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MechanChap5|Views: 36|Likes: 4

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/20523801/MechanChap5

10/08/2012

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Plane Kinematics of Rigid Bodies

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s

s

Rigid body : A body in which the distances between particles are unchanged. For simplicity, only the motion on a single plane is considered.

fixed

**The plane motion: 1. Rectilinear translation
**

A B B A B

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A

2. Curvillinear translation

A B

s

**3. Fixed axis rotation :
**

Fixed axis

A

s

A

4. General plane motion : A A B B

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Rotation :

ω =θ

(angular velocity)

α = ω = θ

θ

(angular acceleration) Also

ωdω = αdθ

θ ⇔s ; ω ⇔v ; α ⇔a

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v

ω

k

O

O

v =ω ×r

r

ω ,α

an

r

∴ a = ω × (ω × r ) + α × r

**Direction of ω , use right hand rule. = v = ω × r + ω × r a
**

at an ω =θ k ;α =θ k

v =ωr =θ r

v

at

**v2 an = = rω 2 r at = r α 2 )e + (rθ + 2rθ)e θ a = ( − rθ r r
**

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**General plane motion :
**

A'

A"

∆rA / B

∆rB

B

O

B'

∆rA ∆rB

rA / B

A'

A

∆rA / B

A"

** ∆rA / B = ∆rA − ∆rB ∴ v A / B = v A − vB v A / B = ω × rA / B ∴ v A = vB + v A / B i.e. v A = vB + ω × rA / B
**

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B'

∆θ

rA / B

Example :

vB

B

A

rA / B

ω

vA

vB

ω × rA / B

vA

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**Instantaneous Centre of zero velocity
**

vA vB ω= = rA rB

A

**vA and vB in proportional length
**

A

vA

B

vA

A

vA

rA

C

rB

vB

rA

B

rA

C

rB

vB

rB

C

B vB

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C-Instantaneous centre of zero velocity

**Problem on Plane Kinematics of rigid body (2), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11)
**

s

Relative acceleration

v A = vB + v A / B a A = aB + a A / B aA/ B = vA/ B

A'

B'

B

O

t v

s

However

2 vA/ B t + n r

A/ B

r

n

A

ω ,α

v A / B = rω ∴ v A / B = rω = r α

2 ∴ a A / B = rα t + rω n

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∴

2 a A = a B + rα t + rω n rα t = α × r 2 rω n = ω × (ω × r )

∴

aA

a A = a B + α × rA / B + ω × (ω × rA / B )

aB

A

aB

B

=

aA

aB

B

A

aA/ B

r αt

+

B

rω n

2

A

rαt aA/ B a rω 2 n B

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Exam ple

s s s s

y, j

O'

Let s be the displacement of 0 to 0'. Then s = r θ rolling without slipping (a) v = s i = rθ i = rω i

r s O

C

a0 = v0 = rω i = rα i#

0

#

s

θ C' s

ωα

x

x, i

s s

(b) for the new position C' from C : x = s - rsinθ y = r - rcosθ

r sin θ

** ∴ x = rθ (1 − cos θ ) = rω (1 − cos θ ) y = rθ sin θ = rω sin θ ∴ vc = x i + y j = rω (1 − cosθ ) i + (rω sin θ ) j
**

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#

s

Also

** = rω (1 − cosθ ) + rωθ sin θ x = rα (1 − cosθ ) + rω sin θ = rω sin θ + rωθ cosθ y
**

2

s

When t = 0, θ = 0

aC = i + j x y

= rα sin θ + rω cosθ

2

vc = 0

#

2 , ac = r ω j

#

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Exam ple

P

O

vP / O

60 o

R

ω

vo = 3ms

−1

vP / O

P

60 o

O

vP

vo

P

R = 0.3m , OP = 0.2m vP = vo + vP / O vP vP / O vP / O = 0.2 ω ω o

60

r

O

R

**vo 3 m s −1 vo = 3ms ω = = = 10 rad / s 0.3 0.3 m
**

−1

vo ∴ vP = 4.26 m s −1 vp = ω r ω= R

C

**2 2 2 ∴ vP = v0 + vP / O + 2v0 vP / O cos 60o = 19 #
**

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Examp le

B E

0.25m C 0.05m D

ω CD = 2rad / s rC / D = 0.075m

rB / A = 0.1m

s s

Find : ω

A B

,ω

B. C

A

BE = 0.05 m, CE = 0.25m - 0.075m= 0.175 m

vc = ω CD ⋅ rC / D (− j ) vB = vB (i ) , ω BC = ω BC (−k ) vB = vc + ω BC × rB / C vB i = 2 × 0.075(− j ) + ω BC (− k ) × [−0.175 i + 0.05 j ] ⇒ vB , ω BC

ω AB = vB / rB / A

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Examp le

A D

s

0.3m / s

0.5m / s 2

B

0.1m / s 2

y x z

rG / A

2m

G

1m ω α 1m 2m C

Find

and

aG α a B = a A + α × rB / A + ω × (ω × rB / A ) a A = 0.5 j , aB = 0.1 j rB / A = 4 i , α = α (− k ) ω = ω (−k )

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ω can be found by :

vB = v A + ω × rB / A − 0.3 j = −0.3 j + (−ω k ) × 4 i

∴ ∴ ∴

ω =0 aB = a A + α × rB / A 0.1 j = 0.5 j + (−αk ) × (4 i ) = 0.5 j − α 4 j

∴ ∴

α = 0.1 rad / s ˆ (rad / s 2 ) α = −0.1 k

2

#

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∴

aG = a A + α × rG / A + ω × (ω × rG / A ) ω =0 rG / A aG = 0.5 j + (−0.1) k × (2 i − j ) = 0.5 j − 0.2 j − 0.1 i 2 = −0.1 i + 0.3 j (m / s ) #

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Chapter 6 Plane Kinetics of Rigid Body

Kinetics of a System of Particles

Kinetics of a Particle

MechanChap2

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Dr. c. w. Ong

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