You are on page 1of 82

Independent University, Bangladesh

Study on System Protection and Uses of Switchgear Devices in DESCO

An undergraduate internship report submitted by

Md. Nurul Azim Bhuiyan ID: 0920242
In consideration of partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of


Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Autumn 2013

Study on System Protection and Uses of Switchgear Devices in DESCO

An undergraduate internship report submitted by

Md. Nurul Azim Bhuiyan ID: 0920242

Has been approved on December 10, 2013

______________________________ Dr. A K M Baki Assistant Professor Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering School of Engineering and Computer Science Independent University, Bangladesh


I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide and advisor Dr. A K M Baki, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, School of Engineering and Computer Science (SECS), Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this internship. The blessings, helps and guidance given by him time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark. I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Md. Taufique Abdullah, Deputy General Manager, Human Resource & Management Division, Engr. Gazi Shahriar Parvez, Manager, Training & Development, DESCO, for their cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through various stages. I am obliged to staff members of Uttara Substation and Mirpur Digun Substation, for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment. Lastly, I thank Almighty Allah, my family and friends for their constant encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible.

The Author December, 2013 Dhaka Bangladesh


The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the efficiency of electric power distribution of Dhaka city, which runs through conducting technical and hugely commercial operations performing by Dhaka Electric Supply Company (DESCO) Limited. World class planning and expert practicing is the key to release that never-ending pressure constantly coming from the people of the world’s 4th most densely populated city (19447/km2). Technically, DESCO had to be sufficiently successful, as the protection of this huge population is the major concern. Protective and switchgear devices are the key apprehension of this study, as the substations are situated in the important parts of the city. Protecting them is always a challenge, as well as to ensure a continuous supply of electricity constantly. But the demand for load is never constant. The synchronising system of load supply according to the load demand is also a very challenging job which has been broadly covered in this paper. All data in this report are the close subjects of the study, some are directly connected to the outline and the others are only the subject of review.


2.2.4 Overview Purpose of Study Scope of Study Methodology Resistance Real Power Reactive Power Apparent Power Power Factor Power Factor Angle Significance of Power Factor Disadvantages of Low Power Factor Power Factor Upgrading 04 04 04 05 05 05 06 06 07 07 08 09 09 09 09 10 v 2.11 Electricity Consumer 2.1 2.1 2.4 Transmission & Distribution 2.2.13 Installed Capacity 2.2 1.2 Introduction Important Terms of Power System 2.4.2 2.3 1.12 Demand Load 2.6 OF CONTENT Acknowledgement Abstract List of Figures List of Tables List of Charts Chapter 01 Introduction 1.10 Surge Voltage 2.1 1.2.5 2.3 2.1 1.14 Electric Energy Measuring Unit .2.2 Chapter 02 Primary Source Secondary Source 01 02 02 02 02 03 iii iv xi xiii xiv Power Generation.7 2.

BPDB’s Relieve from Dhaka 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 23 23 23 23 24 vi Dhaka Electric Supply Company LTD (DESCO) 3.3 Tariff Setting Tariff Rate Service Guaranty .2.4 Hydro-Electric Power Plant 2.1.3 Short Transmission Line Medium Transmission Line Long Transmission Line 2.4 Power Generation in Bangladesh 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 18 Power Transmission 2.5 3.1 Overhead Transmission Line 2.2. Government Monopoly BPDB.2 The Beginning EWAPDA.1 2.1.5 Chapter 03 Distribution of Electric Power Overview of Dhaka Electric Supply Company LTD (DESCO) Electric Power Generation 3.2 2.1 3.3 Nuclear Power Plant 2.3 3.3.1 Steam Power Plant 2.4.1 History of Power Industry in Bangladesh 3.1.2 Underground Transmission Line 2.1.1 Classification of Transmission Line 2.4.15 System Loss Gas Insulated Transmission Line (GIL) 2.1.2 2.2 Manpower & Recruitment Commercial Operation Rural Development DESA.5 Gas Turbine Power Plant Rapid Development REB. Classification of Power Plant 2.2 Diesel Power Plant 3.4 3.

1 Substation 3.3 Corporate Philosophy 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 34 35 35 37 37 38 38 39 Performance 3.1.3 Electric Line Construction 3.3 Vision & Mission 3.5.3 Technical Highlight Commercial Highlight Growth of the Company 3.1 System Operation 3.3 Commercial Activities Sales & Distribution (S&D) Division 3.1 Technical Activities 3.3 DESCO Operational Data 3.3.2 New Connection 3.2 Mission Power Factor Monitoring Wireless & Telecommunication vii .1 3.7 Consumption Pattern Consumer Mix Categorised Consumption Growth Load Growth Import & Sales System Loss in DESCO Profit & Loss 3.4.4 3.1 Vision 3.6 Line Maintenance 3.3 Load Sanction 3.5.2 3.5.5 Activities of DESCO 3.6 3.3 Distribution Transformer 3.3.4 Load Retention 3.

Chapter 04

Substation Operation & Maintenance 4.1 Electrical Substation 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2 Classification according to Service Requirements Classification according to Constructional Features 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 52 53 54 54 54

Equipments in a Substation 4.2.1 Bus Bar 4.2.2 Bus Bar Arrangement Single Bus Bar System Single Bus Bar wit Sectionalisation Duplicate Bus Bar System 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 Insulators Isolators Circuit Breaker

4.2.6 Transformer Power Transformer Instrument Transformer 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.3 Current Transformer (CT) Potential Transformer (PT)

Metering and Indicating Instruments Lightening Arrester Bushing

Grid Substation & Distribution Substation 4.3.1 4.3.2 Feeder & Control Room Data Acquisition System (DAS)


Maintenance 4.4.1 4.4.2 Routine Job Emergency Operations

Chapter 05

Variable Load 5.1 5.2 Variable Load Effects of Variable Load 5.2.1 Need of additional equipments 55 55 55

5.2.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Chapter 06

Increase in Production Cost

55 56 56 57 57 57 58

Load Curve Load Types of DESCO Load Calculation in DESCO Load Sanction Load Retention Load Balancing System

Power System Protection 6.1 Faults in Power System 6.1.1 6.1.2 Symmetrical Faults Unsymmetrical Faults Single Line-to-Ground (L-G) Line-to-Line Fault (L-L) Double Line-to-Ground Fault (L-L-G) 6.2 6.3 Fault Locating Transformer Faults 6.3.1 6.3.2 External Fault Internal Faults Electrical Faults Incipient Faults 6.4 Protective Devices 6.4.1 Circuit Breakers Classification of Circuit Breakers 6.4.2 Fuses Types of Fuses 6.4.3 Protective Relays Functional Relay Types Oil Circuit Breaker Air-Blast Circuit Breaker Sulphure Hexafluoride CB Vacuum Circuit Breaker 59 59 60 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 66
ix Over Current Relay References Appendices Distance Relay Differential Relay Buchholz Relay

66 66 67 67


Figure Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13 Efficient Power System Power Triangle Showing Power Factor Power Triangle Showing Power Factor Angle Surge Voltage Geographical Network showing National Grid Long Overhead Transmission Line Long Capacity Underground Power Transmission Line Gas Insulated Transmission Line (GIL) Generation to Distribution Bus Bar implemented in Mirpur Digun Substation Single Bus Bar Sectionalised Single Bus Bar Bus Coupler Controlled in Uttara 132/33 kV Substation Double Bus Bar in Uttara 132/33 kV Substation Isolators in Uttara Grid Substation SF6 Circuit Breaker’s Manual Controller in Uttara Grid Substation 132/33 kV transformer in Uttara Grid Substation Current Transformer (CT) in Uttara Grid Substation Potential Transformer (PT) in Uttara Grid Substation Lightening Arrester in Uttara Grid Substation Various Types of Bushings Single Line Diagram of Mirpur Digun Substation Page 04 06 07 09 14 15 17 18 18 41 42 43 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50


16 Figure 5.1 Figure 6.Figure 4.15 Figure 4.4 11 kV Feeder Indicating Load Shedding Condition Control Room of a 33/11 kV Substation Data Acquisition System (DAS) in Mirpur Digun Substation Daily Load Curve Symmetrical Fault Line-to-Ground Fault Line-to-Line Fault Double Line-to-Ground Fault (L-L-G) 51 52 53 56 60 61 61 61 xii .14 Figure 4.2 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.

5 Table 3.6 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.7 Table 3.1 Table 3.LIST OF TABLES Table Table 2.11-2012 Expansion and Up gradation of Line Current Infrastructure of DESCO Page 13 24 25 25 26 27 29 30 30 xiii .4 Table 3.8 Contributing Fuel Type in Power Generation Various Tariff Rate Service Guaranty for LTI and LT Consumers Service Guaranty for HT Consumers Technical Highlight of DESCO Commercial Highlight of DESCO Installed Substations in 2.1 Table 3.

3 Consumption Pattern Consumer Mix Consumption Growth Page 28 28 29 xiv .LIST OF CHARTS Charts Chart 3.2 Chart 3.1 Chart 3.

The duties of an intern in the company are decided by a mutual negotiation between the student and the company. DESCO was created under the Company Act 1994 as a Public Limited Company with an authorized capital of BDT 5.1 Overview Internship – EEE499 is a 6 credit hour course offered every semester in School of Engineering and Computer Science (SECS) at Independent University. but without any corresponding practical knowledge. Electricity is a crucial element. where population is over 157 million (2012. The supply of electricity has a great impact on the national economy. Then the intern should start participating in the corresponding operations in any desired commercial company. Bangladesh (IUB). is only half-way achievement for my day to day practical life. Choosing internship as an option allowed me to explore the real world closely and familiarize myself with the industrial and commercial aspects of the subject I studied. In internship. 2013). A student of SECS must have to participate in any of these courses to fulfill the requirement of getting a Degree. as an equivalent option of course Senior Project – EEE498. Rests of the shareholders are public. to upgrade the socio-economic circumstances and to improve scarcity. Only 1 . as the company has the reputation to get the maximum commercial benefits and ran the majority of successful operations in the most densely populated area of the country.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. World Bank.00 billion. Proper and enough reliable electricity supply have a great positive impact on our Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and GDP is one of the explanations to comprehend the financial system of a country. Proper application of my theoretical knowledge is required in order to get some benefits from the practical experiences I got during my program. Choosing DESCO as my internship company is to get familiarize with the distribution operation in Dhaka. Such theoretical knowledge has been obtained from the courses I studied. an intern must choose a supervisor from the faculties of the school. the increasing population has an increased demand of electricity. In 1996. updated at Sep 8. Dhaka Electric Supply Company (DESCO) Limited is a 75% government owned company. and a developing country like Bangladesh.

DAS maintenance etc. load release. Operation & Maintenance of Grid Substation. power factor monitoring & upgrading.).3 Scope of Study The report covers the brief operations of transmitting. 2 .60% of which has been fulfilled.  Understanding the working principle of the transformer. DESCO Operations – Administrative activities. 1.  Understanding the operational activities of the Dhaka Electric Supply Company (DESCO). Accounts Activities.2 Purpose of Study  Understanding the electric-power distribution system. substation operation & maintenance. line maintenance. maintaining and distributing electricity in the northern part of Dhaka city under Dhaka Power Distribution Company Limited (DESCO). S&D Activities & Operations (New connection. The per capita generation rate is only 292 kWh which is also very low compared to any developing country having the similar reputation like Bangladesh. load management. load retention. HRM Activities. I had the opportunity to have close view of operatives’ activities of DESCO. This report especially emphasizes on power distribution and maintenance. 1.  Learning the working procedure of the protective relay.  Learning the substation operation and maintenance in DESCO. Financial Activities. control room activity.  Understanding the fault in power system and the protection of power system.

4.1.4. Internet and other materials were used as the primary source of information. 1. Newspapers.4 Methodology 1. 3 .1 Primary Source: Books. Journals regarding this topic. discussion with employees and annual report of DESCO were used as secondary source of information.2 Secondary Source: Participation in the practical field session.

Transmission & Distribution 2.1 Introduction Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries of South-Eastern Asia. a short discussion about some related theories are drawn below. This opposition. And this demand is increasing proportionally to the population.electrical energy is the most useful and demanding form of energy.1: Efficient Power System These sectors and their jurisdictions of operations are the main point of concentration of this chapter. These sectors are authorised to generate electricity according to national demand. due to the collision between electrons 4 .Chapter 2 Power Generation.1.2. urging authority to produce more and more electricity to compete with the global development. and charging bills and duties to confirm a commercial stability to the whole system. where .2 Important Terms of Power System 2.due to less technical and financial support . and to distribute it according to consumers’ demands. This necessitates establishing a very efficient form of power system consisting three absolute sectors as shown in figure 2. 2. but to construct a comfortable insight.1 Resistance The flow of charge through any material encounters an opposing force similar a many respects to mechanical friction. transmit it through a nationwide national grid system. Figure 2.

2. S = Vrms Irms Here. Q is the reactive power in volt-ampere-reactive [VAR] Vrms is the rms voltage = Vpeak/√2 in Volts [V] Irms is the rms current = Ipeak/√2 in Amperes [A] φ is the impedance phase angle = phase difference between voltage and current.2.2.4 Apparent Power The apparent power is the power that is supplied to the circuit [2].3 Reactive Power Reactive power is the power that is wasted and not used to do work on the load [2]. P = Vrms Irms cos φ Here.2 Real Power Real or true power is the power that is used to do the work on the load [2]. 2. 2. 2. P is the real power in watts [W] Vrms is the rms voltage = Vpeak/√2 in Volts [V] Irms is the rms current = Ipeak/√2 in Amperes [A] φ is the impedance phase angle = phase difference between voltage and current.and others atoms in the material. 5 . Q = Vrms Irms sin φ Here. which converts electrical energy into heat. is called resistance of the material [1].

3 shows a power triangle.2. there is generally a phase difference φ between voltage and current. Figure 2.2: Power Triangle Showing Power Factor 2.2.2 shows the power factor. 6 . Figure 2. Figure 2.6 Power Factor Angle In an AC circuit. clearly marking the power factor angle. Cosine of this phase angle is known as the power factor of that particular circuit.S is the apparent power in Volt-amper [VA] Vrms is the rms voltage = Vpeak/√2 in Volts [V] Irms is the rms current = Ipeak/√2 in Amperes [A] 2. Inductive circuit would produce lagging power factor and capacitive circuit would produce leading power factor.5 Power Factor Power factor is the ratio between actual load power (KW) and apparent load power (KVA) drawn by an electrical load and measured by a dimensionless number between 0 and 1 [3]. It indicates how effectively the current is being converted into useful output and most importantly is a very good pointer of the effect of the load current on the efficiency of the supply system.

2. supply cables and. The combination of the two is called "apparent" power (VA or volt-amperes). This means that for a generating station to supply a given power.0 require a utility to generate more than the minimum volt-amperes necessary to supply the power (watts). Good power factor is considered to be greater than 0.85 or 85%. is what a customer pays for. is the extra “power” transmitted to compensate for a power factor less than 1. but bill them for watts. This increases generation and transmission costs. where the length of the cables from the generators to the load is large. There will also be losses in the sub-circuit switchgear. 7 . Watts. in these cables as well. or reactive power. VAR. The relationship is watts = volts × amperes × power factor It is clear that power factors below 1.3: Power Triangle Showing Power Factor Angle 2. This causes losses in the machine as well as increasing the running costs of the whole plant. with the consequent excess temperature rise of the generators.8 Disadvantages of Low Power Factor One disadvantage is that the true power is considerably less than the output kVA.7 Significance of Power Factor The impact of power factor lies in the fact that distribution companies supply customers with volt-amperes. Another bad feature of low power factor is the large amount of wattless kVA produced.0.2. or real power.Figure 2. it may have to work above its normal kVA capacity.2.

8 . The result is a total current phase-angle somewhere between the inductor and capacitor currents. This is no coincidence. Apart from the affects of low power factor in generation sector. and a change in load gives a larger change in voltage drop if the power factor is low. The effect of these two opposing reactance’s in parallel is to bring the circuit's total impedance equal to its total resistance (to make the impedance phase angle equal. Moreover. higher currents give rise to higher copper losses in cables and transformers. Besides that. the leading capacitor current. Inductive reactance can only be canceled by capacitive reactance. partly because of the armature synchronous impedance. and partly because of the effect due to armature reaction. compensates for the lagging inductor current. paradoxically.2. indicating a phase angle of near zero. This phenomenon is known as ‘Poor Voltage Regulation’. to cancel out the effects of the load's inductive reactance. to zero). and also give larger voltage drop in cables. 2. by adding another load to the circuit drawing an equal and opposite amount of reactive power. larger cables. distribution companies often penalize consumers whose load is at poor power factor by charging more for the electrical energy used. However. IC. so we have to add a capacitor in parallel to our example circuit as the additional load. Firstly. or at least closer. there are some significant negative effects on transmission and distribution sector.A third disadvantage is that a large volt drop in alternator is caused. low power factor causes operating difficulties on high voltage transmission lines.9 Power Factor Upgrading Poor power factor can be corrected. Note that the lagging current. that total current (Itotal) was forced to be inphase with the total applied voltage (Vtotal). by the calculation of an appropriate capacitor value. switchgear and transformers may be necessary both within an installation. Moreover. IL of the inductor would have caused the total current to have a lagging phase somewhere between (Itotal) and IL. and the supply mains feeding it. In a reaction to those. Note that the total current (Itotal) is in phase with the applied voltage (Vtotal).

for continuous AC service and capable of handling the expected levels of current). a multistoried shopping complex or office can be treated as a single consumer if metering is done through one electric energy measuring meter.2. 2.2. You must also be very careful to use the proper capacitors for the job (rated adequately for power system voltages and the occasional voltage spike from lightning strikes.10 Surge Voltage A voltage rise that endangers the insulation of electric equipments is called surge voltage in power system.11 Electricity Consumer In the distribution system.2.It should be noted that too much capacitance in an AC circuit will result in a low power factor just as well as too much inductance. You must be careful not to over-correct when adding capacitance to an AC circuit. Figure 2.12 Demand Load Demand load indicates the aggregate demand of electricity of all the consumers at an instant time. Here electricity distribution agencies or companies are a consumer to the electricity generation authority or company from where they purchase electricity. 2. 9 . Figure 2. Usually electricity demand is denoted by the unit “Watt”.4: Surge Voltage 2. An exact calculation is important for selecting right insulation and appropriate system protection.4 shows the transient voltage surge.

2.2. the installed capacity of an electricity system indicates the maximum VA or Watt it can handle.2. 𝑆𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝐿𝑜𝑠𝑠 (%) = 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐼𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑡 − 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝑆𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑠 × 100 𝐸𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 𝐼𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑡 But. in reality the pilferage of electricity by any means is also reflected in the system loss. as the pilfered electricity does not come under energy sales. The capacity of electric line and cable is also considered in deriving the capacity of distribution system. This loss is due to the resistance property of material. In case of electricity distribution system. in case of distribution systemSystem Loss = Actual System Loss + Loss due to pilferage The actual system loss of the overhead distribution system should not be more than 7~8%. Therefore.14 Electric Energy Measuring Unit Usually electric energy consumption is measured by Unit.15 System Loss Every equipment. 2. Capacity (power) is usually denoted by Volt-Ampere (VA) which is also convertible into Watt by multiplying power factor with the VA. One Unit of electric energy consumption means consuming one Kilowatt of energy in one hour. sound and light energy.2.e. conductor and cable used in the power system has some loss in carrying electricity. usually it is the summation of the capacities of the sub-stations where high voltage is converted into low voltage.13 Installed Capacity In the electricity system every equipment and line has its maximum load handling capacity. it is the summation of capacities of all the power plants within the system. In case of electricity generation. Therefore. by lit up ten100 Watt bulbs for an hour. electrical energy converts into heat.2. The theoretical system loss of the entire system is found by the formula. i. 10 .

These generators are driven by heat engines and fueled by any kind of energy sources such as fossil fuel. renewable energy or nuclear energy.1. After that.1. power plants are of two types – conventional and nonconventional. Steam has been produced. Generation process often started at a power station by electromechanical generators. 2. Non-conventional power plants are those which are still under experiments or not implemented yet to industrial production of power. A very fundamental principal of generating electricity .3. 2. According to the basic classification.discovered by British scientist Michael Faraday during the early seventieth century. On the other hand. 11 .3.1 Classification of Power Plants A power plant refers to an industrial place for generating electrical power. Diesel burns into the combustion chamber of the engine and produce mechanical energy. The major or the most popular conventional power plants are – 2. The energy source used to rotate the generator defines the type of any particular power plant and varies chiefly depending upon the availability of cheap or safe type of fuel. it has been condensed fed back into the boiler to complete the cycle.2 Diesel Power Plant Diesel engines are used to the primary side.3.1 Steam Power Plant Uses steam as working material and works on Rankin Cycle.3 Electric Power Generation Movement of a loop of wire or disc of copper between the poles of magnet generates electricity. and then expanded in the prime mover. This energy drives the alternator to convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy. conventional power plants are the most popular means of generation and successfully executed in many countries under the mass production of power.2.

converting the heat energy to mechanical energy which then drives the alternator to produce electricity.53% of total generation). the national demand would be 34.4 Hydro-Electric Power Plant The potential energy of water is converted into kinetic energy.53%) as fuel. This plan also states that in 2030.2 Power Generation in Bangladesh According to Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB).3. This steam then used to run a steam turbine. which is then spin a generator to produce electricity [4]. thus prioritizes the use of domestic primary energy sources. natural gas 25% (including LNG). 5% liquid fuel and 20% nuclear including renewable and cross-border trades.3.3 Nuclear Power Plant Heavy elements such as Uranium or Thorium are subjected to nuclear fission in a reactor. which then allowed flowing through a turbine to produce mechanical energy to drive the alternator of a generator. 12 .1.1. As shown in Table 2.3. 2. PSMP 2010 also aims to acquire the fuel composition ratio would be coal 50% (30% domestic coal and 20% imported coal). most of which use natural gas (64. which produces 6598 MW of electricity (64. Bangladesh already reached the capacity to generate 10224 MW of electricity (November 2013).000 MW [5]. by letting the water fall from a certain height. but attempting to release the pressure from gas stock by diverting attention to coal and renewable energy.2.5 Gas Turbine Power Plant Burning fuel into a high-pressure chamber to produce hot gases that rotate a turbine. This results a release in heat energy which then used to raise steam at high temperature and pressure. This was according to the planning of Power Sector Master Plan (PSMP) initiated in 2010.000 MW whereas national generation would be 39.3.1. Bangladesh currently depending very much on natural gas.1. 2. 2.

13 . It also shows the planning and construction of newly adopted 400 KV transmission lines [5]. Power Grid Company of Bangladesh (PGCB) Limited owns all of the transmission line of Bangladesh. electric power is “stepped up” to several thousand volts by a transformer and delivered to the transmission line. of 230/132 kV substation and 83 nos.4 Power Transmission Transmission lines are sets of wires. which carry electric power from generating plants to the substations that deliver power to customers.Fuel type Gas Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) High Speed Diesel (HSD) Imported Coal Hydro Total Capacity (MW) 6598 1963 683 500 250 230 10224 Total (%) 64. 2013 are stood at 3020.68 4. PGCB gets its energy wheeling charge from its clients (distribution entities) at the rate fixed by Bangladesh Electricity Regulatory Commission (BERC).1: Contributing Fuel Type in Power Generation 2. The type of transmission structures used for any project is determined by the characteristics of the transmission line’s route. called conductors.45 2. under construction & planned 230 KV and 132 KV transmission line. homes and businesses. 6066. At a generating plant. including terrain and existing infrastructure. Figure 2.89 2. At numerous substations on the transmission system. clearly indicating existing.2 6.44 circuit km of 132 kV lines and 15 nos. of 132/33 kV substations.5 illustrates a brief geographical network of national power grid.53 19.25 100 Table 2. The main operating function of PGCB is wheeling of energy from BPDB power stations and Generation Companies to Distribution entities utilizing transmission network. transformers step down the power to a lower voltage and deliver it to distribution lines. Distribution lines carry power to farms.77 circuit km of 230 kV lines. Transmission lines of the company up to June.

1 Classification of Transmission Line Depending on the route of transmission lines and considering the terrain and the existing infrastructure. alloy reinforced) conductors.Figure 2. The usually bare conductors are insulated from the supporting towers by insulators attached to grounded towers or poles. transmission lines are classified into three major types. Overhead lines use ACSR (aluminum cable. while the high-voltage lines are built with insulator chains or long-rod composite insulators. a stranded steel core carries the mechanical load. In an ACSR conductor. 14 .4. and layers of stranded aluminum surrounding the core carry the current. An ACAR conductor is a stranded cable made of an aluminum alloy with low resistance and high mechanical strength.4.1 Overhead Transmission Line Overhead transmission lines distribute the majority of the electric energy in the system.1. steel reinforced) and ACAR (aluminum cable. 2.5: Geographical Network showing National Power Grid 2. A typical high-voltage line has three phase conductors to carry the current and transport the energy. and two grounded shield conductors to protect the line from direct lightning strikes. Lower-voltage lines use post insulators. The normal distance between the supporting towers is a few hundred feet.

Bundle conductors reduce corona discharge [6]. 15 .5 ft (0.ACSR conductors are usually used for high-voltage lines. or four conductors connected in parallel and separated by about 1. Each phase of the line is built with two.5 m). and ACAR conductors for subtransmission and distribution lines. three.6: Long Overhead Transmission Line Depending on the voltage level transmitting through the line or the distance the transmitted signal will travel. including wide variations of temperature. Transmission lines are subject to environmental adversities. Figure 2. and ice and snow deposits. Figure 2. overhead lines are classified as follows.6 gives an example of long overhead transmission line. but are typically designed to withstand environmental stresses occurring once every 50–100 years. high winds. Ultrahigh-voltage (UHV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) lines use bundle conductors.

and construction needs. 2.2 Medium transmission Line The transmission line having its effective length more than 80 km but less than 240 km is generally referred to as a medium transmission line.1. thus ruling out the approximations considered there like [7]. For short length.1 Short Transmission Line The transmission lines which have length less than 80 km are generally referred as short transmission lines. environmental. the effective circuit length in this case is much higher than what it was for the former models (long and medium line) and. Due to their different physical. 16 .4.4.7 reveals a large capacity highly secured underground power transmission line in a underground tunnel. Underground cables have different technical requirements than overhead lines and have different environmental impacts. underground transmission generally costs more and may be more complicated to construct than overhead lines. as was the case for a short or medium transmission line.2. admittance of the network does play a role in calculating the effective circuit parameters.1.3 Long Transmission Line A power transmission line with its effective length of around 240 km or above is referred to as a long transmission line. 2. the shunt capacitance of this type of line is neglected and other parameters like resistance and inductance of these short lines are lumped [7].1. 2. The reason being that.4. Figure 2.1. Calculations related to circuit parameters of such a power transmission is not that simple. but through a set of highly insulated cables buried literally under earth to minimise the effects of environmental hazards to the power system. Due to the line length being considerably high.4.1.1. unlike in the case of short transmission lines.1. For this reason the modeling of a medium length transmission line is done using lumped shunt admittance along with the lumped impedance in series to the circuit [7].2 Underground Transmission Line Underground lines are a very reliable mean of transmitting electric power.

second generation GIL has been developed that is more economically viable and its design optimised both for installation and operation. In contrast.4. and dissipating the heat produced during the operation of the electrical cables. Since the first installation of GIL in 1975. compact solutions can be delivered in order to supply large amounts of electric power to meet the high demand of large cities and industry. a number of different systems.7: Large Capacity Underground Power Transmission Line The design and construction of underground transmission lines differ from overhead lines because of two significant technical challenges that need to be overcome. These new possibilities can mitigate power flow problems.3 Gas Insulated Transmission Line (GIL) Gas insulated transmission lines (GIL) are a means of bulk electric power transmission at extra high voltage. and construction methods have been used during the last century in order to achieve the necessary insulation and heat dissipation required for undergrounding transmission lines. Air also provides insulation that can recover if there is a flashover. Providing sufficient insulation so that cables can be within inches of grounded material.1. materials. reduce the risk of failure of electrical transmission systems and enable the installation of optimum solutions 17 . Open air circulating between and around the conductors cools the wires and dissipates heat very effectively. GIL consists of tubular aluminium conductors encased in a metallic tube that is filled with a mixture of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrogen gases for electrical insulation. Where GIL is installed in combination with gas insulated switchgear (GIS).Figure 2. 2. Overhead lines are separated from each other and surrounded by air.

5 Distribution of Electric Power Electric distribution system is such a part of power system which distributes electricity for local consumption.regarding technical.8 is an example of a 230 kV GIL under construction in Massachusetts. Therefore. distribution system is the electrical system between the sub-station fed by the transmission system and the consumers’ meters. Figure 2. USA [8]. Figure 2.9: Generation to Distribution 18 . Figure 2. generally. economical and environmental aspects.8: Gas Insulated Transmission Line (GIL) 2. The electrical energy produces at the generating station is conveyed to the consumers through a network of distribution system. after it has been transmitted over a transmission grid.

Dhaka Electric Supply Company Limited (DESCO) 3. Rural Electrification Board (REB) 19 .In Bangladesh. All of them are not only purchasing electricity from BPDB and selling them to the consumers. South Zone Power Distribution Company Limited (SZPDCL) 6. North-West Zone Power Distribution Limited (NWZPDCL) 5. currently 6 semi-autonomous companies are contributing to distribute power. West Zone Power Distribution Company Limited (WZPDCL) 4. Dhaka Power Distribution Company Limited (DPDC) 2. These bodies are – 1. but also managing numerous numbers of sub-stations and distribution networks including pole transformers and zonal underground cables. from managing the industrial necessity to lighting the remotest area of the country.

1. Electricity was available to only small elite in the district and sub-divisional headquarters.1 History of Power Industry in Bangladesh 3. The distribution networks in these cities were isolated and were fed by coal fired steam power plants or diesel generation.1. Government Monopoly In 1947. the installed generating capacity in the then East Pakistan was only 21 MW. The first effort to structure a legal framework for the industry came in 1910 with the enactment of the Indian Electricity Act. the then Government of Pakistan issued an ordinance in 1959 creating the East Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (EWAPDA). 20 . at the time of independence of subcontinent. thereby creating a total Government monopoly in the sector. In an effort to expeditiously augment generation capacity to feed a development economy. Transmission and Distribution facilities from the private sector. supplied largely by natural gas and oil fired steam power and hydro plants. 1910. Although a number of small stations were constructed over the next 20 years. catering to small distribution networks serving the major urban centers. these stations were isolated.Chapter 3 Overview of Dhaka Electric Supply Company (DESCO) Limited 3. The networks of Dhaka and Chittagong and then been interconnected however with weak 132 KV links.2 EWAPDA.1 The Beginning The electricity supply industry in South-Eastern Asia started with the commissioning of the first power station in 1890. This Act sought to regulate the business of industry still based on the old concept of isolated privately owned distribution networks fed by small generation stations & essentially defined the rights & obligations of the supplier and the consumer. 3. During 1960s and 1970s the generation capacity of the then East Pakistan rose from 88 MW to 475 MW. The Ordinance essentially provided for the Governments takeover of all Generation.

2012). the commercial performance of the BPDB deteriorated and during 1990. 3. Rapid Development Shortly after the creation of an Independent Bangladesh. the first Government of Bangladesh. assisting the PBSs to operate and maintain the rural networks and monitoring their financial performances. This performance was not found reasonable to the covenants agreed by the 21 .4 REB. The REB has so far constructed over 239.1. The Ordinance recognized the divergence of energy related issues in development. promoting the establishment of 70 Rural Electric Cooperatives (Palli Bidyut Samities – PBS). the eastern and western halves of the country were electrically connected through the commissioning of double circuit 230 KV transmission line across the Yamuna River energized at 132 KV between Ishwardi and Tongi called the first East-West Interconnector. BPDB has increased the generating capacity in the country to 2818 MW. For the first time in December 1982. During 1972 to 1995. in 1972. and the length of its 230 and 132 KV transmission networks to 419 KM and 2469 KM. handing over the constructed rural networks to them. a semi-autonomous agency charged with the responsibility of planning. developing. in an effort to speed up the investment in the sector issued an Ordinance creating the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) as the successor organization of the power side of EWAPDA.5 months of billing. Rural Development In order to intensify the pace of rural electrification. the Government issued an ordinance in 1977 establishing the Rural Electrification Board (REB). The distribution networks of all major towns and cities had been linked through 230 KV and 132 KV inter-ties.5 DESA. BPDB’s Relieve from Dhaka From 1986 onwards.3.3 BPDB.1. open and combined cycle power plants at different locations of Eastern and Western part of the country. BPDB’s average gross systems loss was about 42 percent and accounts receivables in excess of 6. 3. financing and construction of rural distribution networks. Generation sources were diversified to include a 230 MW hydropower station at Kaptai on the Karnaphuli River and natural gas and imported fuel based.1.318 Km of distribution lines and provided over 9 million consumers connections in the rural areas (June.

the operational activities of DESCO commenced on September 24. 3. (DESCO) was created as a distribution company in November 1996 under the Company Act 1994 as a Public Limited Company with an Authorized Capital of 5. 2012 with a maximum load demand of 715 MW [9]. comprises the areas bounded by  Greater Mirpur Area  Agargaon Area  Rokeya Sarani  Bijoy Sarani  Greater Gulshan Area  Greater Uttara Area  Baridhara Area  New Airport Road  Maymenshing Road Immediately after taken over from DESA.161 and a load demand of 90 MW.723 as of June. 22  Mohakhali Jheel  Rampura Jheel  North-Western part of Balu River  Eastern part of Turag River  Tongi Municipal Area  Purbachal Model Town  Uttarkhan Area  Dakhinkhan Area .00 billion BDT.  Operation and maintenance of substations and distribution line. In the subsequent years of successful operations and performances. to lessen the administrative burden on BPDB’s management. in 1990. the huge coverage areas were proven difficult to handle singlehandedly by the board. The total consumer strength stands at 504. However. which was subsequently enacted as an Act transferring the 132 KV and 33 KV Transmission and distribution system in the Greater Dhaka Area including the Metropolitan City to a newly created Government agency called the Dhaka Electric Supply Authority (DESA). another ordinance was issued. Therefore. Experts revealed.Government and BPDB with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank. 1998 with the taking over of Mirpur area from erstwhile DESA with a consumer strength of 71. The area. about 250 square kilometers under service of the Company. Ltd. DESCO’s obligation were. the operational area of DESCO was expanded through inclusion of Greater Gulshan Circle in April. 2007. 2003 and Tongi Municipal Area in March.2 Dhaka Electric Supply Company LTD (DESCO) Dhaka Electric Supply Co.

3. However. Calculation of DESCO's tariff during 1997-2001 will be based on the estimated costs of the assets initially to be transferred to it by DESA.2. DESCO charge a “cost . these calculations will be for illustrative purposes only and the actual tariffs will be based on the costs actually incurred and the foreign exchange value of the Taka as computed each year. The qualification and experience requirement were fixing up according to the requirement for performing their duties and responsibilities against the respective post. on a "cost plus performance based return" principle to cover its capital costs. Commercial function (billing. till the recommendations of the tariff study to be conducted with World Bank financing are available. the Ninth Power Project cost and any other donors share.1 shows various Tariff Rates.2 Tariff Rate A new tariff rate with respect to retail sales of electricity of Dhaka Electric Supply Company Ltd.1 Tariff Setting Being a commercial They were employed on long-term contracted basis under the DESCO's service rules approved by its Board of Directors. consumer accounting.2.2.2 Commercial Operation 3.return" tariff from its consumers.2. 3. 23 . Table 3. (DESCO) has been made effective in case of electricity usages from 01 September 2012. design and installation of new distribution network. testing and installation of consumer meter etc.)  Planning. DESCO have to charge for electricity it distributes. 3. disconnection and re-connection of consumers.2.1 Manpower & Recruitment DESCO recruits its employees through open advertisement. operation costs as well as to target a post-tax return of 15 percent on its equity. It is therefore proposed that. Mainly those who have sufficient experience in the field of utility organization are selected on a merit basis.2.

48 8 Category-J : Street Light and Water Pumps Table 3. Fourth Step : From 301 to 400 units e.95 5.96 8.85 6 Category-F : Medium Voltage.) 1 Category-A : Residential a.73 4.47 4. Off-Peak Time c.87 9. General Purpose (33 KV) A Flat Rate B Off-Peak Time C Peak Time 6.33 4.14 6. First Step : From 00 to 75 units b.51 Category-B : Agricultural pumping Category-C : Small Industries a.81 5. Fifth Step : From 401 to 600 units f. Third Step : From 201 to 300 units d. General Purpose (11 KV) A Flat Rate B Off-Peak Time C Peak Time 6.1: Various Tariff Rate 24 .83 4. 2 3 Sixth Step : Above 600 units 3.98 9.48 5.93 7.00 7.22 11. Flat Rate b.38 2.53 4 5 Category-D : Non-Residential (Light & Power) Category-E : Commercial And Office A Flat Rate B Off-Peak Time C Peak Time 9. Second Step : From 76 to 200 units c.96 9.33 7 Category-H : High Voltage.SL Consumer Category Per Unit Rate (Tk. Peak Time 6.

3 Service Guaranty Table 3. Lightening arrester change and others Application from consumer Deposit shutdown fee TK:4260 if feeder shutdown required RC-DC fee TK: 1200 if feeder shutdown not required All payment must be made through Bank Transformer change Application from consumer Deposit shutdown fee TK: 4260 if feeder shutdown required RC-DC fee TK: 1200 if feeder shutdown not required All payment must be made through Bank Permission from CEI 25 procedure Transformer maintenance . Drop out fuse change. U/G Map attached/CD electric cable line Table Service Guaranty for LTI and LT Consumers For HT consumer (11 KV) Own Transformer maintenance Transformer maintenance & change. load extension & others Meter & service drop change Application from consumer Deposit RC-DC fee TK: 1200 Pay all outstanding bills Load extension &others Application by consumer Pay all outstanding bills Deposit RC-DC fee &other bills as applicable Location of overhead lines.2. For LTI & LT consumer Meter &service drop change.3 shows the service guaranty for LTI and LT and HT consumer respectively.2 and 3. poles.

2.2 Mission Service to the utmost satisfaction of consumers through reliable and uninterrupted power supply and provide value for money.1 Vision To be a role-model electric supply company in the region using most dependable technology and be a development partner in the continuous welfare of the society.) Capacity of 33/11KV Sub-Station Maximum Demand (MW) 33KV Overhead Line (KM) 33KV Underground Line (KM) 11KV Overhead Line (KM) 11KV Underground Line (KM) LT Line (KM) Distribution Transformer (no. Corporate Philosophy Service excellence with integrity and corporate social responsibility.3 DESCO Operation Data 3.8 215 1044 360 1717 4938 2011-2012 25 980/1372 715 82.8 208 1017 350 1671 4810 2010-2011 22 880/1232 640 82.3. Lightening arrester Application from consumer change Deposit shutdown fee TK:4260 if feeder shutdown required All payment must be made through Bank Table 3.4: Technical Highlight of DESCO .3.3.) 2009-2010 21 770/1078 622 82. 3.Drop out fuse.3 Vision & Mission 3. Provide congenial working environment for employees. 3.3.1 Technical Highlight Particular 33/11KV Sub-Station (no.8 294 1084 390 1774 5227 26 Table 3.2.3: Service Guaranty for HT Consumers 3.

that every single technical equipments are increasing gradually. 3.919 million last year to Tk.75 90 446129 20. When collection ratio is decreased then CI ratio decreases and system loss increases.3.3.54 98.723 consumers as of June 30.54 Table 3. 9. System loss is now under 2 digits. 2011-12 was the best year in terms of system loss. The shareholders equity increased from Tk.5: Commercial Highlight of DESCO From the Table 3.69 2010-2011 3122 8801 2848 12400 8. It is clear.13 504723 18. 2011-12 was the most successful year in terms of CI ratio. Collection ratio. Starting from a consumer base of 71.79 98. 3. 2012. 27 .96 90. it is clear that.5.I Ratio (%) Consumer Nos.54 90.553 million. Receivable/Sales (%) 2009-2010 2933 7845 2673 10911 8.26 449063 19. recording a growth of 6. System loss parameter is of the main parameter for judging any electric supply company. it is 8.2 Commercial Highlight Particulars Energy Import (MKWh) Energy Import (MTk) Energy Sales (MKWh) Energy Sales (MTk) System Loss (%) Collection Ratio (%) C.96 2011-2012 3401 13327 3111 16094 8. 04.39% during the year.86 98.4 gives a brief technical history of DESCO. the Company has grown to cater about 5. 10.000 with load demand of 90 MW in 1998.54.Above Table 3.3 Growth of the Company The Company’s growth can be better conceived by the figures and graphs presented in this report.

2% of total consumers are industrial consumers who consume more than one third of the total power. nearly 450 thousand consumers are residential. more than 10 times the numbers of commercial consumers.4 Performance 3. The rest are used either in commercial purpose or other non-significant purpose.2: Consumer Mix 28 . which are nearly 40.3.1: Consumption Pattern 3.1 Consumption Pattern Form the chart 3. Chart 3.4. it is clearly seen that more than 50% of the consumption are subject to residential necessities. Nearly 37% of the power is consumed in industrial factories.2 Consumer Mix As given in chart 3. Chart The most significant finding of this chart is that only 1.1 below.

Industrial consumption has also increased significantly.3.3: Consumption Growth 3. Chart 3. 2011 September 21.1 Substation: DESCO always feels to be consistent with load growth and capacity enhancement.5. 2011 August 28. 2011 December 30.3 Consumption Growth Chart 3. 2011 Capacity 2 × 20/28 MVA 2 × 20/28 MVA 3 × 20/28 MVA 3 × 20/28 MVA 2 × 20/14 MVA 220/308 MVA Table 3.5 Activities of DESCO 3.1 Technical Activities Major technical activities completed during the year 2011-12 are highlighted below: 3.6: Installed Substations in 2011-2012 29 .6) within its jurisdiction: Name of Substation Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport (CAAB) Mirpur DOHS Uttara Mirpur Old Baunia Total Capacity Increased Date of Completion July 07. In FY 2011-12 the company installed tested and commissioned the following 5 (five) 33/11 KV substations (Table 3.3 shows the growth of consumption in the last few years.1.4.5. 2011 October 15. It is clearly seen that the residential consumption has increased and nearly doubled while commercial and other purpose consumptions are hardly increased. As such it took various projects for capacity building.

DESCO installed as many as 261 nos.1.5. in addition to consumer’s own transformers.3 Distribution Transformer: In order to cater the increasing load demand and enhance load capacity.3.5. Table 3. Table 3. Table 3.4 KV. 3-phase 200 KVA and 28 nos.5.7: Expansion and Up gradation of Line 3.2 Electric Line Construction: During last financial year DESCO completed the expansion and up gradation of its source line and distribution network as stated in Table 3.8: Current Infrastructure of DESCO 3. of single phase transformers.1.8 shows the current infrastructure of DESCO.7. of 11/0.2 Commercial Activities Major commercial activities undertaken during the year are highlighted below: 30 .

Aiming this motto.7 MW by 2.272 defaulting consumers’ services were disconnected during the year.491 nos. 10. 15.Disconnection / Reconnections Disconnection of electric line has been considered to be an effective tool to recover outstanding bills/dues.04 KW at its 48 nos. With these new connections. 576.747 meters were inspected. of consumers at their premises up to June 30. by means of distributing leaf-let. Energy Saving & Use of Alternative Energy: Power saving means Power generation.937 defective meters were changed. New Connections This year 55. 29. turning of lights and fans when not in use and replacing the older incandescent lamp by CFL (Compact Florescent Lamp) etc. DESCO has undertaken different steps to encourage the consumers for using energy efficient appliances in their homes / offices.723. the total number of electric connections under DESCO at the end of the financial year stands at 5.376 illegal consumer services were traced and disconnected during the year.90 million was realized from the defaulting consumers and Tk. 31 . During the year 21. 2. By applying this tool a total number of 33. 04. To encourage the use of renewable energy.660 new connections have been added to our system. Moreover.548 consumers were given re-connection on recovery of their outstanding dues and realization of penalty as applicable. DESCO installed solar panel of capacity 17. displaying poster and festoons. An aggregate amount of Tk.364 meters were sealed and 48. own installations up to June 30. 2012 in line with the Government policy. DESCO ensured installation of eco-friendly Solar Panel of capacity around 2.59 million against penal/supplementary bills. During the year. sealing of meters and inspection of meters on a regular basis. every effort is made to change defective meters. 2012 Metering The meter being the ‘cash box’ of the Company.

The issue is seriously considered by DESCO. Bill payment in the bank All most every bank in Dhaka receives the electric bill. For this purpose. 12.I. then they give the reading into the e-Governance software.655 names and addresses were rectified on receiving complaints from the consumers.31% and the Collection/ Import (C. DESCO contract with other company to collect the meter reading from their customers. The software minus previous reading with new reading and get the unit and then calculate the bill depends on the amount of the energy unit. Billing/ Collection The primary objective of maintaining the financial strength of the Company is achieved by continuous efforts to maintain a healthy billing/ collection ratio. In the DESCO there are three types of bill payment systems.709 million. the billing collection ratio works out at 99. the consumers of DESCO can pay their bill in any bank. Any consumer coming to DESCO’s Sales & Distribution Division office may receive desired service and solution from the staff of the “One Point Service Centre”. One Point Service Center: Customer satisfaction is the key to success of any business. consumers can pay their bill by using one of the system. Considering sales at Tk. Our customers are our prime focus and we are to ensure satisfactory customer service as deemed suitable. The Customer Service Centers are under continuous improvement in order to raise their standard up to the desired level.962 million and collection at Tk. rectification of names and addresses are seriously attended. DESCO is giving emphasis on routine training of the employees. which led to the establishment of Customers’ “One Point Service Center” in each of the Sales and Distribution Divisions.410 bills were corrected and records of 2.15. So.) ratio to 89.Consumer Complaints: DESCO continuously strives to offer ‘service excellence’ to its valued consumers.77% this year. Consumer complaints in terms of billing errors. 15. During the year. 32 .

DESCO web-portal is secured by SSL which is displayed on the web page.96% in the last year. The Accounts Receivable/ Sales ratio works out to 15. 33 .org. Robi and Citycell.54% this year as against 8. A Bill payment procedure or instruction is published in the web and there is a printed leaflet available in DESCO’s Customer Service Centers. In line with increasing customer need and expectations for faster service. Maestro etc. At present there is no extra charge to be borne by the customer for this service.Bill payment through mobile phone Mobile phone service providers have introduced several value added services for the public. The Company maintains a system of continuous monitoring of accounts receivable by way of monthly reports and analysis. Accounts receivable/sales One of the indicators of efficient financial management is to decrease the accounts receivable/sales ratio.37% this year as against 19. VISA. The system loss works out to 8. One of them is utility bill payment through Mobile phone or through retail seller of the phone operator. DESCO consumers may also pay their electricity bill through mobile phone operators Grameen Phone. Bangladesh Bank has allowed DESCO online transaction through Debit/Credit cards of Banks. DESCO consumers may pay their monthly electricity bills through internet by using Credit/Debit card as allowed by NEXUS-gateway of Dutch-Bangla Bank such as Master. stated in DESCO website www. Bill payment through internet Payment of utility bill through internet is one of the modern and expected service facilities for the customers worldwide.79% in the previous year. NEXUS. DESCO is the first public sector utility that launched the facility of bill payment through internet under NEXUS gateway of DutchBangla Bank.desco. System loss This is a key performance indicator of any electric distribution company and is determined by the quantity of energy purchased and sold.

LEM (Line & Equipment Maintenance) 3.3. 2012. A total of 11. 3.5. MSS (Maintenance of sub-system) 3.1 System Operation System operation is an important part of the DESCO. DESCO has set up a "Prepaid Meter Production Unit" at Mirpur with the technical assistance of Institute of Information and Communication Technology (IICT). This section maintain the New connection.5.333 nos. Load sanction & Load  Tongi (East)  Tongi (West)  Shah Ali  Rupnagar  Agargaon  Uttarkhan  Badda  Joar Sahara 34 . This section mainly related with the Grid and sub-station maintenance.Prepaid metering Prepaid meter utilizes smart card technology that allows customers to put money on a smart card which is inserted and removed from the prepaid meter. BUET [9]. The meter reads a chip in the card and ensures that only the amount of electricity that has been paid for be available to the customer. The introduction of prepaid meters has helped to improve revenue collections as well as to reduce system loss.3 Sales and Distribution (S&D) Division  Kafrul  Monipur  Pallabi  Gulshan  Baridhara  Uttara (East)  Uttara (West)  Dakhinkhan There are three main operations in DESCO. of prepaid meters have been installed in different Sectors of Uttara as of 30th June. COSS (Commercial Operation & Support Service) 2. Customers can re-charge their smart card at DESCO’s vending stations. These are – 1. In order to facilitate continuous supply of prepaid meters.

3./ competent authority. Load Management. Line Maintenance. DESCO has introduced the opportunity for customers to apply for electric connection through internet.5. This would also enable them to know about the status of application. Power factor monitoring & upgrading. Required Documents – Residential / Domestic category up to 49KW  Signed copy of the application form  2 copies attested recent Passport size color photo  Attested copy of registered deed of ownership / Occupancy  Mutation document for Land  Attested copy of RAJUK / City Corporation approved building plan  Attested copy of document regarding holding no. DAS Maintenance etc. issued by City Corp. Documents Requirement – Commercial Customer up-to 49KW load  Signed copy of the application form  2 copies attested recent Passport size color photo  Authorization letter from partners (for Joint-Venture)  Attested copy of registered deed of ownership / Occupancy  Mutation document for Land  Attested copy of RAJUK / City Corporation approved building plan  Attested copy of document regarding holding no. the applicant hard copy for validating On-line application. 35 . Control room activity. In this perspective.2 New Connection Consumer will be able to download or take a print of the application form. Applicants are advised to follow the instructions laid down in the citizen charter.3. After the confirmation of the On-Line application. issued by City Corp. Applicants must submit the required documents in DESCO since its inception has been striving to establish better and friendly service to its customer./ competent authority.retention. along with his/her signed copy of printed application.

issued by City Corp. Documents Requirement: Temporary Connection  Signed copy of the application form  2 copies attested recent Passport size color photo  Attested copy of registered deed of ownership / Occupancy  Mutation document for Land 36 .  Sub-Station layout plan and Single line diagram  Agreement for use of Meter Room by DESCO  Specifications.Documents Requirement – Customers of load 50KW and above load  Signed copy of the application form  2 copies attested recent Passport size color photo  Attested copy of registered deed of ownership / Occupancy  Mutation document for Land  Attested copy of RAJUK / City Corporation approved building plan  Attested copy of document regarding holding no.  Clearance from Fire Service (If applicable)  Clearance from Environment (If applicable)  Trade License. issued by City Corp. switch-gear and other equipment  License from Chief Electrical Inspector of GOB Documents Requirement: Small Industries Customer up-to 49KW load  Signed copy of the application form  2 copies attested recent Passport size color photo  Authorization letter from partners for Joint-Venture  Attested copy of registered deed of ownership / Occupancy  Mutation document for Land  Attested copy of RAJUK / City Corporation approved building plan  Attested copy of document regarding holding no./ competent authority./ competent authority. Test results of Transformer.

If the sanction load is below 7KWh than the consumer get single phase line. The consumer calculate the total load (KW) he or she need.3. the consumer must mention the load demand on the application paper. Base on the load calculated DESCO approve the consumer sanction load. This phase shift is a result of these elements holding power. 3. 3. If this current is excessive (so you have a very low power factor) the power company must install oversized equipment to meet your demand.4 Load Retention If the consumer see that his Total Demand load is greater than his maximum sanction load. if it is above 7KWh than the consumer get 3-phase line. and then releasing it.3. these reactive elements do cause "extra" current to flow. This is called load retention. if the load is above or equal to 50KWh than the consumer have to make a substation. this does not show up on your electric bill (unless you are billed on VARs as well as watts). If the DESCO authority think that the consumer really need to increase the sanction load than they approve the consumer application and give the consumer Extra load. Than DESCO authority goes to consumer & calculated the load. Then the consumers have to make an application to DESCO to increase the sanction load. this 37 . Since these elements are not actually using power.5. Attested copy of RAJUK / City Corporation approved building plan 3.5. Reactive elements (things that have inductance or capacitance) cause phase shifts between voltage applied to them and current passing through them.3 Load Sanction When a consumer applies for a new connection.5.5 Power Factor Monitoring Power factor is the real power (watts) divided by total power (the vector sum of real and reactive power). Consumer makes an Application to DESCO for that amount of load.3. Although they don't use real power. which the power company must supply.

Sometimes the consumer also inform DESCO. This is why power companies will often require a certain power factor being met. often operating at high voltage. live-line working is the maintenance of electrical equipment.3. inductive or capacitive. Such methods can be applied to enable safe work at the highest transmission voltages.means an added expense for them. We call it a lagging power factor if it is inductive and a leading power factor if it is capacitive. The power factor for any reactive load. is the cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current. methods were developed in the laboratory to enable field workers to come into direct contact with high voltage lines. 3. 38 . The first techniques for live-line working were developed in the early years of the 20th century. In the 1960s.5. if any fault occur at their respective place then DESCO send their team to that place for taking action. When a fault occur on any line due to thundering or high voltage than DESCO inform it to their out sourcing team. The outsource goes to that area as hurry and takes proper action. and both equipment and work methods were later refined to deal with increasingly higher voltages. or bill you extra per kWh of use. with no payback on your electric bill. For the maintenance DESCO uses out sourcing.6 Line Maintenance In electrical engineering. It is also the ratio of volt-amps over watts. while the equipment is energized.

and wireless networking. and portable two-way radios. outsources. or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications. wireless computer mice.3. It encompasses various types of fixed.3. Garage door openers or garage doors. headphones. radio receivers. personal digital assistants (PDAs). keyboards and Headset (audio). Distances can be short. At ones time DESCO use cordless to communicate between their S&D center. mobile. cellular telephones. broadcast television and cordless telephones. satellite television. 39 . Now they use mobile to communicate its employee. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units. such as a few meters for television remote control.7 Wireless & Telecommunication Wireless telecommunications is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not physically connected.5. consumers [9].

2 Classification according to Constructional Features 1. Transformer Substation 2. Industrial Substations 4. Underground Substation 4. Pole Mounted Substation 40 . Indoor Substation 2. Switching Substations 3. regulating distribution. Converting Substation 6. Functions of a substation include receiving power from a generating facility.1 Electrical Substation A substation is a high-voltage electric facility containing equipment to regulate and distribute electrical energy.Chapter 4 Substation Operation & Maintenance 4. limiting power surges. A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage while decreasing the current. and converting power from direct current to alternating current or vice versa.1 Classification according to Service Requirements 1. Substations are classified according to 4.1. Outdoor Substation 3. stepping voltage up and down. other substations are large and complex. Frequency Changer Substation 5.1. While some substations are small with little more than a transformer and associated switches. while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution. The word substation comes from the days before the distribution system became a grid. Power Factor Correction Substations 4.

2.2 Equipments in a Substation The equipments required for a substation depends upon the type of substation. indicating two duplicate bus bar systems. Figure 4. Here. The incoming and outgoing lines in a substation are connected to the bus bars. both 33 KV buses are sectionalised [10].1 shows a single line diagram of Mirpur Digun 132/33/11 KV Grid substation. a transformer substation has the following major equipments – 4.1: Bus bar implemented in Mirpur (Digun) Substation 41 . bus-bars are used as the common electrical component. Service requirement and the degree of protection desired.4. Bus bars are copper or aluminium bars and operate at constant voltage. Figure 4. However. in general.1 Bus Bar When a number of lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected electrically.

2.2. Figure 4. This illustrates in the figure 4. 42 .3 which shows the bus bar divided into two sections connected by a circuit breaker and isolator. It is also used in small outdoor stations having relatively few outgoing or incoming feeders and lines. however. The generators.2: Single Bus Bar 4. it is a common practice to sectionalise the bus so that fault on any section on the bus bar will not cause a complete shutdown.2.2 Single Bus bar system with Sectionalisation In large generating stations where several units are installed.2.2.1 Single Bus bar System The single bus bar system has the simplest design and is used for power stations. feeders. it may also be done by a bus coupler [10].2 Bus-Bar Arrangements 4.2 shows the single bus bar system for a typical power station.4. outgoing lines and transformers are connected to the bus bar. and circuit breakers from the bus bar for maintenance [10]. Figure 4. The isolators permit to isolate generators. Each generator and feeder is controlled by a circuit breaker.

if a fault occurs on any feeder. it is important that breakdowns and maintenance should interfere as little as possible with continuity of supply. eliminating the possibility of complete shutdown. that section can be isolated without affecting the supply to other sections. Figure 4.3 Duplicate Bus bar system In large stations. In order to achieve this objective. Figure 4. the fault current is much lower than with unsectionalised bus bar. Secondly. repair and maintenance of any section of bus bar can be carried out by de-energising that section only.2. Each generator and feeder may be connected to either bus bars with the help of bus coupler which consists of a circuit breaker and isolators [10]. if a fault occurs on any section of a bus bar. a main bus bar and a spare bus bar. duplicate bus bar system is used in important stations.Figure 4.3: Sectionalised Single Bus Bar Three principal advantages are claimed for this arrangement. 43 . Firstly.2. Thirdly.4: Bus Coupler Controller in Uttara 132/33 kV Substation 4. This permits the use of circuit breakers of lower capacity in the feeders. Such a system consists of two bus bars.5 shows the duplicate bus bar system implemented in Uttara Grid Substation.

it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance or repairs. There are several types of insulators and their use depends upon the service requirement.6 is an example of isolators in Uttara Grid Substation. An isolator is essentially a knife switch and is essentially designed to open a circuit under no load. They support the conductors or bus bars and confine the current to the conductors. The most commonly used material for insulators is porcelain. Figure 4.4 Isolators In substations. This is accomplished by an isolating switch or isolator.6: Isolators in Uttara Grid Substation 44 . 4.Figure 4. Figure 4.2.3 Insulators The insulators serve two purposes.5: Double Bus Bar in Uttara 132/33 kV Substation 4.2.

It is so designed that it can be operated manually or by remote controller under normal conditions and automatically under fault conditions.2.6 Transformer A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without changing frequency. This is very basic definition of transformer. For the latter use. Figure 4.7: SF6 Circuit Breaker’s Manual Controller in Uttara grid Substation 4. a relay circuit is used with a circuit breaker.  Auto Transformer  Capacitor Voltage Transformer  Power Transformer  Distributing Transformer  Phase Angle Regulating Transformer  Polyphase Transformer  Grounding Transformer  Leakage Transformer  Resonant Transformer  Instrument Transformer  Scott-T Transformer 45 .2. transformers are classified accordingly.4. According to the application and operation.5 Circuit Breaker A circuit breaker is equipment which can open or close a circuit under normal as well as fault conditions.

Apart from the power station.2.2. Therefore.1 Power Transformer A power transformer is used in a substation to step-up or step-down the voltage. a couple of which are 132/33 KV and the rests are 33/11KV.6. The function of these instrument transformers is to transfer voltages or currents in the power lines to value which are convenient for the operation of measuring instruments and relays. This difficulty is overcome by installing instrument transformers on power lines. The types of instruments are discussed below.1 Current Transformer (CT) A current transformer (CT) is essentially a step-up transformer. they will not work perfectly if mounted directly on the power lines.6. 4. all the subsequent substations use step-down transformers to gradually reduce the voltage of electric supply and finally deliver it at utilization voltage.8: 132/33 kV Transformer in Uttara Grid Substation 4.8 shows one of the four power transformers using in Uttara Grid substation.6. Figure 4. The secondary consists of a large number of turns of fine wires 46 . which steps down the current to a known ratio. The primary of this transformer consists of a large number of turns of thick wire connected in series with the line.2 Instrument Transformer The lines in substations operate at high voltages and carry currents of thousands of amperes.2. The measuring instruments and protective devices are designed for low voltages and currents. Figure 4.4.2.

it will read 5 amps of current when the current in the line is 100 amps.2. if a 100/5 A CT is connected in the line to measure current.10: Potential Transformer (PT) in Uttara Grid Substation 47 . The primary of this transformer consists of a large number of turns of fine wire connected across the line.and provides for the measuring instruments and relays a current which is a constant fraction of the current in the line. Figure 4.1 Potential Transformer It is essentially a step-down transformer and steps down the voltage to a known ratio. The secondary winding consists of a few turns and provides for measuring instruments and relays a voltage which is a known fraction of the line voltage.9: Current Transformer (CT) in Uttara Grid Substation 4. Therefore.6.2. For instance. a 66kV/100V Figure 4.

There are different types of bushings. The instrument transformers are invariably used with them for satisfactory operations.2. Lightning Arresters look similar to standoff insulators and bushings.7 Metering and Indicating Instruments There are several metering and indicating instruments.2.4. such as ammeters. installed in a substation to maintain watch over circuit quantities.11: Lightening Arrester in Uttara Grid Substation 4. voltmeters. preventing it from shorting to another phase.2.9 Bushing This is the component that allows electricity to enter electrical equipments safely. towers. gas filled 48 . Figure 4. transformers and circuit breakers to protect them from damage during electrical storms. 4.8 Lightening Arrester These protect a substation from voltage surges and are installed on power poles. namely oil filled. but their unique characteristics is that they have earthing terminals at the bottom where a large ground cable is connected and runs down the structure that connects to the station ground. and energy meters etc.

The outputs of this kind of substations are generally fed to industrial consumers with an unconventionally high demand and distribution substations which therefore convert them to a level appropriate for household consumption. this high level of voltages is not very safe to transmit through highly populated areas. As a result. This level of voltage can be carried 49 . but certainly in a gradual sequence. On the other hand.12: Various Types of Bushings 4. Moreover.and dry solid porcelain. These types are known as distribution substations and convert power to 11 kV which is very much safe to transmit in urban or metropolitan areas. power has to transform into a very economical form to transmit to a distant location. this enormous level of voltage has to convert again to a suitable level. the 33 kV line coming from a grid substation are subjects to further degradation to 11 kV for residential use and therefore another type of substations are called into action. This level of voltage is still not safe for a comfortable transmission to city areas and therefore uses underground cables. as most of the machines of industrial and residential places are suitable to operate at much lower voltage level.3 Grid Substation & Distribution Substation After generation. Figure 4. 230 kV and 132 kV are considered to be very efficient for such transmissions. Unique characteristics of bushings are that the porcelain section is between an oil expansion chamber and a mounting flange. But this Extra High Voltage (EHV) is not comfortable at all to consume. Substations used for transforming 132 kV line to 33 kV is known as grid substations.

and the rests are from Aminbazar. It also permits the maintenance workers to conduct maintenance operations partially. Protection devices like lightening arresters and earth switches are installed at this stage of the station to protect the whole system from any environmental hazards. This bus bar allows the necessary distribution of power to all of the transformers available in the station. Mirpur (Digun) & Uttara Grid Substation Figure 4.13 shows the single line diagram of Mirpur (Digun) grid substation.13: Single Line Diagram of Mirpur (Digun) Substation Figure 4. 50 . rather than completely shutting down the station. Incoming lines are connected to a number of measuring instruments including CT and PT to calculate the amount of power consumed by the substation and to observe any faults in the incoming line. After getting a clearance from these devices.easily by either underground or overhead to the consumers and then connect them directly if they are High Tension (HT) consumers or via a pole mounted transformer which further degrade it to . It has a Double bus bar system for 132 kV buses. the power is now a subject to bus bars. at least one of which is readily available for operation while other is reserved for emergency situations.415 kV if they are Low Tension (LT) consumers. where two of the four of its incoming lines are from Tongi and Uttara.

At this stage. PTs.1 Feeder & Control Room Feeder room is the section of the area. 4. Transformers then converts the power to a lower voltage level of 33 kV which then goes to feeder room for further transmission to consuming areas. Figure 4. power is about to enter to the transformers – but to make sure that everything is in safe condition and to measure necessary data and give standby commands to protective relays – after having a brief diagnosis in CT and PT it then transmitted to breakers and isolators. where most engineers are engaged with the master control of the station. To protect the feeder room. another set of CTs. Breakers and Isolators are implemented at this stage.14: 11 kV Feeder indicating load shedding condition 51 . Determining where to transmit the load and the quantity of the load. occurring load shedding to any desired feeder and to check and maintain a quality load to the consumer by making sure that the power factor of the loads are up to the mark.3. These devices allow pulling off the load from the transformer when necessary.

2 Data Acquisition System (DAS) The Power generation and maximum demand of the electricity network need strong monitoring and effective network power management system. Manual and remote controllers of certain Circuit Breakers and Isolators are also operated from here. The technical assistance along with software for the system was developed by Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET). which further decide that what operation should be done depending upon the readings.15: Control Room of a 33/11 kV Substation 4. 52 . The data acquisition system is integrated with a remote terminal unit and computer server network for data gathering. Figure 4. Therefore. mainly.3. all of the readings from CTs & PTs are coming to the relays situated in the control room. DESCO has implemented a data acquisition system (DAS) that help to monitor real time load status of the network for better load management.In Control Room.

16: Data Acquisition System (DAS) in Mirpur (Digun) Substation Figure 4. two kinds of maintenance operations are conducted.4.16 shows the DAS of Mirpur (Digun) Substation implemented by DESCO with the technical assistance from BUET.2 Emergency Operations This is much more technical than the former one.Figure 4. as it occurs when any kind of problems or emergency situations are occurred in the station. etc. heated connections. checking temperature gauge. depending on the types of works. namely – 4. The most common problems are transformer overheating. charging motor damaging and SF6 gas pressure 53 .4 Maintenance Maintenance of a substation refers to certain kinds of activities that involve engineers. inspecting protective devices and machines for whether they are working properly. 4.1 Routine Job Routine jobs are operations which are previously scheduled to do in any particular date. oil leaking. Commonly. technicians and labors to do some work to keep the station running. this majorly involves non-technical jobs. fluid gauge and the cooling fan operation of the transformer and replace any if necessary. such as dust cleaning. 4.4. Generally.

problems etc. In most of the case. 54 . as it lessens the danger of damaging other machines and devices. station should partially shut down to operate these jobs.

In order to produce variable power. would be one of constant magnitude and steady duration. Therefore. This allowed the stations to pre assume the load range depending on the types of loads.2 Effects of Variable Load The variable load on power station introduces many perplexities in its operation.2. the supply of raw material should also be increased. load has been divided into several sections depending on the implication of the loads into consumptions.1 Variable Load Although power stations are committed to deliver loads to a large number of consumers. there is many equipments devoted to adjust the raw materials according to the demand. 5. which demands the new installations of equipments and devices. Some of the important effects of variable load on power stations are – 5. Thus the load demand of one consumer at any given time may be different from that of others. load on the power stations varies from time to time. 55 . For example. However such a steady load is never realised in actual practice. but the demand of the consumers are not always consistent.Chapter 5 Variable Load 5. the supply of the material in a power plant would require to be varied correspondingly. As a result. In modern power plant. An ideal load on the station. The consumers require their small or large block of power in accordance with the demand of their activities. according to the increase in the demand in any given plant. from stand point of equipment needed and operating routine.1 Need of additional equipments The variable load on a power station necessitates having additional equipments. This results an unpredictable behavior of load production and supply for the stations.

2013.2 Increase in Production Cost The variable load on the plant increases the cost of producing per unit electrical energy. The load is never constant. An alternator operates at maximum efficiency near its rated capacity. which is known as Daily Load Curve. These load variations during the whole day are recorded hourly and are plotted against time. If a single alternator is used. Industrial Load 4. Domestic Load 2. Therefore.4 Load Types of DESCO Depending on the types of consumers – 1. which increases the cost of production 5. it varies from time to time. it will have poor efficiency during the light loads on the plant. Commercial Load 3. Municipal Load 56 .5. Figure 5.1 shows the Load curve of 18th November.1: Daily Load Curve 5.3 Load Curve The curve showing the variations of load with respect to time is known as load curve. a number of alternators of different capacities are installed so that most of the alternators can be operated at nearly full load. Figure 5.2.

a field visit is mandatory for DESCO officials.5. 57 .6 Load Sanction While applying for a connection. Traction Load 7. For this reason. Depending on the demand of load – 8. A Clip-on Meter is used to calculate the load and the calculations are A Fan = 75 watt A TV = 120 watt A CFL Light = 23 watt A TFT Light = 40 watt A Refrigerator = 100 watt An AC (1 ton) = 2000 watt A 2-pin plug = 120 watt A 3-Pin Plug = 600 watt A Water Heater = 2000 watt 5. High Tension (HT) Load – (above 50 kW) 5. Low Tension (LT) Consumer – (0 . DESCO will sanction a load depending upon the requirement of the consumer 5. Irrigation Load 6.5 Load Calculation in DESCO Before endorsing a load to a consumer. DSCO then calculates the load and makes a series of decisions for or against the favor of the connection. a consumer must declare the demand of load. After application. then the consumer has all the right to apply for load retention.415 kV transformer is capable of that load. Low Tension Industry (LTI) Consumer – (8 – 50 kW) 10.7 Load Retention If the sanctioned load is not sufficient for the consumer or the demand has increased beyond the sanctioned load. If all decisions are positive. DESCO always asses the load demand of that consumer to determine whether the feeder and 11 kV / .7 kW) 9.

For instance. from which line a load is to be sanctioned to a consumer is a very important decision to make. if the total load is 300 kWh in the all three phases. then load has to be reduced from Red phase and the extra load has to put into the Yellow phase. To measure the load on the phases. Otherwise. 58 . Yellow and Blue phases respectively. 5. then DESCO will make a decision to increase the sanctioned load to that particular consumer. If the outcomes are satisfactory from field visit. one phase will be supplying much more load than from its capacity and the others are not supplying that much. 80 kWh and 100 kWh in Red. a Clip-on meter is used.8 Load Balancing System Among the three distinct phases of the distribution line.DESCO operates the similar field visit procedures of load sanction. and 120 kWh. It creates a massive imbalance in the whole system.

These faults may be caused by a sudden failure of a piece of equipment. In a "ground fault" or "earth fault".1 Symmetrical Faults The fault which gives rise to symmetrical currents – equal fault currents in the lines with 120 degree displacement – is called a symmetrical fault. A fault occurs when two or more conductors that normally operate with a potential difference come in contact with each other.1. charge flows into the earth.1 Faults in Power System In an electric power system. In three-phase systems. the faults in a 3-phase system can be classified into two main categories – 6. Irrespective of the cause. It occurs when all the three conductors of a 3-phase line are brought together simultaneously into a short circuit conditions as shown in the figure 6. a fault may involve one or more phases and ground. accidental damage.Chapter 6 Power System Protection 6. protective devices detect fault conditions and operate circuit breakers and other devices to limit the loss of service due to a failure [10]. or may occur only between phases.1 59 . An open-circuit fault occurs if a circuit is interrupted by some failure. short-circuit to overhead lines or by insulation failure resulting from lightning surges. The prospective short circuit current of a fault can be calculated for power systems. A short circuit is a fault in which current bypasses the normal load. a fault is any abnormal electric current. In power systems.

the current in all three phases become unequal along with an unusual phase displacements. or in other words unequal fault currents in the lines with unequal phase displacement are known as unsymmetrical faults. symmetrical faults are most severe and impose more heavy duty on circuit breakers [10]. 60 .1. very often caused by physical contacts due to lightning or other storm damage.1 Single Line-to-Ground (L-G) Line to ground is a short circuit between one line and ground (Figure 6. In a power system.1: Symmetrical Fault Symmetrical faults rarely occur in practical circumstances. as majority of faults are of unsymmetrical nature. unsymmetrical faults occur in three distinct ways – 6. 6. If an unsymmetrical fault occurs.2).2.1.2 Unsymmetrical Faults Those faults on the power system which gives rise to unsymmetrical fault currents. However.Figure 6.

3 Double Line-to-Ground Fault (L-L-G) While two lines come into contact with each other and also with the ground (Figure 6. Figure 6.3: Line-to-Line Fault 6. or when lines come into physical contacts due to a broken insulator (Figure 6.3).2 Line-to-Line Fault (L-L) Generally caused by ionization of air.4: Double Line-to-Ground Fault (L-L-G) 61 . Figure Line-to-Ground fault 6. then a L-L-G fault occurs [10].Figure 6.1.

which allowed the cable to be grappled up and repaired.6. the fault location could be isolated to a few miles. it is practical as the faulted place would have to be reinsulated when found in any case. Sometimes an insulation fault in a power cable will not show up at lower voltages. A transformer usually experiences following types of faults 62 . the fault location is often found through inspection of the wires but in complex wiring systems. which inspects along the length of the cable. 6. While this test contributes to damage at the cable site. by checking at the both ends of a defective cable. must be taken into concern.2 Fault Locating Detecting fault is a decisive step in employing energy efficient changes to suburban and manufacturing arrangements. In simple wiring systems. A "thumper" test set applies a high-energy.3 Transformer Faults Electrical transformers are static devices. Fault detection is exploited to verify that a problem has occurred within a firm channel or area of operation. Fault location techniques can generally be divided into terminal methods. Faults can easily be detected by either with the circuit de-energiser. faults are positioned with a Timedomain reflectometer. Sensitive galvanometers are also used to measure fault currents. but internal tensions arising from an unusual system conditions. with the circuit under power. which measure voltages and currents at the ends of the cable. or in some cases. and tracer methods. Terminal method can be used to trace the general area of the fault. high-voltage pulse to the cable. Fault location is detected by listening to the sound of the discharge at the fault. to accelerate tracing on a long or covered cable. The time domain reflectometer sends a pulse down the wire and then analyses the returning reflected pulse to identify defects within the wire. where the wires may be hidden.

These two types of faults are described below: 6.3. Secondly. 6.3.2 Incipient Faults: These are originally minor faults. There are two principle reasons for it. Phase to earth or phase to phase faults. it is inevitable that sooner or later some failure will occur somewhere in the system. Fuses are offered for distribution transformers.1 External Fault Overload conditions and external short circuits are the main reasons for this type of fault. The detection of the faults and disconnection of a faulty section or apparatus can be achieved by using protective devices. short circuits between turns of high voltage and low voltage windings etc are the general examples of electrical faults. Firstly.2. When a failure occurs in any part of the system.1 Electrical Faults: This type of fault cause immediate damage in the system. 63 . it may cause unnecessary interruption of service to the customers.6. if the fault is not cleared quickly.4 Protective Devices In a power system consisting of generators.2. 6. transmission and distribution circuits.3. Time graded over current & earth fault relays are used for external short circuit conditions. transformers. rapid disconnection of the faulted apparatus limits the amount of damage to it and prevents the effects of fault from spreading into the system [10]. it must be quickly detected and disconnected from the system. causing slow rising damage like poor electrical connections of conductors or breakdown of insulations etc. 6.2 Internal Fault: Internal faults are of two types.3.

This characteristic of the CB has made it very useful equipment for switching and protection of various parts of the power system.1 Classification of Circuit Breakers There are several ways of classifying the circuit breakers.2 Air-Blast Circuit Breaker These CB use a high pressure air-blast as an arc quenching medium.4.1. The hydrogen gas occupies a volume about one thousand times that of the oil decomposed.6. the basic way of classification is on the basis of medium used for extinction. the hydrogen gas has high gas conductivity and cools the arc. it is often desirable and necessary to switch on or off the various circuits under both normal and abnormal conditions. 6. This rapidly 64 .1.1 Oil Circuit Breaker In such circuit breakers. Secondly.1. However.1 Circuit Breakers During the operation of power system. The oil is pushed away from the arc region and adjacent portions of the contacts. The air-blast cools the arc and sweep away the arcing products to the atmosphere. Firstly. A circuit breaker is a piece of equipment which can make or break a circuit either manually or by remote control under normal conditions. This necessitates employing a dependable means of control such as ‘Circuit Breakers’ (CB). A circuit breaker can make or break a circuit either manually or automatically under all conditions. The contacts are opened in a flow of air-blast establishing by the opening of blast valve. 6. the gas set up turbulence in the oil and forces it into the space between contacts [10]. But it can also break the circuit automatically under fault conditions and can make it either manually or automatically under fault conditions [10]. The heat of the arc evaporates the surrounding oil and dissociates it into a substantial volume of gaseous hydrogen at high pressure.4. The arc extinction is facilitated mainly by two main processes. some insulating oil is used as an arc quenching medium. The contacts are opened under oil and an arc is stuck between them. The lines and other equipment operate at very high voltages and carry large currents.1.

Therefore.1. The fuse element generally made of materials having low melting point.4.1. 6. The SF6 CBs have been very effective for high power and high voltage service [10]. which melts when excessive current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. vacuum is used as the arc quenching medium. 65 .4 Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCB) In such breakers.1. The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high pressure flow of SF6 gas and an arc is struck between them.4. high conductivity and least deterioration due to oxidation. Since vacuum offers the highest insulating strength.1. sulphure hexafluoride (SF6) gas is used as the arc quenching medium the SF6 is an electro-negative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. It is inserted in series with the circuit to be protected. inserted in the circuit. The conducting free electrons in the arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form relatively immobile negative ions. when short-circuit or overload occurs.4. This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc. 6. the interruption occurs at first current zero with dielectric strength between the contacts building up at a rate thousands of times higher than that obtained with other CBs. the fuse element is at a temperature below its melting point. The Air-Blast CBs are finding wide application in high voltage installations.2 Fuses A fuse is a short piece of metal. Majority of the circuit breakers for voltage beyond 110 kV are of this type [10]. 6. However. it has far superior arc quenching properties than any other medium. When contacts of a breaker are opened in vacuum. it carries the normal current without overheating. Under normal conditions.3 Sulphure Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker In such CBs.increases the dielectric strength of the medium between contacts and prevent from reestablishing the arc.

Relays detect the abnormal conditions in the electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities which may change under fault conditions. A variety of fuses are available.4. relays are generally classified according to the function they are called upon to perform in the protection of electric power circuits. disconnecting the circuit protected by it [10]. These relays are used on AC circuits only and can operate for fault current flow in either direction. Regardless of the principle involved. 6. fuses may classified into –  Low Voltage Fuse  High Voltage Fuse 6.1 Induction Type Over-Current Relay This type of relay works on the induction principle and initiates corrective measures when current in the circuit exceeds the predetermined value.1. Few important types of special function relays are discussed below [10].the current through the fuse increases beyond its rated value.3.4. 66 .3 Protective Relays A protective relay is a device that detects the faults and initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system.4.3. This raises the temperature and fuse element melts.4.1 Functional Relay Types Most of the relays in service on power system today operate on the principle of electromagnetic attraction or electromagnetic induction.2. 6.1 Types of Fuses Fuse is the simplest current interrupting device for protecting against excessive currents. In general. 6. The actuating source is a current in the circuit supplied to the relay from a current transformer.

Similarly. 6.1.4. It is usually installed in the pipe connecting the conservator to the main tank.4 Buchholz Relay Buchholz relay is a gas actuated relay installed in oil immersed transformers for protection against all kinds of faults. the torque produced by a current element is opposed by the torque produced by a voltage element.4. In an impedance relay. this condition no longer applies.2 Distance Relay Relays in which the operations are governed by the ratio of applied voltage to current in the protected circuit.3.1.3 Differential Relay A differential relay is one of that operates when the phasor difference of two or more similar electrical quantities exceeds a pre-determined value. 67 .1. If this differential current is equal to or greater than the pickup value.4. The difference between the incoming and outgoing currents are arranged to flow through the operating coil of the relay. It is used to give an alarm in case of incipient faults in the transformer and to disconnect the transformer from the supply in the event of severe internal faults. 6. the two currents are equal but as soon as a fault occurs.3. the relay will operate and open the circuit breaker to isolate the faulty section. Thus a current differential relay is one that compares the current entering the section of the system with the current leaving the section. The voltage element of the relay is excited through a potential transformer (PT) from the line to be protected. the current element is excited from current transformer (CT) in series with the line [10]. Such relays are called distance or impedance relays. The relay will operate when the voltage current ratio is less than a predetermined value.3. Under normal operating conditions.6.

org/xpl/articleDetails.REFERENCES [1] .com/reactive-power-and-its-compensation-in-transmission-lines/ [3] [6] http://encyclopedia2.jsp?arnumber=1633656 [9] Annual Report [7] Lecture notes on ‘eee402 .Power Transmission & Distribution’ by Dr A K M Baki [8] Abdur Razzak [5] Energy System’ by Dr. Dhaka Electric Supply Company Limited [10] ‘Principles of Power System’ by V K Mehta and Rohit Mehta [11] [4] Lecture notes on ‘EEE403 [2] http://www.