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Ashley Ostendorf Mrs.

Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

LESSON PLAN OUTLINE JMU Elementary Education Program A. TITLE/TYPE OF LESSON A Reading Lesson Compare and Contrast: Benchmark Literacy B. CONTEXT OF LESSON All components of comprehension are addressed in this lesson: activation of background or prior knowledge, asking questions throughout, modeling comprehension strategies, discussion, summarization, vocabulary introduction, sentence composing, and written response. The fourth grade students have been participating in similar structured comprehension lessons every day this school year. They use the term comprehension to describe activities such as re-reading, predicting, using context clues to answer probing questions, and understanding the general sequence and events of certain stories. The students are read aloud to every day in multiple subjects, proving that they have the attention span to sit and listen to a story. I have witnessed the excitement in the student's reactions when being read to aloud, through their constant questioning and blurted out responses. Starting with the read aloud, I will be able to capture their attention. After introducing the strategy of comparing and contrasting by reading the story, the students will receive whole group instruction, comparing and contrasting via the ActivBoard. This Comprehension lessons fit in the sequence of the curriculum in that these children have already learned word patterns and general phonemic awareness and can easily read and write. They now need to analyze two types of writing and be able to make connections, comparisons, and contrasts. This comprehension lesson also encourages active exploration and examination of word features and vocabulary that are within a students stage of literacy development with the word study component. In terms of child development, my students have mastered the emergent and letter name alphabetic stages of orthographic development and some are currently in the within word pattern stage. Because they are in the within word pattern developmental stage and early fluent stage, they can spell most single syllable words correctly, along with most initial consonant digraphs and blends, proving that practice in free-writing is an exceptional way to teach reading and writing skills. C. STANDARDS OF LEARNING 4.6 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of nonfiction texts. a) Use text structures, such as type, headings, and graphics, to predict and categorize information in both print and digital texts b) Formulate questions that might be answered in the selection c) Explain the authors purpose d) Identify the main idea e) Draw conclusions and make simple inferences using textual information as support i) Use prior knowledge and build additional background knowledge as context for learning j) Identify new information gained from reading k) Use reading strategies throughout the reading process to monitor comprehension D. LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Ashley Ostendorf Mrs. Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

Understand Students will understand the function of comparing and contrasting

Know Do Students will identify comparisons Students will determine and and contrasts depicted in pictures. identify important information in a picture

E. ASSESSING LEARNING What will your students do and say, specifically, that indicate every student has achieved your objectives? Remember every objective must be assessed for every student! Objective Students will understand the function of comparing and contrasting Assessment Chart paper list Small group instruction (varied upon level) Venn diagram/graphic organizer Write to a picture prompt Tsunami assessment Data Collected Students will add to the chart paper of important things to watch out for when they are reading. Small group instruction consists of discussion, reading, and writing about comparing and contrasting. A venn diagram will be completed by each student, comparing characters or events in their small group books. Students will have to have a well developed prompt with strong evidence of focus, organization, voice, and correct conventions. Students will accurately compare and contrast the two types of tsunamis as well as be able to accurately answer the passage comprehension questions. Students will add to the chart paper of important things to watch out for when they are reading. Small group instruction consists of discussion, reading, and writing about comparing and contrasting. A venn diagram will be completed by each student, comparing characters or events in their small group books. Students will have to have a well developed prompt with strong evidence of focus, organization, voice, and correct conventions. Students will accurately compare and contrast the two types of

Students will identify comparisons Chart paper list and contrasts depicted in pictures. Small group instruction (varied upon level) Venn diagram/graphic organizer Write to a picture prompt Tsunami assessment

Ashley Ostendorf Mrs. Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

Students will determine and Chart paper list identify important information in a Small group instruction (varied picture upon level) Venn diagram/graphic organizer Write to a picture prompt Tsunami assessment

tsunamis as well as be able to accurately answer the passage comprehension questions. Students will add to the chart paper of important things to watch out for when they are reading. Small group instruction consists of discussion, reading, and writing about comparing and contrasting. A venn diagram will be completed by each student, comparing characters or events in their small group books. Students will have to have a well developed prompt with strong evidence of focus, organization, voice, and correct conventions. Students will accurately compare and contrast the two types of tsunamis as well as be able to accurately answer the passage comprehension questions.

F. MATERIALS NEEDED Chart paper Alike and differences graphic organizer Poster flipbook Small group leveled books White board Cause and effect graphic organizer G. PROCEDURE (CONTENT) Brief timeline: 11:00 Snack/restroom break Read aloud 5-10 minutes Word Study Whole group compare and contrast 15-20 minutes Small group compare and contrast/seatwork Students will come back from encore around 10:50. We will have a restroom break and bring our snacks to our seats. Next, I will read aloud a picture book to the class while they eat their snack to transition them from encore to reading. I will use this fiction text to model the metacognitive strategy of determining text importance. We will start reading with word study. Students will use their face partners to go over their word study words. They will choose a partner A and a partner B. Partner A will read the first column out loud and will mark any words that the pair has a question about. Partner B will do the same. We will go over any word that was marked together as a class, its meaning as well as the sound it should be sorted with. We will discuss

Ashley Ostendorf Mrs. Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

the three sounds out loud and come up with examples of any other words that would possibly fit our sort. This should be a short introduction. I will then introduce the comprehension strategy: compare and contrast I will start with an example: As I walked to school, I saw a big black van with a ladder on top. Then I saw a smaller-sized red van with a ladder on top. How are the vans alike? How are they different? Students will Turn and talk with a partner and share at least one way the two vans are alike and different. I will ask a few students to share with the whole group. I will say: when we tell how two things are alike, we compare them. Both items are vans. Both have ladders on top. When we tell how two things are different, we contrast them. One van is black; the other van is red. One van is big; the other is little. We often compare and contrast when we talk. Writers do this, too. Good readers know how to compare and contrast people, events, and ideas in fiction and nonfiction texts. Were going to practice comparing and contrasting this week. I will turn to the ActivBoard and pull up the poster flipchart. The first thing we need to do is figure out what this picture is showing us. One way I can help myself do that is to determine what information is most important. Knowing what is most important makes things clearer in our minds. The first thing I notice is the title. The word homes tells me what kind of things are in the picture, and the phrase around the world verifies what I see when I look at the pictures. The homes are in very different places. This text is important because it helps me understand what Im looking at and tells me one way I can compare and contrast all the homes I will write what youve determined is important on chart paper and will ask the students to share other information about the poster that they think is important. I will add these ideas to our list. We then will compare and contrast the different houses. I will make sure to point out the signal language students naturally use as they verbally compare and contrast. Authors use signal words such as also, both, and too to help readers identify comparisons. If they dont use any, I will prompt students with signal words (also, too, but, while). We will end the short discussion with a few questions: 1) Why is it important to compare and contrast? How does this help you? 2) How did determining important information help you understand the picture? 3) What signal words for comparing and contrasting did we use today? Before small group I will tell them that they can look for comparisons and contrasts in a text, too. Next, we will practice comparing and contrasting in a text. Small group instruction will be the majority of the lesson. Red group will be pulled first, then yellow, then green. Day 2 I will pull red, yellow, and blue. Day 3 I will pull red, yellow, and green. Day 4 I will pull red, yellow, and blue. Based on students instructional reading levels, I have selected titles that provide opportunities for students to practice comparing and contrasting. Red group/yellow group- Medical pioneers To introduce the book I will draw students attention to the front cover, we will read the title together. Then we will turn to the back of the book and read the blurb and author information. Next we will do a quick picture walk looking at the photographs and captions. To encourage students to think about the book before reading I will ask what do you predict this book is about? What do you think the author will talk about? Do you think the book is fiction or nonfiction? Why? What kinds of features would you expect to find in a nonfiction book? What do you already know about nursing, vaccines, and the heart? What do you think youll find out? What kinds of special vocabulary

Ashley Ostendorf Mrs. Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

words do you think youll find in this book? We will begin to read the text. I will provide each student with a copy of the graphic organizer. As the read I will suggest that students place sticky notes in the margins of pages where they see details that support the main idea presented in the chart. Students will discuss the authors purpose as well as begin the graphic organizer. In the first two chapters homophones and synonyms and antonyms are all introduced/used. I will make sure to point these out and give meaning to them. I will spend about twenty minutes with this small discussion group. Green/blue group- Liquids and Gases I will tell students they are going to read about two kinds of matter: liquids and gases. I will ask them if they know the difference between a liquid and a gas. We will do a KWL chart using a white board at the table. I will ask: what do you already know about liquids and gases? What do you want to know about liquids and gases? How are you going to learn what you want to know? I will explain to students that some of the information in the book may be a review. Other information will help them find out what they would like to know. I will then give students a copy of the book and have them turn to the table of contents. To introduce the book: How many chapters does this book have? (3) What is the title of Chapter 1? (Liquids) To which chapter would you turn to find out how matter changes? (Chapter 3) We will read together pages 2-5 and anticipate words that might confuse the students. We will reread page 4 and summarize the main idea. Next students will read pages 611 silently to learn about the properties of liquids. I will ask them to pay close attention to the photographs, illustrations, and captions. I will have students use self-stick notes to note places where they reread. I will pass out the graphic organizer and we will do the first four rows together and they will complete the last two rows in pairs. I will have students follow along as I model how to find cause-and-effect relationships in Chapter 1. I will remind students that authors may provide clue words such as because, why, or so to help readers recognize cause-and-effect relationships. I see the clue word so in this sentence (pg. 5) The glass is a solid, so it doesnt change shape. This is a cause-and effect relationship. The cause is the glass is a solid, and the effect is the cup doesnt change shape. Ill write this cause and effect on the chart We will read chapter 2 aloud together. Students will need to think about how gases are different from liquids as they read. They will fill out that portion of the graphic organizer before reading time is up. We will share ideas that students come up with. While I am with the small groups other students will be doing seatwork. They will need to finish their Jamestown books/packets and cut out their word study words and sort them. DAY 2 Read aloud for 10 minutes I will display the Mercury poster on the ActivBoard We will read aloud the text about Mercury. I will explain that the words and what we saw in the photos yesterday helped us determine the information about the poster. From the title and first paragraph, I know that this passage is about Mercury. Read the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs What are some words that helps you focus on the most important ideas in the text? How did the author use comparisons and contrasts to help readers determine important information about Mercury, Earth, and other planets.

Ashley Ostendorf Mrs. Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

What information did the author want to communicate with his readers? To understrand about the planets and that mercury is similar and different from earth. What signal words do you see? What comparisons between the planets do you find? I will write the comparisons and contrasts on the ActivBoard. What does it mean to determine text importance? And how does this help you as a reader? Why is it important to look for comparisons and contrasts as you read? How do signal words help you identify comparisons and contrasts? Partner A & B talk. They discuss a science topic they enjoy. Parnter A tells one way the topics are alike and partner B tells one way how they are different. Red group has to be pulled first because they will be pulled for another small group at 12:10 Yellow group will be pulled next Green group will be pulled for focus (which is why I met with them yesterday) Blue group will be pulled for the first time. They will be the longest session today because they will be doing yesterdays work as well as todays work. Red/yellow group: Chapter 3 Think about times youve been to the doctors as you read. How does activating prior knowledge help you read and understand new information? Students will read the chapter independently. They will use sticky notes to jot down personal connections they make to the text as they read. They will flag examples of comparisons and contrasts and any unfamiliar words they encounter. I will ask questions like: What information was already familiar to you? What information was entirely new? Were you aware of what polio was? What new information did you learn about polio? I will tell them that context clues are valuable for determining the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Look at the word virus (page 10). The author defines this word in context using a synonym (germ). Challenge students to locate this definition in context. Create a visual word web. Have them do their own with polio. We will analyze the graph on page 14. Students will tell me: cases of polio increased between 1940 and 1955, polio cases reached their peak in the early 1950s, just before Salk invented his vaccine, the number of polio cases dropped dramatically once Salk invented a vaccine for polio, the cases of polio continued to drop with the discovery of the oral vaccine, the last case of polio in the U.S. was in the mid 1970s. To end we will skim and scan the book to find other graphic features enhance meaning. Blue groupSmall group instruction from Day 1 Students will read the rest of the book silently to learn about how matter changes. They will make notes of times they were confused and to explain how rereading helped their confusion. Students will share when they were confused and reread the text. Did rereading help them better understand? What questions do they still have? I will ask: what did you find about how matter changes? What did you learn about the effects of temperature on molecules? Turn to the prompt on page 19- I tell students that thinking about what they read is a good way to remember details and understand the text. Have them think about their answers to the prompt Students will create a cause and effect T-chart in pairs or independently Day 3

Ashley Ostendorf Mrs. Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

Whole group instruction Read aloud for 10 minutes Mammals of the Sea poster Practice reading comparing and contrasting details in a text. Use what you have learned to determine important text to help you compare and contrast They will read the passage with a partner. Locate and write similiarites and compare signal words in t comparisons box and differences and contrast signal words in the contrasts box. Underline key information as they go along. Students will share What kinds of texts have you read that compare and contrast information/ Would a fictional story every compare and contrast things? Why is it important to understand comparing and contrasting? Red/yellow We will finish the book today and draw conclusions about how important the three medical pioneers discoveries and accomplishments are to our lives today (last line on page 2) Students will read independently I will ask students to flag words that they do not understand- we will discuss context clues to find the definitions How is a timeline helpful?(page 22)- summarizes important text, puts events in time order in a visual way, allows for comparisons, interpretations, and calculations of time periods. Students will skim the book to find other graphic features that help them interpret information We will fill out the compare and contrast worksheets individually as an assessment Blue/green group Liquids/solids compare contrast sheet. Students may work in partners. We next will work with antonyms. Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings Turn to page 18 and read the first paragraph. Students will find a pair of antonyms in this paragraph. Students will look for a pair of antonyms in the first paragraph on page 19. I will remind them that earlier in the text they identified liquid and solid as antonyms. Which words in this paragraph have opposite meanings? I will point out that water and ice tell about liquid and solid water and therefore can be considered antonyms. Day 4 Whole group instruction Read out loud for 10 minutes Tsunamis passage and comprehension questions- This is an individual assessment Students will read the passage. Behind their passage are the compare and contrast questions. They then will use the venn diagram to compare and contrast the two storms. Red/yellow group Fluency assessment. Students will finish their compare/contrast chart and alike and differences chart using the small group book as I take one student at a time to do a fluency assessment. Students have had enough practice with the book (the last three days) and should be familiar with it. Green/blue group Write to a picture prompt. Students will look at the picture on page 10 and answer the following questions. How can water molecules support the weight of an insect? Why cant a person walk on water like this? After they have written a response we will share their thoughts with the group. They will have to use details from the picture to support their answer. To score a 4 on this assignment the prompt needs to be well developed.

Ashley Ostendorf Mrs. Travers, Margaret Brent Elementary January 27, 2014

There is strong evidence of focus, organization, voice, and correct conventions. Day 5 See next separate lesson plan

H. DIFFERENTIATION Describe how you have planned to meet the needs of all students in your classroom with varied interest and learning readiness, English language proficiency, health, physical ability, etc. How will you extend and enrich the learning of students who finish early? How will you support the learning of children struggling with your objectives? I have supported visual learners and students with attention issues by projecting the whiteboard versions of the posters. I will allow students to come to the whiteboard and circle, underline, or highlight comparisons and contrasts in the text. To help with visual learners I will record comparisons and contrasts with students. I have provided opportunities for active involvement. For further instruction I could assign students a poster and ask them to write on index cards comparisons and contrasts the author makes and arrange the cards to make a comparison and contrast graphic organizer. For students who have trouble seeing I could access the image bank for enlarged images that they can use to practice comparing and contrasting information and determining text importance. No student can finish early in regards to reading the story. Those who are absent will hear a re-cap of the first half on the second day that we read. There will also be a day to reread. The students who get off task will be re-directed by myself and their classmates. There are no ELL students in my class, so this book will be appropriate since all of the students speak English. Students who are struggling with my learning objectives will be given extra attention and guidance. I do not anticipate any problems with the tasks since they have been doing lessons like this all year. For those students who need help writing sentences, I will include a sentence frame. If a student finishes early, they may finish their Jamestown seatwork and cut out their word study words/sort them in their word study journals. I. WHAT COULD GO WRONG WITH THIS LESSON AND WHAT WILL YOU DO ABOUT IT? I am hoping that my directions are clear and easy, avoiding any embarrassing situations and issues. However, I have learned to expect the unexpected. The students may potentially have no interest in the books at all, in which I would ask more questions to allow them to personally connect with the story. As said before, the students love being read to aloud and seem to enjoy reading generally so I do not see this as a huge threat. Students may have trouble focusing for a long period of time, which I hope the frequent questioning, partner talk, and individual connections will help to cure. Students may get off task at their seats while they are completing their Jamestown packets and word study work. I can see everyone from my small group table and will approach the student to see what they have done so far. I will encourage them and ask them questions to get their mind back on the task at hand.