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Designation: D1142 − 95 (Reapproved 2012

)

Standard Test Method for

Water Vapor Content of Gaseous Fuels by
Measurement of Dew-Point Temperature1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D1142; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the water
vapor content of gaseous fuels by measurement of the dewpoint temperature and the calculation therefrom of the water
vapor content.
NOTE 1—Some gaseous fuels contain vapors of hydrocarbons or other
components that easily condense into liquid and sometimes interfere with
or mask the water dew point. When this occurs, it is sometimes very
helpful to supplement the apparatus in Fig. 1 with an optical attachment
that uniformly illuminates the dew–point mirror and also magnifies the
condensate on the mirror. With this attachment it is possible, in some
cases, to observe separate condensation points of water vapor,
hydrocarbons, and glycolamines as well as ice points. However, if the dew
point of the condensable hydrocarbons is higher than the water vapor dew
point, when such hydrocarbons are present in large amounts, they may
flood the mirror and obscure or wash off the water dew point. Best results
in distinguishing multiple component dew points are obtained when they
are not too closely spaced.
NOTE 2—Condensation of water vapor on the dew-point mirror may
appear as liquid water at temperatures as low as 0 to −10°F (−18
to −23°C). At lower temperatures an ice point rather than a water dew
point likely will be observed. The minimum dew point of any vapor that
can be observed is limited by the mechanical parts of the equipment.
Mirror temperatures as low as −150°F (−100°C) have been measured,
using liquid nitrogen as the coolant with a thermocouple attached to the
mirror, instead of a thermometer well.

1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
--``,`,``,,`,,,```,,,`,````,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2. Terminology
2.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:
2.1.1 saturated water vapor or equilibrium water–vapor
content—the water vapor concentration in a gas mixture that is
in equilibrium with a liquid phase of pure water that is

1
This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D03 on Gaseous
Fuels and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D03.05 on Determination of
Special Constituents of Gaseous Fuels.
Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2012. Published December 2012. Originally
approved in 1950. Last previous edition approved in 2006 as D1142 – 95(2006).
DOI: 10.1520/D1142-95R12.

saturated with the gas mixture. When a gas containing water
vapor is at the water dew-point temperature, it is said to be
saturated at the existing pressure.
2.1.2 specific volume—of a gaseous fuel, the volume of the
gas in cubic feet per pound.
2.1.3 water dew-point temperature— of a gaseous fuel, the
temperature at which the gas is saturated with water vapor at
the existing pressure.
3. Significance and Use
3.1 Generally, contracts governing the pipeline transmission
of natural gas contain specifications limiting the maximum
concentration of water vapor allowed. Excess water vapor can
cause corrosive conditions, degrading pipelines and equipment.
It can also condense and freeze or form methane hydrates
causing blockages. Water–vapor content also affects the heating value of natural gas, thus influencing the quality of the gas.
This test method permits the determination of water content of
natural gas.
4. Apparatus
4.1 Any properly constructed dew-point apparatus may be
used that satisfies the basic requirements that means must be
provided:
4.1.1 To permit a controlled flow of gas to enter and leave
the apparatus while the apparatus is at a temperature at least
3°F above the dew point of the gas.
4.1.2 To cool and control the cooling rate of a portion
(preferably a small portion) of the apparatus, with which the
flowing gas comes in contact, to a temperature low enough to
cause vapor to condense from the gas.
4.1.3 To observe the deposition of dew on the cold portion
of the apparatus.
4.1.4 To measure the temperature of the cold portion on the
apparatus on which the dew is deposited, and
4.1.5 To measure the pressure of the gas within the apparatus or the deviation from the known existing barometric
pressure.
4.1.6 The apparatus should be constructed so that the “cold
spot,” that is, the cold portion of the apparatus on which dew

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Observation of the dew deposit is made through the pressure-resisting transparent window. other than through its base. F. also should be noted. C.. inserted in the cooling rod. W. The lower header is connected with the upper header by numerous small holes drilled in the copper body through which the vaporized refrigerant passes.`.``.” Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 3399.````. The mirror. The temperature is read with a thermometer or RTD. The arrangement for measuring the temperature of the target mirror.. Jr. The refrigerant is throttled into the chiller through valve H and passes out at J. the central portion of the mirror is thus maintained at a slightly lower temperature than the outer portion. May 1938..`. The chiller body is made of copper and has brass headers on 2 Deaton.. E. M. 1 fulfills the requirements specified in 4. the thermometer or RTD indicates the temperature of the mirror rather than some compromise temperature influenced by the 2Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale.. through which C is cooled. The gas flows across the face of C and out of the apparatus through valve D. K. with the result that the dew first appears on the central portion of the mirror and its detection is aided materially by the contrast afforded. or some other liquefied gas in the chiller. is indicated by a calibrated mercury-in-glass thermometer. so that the bulb of the temperature measuring device is entirely within the thermometer well in fitting..1. carbon dioxide. is thermally bonded to the fitting.” cooled by means of a copper cooling rod.-`-`. and Frost..2. K. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT --``. E..`. The apparatus may or may not be designed for use under pressure. M. this apparatus consists of a metal chamber into and out of which the test gas is permitted to flow through control valves A and D.. C. F. The temperature of the target mirror. Within the range of conditions in Section 1. Cooling of rod F is accomplished by vaporizing a refrigerant such as liquid butane.FIG. whose bulb fits snugly into the thermometer well. Since stainless steel is a relatively poor thermal conductor.1 Note that only the central portion of the stainless steel target mirror. The chiller is attached to the cooling rod. G. F. propane. this apparatus is satisfactory for determining the dew point of gaseous fuels. Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS either end.`--- D1142 − 95 (2012) . by means of a taper joint. 1 Bureau of Mines Dew-Point Apparatus is deposited. The thermometer well is integral with the fitting. The stud to which the stainless steel mirror is silver-soldered is a part of the base of the thermometer well. I. 4.... is protected from all gases other than the gas under test. F. I. 4. Gas entering the apparatus through valve A is deflected by nozzle B towards the cold portion of the apparatus.2 The Bureau of Mines type of dew-point apparatus2 shown in Fig.`.`. “Bureau of Mines Apparatus for Determining the Dew Point of Gases Under Pressure.. C. I. which is soft-soldered to the cooling rod. C..```. I. is silver-soldered to a nib on the copper thermometer well fitting.`.. Briefly. C. Part C is a highly polished stainless steel “target mirror. and as there is no metallic contact between the thermometer well and the cooling tube.

shall be at least 3°F (1. To reduce the rate. opening this valve wide if the test is to be made under full source pressure (Note 3). The temperature of the pipelines leading the specimen directly from the gas source to the dew-point apparatus. control the cooling or warming rate so that it does not exceed 1°F/min (0.``. as follows: FIG. 5.2.2 If such a chart is not available.-`-`. 2 Equilibrium Water Vapor Content of Natural Gases 3Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale.`.`. C. “crack” the valve momentarily.```.3°C) when they are below 32°F (0°C) and not lower than 0°F (−17. The RTD will include suitable electronics and display. The pressure may be read on a calibrated bourdon-type pressure gage.1°C) when the dew-point temperatures range from room temperature to a temperature of 32°F (0°C)..7°C) higher than the observed dew point. the cooling and warming rates should approximate isothermal conditions as nearly as possible. The normal warming rate usually will be faster than desired. A flow of 0. allow the target mirror to warm up at a rate comparable to the recommended rate of cooling. Calculation 6.1 If an acceptable chart showing the variation of watervapor content with saturation or water dew-point temperatures over a suitable range of pressures for the gas being tested is available.2 Detailed Procedure for Operation of Bureau of Mines Dew-Point Apparatus—Introduce the gas specimen through valve A (Fig. such as the sorption or desorption of vapors from the sampling line or from deposits therein.. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT . allowing the refrigerant to vaporize in the chiller to produce suitable lowering in temperature of the chiller tube.`.2°F (60. F. the water–vapor content of the gas may be calculated from the water dew-point temperature and the pressure at which it was determined (see Note 3). “crack” valve H momentarily at intervals to supply cooling to the cooling tube. the water-vapor content may be read directly.8°C).````. The outlet valve may be left wide open or restricted.. but the gas pressure within the dew-point apparatus must be known with an accuracy appropriate to the accuracy requirements of the test. The rate of cooling may be as rapid as desired in making a preliminary test. and target mirror. 6.`. Do not take at a point where isolation would permit condensate to collect or would otherwise allow a vapor content to exist that is not in equilibrium with the main stream or supply of gas. The determination may be made at any pressure. and also the temperature of the apparatus. 6. a mercury-filled manometer or a dead-weight gage should be used. be known to the required accuracy. 4.. After estimating the dew-point temperature.4 to 14 L/min) (measured at atmospheric pressure) usually will be satisfactory. A.5°C/min) when this temperature is approached. With liquefied refrigerant gas piped to the chiller throttle valve. Steps of about --``.05 to 0. K. 5.. Procedure 5. F.`. using the observed water dew-point temperature and the pressure at which the determination was made.`. however.5°F (0. D. the gas specimen should be throttled at the inlet valve.`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 0. provided ice crystals do not form during the determination. For accurate results. H. 1). for very low pressures or more accurate measurements. The arithmetic average of the temperatures at which dew is observed to appear and disappear is considered to be the observed dew point.. as indicated by the thermometer.2 Tests with the Bureau of Mines type of dew-point apparatus are reported2 to permit a determination with a precision (reproducibility) of 60. When dew has been deposited.2°F (0. and controlling the flow by the small outlet valve. as desired.1°C) and with an accuracy of 60.2...1 General Considerations—Take the specimen so as to be representative of the gas at the source.D1142 − 95 (2012) temperature gradient along the cooling tube as would be the case if this type of construction were not used.5 ft3/min (1.. The most satisfactory method is to cool or warm the target mirror stepwise...2°F (60.1°C) allow equilibrium conditions to be approached closely and favor an accurate determination.. The rate of flow is not critical but should not be so great that there is a measurable or objectionable drop in pressure through the connecting lines and dew-point apparatus. to a pressure within the apparatus approximately equal to atmospheric pressure. NOTE 3—If the water–vapor content is to be calculated as described in 6. It is estimated that water dew points may be determined with an accuracy of 60. Repeat the cooling and warming cycles several times. The pressure existing within the apparatus must. either by a preliminary test or from other knowledge.

Hence. Vol III. Keywords 8. which is for equilibrium with ice.241 mm Hg. IL 60018.000 100 2 × 10 6 × (14.000 086 6 × 1.`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS (2) 4Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale. From Table 2 (data from International Critical Tables3).5°C) by the same equations given in Table 2.. respectively.436/1. w = weight of saturated water vapor. but the observed water dew point was in equilibrium with subcooled liquid water at 5°F. P = total pressure.7 to 5000 psia (101 to 34 475 kPa)..```. tb + 460. and natural gases. 5F = 0. --``.. °F.7/15.9) = 0.. Pb = pressure-base of gas measurement. t = observed water dew-point temperature. Wliq. What is the water–vapor content million ft3 of gas (gas measurement base of 60°F and 14. however.. Precision and Bias 7.3.7-psia pressure)? From Table 1 the specific volume of saturated water at 37°F is 2731.`. 2. pp. Reports work sponsored by the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association.4 This correlation is believed to be accurate enough for the requirements of the gaseous fuels industry. Des Plaines.`. F. Inc.8 lb/million ft3 Example 2: Given: Water dew point = 5°F at 14.7/14. NOTE 5—Values of B were computed from available data on methane.2 Tables 3-5 list values of water–vapor content from −40 to 250°F (−40° to 121°C) and from 14.-`-`. A = a constant proportional to the vapor pressure of water. psia. at the water dew-point temperature. t + 460. 1700 S.. 7. 1955. psia. psia.4 psia. Since the vapor pressure of subcooled liquid water is greater than ice at the same temperature. the specific volume of saturated water vapor with respect to ice at 5°F is 11 550 ft3/lb from which Wice. 8.” Research Bulletin 8..5 lb/million ft3 3 International Critical Tables. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT . T = Rankine (absolute Fahrenheit scale) water dew point.`..157 = 0. natural gas 4 Bukacek. and Tb = base temperature of gas measurement.3 A convenient graphical representation of the data in Tables 3-5 is illustrated in Fig.0) × [(460 + 37)/(460 + 60)] = 342. Committee D03.1 gaseous fuels..000 100 2 and W = 0. except for unusual situations where the dew point is measured at conditions close to the critical temperature of the gas.3 A correlation of the available data on the equilibrium water content of natural gases has been reported by Bukacek. 6. 1928. that is. and B = a constant depending on temperature and gas composition.436 mm and 1.. ASTM Headquarters.4) × [(460 + 5)/[460 + 60)] = 91. 6. the Committee is interested in conducting an interlaboratory test program and encourages interested parties to contact the Staff Manager. R. Mount Prospect Rd.9 ft3/lb.. P = pressure at which the water dew point of gas was determined. “Equilibrium Moisture Content of Natural Gases. 5 Complete sets of these charts covering the entire range of pressures and temperatures of Tables 3-5 may be purchased from the Institute of Gas Technology. at pressure P.. covering the range of most natural gas processing applications.. NOTE 4—Example 1: Given: Water dew point = 37°F at 15. The correlation is a modified form of Raoult’s law having the following form: W 5 ~ A/P ! 1B where: W = water–vapor content.000 366 0 lb/ft3 and W = 0. from which: w = (1/2731.``.3.000 366 0 × 10 6 × (14. 210–211..`. methane-ethane mixtures. the weight per cubic foot of water vapor in equilibrium with liquid water will be proportionately larger than the value calculated from the specific volume read from the table.000 086 6.241) = 0.````. 5F = W ice 5F × (1. the reciprocal of the specific volume of saturated vapor (see Table 1).0-psia pressure.D1142 − 95 (2012) W 5 w 3 10 6 3 ~ P b /P 3 ~ T/T b !! (1) where: W = lb of water/million ft3 of gaseous mixture at pressure Pb and temperature Tb. 6. National Research Council.1 Table 2 lists values of the constants A and B for natural gases in the temperature range from −40 to 460°F (−40 to 238°C).. Institute of Gas Technology.`.1 No precision data is available for this test method. 6. lb/ft3. lb/million ft3.7 psia (101 kPa) and 60°F (15.`. the vapor pressures of subcooled liquid water and of ice at 5°F (−15°C) are 1. McGraw-Hill Book Co.3.5 The moisture content values given can be corrected to base conditions other than 14. New York.. From Table 2..

. ..022 02 0.94 867.070 0..767 0.507 61 61 05 94 29 716. 0.8 206..029 0. 2 2 2 2 2 836.989 4.16 652..541 0.. 125–136.. .841 0.092 0.085 0.222 0.9 178.56 632.057 2..056 0.022 0.599 0. °F Temperature.373 1. 2 2 2 2 2 355.5 86 87 88 89 90 0. . 1984.061 0. pp.275 0..310 1.73 467..305 62 19 06 24 73 1 1 1 1 1 166. ..025 0.230 0...363 55 70 20 05 26 988.62 694..1 16 17 18 19 20 2.9 247.” Heating.299 3.647 1.151 2.`.3 All other values were taken from Harr. .816 95 77 22 30 04 454. p.374 1.153 0. 0..585 3...415 0.. .285 0.165 0...063 1.. ..373 2.054 4.139 0..045 0. and Air Conditioning.6 290..058 0.48 381..224 0.791 0.. No...034 0. 2. 0...067 0.121 04 23 58 08 73 .573 1..051 0.2 764.51 895..2 945...120 1.265 0..430 84 79 14 88 04 839. .521 1..043 0.0 091.. .131 0....045 0. 3 3 3 3 2 453 301. .785 0.178 28 18 28 59 12 .160 3.1 270. .19 925..023 0.76 543. ..``.078 0.108 0..740 2.`..698 73 63 09 13 74 526.35 496.06 A The values for vapor pressure.388 0.4 731..`.636 3. .241 0.867 0. . .069 0..142 0.720 0.. .247 0.112 0.1 96 97 98 99 100 0.99 46 47 48 49 50 .`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 5Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale.. .677 0.081 32 22 28 39 68 3.557 2.061 0.050 59 70 89 13 47 6 6 6 5 5 817 505 210 929 662 66 67 68 69 70 0...034 10 42 85 32 94 1.579 ....049 0..55 26 27 28 29 30 3..310 0.041 0. psia Specific Volume of Saturated Water Vapor. 9.136 0.950 44 53 31 80 03 392.375 0.596 11 42 22 53 36 613.260 2.91 428.8 894..2 480.58 360. .032 3. . --``..607 2.44 21 22 23 24 25 2.490 0.436 0.5 81 82 83 84 85 0. ..039 51 17 89 71 64 8 8 7 7 7 636 234 851 489 144 61 62 63 64 65 0.2 587..4 703. . Gallagher.524 0.402 0..073 0.080 12 31 67 14 79 4 4 3 3 3 311 122 943 771 608 76 77 78 79 80 0.505 1.327 0. ..489 2.970 2.251 1.`...066 21 63 16 79 38 2.024 0.735 3.018 52 14 810 1 2 3 4 5 1.050 0...010 1..615 0.043 41 09 78 56 45 1...033 0.656 0.104 0....178 0.66 41 42 43 44 45 .. “NBS/NRC Steam Tables.163 3.195 1...099 02 66 30 07 98 4.” National Standard Reference Data System...51 673.4 128. . .03 956... ..339 0. ..020 0.810 3.. .180 1.032 0.856 1. S.723 1.088 54 .214 85 82 01 44 11 1 1 1 1 1 644. .-`-`.238 0.475 0..15 350.159 0.147 55 54 70 04 56 .681 1.184 0.444 0..029 0..893 4.921 0.7 535.459 0..064 98 54 26 10 01 5 5 4 4 4 408 166 936 717 509 71 72 73 74 75 0.096 0.```..191 0. .. .. .743 0.037 0.052 0...256 03 21 65 36 35 1 1 1 1 1 382. .06 440..433 0..206 0.027 0.055 0.075 0..308 1.077 0.635 0..041 0.199 0..8 91 92 93 94 95 0.036 0..6 828. from 0 to 32°F. A.. .0 055.053 35 37 44 63 85 2. “ Low-Pressure Properties of Water from −160 to 212°F. 0.19 415. .907 3.171 0..030 0.````.577 0.295 0.610 0. .9 430.446 1.. .024 53 56 66 82 00 14 13 12 12 11 080 400 750 140 550 51 52 53 54 55 0.. .D1142 − 95 (2012) TABLE 1 Vapor Pressures and Specific Volumes of Saturated Water Vapor at Various TemperaturesA Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water Specific Volume of Saturated Water Vapor ft3/lb Vapor Pressure of Ice Temperature.7 443.94 511.027 11 19 33 55 77 1.039 0..48 787.35 370.`... .48 594. 0.063 0.351 0. Data on specific volumes of saturated water vapor from 0 to 32°F were obtained from Goff.345 2.117 0.68 31 32 33 34 35 4.767 1.6 6 7 8 9 10 1.019 0.872 3.088 0.807 0. J.4 021.9 631... were calculated from data in the International Critical Tables.035 0.. .084 56 0.. ft3/lb mm Hg psia mm Hg psia 0 1.0 059.026 0.3 188. .048 0.9 110. and Kell. ..97 813.471 3..031 0.247 0... 1 1 1 1 1 963....047 0.126 0.95 577. Vol 18. .3 11 12 13 14 15 1.072 0.450 2. Feb. .149 2.`...8 035.950 2.2 335. and Gratch. °F Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water..397 4.013 3.021 0..026 0.94 763.025 0.958 0.038 0.579 .373 4.058 0. .89 403. Piping.316 0.559 0.07 36 37 38 39 40 .894 0..29 481.31 739. .883 1. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT .05 559. 1946.030 29 57 96 41 92 11 10 9 9 9 000 480 979 507 060 56 57 58 59 60 0...6 533..

1 .3 14 ..35 1.9 .0 16 .0 .19 1.7! 3 @ 519.3 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 547 570 594 619 644 671 698 725 754 785 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 104 108 111 115 119 122 126 130 134 139 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 143 148 152 157 162 166 171 177 182 187 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 050 150 260 380 510 650 810 970 150 350 0.17 7.0 10.5 18 .33 0.98 3.8 .42 0.45 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 17 18 19 21 22 24 25 27 29 31 200 500 700 100 500 100 700 400 200 100 7.24 0.08 6.3 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 1 2 3 4 5 7 9 11 14 18 680 340 180 260 610 270 300 700 700 100 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 255 333 430 548 692 869 1090 1360 1700 2130 60 62 64 66 68 12 13 14 15 16 200 100 000 000 100 5. psia.-`-`.2 12.0 14 .8 77.11 1.44 1.3 .```.6 .4 91.64 1.18 4.36 0.0 .81 2.77 6. multiply each by: ~ P b /14.91 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 33 35 37 39 42 45 47 50 53 57 200 300 500 900 400 100 900 800 900 100 12.. --``.69 0.`. °F A B Temperature.8 .5 .60 0.25 8.54 1.96 4.7 ..85 1.4 94.85 0.`. °F A B −40 −38 −36 −34 −32 −30 −28 −26 −24 −22 131 147 165 184 206 230 256 285 317 352 0.34 3.`.1 .1 .998/Z b ! where: P b = absolute base pressure.74 7. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT .7 13.`.6 15 . °F A B Temperature.5 .41 6.D1142 − 95 (2012) TABLE 2 Values of Constants A and B (Base Conditions = 14.42 4.6/ ~ t b 1459.6 . °F.0 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 1 1 1 1 816 848 881 915 950 987 020 060 100 140 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 560 780 030 290 570 880 210 560 940 350 1.39 0.74 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 60 64 67 71 76 80 84 89 94 100 500 100 900 800 000 400 900 700 700 000 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 .10 170 172 174 176 178 285 298 312 326 341 000 000 000 000 000 62 64 67 69 72 .92 5..22 2..``.52 0.6 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 190 230 270 320 370 420 470 520 570 630 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 192 198 204 210 216 222 229 235 242 248 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 780 240 740 280 850 460 110 800 500 300 3.97 1.`.22 0.6! # 3 ~ 0.7 . 60°F) Temperature.2 .`.2 ..1 .8 .19 5.6 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 357 372 390 407 425 443 463 483 504 525 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 74.7 .`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 6Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale.74 0.7 101 −20 −18 −16 −14 −12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 390 434 479 530 586 648 714 786 866 950 0..66 4.50 2..2 ..85 8.67 9.28 0.74 3.8 97.2 .7 17 .16 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 106 111 117 124 130 137 144 152 160 168 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 29 30 31 32 34 35 37 38 40 41 .8 88.3 16 .04 1.0 460 22 200 000 NOTE 1—To correct A and B to other base conditions.64 0. = base temperature.27 1.97 2.36 2..1 .54 3.````..09 2.0 .48 0.48 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 177 186 195 205 215 225 236 248 259 272 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 43 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 .5 11.79 0.1 11.9 82.7 psia.6 ..26 0.2 79.9 .1 .7 85.9 .4 .65 2.30 0.11 9.9 .57 10. and tb Zb = compressibility factor under base conditions.5 .56 0.

7 42.0 37.5 5.68 0.1 10.9 3.5 40.4 52.2 13.65 0.3 5.3 8.4 30.41 0.3 49.9 8.5 19.2 11.8 41.6 10.0 10.5 1.74 0.9 3.95 1.7 1.9 6.9 2.4 5.3 39.0 57.9 13.2 7.4 46.8 23.5 12.2 2.0 71.0 9.7 5.54 0.5 1.7 100 107 114 122 130 138 148 65.6 53.99 0.0 42.9 21.7 52.1 79.72 0.7 psia.88 0.7 29.57 0.1 44.5 69.7 9.3 44.8 22.56 0.6 41.2 5.1 1.0 30.4 23.5 5.6 9.0 2.4 65.8 14.2 23.9 62.5 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 396 428 462 499 538 80 624 672 721 776 61.0 3.6 4.7 26.1 3.7 10.8 87. tb = 60°F) Temperature.43 0.4 7.2 18.2 14.4 2.2 38.67 0.1 1.5 4.9 23.89 0.4 1.5 5.2 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 44.1 1.1 34.61 0.1 2.0 12.1 21.9 24.6 0.0 16.96 1.1 11.2 30.0 1.2 32.5 19.6 102 50.4 0.3 1.45 0..2 5.3 18.2 19.1 1.2 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 1180 1260 1350 1440 1540 1650 1760 1870 180 192 206 220 235 250 267 285 93.9 32.0 7.79 0.4 3.9 35.2 0.8 10.8 1.5 13.8 4.97 1.95 1.7 3.4 1.1 1..4 65.2 7.7 2.7 4.91 1.0 22.4 13.2 36.3 19.90 0.5 21.7 3.2 6.6 1.4 25.2 2.92 1.3 20.`.8 19.4 8.6 89.54 0.9 5.7 49.68 0.3 12.0 4.7 40.4 16.2 18.1 2.9 13.64 0.2 18.3 54.0 2.3 22.2 79.8 16.5 3.2 57.6 71.2 34.2 15.2 1.5 11.7 36.1 20.39 0.6 61.8 47.0 29.7 16.3 4.3 7.72 0.3 4.4 12.1 14.8 19.1 12.0 6.4 3.0 17..2 1.9 54.4 3.8 9.9 8.6 35.7 37.6 1.7 50.7 3.81 0.44 0.7 103 111 119 32.3 0.6 4.5 11.6 2.50 0.3 21. Total Pressure.9 9.5 0.8 31.3 0.5 33.5 2.`.4 12.3 16.4 29.7 8.3 2.1 3.5 1.2 3.0 0.5 2.1 22.37 0.5 2.9 17.2 30.74 0.8 15..5 10.8 6.6 27.6 36.9 19.4 2.4 6.9 6.5 2.4 1.5 13.49 0.1 27.3 11.9 29.1 17..1 5.0 44.-`-`.``.4 29.1 8.0 2.3 43.86 0.7 18.8 60 62 64 66 68 834 895 960 1030 1100 128 137 147 157 168 66.2 2.8 7.3 2.4 11.D1142 − 95 (2012) TABLE 3 Equilibrium Water Vapor Contents of Natural Gases Above the Critical Temperatures (lb/million ft3 where Pb = 14.7 49.7 15.6 2.0 19.8 2..5 11.1 9.9 13.70 0.3 7.3 4.1 6.3 2..47 0.4 26.5 9.7 15.84 0.4 2.41 0.1 34.1 14.3 3.4 31.7 41.2 1.5 5.7 28.7 48.47 0.7 7.1 8.1 3.5 1.0 79.8 65.2 17.9 Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 7Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale.66 0.2 1.8 33.8 3.5 11.9 8.1 66.2 3.8 6.5 3.7 4.8 95.9 12.8 10.6 22.9 8.8 1.9 6.80 −20 −18 −16 −14 −12 27.3 0.9 3.8 14.4 4.8 49.1 1.95 0.8 7.0 24.8 25.0 16.66 0.7 10.0 37.8 4.7 82. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT .3 5.0 16.0 17.2 3.62 0.8 1.0 1..9 18.3 1..4 15.5 4.9 7.7 5.2 1.9 15.9 20.1 4.2 24.73 0.9 6.2 8.2 9.1 20 22 24 26 28 176 191 208 226 246 27.1 43.6 46.2 12.6 22.5 8.8 5.8 39.0 46.3 47.7 26.4 2.7 1.0 4.3 1.5 5.8 2.8 24.8 31.6 11.0 4.87 0.6 2.4 4.6 1.8 1.43 0.7 10.9 2.6 24.2 34.```.1 1.6 5.1 1.8 37.1 32. psia --``.4 76.4 1.6 1.0 8.7 29.4 20.72 0.5 1.7 4.2 8.5 81.9 25.5 6.8 2.9 16.45 0.5 3.49 0.3 3.51 0.4 21.9 2.8 10 12 14 16 18 114 124 136 148 161 17.0 24.2 9.7 3.0 1.4 6.61 0.2 13.6 15.7 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 −40 −38 −36 −34 −32 9.4 0.2 14.6 21.0 1.5 10.5 6.7 2.6 28.8 32.7 3.1 5.0 1..2 38.5 4.1 5.4 35.8 2.4 11.6 3.5 2.0 33.2 1.1 104 11.3 28.7 5.4 7.3 10.65 0.`.7 5.3 23.79 0.80 0.5 6.7 20.2 25.0 3.2 1.1 2.3 2.6 5.6 59.77 0.9 4.0 84.55 0.2 76.6 4.4 16.8 4.6 7.5 9.1 1.6 54.5 61.6 1.8 26.1 6.0 69.5 1.1 36.8 9.3 1.9 3.5 1.`.1 5.7 9.0 23.8 60.2 12.8 5.51 −30 −28 −26 −24 −22 16.3 2.9 5.0 2.4 4.8 46.0 9.3 3.5 17.1 86.39 0.4 44.9 0 2 4 6 8 72.3 44.4 74.4 28.5 7.2 28.4 4.5 1.4 56.73 0.3 38.2 2.2 10.7 18.1 13.9 7.8 21.6 27.8 56. °F 14.7 50.0 4.9 6.2 20.98 1.7 33.59 0.0 57.4 2.1 2.0 1.4 2.6 1.0 30.8 1.4 11.3 3.6 1.7 74.4 14.2 36.5 1.7 1.49 0.79 0.3 43.36 0.8 7.59 0.9 15.5 4..0 3.1 38.2 12.3 32.1 2.4 36.4 1.8 95.2 89.3 4.3 22.`.0 2.9 30 32 34 36 38 276 289 313 339 367 41.5 26.5 27.3 6.5 5.3 12.59 0.1 56.4 6.````.3 30.2 1.6 40.60 0.0 4.6 12.2 32.4 38.0 3.82 0.5 8.0 95.1 17.3 1.8 1.2 3.9 23.8 14.3 2.6 41.54 0.5 1.8 14.9 19.1 1.87 0.2 54.7 2.3 36.7 25.9 7.3 26.87 0.`.9 2.7 1.0 17.9 9.1 3.0 13.0 15.7 4.55 0.2 13.1 8.9 2.0 12.1 1.0 7.6 1.

`..3 61.`--- Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 8Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale.0 50. psia °F 14.4 81.. . .`. 110 112 114 116 118 4130 4380 4640 4910 5190 624 661 700 740 783 322 341 360 381 403 221 234 247 261 276 170 180 191 201 213 140 148 157 165 175 120 127 134 142 149 106 112 118 124 131 94.. ..1 89.``.6 56..4 93.0 101 107 114 121 78... . ..3 42.1 67.. ...5 46..7 .5 73.8 99.. .9 80.8 101 107 114 79..0 100 102 104 106 108 3080 3270 3470 3680 3900 466 495 525 557 589 241 256 271 287 304 166 176 186 197 209 128 136 144 152 161 105 112 118 125 133 90.1 47.6 75....4 71..`..5 99...0 58.4 89..9 80.5 52.5 83.8 60. .2 73. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT . .9 89.2 102 107 ....```.5 67. ....7 63. Total Pressure.D1142 − 95 (2012) TABLE 3 Continued Temperature.3 59...3 48. .7 90 92 94 96 98 2270 2410 2570 2730 2900 344 366 389 413 439 178 189 201 214 227 123 130 138 147 156 95.6 50... ..5 63...3 94..8 56.5 85..... .. 120 122 124 126 128 5490 5800 6130 6470 6830 828 874 923 974 1030 426 449 474 500 528 292 308 325 343 361 225 237 250 264 278 185 195 205 216 228 158 166 175 185 195 139 146 154 162 171 124 131 138 145 153 113 119 125 132 139 . ...9 71...5 75....8 59.7 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 86 88 2000 2130 303 323 157 167 108 115 84. 130 132 134 136 138 7240 7580 7990 8470 8880 1090 1140 1200 1270 1330 559 585 617 653 684 382 400 422 446 468 294 308 324 343 359 241 252 266 281 294 206 215 227 240 251 181 189 199 210 220 162 169 178 188 197 147 154 162 171 179 .1 77.`..4 69.2 84. .7 65.8 45. .6 49.. . 140 142 144 146 148 9360 9830 10 400 10 900 11 500 1410 1480 1560 1640 1720 721 757 799 840 882 492 517 545 573 602 378 397 419 440 462 310 325 343 360 378 264 277 292 307 322 231 243 256 269 282 207 217 229 240 252 188 197 207 218 229 .9 67. .9 55.7 100 106 112 118 86.2 53.2 40.3 91.9 53.....7 84.9 57. --``.4 95.5 43..3 63.0 51.3 88.2 96.4 69..-`-`.`.0 75. .... .0 71...````..`.

. ....... 5570 5810 6050 6310 .. ....... .`. ..7 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 150 152 154 156 158 12 12 13 14 14 100 700 300 000 700 1810 1910 2000 2100 2200 928 975 1020 1070 1130 633 665 697 732 767 486 510 534 561 588 397 417 437 458 480 338 355 372 390 409 296 311 325 341 357 264 277 290 305 319 240 252 263 276 289 160 162 164 166 168 15 400 . . ..... ..-`-`. 4160 3170 2570 2180 1890 1680 1510 250 .. .. tb = 60°F) Total Pressure.. . 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT --``. ..... .. 2910 3040 3190 3330 3480 1490 1550 1630 1700 1780 1010 1060 1110 1160 1210 775 810 847 885 925 633 661 691 722 754 538 562 587 613 640 470 491 513 535 559 419 437 457 477 498 379 396 414 432 451 180 182 184 186 188 . . .... .`.```.. ..... . . . 3480 3620 3760 3910 4060 2360 2450 2550 2650 2760 1800 1870 1950 2020 2100 1460 1520 1580 1640 1710 1240 1290 1340 1390 1450 1080 1120 1160 1210 1260 961 999 1040 1080 1120 868 902 937 973 1010 220 222 224 226 228 ..`--- Temperature. .... ... ..... 4520 4720 4920 5140 5350 2300 2410 2510 2620 2730 1570 1630 1700 1780 1850 1200 1250 1300 1360 1410 974 1020 1060 1110 1150 827 863 900 938 976 721 753 785 818 851 642 670 698 728 757 581 606 631 658 684 200 202 204 206 208 .. . 3770 3060 2590 2250 2000 1800 Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 9Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale. ...... . . . . . 3640 3800 3980 4150 4340 1860 1940 2030 2120 2210 1260 1320 1380 1440 1500 967 1010 1060 1100 1150 789 821 860 897 936 670 697 730 761 794 585 609 637 664 693 521 542 567 591 617 471 491 513 535 558 190 192 194 196 198 .. psia 14.... 2840 2960 3080 3210 3340 1930 2010 2090 2180 2270 1470 1530 1600 1660 1730 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1020 1060 1100 1150 1190 885 922 960 999 1040 788 821 854 889 924 712 741 771 803 835 210 212 214 216 218 ......`. 4220 4390 4560 4730 4910 2860 2980 3090 3200 3330 2180 2270 2350 2440 2540 1780 1840 1910 1990 2060 1500 1560 1620 1680 1750 1310 1360 1410 1460 1520 1160 1200 1250 1300 1350 1050 1090 1130 1170 1220 230 .. ..... . 5100 3460 2630 2140 1810 1580 1400 1260 240 . ..`.... . ............ .... ....``.... ..7 psia. ..````....D1142 − 95 (2012) TABLE 4 Equilibrium Water Vapor Contents of Natural Gases Above the Critical Temperatures (lb/million ft3 where Pb = 14......`... ......... .. . 2300 2410 2540 2650 2780 1180 1230 1300 1350 1420 802 841 883 922 967 615 644 676 706 740 502 526 552 576 604 427 447 469 490 514 374 391 410 428 449 333 349 366 382 400 302 316 332 346 363 170 172 174 176 178 . .. .`. °F .... ......

0 24 25 26 28 29 .0 .2 39 41 43 45 48 .9 .2 . 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT --``.9 .3 55 58 60 63 66 .0 78 82 85 89 93 .3 .5 .0 55 58 61 64 68 .2 .6 .`..5 .4 .3 .`.3 .3 .7 psia.9 .9 .8 82 85 90 94 99 .0 .4 .7 32 34 35 37 39 .8 .7 .8 ..5 .9 63 65 68 72 75 .1 .2 160 162 164 166 168 277 290 304 317 332 202 211 221 231 242 165 172 180 188 196 142 149 155 162 169 127 133 139 145 151 116 122 127 132 138 108 113 118 123 128 102 107 111 116 121 97 101 106 110 115 .9 .5 .5 .6 .1 .7 .4 .7 .4 .0 ..6 .8 .0 .0 36 38 40 42 44 .4 .4 .0 .1 .3 ..9 .4 .7 .9 .6 69 73 76 80 83 .5 .9 120 122 124 126 128 104 110 116 122 128 77 81 85 89 94 .5 .7 43 45 48 50 53 .7 .````.4 .6 26 28 29 31 32 ..1 .0 .9 .1 .9 33 35 37 39 41 ..0 130 132 134 136 138 135 141 149 157 164 99 104 110 116 121 .9 .9 .5 59 62 65 68 71 .2 .0 .7 .`--- Temperature.2 .1 .6 25 26 28 29 31 .8 . °F .7 59 62 66 69 73 .0 .5 .6 .0 .4 .9 .7 .2 140 142 144 146 148 173 181 191 200 210 127 133 140 147 154 104 109 115 120 126 90 94 99 104 109 .6 .0 87 91 95 100 104 .4 34 36 37 39 41 ..D1142 − 95 (2012) TABLE 5 Equilibrium Water Vapor Contents of Natural Gases Above the Critical Temperatures (lb/million ft3 where Pb = 14.4 .3 .4 49 52 54 57 60 .4 .4 .6 .6 150 152 154 156 158 220 231 242 253 265 161 169 177 185 194 132 138 144 151 158 114 119 125 130 136 102 107 112 117 122 93 98 102 107 112 .5 .0 .0 .6 .7 .3 .7 .6 .5 .`.1 39 41 43 45 48 .0 .``.6 .8 .4 45 47 50 53 56 .3 . tb = 60°F) Total Pressure.7 .7 .2 71 74 78 82 86 .0 .6 74 78 81 85 89 .7 52 55 57 60 63 .5 .8 .3 .3 .9 .0 41 43 45 47 50 .9 .5 .```.3 .0 .6 ..6 43 45 48 50 53 .5 .4 .3 .8 .2 .2 .0 50 53 55 58 61 .2 ..3 81 85 89 93 97 .2 .2 .-`-`.8 .1 ..3 .9 .1 .4 37 40 42 44 46 .3 28 29 31 32 34 .0 .7 .9 .7 .6 .7 110 112 114 116 118 79 84 88 93 98 .5 .6 .6 .6 .3 .4 . psia 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 100 102 104 106 108 60 63 67 71 75 .0 .6 .7 63 67 70 74 78 .6 .4 .0 .1 30 32 33 35 37 .1 170 172 174 176 178 348 363 379 396 413 253 263 275 287 299 205 214 223 233 243 177 184 192 200 208 158 165 171 178 186 144 150 156 163 169 134 139 145 151 157 126 131 136 142 148 120 124 130 135 140 180 182 184 186 188 432 449 470 490 511 313 325 340 354 369 253 263 275 286 298 217 226 236 245 256 194 201 210 218 227 177 184 191 199 207 164 170 177 184 192 154 160 167 173 180 146 152 158 164 171 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 531 554 578 602 626 651 678 705 734 763 384 400 417 434 451 469 488 507 528 548 310 323 336 350 364 378 393 408 425 441 266 277 288 299 311 323 336 349 363 377 236 246 256 266 276 286 298 309 321 334 215 224 233 242 251 260 271 281 292 303 199 207 215 224 232 241 251 260 270 280 187 194 202 210 218 226 235 243 253 262 177 184 191 199 206 213 222 230 238 248 210 212 214 216 218 793 824 856 889 924 569 591 614 637 662 458 475 493 512 532 390 405 420 436 453 346 359 372 386 401 314 325 337 350 363 290 301 312 323 335 271 281 291 302 313 256 266 275 285 296 220 222 959 996 687 713 551 572 469 487 415 431 376 390 347 360 324 336 306 318 Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 10 Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale.4 .`.7 .4 .2 .3 46 49 51 53 56 .7 .4 .7 .3 .4 .6 .0 .7 .2 .0 .6 .7 .2 64 67 70 74 77 .1 .3 .9 .5 .0 .9 .3 .8 .8 .8 .2 .9 .`.`.2 .7 ..7 .6 .6 31 32 34 36 37 .4 82 86 89 94 98 ..1 .0 .0 .0 .6 66 69 72 75 78 .1 50 52 55 57 60 .

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International.`--- Temperature..astm.`. °F . psia 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 224 226 228 1030 1070 1110 739 767 795 593 615 637 504 523 542 446 462 479 404 418 433 372 386 400 348 360 373 328 340 352 230 1150 824 660 561 495 448 413 385 363 240 1380 985 787 668 589 532 490 456 430 250 1640 1170 932 790 695 628 577 538 506 ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard..```.. United States. and the risk of infringement of such rights.`. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards.org)..org (e-mail). Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee.org/ COPYRIGHT/). are entirely their own responsibility... either reapproved or withdrawn. PO Box C700. at the address shown below..`.-`-`... PA 19428-2959. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised.``.astm. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. West Conshohocken. or service@astm.`.`..````. 100 Barr Harbor Drive..D1142 − 95 (2012) TABLE 5 Continued Total Pressure. Copyright ASTM International Provided by IHS under license with ASTM No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 11Licensee=BP International/5928366101 Not for Resale. 08/28/2013 15:39:28 MDT --``.. 610-832-9555 (fax). Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). or through the ASTM website (www. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www.`. which you may attend.