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Dr. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. Devdas Menon

**2.2 Losses in Prestress (Part II)
**

This section covers the following topics

• • •

Friction Anchorage Slip Force Variation Diagram

2.2.1 Friction

The friction generated at the interface of concrete and steel during the stretching of a curved tendon in a post-tensioned member, leads to a drop in the prestress along the member from the stretching end. The loss due to friction does not occur in pretensioned members because there is no concrete during the stretching of the tendons. The friction is generated due to the curvature of the tendon and the vertical component of the prestressing force. The following figure shows a typical profile (laying pattern) of the tendon in a continuous beam.

Figure 2-2.1

A typical continuous post-tensioned member

(Reference: VSL International Ltd.) In addition to friction, the stretching has to overcome the wobble of the tendon. The wobble refers to the change in position of the tendon along the duct. The losses due to friction and wobble are grouped together under friction. The formulation of the loss due to friction is similar to the problem of belt friction. The sketch below (Figure 2-2.2) shows the forces acting on the tendon of infinitesimal length dx.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

N is given as follows. The derivation of the expression of P is based on a circular profile. The resultant of the vertical reaction from the concrete on the tendon (N) generated due to curvature. Thus the friction (dP) depends on the following variables. Although a cable profile is parabolic based on the bending moment diagram. The friction is proportional to the following variables.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. Force triangle dx Force acting in a tendon of infinitesimal length P = prestressing force at a distance x from the stretching end R = radius of curvature dα = subtended angle.1) The friction over the length dx is equal to µN = µPdα. From the equilibrium of forces in the force triangle. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. N = 2Psin dα 2 dα » 2P = Pdα 2 (2-2. the error induced is insignificant. • • • Coefficient of friction (µ) Curvature of the tendon (dα) The amount of prestressing force (P) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . • • Coefficient of friction (µ) between concrete and steel.2 In the above sketch. Devdas Menon dα R N N P + dP P dα/2 P + dP P Figure 2-2.

Devdas Menon The wobble in the tendon is effected by the following variables. For small values of µα + kx. P = P + dP + (µPdα + kPdx) or. Here. ln or. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.2) Thus. where k is the wobble coefficient or coefficient for wave effect.( µα + kx ) Px 0 or. • • • • • Rigidity of sheathing Diameter of sheathing Spacing of sheath supports Type of tendon Type of construction The friction due to wobble is assumed to be proportional to the following. Px α x dP ⎞ = -⎛ ⎜ µ ∫ dα + k ∫ dx ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ P P 0 ∫ 0 or. Px = P0 (1– µα – kx) (2-2. The above differential equation can be solved to express P in terms of x.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. the above expression can be simplified by the Taylor series expansion. Based on the equilibrium of forces in the tendon for the horizontal direction. the total drop in prestress (dP) over length dx is equal to – (µPdα + kPdx). lnP P = .( µα + kx ) P0 Px = P0e -( µα+kx ) (2-2. the following equation can be written. the friction due to wobble is expressed as kPdx. Px = . dP = – (µPdα + kPdx) (2-2.4) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .3) P0 = the prestress at the stretching end after the loss due to anchorage slip. • • Length of the tendon Prestressing force For a tendon of length dx.

P0 Figure 2-2.0050 per meter length of the tendon depending on the type of tendon. Example 2-2. If the cables are tensioned from one end. Assume µ = 0.35.0015 to 0. The following problem illustrates the calculation of the loss due to friction in a post-tensioned beam. 0. Table 2-2.55. k = 0.1 A post-tensioned beam 100 mm × 300 mm (b × h) spanning over 10 m is stressed by successive tensioning and anchoring of 3 cables A. IS:1343 . Devdas Menon Thus.3 Px Variation of prestressing force after stretching In the absence of test data.25.1 Values of coefficient of friction µ 0. 0. the variation of the prestressing force is linear with the distance from the stretching end.1980 provides guidelines for the values of µ and k. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .30. for a tendon with single curvature. estimate the percentage loss in each cable due to friction at the anchored end. B. The left side is the stretching end and the right side is the anchored end. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. Each cable has cross section area of 200 mm2 and has initial stress of 1200 MPa. Type of interface For steel moving on smooth concrete For steel moving on steel fixed to duct For steel moving on lead The value of k varies from 0. and C respectively as shown in figure. The following figure shows the variation of prestressing force after stretching.0015 / m.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.

x α(L) An expression of α(x) can be derived from the change in slope of the profile. dy 4ym = (L . Devdas Menon CL 50 50 Cable A Cable B Cable C CGC Solution Prestress in each tendon at stretching end = 1200 × 200 = 240 kN. The expression of α(x) can be written in terms of x as α(x) = θ.2 x ) dx L2 L ym y Here. where.x. θ = 8ym/L2. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The change in slope α(x) is proportional to x. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. the equation for a parabolic profile is required. dy 4ym = (L .2 x ) dx L2 At x = 0. To know the value of α(L). The variation is shown in the following sketch. the slope dy/dx = 4ym/L.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. The slope of the profile is given as follows. ym = displacement of the CGS at the centre of the beam from the ends L x y = length of the beam = distance from the stretching end = displacement of the CGS at distance x from the ends.

0015x for cable C ⎩ The maximum loss for all the cables is at x = L = 10.0043x for cable A ⎪ ηx = ⎨0.9% for cable B ⎪1.985 for cable C ⎩ e -ηL Percentage loss due to friction = (1 – e–ηL) × 100% ⎧ 4. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.2% for cable A ⎪ = ⎨ 2. ⎧0. Substituting the values of ym and L ⎧0.1 m. For cable B. ym = 0. For all the cables.958 for cable A ⎪ = ⎨0.5% for cable C ⎩ Indian Institute of Technology Madras .0029x for cable B ⎪0. The prestressing force Px at a distance x is given by Px = P0e–(µα + kx) = P0e–ηx where. ym = 0. Devdas Menon 8ym/L 4ym/L θ 0 α L/2 L x The total subtended angle over the length L is 8ym/L. the anchored end. For cable C. ym = 0. L = 10 m.971 for cable B ⎪0. ηx = µα + kx For cable A.05 m.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.0 m.

Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.2 Anchorage Slip In a post-tensioned member. N. The drop in the prestress is higher around the intermediate supports where the curvature is high. There is loss of prestress due to the consequent reduction in the length of the tendon. The remedy to reduce the loss is to apply the stretching force from both ends of the member in stages.. 2-2. the wedges slip through a little distance before they get properly seated in the conical space.8mm Φ strands Magnel system Dywidag system (Reference: Rajagopalan. The anchorage block also moves before it settles on the concrete. the following typical values for some systems can be used. Prestressed Concrete) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2 Typical values of anchorage slip Anchorage Slip (∆s) 4 mm 6 mm 8 mm 1 mm Anchorage System Freyssinet system 12 .5mm Φ strands 12 .Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. when the prestress is transferred to the concrete. Devdas Menon CL CGC Cable A Cable B Cable C 240 kN Variation of prestressing forces The loss due to friction can be considerable for long tendons in continuous beams with changes in curvature. Table 2-2. In absence of manufacturer’s data. The total anchorage slip depends on the type of anchorage system.

Considering the effect of friction. Px = P0e -ηx (2-2. Let the drop in the prestressing force at the stretching end be ∆P. up to length lset is influenced by the setting of the anchorage block. The diagram representing the variation of prestressing force is called the force variation diagram.∆P ) e -η'x (2-2. The plot of Px gives the force variation diagram. Devdas Menon Due to the setting of the anchorage block. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. the magnitude of the prestressing force at a distance x from the stretching end is given as follows.2. Px' = ( P0 . ηx = µα + kx denotes the total effect of friction and wobble. Hence. the effect is absent. there is a reverse friction. the effect of anchorage slip is present up to a certain length (Figure 22. P0 Px Figure 2-2. as the tendon shortens. The initial part of the force variation diagram.4).4 Variation of prestressing force after anchorage slip 2. Considering the drop in the prestressing force and the effect of reverse friction. Beyond this setting length. The determination of ∆P and lset are necessary to plot the force variation diagram including the effect of the setting of the anchorage block. the magnitude of the prestressing force at a distance x from the stretching end is given as follows.5) Here.6) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This length is denoted as lset.3 Force Variation Diagram The magnitude of the prestressing force varies along the length of a post-tensioned member due to friction losses and setting of the anchorage block.

P0e -ηlset = ( P0 . 1 ∆P lset 2 Ap E p 1 lset ⎛ η' ⎞ P0ηlset ⎜ 1+ ⎟ 2 Ap E p η⎠ ⎝ 2 Ap E p ⎛ η' ⎞ P0 η ⎜ 1+ ⎟ η⎠ ⎝ for η' = η (2-2.∆P ⎛ η' ⎞ ∆P = P0 ( η + η' ) lset = P0ηlset ⎜ 1+ ⎟ η⎠ ⎝ ∆P = 2P0ηlset The following equation relates lset with the anchorage slip ∆s. At the end of the setting length (x = lset). The expression of ∆P simplifies to the following.7) (2-2.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.∆P P0 ⎡ ⎣1. (2-2.8) ∆s = ∆s = Transposing the terms. η’ is taken equal to η. Px = P’x Px P0 ∆P Px Px’ lset Px after stretching P’x after setting Px beyond lset x Force variation diagram near the stretching end Figure 2-2.( η + η' ) lset ⎤ ⎦ = P0 . Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.5 Substituting the expressions of Px and Px’ for x = lset Since it is difficult to measure η’ separately.∆P ) e -ηlset P0e -(η+ η' )lset = P0 .9) 2 lset = ∆s = ∆s Ap E p P0η Indian Institute of Technology Madras . η’ for reverse friction is analogous to η for friction and wobble. Devdas Menon Here.

The final force variation is more uniform than the first stretching. Devdas Menon Therefore. The force variation diagram is used when stretching is done from both the ends. lset = ∆s Ap E p P0 η (2-2. The following sketch explains the change in the force variation diagram due to stretching from both the ends in stages. The tendons are overstressed to counter the drop due to anchorage slip. a) After stretching from right end b) After anchorage slip at right end c) After stretching from left end d) After anchorage slip at left end Figure 2-2.10) The term P0η represents the loss of prestress per unit length due to friction. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. The stretching from both the ends can be done simultaneously or in stages.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.6 Force variation diagrams for stretching in stages Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

2 3. µ = 0.7 All dimensions are in metres Inflection points Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Calculate a) The expected elongation of the tendon after stretching. the variation of the prestressing force over the length of the beam is less than after the first stage. It is observed that after two stages.20.6 0. d) After the anchorage slip. Devdas Menon The force variation diagrams for the various stages are explained.6 13. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. the FVD drops near the left end till the length lset. a) The initial tension at the right end is high to compensate for the anchorage slip. c) The initial tension at the left end also corresponds to about 0. The anchorage slip ∆s = 6 mm. Example 2-2. Ep = 195. K = 0.7 15. The symmetrical tendon is simultaneously stressed up to 75% fpk from both ends and then anchored.7 3 3. It corresponds to about 0.8 fpk initial prestress. Half of the girder is shown in the figure below.76 CL 0.8 fpk initial prestress.0020/m. The FVD is linear up to the centre line of the beam. b) The force variation diagrams along the tendon before and after anchorage. The tendon properties are Ap = 2800 mm2. 0. The force variation diagram (FVD) is linear.7 13.2 15. b) After the anchorage slip.76 0.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.000 MPa.2 A four span continuous bridge girder is post-tensioned with a tendon consisting of twenty strands with fpk = 1860 MPa. the FVD drops near the right end till the length lset.

The different 1 2 The following properties of parabolas are used. segments are as follows: 1-2. 4-5. the following property is used. y L α e 0 x The change in slope from the origin to the end of the parabola is same as the slope at the end which is α = 2e/L. 3-4. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .75fpk Ap = 3906 kN The continuous tendon is analysed as segments of parabola. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. 2-3. CL 3 4 5 6 7 8 inflection points are those where the curvature of the tendon reverses.75fpk = 1395 MPa P0 = 0. the parabola in the sketch below is used. where L = length of the segment e = vertical shift from the origin. For segment 1-2. 6-7 and 7-8. Devdas Menon Solution Initial force at stretching end 0. 5-6.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. For segments 2-3 and 3-4 and subsequent pairs of segments. The segments are The identified between the points of maximum eccentricity and inflection points.

the force at a certain segment is given as follows. the horizontal length of the segment. Px = P0 e -Σ(µα+kx) The summation ∑ is for the segments from the stretching end up to the point in the segment under consideration. The change in slope (α) for each segment of the tendon is calculated using the above expressions. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. Since the loss in prestress accrues with each segment. Hence. denotes the point). the slope at the inflection point α = 2(e1 + e2)/λL. k and x. e2 = eccentricities of the CGS at the span and support respectively L = length of the span λL = fractional length between the points of maximum eccentricity The change in slope between a point of maximum eccentricity and inflection point is also equal to α. Devdas Menon λL α e1 e2 L For the two parabolic segments joined at the inflection point as shown in the sketch above. Next the value of µα + kx for each segment is calculated using the given values of µ. where x Indian Institute of Technology Madras . e1. Here.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. the value of ∑(µα + kx) at the end of each segment is calculated to evaluate the prestressing force at that point (Px.

110 0.952 3718 0.7 2 = 227612. a) The expected elongation of the tendon after stretching First the product of the average force and the length of each segment is summed up to the centre line.036 0.339 0.2 kN Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A linear variation of the force can be assumed for each segment.303 0. Since the stretching is done at both the ends simultaneously.7 2 2 1 1 + [3246 + 3058] ×15.059 0.050 e-Σ(µα + kx) 1.144 0. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.059 0.712 µα +kx 0.831 0. the diagram is symmetric about the central line.163 0.185 0.738 2883 2781 Px (kN) 3906 The force variation diagram before anchorage can be plotted with the above values of Px.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr.861 0.7 + [3718 + 3500] ×13.050 Σ(µα +kx) k ) 0.896 3363 3500 3246 0.000 0.060 0.244 0.2 2 2 1 + [ 2883 + 2718] ×3.144 0. PavL = 1 1 [3906 + 3718] ×13.783 3058 0.149 0.163 0.144 0.039 0.7 2 2 1 1 + [3500 + 3363] ×3 + [3363 + 3246] × 3.111 0.036 0.2 + [3058 + 2883] ×15.144 0. Devdas Menon α 0.

7 = 15. The force variation diagrams before and after anchorage are shown below.Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. The drop in the prestressing force (∆p) at each stretching end is calculated as follows. Note that the drop of force per unit length is more over the supports due to change in curvature over a small distance.7 m = 13. The value of lset due to an anchorage slip ∆s = 6 mm is calculated as follows. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof. ∆= = Pav L AP EP 227612×103 2800×195000 = 0.46 m is altered to show the drop due to anchorage slip.7 kN Thus the value of the prestressing force at each stretching end after anchorage slip is 3906 – 424 = 3482 kN. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . lset = = ∆s AP EP P0 µ 6× 2800×195000 13. The force variation diagram for lset = 15.417 m b) The force variation diagrams along the tendon before and after anchorage After anchorage. the effect of anchorage slip is present up to the setting length lset. ∆p = 2P0 µlset = 2×13. P0µ = (3906 – 3718) kN /13.46 m The quantity P0µ is calculated from the loss of prestress per unit length in the first segment. Devdas Menon The elongation (∆) at each stretching end is calculated as follows.7 N/mm.7 ×15464 = 423.

Devdas Menon Prestressing force (kN) 4000 3500 3000 2500 0 20 40 60 80 Distance from end (m) After anchorage Before anchorage Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Prestressed Concrete Structures Dr. Amlan K Sengupta and Prof.

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