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Chapter 5 Exercise 5A

Q. 1.

(i)

u = 150, v = 0, a = 15,000, s = ?

2,500 N

500 N

v2 = u2 + 2as

F = 2,500 500
= 2,000
F = ma
2,000 = 1,000a
a = 2 m/s2

0 = 22,500 + 2(15,000)s
s = 0.75 m = 75 cm
Q.
Q 6.

(ii) a = 2, u = 0, t = 20, s = ?
1
s = ut + __ at2
2
1
= 0(20) + __(2)(400)
2
= 400 m
Q. 2.

40 N

s = ut + at2
1
8 = (0)8 + __(a)(64)
2
1
__
a = m/s2
4
F = ma

F = 100 40 = 60

T = 40 N
Q. 7.
Q

F = ma

100 = 0 + 2(a)(50)
a = 1 m/s2
(ii) F = ma

()

1
(t 40) = 240 __
2
T = 160 N
Q. 4.

F = ma

T = 1,150 N
Q. 8.
Q

u = 200, v = 0, s = 1, a = ?
v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 40,000 + 2(a)(1)
a = 20,000
F = ma
R = (0.050) (20,000)
= 1,000 N

40 N

()

1
(40 R) = 120 __
8
R = 25 N
Q. 5.

T 350 = (800)(1)

()

1
(t 40) = 150 __
2
T = 115 N
F = ma

(i) u = 0, v = 10, s = 50, a = ?


v2 = u2 + 2as

F = ma
60 = 180a
1
a = __ m/s2
3
Q. 3.

()

1
(T 20) = 80 __
4

100 N

F = ma
60 = 120a
1
a = __ m/s2
2

u = 0, s = 8, t = 8, a = ?

F = ma
900 = (0.060)a
a = 15,000 m/s2

u = 400, v = 0, a = 20,000,
s=?
v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 160,000 + 2(20,000)s
s=4m

Q. 9.

(a) F = 98 18
= 80 N

v = u + at
18 N

u2
3u = 2u __ t
2s
2s
__
t= u

10g = 98 N

u = 3u,

F = ma
80 = 10(a)
a=8
(b)

m/s2

v2 = u2 + 2as

(i) u = 0, a = 8, t = 10, s = ?
1
s = ut + __ at2
2
1
s = 0(10) + __(8)(100)
2
= 400 m

2s
u2
v = u + at 3u = 2u __ t t = __
u
2s
Q. 12.
Q

F = 1.4 2.1

2.1

= 0.7 N
F = ma

()

1
0.7 = __ a
7
a = 4.9 m/s

= 1,200 m

0 = 1.96 + 2(4.9)s
s = 0.2 m

F = ma

= 20 cm

25,000 = m(250,000)
m = 0.1 kg
= 100 grammes
u = 300, v = 0, a = 250,000,
s=?
v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 90,000 + 2(250,000)s
s = 0.18 m
= 18 cm
v = 0, s = s,

a=?

Q. 13.
Q

In Air
u = 0, a = 9.8, s = 2.5, v = ?
v2 = u2 + 2as
v2 = 0 + 2(9.8)(2.5)
= 49
v = 7 m/s
In Material

v2 = u2 + 2as

u = 7, v = 0, s = 0.35, a = ?

0 = u2 + 2as
u2
a = ____
2s

v2 = u2 + 2as

F = ma

1
g = 1.4
v

v2 = u2 + 2as

v2 = u2 + 2as
40,000 = 90,000 + 2(a)(0.1)
a = 250,000

( )

u2
R = m ____
2s

0 = 49 + 2(a)(0.35)
a = 70 m/s2
R

mu2
= ______
2s
W = (0.01)g = 0.098

W=

u = 1.4, a = 4.9, v = 0, s = ?

u = 300, v = 200, s = 0.1, a = ?

u = u,

( )

v = 2u m/s

Distance = 1,600 400

Q. 11.

v=?

v2 = 9u2 5u2 = 4u2

1
s = (0)(10) + __(8)(400)
2
= 1,600 m

Q. 10.

u2
a = ____,
2s

u2
v2 = 9u2 + 2 ____ (5s)
2s

(ii) u = 0, a = 8, t = 20, s = ?
1
s = ut + __ at2
2

s = 5s,

F = ma
(0.098 R) = (0.01) (70)
R = 0.798 N
Q. 14.

Exercise 5B
E
Q. 1.
Q

(i) In Air
u = 0, s = 4h,

a = g,

R
3,000 N

v=?

mR

v2 = u2 + 2as
v2 = 0 + 2(g)(4h)

500g = 4,900 N

____

R = 4,900
mR = (0.4)(4,900)
= 1,960

v = 8gh
In Marsh

F = mg 8mg
= 7mg

8mg

F = ma
7mg = ma
a = 7g
____

u = 8gh ,
s=?

F = ma
(3,000 1,960) = 500a
a = 2.08 m/s2
Q. 2.
Q

300 N
mR

v = 0, a = 7g,

50g = 490 N

R = 490

v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 8gh + 2(7g)s
4
s = __h
7

mR = 0.6(490)
= 294 N
F = ma
(300 294) = (50)a
a = 0.12 m/s2

In Air
u = 0, s = h, a = g,
v2

mg

v=?

Q. 3.
Q

(i)

u2

= + 2as
v2 = 0 ____
+ 2gh
v = 2gh
In Marsh

mR
1g = 9.8 N

Friction = mR

F = 4mg 8mg
= 4mg
F = ma
4mg = (4m)a
a = g
____

u = 2gh ,

a = g,

v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 2gh + 2(g)s
s=h
Answer: No

R = 9.8

8mg

()

1
= __ (9.8)
7

4mg

= 1.4 N
(ii) F = ma

v = 0, s = ?

(1.4) = (1)a
a = 1.4 m/s2
The deceleration is 1.4 m/s2
(iii) u = 3.5, v = 0, a = 1.4, s = ?
v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 12.25 + 2(1.4)s
s = 4.375 m

Q. 4.

(i)

(c) The change in momentum per unit


time is proportional to the applied
force and takes place along the straight
line in which the force acts.

mR

100g = 9,800 N

(d) (i) 1,440 + 8(70) = 2,000

R = 9,800 N
1
mR = __ (9,800)
4
= 2,450 N

24,000
2,000

Limiting friction = 2,450 N


2,450
(ii) ______ = 9.8
250

2,000g = 19,600

10 slaves needed.
(iii)

F = ma
(24,000 19,600) = 2,000a
a = 2.2 m/s2

R
1 TONNE
2,450 N

2,500 N

(ii)
R

F = ma

70

(2,500 2,450) = (1,000)a


a = 0.05
Q. 5.

W = 70g = 686 N

m/s2
F = ma

(i)

(R 686) = (70)(2.2)
R = 840 N

R
T
mR
800g

R = 800g
= 7,840
1
mR = __ (7,840)
8
= 980 N

F = ma
1000 980 = 800a
800a = 20
a = 0.025 m/s2
(a) Momentum is the product of mass and
velocity.
(b) A newton is the force required to
accelerate one kilogram at one metre
per second squared.

Forces

Resolved

R
q Mg cos A

Mg
A

limiting friction

980
(ii) ____ = 4.9 5 dogs required.
200
(iii) T = 5(200) = 1,000 N

Q. 6.

Q. 7.
Q

F = ma
Mg sin A = Ma
1
a = __g
7
= 1.4 m/s2
v = u + at
7 = 0 + (1.4)t
t=5s
1
s = ut + __at2
2
1
= 0(5) + __(1.4)(25)
2
= 17.5 m

Mg sin A

Q. 8.

Q. 10.
Q

Forces

(i)
R

W
5
R

mR

13

A
10g

Resolved

50 N

mR
W

W
13

120

8g

12W
65

6g

W
12W
R + ___ = W R = _____
13
13

12W
mR = _____
65

F = ma
120 6g = 10a
a = 6.12 m/s2
(ii)

1
Dividing d by c gives m = __
5

Q. 9.

50 N

R
120

(i) Forces
R

10

0N

mR

8g

R + 50 = 8g
R = 28.4
1
mR = __(28.4)
4
= 7.1
F = ma
120 6g 7.1 = 10a
a = 5.41 m/s2

Resolved
60 N
80 N
98 N

c
d

R + 60 = 98 R = 38 N

Q. 11.
Q

F = ma
80 = 10a
a = 8 m/s2

1
__

___

24
____

4. Since sin A = , cos A =


.
5
5
Forces

Resolved
R

(ii) Forces (Resolved)


R

60 N
80 N

1
R
2

c
d

98 N

R + 60 = 98 R = 38
1
__R = 19 N
2
= The friction force
F = ma
(80 19) = 10a
a = 6.1 m/s2

6g

10g = 98 N

2g
A

2g cos A
cos A

1. R = 2g cos A
___

( )

= 2g

24
____

__

46
= ____g QED
5
2. F = ma
2g sin A = 2a
1
a = __g QED
5

Add equations:

Exercise 5C

14a = 4g
Q. 1.

2g
a = ___
7

(i)
T

= 2.8 m/s2
a

3 kg

11 kg

3g

T 3g = 3a

(ii) u = 0, a = 2.8, t = 3
1 2
s = ut + __
3 at

11g

1
2
s = (0)(3) + __
2 (2.8)(3)

s = 12.6 m

11g T = 11a
Q. 4.
Q

Add equations:
14a = 8g
4g
a = ___
7
= 5.6 m/s2

(i)

5g T = 5a

1 kg

2g

T
13 kg

T 2g = 2a

Add equations:
7a = 3g

(i)
T

2 kg

5 kg
5g

(ii) T 3g = 3a
T 29.4 = 16.8
T = 462 N
Q. 2.

3g
a = ___
7

= 4.2 m/s2
g

Tg=a

13g

(ii) u = 0, s = 2, a = 4.2, v = ?
v2 = u2 + 2as
v2 = 0 + 2(4.2)(2)

13g T = 13a

_____

v = 16.8 m/s

Add equations:
14a = 12g

_____

(iii) u = 16.8 , v = 0, a = 9.8, s = ?

6g
a = __
7

v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 16.8 + 2(9.8)(s)

= 8.4 m/s2

(ii) u = 0, a = 8.4, t = 3
v = u + at
v = 0 + (8.4)(3)
v = 25.2 m/s
Q. 3.

6
s = __
7m

Q
Q. 5.

(i)
a

(i)

5 kg

9 kg

5g

T 5g = 5a

9g

9g T = 9a

6 kg

1 kg

6g
a

6g T = 6a
Add equations:
7a = 5g
5g
a = ___
7
= 7 m/s2

T g = 1a

(ii) v = u + at
v = 0 + 7(1)
= 7 m/s

S
10 kg

(iii) u = 7, v = 0, a = 9.8, s = ?

10g

v2 = u2 + 2as
0 = 49 + 2(9.8)s
s = 2.5 m
Q. 6.

(i)

10g S = 10a
Add 3 equations:
15a = 9g

3g
a = ___ m/s2
5

4 kg
4g

4g S = 4a

1
(ii) Additional force of mR = __
2 (4g) = 2g
opposing the motion of the 4 kg mass,
i.e. to the left.

Equation 1

a
R

T
mR

Equation 2 becomes: S T 2g = 4a

2g

R = 2g
mR = _12R = g
S T g = 2a

Equation 1:

Tg=a

Equation 2:

10g S = 10a
15a = 7g

Equation 2

7g

a = ___
m/s2
15
Q. 8.
Q

1 kg

T g = a Equation 3

5 kg
5g

Add equations:

5g T = 5a

7a = 2g
2g
a = ___
7
= 2.8 m/s

4 kg
4g

T 4g = 4a

(i)
T

Equation 2

Add equations:
(i) 9a = g
1
a = __ g m/s2
9

1 kg
g

Tg=a

Equation 1

R = 4g
T

Equation 1

(ii) T = 12.6 N and S = 28 N


Q. 7.

Equation 3

4 kg
4g

S T = 4a

Equation 2

40
(ii) T = ___ g N
9
v = u + at

( )

1
v = 0 + __ g (2)
9
2
= __
g
m/s
9
v2 = u2 + 2as
2
0 = __ g 2 + 2(g)s
9

( )

2
g metres
s = ___
81

Q. 9.

Q. 10.
Q

12 kg

(i)

T
a

3 kg
3g
10 kg

4 kg

3g T = 3a

R1

S
T

3 kg

mR1

Equation 1

3g

4 kg
R1 = 3g

4g

T 4g = 4a

1
mR1 = __
(3g)
4

Equation 1

3
__

= g
4
3
T S __g = 3a
4

R = 12g
T

12 kg

3g

S T 3g = 12a

R2

12g

2 kg
mR2

Equation 2

Equation 2

2g

R2 = 2g
1
mR2 = __
(2g)

10 kg

1
__

= g
2

10g

10g S = 10a

1
S __g = 2a
2

Equation 3

Solving 3 equations:
7
a = ___g m/s2
32

Add 3 equations:
26a = 3g
3
a = ___ g m/s2
26
Now, find least value of m for which the
particles will not move:

15
75
(ii) S = ___g N and T = ___g N
32
16
Q
Q. 11.

Equation 2: S T 12mg = 12a


Equation 3:

10g S = 10a

(i)
R = 7g

T 4g = 4a

Equation 1:

Equation 3

7 kg

add

7g

6g 12mg = 26a
3g 6mg = 13a
3g(1 2m)
a = __________
13
Let a = 0
3g(1 2m) = 0
1 2m = 0
1
m = __
2

T = 7a

Equation 1

T
3 kg

least value of m
for which the
particles will not
move.

3g

3g T = 3a

Equation 2

Add 2 equations:

Add 3 equations:

10a = 3g

m1a + Ma + ma = m1g mg

3g
a = ___
10
= 2.94 m/s2

a(m1 + M + m) = (m1 m)g

m1 m
a = ____________ g
m1 + m + M

u = 0, a = 2.94, s = 3.3075
v2 = u2 + 2as
v2 = 2(2.94)(3.3075)
v = 4.41 m/s

Exercise 5D
E
Q. 1.
Q

vu
t = _____
a
4.41 0
= ________
2.94
= 1.5 s

(i) Pulley A:
T

a
10g

(ii) 7 kg mass now 3.3075 m from the


edge of the table and moves at a
constant speed of 4.41 m/s.

2T 10g = 10a
T 5g = 5a

distance 3.3075
Time = ________ = _______ = 0.75 s
4.41
speed
Q. 12.

Equation 1

Particle B:

M kg

T
2a

m1 kg

m kg

10g

10g T = 10(2a)
T

10g T = 20a

m kg

Equation 2

Adding equations 1 and 2 gives

mg

5g = 25a
g
a = __ m/s2
5

Equation 1

T mg = ma

(ii) T 5g = 5a

()

g
T = 5 __ + 5g = 6g N
5

T M kg S
Mg
S T = Ma

Equation 2

Q
Q. 2.

(i) Pulley A:
T

S
a

m1 kg
m1g
m1 g S = m1 a

13g

Equation 3

2T 13g = 13a

Equation 1

Particle B:

Particle B:
T

2a

2a
20g

9g

20g T = 20(2a)

9g T = 9(2a)
18g 2T = 36a

20g T = 40a

Equation 2

Equation 2

Adding equations 1 and 2 gives

Adding equations 1 and 2 gives

5g = 49a

11g = 49a

5g
a = ___
49
49
___
=
49
= 1 m/s2

T 9g = 9a
T = 9(2.2) + 9g
T = 108 N

11g
a = ____ a = 2.2 m/s2
49

(ii) Acceleration of B = 2a
= 2(1)

Q. 4.
Q

= 2 m/s2
(iii) 2T 13g = 13a
2T = 13(1) + 13g
2T = 140.4

T = 70.2 N

Q. 3.
(i) Pulley A:
T

a
8g
A
B

2T 8g = 8a
T 4g = 4a
Particle B:

Pulley A:

T
2a

a
18g

2T 18g = 18a
T 9g = 9a Equation 1

10

Equation 1

22.5g

22.5g T = 22.5(2a)
22.5g T = 45a Equation 2

Adding equations 1 and 2 gives

Adding equations 1 and 2 gives

18.5g = 49a

mg = 5ma
1
a = __ g
5
(ii) 2T mg = ma

18.5g
a = _____
49
= 3.7 m/s2

()

g
2T mg = m __
5
10T 5mg = mg

(ii) Acceleration of B = 2a
= 2(3.7)
= 7.4 m/s2
(iii) T 4g = 4a
T = 4(3.7) + 4g
T = 54 N

10T = 6mg
3
T = __ mg
5
Q. 6.
Q

Q. 5.

(i) Particle E:
T
2a
mg

A
B

Pulley C:

If A moves up 1 metre, B will move down 2


metres, since there will be 2 metres
more string available. Hence, if A moves up
x metres while B moves down y metres, it
follows that y = 2x. Hence, the velocity and
acceleration of B will be twice those
of A. Therefore, if the acceleration of A is a,
then the acceleration of B will be 2a.
(i) Pulley A:

T
a
kmg

(ii) mg T = m(2a)
2mg 2T = 4ma
2T kmg = kma

Equation 1

Equation 2

Adding equations 1 and 2 gives


2mg kmg = 4ma + kma

2g kg = 4a + ka

mg

2T mg = ma

(2 k)g = a(4 + k)
Equation 1

Particle B:

(2 k)g
a = _______
4+k
(iii) Let k = 0.5
1.5g g
a = ____ = __
4.5
3
T = mg 2ma

from Equation 1
g
T = mg 2m __
3
1
2
__
T = mg mg = __ mg
3
3

2a

()

mg

mg 2T = m(2a)
2mg 2T = 4ma

Equation 2

11

Q. 7.

Acceleration of 20 kg
1
pulley = __(a + b)
2

4 kg Mass
R = 4g

1 T g T 5g
= __ _____ + ______
5
2 4

T
mR = g

T = 5g

1
= __(g + 0)
2

4g

g
= __
2

T g = 4a

Equation 1

Q. 8.
Q

10 kg Mass

20 kg Pulley
R = 10g
T

T
a+b
2

T
mR = 5g

10g

20g

a+b
20g 2T = 20 _____
2

10g T = 5(a + b) Equation 2


5 kg Mass

T 5g = 10a

Equation 1

20 kg Pulley

T
a+b
2

b
20g

5g

T 5g = 5b
T g = 4a
a=

Equation 3

a+b
20g 2T = 20 _____
2

Equation 1

10g T = 5a + 5b

Tg
_____
4

T 5g = 5b

Equation 2

6 kg Mass
Equation 3
N = 6g

T 5g
b = ______
5
T

10g T = 5(a + b) Equation 2


10g T = 5a + 5b

( ) (

6g

Tg
T 5g
10g T = 5 _____ + 5 ______
5
4
5
5
__
__
10g T = T g + T 5g
4
4

multiply by 4
40g 4T = 5T 5g + 4T 20g
13T = 65g
T = 5g

12

mN = 3g

T 3g = 6b
T 5g = 10a

Equation 3
Equation 1

T 5g
a = ______
10

T 3g = 6b

Equation 3

Pulley

T 3g
b = ______
6

10g T = 5a + 5b

a
2

Equation 2

) (

T 5g
T 3g
10g T = 5 ______ + 5 ______
6
10

multiply by 6
60g 6T = 3T 15g + 5T 15g
14T = 90g
45g
T = ____ = 63 N
7
T

5g
a = ______
10
63 49
________
=
10
= 1.4 m/s2 acceleration of 10 kg
particle.
b=

Mg

( )

a
Mg 2T = M __
2

Adding equations 1 and 2 gives


Ma
Mg 6g = ___ + 12a
2
M
g(M 6) = a __ + 12
2
g(M

6)
2g(M 6)
a = ________
= _________
__
M
M + 24
2 + 12
a=0
M6=0
M=6

this is the value of M


at which the friction
between the 6 kg mass
and the table is just
overcome. If the value
of M is below this, there
will be no movement.

6
63 29.4
= _________
6
= 5.6 m/s2 acceleration of 6 kg
particle
2

Q. 9.

1.4 + 5.6
= _________
2
= 3.5 m/s2 acceleration
of 20 kg pulley

Note firstly that, as M increases, the first


particle to move will be the 6 kg mass.
Initially, therefore, the only moving particles
will be the 6 kg mass and the pulley. The
system forces, just as the 6 kg mass starts to
move, will look like this:
6 kg Mass

T 3g
______

a+b
_____

Equation 2

Now, let M = 12
R = 6g

T
mR = 3g

6g

T 3g = 6a

Equation 1

R = 6g
T

T
a+b
2

T
mR = 3g

6g

12g

T 3g = 6a
2T 6g = 12a

a+b
12g 2T = 12 _____
2
6g T = 3a + 3b Equation 2

Equation 1

13

a+b
_____

N = 8g

T
mN = 4g

8g

Q. 10.
Q

3g
g
__
__
10 + 10
_______

2
3g
+ g 4g
= ______ = ___
20
20
g
= __ m/s2 acceleration of pulley
5

(i) Mass m

T 4g = 8b

Equation 3

T 3g = 6a

Equation 1

T 3g
a = ______
6
T 4g = 8b
b=

mg

Equation 3

T 4g
______
8

6g T = 3a + 3b

) ( )
) ( )

15T = 72g
T=

24g
____

N
5
T 3g
a = ______
6
24g
___
5 3g
= _______
6
24g 15g
= __________
30
9g
= ___
30
3g
= ___ m/s2 acceleration
10
of 6 kg mass
T

4g
b = ______
8
24g
4g
= ____ ___
5
8
24g 20g
= __________
40
4g
= ___
40
g
___
=
m/s2 acceleration
10
of 8 kg mass

14

Equation 2

T 3g
T 4g
6g T = 3 ______ + 3 ______
8
6
T 3g
T 4g
6g T = ______ + 3 ______
2
8
48g 8T = 4T 12g + 3T 12g

Pulley B

a+b
2
mg

Mass 3m
T
b
3mg

(ii) Mass m: T mg = ma

Equation 1

Mass 3m: T 3mg = 3mb Equation 2


Pulley B:

a+b
Mg 2T = M _____ Equation 3
2
T

mg
a = _______
from Equation 1
m
T 3mg
b = ________
3m

from Equation 2

) (

a+b
Mg 2T = M _____ Equation 3
2
2Mg 4T = Ma + Mb
T mg
T 3mg
2Mg 4T = M _______
+ M ________
m
3m

multiply by 3m

6Mmg 12mT = 3MT 3Mmg


+ MT 3Mmg

Exercise 5E
E

12Mmg = 12mT + 4MT divide


by 4

Q. 1.
Q

4
4
(a) tan A = __ sin A = __,
5
3
Forces

3Mmg = 3mT + MT
3Mmg = T(3m + M)

3m + M
g = T ________
3Mm

984

1
1
g = T ___
+ ___
3m as required
M

g=T

100g = 980 N

(iii) Let M = 3m

Resolved

( 3m + 3m )
1
___

1
___

( )

2
g = T ___
3m

984 N

3mg
T = ____
2

784 N

F = ma

3mg
___
2 mg
_________

588 N

T mg
a = _______
m
=

(984 784) = 100a

a = 2 m/s2

3mg 2mg
___________

(b) Forces (Resolved)

2m

mg
= ___
2m
=
b=
=

g
__
2

R
984

1
R
3

m/s2 m mass will move.


A

T 3mg
________

1
R = 588 Friction = __R = 196 N
3
F = ma

3mg
___
2 3mg
__________

3m

3mg 6mg
= ___________
6m
3mg
= ______
6m
= m/s2 3m mass will move.
2
2

(984 784 196) = 100a


a = 0.04 m/s2
Q. 2.
Q

g
__

588 N
784 N

3m

a+b
_____

3
cos A = __
5

3 kg
Forces

_
_
2 2
= _____
2

= 0 m/s2 pulley B will


not move.
3g
A

15

Resolved

15 kgs
Forces

Acceleration

T
T
15

3g cos A
15g

3g sin A

15g T = 15a

Acceleration

Equation 2

Solving these gives


1
a = ___ g
35
9.8
acceleration = ___
35

F = ma
T 3g sin A = 3a

= 0.28 m/s2

T g = 3a

Equation 1

(ii)

The 15 kg rises (since the downward


a was negative i.e. it should
be upward).

(i)

5 kgs

10 kg
Forces

Accelerations
Q. 4.
Q

Forces

10

10g

10g T = 10a

Equation 2

5g

40g
9
Solving these gives a = ___ g, T = ____
13
13
Q. 3.

(i) tan A =

4
__
3

4
__

sin A = ,
5

3
__

Resolved

cos A = .
5

20 kgs
Forces
R

Acceleration

A 4g

Resolved

3g

20g

20g cos A = 12g

20g sin A = 16g

T 3g = 5a

Equation 1

8 kgs
Forces
T

Acceleration
R

8g

Acceleration

S T = 8a

T 16g = 20a

16

Equation 1

Equation 2

20 kgs

Q
Q. 5.

Forces

Acceleration
S

4
Since tan A = __,
3
18 kgs
Forces

Acceleration

Equation 3

mR

Adding these gives


17g = 33a
17
a = ___ g
33
Acceleration

mR

4g

R = 4g
1
mR = __ (4g) = g
4
T g 3g = 5a
T 4g = 5a Equation 1
8 kgs

18g
R = ____
5

24g
5

( )

1 18g
mR = __ ____
6 5
3g
= ___
5
F = ma

3g 24g
T ___ ____ = 6a
5
5
27g
T ____ = 6a
5

Equation 1

2 kgs
Forces

Forces
T

18g
A 6g cos A = 5
6g sin A =

(ii) 5 kgs
Resolved Forces

20g

20g S = 20a

3
cos A = __
5

4
sin A = __,
5

Acceleration

Acceleration
R

a
S

a
T

S
mR

mR
8g

R = 8g
1
mR = __(8g) = 2g
4
S 2g T = 8a

36g
5

20 kgs
Forces

48g
5

Equation 2

Acceleration
a

( )

36g
6g
1 36g
= ____ mS = __ ____ = ___
5
5
6 5
48g 6g
= Ma ____ ___ T = 12a
5
5
42g
____ T = 12a
5

20g

20g S = 20a
Adding gives
14g = 33a
14g
a = ____
33

Equation 2

Adding these gives:


Equation 3

3g = 18a
1
a = __ g
6
32g
T = ____
5

17

Q. 6.

()

4
Since tan A = __,
3

4
sin A = __ ,
5

3
cos A = __
5

(ii) 12 kgs
Forces

(i) 20 kgs
Forces

Acceleration

Acceleration

T
R

12g

mS

A 12g
5g

16g

T 16g = 20a

Similarly,

Equation 1

1
S = 12g mS = __ (12g) = 3g
4
T 3g 5g = 13a

5
5
12
Since tan B = ___
, sin B = __
, cos B = ___
13
12
13

13 kgs
Forces

5g = 33a
5
a = ___ g m/s2
33
329
T = ____ g N
330

g A

5g

5g T = 13a

Exercise 5F
E

Equation 2

Adding these gives


11g = 33a
1
a = __g (i.e. they go the other way)
3
The acceleration of the masses is
28
1
__
g m/s2 and T = ___g N
3
3

Q. 1.
Q

B
T
A
T

6g
C

(ii) 20 kgs
Forces

S
S

Acceleration

D
f
4g

S
E

A: T 6g = 6a

12g

C: 2S T = 0
T = 2s

16g

D: 4g S = 4(a + f)
E: S 3g = 3(f a)

R = 12g
1
mR = __(12g) = 3g
4
16g 3g T = 20a
13g T = 20a

3g

mR

18

Equation 2

Adding these gives:

T
12

T 8g = 13a

Acceleration

A becomes 2S 6g = 6a
S = 3a + 3g
Equation 1

D becomes 4g 3a 3g = 4a + 4f
7a + 4f = g

E becomes 3a + 3g 3g = 3f 3a

A: T 2Mg = 2Ma

f 2a = 0
1
Solving these gives a = ___g m/s2,
15
2
f = ___ g m/s2
15

C: Mg + 2S T = Ma

Q. 2.

D: S Mg = M(b a)
E: 2Mg S = 2m(b + a)
D + E Mg = 3Mb + Ma
3b + a = g

A + C D + E 2Mg = Mb + 6Ma

mR

b + 6a = 2g
5
4
Solving these gives a = ___g, b = ___g
17
17
g
Acceleration of D = b a = ___
17
8
i.e. ___ downward.
17
9
Acceleration of E = b + a = ___ g
17
downward.

S
4Mg

T
b

3Mg
C

Mg

T
b

Q. 4.

(i)

2Mg

1
Since R = 4Mg, mR = __(4Mg) = 2Mg
2
A: S 2Mg = 4Ma
B: 3Mg + 2T S = 3Ma

T
8g

C: T Mg = M(b a)

S
S

D: 2Mg T = 2M(b + a)

Adding C and D 3b + a = g

2a

2g

A + B C + D b + 10a = 4g
11
Solving these gives a = ___ g m/s2,
29
6
b = ___g m/s2
29

4
4g

A: 2T 8g = 8a
C: 2s T = 0(2a)
T = 2s

Q. 3.

D: (2 kg): S 2g = 2(b 2a)


B

E: (4 kg): 4g S = 4(b + 2a)


C: T = 2S

T
A

A becomes 4S 8g = 8a

S = 2a + 2g

2Mg

D becomes 2a + 2g 2g = 2(b 2a)

C
S
S
b

6a 2b = 0

S
Mg
D

Mg

E
2Mg

E becomes 4g 2a 2g = 4(b + 2a)


b

5a + 2b = g
3g
g
Solving these gives a = ___, b = ___
11
11

19

m(12a 5g)
D becomes: 3mg ____________
2

g
(ii) Pulley A: Acceleration: a = ___ m/s2
11

2
= 3m(a + b) multiply by __
m

2g
Pulley C: Acceleration: 2a = ___ m/s2
11
2 kg particle:
g
Acceleration: b 2a = ___ m/s2
11
4 kg particle:
8g
Acceleration: b + 2a = ___ m/s2
11
Q. 5.

7m mass

6g 12a + 5g = 6a + 6b
18a + 6b = 11g

Equation F

Equation E (3): 48a 12b = 27g


Equation F (2): 36a + 12b = 22g add
84a = 49g

5m pulley

49g
a = ____
84
7
a = ___ gm/s2 acceleration of 7m mass
12

R
T

7mg

Q. 6.
Q

8 kg mass

2 kg pulley

R = 4g 3

T
5mg
a

2m mass

mR

3m mass

4g 3

8g

2g

4g

S
a+b

ab
3mg

2mg

g
=4

3 kg mass
S

5 kg mass
S
a+b

ab

Equations of Motion
3g

A:

T = 7ma

B:

2S + 5mg T = 5ma
2S + 5mg 7ma = 5ma
m(12a 5g)
S = ___________
2

C:

2mg S = 2m(a b)

D:

3mg S = 3m(a + b)

m(12a 5g)
C becomes: 2mg ___________
2

2
= 2m(a b) multiply by __
m

4g 12a + 5g = 4a 4b
16a 4b = 9g

20

Equation E

5g

8 kg mass A: T 8g = 8a
T = 8g + 8a
2 kg pulley B: 2g + 2S T = 2a
2g + 2S 8g 8a = 2a
S = 5a + 3g
3 kg mass C: 3g S = 3(a b)
5 kg mass D: 5g S = 5(a + b)
Equation C becomes: 3g 5a 3g
= 3a 3b
8a 3b = 0 Equation E

Equation D becomes:
5g 5a 3g = 5a + 5b

(ii) The Wedge:


Forces

10a + 5b = 2g

Equation F

Equation E (5): 40a 15b = 0


Equation F (3): 30a + 15b = 6g

Mg
1
R
S
2

add

70a = 6g
a=
a=

3
___

35

2Mg

6g
___

Acceleration

70

g m/s2 acceleration of 8 kg mass

Exercise 5G

F = ma
1
__R = 2Ma R = 4Ma . e
2
Putting this result into equation d gives:

Q. 1.

3 Mg 8Ma = Ma

__

__

g m/s2
9
Putting this result into equation c gives:
a=

f
R

30

3
___

Mg

__

( )

__
3
g = 2f 3 ___g
9
2
__
f = g m/s2
3

2Mg

(i) The Particle:


Q. 2.
Q

Forces

1 kg

7 kg
3
Mg
9

30

45

1 Mg

Forces on 1 kg mass
R

Accelerations
3
a
2

1
a
2

g
2

g
g
2

30
f

Along the slope : F = ma

Forces on wedge

__

3 )
1Mg = M(f ___
__
2a

__

. c

g = 2f 3 a

R
2

Perpendicular to the slope: F = ma


__

3
___

( )

1
Mg R = M __a
2
2

__

3 Mg 2R = Ma

. d

R
R
2
7g

21

15
Now, find speed of wedge when t = ___
8g
15
1
___
___
u = 0, a = g, t =
8g
15
v = u + at
g 15
= 0 + ___ ___ g
15 8
1
= __
8
= 0.125 m/s

Acceleration of 1 kg mass
a
2

a
2

( )( )

Acceleration of wedge
a

Q
Q. 3.

1 kg mass along slope: F = ma


g
a__
__ = 1(f ___
___
)
2
2

__

g = f2 a c
1 kg mass perpendicular to slope:

45

F = ma

3g

a__
R = ___
2
2
__

The Particle:

g R 2 = a

Forces

Wedge horizontal: F = ma
R__
___
= 7a
2

g
___
__

1g

__

R = 7a2

2
45

Putting this result into equation d gives:


g 14a = a

15a = g
1
a = ___ g m/s2 acceleration of
15
wedge

Acceleration

Putting this result into equation c gives


__
1
g = f 2 ___g
15

a
2

a
2
45

__

15g = 15f 2 g
__

15f 2 = 16g
16__
f = _____
g
15 2

Parallel to the slope:

__

8 2
____
15

__

m/s2

u = 0, v = 2 , f =
vu
t = _____
f
__
15__
= 2 ______
8g 2
15
___
=
seconds
8g

( )

22

acceleration of
particle relative
to the wedge
__

8 2
____
15

F = ma
g
a__
__ = 1 f ___
___
2
2

__

g = 2 f a

)
. c

Perpendicular to the slope:


F = ma
g
a__
__ R = 1 ___
___
2
2
__

g 2 R = a

( )
d

The Wedge:

Q. 4.
Forces

3
3
4
Since tan A = __, sin A = __, cos A = __
5
5
4
R

Mg
S

4Mg

R
2

The Particle:

R
2
3g

Forces
R

Acceleration
a

4
A 5 Mg

F = ma
R__
___
= 3a
2
__

3
Mg
5

R = 3 2 a

. e

Accelerations

Putting this result into equation d gives:


__

__

Here are f and a resolved:


1
gi
7

4g
i
7
4g
j
7

__

F = ma
3
4
__Mg = M f __a
5
5
3g = 5f 4a c

__

__
3
__

__
4
__

F = ma
3
4
__Mg R = M __a
5
5
4Mg 5R = 3Ma d

( )

__

= gi gj
7
7

____________

__

16
9
|f + a | = ___ g2 + ___ g2
49
49

=
2549 g

_____

___ 2

5
= __ g
7
This is the magnitude of the actual
acceleration of the particle.

Perpendicular to the slope:

The Wedge:
Forces

__

3
a
5

Parallel to the slope:

__

4 4
1
f + a = __ gi __ gj + __gi
7
7
7

__

4
a
5
A

__

g 2 (3 2 a) = a
1
a = __g m/s2
7
Putting this result into equation c gives:
__
1
g = 2 f ___
__ 7g
4 2 g
f = _____ m/s2
7
__

Acceleration
a

4
R
3
a
4Mg

F = ma
3
__R = 4Ma
5
20
R = ___Ma e
3
Putting this result into equation d gives:
12g
100
4Mg ____ Ma = 3Ma a = ____ m/s2
3
109

23

Q. 5.

Mg
T

Perpendicular to the plane:


3
4
S __Mg = M __a
5
5
5S 4Mg = 3Ma

Mg

3
4
Along the plane: __Mg = M __a + c
5
5
3g = 4a + 5c .. e

( )

2Mg

3
4
4
Since tan a = __, sin A = __, cos A = __
5
5
3

3Ma + 4Mg
S = ___________
5

3
3
4
Since tan B = __, sin B = __, cos B = __
5
5
4

. f

The Wedge:
Forces

First Particle:
Forces
3
R
5

R
a

3
Mg
5

b 4
S
5
b
3
S
5
4Mg

4
R
5

A
4
Mg
5

Acceleration
a

Accelerations
5

4
a
5

4g = 5b 3a

) (

it remains at rest. QED

c
Q. 6.
Q

Perpendicular to the plane:


F = ma

3Mg 4Ma
3 3Ma + 4Mg
4 ___________
__
__ ___________ = 2Ma
5
5
5
5
(from d and f)
1
___(12Mg 16Ma 9Ma 12Mg) = 2Ma
25
a=0

Along plane:
F = ma
3
4
__Mg = M b __a
5
5

3
R __S = 2Ma
5

4
__

3
a
5

(i) 4m mass
R

4mg
5

( )

3
4
__Mg R = M __ a
5
5

3 Mg 5R = 4Ma
3Mg 4Ma
R = ___________
5

Accelerations
4
a
5

s
4
Mg
5
q

R
5

3
a
5

R
2R
5

N
1N
3

24

8mg
5

Wedge

Other Particle:
Forces

3
Mg
5

4mg

mg

Q
Q. 7.

Accelerations
4m mass

R
S

2a
5

a
5

R
2Mg

Mg
45

45
3Mg

The 2M mass:
Forces
Wedge

(ii)

2M

4m particle along the plane:


F = ma
8mg
a__
__ = 4m f ___
____
5
5

__

2g = f 5 a

2M

5
multiply by ___
4m

__

__

6R mg 5 R = 3ma 5
__

5R = m 5 (3a + g)
m__
R = ___
(3a + g) e
5
Putting this result into equation d gives:
g

5 ___
m__
___
4m 5

__
a__
Along the plane: 2 Mg = 2M b ___
2
__
g = 2 b a c

(3a + g) = 2a
multiply by 4

4g (3a + g) = 8a
3g = 11a
3g
a = ___ acceleration
11
of the wedge

Perpendicular to the plane:


__
a__
2 Mg R = 2M ___
2

( )
__

R = 2 Mg 2 Ma

1
R__
2R
__ __
___
N = ma N = mg + ___
5
5 3
R__
1
2R
__ __
mg + ___
= ma
___
3
5
5
__
multiply by 35

a
2
b

__

Wedge horizontal: F = ma

__

a
2

( )

Acceleration

__

4m particle perpendicular to the plane:


F = ma
4mg
2a
__ R = 4m ___
__
____
__
5
5
5
___
multiply by
4m
__
5

g ___ R = 2a d
4m

The M mass:
Forces

Accelerations
a
2

Mg
2

a
2

Mg
2

Mg
a__
__ = M c + ___
Along the plane: ___
2
2

__

g = 2 c + a

. e

Perpendicular to the plane:


Mg
a__
__ = M ___
S ___
2
2

( )

Mg
Ma
__ + ___
__
S = ___
2 2

25

The Wedge:

Acceleration of 1 kg mass
Forces

4a
5
a

f
S
S 2
S 2
3 Mg

R
2 R
2

Acceleration of wedge
a

5 kg mass along slope:

Acceleration

F = ma

Along the horizontal:


__

R S = 3 2 Ma
__

R__
___

__

S__
___

= 3Ma
__

Mg
___

Ma
__ __ = 3 2 Ma
2 Mg 2 Ma ___
2 2
(from d and f)
2Mg 2Ma Ma Mg = 6Ma
1
a = __ g m/s2
9
Q. 8.

3
(i) tan q = __,
4

3
sin q = __
5

4
cos q = __,
5

F = ma

( )

3a
4mg R = 5m ___
5
4mg R = 3ma d
Wedge horizontal:
F = ma
3R N
4R
___ __ = ma N = mg + ___
5
5
2
3R 1
4R
___ __ mg + ___ = ma
5
5
2
6R 5mg 4R = 10ma

2R = 5m(2a + g)
5m
R = ___(2a + g) e
2

Putting this result into equation d gives:


5m
4mg ___(2a + g) = 3ma
2
2
multiply by __
m

Forces on 5m mass
R

8g 10a 5g = 6a
16a = 3g
3
a = ___g acceleration of wedge
16
Putting this result into equation c gives
4 3g
3g = 5 f __ ___
5 16
3g
3g = 5f ___
4
12g = 20f 3g

4mg
5mg
3mg

( ( ))

Forces on wedge

4R
5
N

R
3R
5
mg

26

4a
3mg = 5m f ___
5
4a
___
3g = 5 f
c
5
5 kg mass perpendicular to slope:

5m

N
2

3a
5

20f = 15g
3
f = __g acceleration of the particle
4
relative to the wedge

(ii) Motion of wedge:

The 1kg Mass:


Forces

3g
u = 0, s = 1, a = ___,
16
1
s = ut + __at2
2

Acceleration:

( )

1 3g
1 = __ ___ t2
2 16
2
3gt
____ = 1
32
___
32
t = ___ s
3g

a
1g

(iii) Along the vertical : T g = f

(iv) Along the horizontal: S = a


The Wedge:

Motion of particle relative to wedge:


___

Forces

3g
32
u = 0, t = ___ , f = ___
4
3g
1
s = ut + __ft2
2
3g
32
1
= __ ___ ___
2 4 3g

T
T

( )( )

R
P

=4m

8g

Q. 9.

T
R T

T
S S

4
T
5

3
T
5

5g
A

4
R
5

8g

3
3
4
Since tan A = __, sin A = __, cos A = __
5
5
4
The 5kg Mass:
Forces
R

a
3
R
5

8g

Acceleration
a

3
4
(v) __R __T S = 8a
5
5

a 4g

Q. 10.
Q

R T

3g
a

Acceleration

g
4a
5

T
5g

a
5

a
f

The 1kg Mass:


Forces

4
(i) Along the plane: 3g T = 5 f __a
5
(ii) Perpendicular to the plane
3
4g R = 5 __a
5

( )

4g
5
3g
5

27

Accelerations

The Wedge:
Forces
T

3a

4a
5

( )
( )

3
4
1. T __g = 1 f __a
5
5
3
4
2. R __g = 1 __a
5
5

p
8g

Resolved
4

5T

The 5kg Mass:


Forces

T cos q

5T

q T sin q
S T cos q

T sin q
4

5R

5R

g
8g

5g

Accelerations

Acceleration
a

a
q
f cos q

f sin q

3. 5g T cos q = 5(fcos q)
4. T sin q = 5(a f sin q)

28

8g

3
4
5. __T __R T sin q = 8a
5
5