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CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Chapter Outline 1.1 Analog Integrated Circuit Design 1.2 Technology Impact on Analog IC Design 1.3 Analog Signal Processing 1.4 Notation, Symbology and Terminology 1.5 Summary Objectives The objective of this course is to teach analog integrated circuit design using today’s technologies and in particular, CMOS technology. Approach 1. Develop a firm background on technology and modeling 2. Present analog integrated circuits in a hierarchical, bottom-up manner 3. Emphasize understanding and concept over analytical methods (simple models) 4. Illustrate the correct usage of the simulator in design 5. Develop design procedures that permit the novice to design complex analog circuits (these procedures will be modified with experience)
CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Introduction (2/22/03) © P.E. Allen - 2003 Page 1.0-2
Organization (Second Edition of CMOS Analog IC Design)
Chapter 9 Switched Capacitor Circuits Systems Chapter 10 D/A and A/D Converters
Chapter 6 Simple CMOS & BiCMOS OTA's Complex
Chapter 7 High Performance OTA's
Chapter 8 CMOS/BiCMOS Comparators
Chapter 4 CMOS Subcircuits
Chapter 5 CMOS Amplifiers
Chapter Chapter10 2 CMOS/BiCMOS D/A and A/D Technology Converters Devices
Chapter Chapter11 3 CMOS/BiCMOS Analog Modeling Systems
CMOS Analog Circuit Design
© P.E. Allen - 2003
Allen .2003 Page 1. 1. 1-1 Unique Features of Analog IC Design • Geometry is an important part of the design Electrical Design → Physical Design → Test Design • Usually implemented in a mixed analog-digital circuit • Analog is 20% and digital 80% of the chip area • Analog requires 80% of the design time • Analog is designed at the circuit level • Passes for success: 2-3 for analog.1-1 SECTION 1. Successful Solution Function or Application Fig.1-2 © P.E.ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN What is Analog IC Design? Integrated Analog IC design is the successful Circuit implementation of analog circuits and Technology systems using integrated circuit technology. Allen .1 .1-2 The Analog IC Design Flow Conception of the idea Definition of the design Electrical Design Comparison with design specifications Implementation Comparison with design specifications Simulation Physical Definition Physical Design Physical Verification Parasitic Extraction Fabrication Fabrication Testing and Product Development CMOS Analog Circuit Design Testing and Verification Product Fig.E.Chapter 1 – Section 1 (4/9/02) Page 1.2003 . 1 for digital CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 1 (4/9/02) © P.
1-3 • Physical Aspects Implementation of the physical design including: .Chapter 1 – Section 1 (4/9/02) Page 1.binary signals have two amplitude states Designed at the systems level Component have fixed values Standard CAD tools have been extremely successful Timing models only Programmable by software Regular blocks Easy to route automatically Dynamic range unlimited © P. Allen .Connections between the above ..E.2003 Page 1.2003 .External connections • Testing Aspects Design and implementation for the experimental verification of the circuit after fabrication CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 1 (4/9/02) © P.Busses for power and clock distribution .1-3 Analog IC Design . 1.1-4 Comparison of Analog and Digital Circuits Analog Circuits Signals are continuous in amplitude and can be continuous or discrete in time Designed at the circuit level Components must have a continuum of values Customized CAD tools are difficult to apply Requires precision modeling Performance optimized Irregular block Difficult to route automatically Dynamic range limited by power supplies and noise (and linearity) CMOS Analog Circuit Design Digital Circuits Signal are discontinuous in amplitude and time . Allen .E.Transistors and passive components .Continued • Electrical Aspects Circuit or systems specifications Analog Integrated Circuit Design . L W/L ratios M3 W VDD M6 M4 Cc vout vin + M1 M2 CL + VBias - M5 VSS M7 Topology DC Currents Fig.
2003 Page 1.TECHNOLOGY IMPACT ON ANALOG IC DESIGN Trends in CMOS Technology • Moore’s law: The minimum feature size tends to decrease by a factor of 1/ 2 every three years.Chapter 1 – Section 1 (4/9/02) Page 1.13µm 0.0V Power Supply Voltage 2.E.2-1 SECTION 1. Allen .07µm 3.2 .0V Portable Systems 1995 1998 2001 Year 2004 2007 2010 Fig.5V 1.25µm 0.breadth (analog only is rare) • Be able to learn from failure • Be able to use simulation correctly Simulation “truths”: ♦ (Usage of a simulator) x (Common sense) ≈ Constant ♦ Simulators are only as good as the models and the knowledge of those models by the designer ♦ Simulators are only good if you already know the answers CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 2 (4/9/02) © P.18µm 0. analog circuits are more complex than digital • Requires an ability to grasp multiple concepts simultaneously • Must be able to make appropriate simplifications and assumptions • Requires a good grasp of both modeling and technology • Have a wide range of skills .2-1 © P. • Semiconductor Industry Association roadmap for CMOS Feature Size 0.10µm 0.35µm 0.2003 CMOS Analog Circuit Design .E. Allen .1-5 Skills Required for Analog IC Design • In general.0V Desktop Systems 1.5V 2. 1.
05 0. µm 1 Fig.2-3 Trends in IC Technology Technology Speed Figure of Merit vs.2 0.8µm 0.2-3A Estimated Frequency Performance based on Scaling: Technology 0.35µm 0.25 micron 0.E.5µm 1µm 0.5 MOSFET Channel Length.Chapter 1 – Section 2 (4/9/02) Page 1.01 0.01µm 0. 1.2-2 VDD VT CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 2 (4/9/02) © P.Continued Threshold voltages and power supply: 2003-2006 Power Supply and Threshold Voltage (Volts) 10 5 2 1 0. Allen .5µm 0. HBTs ft 100GHz 30GHz 10GHz 3GHz 1GHz GaAs Bipolar CMOS 3µm 2µm 1.25µm 0.1 0.18 micron CMOS Analog Circuit Design ft 25GHz 40GHz 60GHz fmax 40GHz ≈60-70GHz ≈90-100GHz © P.2 0.2003 Page 1.18µm Carrier Frequency of RF Cellular Telephony 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 Year Fig.6µm SiGe 0.02 0. 1.2-2 Trends in CMOS Technology .1 0. Allen .E. Time: Hemts.2003 .5 0.35 micron 0.
Chapter 1 – Section 2 (4/9/02) Page 1. 1.2-5 © P. 1.2-4 Discrete Transistors Bipolar Analog IC Candidates for the 90’s and 00’s • SiGe? • Packaging? • Opto-electronics? • Vertically integrated transistors? CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 2 (4/9/02) © P.2-5 Technology-Driven versus Application-Driven Innovation Technology driven circuit innovation: NewTechnology Innovative Solution Generic Function Application driven circuit innovation: Standard Technology Innovative Solution New Application CMOS Analog Circuit Design Fig. Allen . circuit innovation was driven by new technologies.E.2-4 Innovation in Analog IC Design In the past. Allen .2003 Page 1.2003 . Rate of Circuit Innovation Ideal Actual ? 1950 1960 1970 1980 MOS Analog IC 1990 2000 Fig.E.
IC Design Development Effort to Approach Maturity 0. Allen .35µm 0.2003 Page 1.2-6 IC Design Development Time A steeper ramp for the IC design development is required for every new generation of technology.0µm Time Fig.2003 .2-7 Implications of Technology on IC Design The good: • Smaller geometries • Smaller parasitics • Higher transconductance • Higher bandwidths The bad: • Reduced voltages • Smaller channel resistances (lower gain) • More nonlinearity • Deviation from square-law behavior The ugly: • Increased substrate noise in mixed signal applications • Threshold voltages are not scaling with power supply • Reduced dynamic range • Suitable models for analog design CMOS Analog Circuit Design © P.6µm Increasing generation performance 0. Allen .E.E. 1.8µm 1.Chapter 1 – Section 2 (4/9/02) Page 1.2-6 Results: • Scramble to develop new tools • Complexity is increasing with each new scaling generation • Need more trained and skilled circuit designers CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 2 (4/9/02) © P.
1.3-1 CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 3 (4/9/02) © P. .E.3-2 © P. . 1.ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING Signal Bandwidths versus Application Video Seismic Sonar Audio 1 RF Microwave Radar Acoustic Imaging AM-FM radio. Allen .3-2 Signal Bandwidths versus Technology Mostly digital implementation BiCMOS Bipolar analog Bipolar digital logic Surface acoustic waves MOS digital logic MOS analog 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M Signal Frequency (Hz) 100M CMOS Analog Circuit Design . . Mostly analog implementation Fuzzy boundary. . TV Telecommunications Optical 1 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M Signal Frequency (Hz) 100M 1G 10G 100G Fig. . . Allen . keeps moving to the right Optical GaAs 1G 10G 100G Fig.2003 . .3 . .3-1 SECTION 1. .Chapter 1 – Section 3 (4/9/02) Page 1.E.2003 Page 1.
filters • Bandgap reference • Analog phase lock loops • DC-DC conversion • Buffers • Codecs · · · Existing philosophy regarding analog circuits: “If it can be done economically by digital.3-3 Analog IC Design has Reached Maturity There are established fields of application: • Digital-analog and analog-digital conversion • Disk drive controllers • Modems .Chapter 1 – Section 3 (4/9/02) Page 1. Allen . don’t use analog. CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 3 (4/9/02) © P.E.3-4 Eggshell Analogy of Analog IC Design (Paul Gray) Power Source Transmission Media Physical Sensors Actuators VLSI DIGITAL SYSTEM Imagers & Displays Storage Media Analog/Digital Interface Electronics CMOS Analog Circuit Design Audio I/O Fig.E. Allen .3-3 © P.” Consequently: Analog finds applications where speed. 1. area. or power have advantages over a digital approach.2003 .2003 Page 1.
Chapter 1 – Section 3 (4/9/02) Page 1.function oriented (adaptable. area) Classical analog circuit and systems design • Cognitive .3-5 Analog Signal Processing versus Digital Signal Processing in VLSI Key issues: Analog/Digital mix is application dependent Not scaling driven Driven by system requirements for programmability/adaptability/testability/designability Now: ASP A/D DSP System Trend: ASP A/D DSP System Fig. accuracy.E.3-4 CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 3 (4/9/02) © P.2003 Page 1. massively parallel) A newly growing area inspired by biological systems Analog VLSI (An oxymoron): Combination of analog circuits and VLSI philosophies • Many similarities between analog circuits and biological systems Scalability Nonlinearity Adaptability • Neuromorphic analog VLSI Use of biological systems to inspire circuit design such as smart sensors and imagers • Smart autonomous systems Self-guided vehicles (Mars lander) Industrial cleanup in a hazardous environment • Sensorimotor feedback Self contained systems with sensor input. Allen . motor output CMOS Analog Circuit Design © P. power.E. Allen . 1.2003 .performance oriented (speed.3-6 Application Areas of Analog IC Design There are two major areas of analog IC design: • Restituitive .
E.innovation will combine new applications with existing or improved technologies • Semicustom methodology will eventually evolve with CAD tools that will allow: . Allen . phasor.3-7 What is the Future of Analog IC Design? • Technology will require more creative circuit solutions in order to achieve desired performance • Analog circuits will continue to be a part of large VLSI digital systems • Interference and noise will become even more serious as the chip complexity increases • Packaging will be an important issue and offers some interesting solutions • Analog circuits will always be at the cutting edge of performance • Analog designer must also be both a circuit and systems designer and must know: Technology and modeling Analog circuit design VLSI digital design System application concepts • There will be no significantly new and different technologies . 1.NOTATION.E. AND TERMINOLOGY Definition of Symbols for Various Signals Signal Definition Quantity Subscript Example Total instantaneous value of the signal Lowercase Uppercase qA DC value of the signal Uppercase Uppercase QA AC value of the signal Lowercase Lowercase qa Complex variable.4-1 CMOS Analog Circuit Design © P. SYMBOLOGY.Automated design and layout of simple analog circuits CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 4 (4/9/02) © P.Design capture and reuse .2003 Page 1.Quick extraction of model parameters from new technology .4-1 SECTION 1.Chapter 1 – Section 3 (4/9/02) Page 1. or rms value Uppercase Lowercase Qa of the signal Example: Drain Current Idm id ID iD t Fig.Test design .4 . Allen .2003 .
4-2 MOS Transistor Symbols D Enhancement NMOS with VBS = 0V. op amp.2003 Page 1. D S Enhancement B PMOS with VBS ≠ 0V. voltage source + A vV1 - V2 - I1 + Voltage-controlled. S D Simple NMOS symbol S CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 4 (4/9/02) S Enhancement PMOS with VBS = 0V.E.Chapter 1 – Section 4 (4/9/02) Page 1.E. current source I2 RmI1 + - V2 - Ai I1 Current-controlled. S D Enhancement B NMOS with VBS ≠ 0V. Allen . or comparator V + V + V Independent current source I2 + Independent voltage sources + + V1 GmV1 + V1 I1 Voltage-controlled. Allen .4-3 G G G G G G Other Schematic Symbols + Differential amplifier. D S Simple PMOS symbol D © P. voltage source CMOS Analog Circuit Design Current-controlled. current source © P.2003 .
don’t use analog”.SUMMARY Analog IC design combines a function or application with IC technology for a successful solution. Allen .) (a.5-1 • • • • • • • • 1. and dc currents 2. area. Allen . (b.) (c.4-4 Three-Terminal Notation (Data books) QABC A = Terminal with the larger magnitude of potential B = Terminal with the smaller magnitude of potential C = Condition of the remaining terminal with respect to terminal B C = 0 ⇒ There is an infinite resistance between terminal B and the 3rd terminal C = S ⇒ There is a zero resistance between terminal B and the 3rd terminal C = R ⇒ There is a finite resistance between terminal B and the 3rd terminal C = X ⇒ There is a voltage source in series with a resistor between terminal B and the 3rd terminal in such a manner as to reverse bias a PN junction. As a result of the above.) (b.) Physical design (Layout) 3.) Breakdown voltage from drain to gate with the source is open.) Capacitance from drain to gate with the source shorted to the gate. Examples I DSS S D S D - VGS + G CDGS G D + IDS S G BVDGO - (a. Analog IC design consists of three major steps: 1. Analog IC design has reached maturity and is here to stay.Chapter 1 – Section 4 (4/9/02) Page 1. CMOS Analog Circuit Design Chapter 1 – Section 5 (4/9/02) © P.) Test design (Testing) Analog designers must be flexible and have a skill set that allows one to simplify and understand a complex problem Analog IC design is driven by improving technologies rather than new technologies. W/L values. The appropriate philosophy is “If it can be done economically by digital.E.2003 Page 1.5 .circuited to the gate.) Electrical design ⇒ Topology.2003 . or power have advantages over a digital approach.) Drain-source current when gate is shorted to source (depletion device) (c. Deep-submicron technologies will offer severe challenges to the creativity of the analog designer. analog finds applications where speed.E. CMOS Analog Circuit Design © P.
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