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Grounding & Shielding

Ved Prakash Sandlas


Director General Amity Institute of Space Science & Technology, Noida
Principal Adviser, Cogent EMR Solutions Ltd, New Delhi (2006-2008) Distinguished Scientist and Chief Controller R & D, DRDO (1996-2005) Director, Defence Electronics Applications Lab (DEAL), Dehradun (1986-1996) Group Director, Electronics, VSSC, Thiruvanathapuram (1984-1986) Project/Mission Director, SLV-3, ISRO (1980-1984)
AISST, Noida, Feb 8, 2010

REASONS FOR GROUNDING


Lightning Protection to Buildings, Structures and Equipment Shock and Safety hazard control in Equipment, Laboratories, Hospitals and Homes Faraday Shielding of Cables

Common Ground Reference for Measurements


Common Mode EMI Filters Electrostatic Hazard Control Ground (Return) Line, Signal Return and Power Return Analog Ground, Digital Ground and Power Ground

TRANSMISSION LINE LOAD CURRENT GROUND RODS SOURCE LOAD

RETURN CURRENT GROUND (EARTH)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM USING GROUND AS CURRENT RETURN PATH

SINGLE POINT OR STAR GROUNDING

SYSTEM GROUND

EARTH GROUND

MULTI POINT GROUNDING

GROUNDING BRAID

GROUNDING LUGS

CONDUCTING GROUND PLANE

TO EARTH GROUND

SOURCE CHASSIS

COAXIAL CABLE

LOAD CHASSIS

RS VS
OUTER BRAID GROUNDED

RL

LOW FREQUENCY GROUND

HIGH FREQUENCY GROUND

HYBRID GROUNDING
LOW FREQUENCY------------SINGLE POINT HIGH FREQUENCY------------MULTI POINT

POWER DISTRIBUTION PANEL

COMPUTER (CPU)

PERIPHERAL

EARTH WIRE

SAFETY GROUND AND EMI ISOLATION

POWER + SUPPLY _

LOAD

COMMON (FLOATING) RETURN


POWER + SUPPLY _ LOAD

CASSIS RETURN
POWER + SUPPLY _ LOAD

GROUND (EARTH) RETURN

Incident Wave

EY
HZ EY HZ HZ EY EY HZ HZ Attenuated Wave Barrier of Finite Thickness EY

SHIELDING MECHANISM FOR PLANE WAVE

Absorption Loss, A = 3.34 t fG dB


Where, t = Shield thickness in mils

f = Frequency in MHz
G = Conductivity relative to Copper (Copper = 1, Aluminum = 0.61, Brass = 0.26, Iron = 0.17, Stainless Steel = 0.02) = Permeability relative to Vacuum (Copper = 1, Aluminum = 1, Brass = 1, Stainless Steel = 1 Iron = 1000, Mu Metal = 80,000, Perm Alloy = 80,000) 1 mil of Copper at 1 GHz shall give over 100 dB absorption loss 1/8 inch (~ 0.3 cm) Iron sheet at 50 Hz gives 50 dB absorption loss

dB 300

Shielding Absorption Loss


IRON

100
30 10 3 1 10

1/8 inch

10 mils

1/8 inch

1 mil

10 mils 1 mil COPPER

100

1k

10k 100k 1M Frequency Hz

10M

100M 1G

For Plane Wave, Reflection Loss:


G R = 108 + 10 log f dB

Reflection loss for plane wave at low frequencies is the major shielding mechanism Also, high G and low is more effective (low surface impedance compared to 377 ohms)

Also, at high frequencies, the skin depth decreases or surface resistivity increases (surface impedance increases), reducing reflection loss At VHF and UHF, absorption loss is more important

dB 250

Reflection Loss for Plane Wave

200
150

COPPER
100 50 0 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M Frequency Hz 10M 100M 1G IRON

For high impedance wave in near field (Electric Field) G R = 354 + 10 log 3 2 dB F r Where,

r = Distance from source to barrier in inches (<< / 2)


F = Frequency in Hz

For low impedance wave in near field (Magnetic Field)


0.462 R = 20 log r / FG + 0.136 r FG / + 0.354 dB

An interesting condition is achieved for magnetic field reflection loss for iron with 1 inch separation, where it approaches 0 dB at 30 kHz indicating matching of wave impedance and surface impedance

dB 250

Reflection Loss for Electric Fields

200
r = 30m 1m 1inch 30m

COPPER

150
Plane Wave 1m r = 1 inch

100 50 0 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M Frequency Hz 10M 100M 1G IRON

dB 125

Reflection Loss for Magnetic Fields


Plane Wave

COPPER

100
75
30m 1m r = 1 inch

50 25 0 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M Frequency Hz 10M 100M 1G


r = 30m 1m

1inch

IRON

ELECTRIC FIELD COUPLING


Also called capacitive coupling increases with increase in circuit impedance and is the primary contributor at high frequencies

To reduce electric field coupling


Isolate the culprit circuit

Shortest possible, point to point wiring


Faraday shielding

CC

CS1
SHIELD

CC

CS1
SHIELD NODE

VS

LOW IMPEDANCE BOND

ZL

SINGLE CONDUCTOR SHIELDED

CS1

CC
SHIELDS

CS2

SHIELD NODES

CS1

CC

CS2

VS
LOW IMPEDANCE BONDS

ZL

BOTH CONDUCTORS SHIELDED

A P B
CASE

C S

C RL B D

D
NOISE

COMMON MODE NOISE COUPLING A C

A P
B S

C
NOISE

RL

B
DIFFERENTIAL MODE NOISE COUPLING

TRANSFORMER SHIELDING AND GROUNDING

A P B
SHIELD

CASE

C S

NODE C

RL B D
NOISE

COMMON MODE NOISE SHIELDING A


NODE

A P
B S

C
NOISE

RL

B
DIFFERENTIAL MODE NOISE SHIELDING

TRANSFORMER SHIELDING AND GROUNDING

TWO SHIELDS

A P B S

D
NODES Ic Id

NOISE (d) Ic Ic Ic NOISE (c) Id

Id

Ic

RL

B
Ic

Ic

BOTH COMMON & DIFFERENTIAL MODE NOISE SHIELDING

MAGNETIC FIELD COUPLING


Predominates for low frequencies and low impedance circuits. Also generates cross-talk and hum in audio and telecommunication circuits. To reduce magnetic field coupling Increase impedance in culprit circuit Avoid ground loop currents and reduce loop area Use dedicated return lines and twisted pairs Shields of permeability greater than one

Sensitive circuits should be used in differential mode


Use of isolation transformers and optical couplers

Zs Loop Area = l x h
Vs h ZL

Large Loop Area and no Separate Ground Return

Zs
Vs

ZL

l h

Reduce Loop Area by Reducing Height Above Ground Plane

Zs
Vs h

ZL

Dedicated Return No Ground or Ground One End Only

Zs
Vs

ZL

Twisted Wire Return No Ground or Ground One End Only

Zs
Vs

ZL

Source and/or Load Grounded to Body

Breaking of Ground Loop With Isolation Transformer

GROUND CURRENT LOOPS IN COAX

FARADAY SHIELDING OF COAX BY TRIAX

SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR TWINAX

SINGLE POINT GROUNDING OF TWINAX

QUADRAX WITH EXTRA SHIELD

SHIELDED CABLES AND GROUNDING

(a) 0 dB Reference Case

Twisted 6 T/ft

(a) 0 dB Reference Case

(b) 2 dB

Twisted 6 T/ft

(a) 0 dB Reference Case

(b) 2 dB

(c) 5 dB

Twisted 6 T/ft

(a) 0 dB Reference Case

(b) 2 dB

(c) 5 dB

(d) 49 dB

(a) 0 dB Reference Case Twisted 6 T/ft

(d) 49 dB

(b) 2 dB

(e) 57 dB

(c) 5 dB

(a) 0 dB Reference Case Twisted 6 T/ft

(d) 49 dB

(b) 2 dB

(e) 57 dB

(c) 5 dB

(f) 64 dB

(a) 0 dB Reference Case Twisted 6 T/ft

(d) 49 dB

(g) 64 dB

(b) 2 dB

(e) 57 dB

(c) 5 dB

(f) 64 dB

(a) 0 dB Reference Case Twisted 6 T/ft

(d) 49 dB

(g) 64 dB

(b) 2 dB

(e) 57 dB

(h) 71 dB

(c) 5 dB

(f) 64 dB

(a) 0 dB Reference Case Twisted 6 T/ft

(d) 49 dB

(g) 64 dB

(b) 2 dB

(e) 57 dB

(h) 71 dB

Twisted 18 T/ft

(c) 5 dB

(f) 64 dB

(i) 79 dB

PSLV C 11

PSLV C 11

THIRD PIN
Ground Pin, Green Wire or Earth Connection 75 mA through body considered fatal

Filters or Capacitors connected between equipment circuitry and case should not result in more than 5 mA (for 0.1 f) through earth line When there are a large number of users sharing a common earth line in the same building, this safety wire can carry plenty of trash and interference created by ON/OFF transients, leakage currents and radiations pickups use 2 pins and non-metallic body
Obviously, one should not share the ground line with lightning earth strip or water plumbing

Thank You