# Review of Algebra

we obtain 2 ͑a Ϫ b͒2 ෇ a 2 Ϫ 2ab ϩ b 2 . Schematically. we get Ϫ͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ ͑Ϫ1͒͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ ͑Ϫ1͒b ϩ ͑Ϫ1͒c and so Ϫ͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ Ϫb Ϫ c EXAMPLE 1 (a) ͑3xy͒͑Ϫ4x͒ ෇ 3͑Ϫ4͒x 2y ෇ Ϫ12 x 2y (b) 2t͑7x ϩ 2tx Ϫ 11͒ ෇ 14tx ϩ 4t 2x Ϫ 22t (c) 4 Ϫ 3͑ x Ϫ 2͒ ෇ 4 Ϫ 3x ϩ 6 ෇ 10 Ϫ 3x If we use the Distributive Law three times.2 I REVIEW OF ALGEBRA Review of Algebra G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Here we review the basic rules and procedures of algebra that you need to know in order to be successful in calculus. we have ͑a ϩ b͒͑c ϩ d ͒ In the case where c ෇ a and d ෇ b. Arithmetic Operations The real numbers have the following properties: aϩb෇bϩa ab ෇ ba ͑a ϩ b͒ ϩ c ෇ a ϩ ͑b ϩ c͒ a͑b ϩ c͒ ෇ ab ϩ ac (Commutative Law) (Associative Law) (Distributive law) ͑ab͒c ෇ a͑bc͒ In particular. we get ͑a ϩ b͒͑c ϩ d ͒ ෇ ͑a ϩ b͒c ϩ ͑a ϩ b͒d ෇ ac ϩ bc ϩ ad ϩ bd This says that we multiply two factors by multiplying each term in one factor by each term in the other factor and adding the products. putting a ෇ Ϫ1 in the Distributive Law. we have ͑a ϩ b͒2 ෇ a 2 ϩ ba ϩ ab ϩ b 2 or 1 ͑a ϩ b͒2 ෇ a 2 ϩ 2ab ϩ b 2 Similarly.

) To add two fractions with different denominators. we use a common denominator: a c ad ϩ bc ϩ ෇ b d bd We multiply such fractions as follows: a c ac ؒ ෇ b d bd In particular. we invert and multiply: a b a d ad ෇ ϫ ෇ c b c bc d .REVIEW OF ALGEBRA N 3 EXAMPLE 2 (a) ͑2 x ϩ 1͒͑3x Ϫ 5͒ ෇ 6 x 2 ϩ 3x Ϫ 10 x Ϫ 5 ෇ 6 x 2 Ϫ 7x Ϫ 5 (b) ͑ x ϩ 6͒2 ෇ x 2 ϩ 12 x ϩ 36 (c) 3͑x Ϫ 1͒͑4x ϩ 3͒ Ϫ 2͑ x ϩ 6͒ ෇ 3͑4x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 3͒ Ϫ 2x Ϫ 12 ෇ 12 x 2 Ϫ 3x Ϫ 9 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 12 ෇ 12 x 2 Ϫ 5x Ϫ 21 Fractions To add two fractions with the same denominator. it is true that Ϫa a a ෇Ϫ ෇ b b Ϫb To divide two fractions. it is true that aϩc a c ෇ ϩ b b b But remember to avoid the following common error: | a a a ෇ ϩ bϩc b c (For instance. we use the Distributive Law: a c 1 1 1 aϩc ϩ ෇ ϫ a ϩ ϫ c ෇ ͑a ϩ c͒ ෇ b b b b b b Thus. take a ෇ b ෇ c ෇ 1 to see the error.

4 I REVIEW OF ALGEBRA EXAMPLE 3 xϩ3 x 3 3 ෇ ϩ ෇1ϩ x x x x 3 x 3͑x ϩ 2͒ ϩ x ͑x Ϫ 1͒ 3x ϩ 6 ϩ x 2 Ϫ x ϩ ෇ ෇ (b) xϪ1 xϩ2 ͑x Ϫ 1͒͑x ϩ 2͒ x2 ϩ x Ϫ 2 2 x ϩ 2x ϩ 6 ෇ 2 x ϩxϪ2 s2t ut s 2 t 2u s2t 2 ؒ ෇ ෇Ϫ (c) u Ϫ2 Ϫ2u 2 x xϩy ϩ1 y y x x ͑x ϩ y͒ x 2 ϩ xy xϩy ϫ ෇ ෇ ෇ ෇ (d) xϪy y xϪy y͑x Ϫ y͒ xy Ϫ y 2 y 1Ϫ x x (a) Factoring We have used the Distributive Law to expand certain algebraic expressions. We sometimes need to reverse this process (again using the Distributive Law) by factoring an expression as a product of simpler ones. Experimentation reveals that 2 x 2 Ϫ 7x Ϫ 4 ෇ ͑2 x ϩ 1͒͑x Ϫ 4͒ Some special quadratics can be factored by using Equations 1 or 2 (from right to left) or by using the formula for a difference of squares: 3 a 2 Ϫ b 2 ෇ ͑a Ϫ b͒͑a ϩ b͒ . SOLUTION The two integers that add to give 5 and multiply to give Ϫ24 are Ϫ3 and 8. we can still look for factors of the form 2 x ϩ r and x ϩ s. EXAMPLE 4 Factor x 2 ϩ 5x Ϫ 24. SOLUTION Even though the coefﬁcient of x 2 is not 1. Therefore x 2 ϩ 5x Ϫ 24 ෇ ͑x Ϫ 3͒͑x ϩ 8͒ EXAMPLE 5 Factor 2 x 2 Ϫ 7x Ϫ 4. The easiest situation occurs when the expression has a common factor as follows: Expanding 3x(x-2)=3x@-6x Factoring To factor a quadratic of the form x 2 ϩ bx ϩ c we note that ͑x ϩ r͒͑x ϩ s͒ ෇ x 2 ϩ ͑r ϩ s͒x ϩ rs so we need to choose numbers r and s so that r ϩ s ෇ b and rs ෇ c. where rs ෇ Ϫ4.

Thus. Instead of substituting further. we use long division as follows: x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 12 x Ϫ 2 ͒ x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24 x 3 Ϫ 2 x2 Ϫx 2 Ϫ 10 x Ϫx 2 ϩ 2 x Ϫ 12 x ϩ 24 Ϫ 12 x ϩ 24 Therefore x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24 ෇ ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 12͒ ෇ ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x ϩ 3͒͑ x Ϫ 4͒ Completing the Square SOLUTION Let P͑ x͒ ෇ x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24. b ෇ 5) (Equation 5. b ෇ 3) (Equation 3. Ϯ6. a ෇ x. Ϯ8.REVIEW OF ALGEBRA N 5 The analogous formula for a difference of cubes is 4 a 3 Ϫ b 3 ෇ ͑a Ϫ b͒͑a 2 ϩ ab ϩ b 2 ͒ which you can verify by expanding the right side. By the Factor Theorem. 6 The Factor Theorem If P is a polynomial and P͑b͒ ෇ 0. b is a factor of 24. x 2 Ϫ 2x Ϫ 8 (Equation 2. P͑Ϫ1͒ ෇ 30. If P͑b͒ ෇ 0. a ෇ x. and Ϯ24. Ϯ3. We ﬁnd that P͑1͒ ෇ 12. b ෇ 2) EXAMPLE 7 Simplify SOLUTION Factoring numerator and denominator. Completing the square means rewriting a quadratic ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c . we sometimes use the following fact. Ϯ12. then x Ϫ b is a factor of P͑ x͒. Ϯ4. then Completing the square is a useful technique for graphing parabolas or integrating rational functions. EXAMPLE 8 Factor x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 10 x ϩ 24. Ϯ2. x Ϫ 2 is a factor. the possibilities for b are Ϯ1. we have x 2 Ϫ 16 ͑ x Ϫ 4͒͑ x ϩ 4͒ xϩ4 ෇ ෇ 2 x Ϫ 2x Ϫ 8 ͑x Ϫ 4͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ xϩ2 To factor polynomials of degree 3 or more. a ෇ 2 x. For a sum of cubes we have 5 a 3 ϩ b 3 ෇ ͑a ϩ b͒͑a 2 Ϫ ab ϩ b 2 ͒ EXAMPLE 6 (a) x 2 Ϫ 6x ϩ 9 ෇ ͑ x Ϫ 3͒2 (b) 4x 2 Ϫ 25 ෇ ͑2 x Ϫ 5͒͑2 x ϩ 5͒ (c) x 3 ϩ 8 ෇ ͑ x ϩ 2͒͑x 2 Ϫ 2 x ϩ 4͒ x 2 Ϫ 16 . P͑2͒ ෇ 0. where b is an integer.

Thus 1 1 3 x2 ϩ x ϩ 1 ෇ x2 ϩ x ϩ 1 4 Ϫ 4 ϩ 1 ෇ (x ϩ 2 ) ϩ 4 2 1 EXAMPLE 10 2 x 2 Ϫ 12 x ϩ 11 ෇ 2͓x 2 Ϫ 6x͔ ϩ 11 ෇ 2͓x 2 Ϫ 6x ϩ 9 Ϫ 9͔ ϩ 11 ෇ 2͓͑ x Ϫ 3͒2 Ϫ 9͔ ϩ 11 ෇ 2͑ x Ϫ 3͒2 Ϫ 7 Quadratic Formula By completing the square as above we can obtain the following formula for the roots of a quadratic equation. There are three possibilities: 1. Adding and subtracting the square of half the coefﬁcient of x.) . the roots are equal. (The roots are complex. c ෇ Ϫ3. SOLUTION The square of half the coefﬁcient of x is 4. Factoring the number a from the terms involving x. 2. If b 2 Ϫ 4ac Ͻ 0. If b 2 Ϫ 4ac ෇ 0. the quadratic formula gives the solutions x෇ Ϫ3 Ϯ s32 Ϫ 4͑5͒͑Ϫ3͒ Ϫ3 Ϯ s69 ෇ 2͑5͒ 10 The quantity b 2 Ϫ 4ac that appears in the quadratic formula is called the discriminant. the equation has two real roots. If b 2 Ϫ 4ac Ͼ 0. b ෇ 3. we have ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c ෇ a x 2 ϩ ෇ a x2 ϩ ෇a xϩ ͫ ͫ ͩ b x ϩc a b xϩ a b 2a 2 ͩ ͪ ͩ ͪͬ ͪ ͩ ͪ b 2a 2 ͬ Ϫ b 2a 2 ϩc ϩ cϪ b2 4a EXAMPLE 9 Rewrite x 2 ϩ x ϩ 1 by completing the square. 2. SOLUTION With a ෇ 5.6 I REVIEW OF ALGEBRA in the form a͑ x ϩ p͒2 ϩ q and can be accomplished by: 1. In general. the equation has no real root. 2 7 The Quadratic Formula The roots of the quadratic equation ax ϩ bx ϩ c ෇ 0 are x෇ Ϫb Ϯ sb 2 Ϫ 4ac 2a EXAMPLE 11 Solve the equation 5x 2 ϩ 3x Ϫ 3 ෇ 0. 3.

we get the binomial expansion 8 ͑a ϩ b͒3 ෇ a 3 ϩ 3a 2b ϩ 3ab 2 ϩ b 3 Repeating this procedure. 1. In case (3) the quadratic ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c can’t be factored and is called irreducible.REVIEW OF ALGEBRA N 7 These three cases correspond to the fact that the number of times the parabola y ෇ ax 2 ϩ bx ϩ c crosses the x-axis is 2. we get ͑a ϩ b͒4 ෇ a 4 ϩ 4a 3b ϩ 6a 2b 2 ϩ 4ab 3 ϩ b 4 In general. 9 The Binomial Theorem If k is a positive integer. y y y 0 x 0 x 0 x FIGURE 1 Possible graphs of y=ax@+bx+c (a) b@-4ac>0 (b) b@-4ac=0 (c) b@-4ac<0 EXAMPLE 12 The quadratic x 2 ϩ x ϩ 2 is irreducible because its discriminant is negative: b 2 Ϫ 4ac ෇ 12 Ϫ 4͑1͒͑2͒ ෇ Ϫ7 Ͻ 0 Therefore. it is impossible to factor x 2 ϩ x ϩ 2. The Binomial Theorem Recall the binomial expression from Equation 1: ͑a ϩ b͒2 ෇ a 2 ϩ 2ab ϩ b 2 If we multiply both sides by ͑a ϩ b͒ and simplify. then ͑a ϩ b͒k ෇ a k ϩ ka kϪ1b ϩ ϩ k͑k Ϫ 1͒ kϪ2 2 a b 1ؒ2 k͑k Ϫ 1͒͑k Ϫ 2͒ kϪ3 3 a b 1ؒ2ؒ3 k͑k Ϫ 1͒ иии ͑k Ϫ n ϩ 1͒ kϪn n a b 1 ؒ 2 ؒ 3 ؒ иии ؒ n ϩ иии ϩ ϩ иии ϩ kab kϪ1 ϩ b k . we have the following formula. or 0 (see Figure 1).

if n is a positive integer. The following rules are valid: n n n ab ෇ s as b s ͱ n n a a s ෇ n b sb 3 3 3 3 3 EXAMPLE 15 s x4 ෇ s x 3x ෇ s x3 s x ෇ xs x . but s Ϫ8 and s Ϫ8 are not deﬁned. SOLUTION Using the Binomial Theorem with a ෇ x. the symbol sa makes sense only when a ജ 0. then a ജ 0 and x ജ 0. In fact.) EXAMPLE 14 (a) s18 ෇ s2 ͱ 18 ෇ s9 ෇ 3 2 (b) sx 2 y ෇ sx 2 sy ෇ x sy Notice that sx (See Appendix A. there is no similar rule for the square root of a sum. take a ෇ 9 and b ෇ 16 to see the error. 3 4 6 Thus s Ϫ8 ෇ Ϫ2 because ͑Ϫ2͒3 ෇ Ϫ8. b ෇ Ϫ2.” Thus x ෇ sa means x2 ෇ a and xജ0 Since a ෇ x 2 ജ 0. In general. we have ͑ x Ϫ 2͒5 ෇ x 5 ϩ 5x 4͑Ϫ2͒ ϩ 5ؒ4 3 5ؒ4ؒ3 2 x ͑Ϫ2͒2 ϩ x ͑Ϫ2͒3 ϩ 5x͑Ϫ2͒4 ϩ ͑Ϫ2͒5 1ؒ2 1ؒ2ؒ3 ෇ x 5 Ϫ 10 x 4 ϩ 40 x 3 Ϫ 80 x 2 ϩ 80 x Ϫ 32 Radicals The most commonly occurring radicals are square roots. Here are two rules for working with square roots: 10 sab ෇ sa sb ͱ a sa ෇ b sb However. The symbol s1 means “the positive square root of. n x෇s a means xn ෇ a If n is even. k ෇ 5.8 I REVIEW OF ALGEBRA EXAMPLE 13 Expand ͑ x Ϫ 2͒5. you should remember to avoid the following common error: | sa ϩ b ෇ sa ϩ sb (For instance.) 2 Խ Խ ෇ Խ x Խ because s1 indicates the positive square root.

To multiply two powers of the same number. we raise both numerator and denominator to the power. To raise a quotient to a power. Then we can take advantage of the formula for a difference of squares: (sa Ϫ sb )(sa ϩ sb ) ෇ (sa )2 Ϫ (sb )2 ෇ a Ϫ b EXAMPLE 16 Rationalize the numerator in the expression sx ϩ 4 Ϫ 2 . Then 1. a1͞n ෇ s a m m ͞n n n a ෇ sa m ෇ (s a) 3. 1. To raise a product to a power. we subtract the exponents. To divide two powers of the same number. ͑a r ͒ ෇ a rs s 4. a n ෇ a ؒ a ؒ и и и ؒ a n factors 2. by deﬁnition. ͩͪ a b r ෇ ar br b 0 In words. ar ෇ a rϪs as 3. 4. we raise each factor to the power. ratios of integers). 2. we multiply both the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate radical sa ϩ sb. ͑ab͒r ෇ a rb r 5. we multiply the exponents. a r ϫ a s ෇ a rϩs 2. a ෇ 1 0 1 an n 4. these ﬁve laws can be stated as follows: 1. Then. To raise a power to a new power.REVIEW OF ALGEBRA N 9 To rationalize a numerator or denominator that contains an expression such as a s Ϫ sb. aϪn ෇ m is any integer 11 Laws of Exponents Let a and b be positive numbers and let r and s be any rational numbers (that is. 3. x SOLUTION We multiply the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate radical sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2: sx ϩ 4 Ϫ 2 ෇ x ෇ ͩ sx ϩ 4 Ϫ 2 x ͪͩ sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2 sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2 ͪ ෇ ͑ x ϩ 4͒ Ϫ 4 x (sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2) x 1 ෇ x (sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2) sx ϩ 4 ϩ 2 Exponents Let a be any positive number and let n be a positive integer. . 5. we add the exponents.

x 3 ϩ 2 x 2 ϩ x 45. ͑4 x Ϫ 1͒͑3x ϩ 7͒ 11. y 4͑6 Ϫ y͒͑5 ϩ y͒ 14. 52. xϩ5 xϪ3 21. t 3 ϩ 1 41. 2 1 2 ϩ 19. x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 6 34. 3b 1 1 ϩ 20. 2 x ϩ 12 x 3 31. 2. 53. ͑2 x Ϫ 1͒2 13. 50. 5͑3t Ϫ 4͒ Ϫ ͑t 2 ϩ 2͒ Ϫ 2 t ͑t Ϫ 3͒ 9.5ac͒ 3. 1–16 I Expand and simplify. x 2 ϩ 7x ϩ 6 33. 4͑ x 2 Ϫ x ϩ 2͒ Ϫ 5͑ x 2 Ϫ 2 x ϩ 1͒ 8. ͑Ϫ6ab͒͑0. 6 x 2 Ϫ 5x Ϫ 6 39. ͑4 Ϫ 3x͒ x 6. 24. Ϫ͑2 x 2 y͒͑Ϫxy 4 ͒ 4.10 I REVIEW OF ALGEBRA EXAMPLE 17 (a) 28 ϫ 82 ෇ 28 ϫ ͑23͒2 ෇ 28 ϫ 26 ෇ 214 x Ϫy xϪ1 ϩ yϪ1 Ϫ2 Ϫ2 (b) 1 1 y2 Ϫ x2 2 Ϫ 2 x y x 2y 2 y2 Ϫ x2 xy ෇ ෇ ෇ ؒ 2 2 1 1 yϩx x y yϩx ϩ x y xy ͑ y Ϫ x͒͑ y ϩ x͒ yϪx ෇ ෇ xy͑ y ϩ x͒ xy Alternative solution: 43͞2 ෇ (s4 ) ෇ 23 ෇ 8 3 (c) 43͞2 ෇ s43 ෇ s64 ෇ 8 1 1 (d) 3 4 ෇ 4 ͞3 ෇ xϪ4 ͞3 x sx (e) ͩ ͪͩ ͪ x y 3 y 2x z 4 ෇ x 3 y 8x 4 ؒ 4 ෇ x 7y 5zϪ4 y3 z Exercises G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G A Click here for answers. 51. x ͑ x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 12. a b Ϭ bc ac 1 1 ϩ 2 xϩ3 x Ϫ9 . 1 1Ϫ cϪ1 1ϩ I I I I I I I I I I 28. x2 ϩ x Ϫ 2 x 2 Ϫ 3x ϩ 2 x2 Ϫ 1 x Ϫ 9x ϩ 8 2 2x 2 Ϫ 3x Ϫ 2 x2 Ϫ 4 x 3 ϩ 5x 2 ϩ 6x x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 12 ͩ ͪͩ ͪ Ϫ2r s s2 Ϫ6 t 26. ͑1 ϩ x Ϫ x 2 ͒2 I I I I I 43. x 3 ϩ 3 x 2 Ϫ x Ϫ 3 47. ͑1 ϩ 2 x͒͑ x 2 Ϫ 3 x ϩ 1͒ I I I I I I I I I I I 29. 8 Ϫ ͑4 ϩ x͒ 1. x 2 ϩ 10 x ϩ 25 40. 2 x͑ x Ϫ 5͒ 5. x 3 ϩ 5 x 2 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 24 I I I I I I I I 17–28 I Perform the indicated operations and simplify. 4 t 2 Ϫ 12 t ϩ 9 I I I I 10. x 3 Ϫ 3 x 2 Ϫ 4 x ϩ 12 I I I I I I I I I I I I 7. 5ab Ϫ 8abc 32. x 3 Ϫ 4 x 2 ϩ 5 x Ϫ 2 46. ͑2 ϩ 3 x͒2 16. u ϩ 1 ϩ 23. 9 x 2 Ϫ 36 37. 1 ϩ 1 1ϩ 1 1ϩx I I I I I I I I I I 29–48 I Factor the expression. ͑t Ϫ 5͒2 Ϫ 2͑t ϩ 3͒͑8 t Ϫ 1͒ 15. 25. I Simplify the expression. 2 3 4 Ϫ ϩ 2 a2 ab b x y ͞z 2 ϩ 8x 17. 4 t 2 Ϫ 9s 2 42. 8 x 2 ϩ 10 x ϩ 3 38. Ϫ2͑4 Ϫ 3a͒ 1 cϪ1 27. 9b Ϫ 6 18. x 3 Ϫ 2 x 2 Ϫ 23 x ϩ 60 48. x 2 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 8 35. 30. x ͞y z u uϩ1 49–54 49. 2 x 2 ϩ 7x Ϫ 4 36. xϩ1 xϪ1 22. x 3 Ϫ 27 44.

x Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 8 ෇ 0 2 61. 87. 78. 310 ϫ 9 8 84. 3 x 2 Ϫ 24 x ϩ 50 x 9͑2 x͒4 x3 aϪ3b 4 aϪ5b 5 86. 125 2 ͞3 93. x 3 Ϫ 2 x ϩ 1 ෇ 0 I I I I I I I I I I 97. 3 x 2 ϩ 5 x ϩ 1 ෇ 0 67. (s 8 x5 s 4 sx 3 I I I I I I I 5 y6 95. x 2 Ϫ 16 x ϩ 80 58. I I I I 4 32 x 4 s 4 2 s 5 96 a6 s 5 s3a I I I I I 109. sx 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 4 Ϫ x I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 108. 64Ϫ4͞3 94. ͑3 ϩ x ͒ I I I I I I I I I I 107. s 3 61–68 2 2 I Solve the equation. 2 x 2 ϩ 7x ϩ 2 ෇ 0 68. 88. 6 Ϫ 4͑ x ϩ a͒ ෇ 6 Ϫ 4 x Ϫ 4 a I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 83. 4 x 2 ϩ 4 x Ϫ 2 I I I I I I I I I I 89. x 2 ϩ 2 x ϩ 5 57. 104. ͑ xϪ5 y 3z 10 ͒Ϫ3͞ 5 4 a) 96. 4 4 r 2nϩ1 ϫ s r Ϫ1 100. 3 Ϫ2 s 3 54 s I State whether or not the equation is true for all values of the variable. 99. ͑2 x 2 y 4 ͒3͞2 I I I 90. 2 x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 4 71. x 2 Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 7 ෇ 0 66. 55. sx 2 ϩ 4 ෇ x ϩ 2 Խ Խ a 16 ϩ a ෇1ϩ 111. 3Ϫ1͞2 91. 62. ͑ x 3͒4 ෇ x 7 116. ͑a ϩ b͒6 75. 69–72 I Which of the quadratics are irreducible? 70. 102. I Rationalize the expression. I 115. s32 s2 80. I I 64. x ϩ 9 x Ϫ 10 ෇ 0 63. 103. 82. ͑a ϩ b͒7 4 105. x 2 Ϫ 5 x ϩ 10 59. 961͞ 5 92. I I x 2 Ϫ 2 x2 ϩ x Ϫ 2 x Ϫ 5x ϩ 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 85. 73. Ϫ1 x ϩ yϪ1 114. x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 6 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 69. 216 ϫ 410 ϫ 16 6 . 16 16 113. 2 x 2 ϩ 9 x ϩ 4 72. x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 1 60. sx 2 ϩ x Ϫ sx 2 Ϫ x I I I I I I I I I I 2 5 109–116 77–82 I Simplify the radicals. 56. sx 2 ෇ x 110. s16a 4b 3 I I I I 1 ෇xϩy 112. ͑ x Ϫ 1͒ 2 I I I I 76. 3 x 2 ϩ x Ϫ 6 I I I I I I sx Ϫ 3 xϪ9 x sx Ϫ 8 xϪ4 2 3 Ϫ s5 (1͞sx ) Ϫ 1 xϪ1 s2 ϩ h ϩ s2 Ϫ h h 1 sx Ϫ sy 73–76 I Use the Binomial Theorem to expand the expression. sxy sx 3 y I I I I I I I 79. a n ϫ a 2 nϩ1 a nϪ2 xϪ1 ϩ yϪ1 ͑ x ϩ y͒Ϫ1 55–60 I Complete the square. 74. x 1 ෇ xϩy 1ϩy 2 1 2 ෇ ϩ 4ϩx 2 x 83–100 Use the Laws of Exponents to rewrite and simplify the expression. x 3 ϩ 3 x 2 ϩ x Ϫ 1 ෇ 0 I I I I I I I I I I ͱ 4 I 1 (st ) 5 t 1͞2sst s 2͞ 3 I I I I I I I 98. 77. s I I I I I I I I I I 101–108 101. 106. x ϩ 9 x Ϫ 1 ෇ 0 65. 81.REVIEW OF ALGEBRA N 11 54.

Ϫ1 Ϯ s5 2 14. ͑ x ϩ 5͒2 40. 1 x 1͞8 45. 3t 69. xϪ2 53. 2 s2 x 3 y 6 97. 104. False 2x sx 2 ϩ x ϩ sx 2 Ϫ x 112. 2 5s3 82. 8 78. 4 Ϫ x 7. ͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x ϩ 5͒͑ x Ϫ 4͒ 48. 2x ϩ 1 50. ͑2 t Ϫ 3͒2 43. ͑ x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 1͒͑ x ϩ 3͒ 47. 92. 25 95. ͑ x Ϫ 4͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 31. a 3͞4 101. 3 ϩ 2x 2ϩx u 2 ϩ 3u ϩ 1 uϩ1 rs 25. 2 x ͑1 ϩ 6 x 2͒ 32. 4 57. ͑ x ϩ 6͒͑ x ϩ 1͒ Խ Խ 83. y ϩ 21a 2b 5 ϩ 7ab 6 ϩ b 7 75. ͑3 x ϩ 2͒͑2 x Ϫ 3͒ 39. 30 y ϩ y Ϫ y 4 5 6 66. 18. 55. 1. False 114. 3x ϩ 4 sx 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 4 ϩ x 110. ͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x 2 ϩ 3 x ϩ 9͒ 44. Ϫ1. Ϫx ϩ 6 x ϩ 3 8. 2 x 3 y 5 3. x 3 ϩ x 2 Ϫ 2 x 12. ͑4 x ϩ 3͒͑2 x ϩ 1͒ 38. yz 28. True ) Ϫ5 4 2 109. ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ x3 94. xϪ4 x 2 ϩ 4 x ϩ 16 x sx ϩ 8 3 ϩ s5 2 106. a 6 ϩ 6a 5b ϩ 15a 4b 2 ϩ 20 a 3b 3 ϩ 15a 2b 4 ϩ 6ab 5 ϩ b 6 74. ( x Ϫ 5 2 2 105. ( x ϩ ) ϩ 15 4 107. ͑2 t Ϫ 3s͒͑2 t ϩ 3s͒ 81. False 116. 4 x Ϫ 3 x 2 2 5. 1. 16 x 10 89. xϩ2 54. 20. ͑t ϩ 1͒͑t Ϫ t ϩ 1͒ 2 a2 b 88. Ϫ8 ϩ 6a 6. ͑2 x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 4͒ 36. ab͑5 Ϫ 8c͒ 33. 3 Ϫ 2 ͞b 2x x2 Ϫ 1 x 23. True 115. 96. a 7 ϩ 7a 6b ϩ 21a 5b 2 ϩ 35a 4b 3 ϩ 35a 3b 4 2 b 2 Ϫ 3ab ϩ 4a 2 22. Խ Խ 41. Ϫ9 Ϯ s85 2 Ϫ7 Ϯ s33 4 64. 2a 87. Ϫ1 Ϯ s2 11. Irreducible 16. Ϫ 3 1 29. ͑ x ϩ 1͒2 ϩ 4 58. Ϫ3a 2bc 2. 2 60 35. t Ϫ5͞2 102. False 60. a 2b 2 26. 9͞5 6 y z 99. a2 b2 27. 12 x 2 ϩ 25 x Ϫ 7 10. a 2 nϩ3 90. Not irreducible (two real roots) 73. 84. Ϫ5 Ϯ s13 6 68. 2 x 3 Ϫ 5x 2 Ϫ x ϩ 1 17. ͑2 x ϩ 1͒2 Ϫ 3 61. 2 x 2 Ϫ 10 x 4. 98. y 6͞5 100. 1 ϩ 4 x 21. 3͑ x Ϫ 4͒ ϩ 2 . 3 26 80. 67. 4a 2b sb 86. Ϫ3 t 2 ϩ 21t Ϫ 22 9. 103. 4 x 2 Ϫ 4 x ϩ 1 13. Ϫ10 62. 9͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 37. Ϫ2. ͑ x ϩ y͒2 xy 1 256 1 s3 91. r n͞2 93. Ϫ 15 t Ϫ 56 t ϩ 31 3x ϩ 7 x 2 ϩ 2 x Ϫ 15 15. Irreducible 70.12 I ANSWERS Answers G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G 1. Not irreducible 72. 2 x 30. 71. sx ϩ sy xϪy 108. 1 Ϯ 2 s2 65. xϩ1 51. x ͑ x ϩ 1͒2 42. 2 s2 ϩ h Ϫ s2 Ϫ h xϪ2 x2 Ϫ 9 3 2 2 x 2 Ϫ 6x Ϫ 4 ͑ x Ϫ 1͒͑ x ϩ 2͒͑ x Ϫ 4͒ 56. False 111. ͑ x Ϫ 8͒2 ϩ 16 59. c cϪ2 zx 24. xϪ8 x ͑ x ϩ 2͒ 52. x 2 y Խ Խ 85. x 4 Ϫ 2 x 3 Ϫ x 2 ϩ 2 x ϩ 1 19. x 8 Ϫ 4 x 6 ϩ 6 x 4 Ϫ 4 x 2 ϩ 1 76. ͑ x Ϫ 3͒͑ x ϩ 2͒ 79. ͑ x Ϫ 1͒2͑ x Ϫ 2͒ 46. False 113. ͑ x Ϫ 2͒͑ x ϩ 3͒͑ x ϩ 4͒ t 1͞4 s 1͞24 1 x s ϩ3 Ϫ1 x s ϩx xϩ2 49. 34. 243 ϩ 405x 2 ϩ 270 x 4 ϩ 90 x 6 ϩ 15x 8 ϩ x 10 77. 9 x ϩ 12 x ϩ 4 2 2 63.