You are on page 1of 18

FOR PRE-TOEFL PREP

®

150
o i d u A FREE e
ag s s a p y for ever ne! onli ad o l n w o D

ACADEMIC KEYWORDS

Learn academic English vocabulary fast, and have fun doing it!
®

Global English Express TOEFL Vocabulary Series #1
TOEFL is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS). This book is not sponsored or endorsed by ETS.

Kristina J. Hasanova

you are required to provide a link to www. Please include the following statement on any distributed copy: ©2012 Global English Express. . provided that you do not alter the content in any way and do not charge a fee beyond the cost of reproduction. If you would like to report a concern regarding the images used in this book. For web posting.com. Great care has been taken to ensure that all images are copyright-free and useable. please contact us at www.© 2012 Global English Express Permissions: You are permitted and encouraged to reproduce and distribute this free material.com. Website: www.globalenglishexpress.com Image Credits: The images contained in this book are in the public domain and have been obtained from Wikimedia Commons and The Open Clip Art Library.globalenglishexpress.globalenglishexpress.

150 FOR PRE-TOEFL PREP ACADEMIC KEYWORDS ® Learn academic English vocabulary fast. Hasanova 3 .globalenglishexpress. and have fun doing it! Kristina J. To view the entire free eBook.This sample version includes 10 lessons.com. visit us at www.

In addition. With 150 Academic Keywords for Pre-TOEFL® Prep. However. Now.com to give us feedback on this tool. The passages start with inspiring stories of famous Americans who have worked hard and overcome obstacles. In the 150 Academic Keywords book. easy format.globalenglishexpress. such as choosing a career and a university. While this works for students who already have high academic vocabularies. The passages and accompanying audio are interesting. just looking at some of the thick TOEFL® study books can make you feel nervous! That’s why Global English Express developed the TOEFL® vocabulary series. doesn’t it? For Teachers When many students begin studying for the TOEFL®. for other students. or sitting at the park. The combination can be overwhelming. Finally.com.globalenglishexpress. Listen to the audio over and over to remember the words really well. We know that getting a good score on this test is important to you. We’d love to know how you are using these materials to promote quality education for every person. The passages then offer helpful tips for essential life-skills and finish off by exploring some modern. don’t forget that the 150 Academic Keywords book is just a bridge to bring students from basic conversational fluency into greater understanding of academic language. Then. intense TOEFL® books right away. that sounds much easier than memorizing word lists.globalenglishexpress. can’t it? Some students are ready to take the test and don’t need much extra practice. growing careers. You can listen while riding the bus. and they are written in very simple academic English. we think more students could succeed in higher education study if given the proper tools. We believe that quality education should accessible to everyone. academic study guides and try to memorize large amounts of words. Research has shown that listening repeatedly to audio is an excellent way to learn and remember English. walking to work. in every place! . they are suddenly learning about new subjects and concepts that they may have never studied before. Not only are they trying to memorize huge amounts of new information. many are also trying to discern how Western methods of education work. you can begin to build your academic vocabulary in a fun. and many students give up quickly. We also think that many students tire themselves out by starting with high-level. When a student has built a sufficient base of academic words. Then the passages discuss topics students are currently thinking about. Thanks for using 150 Academic Keywords. and we know it takes a lot of work to get there. and don’t forget to connect with us to tell us how we can improve to meet your stduents needs better. when you get to the more difficult study books. our goal is to begin building a large base of academic words in students’ minds using a fun.For Students Studying for the TOEFL® can be a scary experience.com. you’ll be able to understand the lessons easily! Make sure you download the free audio that goes with this book at www. they jump right into intense. relevant topics to the pre-TOEFL® student. stress-free way. and we’re pleased to make useful resources available for free at www. You’ll notice that all the student materials for 150 Academic Keywords are available totally free. it’s time to begin more intensive study using a resource such as The Official Guide to the TOEFL® by the Educational Testing Service. other students become quickly discouraged. At Global English Express. Visit us at www.

c o m 5 . the Read Naturally strategy for reading fluency. Thank you for helping me learn how to prepare people for this important test using the best methods possible. In particular.Acknowlegements This book and its acompanying audio are a very simple. However. g l o b a l e n g l i s h e x p r e s s . Zahid. Kristina holds a bachelor of arts in English Writing and spent three years in the educational publishing industry. informal learning tool for ESL learners. About Global English Express Global English Express is a professional English editing and instructional service run by Kristina Hasanova. Hoge’s 7 Rules of Excellent English Speaking. She received linguistics and literacy specialist training through SIL International at the University of North Dakota and has participated in numerous ESL trainings and workshops. Navid. w w w. Victoria University of Wellington. the body of educational research undergirding this simple resource is extensive. Most of the academic keywords taught in these passages (152 out of 154 words) are taken from the Academic Word List. She has taught ESL in the United States and in Azerbaijan. compiled by Averil Coxhead. The Academic Word List is comprised of the most-used academic words used in universities and therefore represents a foundational vocabulary for students preparing for the TOEFL®. And finally. who has over five years in editing experience and four years in ESL teaching experience. I am grateful for the insight provided by methods such as Greg Thomson’s Growing Participator Approach. and A.J. and Gulnar. thank you to my wonderful husband Vusal. I’m also grateful for the patience of my first TOEFL® preparation students: Parya. whose sharp insight and skillful understanding of educational methods has directed every step of this project.

Require students to listen to the audio several times before the next class session. • Use the book to fill extra time in regular. discuss the topic.globalenglishexpress. Ask students to write a response to the topic before the next club. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. Make copies of a passage for students to read if they finish an exam early. At the club. follow these instructions carefully. ESL teachers may wish to use the following ideas for teaching with 150 Academic Words: • Use the book for a conversation club. and discuss the keywords and passages in your study times together. then begin teaching from more intensive TOEFL® instructional books. instructions are included at the bottom of each page. For the best results. upper-level ESL classes. Use this book to build students’ vocabularies. 6 . ask students questions to test whether they have retained the keywords. Ask students to listen to the audio several times before coming to the club. During the next class. Assign listening passages as homework. • Use this book to tutor students in one-on-one pre-TOEFL® preparation. • Form a pre-TOEFL® study group for students interested in taking the test. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. We encourage you to focus mainly on listening to and comprehending the audio clips. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times.How to Use This Book This book is a supplement to the 150 Academic Keywords for Pre-TOEFL® Prep audio series. To remind you to use the audio clips. Repeated listening is a great way to build comprehension.com. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review.

Lincoln led his country during the American Civil War and worked hard to eliminate slavery. Through diligent study and hard work. Finally. He observed lawyers and learned from them. he even walked 20 miles (which is 32 kilometers) just to borrow one book! Later. Because his family lived in a remote region of the United States. During his time in office. Lincoln kept a wise perspective.Lesson 1: An Unlikely President region | available | despite | perspective | constantly | legislation | eliminate Do you live in a place where it is difficult get a good education? Have you ever wished you had the money to travel somewhere else and study? Abraham Lincoln is an amazing example of a man who started out in a poor family in a small town and rose to become the president of the United States. In 1862. uneducated boy grew up to become one of the most remembered presidents of the United States of America. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. Lincoln became interested in law. he kept a book with him. He saw that he could educate himself. but now they had Source: Wikimedia Commons very little.com. When Lincoln was a little boy. Lincoln became the 16th president of the United States.globalenglishexpress. teachers were not always available to teach in the local school. When he couldn’t find a new book to read. his mother died. a poor. he began a career in legislation and served as a lawmaker in the state of Illinois. Lincoln had only attended less than two years of formal school. When Lincoln was just 9 nine years old. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. despite these challenges. However. his father lost all of the family’s property. 7 . Then. Even though teachers were difficult to find. Their family had once been prosperous. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. he would read the same books over and over. Once. Lincoln’s life was difficult. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. he approved the bill that ended slavery in the United States. He read constantly. and he had to spend lots of time in hard manual labor to help his family. Everywhere he went. he didn’t stop learning. By the time he was 21.

he didn’t give up. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.Lesson 2: Try It Again target | persistence | creative | conducting | subsequently | modify | contrary Reaching a goal can sometimes be discouraging. many times in the process. However. Edison worked on hundreds of inventions. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. You see where your target. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. Thomas Edison is a great example of this kind of persistence. When he failed. I am not discouraged. Source: Wikimedia Commons When Edison was young. At home. he said. Subsequently. 8 .com. he had a hard time focusing in school. he didn’t stop trying. but then you look at all the steps you need to take before you get there. Some failed. He had a creative mind and was always thinking of interesting things to do. His teacher didn’t think very highly of him. and his mother actually pulled him out of school to study at home.000 ways something won't work. looking at the example of people who have gone before you should encourage you to be courageous! Often people who achieve their goals have failed many. “If I find 10. Edison worked for a very long time to modify the light bulb. He was constantly conducting experiments. I haven't failed. because every wrong attempt discarded is another step forward. Edison read many books and loved to learn. he started a fire in a train where he had set up a chemical experiment.globalenglishexpress.” Now. he is known around the globe as the man who brought electric light to the world. he lost his job. Once. On the contrary. However. but others became very famous.

Lesson 3: Mrs.com. She once wrote to her husband to remember women in his legislation. and history. theology. 9 . John Adams valued his wife’s advice deeply. and his diplomatic service in Europe for his new country. Though Abigail had not received a formal education. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. she had studied a wide range of subjects at home. the press began to call Abigail “Mrs. However. and she had a very intelligent mind. In fact. President range | intelligent | couple | correspondence | revolution | advocate | gender One of the most well-known presidents in American history is John Adams. John and Abigail wrote many letters to each other throughout their married life. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. the second president of the United States. She had read books on topics such as philosophy. She urged him to make laws that were fair to the female gender. their correspondence was retained and can be read today. the couple often called each other. Abigail was also an advocate for women.globalenglishexpress. his role as a Founding Father of the United States. The letters provide accurate descriptions of the American Revolution from eyewitnesses who watched the ongoing war happen. President” because they thought that she influenced many of John’s decisions. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context.” Thankfully. In them. John Adams was famous for his skill as a lawyer. “my dearest friend. fewer people know about the most significant person in John Adams’ life: Abigail Adams. John frequently sought her Source: Wikimedia Commons counsel and opinions on matters related to politics and government.

• Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. he was personally attacked several times. drink water from separate places. This created problems for the bus lines.000 people in marching to Washington D. Later.globalenglishexpress. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. Even worse. Still. King persevered and stood for the cause he believed in. The tense boycott situation drew national attention to the problem of discrimination and eventually resulted in new legislation. and his home was even bombed once. spent years organizing non-violent protests against discrimination. He was arrested more than twenty times for his work. People from minority races faced discrimination constantly. 10 .Lesson 4: Fighting Discrimination racism | discrimination | ignored | alter | revenue | tense | vision In the early 20th century. King was tragically killed. Martin Luther King. many black people were denied employment by many companies and couldn’t live in certain areas. and attend different schools than white-skinned people. because they received much of their revenue from black people.com. There he gave a famous speech in which he shared his vision of the United States as a country where people would not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. King led 250. In 1968. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. racism was all over the United States. Others wanted to see change happen. Some people ignored the situation. Alabama. King assisted in leading a boycott in which black people refused to Source: Wikimedia Commons ride city buses in Montgomery. Jr. to again promote Civ il Rights. In 1955.C. Black people were forced to ride at the back of the bus. One man worked very hard to alter the treatment of black people in the United States. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. he had made significant progress in the fight against discrimination. But before his death.

Ask if you can accompany them to work for a day and get a real idea of what their job is like. You don’t want to spend time and energy studying. what Source: Open Clip Art Library kinds of things did you naturally like to do? Did you like to build things with your hands? Did you sit inside reading all day? Now that you are older. It’s also important to know yourself well. Or perhaps you’ve always been interested in languages. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. research the career outlook of your possible options on the Internet. Thankfully.globalenglishexpress. Do any interest you? Identify five or six interesting careers. What kind of educational background do you need for the jobs you are interested in? Do you need a good understanding of math or an ability to write well? Look honestly at whether the requirements for the job fit your natural abilities and your interests. and ask them questions about their career. Consult someone who works in the field you are interested in.com. Finally. but you’re just not sure what career to pursue. there are many resources available on the Internet today to help you make a wise decision. For example. what do you do in your spare time? Do like playing video games or enjoying nature outside? Make a list of the skills you have and the things you enjoy doing. only to find out that your chosen profession no longer exists! Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. When choosing a career. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times.Lesson 5: How to Choose a Career pursue | factors | research | consult | accompany | declining | purchase Maybe you’ve always wanted to be a doctor. there are many factors to consider. Many websites provide information about whether a particular career is growing or declining. When you were young. 11 . Then search the Internet for careers in those areas and make another list of potential careers. research the education needed for those careers. travel agents are becoming less popular as more people just go to the Internet to purchase travel tickets. Next.

Here are a few tips to help you as you decide where to begin your education. Liberal arts universities offer a broad education that covers a range of different topics. Finally. Learn about the environment. 12 . like mechanics or radiology. Choose the type of education you will receive. Choose a school whose program fits exactly what you want to study. Does the school require a GED® or TOEFL® score? Do you need to translate your high school transcripts and send them? Make a list of all the requirements. Research well to find an institution that will equip you with the skills you need to accomplish your goals! Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. talk with someone who attended the school. 3. practical skills. Source: Open Clip Art Library 1. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. but there are many resources available to help you on the Internet. or do many people spend lots of time drinking and partying instead of studying? 5. but it’s important to get a reality check by finding out the facts from someone who actually completed their education there.globalenglishexpress. the cost of books. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context.com. 4. Be sure to add student fees. your next task is to select where you will get your education. Schools always promote a great image in their advertising materials. 2. View the school’s website and contact an admissions counselor to determine how much it will cost to complete a degree. Find out how much the institution costs. Picking a good college or university can be a difficult task.Lesson 6: How to Choose a University select | institutions | specific | estimate | located | promote | equip After you’ve chosen the career you want to pursue. and housing into your price estimate. Check the admissions requirements. Some institutions emphasize hands-on learning and teaching specific. Where is the school located? Is the school in a big city or a small town? Is the climate hot or cold? Does the institution have a reputation for being a good place to study. Choosing where to get an education is a very important decision.

Lesson 7: The Community College Advantage alternative | technical | obtain | transfer | equivalent | crucial | eventually When many international students think about studying in America. Source: Open Clip Art Library Often community colleges cost significantly less money than larger colleges or universities. Also. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. For example. it’s crucial to do your research when selecting any school. Many community colleges also offer a liberal arts program. You can complete two years of general classes and then transfer the credits for those courses to a larger university to finish the last two years of your bachelor’s degree. or information technology.globalenglishexpress. business. You may be able to obtain some degrees in only two years. often their first thoughts are of big universities. 13 . make sure that the university will accept your credits from the community college. Make sure the community college you’re interested in has a good reputation. Community or technical colleges are smaller institutions that usually offer training in specific skills. a community college may offer courses in nursing. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. and talk with students who have graduated from it. Transferring credits in this way can save you lots of money. if you want to eventually transfer your credits to a different university.com. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. aviation mechanics. Many universities consider some community college credits to be equivalent to their own general course credits. But did you know that America offers another excellent alternative for international students? American community and technical colleges are a great way for international students to get a quality education. However.

Several United States universities and other organizations offer free. Visit the United States embassy in your country to learn about local scholarship resources. eat out at restaurants less. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. or buy fewer expensive clothing items. Get good grades in high school. It will be easier for them to identify whether or not the scholarship is real. Here are some ideas to help you get started. 14 . You might find that you can attain all the skills you need to get a good job without ever leaving your country! 3. Always ask a native English speaker friend to check out scholarship options you have found. but be careful. The Internet also has many resources for looking for scholarships. there are many opportunities to study for free using online tools. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. attending or starting in a community or technical college—instead of a large university—can save you a large sum of money.Lesson 8: How to Fund Your Education dramatically | acquiring | maintain | attain | sum | finances | seek The costs of education in the United States are rising dramatically. you might be feeling discouraged about how you will pay for good training. Are you still studying in high school? Work very hard to maintain the best grades possible. Seek scholarship options. Today. but it doesn’t need to be impossible. There are many scams that can fool you. For example. Make a budget. and tell them what services you can offer. 5. stop spending money on cigarettes or alcohol.com. 2. Identify places where you can spend less. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. As you consider your options for schooling.globalenglishexpress. 6. There are many websites that can teach you how to use computers well. 4. This will increase your chances of getting scholarships later on. non-credit lessons online in everything from English to math and physics. Source: Open Clip Art Library 1. Do you know how to fix computers? Can you repair bikes or cars? Do you like caring for children? Can you cut hair well? Let your friends and relatives know that you are working to earn money for your education. Be willing to work hard. Do you carefully calculate all the money you earn and spend? Make a simple chart to help you keep track of your finances. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. Do you play an instrument well or excel in a sport? Look for organizations who might give special scholarships to specific students. Consider a community college. Acquiring money for a good education can be difficult. Utilize free educational resources. As we talked about in a previous lesson.

These are helpful to know when communicating with someone Source: Open Clip Art Library who is from a different cultural background than you. They may even think that you are not very trustworthy. but perhaps knowing about some possible differences will help you to understand a friend or colleague better. The Easterner may want to sit down. the Westerner actually feels they are being respectful to the other person. because eye contact in Western cultures can also indicate that you are speaking honestly and truthfully. they will probably approach the meeting very differently. However. However. In many Eastern cultures. and so they may try to speed the conversation along quickly. Here are two areas that are sometimes different. The listener may feel very uncomfortable.com. there are a few generalizations we can make regarding Western communication styles and Eastern communication styles. who they assume is very busy and has many other important things to do in their day.globalenglishexpress. Of course. Getting to the Point Imagine a business meeting between someone from a Western culture and someone from an Eastern culture. Both people want to make a good business deal. Westerners feel very strongly about respecting other people’s time. ongoing eye contact while talking is considered to be friendly and polite.Lesson 9: Cross-Cultural Communication communicate | styles | cultural | indicate | approach | contract | assume People from Eastern and Western backgrounds often communicate quite differently. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. nor are all Westerners. have something to eat or drink together. Every person is different. If you look away or down at the floor while speaking to another person. and slowly begin to talk about the business contract. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. the Westerner may want to get directly to the “point” and start talking about details of the agreement right away. not all Easterners are exactly alike. However. direct eye contact can be considered quite rude. By doing so. Staring someone in the eye directly while talking can appear very aggressive or disrespectful. in many Western cultures. 15 . • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. they might think that you are not interested in the conversation. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. However. Eye Contact In many Eastern cultures. building a relationship is essential and respectful in forming a contract between two business people.

com. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. Ask yourself these two questions: 1. Figuring out the communicator’s purpose will help you to understand the information much better. When you try to understand the content and purpose of the material study. do you just memorize words or passages? Do you try to remember enormous amounts of information so that you can pass a test? You may think that memorizing a lot of information is the primary way to succeed on a test. What is this fast and fun method of learning? The answer is critical thinking. Instead of feeling bored and tired. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. don’t try to memorize facts and information. considering the information. When you study. and deciding what to do with the information. When you study. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. Why is the author or speaker trying to say this? What is the communicator’s purpose in writing or speaking about this information? Are they trying to describe a process? Are they trying to convince you to believe something? Do they want you to take some action based on what you’ve heard? No one communicates without a motive. evaluate what you are studying.” Critical thinking is a process of hearing information. What is this person trying to get across to you? 2. and try to understand it deeply. Instead. However. What is the writer or speaker trying to say? Every good communicator has a reason for communicating something.globalenglishexpress.Lesson 10: Thinking About Thinking fundamental | primary | method | evaluate | convince | motive | transform Have you ever stopped to think about how you think? How do you process ideas in your head? How do you decide what to believe and what not to believe? How do you analyze the information you hear? This process is often called “critical thinking. fundamental skill for students. Source: Open Clip Art Library Critical thinking is an important. you will be interested in and excited about what you are studying! Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www. there is a much better—and much easier!—way to learn and do well on tests. 16 . you will transform your learning experience.

17 . Connect with us on Twitter to get the latest updates on free resources. please visit our website.com This sample book includes 10 lessons from 150 Academic Keywords for Pre-TOEFL® Prep. Connect with us on Facebook! Tell us how this book has helped you. To download the rest of the free lessons.globalenglishexpress. Stay connected to get the latest resources from Global English Express Visit our website for more free English learning resources.Download the rest of this book at www. Connect with us on Pinterest to get free English tips and quotes.

This book is not sponsored or endorsed by ETS. .o i d u A FREE e ag s s a p y for ever ne! onli ad o l n w o D Global English Express TOEFL Vocabulary Series #1 ® TOEFL is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS).