieth the poor lendeth to the Lord. who are fairer in my mind than and capable of uttering something better apes. Matt. 3 "Poverty." it is said. "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least of these my 2 brethren. xix. and bought slaves. than nightingales and to set before them that saying. And they into pearls squander and throw away their wealth on fading dyes. 1 2 3 Prov. having nothing to give away. that is. 295 people with a character for sobriety.Book hi. like crammed fowls scraping the dung of life. and Indian emeralds. x." By poverty is meant that niggardliness by which the rich are poor." But these. on the other hand.

For there they are not ashamed to strip before spectators. And articles of silver with which they make a show. '2<JG . BEHAVIOUR IN THE BATHS." 1 The baths are opened promiscuously to men and women . that they sup and get drunk while bathing. 371. who after a little insult them naked. some for bathing. compact. ii. transparent. themselves cannot meet and cannot sweat without a multitude of vessels. they ostentatiously set out in the baths. for they have arrived at such a pitch of self-indulgence. They will scarce strip before their own husbands. Besides these. and thus display perchance their wealth out of excessive pride. portable. and ten thousand vessels of gold and silver. Works and Days. are carried about with them. affecting a plausible pretence of modesty . CHAPTER V. as with a bait. thcv hook the miserable creatures that gape at the glitter of gold. and 1 lies. And gold-plated chairs. there are even braziers of coals . who have been vanquished by women proving at least that they . covered with fine linen. may see them at home shut up naked in their baths. and silver ones. although poorwomen who have no display equally enjoy their baths. But Ilesiod advises " Not to wash the skin in the women's bath. but chiefly the capricious ignorance. too. as if exposing their persons for sale. The dirt of wealth. some for drinking. some for eating. they artfully try to win the admiration of their lovers. through which they brand effeminate men. With this. then. has an abundant covering of censure. For dazzling thus those fond of display. but any others who wish. ND of what sort are their baths? Houses skil- fully constructed.

1 2 Matt. if he regard God as ever present with him. lust. 28. own servants. " hath 1 sinned already. divesting themselves of their modesty along with their chemise. and are rubbed by them giving to the crouching menial liberty to . and guard against these danger- ous sights. in the ways. The ancient ashamed to exhibit a man naked. as if modesty had been washed their away in the hath." it is said. affording to women a noble example of truth. Disease in both is known from the look. women. who is everywhere. 3. they ought to regard with modesty parents and domestics . wish to appear beautiful. For those who are introduced before their naked mistresses while in the bath. ought to be ashamed at their stripping before them. 297 there they strip for licentious indulgence (for from looking. therefore. preserved their athletes. those they meet in the baths. themselves and .] TBE INSTRUCTOR. Men. the water covered by the skin. but contrary to their wish are simply proved to be wicked." At home. casting off fear in consequence of the wicked custom. as in the case of dropsical people. v. everywhere the Word. study to strip themselves in order to audacity in lust. John i. women in solitude. " and without Him was not anything. modesty by going through the contest in drawers but these ." 2 For so only shall one remain without falling.Book in. . For through the body itself the wantonness of lust shines clearly . Those who have not become utterly destitute ofmodesty shut out strangers but bathe with their . and strip naked before their slaves. men get to loving). . " for he who has looked curiously. by permitting fearless handling. therefore. .

And riches. is worth fifteen talents ." and shall not live. and is wicked. not sordidly. one knows how to lay hold of it without danger by the point of the tail. " where is neither moth nor robber. CHAPTER VI. He who has sold his worldly goods. or domestic. then. "thou Mi he be insignificant. "That the good man. or voice. despising them. or look. " Though a man. which will twist round the hand and bite unless . ought to be perpetually repeated. THE CHRISTIAN ALONE RICH." Take away." and haughty as he who was luxuriously clothed in purple and fine linen. so as to crush 298 . wriggling either in an experienced or inexperienced grasp. and have a more sickly up- bringing. bestowed lovingly. are dexterous at adhering and biting. But they differ in that they are feebler than their slaves. or land. then. " he is miserable. or gold. " His horse. This best of maxims. and given them to the poor." treasures up his wealth in heaven. ijICIIES are then to be partaken of rationally. directly the ornaments from women. so like are they to their slaves. and domestics from masters. finds the imperishable treasure. use them skilfully. then. but the man himself is dear at three coppers. or pompously nor is the love of the beautiful to be turned into self-love and ostentation lest perchance some one . and lives in trouble. say to us. and feeble." Blessed truly is he. Wealth seems to me to be like a serpent." and he is truly rich with the greatest of all riches. and obscure. unless one. being temperate and just. and you will find masters in no respect different from bought slaves in step. and despised Lazarus. be richer than Cinyras and Midas.

For he whose it is to desire nothing that is not in our power. 4 poor. But. Let it. are good. or clothing. . 11." 1 And again: "Acquire me rather than gold. or gold. not accruing from cattle and fields. nor . good things are possessed by Christians alone. 10. who possesses what is worth most. but calls self-help as a servant. Ps. let it be granted that he is rich who has many possessions. but he who gives away. a fool or a libertine can neither have any perception of what is good. "instruction. and the Word is more valuable than all treasure. or beauty of person. The soul alone is its treasure. but given by God riches which cannot be — taken away. 4 xi. viii. that are of high value. he hath given to the written. he alone." 2 . though not recognised as such. For righteousness is true riches. alone are rich. not possession. is anything that is valuable equal in worth to her.] THE INSTRUCTOR. because grace is order. which is the Word given by the Instructor to be put in practice. his righteousness endureth for ever. This is the Word. as is reasonable. And it is not jewels. viii. that is rich." 3 of whom it is "He hath dispersed. and silver for my produce is better than choice silver. rendering man truly blessed. and not silver. that riches are. 9. theprogeny of temperance. and praises frugality. be granted that good things are the property only of good and Christians men . Ac- cordingly. then. It is the best possession to its possessor." he says. and knowledge rather than tested gold for Wisdom is better than precious stones. and precious stones. s Prov. But if we must distinguish. 19. 1 2 Prov. It is in the soul. loaded with gold like a dirty purse but the righteous alone is graceful. "For there are those who sow and reap more. and it is giving away. " Receive. nor obtain possession of it. who abjures luxury. which renders a man happy and the fruit of the Spirit is generosity. and himself escape unscathed. then. And nothing is richer than these good things therefore these . but virtue . observing a due and decorous measure in managing and dis- tributing. Now. Prov. 24. turns out truly rich." So that it is not he who has and keeps. 299 the creature by the charm of the Word.Book hi. cxii.

and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. "shall be 1 given. [Book nr. 1 Matt. all things belong to the godly. vii. ." it is said. does he not possess much. having God as his ever- lasting treasure? "To him that asks." If God denies nothing. 8. and to obtainby asking from God what lie piously desires.300 THE INSTRUCTOR. 7. nay all.

he has power to eat all sorts . is the sign of utter ignorance of what is excellent. like a beast. For to regard pleasure as a good thing. and to drink in like manner. FRUGALITY A GOOD PROVISION FOR THE CHRISTIAN. hateful. For what end. 5." 1 says the Scripture. when they might satisfy themselves with one cup ? For what the chests of clothes ? and the gold orna- ments for what % Those things are prepared for clothes- stealers. . For what end do they collect so many cupbearers. CHAPTER VII. and induces him to cease from feeling shame at what is shameful if only. And to the divine nature voluptuousness is a thing most alien for this is for a man to be like sparrows in feeding. Look. But the life which crawls on its belly is destitute of dignity. and scoundrels. are such dainty dishes prepared. when he sat down beneath 1 Prov. 301 . ELICACIES spent on pleasures become a danger- ous shipwreck to men for this voluptuous and . ridiculous. in whom we have a beautiful example of frugality. Love of wealth displaces a man from the right mode of life. to Elias the Thesbite. And so very rarely does he inherit the kingdom of God. but to fill one belly 1 The filthiness of gluttony isproved by the privies into which our bellies discharge the refuse of our food. of things. and to satiate in every way his lewd desires. is scandalous. iii. and swine and goats in lechery. For man isby nature an erect and majestic being. aspiring after the good as becomes the creature of the One. for instance. and for greedy eyes. ignoble life of the many is alien to true love for the beautiful and to refined pleasures. then. u But let alms and faith not fail thee.

the house . receiving as we have done from the Instructor the fair and a'rave atten- dants. silver and gold drinking cups. u that the true riches of the soul are a man's ransom. We. so also is the bodv of what each individual possesses. But that which is superfluous. of its drink to the thirsty. If one say that he has 2 3 1 1 Kings xix. not an ornament to the body. which is only treasured up in a purse . 1. as if laying up pro- duce in a bag. A fair provision for the journey to heaven is theirs who bear frugality with chaste gravity. G. and is the cause of all abundance. and attain to the true rest by communicating to those who are in distress. nor 2 shoes. nor scrip. xiii. then. For as gushing wells. Do not trouble yourselves about horses and servants. For the Scripture avouches. fill not your own stores. [Book hi. possess not wealth. if he is rich. " It was a cake of 1 barley and a jar of water. and never is in straits for what he needs. cast away the multitude of vessels.302 THE INSTRUCTOR. 8. and the crowd of domestics. but communicate to those who have need." that is. rise again to their former measure. he :J will be saved by distributing it. . And as the foot is the measure of the shoe. so giving away. We must. For the Word is a possession that wants nothing. who. And we must walk suitably to the Word and if there be a wife and children. as bearing burdens when the rich are travelling. He who climbs to the heavens by force. having learned to change its place along with the sound-minded traveller. 4. being the benignant spring of by communicating love. then. what they call ornaments and the furniture of the rich. are allegorically called shoes. Prov. The wife who loves her husband must be furnished for travel similarly to her husband. is not a burden. just as the milk wont to flow into the breasts that are is sucked or milked. again increases and is replenished. on our journey to the truth. Luke z. must be unen- cumbered. Self-help and Simplicity. when pumped out.'"' Such the Lord sent as best for him. and the angel brought him food." that is. the thorn. is a burden. is in want of nothing. " purse." said the Lord. must carry with him the fair staff of beneficence. For he who has the almighty God. " Carry not. the Word.

And this alsu appertains to him. who on us the true riches. iv. can never be in difficulties so long as he keeps intact his confession towards God. For it appertains to him to ask and whatever he requires from the to receive Father of all . Not- withstanding let him read what follows " For the righteous : man shall not live by bread alone. trains us. . He that has this wealth shall inherit the kingdom of God. confers Nor is the growing rich an object of envy to those who possess through Him the privilege of wanting nothing. viii. 4. if he keep the Son. The good man. Deut. but by the word of the 1 Lord." who is the true bread. then. the bread of the heavens.Book in. to feel no want.] THE INSTRUCTOR 303 often seen the righteous man in and need of food. 3 . this is rare. and to enjoy what is his own. This Word. happens only where there is not another righteous man. 1 Matt.

train himself to the endurance of involuntary labours. 1 The "word used by Clement here for frugality is i-jri>~nx. since it always has enough for all that is necessary. bestowed on what is requisite. by employing constantly voluntary afflictions as training exer- cises for persecutions . and he supposes the word to mean originally "spending well. and fears. he will not be unpractised in endurance. he will. and what is suitable for wives. Wherefore we have no country on earth. SIMILITUDES AND EXAMPLES A MOST IMPORTANT PART OF RIGHT INSTRUCTION. and further. so that when he comes to compulsory labours. we have treated in the discourse con- cerning marriage. and housekeeping. CHAPTER VIII. And frugality 1 is in the highest degree rich. What still remains we shall subjoin. by a frugal upbringing. and laid in the form of disciplinary rules. and griefs. and to the degree requisite. as we delineate the life of Chris- tians. Plow a husband is to live with his wife. and the employment of domestics. XD if any one of you shall entirely avoid luxury. For ri\r/ lias the meaning of expenses. that we may despise earthly possessions. and respecting self-help." A proper way of spending money i3 as good as unfailing riches. The most indeed down has been already said. being equal to unfailing expenditure. with respect to the time of marriage. for examples are of no small moment in deter- mining to salvation. S04 . What pertains to discipline alone is reserved now for description.

" Reproaching foul adultery. this is the people that followeth not Christ. who sought God. 2 the best of all 1 ' Such is Abraham. U . and exhibits the punishment consequent upon it." 4 The other people is the Gentile —useless . lover of man. and both these have hearers. for cure and correction. l But in the house the marriage-bed remains unpolluted. i. again. he showed the fair image of chastity in affection to her husband. Observing. and the other preaching one and the same God. 291. 587. exhibited their drunken prank 3 before themselves. " But whoever neither himself perceives. Lays to heart —he is a worthless man. Others having sinned.Book in. partly exhorts.] THE INSTRUCTOR. says the tragedy. " And good. the one who is profited through seeking. And both are peoples. Orestes. partly upbraids. they trained themselves. alluring while admonishing. 305 See. helping in many ways. He shows us their baseness. who were temperate. nor. hearing another.. accordingly. 2 3 Ibid. either aspire after or seek virtue. their unseemly behaviour. The Lacedaemonians compelling the Helots. to get drunk. in order that they themselves might not fall into like censurable con- duct. turning the reproach of the drunkards to the advantage of keeping themselves free from fault. " He truly is who himself perceives all things. by the exhibition of those who have suffered from it before. 4 Ibid. For some men being instructed are saved . band." the one diligently seeking. their servants (Helots is the name of their servants). Where- fore the former was called " friend. " The consort of Ulysses was not killed By Telemachus for she did not take a husband in addition to a hus- . Watte and Days. and others. Nevertheless the Instructor. 1 Euripid." 3 Such are those disciples who obeyed the Word. planning to dissuade us in love from evil. the other who is saved through finding." the latter "apostles. is he who obeys him who advises well. Hesiod. self- taught.

but left their own habitation. fallen into uncleanness. and hindered those who were daring like deeds and others He brought to a foundation of patience. again. would not guard against incurring equal danger. prac- tising adultery shamelessly. and expound it in a few words. Ac- cordingly. The Sodomites having. bringing them over to what is better. having once saved His people from the land of Egypt. . By which examples He very manifestly checked those who had been evil-disposed. He hath . when following one way. afterwards destroyed them that believed not and the angels which kept . whose notice those who commit . by taking care not to follow him in his slip ? What athlete. and burning with insane love for boys the All-seeing Word. impieties cannot escape. we guard against suffering. lest lust being unavenged. cast His eye on them. through much luxury. who has learned the way to glory. By guarding against sinning. through want of punishment. imitating the elder one ? Such images wisdom are many. the just punishment of the Sodomites became to men an image of the salvation which is well calculated for men. ordered Sodom to be burned.306 THE INSTRUCTOR [Book hi. others He stopped from wickedness and others He cured by . and then on the in the former falling into a pit. " that God. For those who have not committed like sins with those who are punished. and has seen the combatant who had preceded him receiving the prize. Nor did the sleepless guard of humanity observe their licentiousness in silence but dissuading us from the imitation of them. will never receive a like punishment. instruction to those who hear. and training us up to His own temperance. pouring forth a little of the sagacious fire on licentiousness lest lust. should throw wide the gates to those that were rushing into voluptuousness. the contemplation of what is like." says Jude. not their first estate. and falling on some sinners. . u For I would have you to know. The fate of the Sodomites was judgment to those who had done wrong. should break loose from all the restraints of fear. For who. does not exert himself for the crown. but I shall of divine mention one instance.

307 reserved to the judgment of the great day. kockoQcovcc. 1 Jude 5. fear keeps from growing insolent." For those. and run greedily after the error of Balaam. . for they : have gone in the way of Cain. not only for licentious- ness and adduce the censures pronounced on those whose .] THE INSTRUCTOR. in everlasting chains under darkness of the savage ano. in a tions of those that are judged " Woe unto them. For punishments and threats are for this end. 2 Following Lowth's conjecture of xoucoQpwM instead of that of the text." l And a little most instructive manner. that fearing the penalty we may abstain from sinning. 2 hearts are bad through wealth. representa- after he sets forth..els. 6. I shall bring forward the following precepts of the Instructor. But sparing prolixity in my treatise. and punishments for vainglory. in which censures the Word through fear restrains from evil acts. adoption.Book hi. that you may guard against His threaten- ings. and perished in the gainsaying of Core. I might relate to you punishments for ostenta- tion. who cannot attain the privilege of.

by going afterwards into the water. or heat. To bathe for the sake of heat is a superfluity. The ancients 1 called them places for fulling men. or. Bathing for pleasure is to or lastly. by men for health alone. hence we require cold. suffices for us. compel them to become prematurely old. CHAPTER IX. for which we frequent it : for cleanliness. have assuaged their thirst. for pleasure. not only by the mouth. which on all occasions we call as our helper in life. four reasons for the bath (for from that point I digressed in my oration). then. HERE are. since they wrinkle men's bodies sooner than they ought. . filled to repletion. The flesh. Constant use of the bath. on the other hand. impairs strength and relaxes the physical energies. and health. But due proportion. For 308 . For in a way the body drink-. being softened by the heat. as it were. Unless. when thirsty. and by cooking them. Nor must we bathe always but if one is a little exhausted. or always. by what they call the pores. we ousjlit not to indulge in it. as those who are skilled in these things own. like trees. WHY WE ARE TO USE THE BATH. For unblushing pleasure must be cut out by the roots and the bath is to be taken by women for cleanliness . often people. to temper and give an edge. For the bath is not beneficial to all. be omitted. the bath is for some use. like iron. or health. then. regard being had to the age of the body and the season of the year. and often induces debility and fainting. too. but also over the whole body in bathing. since one may restore what is frozen by the cold in other ways. In proof of this. as it were. the bath is to be forbidden.

1 2 3 Isa. dirt which gathers and grows to it. But most of all is it necessary to wash the soul in the cleansing Word (sometimes the body on account of the too.Book in. u for ye are like to whited sepulchres. Matt. is what rubs off the pollution of the soul. And the mode of cleansing. xxiii. then." l And again He says to the same people. that the outside 2 may be clean also. But to have the water poured over us by several people is an outrage on our neighbours. " by the spirit of judgment and the spirit of burning. . through fond- ness for luxuriousness. Matt. iv. nor are we to bathe constantly and often in the day as we frequent the market-place. hypocrites!" saith the Lord. " Woe unto you for ye cleanse the out. as often in the country where there is not a bath. Cleanse first the inside of the cup. " Woe unto you. which is carnal. but within it is full of dead men's bones and all un cleanness. saying. and will purge the blood from the midst of them" 3 — the blood of crime and the murders of the prophets. is accomplished by water alone. scribes and Pharisees. and is done by those who will not understand that the bath is common to all the bathers equally. 27. xxiii. but within are full of unclean- ness." The bathing of the body. and is spiritual. sometimes also to relieve fatigue). ! side of the cup and platter. Of which prophecy speaks expressly : " The Lord will wash away the filth of the sons and daughters of Israel. 4." The best bath. the sepulchre appears beautiful. the Word sub- joined. 25. With- out. 26.] THE INSTRUCTOR 309 we must not so use the bath as to require an assistant.

and extends her wrist ! to the beggar. Septiicagint. When done without dragging a man away this is from better employments. the daughter of Laban. it is pleasant. opens her hand to the poor. and weaving. since they are in some respect conducive to the health of young men. but courageousness of soul. 1 Prov. so that it may be palatable to her husband. THE EXERCISES SUITED TO A GOOD LIFE. 19. to fetch And it is no disgrace for them to apply themselves to the mill. helping wayfarers. and produce exertion — emulation to aim at not only a healthy habit of body. but are to exercise themselves in spinning. and superintending the cooking if necessary. reach drink to her husband when thirsty.""' " And Rachel. But they are not to be encouraged to en^acre in wrestling or running. came. even if a bath is within reach. [HE gymnasium is sufficient for boys." it is said. what we require. For Abraham said to her. . is perchance not bad. 6. with their own hand. Xor is it — a reproach to a wife housekeeper and helpmeet to occupy herself in cooking. set food on the table as neatly as possible. And they are. the Instructor will approve of a woman like this. and make cakes. 310 . Gen. and not unprofitable. Xor are women to be deprived of bodily exercise. rests her hands on the distaff. who "stretches forth her arms to useful tasks. 20." She who emulates Sarah is not ashamed of that highest of ministries. and so give herself exercise tending to sound health. u Haste. CHAPTER X. And if she shake up the couch. xxxi. from the store. and knead three measures of meal. xviii. And even for men to prefer gym- nastic exercises by far to the baths.

be undertaken for the sake of vainglory. practised the laborious exercise of turning 4 the mill. But let not such athletic contests. It is respectable for a man to drawr w ater for r himself. Pittacus exercised himself thus. Diogenes. doubtless. should we be idle altogether. We must always aim at moderation. But let those others. For such a struggle with graceful strength is more becoming and manly. especially the game they call Pheninda. Isot poplar. . '° Gen. and also of exercises. are w e to do r everywhere and with everything. is fa'/idus. Plutarch. but to 2 teach humility it is added. nor to the 1 Gen. so to labour above measure is both very bad."" which aimed by its wood to change and improve nature. in '' the sun. To others who walk into the country." And innumerable such examples of frugality and self-help. nor completely fatigued. having as a royal bado-e "a rod of storax. 4 The text lias The true reading. For as it is best that labour should pre- cede food. 9. In the case of men. and apt to make us ill.Book hi. as in A. are furnished by the Scriptures. V. this stroke of economy in agricultural labour would not be ungentlemanly. 311 l " with her father's sheep. 37. Our mode of life is not to accustom us to voluptuousness and licentiousness. I had almost forgot to say that the well-known Pittacus. but for the exuding of manly sweat. by disentangling of neck. being undertaken for the sake of serviceable and profitable health. ° (pvjlvlx or (psvi/ig. Laertius. then. very exhausting. who profess the practice of illi- beral postures in gymnastics. let some strip and engage in wrestling let some play . is stated by Isidore of Pelusium. and sides. Nor are we to struggle with cunning and showiness. the walk is sufficient exercise. be dismissed. king of Miletus. Neither. xxix. as we have allowed. T Jacob fed the sheep of Laban that were left in his charge.] THE INSTRUCTOR. For similarly to what we have laid down with respect to food." Nor was this enough . at the small ball. " for she fed her father's sheep. And reading aloud is often an exercise to many. xxx. and to cut billets of w ood which he is to use himself. And w ere r they to handle the hoe. hands. That vfhQvj. but in a stand-up wTestling bout. or go dow n r into the town. a Ibid.

but to the medium between these. opposite extreme. . xviii. when He taught him to u catch men " as fishes in the water. 8. and free of either evil. is an exercise of reciprocal justice . is luxury and parsimony. washing one's own feet. for example. and waited on them 1 as they ate. putting on one's own shoes. and also rubbing one's self when anointed with oil. that which harmonious and temperate. help the infirm.312 THE INSTRUCTOR. And now." The same with fishing. [Book hi. But that is the better sport which the Lord assigned to the disciple. dinner under a tree.and to sleep beside a sick friend. are proper exercises. if we have leisure from necessary instructions in the Word. u And Abraham.— as. as we have also previously remarked. and supply him who is in want. To render one who has rubbed you the same service in return. attending to one's own wants is an exercise free of pride." it is said. " served up for three. 1 Gen. as in the case of Peter.

so also the proper dress of the temperate man is what is 1 1 Pet. and other luxuries. So that. and of a white colour. to use simple clothing. and variety of dress. we are to keep in mind what was spoken sacredly " Having your conversation honest among the : Gentiles that. that has dashed on to surfeit. they impel us to voluptuousness. The Instructor permits us. For luxury. glorify 1 God. carrying us away through excessive relaxation. . and pushing away whatever is deceptive and belies the truth. accommodating ourselves not to variegated art. but to nature as it is pro- duced. the Instructor who. ing back the reins from far. then. CHAPTER XL A COMPENDIOUS VIEW OF THE CHRISTIAN LIFE. by the good works which they behold. leads and drives to salvation the — human horse that is. 12." Clothes. as in the case of the soldier. the and the ruler. lest. they may. whereas they speak against you as evil-doers. sailor. as we said before. is prone to kick up its heels and toss its mane. ii. But irrational impulses must be curbed. we may embrace the uniformity and simplicity of the truth. 813 . Above all. reproaching a youth. ." For. and shake off the charioteer. pall. and vicious appetites. and gold. and precious stones. Sophocles. HEREFCEE the wearing of gold and the use of softer clothing is not to be entirely prohibited. says " Decked in women's clothes. the irrational part of the soul which — is wildly bent on pleasures.

Whence also in the law. except for warlike decorations. And for this reason it is chiefly to be worn in winter. since purity is a habit which ensures pure conduct unmixed with what is base. 992. and chiefly what is unfulled. and refuses it a passage. and unambiguous. And contentment is a habit which dispenses with superfluities. or rather demonstrate. and being warmed by it. and simple colour of truth.oyov. " Nor apply dyes or weaving. . And he who also in this emulates — — Moses Plato best of all approves of that texture on which not more than a chaste woman's work has been employed. then. but especially in cloth. Substantial clothing also. white is appro- priate. And white colours well become gravity. is receptive of what suffices for the healthful and blessed life according to the Word." 1 Plato's words are: "The web is not to be more than a woman's work for a month. but that it turns back the heat issuing from the body. Temperance is pure and simple . as smoke is the sign of fire. tion from the body. "White colour is peculiarly becoming for the gods in other things. it absorbs and retain*-. Dyes are not to be applied. which are very closely allied to causes. Simplicity is a habit which does away with superfluities. The reading in the text is xxrxy. 2 Kara Aeyojr. [Book hi. And whatever heat falls upon it. except for warlike decorations. lias heat in itself. that there may be no failure. but white all over from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot. De Legibux.becoming. no longer decking himself gaudily in a variety of colours. we may and lay aside the varied versatile passions of the man. plain. and love the unvaried. by their presence indicate. warms in turn the body. He therefore wishes man. so also clothing of this description shows the character of our habits. xii. to be clean by a transi. It also (temperance) is contented.314 THE INSTRUCTOR. so that. and clean. the existence of the result . protects the heat which is in the body not that the clothing . and. And elsewhere he says. signs. therefore. ." To men of peace and of light. As. like the various scales of the snake. the law enacted by Moses about leprosy rejects what has many colours and spots." Plato. and a good complexion and a regular pulse of health .

" l Ear-rings. s mrv-fcovacii. Lydian ore. and he that is inferior to gold is not lord of But to confess one's self less ornamental than the it. which stirs up the mire with her snout. what was spoken. but for sealing things which are worth keeping safe in the house. we require seals." For. 2 Prov. Nor is this for ornament. 22. Finger-rings.] THE INSTRUCTOR. And let the garments be suited to age.Book in. nature. if servants and masters were equally honest. but softer than what is suitable for a man. I would not have 1 Rom. and adorn themselves in order to please their husbands. may be fulfilled : "As an ear-ring in a swine's nose. But since want of training produces an inclination to dishonesty. xiii. there would be no need of seals. in the exercise of their charge of housekeeping. for which the text has tuzoy^ovaui:. . For if allwere well trained. yet not quite im- modest or entirely gone in luxury. so is beauty to a woman without discretion. then. The AVord. in a word. if one thinks himself made beautiful by gold. For the divine most beautifully counsels us " to put on Jesus Christ. permits them a finger-ring of gold. how monstrous As. But there are circumstances in which this strictness may be relaxed. The Word prohibits us from doing violence to nature by boring the lobes of tli2 ears. For why not the nose too? so — that.. But let desire for the admiration of their husbands alone be proposed as their aim. 14. For allowance must sometimes be made in favour of those women who have not been fortunate in falling in J ' with chaste husbands. apostle and make no provision for the lusts of the flesh. dishonour by the stains of amatory indulgences what is the true beauty. xi. elated by wealth. he is inferior to gold . so those women that are luxurious to excess in their wantonness. 015 Let the woman wear a plain and becoming dress. person. figure. then. pursuits. the gold is polluted ! by the dirtiness of the sow.

discovered in the native beauty which has its seat in the soul. Wherefore we must adopt a mode of standing and motion. according to the Scripture. but to . adopted by God. And if it is necessary for us. ::xi. But the nobility of truth." But women who wear gold seem to me to be afraid. while engaged in public business. but by a servile disposition. lest through giddiness they slip away from the truth. It is right. [Book in. 24. And they are to be gently drawn to simplicity.316 THE INSTRUCTOR. and a step. and often away from our wives. for men to repose confidence in their wives. then. make it their aim to allay by degrees the irrational impulses and passions of their husbands. or discharging other avocations in the country. since. without their ornaments. For women's articles of luxury are to be prohibited. and commit the charge of the household to them. them to devote themselves to personal display. and in a word. trained by God. let the latter. lest. and dress. if one strip them of their jewellery. and furnished with wings. to seal anything for the sake of safety. judges the slave not by buying and selling. — mate charm. they often fly away from the marriage bonds. if they would be chaste. He (the Word) allows us a signet for this purpose only. For so the hand will 1 Ecclus. as things of swift wing pro- ducing unstable follies and empty delights by which. but to attract theirhusbands by chaste love for them a powerful and legiti. elated .by gradually accustoming them to sobriety. For decency is not produced by the imposition of what is burden- some. as they are given to be their helpers in this. and bind themselves around with the band of chaste modesty. but to it is be free. place it on the little finger at its root. But since they wish their wives to be unhappy in mind. And incumbent on us not to to dress neatlv. . they should be taken for servants. Other finger-rings are to be cast off. but by the abstraction of excess. Wherefore also women ouo. But men are not to wear the ring on the joint for this is feminine . in all respects as worthy as possible of freemen. a mode of life. a instruction is a golden ornament for a x wise man.

The Hair. 1 Masculine. 317 be freest for work.voyJuov. which Seleucus got engraved as a device .] THE INSTRUCTOR. or a ship scudding before the wind. and if there be one fishing. the beard of Aaron. For we are not to delineate the faces of idols. nor drinking-cups. " As the ointment that descends on the beard. will not very easily fall off. nor a sword. as if they wished to make it impossible ever to forget their amatory indulgences. . but on account of the necessity of the case . being temperate. And let our seals be either a dove. by being perpetually put in mind of their licentiousness. cxxxiii. And if one. shave a part of his beard. being guarded by the large knot of the joint. too. for this is a dis- graceful sight. and the children drawn out of the water. and that of the moustache similarly. unless But let the chin it has curly hair.Book hi. which Polycrates used. that it may not grow so long as to come down and interfere with the eyes. 2 ysy"hv written on the margin of Reg. in whatever we need it and the signet . or a musical lyre. or a fish. peace . it must not be made entirely bare. Let the head of men be shaven. For an ample beard suffices for men. or a ship's anchor. the hair of the head. he will remember the apostle. delighted with the hair of the beard. he made the face to shine with the ointment of the Lord. thus the Psalmist. But let not twisted locks hang far down from the head. we who are prohibited to cleave to them . For instance. 2 or their mistresses. following as we do. approaching to plucking out the hair and smoothing." 3 Having celebrated the beauty of the beard by a repetition. says. have the hair. gliding into womanish ringlets. The shaving of the chin to the skin is repre- hensible. upz<jovs. About the hair. the following seems right. t (naked) of the text. 1 Many of the licentious have their lovers engraved. for ysyvy. Since cropping is to be adopted not for the sake of elegance. nor a bow. 2. 3 Ps.

being afraid of dis- ordering their hair. the shape instructs many not to sin. as it gives no trouble. the context. xi. and it is a most sacrilegious thing for spurious hair to shade the head. but renders the cranium less liable to injury. lias been adopted. reads " Christ.318 THE INSTRUCTOR [Bookiil which is be cut round. But the hair on the chin is not to be disturbed. when assumed." . is to razor. And if " the man is head of 4 the woman. nourishing chaste locks with simple care to true beaut}7 . will allow them to transgress without detection. not by the dirtied in eating. and lends to the face dignity and paternal terror. of which they do not touch their head. but by a pair of cropping scissors. the conjectural emendation oiovxozi. 4 1 Cor. Moreover. instead of " God. But additions of other people's hair are entirely to be re- jected. contribute to make them look ugly. a habit that will escape observation and is not con- spicuous is most agreeable. by accustoming it to the presence of both cold and heat and it averts the . agrees better than fiuAxoanv with :. 3. Reg.. and God of the man. Sylburg and Bod. Nov.. too. cutting the hair and plucking off it those treacherous braidings on account . and putting it up in tresses. For meretricious plaiting of the hair. covering the skull with dead locks. For on whom does the presbyter lay his hand? Whom does he bless ? Not the woman decked out. being undistin- guishable from others. 3 It is enough for women to protect their locks. Qv'Ku'jouv. and bind up their hair simply along the neck with a plain hair-pin. not without fear lest they pull down without knowing the shape of the braid. for that were ungenteel. they may go their length in fearlessly sinning. which the hair absorbs into itself like a sponge. comes on. but another's hair." as in St. Sleep. and so inflicts on the brain constant mischief from the moisture. 2 For diootscore." how is it not impious 1 " Not" does not occur in the MSS. mischiefs arising from these. because it renders detection easy. 2 A cropped head not only shows a man to be grave. Paul. so that. which. To those who do [not] wish to sin 1 openly. and through them another head.

love of the good. the appearance of hoary adorning themselves meretri- ciously. For when the soul is adorned by the Holy Spirit. as we have often pointed out. — then let corporeal beauty be cultivated too. to win the reverence of to be the young. For neither are we allowed to diversify our dress. in the first place. aerial. symmetry of limbs and members.] THE INSTRUCTOR. And they defame the head. when they have been behaving shamefully. wisdom. free-breathing and equipoise from which this well.Book hi. The adorn- ment of health is here in place. brightness and grace . strength and firmness and from what is . in accordance with the form which has been given by God. than which no more blooming colour was ever seen. Painting the Face. temperance. which conciliates trust. in order to dissemble the truth. For sometimes. is effected. And above all. and paralysed juve- nile lust with the splendour of the sight. nor grey hair to have its colour changed. For. and moderation in articles of food. but they its also make beauty For from what is fiery arises a to appear. But tem- perance in drinks. for not only does the body maintain health from these. . and inspired with the radiant charms which proceed from Him. gleam and sparkle and from moisture. . Lord as far as in them lies. . with a fair complexion. Nor are the women to smear their faces with the ensnar- ing devices of wily cunning. But God's mark of honour is shown in the light of day. modesty. arriving like an instructor. fortitude. the best beauty is that which is spiritual. But let us show to them the decoration of sobriety. proportioned and beautiful image of the Word is adorned. 319 that they should fall into double sins 1 For they deceive the men by the excessive quantity of their hair and shame the . and from dryness. are effectual in producing beauty according to nature . is not to be concealed. old age. — righteousness. through which the transition of the artificial image to the truth. which is truly beautiful. . Consequently neither is the hair to be dyed. has changed them to sobriety. Beauty is the free flower of health for the latter is pro.

with some moisture. but is flowing out to waste. is a thing which attracts to itself . while they behold. above all. but falls away. "your chaste conversation. as the loaf from a cold oven. urine and dung are in excess in the case of those who do not throw off the excrementitious matters by the rubbings . either entire. which is in the sight of 2 God of great price. But it is monstrous for those who are made in u the image and likeness of God. The Instructor go forth "in becoming orders them to apparel. it gently exhales through the flesh itself. duced within the bodv: while the former. [Book hi. produce true and lasting beauty. or of putting on of apparel but let it be the hidden. Accord- ingly. or leaving only the lower part. But when the body is not moved. man of the heart. 1 Pet. blossoming out from the body. Accordingly.necessitated by exercise. 9. let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair. in that which is not corruptible. and also perspiration. "Whose adorning. as the food is not assimilated by the body. And other superflu- ous matters abound in their case too." he says. adds genuine 1 2 1-4. . "Wherefore also the first food is carried off. when warmed. these most decorous and healthful practices. the abundance of food. Heat. but with excess of heat. preferring the mischievous contrivance of man to the divine creation. not the "word. Wherefore this redundance ought to be liquefied and dis- persed for digestion. by exer- cising the body. even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit. 1 Tim. the heat attracting to itself all the moisture and cold spirit. if any obey . iii. and when it does attract. they may without the word be won by the conversation of the wives. exhibits manifest beauty of complexion. and of wearing of gold." to dishonour the archetype by assuming a foreign ornament. the food consumed does not adhere. by which beauty acquires its ruddy hue." subject to their own husbands that. when agitated by moving causes. the ing to the organs of generation by commensurate motions.320 THE IXSTRUCTOE. ii. Thence redundance flow- also lusts are excited. and adorn themselves with shamefacedness and 1 u sobriety." For the labour of their own hands.

3-5. " A virtuous woman is a crown to her husband. tricked out with the bait of pleasure. For a most beautiful thing is a thrifty wife. not bringing unornamental ornament wrought by others. to appear arrayed in things bought from the market. imitat- ing the acting of comedy. casting languishing glances round. on her tongue who openeth her mouth wisely and rightly . But at last thou wilt find it bitterer than bile. 30.Book hi. For they must not do as some." The noble Samson was overcome by the harlot. 27. but in their own home-made work. as far as possible. and affected voices. xxxi. and practising the mincing motions of dancers. the husband on account of his wife. and gliding steps. speaking to please. and by another woman was shorn of his manhood. and sharper than a two-edged sword. looks. 22. who. steps. but that of every good woman.'' as the sacred Word says by Solomon " Her husband also. 2G." 3 They must. whose children rise up and call her blessed.] THE INSTRUCTOR. 1 in which all are glad the — children on account of their mother. " For honey drops from the lips of a woman who is an harlot . For it is never suitable for women whose lives are framed according to God." And again. quoted from memory. v. But Joseph was not thus beguiled by another woman. For a pious woman is blessed and let her praise the . 2 Prov. 321 beauty to women. 4. and with variety of reading. and he praiseth : her. exercising their bodies and adorning them- selves by their own exertions. 4 xii. and speech. who clothes both herself and her husband with fair array of her own working. Prov. supplied and woven by her own hands whenever she most requires. The Egyptian harlot 1 In reference to Prov. X . Septuagint. with voluptuous movements. she on their account. For the feet of folly 4 lead those who practise it to hell after death. which is vulgar and meretri- cious. 2 fear of the Lord. 3 Prov. correct their gestures. who. conduct themselves in society as if on the stage. who eateth not the bread of idleness and the laws of mercy are . xxxi. and all in God. " A store of excellence is a woman of worth. In brief. 28. lubricates thy throat.

And chastity. dragging lust up from the foundation. u 3 " As seems to it is time to aban- don meretricious steps and luxury. 1 assuming to itself bonds. gladdens." Accordingly. The eyes especially are to be sparingly used. looks.. u The eye contemplating beautiful objects (/caXa).. the Lord very summarily cures this malady : " If thine eye offend thee. 6 An imitation of Zeno's saying. v. is nothing else than to com- mit adultery with the eyes." And the steps of harlotry lean not to the truth . are altogether meretricious." says the comedy. x. u Winking with the eye. the eyes are first destroyed. the eye which has learned rightly (/ca\w?) to see. Most excellent is what has been said " In fine. gladdens the heart .. But languishing and ogling. lust skirmishing through them. with hair plucked out. and luxury. heaps woes on men. 20). reads ucxv Axtiktivti. [Book hi. 2 From some comic poet. for they approach not the paths of life. sitting on a couch with his 1 We have read from Xov. Her tracks are dangerous.322 THE INSTRUCTOR. was conquered. he has substituted haunpn for e&tki (Matt." G He says. . appears superior to dissolute licence." Quoting from memory." 7 Such they introduce the effeminate Sar- danapalus. are to be entirely prohibited. G. for g^Zcoov-jy. " It is better to slip with the feet than the tongue." as Anacreon savs. 7 Pro v. c^c^v-jy. me. 10. In the translation the conjecture up* 'l-ohii'TT'-w is adopted. . I know not how To whisper. and not easily 4 known. cut it out. To walk about with my neck awry. Xov. which is to wink with the eyes." that is. dissoluteness. — As I see others lechers there In numbers in the city. 5. with guile. since it is better to slip with the feet than with the eyes. u and a mincing gait. 4 An adaptation of Frov." 2 But feminine motions. v. For voluptuousness of motion in walking. nor effeminately. king of the Assyrians. For of the whole body.

Some of these women eating mastich. all that pass by the way. and sweet stolen water. She sits at the door of her house. inordinate affection. ix. says. and with winkings of the eyes. stain their faces with gay-coloured unguents. by which the interior illuminated by the shining light appears. goins: about. fornication. But the miserable man " knoweth not that the sons of earth perish beside her. Women that follow such practices. conspicuously in a seat. clandestine love (from this point the Boeotian Pindar. and tarry not in the place nor . calling to . 5. in order to appear comely by adorning them in the eyes of spectators." And those devoid of wisdom she exhorts. fix thine eye on her: for thus shalt thou pass over a strange 3 water." says the Scripture.Book in. by their looks offer themselves for prostitution. give themselves airs. u Who among you is very silly? let him turn to me. And others. Col. coming to our help. or some other dead creature they procure at much pains. as if they had not fingers. And others. and these made either of tortoise or ivory. who go right on by her their ways " style and whole life manifestly saying. Such a one is called by Solomon u a foolish and bold woman. Fornica- 1 tion in a woman is in the raising of the eyes. . 12. show their teeth to those that come near. fumbling at and casting up the his purplo robe. scratching their heads with pins . and con- cupiscence. Because the daughters of Sion walk with lofty neck. and playing with their feet the . uncleanness. which is idolatry : for which things' sake cometh the wrath of God upon the children of 2 disobedience. as if they had certain efflorescences. Prov." cries the apostle. u Touch sweetly secret bread." Wherefore thus saith the Lord " by Isaiah. and that she tends to the level of hell. " The clandestine pursuit of love is something sweet"). whites of his eyes. and are not ashamed. xxvi." who " knows not shame. and cross to Acheron. iii." But says the Instructor : u Hie away. and covetousness. But we enkindle the passions. 6. " For the light of the body is the eye. saying. and sweeping their garments as they walk." meaning by this. 1 2 3 Ecclus. 13-18. " Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth .] THE INSTRUCTOR o2Z legs up.

cc (Isa." as Peter says. Sept. shows that she does not disapprove of them. not only to the good and gentle. but are enfeebled by effeminacy of soul. and Will uncover their form" 1 — their deformed form. "For like mistress like wench. xvop. who appear strong. I deem it wrong that servant girls. A true gentleman must have no mark of effeminacy visible on his face. who follow women of high rank. :j but also to the froward. iii. [Book hi. but not a lingering step. The literal English rendering is coarser and more opprobrious than the original. may follow close. For as it is enjoined on them. And not to be angry at those who act wantonly.y. Also we must abandon a furious mode of walking. T be afraid to advance to greater to take lesser liberties not to since the mistress. With very sharp censure. is a clear proof of a disposition inclining to the like. by allowing improprieties. and pointed at with the finger. so fairness. as we see those that are more luxurious. be ever found either in his movements or habits. Walking. and ogle her. accordingly. 17). which Helen applies to herself (Iliad. 2 a. are they to be shoved up by their domestics. to &<r%vjftop oy//. 344. if they look at him. should either speak or act unbecomingly to them. Lord shall humble the daughters of Sion. But I think it right that they should be corrected by their mistresses. the comic poet Philemon says : " You may follow at the back of a pretty servant girl. seen behind a gentlewoman and any one from the Platoeicum . as if he were strutting on the stage. Nor is a man in health to use his servants as horses to bear him. ii. vi." For the wantonness of the servant recoils on the mistress allowing those w ho attempt . Nor is one to swagger CO in the wavs. Nor. 356).324 THE INSTRUCTOR. ." 2 as they say in the proverb. then. when pushing up hill. Let no blot on his manliness. » nor throw back his / head to look at those he meets. " to be subject to their masters with all fear. 18. v. 3 1 Pet. or any other part of his body. catena. and 1 1G. and choose a grave and leisurely.

Zeno the Cittiaean thought fit to represent the image of a young maid. pass whole days as if sitting in the stews. meretriciously dressed. (passing by) instead of Tccpi^otexs. . 5 lid tuv doTpotytk'hav. and dealers in wool. 8. her eyebrows not let down. 3 Sylburg suggests Kuptovact.] THE INSTRUCTOR. expression of firmness. nor her eyelids open nor turned back. But let the parts that hang from the body look as if they were well strung let . 1 1 Pet.Book hi." Amusements and Associates. Clemens seems to use these terms here indifferently. 4 The game of dice is to be prohibited. and the pursuit 5 of gain. attitudes and movements give no ground of hope to the licentious but let there be the bloom of modesty." and so forth. especially by dicing. nor the members of her body be loose. For he says " Finally. and that which comes from the other shops where women. be 1 humble. But far from her be the wearisome trouble that comes from the shops of perfumers." excellent and desirable. and gold- smiths. be pitiful. 325 forbearance. be ye all of one mind. Let her neck not be stretched back. and executed the statue thus " Let her face : be clean. hunting for the women who sit near. but opQovov has been coupled with what follows. 2 there be the keenness of a well-regulated mind for discourse. The model Maiden. are what well becomes the mas- ters. "that ye may inherit a blessing. 3 and ceaselessly talking slander against many to raise a laugh. and retention of what has been rightly spoken and let her . a die marked on all the six sides. iii. and kindness. And let not men. therefore. babbling nonsense and let them give up . and an . spend their time in barbers' shops and taverns.' which many keenly follow. The read- ing of the text has been adhered to. love as brethren. 4 xvfio$. 2 This passage has been variously amended and translated. The darpetyuhot were dice marked on four sides only. having : compassion one of another . Clement has substituted rairuuoQpoveg for <pt*6<ppovss (courteous).

indeed.326 THE INSTRUCTOR. recognising companionship with bad men as swinish. by the mouth of Moses. to rational recollection. For it is not possible otherwise to obtain enjoyment without injury. Lowth's conjecture of spa. i. Deut. for everything u which parts the hoof and chews the cud is clean. instead of epx has 2 c Septungint. eousness parts the hoof rightly. in im- pure food. ruminates the spiritual food and right. Lev. and sends us on our way to the world to come. 4 Acts iii. [Book hi. With whom. 1. 13. and therefore the assembly against Him is execrated. These assemblies. xi. like swine." For the parting of the hoof indicates the equilibrium of righteousness. the all-wise Instructor. like food. 14. as from the stomach. . But. or an ea^le. who. And other things also are exhibited figuratively." 2 meaning: Thou shalt not come near men who gain their living by rapine. which enters from without. He says again. 12. And the spiritual man. delight in corporeal pleasures. He says u Thou art not to eat a kite or swift- : winced ravenous bird. because it sanctifies us in this life. then. The Instructor will not then bring us to public spectacles nor inappropriately might one call the racecourse and the theatre "the seat of plagues. by instruc- tion. Further. Public Spectacles. having the word in his mouth. For the cause is idleness. 14 . . and ruminating points to the proper food of righteousness. and a love 1 for frivolities apart from the truth. as appears. speaking figuratively. only intercourse with good men benefits on the other hand. and in itching with filthy pruriency after the mischievous delights of lewdness. are full of 1 been adopted. xiv. but is recalled from the mind."* for there is evil counsel 4 as against the Just One. the word. forbade the ancient people to partake of swine . to point out that those who call on God ouirht not to minMe with unclean men. Ps. and each man's preference of a mode of life is a counterpart of his disposition. are we to associate ? With the right- eous. Such things the prodigality of luxury invents for the idle.

the desires grow warm and the eyes . those that are proof against these things.^ which t is plainly wrong. 1 uv» ui^icc. No more is senseless expenditure of money. if thou dost not love life ? It is said.Book hi. pray. I have not learned letters . if thou dost not philosophize ? And how dost thou love thy- self. 327 1 confusion and iniquity. And ease of mind is not to be purchased by zealous pursuit of frivolities. . follow after life? What sayest thou? How hast thou believed? How. I should say that the cities which make a serious business of pastime are not wise for cruel contests for glory which have been so fatal are not sport. for it is not taught. that are accustomed to look impudently at one's neighbours during the leisure granted to them. thou canst not ex- cuse thyself in the case of hearing. Let spectacles. adopted instead of the reading dpi^ict. but if thou hast not learned to read. 2 'hiyjivwotit. on the authority of the Pal. and these pretexts for assembling are the cause of disorder — men and women assembling pro- miscuously for the sight of one another. But it is said we do not all philosophize. Do we not all. For what base action is it that is not exhibited in the theatres? And what shameless saying is it that is not brought for- ward by the buffoons ? And those who enjoy the evil that is in them. dost thou love God and thy neighbour. Nov. Bod. stamp the clear images of it at home. inflame the amatory desires. be forbidden. then. therefore. will never make a stumble in regard to luxurious pleasures. For if people shall say that they betake themselves to the spectacles as a pastime for recreation. And. on the other hand. for no one who has his senses will ever prefer what is pleasant to what is good. and plays that are full of scurrility and of abundant gossip. Religion in Ordinary Life. And faith is the possession not of the wise according to the world. In this respect the assembly has already shown itself bad for when the : 2 eye is lascivious. nor are the riots that are occasioned by them sport. Reg. MS. and unimpressible.] THE INSTRUCTOR.

those who make merchandise of the truth — the Lord cast out of His Father's court. For this is the wish of the Word. at once rude and divine. Let her be entirely covered. and protects from being gazed at. the liars. -15. 13-17.-Eneas. Matt. 2 not willing that the holy house of God should be the house of unrighteous traffic either in words or in material things. and studying to speak the truth. Let not him who sells or buys aught name two prices for what he buys or sells but stating . through excess of pro- : Ex. on account of other things be banished. too. They say that the wife of -. 7. and let swearing. It is in your power wisdom. [Book hi. L' In allusion to the cleansing of the temple (John ii. xxi. Luke xix. fit to pray to God. Let the woman observe this. Nay. :. you to are not prohibited from conducting affairs in the world de- corously according to God. " For thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain : for the Lord will not 1 hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain. embracing silence.328 THE INSTRUCTOR. xi. further. to listen to divine ay. For that style of dress is grave. And she will never fall. the net price. the hypocrites. . 12. possessing unfeigned love. But. pure in body. pure in heart. since it is becoming for her to pray veiled. and frame your life in accordance with it. with natural step. Woman and man are to go to church decently attired. who puts before her eyes modesty. is called love — spiritual book. above all. And in this way let those who frequent the market-place and the shop philosophize. Going to Church." But those who act contrary to these things — the avaricious. if he get not his price. and her shawl nor . unless she happen to be at home. let an oath on account of what is sold be far from you . will she invite another to fall into sin by uncovering her face. but of those according to God and it is taught without letters . 1 Cor. xx. 5. and is rich in the possession of rectitude. 13 . 4C). and its handbook. he gets the truth.

Book hi.] THE INSTRUCTOR. 329

priety, did not, even in her terror at the capture of Troy,
uncover herself; but, though fleeing from the conflagration,
remained veiled.

Out of Church.

Such ought those who are consecrated to Christ appear,
and frame themselves in their whole life, as they fashion
themselves in the church for the sake of gravity ; and to be,
not to seem such —
meek, so pious, so loving. But now I
know not how people change their fashions and manners with
the place. As they say that polypi, assimilated to the rocks
to which they adhere, are in colour such as they ; so, laying
aside the inspiration of the assembly, after their departure
from it, they become like others with whom they associate.
Nay, in laying aside the artificial mask of solemnity, they
are proved to be what they secretly were. After having paid
reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [the
church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly
amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quaver-
ing, occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxica-
tion, and all kinds of trash. They who sing thus, and sing in
response, are those who before hymned immortality, found —
at last wicked and wickedly singing this most pernicious
palinode, "Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die."
But not to-morrow in truth, but already, are these dead to
God burying their dead, 1 that is, sinking themselves down

to death. The apostle very firmly assails them " Be not :

deceived ; neither adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of
themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor
drunkards, nor railers," and whatever else he adds to these,
"shall inherit the kingdom of God."

Love and the Kiss of Charity.

And if we kingdom of God, let us walk
are called to the
worthy of the kingdom, loving God and our neighbour. But
love is not tested by a kiss, but by kindly feeling. But there
are those, that do nothing but make the churches resound
Matt. viii. 22. 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10.

330 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book in.

with a kiss, not having love itself within. For this very
thing, the shameless use of the kiss, which ought to be mystic,
occasions foul suspicions and evil reports. The apostle calls
the kiss holy.
When kingdom is worthily tasted, we dispense the
affection of the soul by a chaste and closed mouth, by which
chiefly gentle manners are expressed.
But there is another unholy kiss, full of poison, counter-
feiting sanctity. Do you not know that spiders, merely by
touching the mouth, afrlict men with pain ? And often
kisses inject the poison of licentiousness. It is then very
manifest to us, that a kiss is not love. For the love meant is
the love of God. u And this is the love of God," says John,
"that we keep His commandments ;" not that we stroke each
other on the mouth. "And His commandments are not
grievous." But salutations of beloved ones in the ways, full
as they are of foolish boldness, are characteristic of those
who wish to be conspicuous to those without, and have not
the least particle of grace. For if it is proper mystically " in
the closet" to pray to God, it will follow that we are also
to greet mystically our neighbour, whom we are commanded
to love second similarly to God, within doors, "redeeming
the time." "For we are the salt of the earth." "Whoso-
ever shall bless his friend earlv in the morning with a loud
voice, it shall be regarded not to differ from cursing." 4

The Government of the Eyes,

But, above all, it seems right that we turn away from the
stent of women. For it is sin not onlv to touch, but to look
and he who is rightly trained must especially avoid them.
"Let thine eves look straight, and thine evelids wink right."
For while it is possible for one who looks to remain stedfast
yet care must be taken against falling. For it is possible for
one who looks to slip ; but it is impossible for one, who looks
For it
not, to lust. is not enough for the chaste to be pure
but they must give all diligence, to be be} T
ond the range
2 3
Worn, xv i. 1G. 1 John iv. 7. Matt. v. 13.
4 5
Prov. xxvii. 14. iv. 25.

Book hi.] THE INSTRUCTOR. 331

of censure, shutting out all ground of suspicion, in order to

the consummation of chastity ; so that we may not only be
faithful, but appear worthy of trust. For this is also conse-
quently to be guarded against, as the apostle says, "that no
man should blame us providing things honourable, not only

in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men."
" But turn away thine eye from a graceful woman, and con-
template not another's beauty," says the Scripture. And if 2

you inquire the reason, it will further tell you, For by the
beauty of woman many have gone astray, and at it affection
blazes up like fire;" the affection which arises from the fire

which we call love, leading to the fire which will never cease
in consequence of sin.
2 Cor. 2
Ecclus. 3 Ecclus. ix. 8.
viii. 20, 21. is. 8.



WOULD counsel the married never to kiss their
wives in the presence of their domestics. For
Aristotle does not allow people to laugh to their
slaves. And by no means must a wife be seen
saluted in their presence. It is moreover better that, begin-
ning at home with marriage, we should exhibit propriety in
it. For it is the greatest bond of chastity, breathing forth
pure pleasure. Very admirably the tragedy says
u "Well ! well ! ladies, how is it, then, that among men,
Not gold, not empire, or luxury of wealth,
Conferred to such an extent signal delights,
As the right and virtuous disposition
Of a man of worth and a dutiful wife

Sucli injunctions of righteousness uttered by those who
are conversant with worldly wisdom are not
to be refused.
Knowing, then, the duty of each, u pass the time of your
sojourning here in fear : forasmuch as ye know that ye
were not redeemed with corruptible things, such as silver or
gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from
your fathers; but with the precious blood of Christ, as of
a lamb without blemish and without spot." " For," says
Peter, u the time past of our life may suffice us to have
wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasci-
viousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and
abominable idolatries."
We have as a limit the cross of the
Lord, by which we are fenced and hedged about from our
former sins. Therefore, being regenerated, let us fix our-
1 Pet. i. 17-19. 1 Pet. iv. 3.


Book in.] THE INSTRUCTOR 333

selves to it in truth, and return to sobriety, and sanctify
ourselves ; " for the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous,
and His ears are open to their prayer ; but the face of the
Lord is against them that do evil." And who is he that u

will harm us, if we be followers of that which is good? —
" us " for " you." But the best training is good order, which
is perfect decorum, and stable and orderly power, which in
action maintains consistence in what it does. If these things
have been adduced by me with too great asperity, in order
which follows from your correction
to effect the salvation ;

they have been spoken also, says the Instructor, by me :

" Since he who reproves with boldness is a peacemaker." 2
And if ye hear me, ye shall be saved. And if ye attend not
to spoken, it is not my concern. And yet it is my
what is

concern thus u For he desires the repentance rather than

the death of a sinner." " If ye shall hear me, ye shall eat
the good of the land," the Instructor again says, calling
by the appellation " the good of the land," beauty, wealth,
health, strength, sustenance. For those things which are
really good, are what " neither ear hath heard, nor hath ever
entered into the heart" respecting Him who is really King,
and the realities truly good which await us. For He is the
giver and the guard of good things. And with respect to
their participation, He applies the same names of things in
this world, the Word thus training in God the feebleness of
men from sensible things to understanding.
What has to be observed at home, and how our life is to

be regulated, the Instructor has abundantly declared. And
the things which He
wont to say to children by the way,

while He conducts them to the Master, these He suggests,
and adduces the Scriptures themselves in a compendious
form, setting forth bare injunctions, accommodating them to
the period of guidance, and assigning the interpretation of
them to the Master. For the intention of His law is to dis-
sipate fear, emancipating free-will in order to faith. " Hear,"
He says, " O child," who art rightly instructed, the principal
Ps. xxxiii. 16, 17 1 Pet, iii. 13. 2 Prov. x. 10, Sept.

3 Ezek. xviii. 23. 4
1 Cor. ii. 9.

334 THE INSTRUCTOR. [Book hi.

points of salvation. For I will disclose my ways, and lay
before thee good commandments by which thou wilt reach ;

salvation. And I lead thee by the way of salvation. Depart
from the paths of deceit.
u For the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous, and the
way of the ungodly shall perish." * " Follow, therefore, O
son, the good way which I shall describe, lending to me
attentive ears." u And I will give to thee the treasures of
darkness, hidden and unseen" by the nations, but seen by us.
And the treasures of wisdom are unfailing, in admiration of
which the apostle says, a O the depth of the riches and the
wisdom And by one God are many treasures dispensed

some disclosed by the law, others by the prophets some to ;

the divine mouth, and others to the heptad of the spirit sing-
ing accordant. And the Lord being one, is the same In-
structor by all these. Here is then a comprehensive precept,
and an exhortation of life, all-embracing " As ye would that :

men should do unto vou, do ve likewise to them." 4
We mav
comprehend the commandments in two, as the Lord says,
" Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with
all thy soul, and with all thy strength and thy neighbour as ;

thyself." u
Then from these He infers, on this hang the law
and the prophets." Further, to him that asked, " What
good thing shall I do, that I may inherit eternal life?" He
answered, a Thou knowest the commandments ? " And on
him replying Yea, He said, " This do, and thou shalt be saved."
Especially conspicuous is the love of the Instructor set forth
in commandments, in order that the dis-
various salutary
covery may be readier, from the abundance and arrangement
of the Scriptures. We have the Decalogue given by Moses,
which, indicating by an elementary principle, simple and of
one kind, defines the designation of sins in a way conducive
to salvation :
Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt
not worship idols. Thou shalt not corrupt boys. Thou shalt
not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness. Honour thy
father and thy mother."
And so forth. These things are to
Ps. i. G. - Isa. xlw 3.