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MechanChap5

# MechanChap5

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10/08/2012

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# Chapter 5

Plane Kinematics of Rigid Bodies

s

s

Rigid body : A body in which the distances between particles are unchanged. For simplicity, only the motion on a single plane is considered.

fixed

The plane motion: 1. Rectilinear translation
A B B A B

A

2. Curvillinear translation
A B

s

3. Fixed axis rotation :
Fixed axis

A
s

A

4. General plane motion : A A B B

Rotation :

 ω =θ

(angular velocity)

  α = ω = θ
θ

(angular acceleration) Also

ωdω = αdθ

θ ⇔s ; ω ⇔v ; α ⇔a

 v
 ω
 k
O
O

  v =ω ×r

 r

  ω ,α
an
 r

    ∴ a = ω × (ω × r ) + α × r

Direction of ω , use right hand       rule. = v = ω × r + ω × r a 
  at an       ω =θ k ;α =θ k

 v =ωr =θ r

 v
at

v2 an = = rω 2 r at = r α    2 )e + (rθ + 2rθ)e     θ a = ( − rθ r r

General plane motion :
A'
A"

 ∆rA / B

 ∆rB
B
O

B'

  ∆rA ∆rB

 rA / B
A'

A

 ∆rA / B
A"

   ∆rA / B = ∆rA − ∆rB    ∴ v A / B = v A − vB    v A / B = ω × rA / B    ∴ v A = vB + v A / B     i.e. v A = vB + ω × rA / B

B'

∆θ

rA / B

Example :

 vB
B

A

 rA / B
 ω

 vA

 vB

  ω × rA / B
 vA

Instantaneous Centre of zero velocity
vA vB ω= = rA rB
A

vA and vB in proportional length
A

 vA
B 

 vA

A

 vA

rA
C

rB

vB

rA
B

rA
C

rB

 vB

rB

C

 B vB

C-Instantaneous centre of zero velocity

Problem on Plane Kinematics of rigid body (2), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11)
s

Relative acceleration

   v A = vB + v A / B    a A = aB + a A / B   aA/ B = vA/ B

A'

B'
B
O

 t   v

s

However

2  vA/ B  t + n r

A/ B

 r
n

A

ω ,α

v A / B = rω   ∴ v A / B = rω = r α

  2  ∴ a A / B = rα t + rω n

   2  a A = a B + rα t + rω n   rα t = α × r 2     rω n = ω × (ω × r )

 aA

     a A = a B + α × rA / B + ω × (ω × rA / B )
 aB
A

 aB
B

=
 aA

 aB
B

A

 aA/ B

 r αt

+

B

 rω n
2

A

 rαt aA/ B   a rω 2 n B

Exam ple

s s s s

 y, j
O'

Let s be the displacement of 0 to 0'. Then s = r θ rolling without slipping     (a) v = s i = rθ i = rω i 

r s O
C

      a0 = v0 = rω i = rα i#

0

#

s

θ C' s

ωα

x

 x, i

s s

(b) for the new position C' from C : x = s - rsinθ y = r - rcosθ

r sin θ

  ∴ x = rθ (1 − cos θ ) = rω (1 − cos θ )   y = rθ sin θ = rω sin θ      ∴ vc = x i + y j   = rω (1 − cosθ ) i + (rω sin θ ) j

#

s

Also

  = rω (1 − cosθ ) + rωθ sin θ  x = rα (1 − cosθ ) + rω sin θ   = rω sin θ + rωθ cosθ  y
2

s

When t = 0, θ = 0

   aC = i + j x y

= rα sin θ + rω cosθ
2

 vc = 0

#

  2 , ac = r ω j

#

Exam ple
P
O

 vP / O
60 o
R

ω
vo = 3ms
−1

 vP / O
P
60 o
O

 vP
 vo

P

R = 0.3m , OP = 0.2m      vP = vo + vP / O vP vP / O vP / O = 0.2 ω ω o
60

r

O

R

vo 3 m s −1 vo = 3ms ω = = = 10 rad / s 0.3 0.3 m
−1

vo ∴ vP = 4.26 m s −1 vp = ω r ω= R

C

2 2 2 ∴ vP = v0 + vP / O + 2v0 vP / O cos 60o = 19 #

Examp le

B E

0.25m C 0.05m D

ω CD = 2rad / s rC / D = 0.075m

rB / A = 0.1m

s s

Find : ω

A B

B. C

A

BE = 0.05 m, CE = 0.25m - 0.075m= 0.175 m

  vc = ω CD ⋅ rC / D (− j )     vB = vB (i ) , ω BC = ω BC (−k )     vB = vc + ω BC × rB / C      vB i = 2 × 0.075(− j ) + ω BC (− k ) × [−0.175 i + 0.05 j ] ⇒ vB , ω BC

ω AB = vB / rB / A

Examp le
A D
s

0.3m / s

0.5m / s 2

B

0.1m / s 2

y x z

rG / A
2m

G

1m ω α 1m 2m C

Find

and

aG α      a B = a A + α × rB / A + ω × (ω × rB / A )     a A = 0.5 j , aB = 0.1 j     rB / A = 4 i , α = α (− k )   ω = ω (−k )

ω can be found by :

   vB = v A + ω × rB / A     − 0.3 j = −0.3 j + (−ω k ) × 4 i

∴ ∴ ∴

ω =0    aB = a A + α × rB / A     0.1 j = 0.5 j + (−αk ) × (4 i )   = 0.5 j − α 4 j

∴ ∴

α = 0.1 rad / s  ˆ (rad / s 2 ) α = −0.1 k
2

#