COMPUTER NETWORKS (BCSE 3306

)
Last Updated 14th Jan 07

Lecture Notes Module I Ajit K Nayak ajit@silicon.ac.in Department of Computer Science Engineering & Application

Out Line of Module I
Overview of Data Communications and Networking Physical Layer
Digital Transmission Analog Transmission Multiplexing Transmission Media Circuit switching and Telephone Network Text: “Data Communications and Networking” Third Edition, Behrouz A Forcuzan, Tata Mc Graw-Hill. Chapter 1 - Chapter 7
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Lecture I
Overview of Data Communications and Networking • Data Communication • Networks & Internet • Protocols & Standards • Layered Tasks • Internet Model • OSI Model
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Data Communication
Sharing of information is “Data Communication”
Sharing can be local (face to face) Remote (over a distance)

“Data” refers to facts, concepts and / or
instructions
In the context of computers, data represented in the form of 0’s and 1’s

“Data Communication” is “Exchange of data between two/more devices via a transmission medium.
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Characteristics of Data Communication
Delivery: system must deliver data to correct destination Accuracy: Accurate data should be delivered Timeliness: Data delivered late are useless

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Components of Data Communication

Message: It is the Information (data) to be communicated (shared) with others Sender: The device that sends the message Receiver: The device that receives the message Medium: Physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver Protocol: A set of rules that governs the data communication Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 6

Direction of Data Flow
Communication can be simplex, Half-duplex, or full-duplex. Simplex: communication is unidirectional Half-duplex: bi-directional but not at the same time Full-duplex: bi-directional and simultaneously. Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 7

Any real life examples?

Networks & Distributed processing
Interconnection of ‘Intelligent devices’ is called a submitted among multiple computers using network Network Criteria: to design an effective and efficient network the most important criteria are
‘Performance’ depends on
No of users: large no of users may slow down the ‘response time’ due to heavy traffic Type of transmission medium: defines the speed at which the data can travel (speed of light is the upper bound) Hardware: A high-speed computer with greater storage provides better performance Software: efficient mechanisms to transform raw data into transmittable signal, to route the signals, to ensure error-free Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 8 delivery etc.

‘computer network’ In ‘Distributed processing’ a task is divided and

Network Criteria
Reliability depends on
Frequency of failure: all networks fail occasionally Recovery time: how long does it takes to restore the service Catastrophe: networks should be protected from fire, earthquake, theft, etc.

Security depends on
Unauthorized access should be prevented Should be protected from viruses, spywares, adwares, malwares etc.
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Physical Structure
It refers to the way two or more devices are attached to a link
Point-to-Point: provides a dedicated link between two devices. i.e. entire capacity of the link is reserved for transmission between those two devices Multi-point: In this configuration more than two devices share the same link If several devices can use the link simultaneously then called ‘spatially shared connection’ If devices take turns then it is a time-shared connection (temporally)
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Topology
Topology of a network is the geometric representation of the links and nodes of a physical network.

ETC.

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Mesh Topology
Every device has a dedicated point-topoint link to every other device A fully connected mesh network has n(n-1)/2 links Every device required to have at least n-1 I/O ports Eliminates traffic problem as links are not shared It is robust as breaking one link couldn't defunct the network completely Privacy/security is maintained Installation and reconfiguration is difficult due to complicated connections Expensive in terms of cost and space Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 12 Not Difficult to add/remove a device

Star Topology
Each computer has a point-point link only to a central controller called the HUB HUB acts as an exchange to send data from one device to another Less expensive than mesh
It is robust as one link failure causes that device to go out of the network and it does not affect others Easy fault finding when one device sending data to another device, all other devices have to be idle however, a switch in place of hub can eliminate this problem
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Bus Topology
Multi-point One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices There is a limit on the no of drop lines (tapes) as in each tape some energy is lost Installation is easy It uses less cabling than star or mesh difficult reconnection and fault finding Adding new device may require modification/replacement of the backbone otherwise the performance will be degraded Fault in bus stops all transmission, the damaged area reflects signal back in the direction of origin, creating noise in both directions Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 14

Ring Topology
Point-to-point Each device is linked only to its immediate neighbours To add or remove a device requires moving two connections only

Each device in the ring incorporates a repeater to regenerate a signal before passing to neighbour. Easy to install and reconfiguration Maximum ring length and no of devices are fixed failure of one device causes network failure if not bypassed unidirectional data traffic
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Category of networks
The networks may be categorized according to its size, ownership, distance it covers and its physical architecture.

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Local Area Network(LAN)
LAN is a privately owned networks within a single building or campus Size is restricted? (10m-1KM) Common LAN topologies are bus, ring, star Speed is high (100Mbps – 1 Gbps) These are designed to share resources (hardware/software) between personal computers or workstations the size is restricted as the H/w will not work correctly over wires that exceed the bound as electrical signal becomes weaker over distance due to resistance. Also the delay increases as the distance, but LANs are designed for specific delays?
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Figure 1.13

LAN (Continued)

Example: LAN of an organisation
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Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)
MAN is designed to extend over an entire city It may be either private(cable TV, Bank ATMs), or public (Telephone) May be a single network like cable TV or may be a means of connecting a number of LANs into a larger network so that the resources may be shared It forms the basic long distance connection in a large network & technologies that provide high speed digital access to individual homes & business Also sometimes called the access network, as it provides access to various services, say cable TV, Internet etc.
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Wide Area Network(WAN)
WAN provides long distance transmission of data, voice, image, and video information over large geographical areas that may comprise a country, a continent or even the whole world It utilizes public, leased or private communication devices The end systems are connected to subnets, which are intelligent entities and contains communication channels and routers A WAN wholly owned by a single company is called an ‘enterprise network ‘ speed is less than LANs
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A metropolitan area network based on cable TV.

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The Internet
It is a specific world wide network (i.e. A network of networks) that interconnects millions of computing devices throughout the world Computing devices include
PCs, UNIX based workstations, servers(?) PDAs, TVs, Mobile computers, automobiles, Toaters, …

End systems are connected either directly by ‘communication links’ or indirectly by intermediate switching devices called ‘switches/Routers’ Communication links include
Coaxial cable, copper wire, fiber optics, radio spectrum

Different communication links can transmit data at different speeds. The link transmission rate is called ‘bandwidth’ Switches/Routers receives a chunk of information (called a packet) and forwards it towards destination Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 22

Internet Today
It is difficult to give an accurate representation of the Internet as it is continuously changing It is represented in form of hierarchy of Service providers
International Service Providers
That connect nations together

National Service Providers
Are backbone networks created and maintained by specialized companies like SprintLink, PSINet, etc Theses networks are connected by complex switching stations called Network Access Points (NAPs)

Regional Service Providers
Are smaller ISPs that are connected to one or more NSPs

Local Service Providers
Provide direct service to end users, may be connected to regional ISPs or directly to NSPs Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 23

Internet today

History of Internet - read yourself (page 15, sec 1.3)

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Services provided by Internet
The www including browsing & internet commence E-mail including attachment Instant messages Peer-to-peer file sharing VOIP Online Games Tele Conferencing Video-on-demand Remote Login (SSH client, Telnet) etc… Remote file transfer ...
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Protocol !!!
What is a Protocol? What does a protocol do? How would you recognize a protocol if you met one? A Human Analogy What you do when you want to ask some one for the time of day?

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Protocol
First you offer a greeting (Hi ) The typical response to a Hi is a returned Hi This response is an indication that you can proceed and ask for the time And the conversation continues . . .
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Protocol
But what happens when a different response comes to the initial Hi like
Don’t bother me! I don’t speak English Some unprintable reply! No response at all !!! OR OR OR

Then human protocol would be not to ask for the time of day In our human protocol, there are specific messages we send, and specific actions we take in response to the received reply messages
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Protocol
If people run different protocols! Say
If one person has manners and other does not If one understands concept of time other does not

Then protocols do not interoperate and no useful work can be accomplished. The same is true in networking – It takes two (or more) communicating entities running the same protocol in order to accomplish a task But the exception is that the entities exchanging messages and taking action are Hardware and/or Software components of Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 29 some device

A Network Protocol
Visiting a Web site Type in the URL in Web browser First your computer will send a connection request message to the Web Server Web Server will respond by returning a connection reply message Your computer then sends the name of the web page Finally the server returns the page to you. Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 30

Defining A Protocol
A Protocol defines the format and the order of messages exchanged between two or more communicating entities, as well as the actions taken on the transmission and/or receipt of a message of other event. . . . J. F. Kurose

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Protocols contd.
A protocol defines what is communicated, How it is communicated, when it is communicated The key elements of a protocol are
Syntax: refers to structure or format of data, i.e. the order in which they are presented day month Year Example: a date 8 8 16 Semantics: refers to structure meaning of each section Timing: refers to two characteristics. i. When data should be sent. ii. How fast they can be sent
Depends on link availability, and speed of receiver
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Standards
The standard provides a model for development that makes it possible for a product to work regardless of the individual manufacturer
Example: A steering wheel of a car from one make may not feet into other make

Standards are essential in creating and maintaining an open and competitive market and guarantees international inter-operability Two categories of standards
De Facto: that have just happened without any formal plan De Jure: are formal, legal standards adopted by some authorized or officially recognized body
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Standards Organizations
Standards Creation Committees
International Standards Organization (ISO) International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication standards (ITU-T) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Electronic Industries Association (EIA)

Forums
The forums work with universities and users to test, evaluate and the conclusion is presented to standard bodies to standardize new technologies

Regulatory Agencies
Govt. agencies responsible for protecting the public interest.

Internet Standards
Internet draft is a working document with no official status and a 6 month life time. If recommended by IETF then a draft may be published as a Request for Comment (RFC) Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 34

Layered Tasks
The service that we expect from a Computer Network are much more complex than just sending a signal from one device to another. To solve a complex problem we apply the strategy “Divide and Rule”. i.e. the main problem is divided into some small tasks/ levels of reduced complexity and then handled individually. In other words Each level is responsible to solve a more focused problem of the original problem is a called layer in network terminology. Each layer observes a different level of abstraction and performs some well defined functions. Each layer uses the service of the layer below below it and each layer provides service to its upper layer. There exists an interface between each pair of adjacent layers that defines the information and services a layer must provide to Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 35 the adjacent layer.

Example:

Sending a letter

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Example:

The philosopher-translator-secretary architecture.
Location B J'aime bien les lapins 3

Location A I like rabbits 3

Message

Philosopher

2

L: Dutch Ik vind konijnen leuk

Information for the remote translator

Translator

L: Dutch Ik vind konijnen leuk

2

1

Fax #--L: Dutch Ik vind konijnen leuk

Information for the remote secretary

Secretary

Fax #--L: Dutch Ik vind konijnen leuk

1

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The Internet model
The layered protocol stack that is used in practice is a five ordered layer Internet model, also called TCP/IP protocol suite The responsibility of each layer is well defined and focused Each end user device engaged in communication must have these layers in it (in form of HW or SW) An intermediate device may not have all the layers but at least first three layers Layer x on one device communicates with layer x of other device. The processes on each machine that communicate at a given Computer layer are called peer-to-peer processes. Networking / Module I / AKN / 38

Peer-to-peer processes

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An exchange using the Internet model

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Physical layer
The responsibility of physical layer is to coordinate the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium The duties are
Defines the characteristics of the interface between devices and transmission medium
Type of transmission medium, topology, etc…

Representation of bits
Encoding, voltage level, duration etc…

Data rate Synchronization of bits
Sender’s and receiver’s clock shynchronization

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Data link layer

is responsible for transmitting frames from one node to the next
The duties are
Framing
Stream of bits received from upper layer is divided into manageable data units(?) called frame

Physical addressing
Adds the address of sender and receiver in the header

Flow control
This mechanism helps to prevents overflow at receiving side

Error control
Mechanism to detect/correct errors in transmission

Access Control
Which device has the control over the link at a given time
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Datalink layer contd.
Physical addressing and hop-hop delivery can be done in one network only

If the message is to be passed across the network then network layer functionality is required.
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Network Layer
The network layer is responsible for the delivery of packets from the original source to the final destination possibly across multiple networks. The Duties are
Logical addressing
It adds logical addresses into the packet header

Routing
Forwarding the packet towards the destination

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Source-to-Destination

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An Example

sending from a node with network address A and physical address 10 to a node with a network address P and physical address 95 Because the two devices are located on different networks, we cannot use physical addresses only;as the physical addresses only have local jurisdiction. What we need here are universal addresses that can pass through the LAN boundaries. The network (logical) addresses have this characteristic.
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Transport layer
The transport layer is responsible for delivery of a message from one process to another. The Duties
Port addressing
Actual transmission occurs from a specific process on one device to a process of another. Port address (an integer) defines the process/application in a device

Segmentation and reassembly
Message received from application layer is divided in to transmittable segments containing sequence nos

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Transport layer contd.
Connection control
Two types of connection service is allowed
Connection oriented: establish the connection, use the connection, release the connection. (guarantee of delivery)
Example: telephone

Connection less: each message carries the destination address and routed through the system
Example: postal service

Flow Control Responsible for end-to-end flow control as well as intermediate flow control (congestion) Error Control End-to-end error control
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Application layer

The application layer is responsible for providing services to the user.
It provides user interfaces and support services such as email, remote file transfer, remote logins etc…

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Summary of duties

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OSI model Session Layer is the network dialog controller, It establishes maintains and synchronizes the interaction between communicating systems Duties are
Dialog control Synchronization at data level

Presentation layer is concerned with syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two systems Duties are
Translation: converting to bit streams Encryption: to ensure privacy Compression: increases virtual BW
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Lecture II
The Physical Layer • Signals • Digital Transmission • Analog Transmission • Multiplexing • Transmission Media
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Position of the physical layer

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Signals
Information is transmitted in the form of electromagnetic signals Signals are of two types
Analog Signal is a continuous signal in which the signal intensity varies smoothly over time Digital Signal is a discrete signal in which the signal intensity maintains a constant level for some period and then changes to another constant level. Analog Data: human voice, Digital data: data stored in a computer

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Periodic / Aperiodic Signals Periodic Signal: A signal completes a pattern within a measurable time frame (period) The completion of one full pattern is called a cycle. The period is constant for any given periodic signal Aperiodic Signal: Changes without exhibiting a pattern In data communication, we commonly use periodic and analog signals and aperiodic digital signals

Aperiodic Signal Periodic Signal Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 55

Analog Signals

The sine wave is the most fundamental form of a periodic signal Represented as s(t)=Asin(2πft+Φ) Characterstics
Amplitude: intensity of signal at any given time Frequency: no of cycles/periods in one second, measured in Hz
Frequency = 1/Period

Phase: describes the position of the waveform relative to time zero
A complete cycle is 360o = 2π
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Amplitude Period and frequency

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Time and frequency domains

A signal can also be represented in frequency domain

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Composite signals
A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in data communications; we need to change one or more of its characteristics to make it useful. When we change one or more characteristics of a single-frequency signal, it becomes a composite signal made of many frequencies. A composite signal is composed of multiple sine waves called harmonics
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Example : A Square wave

According to Fourier analysis, this signal can be decomposed in to a series of sine waves i.e.
4A 4A s (t ) = sin 2πft + sin[ 2π (3 f )t ] + sin[ 2π (5 f )t ] + ... π 3π 5π 4A

f is called fundamental frequency 3f is third harmonic, and 5f 5th harmonic To recreate the complete square wave requires all the odd harmonics upto infinity
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Three harmonics

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Frequency spectrum

The Signal using the frequency domain and containing all its components is called the frequency spectrum of that signal The range of frequencies that a medium can pass is called its Bandwidth The bandwidth is a property of a medium: It is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies that the medium can satisfactorily pass.

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Example
A signal has a spectrum with frequencies between 1000 and 2000 Hz (bandwidth of 1000 Hz). A medium can pass frequencies from 3000 to 4000 Hz (a bandwidth of 1000 Hz). Can this signal faithfully pass through this medium?

Solution
The answer is definitely no. Although the signal can have the same bandwidth (1000 Hz), the range does not overlap. The medium can only pass the frequencies between 3000 and 4000 Hz; the signal is totally lost.
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Digital Signals
Digital signals can be better described by two terms
Bit interval: time required to send a single bit Bit rate: number of bit intervals in one second

A digital signal is a composite signal having an infinite number of frequencies i.e. infinite bandwidth The digital BW is bits per sec (bps)

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Analog vs Digital
• Channels or links are of two types
• low-pass: lower limit is zero and upper limit is any frequency () • band-pass: has a band width with frequencies f1and f2

A digital signal theoretically needs a BW between o and ∞ if the upper limit will be relaxed than digital transmission can use a low-pass
channel

An analog signal has a narrower BW with frequencies f1and f2 Also BW of analog signal can be shifted, i.e. f1and f2 can be shifted to f3 and
f4 Analog signal can use a band-pass channel
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Data rate limits
Data rate depends on
The BW available The levels of signal that can be used The quality of channel (i.e. the level of noise)

Nyquist Bit rate: noise less channel

Bit rate= 2 × BW × lg L For a noise less channel the nyquist bit rate defines the theoretical maximum bit rate BW: band width of channel, L: no of signal levels used to represent data Capacity = BW × lg (1+SNR) The signal-to-noise ratio is the statistical ratio of power of Computer the signal to the power of the noise Networking / Module I / AKN / 66

Shannon Capacity: noisy channel

Example
We have a channel with a 1 MHz bandwidth. The SNR for this channel is 63; what is the appropriate bit rate and signal level?

Solution
First, we use the Shannon formula to find our upper limit.
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 106 log2 (1 + 63) = 106 log2 (64) = 6 Mbps

Then we use the Nyquist formula to find the number of signal levels.
4 Mbps = 2 × 1 MHz × log2 L L=4
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Transmission Impairment
In practice the signal sent at sending end using a transmission medium is not exactly same at receiving end due to some impairments
Attenuation: loss of energy

Decibel: is the unit to measure the relative strength of two signals dB = 10 log (P1/P2) It is negative if attenuated and +ve if amplified
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Distortion
Signal changes its forms at the receiving end It is normally happens in case of composite signals As each signal component has its own propagation speed thus received out of phase

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Noise
Several types of noise such as
thermal noise: random motion of electrons in a wire induced noise: sources such as motors and elecrical appliances cross talk: effect of one wire over the other impulse noise: is a spike may corrupt the original signal that comes from power lines and lightning

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More terminologies

Throughput: number of bits passed per second at a given point

Propagation Delay: the time required for a bit to travel from one point to another Wavelength: is the distance a signal can travel in λ=c/f
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Digital Transmission
Line coding Block Coding Sampling Transmission Mode

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What is Line Coding?
Is the process of converting binary data (a sequence of bits) to a digital signal

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Signal Level versus Data Level
No of values allowed in a signal No of values used to represent data

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DC Component
A component having zero frequency
Can’t be passed through a transformer Energy consumed is useless

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Pulse Rate versus Bit Rate
No of pulses per second
Minimum amount of time required to transmit a symbol

No of Bits per second
If a pulse carries one bit then pulse rate and bit rate are same

Example
A signal has two data levels with a pulse duration of 1 ms. We calculate the pulse rate and bit rate as follows: Pulse Rate = 1/ 10-3= 1000 pulses/s Bit Rate = Pulse Rate x log2 L = 1000 x log2 2 = 1000 bps
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Self Synchronization
No Synchronization: if receivers clock is faster

A Signal that includes timing information along with data is called a self-synchronizing signal
i.e. transitions in the signal alerts the receiver to reset the clock Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 77

Example In a digital transmission, the receiver clock is 0.1 percent faster than the sender clock. How many extra bits per second does the receiver receive if the data rate is 1 Kbps? How many if the data rate is 1 Mbps? Solution
At 1 Kbps: 1000 bits sent 1001 bits received 1 extra bps At 1 Mbps: 1,000,000 bits sent 1,001,000 bits received 1000 extra bps
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Line Coding Schemes

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UniPolar Encoding
Note: Unipolar encoding uses only one voltage level.

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Unipolar Encoding
One is coded as +ve voltage Zero is coded as –ve voltage

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Polar Encoding

Note: Polar encoding uses two voltage levels (positive and negative).

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Polar Encoding
Avarage voltage level is decreased DC component problem is avoided Four Important type of polar encoding are:

There are many others also!
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NRZ-L Encoding

Note: In NRZ-L the level of the signal is dependent upon the state of the bit.

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NRZ-I Encoding

Note: In NRZ-I the signal is inverted if a 1 is encountered.

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NRZ Encoding

Loss of synchronization incase of continuous ones or zeros
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RZ Encoding

Note: RZ uses three values i.e. +ve, zero & -ve Signal change occurs during each bit

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RZ Encoding

A +ve voltage means 1 and –ve voltage means zero. But signal returns to zero at mid of the bit interval Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 88

RZ Encoding
Note: RZ is a good encoded digital signal that contain a provision for synchronization. But it requires two signal changes to encode 1 bit ⇒ more bandwidth!

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Manchester Encoding
Note: In Manchester encoding, the transition at the middle of the bit is used for both synchronization and bit representation.

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Manchester Encoding

It achieves the synchronization but with two levels of amplitude Datarate(R) = 1/tb , tb: bit duration in seconds Modulation rate (D) = R/b, b: no of bits per signal element
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Diff-Manchester Encoding
Note: In differential Manchester encoding, the transition at the middle of the bit is used only for synchronization. The bit representation is defined by the inversion or noninversion at the beginning of the bit.
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Diff-Manchester Encoding

Manchester Encoding used for 802.3 base band – CSMA/CD Lans Diff-Manchester is used foe 802.5 token ring LAn
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Bipolar Encoding

Note: In bipolar encoding, we use three levels: positive, zero, and negative.

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Bipolar Encoding

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2B1Q Encoding
Two Binary One Quaternary Each pulse represents 2 bits

-1 -3

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MLT-3 Encoding
Multi transmission, three level (MLT-3) The signal transition from one level to the next at the beginning of a 1 bit

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Block Coding
To ensure synchronization some redundant bits may be introduced Steps in Transformation Division Substitution Line Coding
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Block Coding

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Substitution

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4B/5B Encoding
Each 4-bit 'nibble' of received data has an extra 5th bit added. If input data is dealt with in 4-bit nibbles there are 24 = 16 different bit patterns. With 5-bit 'packets' there are 25 = 32 different bit patterns. As a result, the 5-bit patterns can always have two '1's in them even if the data is all '0's a translation. This enables clock synchronizations required for reliable data transfer.
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4B/5B encoding
Data Code Data Code

0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111

11110 01001 10100 10101 01010 01011 01110 01111

1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

10010 10011 10110 10111 11010 11011 11100 11101

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Example 8B/6T
sends 8 data bits as six ternary (one of three voltage levels i.e. +, 0, -) signals. Each bit block of 8-bit group with a six symbol code i.e. 8 bit ⇒ 28 & six symbol ⇒36 possibilities i.e. the carrier just needs to be running at 3/4 of the speed of the data rate. Helps to maintain synchronization and error checking

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Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Generates a series of pulses by sampling a given analog signal
Sampling is measuring amplitude in equal intervals

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PAM
Note: Pulse amplitude modulation has some applications, but it is not used by itself in data communication. However, it is the first step in another very popular conversion method called pulse code modulation.
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PCM: Quantization
It is a method of assigning integral values in a specific range to sampled instances

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Binary encoding
Each quantized value is translated into a 7bit binary equivalent. The eighth bit indicates the sign

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Line coding
The binary digits are transformed to a digital signal by using one of the line coding techniques.

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Analog to PCM Digital Code

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Sampling rate
Accuracy of reproduction depend on the no of samples taken What should be the sampling rate?

Note: According to the Nyquist theorem, the sampling rate must be at least 2 times the highest frequency.
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Nyquist Theorem

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Example

What sampling rate is needed for a signal with a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz)?

Solution
The sampling rate must be twice the highest frequency in the signal: Sampling rate = 2 x (11,000) = 22,000 samples/s
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Example
A signal is sampled. Each sample requires at least 12 levels of precision (+0 to +5 and -0 to -5). How many bits should be sent for each sample?

Solution
We need 4 bits; 1 bit for the sign and 3 bits for the value. A 3-bit value can represent 23 = 8 levels (000 to 111), which is more than what we need. A 2-bit value is not enough since 22 = 4. A 4-bit value is too much because 24 = 16.
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Example
We want to digitize the human voice. What is the bit rate, assuming 8 bits per sample?

Solution
The human voice normally contains frequencies from 0 to 4000 Hz. Sampling rate = 4000 x 2 = 8000 samples/s Bit rate = sampling rate x number of bits per sample = 8000 x 8 = 64,000 bps = 64 Kbps
Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 114

Transmission mode

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Parallel Transmission
Information is organized into group of bits All bits of one group are transmitted with each clock tick from one device to other

More speed Cost is high⇒ restricted to short distance
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Serial Transmission
One bit follows another using same line

Reduced cost (by a factor n) Parallel/serial converter required May used for large distance
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Asynchronous Transmission
Serial transmission occurs in one of the two ways

Note: In asynchronous transmission, we send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or more stop bits (1s) at the end of each byte. There may be a gap between each byte.
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Asynchronous Transmission
Insertion of extra bits & a gap makes it slower But cheap and effective

Suitable for low speed communication like KB to computer. i.e. typing is done one character at a time and unpredictable gap between characters.
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Asynchronous Transmission
When receiver detects a start bit, it starts a timer and begins counting After receiving a stop bit it ignores all pulses till next start bit arrives and resets the timer

Note: Asynchronous here means “asynchronous at the byte level,” but the bits are still synchronized; their durations are the same.
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Synchronous Transmission
Note: In synchronous transmission, we send bits one after another without start/stop bits or gaps. It is the responsibility of the receiver to group the bits.
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Synchronous Transmission
More speed Synchronization is necessary

Accuracy is completely dependent on the ability of the receiving device to keep an accurate count of the bits as they come in Byte synchronization is done in datalink layer
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Modulation of Digital Data Analog Transmission Digital-to-Analog Conversion Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Bit/Baud Comparison
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Digital to analog modulation

It is Needed if the transmission line is analog but the data produced is binary. Example: sending data from a computer via a public access telephone line

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Bit rate / Baud rate
Note:
Bit rate is the number of bits per second. Baud rate is the number of signal units per second. Baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate.
The sending device produces a signal that acts as a basis of information signal called carrier signal or carrier frequency The digital information is then modulates the carrier signal by modifying one or more of its characteristics.
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Example

An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal unit. If 1000 signal units are sent per second, find the baud rate and the bit rate
Solution

Baud rate = 1000 bauds per second (baud/s) Bit rate = 1000 x 4 = 4000 bps
Example

The bit rate of a signal is 3000. If each signal unit carries 6 bits, what is the baud rate?
Solution

Baud rate = 3000 / 6 = 500 baud/s

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Amplitude Shift Keying
• The intensity of the signal is
• ASK is highly susceptible to noise interference, i.e a zero may be changed to 1 or vice versa • If one of the bit values is represented by no voltage then it is called on/off keying (OOK). It results in reduction of energy transmitted. • ASK modulated signal contains many simple frequencies • band width is given by BW=(1+d) Nbaud of modulation with minimum value=0
• Where Nbaud is the baud rate and d is a factor Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 127

varied to represent binary one or zero

Example
Given a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz), draw the fullduplex ASK diagram of the system. Find the carriers and the bandwidths in each direction. Assume there is no gap between the bands in the two directions.

Solution

For full-duplex ASK, the bandwidth for each direction is BW = 10000 / 2 = 5000 Hz The carrier frequencies can be chosen at the middle of each band fc (forward) = 1000 + 5000/2 = 3500 Hz fc (backward) = 11000 – 5000/2 = 8500 Hz
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Frequency Shift Keying
Frequency of carrier signal varies to represent a binary 1 or 0 Effect of noise is less, receiving device ignores spikes but more Bandwidth is required Although there are two carrier frequencies, the process of modulation produces a composite signal Bandwidth = fc1 – fc0 + Nbaud
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Example
Find the maximum bit rates for an FSK signal if the bandwidth of the medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the two carriers is 2000 Hz. Transmission is in full-duplex mode.

Solution
Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is allocated for each direction. BW = baud rate + fc1 − fc0 Baud rate = BW − (fc1 − fc0 ) = 6000 − 2000 = 4000 But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the bit rate is 4000 bps.
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Phase Shift Keying
Phase of carrier signal varies to represent a binary 1 (180o)or 0 (0o) also called 2PSK or binary PSK Avoids problems of noise and bandwidth Can be represented in a constallation diagram or phase-state diagram BW=same as of ASK More variations in phase may be added to represent more than one bit
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Other variations of PSK
4-PSK / Q-PSK, 2 bits per baud

8-PSK, 3 bits per baud i. The bit rate increases as compared to baud rate

ii. But needs sophisticated devices to distinguish small difference in phase
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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Note: QAM is a combination of ASK and PSK so that a maximum contrast between each signal unit (bit, dibit, tribit, and so on) is achieved.

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4-QAM & 8-QAM Constellation

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16-QAM constellations

QAM is less susceptible to noise than ASK?
Bandwidth required for QAM is same as PSK and ASK
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Bit/Baud Comparison

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Modem Standards
Modem stands for modulator/demodulator.

A telephone line has a bandwidth of almost 2400 Hz for data transmission.
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Modulation/Demodulation

A modulator creates a band-pass signal from binary data. A demodulator recovers the binary data from the modulated signal

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V series modems
V.32 constellation & BW • published by ITU-T
• it uses a technique called trellis coded modulation I.e. QAM plus one redundant bit • 32 QAM with a baud rate of 2400 and datarate is 2400*4=9600kbps (1 bit redundant)

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V.32bis constellation & BW
Uses 128-QAM (7 bits/ baud with 1 bit for error control) datarate (2400*6)=14400 bps

V.90
Asymetric modems, i.e. downloading speed is 56 kbps and uploading speed is 33.6 kbps This is possible if one party is using digital signaling

V.92
can adjust their speed I.e. if noise allows than it can upload at a rate of 48 Kbps Additional features like modem can interrupt internet connection for a incoming phone call etc. Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 140

Traditional modems

• Sampled, digitized and at telephone comp • The quantization noise introduced thus data rate is limited according to shannon capacity i.e. 33.6k

56 K Modems
• signal not affected by quantization noise and not limited by shannon capacity • sampling is done at a rate of 8000 samples/sec with 8 bits per sample. • One bit is used for control thus speed becomes 8000*7=56 kbps

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Modulation of Analog Signals
• Representation of analog information by an analog signal • i.e. shifting the center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier • It is needed because • To reduce Antenna length (length α 1/f)
• helps in frequency division multiplexing • To support medium characteristics

Methods:
Amplitude Modulation (AM) Frequency Modulation (FM) Phase Modulation (PM)
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Amplitude modulation
• The carrier signal is modulated so that its amplitude varies with the changing amplitude of modulating signal • Phase and frequency remains the same • The modulating signal becomes an envelope to the carrier • The bandwidth of an AM signal is twice the bandwidth of the modulating signal • BWt = 2 × BWm • BWt is total bandwidth
• BWm is bandwidth of modulating signal

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Frequency modulation
• The carrier signal is modulated so that its frequency varies with the changing amplitude of modulating signal • Phase and peak amplitde remains the same •The bandwidth of an AM signal is ten times the bandwidth of the modulating signal • BWt = 10 × BWm • BWt is total bandwidth
• BWm is bandwidth of modulating signal

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Lecture III
The Physical Layer contd. • Multiplexing • Transmission Media • Switching

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Multiplexing
It is not practical to have a separate line for each other device we want to communicate Therefore, it is better to share communication medium The technique used to share a link by more than one device is called multiplexing Multiplexing needs that the BW of the link should be greater than the total individual BW of the devices connected. In a multiplexed system one link may contain more than one channel

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Categories of multiplexing

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Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDM is an analog multiplexing technique that combines signals Signals generated by each device modulate different carrier frequencies These modulated signals are combined to form a composite signal Demultiplexer uses a series of filters to decompose the signal into its component signals

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FDM
f

• Carrier frequencies are separated by sufficient BW to accommodate modulated signal •These BW ranges are channels through which the various signal travel • Channels must be separated by strips of unused BWs (called Guard Bands) to prevent signals from overlapping • Carrier frequencies must not interfere with the original signals
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t

Example 1 Assume that a voice channel occupies a bandwidth of 4 KHz. We need to combine three voice channels into a link with a bandwidth of 12 KHz, from 20 to 32 KHz. Show the configuration using the frequency domain without the use of guard bands.

Solution
Shift (modulate) each of the three voice channels to a different bandwidth, as shown in Figure
Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 150

Example Five channels, each with a 100-KHz bandwidth, are to be multiplexed together. What is the minimum bandwidth of the link if there is a need for a guard band of 10 KHz between the channels to prevent interference? Solution For five channels, we need at least four guard bands. This means that the required bandwidth is at least 5 x 100 + 4 x 10 = 540 KHz as shown in Figure

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Example Four data channels (digital), each transmitting at 1 Mbps, use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. Design an appropriate configuration using FDM Solution • The satellite channel is analog. We divide it into four channels, each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. • Each digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits are modulated to 1 Hz. • One solution is 16QAM modulation. • Figure shows one possible configuration.

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Analog hierarchy

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Wave Division Multiplexing
Very narrow bands of light from different sources are combined to make a wider band of light A prism is used to bend a beam of light based on the angle of incidence and frequency and acts like a multiplexer Another prism may be used to reverse the process and acts like a demultiplexer

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Time division Multiplexing
Each shared connection occupies a portion of time but uses full BW The data flow of each connection is divided into units For n input connections, a frame is t organised into a minimum of n units Each slot carrying one unit from each section Data rate of the link has to be n times the data rate of one unit
Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 155 f

Time division Multiplexing contd.
If the data rate of a link is 3 times the data rate of a connection then the duration of a unit on a connection will be 3 times that of a time slot

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Example Four 1-Kbps connections are multiplexed together. A unit is 1 bit. Find (1) the duration of 1 bit before multiplexing, (2) the transmission rate of the link, (3) the duration of a time slot, and (4) the duration of a frame? Solution

1. The duration of 1 bit is 1/1 Kbps, or 0.001 s (1 ms). 2. The rate of the link is 4 times the rate of connection, i.e. 4 Kbps. 3. The duration of each time slot is 1/4 th of the bit duration before multiplexing i.e. 1/4 ms or 250 µs. or inverse of data rate i.e. 1/4 Kbps = 250 ms. 4. The duration of a frame is same as duration of each unit, i.e. 1 ms. or 4 times the bit duration i.e. 4 * 250 ms = 1ms I / AKN / 157 Computer Networking / Module

Example
Four channels are multiplexed using TDM. If each channel sends 100 bytes/s and we multiplex 1 byte per channel, show the frame traveling on the link, the size of the frame, the duration of a frame, the frame rate, and the bit rate for the link.

Solution

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Example A multiplexer combines four 100-Kbps channels using a time slot of 2 bits. Show the output with four arbitrary inputs. What is the frame rate? What is the frame duration? What is the bit rate? What is the bit duration?

Solution

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Synchronization
• Synchronization between multiplexer and demultiplexer is important otherwise a bit of one channel may be received by other channel • To avoid this one or more synchronization bits may be added called Framing bits

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Example

Solution

We have four sources, each creating 250 1. The data rate of each source characters per second. If the is 250×8=2000 bps interleaved unit is a character and 1 2. The duration of a character synchronizing bit is added to each is 1/250 s, or 4 ms. frame, find 3. The link needs to send 250 (1) the data rate of each source, frames per second. (2) the duration of each character in each 4. The duration of each frame is 1/250 s, or 4 ms. source, 5. Each frame is 4 x 8 + 1 = 33 (3) the frame rate, bits. 6. The data rate of the link is (4) the duration of each frame, 250 x 33, or 8250 bps. (5) the number of bits in each frame, and (6) the data rate of the link.
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Bit Padding
If one or more devices are faster than other devices than faster devices are given more time slots than others e.g. we can accommodate a device 5 times faster than others by giving time slots as 5:1 When speeds are not integer multiples of each other then bit padding is used In bit padding the multiplexer adds extra bits to device’s source stream to force the speed relationships as integer multiples
Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 162

Example 9
Two channels, one with a bit rate of 100 Kbps and another with a bit rate of 200 Kbps, are to be multiplexed. How this can be achieved? What is the frame rate? What is the frame duration? What is the bit rate of the link?

Solution
We can allocate one slot to the first channel and two slots to the second channel. Each frame carries 3 bits. The frame rate is 100,000 frames per second because it carries 1 bit from the first channel. The frame duration is 1/100,000 s, or 10 ms. The bit rate is 100,000 frames/s x 3 bits/frame, or 300 Kbps.
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DS hierarchy
Telephone companies implement TDM through hierarchy of digital signals called Digital Signal service

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T-1 line for multiplexing telephone lines o Digital Signal services are implemented by T Lines (T-1 to T-4) o T Lines are digital lines designed for transmission of digital data, audio or video

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T-1 frame structure
• The frame used on a T-1 line is usually 193 bits divided into 24 slots of 8 bits each plus 1 extra bit for synchronization (24*8 + 1) • If a T-1 line carries 8000 frames then data rate = 193*8000 = 1.544 Kbps

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• Europeans use E Lines in place T Lines. Both are conceptually same only capacity differs
Rate (Mbps) 2.048 8.448 34.368 139.264 Voice Channels 30 120 480 1920

E Line E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4

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Multiplexing and inverse multiplexing • Inverse multiplexing takes data from high speed line and breaks it into portions that can be sent across several lower speed lines • If an organisation wants to send data, audio and video, each requires a different bandwidth • using an agreement called Bandwidth on Demand • The organisation can use any of the channel whenever and however it needs them

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Transmission Media
Signals in the form of electromagnetic energy is propagated through transmission media from one device to another device A selected portion of electromagnetic spectrum are currently usable for telecommunication like Power, radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolate, and X, gamma and cosmic rays etc.

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Classes of transmission media

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Guided Media
Provides a conduit from one device to another, includes Twisted-Pair Cable
Consists of two conductors, each with its own plastic insulation, twisted together

Due to twists, the noise interference and crosstalk affects both wires equally thus cancels each other i.e. no of twists per unit length determines the quality of the cable; more twists mean better quality
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Unshielded vs Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

STP has a metal foil or braided-mesh covering that encases each pair of insulated conductor Metal casing improves mechanical strength, prevents penetration of noise or cross talk but is bulkier and more expensive STP is produced by IBM and seldom used else where. EIA developed standards for UTP in 7 categories
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Categories of Unshielded Twisted-Pair cables
Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (draft) Bandwidth very low < 2 MHz 16 MHz 20 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 600 MHz Data Rate < 100 kbps 2 Mbps 10 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 200 Mbps 600 Mbps Digital/Analog Analog Analog/digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Use Telephone T-1 lines LANs LANs LANs LANs LANs

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UTP Contd.
RJ-45 (Registered-Jack)is used for 4-pair UTP cable UTP can pass a wide range of frequencies Performance is measured as attenuation versus frequency and distance Attenuation is measured as decibels per mile and is increased sharply after 100KHz
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Coaxial Cable
It can carry higher frequency ranges than UTP

The outer metallic wrapping serves both as a shield against noise and as the second conductor These cables are categorized by their radio government (RG) ratings These are categorized according to gauge of wire, thickness and type of insulation, construction of the shield and size of type of outer casing

Category RG-59 RG-58 RG-11

Impedan ce 75 Ω 50 Ω 50 Ω

Use Cable TV Thin Ethernet Thick Ethernet

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Coaxial Cable contd.
BNC connectors are used(Bayone-Neill-Concelman) BNC connector is used to connect end of the cable to a device BNC-T is used in ethernet BNC terminator is used at the end of the cable Attenuation is much higher than the UTP Frequent use of repeaters is needed to avoid attenuation

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Fiber-Optic cables
Transmits signals in the form of visible light It uses the refraction property of light for transmission i.e. light travels in a straight line in an uniform medium and changes the direction when passes from one medium to another having different density

Core: glass or plastic, cladding: covering with less dense glass or plastic Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 177

Propagation modes Current technology allows two modes of propagating light along optical channels

Multimode: multiple beams Single mode: single focused beam
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Mechanism
Multimode step index:
The density of core remains constant from core center to edges. Light moves in a straight line and reflects back from edge Distortion is more as various rays received at different times

Multimode graded index:
The density of core varies (decreases) from core center to edges. Light undergoes a series of refraction Distortion is less as compared to step-index as distance traveled is less and received time variation is less

Single Mode:
Uses focused source of light and step-index fiber having small diameter Propagation of beams is almost horizontal
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Fiber Optics contd.
Optical fibers are defined by the ratio of their diameter of their core to cladding Cable composition
Outer jacket is made of either PVC or teflon Inside the jacket are Kevlar strands to strengthen the cable Below the Kevlar another plastic coating is there The fiber is at the center of the cable, and it consists of cladding and the core

Type 50/125 62.5/125 100/125 7/125

Core 50 62.5 100 7

Clad ding 125 125 125 125

Mode Multimode, graded-index Multimode, graded-index Multimode, graded-index Single-mode

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Fiber Optics contd.
It uses three different types of connectors
Subscriber channel(SC) connector used in cable TV with a push/pull locking system Straight Tip (ST) connector is used for connecting cable to networking devices with a bayonet locking system MT-RJ is a new connector with same size as RJ-45

Attenuation is flatter than TP and coax thus less no of repeaters are needed to transmit(10 times less)
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Advantages and Disadvantages
Adavntages Higher Bandwidth
BW is not limited by medium but by signal generation and reception

Less Signal Attenuation
Can run 50 KM without regeneration

No electromagnetic interference Resistance to corrosive materials Light weight Tapping is difficult Disadvantages Installation and Maintenance Unidirectional (two fibers needed to make it bi-directional) Cost
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Unguided Media

It transports electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor called Wireless Communication

Unguided signals can travel from source to destination in several ways

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Radio and microwaves of Electromagnetic spectrum is divided into 8 ranges
Band VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Range 3–30 KHz 30–300 KHz 300 KHz–3 MHz 3–30 MHz 30–300 MHz 300 MHz–3 GHz 3–30 GHz 30–300 GHz Propagation Ground Ground Sky Sky Sky and line-of-sight Line-of-sight Line-of-sight Line-of-sight Application Long-range radio navigation Radio beacons and navigational locators AM radio Citizens band (CB), ship/aircraft communication VHF TV, FM radio UHF TV, cellular phones, paging, satellite Satellite communication Long-range radio navigation

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Wireless transmission waves
Wireless transmission is broadly divided into three groups
Radio Wave: Between 3KHz to 1GHz, omni directional, can travel long distance thus making suitable for log-distance broadcasting like AM radio, FM radio, TV, cordless phones etc. Low and medium frequencies can penetrate walls, uses omni directional antennas, high interference Microwave: Ranging from 1 and 300GHz, unidirectional, low interference uses unidirectional antennas with line-of-Sight (LOS) propagation Very high frequency microwaves cannot penetrate walls, used for long distance transmission, cellular phones, wireless LANs, two types: terrestrial microwave and satellite microwave Infrared: frequencies from 300GHz to 400THz, can be used for very short range communication, cannot penetrate walls, confined to one room only(remote control of TV), no licensing required May be used to communicate between devices such as keyboards, mice, PCs, printers, handset, PDAs etc.
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Antennas
Radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves Coupling of wires to space for radio transmission
It works as an adapter between a guided and unguided media Unidirectional Antenna

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Switching
To connect multiple devices over a distance we adopt a method called switching Switches are hardware and/or software devices capable of creating temporary connections as per requirements A switched network consists of a series of interlinked switches Switching Methods
Circuit switching Packet switching
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Circuit Switching
It creates a direct physical connection between two devices i.e. it establishes a physical circuit before transmission It uses a device with n I/P s and m O/Ps Circuit Switching Techniques Space Division Switches Crossbar switch, multistage switch Time division switches Time Slot Interchange, TDM Bus
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Crossbar switch

It connects n I/Ps and m O/Ps in a grid Each cross point consists of a electronic switch

The order of switch required is huge O(n×m) It is impractical because of the size of the crossbar It is also inefficient because in practice 25% of the switches are used at a given time
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Multistage switch

Uses crossbar switches in several stages The design of multistage switch depends on the no of stages and the no of switches required in each stage

Number of outputs in one stage=number of switches in the next stage The number of cross points required is much less than a crossbar switch The reduction in the number of cross points results in blocking. i.e. one input is blocked to connect to a output due to unavailability of a path
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Time Division Switches

It uses time division multiplexing to achieve switching Time Slot Interchange(TSI)
It changes ordering of slots based on desired connections

It consists of RAM with several memory location Size of each location is same as size of time slot TSI fills up incoming data inorder of reception Slots are sent out in an order based on the decission of control unit
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TDM Bus
In this case the I/P and O/P are connected to a high speed bus through input output gates Each input gate is closed during the time slots and only one output gate is closed. The controlling unit decided which switches are to be closed
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TDM Bus
Space division switches have no delay and time division switches requires cross points Combining both technologies will result in switches that are optimised both in physically (no of components) and temporally (delay) It can be designed as TST, TSST, STTS, etc.

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Telephone Network

Telephone network is made of three major components: local loops, trunks, and switching offices Local loop: that connects the subscriber telephone to the nearest end office or local central office Trunk: transmission media that handle the communication between offices, normally handles hundreds or thousands of connections through multiplexing Switching Office: A switch connects several local loops or trunks and allows a connection between different subscribers.
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Making a Connection
Accessing the switching station at the end offices is accomplished through dialing In case of rotary dialing a digital signal is sent to the end office In case of touch-tone technique two analog signals are sent to the end office, depending on the row and column of the switch position. e.g. for 8, the signals 852Hz and 1336Hz are sent

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Note: Voice communication used analog signals in the past, but is now moving to digital signals. On the other hand, dialing started with digital signals (rotary) and is now moving to analog signals (touchtone).

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Packet Switching
Circuit switching are best suited for voice communication, as data communication are bursty in nature i.e. data transmitted in blocks with gaps between them A circuit switched link assumes a single data rate for both devices In Circuit switching all transmissions are equal, priority base communication is not allowed In Packet switching data transmitted in discrete units called packets There are two approaches for packet switching
Datagram approach, and Virtual Circuit approach
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Datagram Approach

In this approach each packet treated independently called datagrams Each datagram contains appropriate information about the destinations and the network carries the datagrams towards destination Datagrams may reach at destination out of order The links joining each pair of nodes may contain multiple channels. Each of these channels is capable of carrying datagrams from several sources or from a single source
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Virtual Circuit Approach
In this approach the relationship between all packets belonging to a message is preserved A single route is chosen between sender and receiver at the beginning of session All packets now travel one after another along the same route It is implemented in two formats
Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC), and Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)

Switched Virtual Circuit
A Virtual Circuit is created whenever it is needed (e.g. TCP’s three way handshake) and exists for the duration of the specific exchange Each time a device makes a connection to another device, the route may be same or may differ in response to varying network conditions

Permanent Virtual Circuit
The same virtual circuit is provided between two users on a contineous basis. The circuit is dedicated to specific users without making a connection establishment or release
Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 199

A Comparison for data traffic
A circuit switch connection creates a physical path between two points where as a virtual circuit creates a route between two points The Network resources (link and switches) that make a path are dedicated but that make a route can be shared by other connections The line efficiency is greater in Packet switching as a single link can be shared by many packets over time A packet switching network can perform data-rate conversion. i.e. two stations having different data rates can exchange packets but it is not possible in circuit switching In a typical user/host data connection, much of the time line is idle thus making circuit switching inefficient When traffic becomes heavy on a circuit switching network, some calls are blocked, but in packet switching network
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Effect of Packet Size

Virtual circuit from x to y a and b are intermediate switches Message of size 40 octets Packet header 3 octets (control information) Case I: entire message sent as one packet Case II: entire message sent as two packets Case III: entire message sent as five packets Case IV: entire message sent as ten packets Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 201

Packet Size contd.
Case I
packet is first transmitted from X to a. when the entire packet is received by a, it can then be transmitted to b. Ignoring switching time, total transmission time is 43×3=129 octet time

Case II
Node a can begin transmitting the first packet as soon it has arrived from X, without waiting for the second packet. Overlapping in transmission time! Total transmission time is 23×4=92 octet time

Case III
packets are transmitted still faster due to more number of overlapping Total transmission time is 11×7=77 octet time

Case IV
Total transmission time is 7×12=84 octet time Time is increased as fixed header becomes an overhead. i.e. 3 ×10=30 octets of header information for 40 octets of data!
Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 202

One more comparison
Performance
Propagation delay
Time it takes a signal to propagate from one node to another

Transmission Time
Time it takes for a transmitter to push a block of data to the medium

Propagation delay
Time it takes for a node to perform the necessary processing as it switches data
Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 203

Circuit Switching
Dedicated transmission path

Datagram
No dedicated path

Virtual-Circuit
No dedicated path Transmission of packet Fast enough for interactive Packets may be stored until delivered Route established for entire conversation Call setup delay, packet transmission delay Sender notified of connection denial

Continuous transmission of data Transmission of packet Fast enough for interactive Messages are not stored The path is established for entire conversation Call set-up delay, transmission delay Busy signal if called party busy Overload may block call setup; no delay for established calls Usually no speed or code conversion Fast enough for interactive Packets may be stored until transmitted Route established for each packet Packet transmission delay Sender may be notified if packet not delivered

Overload increases packet delay Overload may block call set-up; increases packet delay Speed and code conversion Speed and code conversion

Fixed Bandwidth No overhead bits after call setup

Dynamic use of bandwidth

Dynamic use of bandwidth

Overhead bits in each Overhead bits in each packet packet Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 204

End of Module I

Computer Networking / Module I / AKN / 205

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