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Pottery of the Korai Dynasty. (924-1392 a.d.) Vol 014-3

Pottery of the Korai Dynasty. (924-1392 a.d.) Vol 014-3

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Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society Korea Branch
Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society Korea Branch

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POTTERY OF THE KORAI DYNASTY. (924-1392 A.D.

)
A. I. I.UDLOW, M.D. Severance Union Medical College, Seoul, Korea. Ten years ago a little Korean boy brought to our home a basket containing a few dishes which had been secured from the tombs in the region of Songdo (Kaijo). This marked the beginning of my interest in this particular pottery, commonly known to the Koreans as, “ Koryo Chagi.” to the Chinese as “ Kao-li-yao.” to the Japanese as “ Korai-yaki “ (Korai pottery. literally, baking) and to the Western nations as Korean Tomb Ware, or Korean Mortuary Pottery. I make no pretense of being an authority on this subject but simply wish to present information gained from a rather scant literature and from my own personal observation of a considerable number of pieces of this pottery. Historical Introduction. The Catalogue of the Le Blond Collection of Korean Pottery in the Victoria and Albert Museum gives a most excellent historical introduction as follows ; “ The geographical position of the peninsula of Korea, stretching as an outpost from the Asiatic mainland towards the archipelago of Japan accounts in large measure for the impoitant part which the country has played during the past in the development of Far-Eastern culture. It was the highway along which civilization marched from China and Central Asia, and through Central Asia from the Mediter-ranean, to the island empire ; it was also through Korea that the Buddhist religion made its way to Japan. [page 34] During the early centuries of the Christian era the country consisted of three independent States : Korio (Japanese, Korai or Koma ; Chinese Kaoli), Pekche (Japanese, Hiakusai or Kudara ; Chinese Pochi) and Silla (Japanese, ^hinra or Shiragi ; Chinese, ^in-lo)^ About the middle • of the seventh century the most important of the three, Silla, founded in 57 A.D., and occupying the southeastern extremity of the peninsula, absorbed the other two, and a single kingdom was erected under Chinese suzerainty with its capital at Taiku (note, the capital was at Kyungju). During the ensuing period, roughly contemporary with the 1 ang dynasty in China (618-907), under the influence of Buddhism, which was introduced into Korea about 372 by the Chinese Monk Sun-do» the country reached a high stage of prosperity and civilization • The art of the period, showing GraecoBractrian influences which had travelled eastwards from Khotan in Central Asia, can be studied only from the frescoes and sculptures in temples such as the Horiu-ji at Nara and elsewhere in Japan, where they are revently treasured as memorials of the nation which the Japanese regard as the source in these early days of their own civilization. In 918 the kingdom of Silla was conquered by the revolted province of Korio, the name of which, adopted as that of the entire kingdom, survives in the European name Korea. What is generally known as the Korai dynasty, sometimes also called the Wang dynasty, was established in 924 by Oang (Wang) the Founder, and the capital was transferred to Songdo ( “ pine capital “), near the west coasts This dynasty came to an end in 1392 with the revolt of \ 1 1 aijo, founder of the Yi (in Japanese Ri) dynasty, which closed with the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910- The name of the kingdom was changed to Chosen (Chinese Ch‟ao-hsien, morning calm n), the capital was removed to Seoul, and Buddhism was finally suppressed• With the exception of the few relics preserved in Japan, scarcely an^hing remains to the Present day of the greater arts from the classical period of [page 35] Korean history, ending with the overthrow of the Korai dynasty in 1392. Amongst the lesser arts, on the other hand, that of the potter can be studied from a large number of surviving specimens. For this we have to thank the Korean burial customs of the period. As in Europe in pre-Christian times and in ancient China, so in Korea, it was the practice to inter with the bodies of persons of distinction various articles for their use in another world, including vessels with offerings of food and wine. In Korea such objects were placed in stone chests, deposited in the

which tower still stands. Height 8. which entitle them to a high rank amongst the achievements of the potters of the world. I am indebted to Rev. The shapes are in certain cases very characteristic. when she beneficently over-shadowed the smaller states. It is found chiefly in the southern part of Korea in the regions of Kyungju. In the Korean Magazine September. The word “ Celedon is of French origin. which are given by the emperor as gifts.” The Sam-gook Sa or “ History of the Three Kingdoms” [page 37] also tells that the seeds of tea were first brought to Korea by Tai-ryum (大廉) the envoy of the Tangs in 828 A. apparently. (Plate I). D. Such wares are known by the Japanese at the present day as Meiki.” The pottery of the Silla dynasty (57-918) is crude and of much less artistic interest than the Korai ware. alike of right proportion in spacing. shapes and decorations. envoy of the Song Kingdom (宋) who came in 1134 A. The cover is also decorated with ten rows of marks similar to those on the bowl. 1).‟ . were used for wine. Koreans specially like. undergroand ware.-I392) most of which has come from the tombs in the region of Songdo is the best type of porcelain found in Korea. Most writers claim that the vessels shaped like tea-pots. as distinct from occasional decomposition of the glaze due to the effects of burial.D. This is based on the repeated statements that tea drinking was unknown in ancient Korea. S. that looked up and worshipped hen Tea was then planted in the Chiri Hills ( 智異山) of Chulla Province where it flourished and grew. Of late. Su Keung (徐兢) a Chinaman. 1918 he wrote as follows :— “We learn from the Sam-gook Sa (三國史) and other sources that Korea first became acquainted with tea in the reign of Queen Sun-tuk (632-647 A. wrote a book called Ko-ryu Tokyung (高麗圖經) “ Korean PicturesHe says. “The Tea of Korea has a slightly bitter and astringent taste almost disagreeable to a Chinaman. (No. and are also sold by merchants in large quantities. for this information. green and persimmon-colored glazes are found.D. a wise woman. Korea has become a great tea drinking country and makes many varieties of tea-pots.” a sea-green glaze. and small pots of blue coloured ware. “ This pottery presents various colors.” Black. On occasions of special entertainment.D. the burial customs were altered. among which the cup and stand (No. they walk very slowly and say. and rarely crimson colon The painted wares are in white. I believe we have evidence to prove that not only was tea drinking known in ancient Korea but that it was used during the very period of the making of the Korai pottery. 22) may be noted. a rice bowl and cover. the bowl of which is decorated with five rows of hook-like devices above which are two deeply incised horizontal circles.). Diam. After the change of dynasties. the romance by Honore d‟Urfe) who appeared on the stage in a costume of this color. The inlays are of white. 21) and the melon (No. but for two hundred years. 2874-76). brown or dark green slip. J. Taiku and Fusan. i.5 cm.D. so that the “ tomb wares” of later date are exceptional. There is a fine white Korai covered with a translucent glaze of bluish tone. The absence of all signs of wear in the pottery from the tombs. Weight 330 gm. may be explained by the use for this honorable purpose of vessels new from the kiln. “ A more common color is the so-called “Celedon. like Korea. and of the [page 36] beauty of subtle curves. and as they bring it into the room.e. being derived from the name of a character in a seventeenth century play (based upon L‟Astree. These were the days of China‟s greatest glory. Other white pieces are coarser and non-translucent. never learned to grow it herself. 12 cm.tumulus on either side of the coffin of the deceased. and she introduced tea as a refined substitute for the wildly intoxicating drinks that the old poets used to talk of. There are black tea-cups too. Korea thus learned to drink tea. „Please have tea.. Gale. vegetable forms such as the sprouting bamboo (No.D. dark green to black. We submit a specimen to show the type. She built a high tower from which to watch the stars. Koreans provide tea.Tea-cups are decorated with gold and flowers. combined with an exquisite sense. In the catalogue above mentioned Bemard Racham writes: “ In general the Korean wares of this classical period show a dignity and simplicity of form. The pottery of the Korai dynasty (924 A. Our „dragon‟ and „ phoenix „ brands.

butterflies (No. 24) is an exceed ingly rare specimen. I.green or black. With this brief introduction let us proceed to the description of the pieces following the classification of the Le Blond Collection. JLUDLOW. formal floral designs (No. 23) have a rounded body and long neck flaring out at the mouth. This is also called slip painting. birds with long flowing tails (No. “ In view of this evidence it seems proper to apply the name tea-pot to the vessels of that shape. 78-87) of depressed globular form intended to contain oil. In the Museum at Seoul there is a specimen of a dull crimson pigment inlay (“Peach blow”). Numerous specimens of small flat circular boxes (Nos. The key border is commonly found. 54). 53). as is also the row of Chinese “ jui” “ wish-granting” scepter heads (No.When guests are seated they arrange the tea things on a central table and cover them with red silk gauze till it comes time to serve it It is their custom to offer tea three times a day. POTTERY OF THE KORAI DYNASTY. Plant life is well represented by rows of overlapping lotus petals (No. a cuspidor (No. 21). The little vase (No. the sprouting bamboo (No. 12-18 . the lotus flower (No. 6),and the third. 20. The collection contains a number of bottles (Nos. 88-93) were made to contain pigment for use on seals. 40) and others deeper (No. The tea-pots show three different shapes: one. The inlay may be in white alone. cranes flying among clouds (No. Decorations. 22). This is sometimes combined with the mold or the inlay. 95). 8). a plain rounded form (No. 9) and a vessel (No. Vases of many different forms (Nos. Vases (No. 101-102) show the so-called painted wares known in Japan as Yegorai (“painted Korean”). 100) were perhaps used for flowers. 63. In addition to the cup and stand mentioned above there is [page 38] a cone shaoed cup (No. some shallow (No. It may have been used as a toy. First. pomegranate flower (Na 93). or cut out in countersunk relief before the application of the glaze.30-33. . 27. or in white and dark. It was first applied to the early Korean ware with inlaid pattern showing a resemblance to the vertically set ideograph of the Japanese almanacs compiled at Mishima in Japan. 94). Method of Decoration. the sprouting bamboo (No. A miniature melon-shaped tea-pot (No. It is also probable that they contained face pigment or incense. 88). 105) like the ones used at the present day for the Korean pickle (Kimchi). 72. chrysanthemums. though there is a bowl with such design in the museum at Seoul. The wine jugs (Na 7. Some of the pieces are plain but for the most part the pottery exhibits many and varied decorations. single blossom or in sprays or wreaths (Na 89). the incised ware in which the design was made in the paste with a pointed instrument. which is very beautiful and rare. Among the more uncommon shapes are found : a fish bowl (No. the one in light brown and the other dark brown or dark green clay. [page 40] COLLECTION OF A. ducks and fishes are also found The human figure is rarely found. 21) and the weeping willow (No. [page 39] “ Mishimade” (Mishima pattern) is the term generally used of all inlaid Korean or Japanese wares. 40-43) . peonies (Na 25). 106). 90) may belong to the same class. the form of a melon (No. (Le Blond Collection Classification followed). Bowls. 37. 11) and the box (No. 43) contained the food. the second. 78). 77) which may have been so formed that all the wine or tea should be taken at one time.

(Plate 2). 16 cm. 10 Stand on cup. Wine Jug with rounded base. W. Tea-pot with Cover. W. 10. D.9 cm. 8. W. 700 gm. (Plate 7). 1150 gm. 7 cm. No foot ring. Broken in two places and mended. Taylor). WHITE PORCELAIN. W.5 We were unable to secure a good specimen of this class though we have described later miniature pieces of the celadon group. H. H. Five sand marks on base. (Plate 1).5 cm. No. No. No. No. 12.A. 6-19. reddish on the surface where exposed. W. Inside plain. 2 cm. 915 gm. D. No. (Plate 2). (c) With relief decoration. Base glazed. 22 cm. 23 cm. firing scars on the outside. No. narrow neck and spreading top. (a) Undecorated. Portion of the mouth poorly restored. reeded handle. 11. H. 6. with thin transparent glaze of more or less pronounced bluish tone over a suqary white paste. Taylor). Bowl with rounded sides. 1505 gm. 3. Three spur marks within base ring. end quite opaque. D. 25 gm. (Plate No. B. H. These are of white porcellanous ware. Base glazed. (b) With incised or engraved decoration under the glaze.5 cm. Four sand marks on foot ring. W. No. Four [page 42] spur marks within the loot ring. of globular form with short narrow neck and cup-shaped mouth. (Specimen loaned by Mr. Vase. globular in shape with broad reeded handle. barrel shaped. Dish. W. H.5 cm. showing a brownish surface where not covered by glaze. Cover shows marks of base of loop broken off. 30 gm. Fish Bowl with broad base and low rounded sides curving in at the rim. W. relatively coarse. apparently intended for toys. covered with a thick jade-like glaze varying in tone from the bluish-green of the majority to qreenish. 7. base unglazed. H 10. No. Faint incised horizontal line within the rim. W. C. few sand marks. (i) Porcellanous celadons with heavy hard ashqrey body. In some cases the glaxe is much more translucent and fluid than in the others. (Plate 2).5 cm. even where the walls are thin. 21. Both foot nng and base glazed. 210 gm. shallow with flat base and rounded sides. 15 cm. 21 cm. 9. H. small mouth partly restored with gilt lacquer. 2. Imperfection at base of rounded spouts No foot ring. [page 41] No. Oil Bottle. highly translucent. MINIATURE PIECES. IX 4. 3). in miniature. No. D. 10 cm. (Specimen loaned by Mr. 1. Foot ring and base glazed. Vessel in shape of a cuspidor. . Non. base only partly glazed. D. 4. on the outside incised lines. D. and non-translucent. No. short neck.brown or grey. with uneven bluish glaze similar to that of the preceding class. W. (a) UNDECORATED. W. thick. on top of which is a loop.5cm. Pigment Box and cover.

D. 1160 gm. Four sand marks within foot ring. W. Spout broken. IX 18cm. Inside half covered with glaze.53. 260 gm. with small foot ring on which are four sandy marks. on top of which is a small loop for cord.5 cm. D. Oil Bottle. Reeded handle. of flattened globular form. (Plate 2). 14 except more flattened. 13. D. aquamarine color. three sand marks within foot ring. glaze missing on the base. 7. 5 cm. Reeded handle and loop on top of handle.5 cm. Glaze on the base partly decomposed. W.shaped mouth. 100 gm. D. 7 cm. 4 cm. D. Oil Bottle. 945 gm. Six sand marks on tne flat glazed base. H. H. short neck and cup. Wide base covered with glaze except near foot ring. on top of which is a small branch of bamboo with a couple of leaves forming a loop for a cord. W. W. W. 6 cm. W. 13cm. olive color. sand marks on foot ring. W. H. 9 cm. No. brown color. 20cm. (Plate 3). 12-14. scalloped line incised round the shoulder. No foot ring. 7 cm.20. No. 20. Body is divided into eight lobes by[page 44] deeply incised lines. 18. Spout poorly restored H. No coven On each side of the body a very plainlyincised tree peony and foliage. 6. of moderately flattened globular form. No. Three sand marks on the foot ring. 145gm. No. 18. celadon color. (Plate 3). D. (b) WITH INCISED OR CARVED DECORATIONS UNDER THE GLAZE. globular shape. Large sand mark within glazed bast. and mended with gilt lacquer. 1675 gm. W. Oil Bdtlte. Tea-pot. 145 gm.5 cm. No. 6 cm. 26. Tea-Poty in miniature. D. short neck and cup-shaped mouth. (Plate 2). 16 cm. W. 14. 19. D. spout restored at the top with gilt lacquer. fine glaze flattened globular shape neck and mouth smaller than No. (Plate 2). . No. W.17 Oil Bottle.8 cm. H. Two spur. (Plate 4). 19 cm. D. 8 cm. 23. 21 cm. same as No. 7. No. 21. Double incised vertical lines dividing the body into six equal parts. lea-Pot. D. H. in miniature. deeply incised vertical lines on the outside. 8 cm. W.5 cm. Spout and part of the cover restored with gilt lacquer. 22. Foot ring fairly high. D. Tea-Pot. No. No.three spur marks on the foot ring. Loop for cord on the top of the handle. H. base partly glazed H. H. [page 43] No. On the base just within the unglazed foot ring are six sandy spur marks. 131 gm. Handle and portion of the spout restored with gilt lacquer. base glazed H. 4 cm. or sand marks on foot ring. in form of a melon divided into eight lobes. 915 gm. 14. melon-shaped with reeded handle. Nos. H. D. No. W. 163 gm.8 cm. glaze of base of partly discolored.95 gm. H. H. On the cover another loop formed by the stem of the melon. W.5 cm. only portion of neck and mouth. cone-shaped. 4 cm. 930 gm. 25. Tea-pot (usually called wine-pot by most writers) in the form of a sprouting bamboo. 27. 7. Base unglazed with sand marks. No. 16. No. 21 cm. Three sand marks on foot ring. No. 20 cm. D. Bowl. glaze greenish in color shading to brown on one side. (Plate 2). 130 gm. flattened globular form. Vase with fluted body. flat globular form beautifully in_ cised and glazed. H. 4 cm. 72 gm. No. W. 16 cm. cover missing. Oil Bottle. W. Oil Bottle. 15. 9 cm. 4 cm: D. 122 gm. There is a deeply incised palmette on either side. 7. Wine Jug with reeded handle. 24. H.

one in each of the six sections. Another scalloped line and radiating lines close to the neck. 33. These lines extend also around the edge of the box. Foot ring glazed inside and outside. H. of flattened globular form. Oil Bottle of fine aquamarine color. W. Four spur marks. 31. Throe other lines mark off areas evidently intended to represent the sea. Three sand marks on[page 47] the foot ring. [page 45] Three spur marks within the foot ring. rim rounded. Pigment Box and Cover. Stand. 180 gm. flattened globular shape. H. 29.2 cm. 187 gm. H. one on the inside and two outside the foot ring. which is glazed. then a double circle enclosing a border of formal hookshaped design. No. Cup and Stand. as the lines are wavy. Overlapping lotus petals are found carved around this pro]ection. short neck and fairly wide cup-shaped mouth. 36. On the cover incised lines which seem to represent a map with roads leadings to a central city. The inside of the cup is plain. into six lobes. H. W. delicate incised overlapping lotus petals on the side of this projection. 160 gm. D. (Plate 2). W. One sand mark on the foot ring. D. W. D. 4 cm.5 cm. Three spur marks on the inside of foot ring. 15. 110gm. No. On the bevelled edge arc incised lines. 5 cm. W. 7. 6 cm. 60 gm. Cup with rounded bowl divided by fine lines running down from notches in the rim. Pigment Box and Cover. W. with horizontal line incised just . Overlapping lotus petals about the neck. Saucer. The high foot ring is divided into six parts by notches and verticle incised lines. circular.4 cm. 8. Five sand marks. Glaze. 8. 123a gm. D. 8 cm. greenishbrown colon Base and foot ring unglazed. H. No. Oil Bottle. A cup-like projection in the center. H. 14. D. Sand marks within foot ring and a couple outside. Base glazed. D. delicate incised border and four incised lotus flowers at equal intervals. 3 cm. D.8 cm.Vase. no cup. From this central . No. No. H. 168 gm.28. 7. 363 gm. Bottle is coarser than others. Base glazed. Base partly denuded of glaze. fine glaze beneath which floral designs are visible. circular. Glaze missing in part on the base. H. D. 30. 5 cm.5 cm. and vertical lines dividing the body into seven equal parts. (Plate 2). 4 cm. 220 gm. 37. but the base is covered with glaze. 16 cm. pronounced cup-shaped mouth. no cup. W. Sand marks oh base and foot ring. with scalloped line incised around the shoulder. Pigment Box. Oil Bottle. with flat cover bevelled at the edge.5 cm. A floral design is visible about the neck.5 cm. 34. glazed inside and out. No. outside the depressed base. Central portion of the top of cover is undecorated and glaze is missing in places. High foot ring with six notches and incised lines. A delicate floral design is incised on the cover. 3 c. 6 cm. 8 cm. H. 14 cm. 4 cm D. three spur marks within the foot ring. H. W. 127 gm. D.portion incised lines like rays extend over the edge of the cover.side. A shallow channel separates the rim from the rounded projection for cup. Six faint sand marks on the foot ring. The foot ring is partly unglazed. The stand has a flat rim with six notches and six incised lines with a faintly incised floral spray in each section. short neck and cup-shaped mouth slightly chipped. No. H. A shallow channel separates the rim from the projection which receives the cup. No. 32. 5. Three spur marks. 8 cm. 27 cm. flat rim on which are six delicately incised lotus flowers. enclosed in incised lines. Stand. A firing defect is found in the channel. but around the outside are six floral sprays. No. 35. Low glazed foot ring. W. H. W. divided by deeply scored vertical lines into lobes. W. glazed inside and out side. 385 gm. [page 46] No. globular in shape. These lines also run down on the foot rim and divide it into six parts.

50. incised horizontal line just below the rim inside and two birds[page 48] with long tails. similar to the two preceding except for finer incised lines of birds and a better glaze. which with the base is covered with glaze. No. shallow. W. D. W. 325 gm. shallow. Outside plain. 18 cm. H. 52. No. D. which with the base is partly glazed H. 42. plain except for horizontal incised line inside. [page 49] No. H. No. 362 gm. high sides. plain on the inside except for a faintly-incised horizontal line. Bowl. 433 gm. 18 cm. Three spur marks on the base. 5 cm. which with the foot ring is partly unglazed.5 cm. Outside glaze much decomposed. engraved floral design inside and incised horizontal line just below the rim. Outside deeply-carved overlapping lotus petals. plain on the inside. 6 cm. 45. W. Inside carved floral design and horizontal incised line near the rim. On the outside deeply incised overlapping lotus petals. H. W. 48. Bowl. W. 7 cm. 7. Three spur marks within foot ring. three spur marks within the foot ring. with small foot ring and high sides. W. 4 cm. No. H. 330 gm. H. 300 gm.5 cm. Foot ring and base small and glazed. I6. W. 482 gm. W. H. D. No. D. W. 4 cm. Outside plain. Inside two faintly incised birds. Bowl. and on the outside incised overlapping lotus petals. D. Bowl. No. Four sand marks on foot ring which with the base is glazed. 528 gm. Five sand marks on the foot ring. Bowl. Three large sand marks within the foot ring. A little sand adherent to the foot ring which with the base is partly unglazed. within which are three spur marks. highly rounded sides. Foot ring and base partly unglazed. incised horizontal line inside. 51. W. same general design as the preceding. decorated inside with a delicately engraved design of two birds with long flowing tails. D. which with the base is glazed. 7 cm. with high sides and small foot ring. D. Wide depressed base. 412 grn. Bowl small foot ring. Three spur marks on the base. No. 41. H. 9 cm. Bowl. with rounded sides and medium sized foot ring. W. Both foot ring and base glazed H. H. inside plain. D. 16 cm. Bowl. 16 cm. 19. slightly larger and coarser than the preceding. D. 625 gm. Outside overlapping lotus petals. and heavy incised outside line near the rim. Outside plain. except lines of birds are more deeply cut. Sand adherent to the foot ring which with the base is partly glazed H.below the rim on the outside. . Base and foot ring glazed. 505 gm. Bowl. D. 658 gm. 38. 9. plain inside. 19 cm. Bowl. Outside plain. Incised horizontal line just below the rim. 18. 19 cm. but faint incised overlapping lotus petals are visible. No.5 cm. H. shallow. W.5 cm. No. 39. No. 4 cm. No. Bawl. 47. 40. H. 235 gm. 44. Bowl. 5. 19 cm. No. D. 43. 3 cm. D. except for two horizontal lines extending partly around the bowl. 8 cm. 16 cm. W. outside overlapping lotus petals. 16 cm. Inside plain except for a few faint incised horizontal lines. D. D. shallow. 7. H.5 cm. glazed. 16 cm. large. Bowl. 125 gm. 49. Three large sandy marks on the base. W. 364 gm. H. 8 cm. Small depressed base. Bowl. 17 cm. 46. 8 cm. Outside plain. D. No. 256 gm. 5 cm.5 cm. No.

Outside plain. 4 cm. D. 304 gm. Base glazed. The outside plain except for two horizontal lines near the base. D. 62. The mould has produced a mottled white appearance on both inside and outside. A faint incised horizontal line is visible just below the rim on the outside. No. base partly glazed. Both foot ring and base glazed. W. Bowl. Bowl. Outside plain. Outside of bowl plain. 8 cm. 4 cm. inside plain. Three sand marks on foot ring. 65 cm. H. W. 4 cm. Bowl,inside four formal flowers and leaves in striking relief. Three spur marks on the base with a small foot ring. No. 61. 18 cm. glaze partly decomposed. No. D. and high sides a little distorted. 59. Inside lotus and foliage in relief. 57. W. H. Bowl. H.Bowl. with spreading sides. 17 cm. (Plate 6). (e) WITH DECORATION IN RELIEF. W. 6 cm. Foot ring glazed . W. D. 283 gm. H. 55. 90gm (Plate 2). outside of which is a floral design in relief beneath a horizontal incised line. Inciscd horizontal line near the rim which has six notches. 230 gm. MOULDED AS IN THE LAST SECTION (c) WITH THE ADDITION OF INCISED DETAILS. base unglazed. 465 gm. Nos. shallow with spreading sides. The depressions caused on the reverse side of the vessels by pressing them into the hollows of the mould are distinctly perceptible. W. Three sand marks within foot ring. on the inside faint mould with horizontal incised line below the rim. W. Three sour manes within the foot ring which with the base in glazed. (Plate 6). 17 cm. H. D. 107 gm. foot ring ana base partly glazed and covered with sand marks. No. 5 cm. 17 cm. Remnants of spur or sand marks on the foot ring. 14 cm. 16 cm. Bowl. Bowl. Foot ring glazed . Nos. inside faintly-incised lotus in waves. (d) WITH DECOKATION IN RELIEF PRODUCED. shallow with spreading sides. H 3. I). in the center a flower in relief in a double circle. Three lotus flowers and oliage at equal intervals around the outside of the bowl. with small foot ring and low sides. high foot ring. W. Inside conventional lotus in relief supplemented by a horizontal incised line near the rim which shows six notches. D. small foot ring. H. 140 gm. faint floral mould on inside. H. Foot ring and base small and partly unglazed. 304 gm. 60. No. fine color and glaze. 56-62. Bowl. Dish. 370 gm. W. 10 cm.4 cm. D. 16. 53. (Plate 2). D.54. 54-55. with spreading side. Bowl (or cup). horizontal incised line just below the rim Outside plain. H. Inside two formal flowers in relief and a horizontal inciscd line below the rim. The color and incised work on the bowl is unusually fine. 16 cm. W. No. No. 12 cm. Saucer. 58. . Outsule[page 51] plain. No. outside overlapping lotus petals. 4 cm. shallow. 16 cm. No. H. Sand adherent to the base and foot ring both partly glazed. D. 6 cm. W. Incised horizontal line near the rim. H. Foot ring and base small.5 cm. of fine color with small foot ring. sand marks on base and foot ring. Both glazed. No. Inside three large and three small formal flowers and foliage. BY FORMING ON A MOULD. 56. D. Four sand marks on the foot ring which with the base is[page 50] glazed. 7 cm. 283 gm.

No. Cover.5 cm. Foot ring and base covered with sand marks. 4cm. 4 cm. w. 73. 71. Vase. outside of which is a formal border. The glaze is uneven. D. W. 14 cm. with glaze varving from greenish-brown to greyish. Glaze on the outside much decomposed. Oil Bottle. 66. 1655 gm. 274 gm. 7 cm. 30 cm. probably for a cord to fasten a cover or stopper. in the center single spray of chrysanthemum en. On the outside four chrysanthemum at equal distance. W. Oil Bottle. with flat base on which are three spur marks. 64. 67. Oil Bottle. D. Base unglazed with sand marks. Between this double circle and a third one near the edge is a formal chrysanthemum design. H. 65. with curving sides and small foot ring.5 cm W.5 cm. Inside plain. D. Glaze of foot ring and base partly denuded. Vase. straight cup-shaped mouth. Outside plain. 2270 gm.225 gm. 71-99. with small foot ring and curving sides. 5. W.closed in a double circle outside of which are three chrysanthemum sprays at equal intervals in a second double circle. H. 5 cm. Bottle (Top poorly restored) with small ring projecting from the neck. INLAID UNDER THE GLAZE IN WHITE. D.472 gm. Bowl. [page 52] (e) WITH MISHIMA DECORATION. Overlapping lotus leaves enclosed in double circle about the shoulder. H. D. flattened globular shape. Foot ring and base partly glazed. 63. (Plate 8). No. W. Glaze on the under side partly decomposed.70. No. H. Three spur marks just within the foot ring which with the base is covered with glaze. 7. The space thus enclosed in intersected by five double arcs. 16. globular in form. W. (F) WITH MISHIMA DECORATION INLAID UNDER THE GLAZE IN WHITE AND DARK GREENISH-BROWN OR BLACK. cup-shaped mouth. 18. H. (Plate 5). Normal floral designs on the side. H. H. now missing. 17 cm. 20 cm.5 cm. Between the double circles are four rows of little circles each containing a dot in the center. W. H. then a faintly incised line and key border. (Plate 2). Double circles about neck and a third near the edge of the body. D. W. of fine aquamarine color with short neck and wide cup-shaped mouth partly restored with gilt lacquer. H. double horizontal white lines around the shoulder. 63. Sand marks on the foot ring and base. D. Nos. Round the neck a sceptre head ornament in Chinese ju-i. Three spur marks inside. 427 gm. 72. with spreading sides and small foot ring. Inside four horizontal lines.4 cm. About half of the glaze on the outside is decomposed. 8 cm. Bowl. Interior of the vase and base only partly covered with glaze. [page 53] No. No. 122 gm. 16 cm. D. Saucer. No. H. 17 cm. 69. No. Inside a chrysanthemum within a double circle. 70. Sand marks on the foot ring and base which are partly glazed.163 gm. Three double chrysanthemum sprays at equal intervals on the body.8 cm. . all glazed except rim. tiring defect on one spray.green. D. 14 cm. (Plate 7). No. 8 cm. Nos. H. 4 cnu D. 465 gm. There is a double circle about the neck and a second near the edge of the body. 68. [page 54] No. No. A few sand marks on the foot ring. Inside three single chrysanthemum flowers at equal intervals on the sides below two horizontal lines. 117 gm. Bowl. 1450 gm. 31 cm. Many sand marks on the base. No. below four chrysanthemum sprays in black and white inlay. A double circle about the Jneck enclosing an area of small circles. 18 cm. 8. Six floral designs at equal intervals and a scroll border. D. Inside three single chrysanthemum sprays at equals intervals below a double circle.

W.5 cm. 82. inside undecorated. No. short neck and small mouth. short neck and fairly wide mouth. H. Incised horizontal and vertical lines on the outside. D. 4cm.No. otile. D. Three spur marks within the foot ring. ten lobed. 323 gm. The Stand. Cup and Stand. 400 gm. The foot ring and a part of the base are devoid of glaze. 76. of flattened globular form. 74. 6. No. 130 gm. W. W. On foot ring and base mostly unglazed. rim of which is partly restored by gilt lacquer. (Plate 5). 126gm. flattened globular in shape. W. All stand glazed. No. D. of flattened globular form. 5 cm. 81. (Plate 5). flat rim with 12 notches. 5 cm. Several spur marks within foot ring.) No. An incised circle just without the foot ring. Outside the cup are vertical chrysanthemum sprays 011 each lobe. mark off the lobes. Two double . W. The body is divided by white lines in three rows of eight arcs . D.5 cm. gm.2 cm. within two double circles. 13.5 cm. Three spur marks on the outside of the cup near the apex. 8. H. 77 Cup. These lines also divide the foot ring into nine parts. H. 14 cm. The rim is separated by a deep channel from the projection which receives the cup. 345 gm. (Plate 4). D. 9 cm. each lobe containing a chrysanthemum spray. [page 55] The stand has a flat rim with eight notches which together with faint incised lines. No. Oil Bottle. Cup with rounded bowl divided by vertical lines running down from notches in the rim into nine lobes. H. also a spray on each lobe. 7. (Plate 5). The cup is undecorated on the inside.5 cm. No. Cup and Stand. 120 gm. short neck and wide mouth. decorated with cranes flying at equal intervals among clouds. 166 gm. separated by three dark figures.7. globular in shape. The stand also has ten lobes marked oft by notches in the rim and incised lines. On each lobe of the rim are two chrysanthemums in sprays separated by white lines marking off the lobes. 14 cm. On the inside of the cup in the center a delicate incised floral spray. Three floral designs at equal intervals. 185 gm. H. 78. 102 gm. Five sand marks with the foot ring. 5 cm. 6. 80. (Plate 4. [page 56] No. Remnants of sand marks on the foot ring and base both of which are unglazed for the most part. D. W. outside a faint incised bonier near rim and one horizontal incised line near apex. Oil Bottle. There is an incised design about this projection and radiating incised lines in the center. H. 5 cm. Three spur marks high up on the inside of the foot ring. 8. on top of rim a single and double horizontal white line enclosing a row of white dots. The high foot ring shows eight notches. The high foot ring is divided into 12 lobes on each of which is a chrysanthemum flower. W. H. The inner zone has only a white spot in each arc. H. Glaze of base partly decomposed. D. 8 cm. 75. No decorations. Three faint spur marks on the foot ring. 5 cm. Both foot ring and base glazed H. D. The cup now broken was divided by deeply incised vertical lines into eight lobes. Glaze on a portion of the side and base partly destroyed. 8 cm. Wide foot ring with eight notches. 7 cm. Five floral sprays on the body.5 cm. within each of the two outer rows of arcs there is a formal flower with dark center. W. globular in shape. rim and body mended with gilt lacquer. conical in shape. (Plate 7). Oil Bottle. each of which con. A shallow channel separates the rim from the carved projection which receives the cup. D. No. short neck and small mouth. 6 cm. Three sprays of peonies at equal distance on the body. One spur mark within the foot ring. Three spur marks within the foot ring which with the base is covered with glaze. Cup and Stand. D. Near the rim and foot ring inside and outside arc double horizontal incised lines. 79. H. W. Oil Bottle.tains a floral spray. W. 9 cm. The central projection is carbed.

3. (Plate 5).circles within which is a row of lotus petals. 150 gm. Foot ring and base covered with glaze. 84.5 cm. 4 cm. 150 gm. Base and foot ring glazed. Oil Bottle. D. Glazed partly de. a second double circle outside of which is a ring of small circles. 4 cm. Base covered with glaze. (Plate 5). 4 cm. H. Foot ring and base glazed. 228 gm. (Plate 5). 4 cm. D. 91. Both entirely glazed. No. 89. Oil Bottle. W. 9 cm. D. Pigment Box and Cover. 9 cm. 7 cm. 130 gm. flattened globular shape with two cranes and two floral designs at equal intervals on the body of bottle. W. No spur marks visible. On the center of the cover a spray of chrysanthemums within a double circle. (Plote 5). D.5 cm D. W. Three spur marks witlnn the foot ring which with the base is glazed H. D. D. flattened globular in shape with narrow neck and cup-shaped mouth. 8 cm. 8 cm W. Small depressed base in which are three small spur marks. 2. 3cm. (Plate 5). slightly uneven globular shape. (Plate 2). Pigment Box and Cover. Pigment Box and Cover. Depressed base. small. incised lotus petals within a white circle about neck. then three chrysanthemum sprays alternating with formal lotus flowers. and still a third circle of a white horizontal line. [page 57] No. H. No. (Plate 5). No. 5 cm. Dark circle about edge of the body between this circle and the neck are overlapping lotus petals. Three black and white floral designs at equal intervals on the body. D. Three spur marks within foot ring. in the center of the cover a lotus within a double white circle. 4 cm. Base unglazed. 85. On the edge of both cover and box is a key pattern. Three spur marks. 90 gm. 83. floral spray in the center of cover enclosed in a double circle. (Plate 2). one on the foot ring and two outside.composed on base. mouth broken. 8 cm. with a spray of pomegranate foliage and fruit on the cover. (Plate 5). W. without which is a circle of white dots.4 cm. 90. Three chrysanthemum sprays at equal intervals on body. Three well marked spur marks within foot ring. D. W. [page 58] No. 88. Key pattern around the sides of both cover and box. No. on the body a wreath of chrysanthemums within double circle of white inlay. Two spur marks on the glazed base. Oil Bottle. then a wreath of chrysanthemums. No. then a wreath of chrysanthemums with another double circle and overlapping lotus petals on the bevelled edge. 93. On the cover a chrysanthemum spray within a double circle. 157 gm. base glazed. then a row of overlap ping lotus petals on the bevelled edge.5 cm. 86. On the side of the cover and [page 59] box a well marked key pattern in black inlay. D. H. (Plate 5). H. W. flattened globular shape. Two spur marks without and one within the foot ring. Three spur marks on foot ring. W. 87. another double circle and then a row of black dots within small white circles. D. 83 gm. Pigment Box and Cover. Two spur marks on the base and one outside the foot ring. 4. W. No. H. 107 gm. 195 gm. D.5 cm. 8. another double circle. 38 gm. fine glaze. Pigment Box and Cover. Key border about cover and box. Oil Bottle. Pigment Box and Cover. Oil Bottle. 193 gm. 7. H. 140 . In the center of the cover a floral spray within a double circle. 3. H. 8 cm. W. Three spur marks in foot ring. H. 2. An unusual feature is the row of lotus petals on the bevelled portion of the box. No. Mouth and neck of bottle filed down. Both foot ring and base glazed. 9 cm.4 cm. W.4 cm. Foot ring and base covered with glaze. 92. Key border on the cover and box. Key pattern on the side of cover and box. W. miniature. 2. Three spur marks on shallow foot ring. 6 cm. H. Next to this is a wreath of chrysanthemums. No. No. H.5 cm. H.

(NO SPECIMEN). each within a double circle. small foot ring. similar to the preceding. except for sceptre head border about the central flower on the inside and scroll pattern outside between the chrysanthemums. Bowl. 2. Bowl. The rim shows six notches. 98. four chrysanthemums in white and black foliage. W 690 gm. Surrounding this is a row of formal floral sprays. 8 cm. 800 gm.5 cm. five sprays of three spotted fruit[page 60] beneath a formal border. 465 gm.gm. H. 5 cm. No. 325 gm. (Plate 5). fine celadon color. On the inside in white only chrysanthemum within a double circle in the center. and around the sides at equal intervals. then four chrysanthemums at equal distance. On the sides four sprays of five spotted fruit at equal intervals beneath a formal border. H. In the center a single chrysanthemum enclosed within a double white and single black circle and border of ju-i sceptre heads. 20 cm. shallow. COMBINED WITH INLAID DECORATION IN WHITE. On the inside in the center is a chrysanthemum spray. Three spur marks within the foot ring. 100 Bowl. except glaze decomposed. No. W. enclosed in a white and black circle. ALL UNDER THE GLAZE. Near the rim four cranes flying among the clouds between a double circle and scroll border. Three spur marks within the foot ring which with base is covered with glaze. Around the foot ring are four smaller chrysanthemums not enclosed in circles. inside in the center a chrysanthemum within a double circle enclosed by a row of ju-i sceptre head devices. H. COMBINED WIIH RELIEF DECORATION PRODUCED BY PRESSING IN A MOULD. in three of which are two butterflies and a chrysanthemum spray alternating with floral sprays (This is the only dish in which a butterfly has been noted). shallow. (g) WITH RELIEF DECORATION PRODUCED BY PAINTING IN WHITE SLIP. two white enclosing a black. D. 95. No. Outside the foot ring a large row of overlapping lotus petals. Bowl. All inside are in white inlay. W. All three lines dip down and divides the inside in six portions. D. Bowl. Two spur marks within the foot ring which with the base is glazed. similar to two preceding. 94. with curving sides and small foot ring. W. D. 9 cm. 760 gm. Two sand marks on the foot ring. It is hard to determine whether this was made by a mould or slip painting. and near the rim a double and single circle enclosing a scroll border. Two spur marks within the foot ring. All this inside in white inlay. 97. Foot ring and base glazed. 20 cm. IX 19^5 cm. 6 cm. at equal intervals with a double horizontal line above and below. 21 cm. Inside three formal lotus flowers and foliage below an inlaid scroll border. 9 cm. inside in the center a floral design within a double circle. Nos. The outside of the bowl is divided similar to the inside. No. 15 cm. shallow. W 458 gm. No. Bowl. Foot ring and base both glazed• H. 546 gm. Bowl. Just below the rim are horizontal lines. except the sprays are in black and white and there are no butterflies. Three spur marks on the base. Same as (I) except inlay in black and white. H. [page 61] (f) WITH MISHIMA DECORATION IN WHITE. On the outside a key border just below the rim and four floral sprays at equal distance . D. 18. On the outside. H. No. a lotus flower in relief at the bottom. No. (Plate 7). 96. W. No. 101 Dish. 9 cm. four chrysanthemums at equal intervals in double circles all in wickerwork. 6 cm. Outside. above and below are double circles. H. 99. four chrysanthemum sprays enclosed in double circles at equal intervals. 19 cm. high sides. D. D. lOO-1Ol. with medium size foot ring. rounded sides. On the outside. Three spur marks within the foot ring which is glazed.

The vase is quite light for the size. 102. 24 cm. inside glaze very thick and unevenly spread. No. Inside glazed Wide base with many sand marks. D. Rim broken. W. H. Three well. Two formal lotus flowers in wreaths about the shoulder. two weeping willows on the flattened sides alternating with lotus. H. Wide mouth. H. Vase. Glaze on the base and body partly missing. with three conventional flowers and foliage at equal distance on the body with a wavy petal-like design about the shoulder. 2825 gm. Jar. (Plate 2). 17 cm. Overlapping lotus petals enclosed in double horizontal lines about the shoulder. Base unglazed. 170 gm. 105. (Plate 6). 103-104. Vase. base glazed. 1560 gm. Rice Bowl of the Silla Dynasty. 17 cm. No. W. D. No. rounded. 14 cm. 21 cm. H. with two conventional pomegranate sprays on the body. (ii) Celadons with coarse red earthen ware body. Rim restored with gilt lacquer. 28 cm. over inlaid mishima decoration in white clay. 25 cm. ranging from greenish-grey to greenish-buff. [page 62] (b) WITH DECORATION PAINTED UNDER THE GLAZE IN THICK DARK GREENISH-BROWN SLIP. Early stoneware with opaque body and pearl-grey glaze bordering on celadon. H. All the inlay is in white cxcept for a few black leaves in the flowers. 345 gm. (Plate 8). Vase. D. No. D. Wide foot ring unglazed. . 103. 6 cm. On the body five lotus flowers. Nos. Fine glaze covering the whole dish.around the sides. 1920 gm. defined spur marks within the foot ring. E. 18 cm. D. (A) WITH INLAID MISHIMA DECORATION IN WHITE CLAY. covered with a thin crackled glaze generally opaque. 104. 17 cm W. beneath which is another double circle. W. No spur marks.

White Porcelain Box and Bowls .

Incised Celadon Tea Pots.Undecorated Celadcn Cuspidor. .

Incised Celadon Wine Jug Mishima Black and White Inlay Cup and Stand .

Mishima B ack and White Inlay Pigment Boxes. Mishima Oil Bottles .

.Celadon Bowls. Decoration in Relief.

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