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ENVIRONMENTAL CONCEPT OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
As a future housing expert or interior designer, you will be dealing with people on a daily basis. Your belief is that the physical environment, when developed properly according to the situation at hand, can enhance peoples lives, fulfill them and make them happier and healthier. Most times you do not know what your client's problem is, so you must deal with that person on an interpersonal place; you have to find out what he or she is willing to do to improve the environmental situation. Probably foremost, you have to be able to commu~icate well enough to determine the real problem.
Wh~n; you try to improve a person's living or working environment, you are working with minds and values. You have to be able to find out what people think and what they feel.
In this profession, you are spending other people's money, and everyone gets very touchy about that. Some people have ill-gotten wealth or instant money while some have toiled hard and saved hard earned money for a new house. So you've got to be careful and be sure of your client and the ultimate goal so that you will be able to tollcw the proper course of action. An example is when a client wants to have their house completely renovated including furnishings, lighting and all wall finishes. However, they have only a very limited budget. A designer must then know the client's values to decide whether to accept the job or not and set a special condition or not.
Human Relationships are very important. If you can speak with people and make them feel at ease, they will trust you more, you will feel better, and the chances will be greater that the job you do will turn out well for all concerned. Trust and little things count, and they become important cues in human behavior.
The living environment is deeply affected by human values, and the housing environment rises in part, upon human feelings: that is values. Some designs are, indeed vernacular. This means that their seemingly primitive form is actually as highly evolved as the present people and environmental conditions permit and require. Vernacular living environments most often satisfy people quite comfortably and completely. Their materials are indigenous to the area, and the physical arrangement of the living spaces is uniquely and adequately planned for the lifestyle of the inhabitants. The residents usually are well adjusted and desire nothing different.
It takes sensitivity, along with knowledge to realize what you can change and when. Recognizing the value of an institution as large as a country or as small as the family can help guide your selection of an appropriate design. MiSinterpreting information can lead to disastrous, perhaps to the creation of a totally inappropriate environmental solution.
HOW THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCES VALUES
Values can influence people's own self-concept. In design, it is readily accepted fact that people will generally take better care of a space and its contents if it contains some extra comforting additions that normally are absent. For example, carpeting, in a residencehall or office might make the users feel that those providing for them cared more about creating a pleasant place for them to live and work than just building a basic shell for their use.
University Residence halls can enhance or diminish self-image. Lately they are more sensitive to human "leeds. They provide a "sense of place", an environment where students can feel at home and where they
have a relationship to space. They allow for individual creativity. Many schools allow students to paint their rooms and put objects on the walls. Such personal touches are of extreme importance, this is because they feel that they belong here.
You must recognize the implication here that the human values are evident in the physical environment. As a designer, you should discover what will please people enough to draw them to a particular place and what will make them stay there. In most cases, the success of the venture will not depend on that environment, no matter how special it is. Think about a restaurant. It cannot survive on a lively unique atmosphere unless the food is good in the first place. The point is thouqh, that the environment does have an effect upon people, and provided all things are equal, it can improve the visitation or business of the establishment.
Lately, offices have been receiving some attention too. Remember how frightening it was to go into the sterile, white dental office? This is one sight that has been known to provoke hysterical behavior in adults. But what if the office resembled a home instead of a hospital? True, you cannot do anything about the medicind smell, but what about the floors, walls and furnishings? Carpeting, because of its psychological and actual warmth, can create relaxed feelings among people, particularly if it is in a relatively cool or lowintensity color. Earth tones are also appropriate. Carpeting will absorb and help diffuse sound waves so that you will not hear the screams of terror that might actually be emanating from the work room. How about the furnishings? If there is anywhere on earth that you need comfort; it is the dentist's office; and how about music? Music should be loud enough for you to hear but not loud enough to distract the doctor.
FOLK BELIEFS IN CONSTRUCTION & DESIGN
In the process of a building, a man makes decisions which is derived from his own idea. His ideas, and therefore in a sense his self, seem to be embodied in the building - in the design. The architecture of a folk is evolved and modified by ideas and imitation. Man discovered that over and above satisfying his functional needs, the decisions he made in designing a building created a relationship between him and the building, giving it meaning. Architecture is building with which people have identified themselves, giving it significance. Folk beliefs mostly influence the design of most Asian houses, particularly the Philippines.
5. Before giving the order to lay the foundation or put up the posts of your house, make peace with all your enemies - especially those belonging to your own family or clan.
1 . Do not start the construction of a house at a period when the moon is waning, or entering its last quarter.
Pick a time on or about a full moon.
2. Start a construction on a Monday, never on a Friday.
3. Avoid starting a construction when the year is about to end. A better time is when the year has just begun, January to June.
4. Never have a house built when your wife is pregnant, and is expected to give birth at that very month.
6. In some families, they usually practice the flowing of blood from some animals or chicken and all footings 'and corners of the walls are splattered with this blood as an offering to honor the spirits that might be living withinthe premises. Also a few drops of wine or a morsel of food is scattered within and a whisper of prayer •. ·.;.:fi'",~dedi€ateE:tfto,the;spirits.
=..::": --:- z.; - :"~:€S peered into the foundation, a peso or dollar coin should be dropped inside th"E! forms to : - -; ;:::: ~OK, According to old folks, the coin head should be facing up, not the eagle as they claim the ~2.; € ~ ;h: fiy with luck, Sometimes medallions of patron saints for protection are also placed, including :- 2.: of Ire stair foundations.
8., When any vertical part of the house is being erected like the first post, or the first row of hollow block wall, tre father or the eldest of the family should be present as a witness. This contribute to the solidity of the house.
9. Do not built a house directly perpendicular to the street. If space still allows it, locate the house such that it lies in position which is at angle with the street. This way, the inhabitants keep out of the way of disaster.
10. Do not occupy a new house until it is completely built and blessed. Before occupying it, bring in first the common necessities in a house like salt, rice, and may be the statue of your patron saint or Christ.
, 1'1. As much as possible, avoid using materials that came from the owner's old house. The bad luck of the old house will be transferred to the new house, the old people say.
12. It is taboo to use wood the sap of which is still fresh, this, they call weeping wood and is considered bad
13. The number of posts should never be 13 and must always be in even numbers.
14, Flooring planks must be laid parallel to the stair steps. Making it perpendicular will bring bad luck.
15. The number of steps in every flight of stairs is counted gold, silver, lead, in that order. The last step must be gold or silver but never lead (oro, Plata, mata in folk dialect), as lead or death brinqs bad luck.
16. The principal stairs and the master's bed should be oriented to face the East, so that the rising sun brings good luck.
17. To the Muslims, the principal room and stairway should face the direction of Mecca, their holy land, Ditto for their mosque.
18. Doorways should not face each other along a straight path, or a door toawindow. Good fortune will
immediately flow out of the house if arranged in such a way. . " .
19, Main doorway are best to face the East, but never on the west where the sun sets.
20. Main door should always open to the inside to bring in good luck. Never opening to the outside as it lets out the good luck.
21, The arrangement of the bed should not be directly parallel and perpendicular to the girt and rafter as the old folks say it seems to cut the body or good fortune in half.
The Three Primary Colors and Secondary Colors
Yellow, red and blue are the three primary colors, which can be mixed -to create a variety of hues. A quick way of getting acquainted with them is to use your oil paints to mix the twelve colors of the color wheel. In the process you will learn about mixing colors to create different hues.
Light and Shade in Color
Living with the changes of day into night and light into shadow, we have a natural sense of light and shade, but artists must refine that sense. An important phenomenon in painting is the scale of grey reaching from black to white. Another is the light and shade of color hues.
___ primary colors
=== secondary colors
- - - - - - - -. tertiary colors
Cadmium yellow citron
The color wheel is a 12-color circular arrangement of the three primary colors and the secondary hues that can be mixed from those three colors.
Color Scheme and Balance
A good picture creates balance between both the areas of color and tones. In Die Kunst der Farbe, Johannes Itten writes that the best balance of the three primary colors is three parts yellow, six parts red, and eight parts blue. This ration is calculated according to the value or brightness of each color. This Vermeer masterpiece utilizes that yellow, red and blue color scheme.
The three primary colors Choose cadmium yellow citron, crimson lake, and cobalt blue light from the twelve colors supplied in the usual beginner's oil painting set. Use these for the three primary colors: yellow, red and blue.
Cobalt blue light
4. CONTEXT ... Site and Climate SITE DEVELOPMENT
The two primary energy considerations in the siting of a building are orientation to the sun and orientation to the wind. Landscaping can also improve performance; shade trees can seasonally control direct radiation from the sun; ground surfaces can control reflected radiation, planted ground cover can moderate air temperature and wind breaks can diminish the force of the wind.
Selection options, if there are any at all are usually limited to few sites within a community. Most commonly, the client has already selected the site before coming to the architect to discuss the. proposed building; and the design consideration becomes one of developing the site and the building as harmoniously as possible to minimize ultimate energy consumption.
ELEMENTS OF SITE CONTROL
ENERGY CONSERVATION DESIGN GUIDELINES
The purpose of site control is to modify adverse climatic forces at a distance before they impact the building. The element of site control include windbreaks, shade trees, ground surfaces, orientation to the sun and to the wind, and underground structures.
1. SOLAR SHADING IN SUMMER
a. Shading By Structural Elements - this influence affects the facades of buildings. They are being designed to intercept exteriorly the rays of the sun in summer. Of the many heat-contributing sources, direct solar heat gain is one of the greatest causes of discomfort to occupants.
b. Powered Louvers to Diminish Heat Gain - If a building is arranged to intercept the intense rays of the sun before they pass through its glass walls instead of toward, the air-conditioning heat-gain load -, can often be cut in half. In approximate terms, the external shading rejects about 80% of the fierce attack of solar energy while the internal shading accepts and retardates 80% of it.
Shading inside the window using heavy drapes; shading placed outside the window.
In this bank building, inspite of the advantages of full air-conditioning, heat-resistant glass and the use offullydosed inside drapes, employees move their deskas far as possible away from the hot exterior walls. Two 50-tori compressor running continuously failed to keep the building comfortable. The heated drapes-becomes an unwanted radiant-heating system.
The solution was to install exterior, automatically controlled, power-operated sun louvers on the east
and south walls. (The north and west wall are solid brick). One of the two cooling units kept indoor climate cool when outside temperatures were in gooF. Much light but little heat was reflected into the
building. The louvers are not fully closed, even when the sun's rays are in a plane perpendicularto the glass .. They open fully when the sun no longer shines on the controlled facade, or when cloudy conditions prevail.
2. WHITE ROOFS AND DESERT COOLING
a. Evaporative Cooling - in hot arid regions, a method of cooling simpler than that of the compressive evaporate refrigeration cycle can be very effective. Employing one electric motor instead of three, it saves a great deal of energy, though it uses a little of water.
Evaporative cooling is an ancient method of lowering air temperature. As water is evaporated to vapor, heat is drawn from the air, reducing its temperature; a blower draws outdoor air in through grills, passing it through pads kept moist by recirculated water. The cooled air is then delivered directly to the indoorspace. The effect of the gently moving cool air is to cool the body and additionally, produce further cooling by evaporation of body moisture.
b. White Roofs- In reflecting heat away instead of absorbing it, which increases the temperatures of rooms below, white roofs are effective.
I~ I~ IJr
I 1 1
78%F INDOOR CONDITION
105% F OUTDOOR CONDITION
outdoor air temp _ _ _ _ _ ~ noon, 40"C( I05°F)\J~
roof surface temp
tilack pitch \6O"C lI4O"F) \
fresh white point 40"C OOO:,F)
.i .. ~
ceiling su~fac1t temp •
_ ~part it Ion! surface ~~ . temp. 32°C(82°F)
/ room air temJ,.
cellino surface temp.
partition surfo~ n temp32°C(90°F)- ~
• room OIr temp,
.• 32°C (90"F)
·RWSSIVE SOLAR PLANNING
In utilizing the sun, the first principles are to exclude itfrom interior space in summer and to accept it interiorly (with adjustable drapes) for warmth in November to mid-February the cold months (winter).
The Passive Solar Design is so called, because it employs no sophisticated collector and no expensive technology to harness the sun's energy, as opposed to the Active Solar Design which uses a system that requires expensive and energy consuming equipmentto operate electric water heaters arid air-conditioners. In short, they are technologically designed solar buildings. The awesome energy of the sun's radiation is harnessed, absorbed, transferred and stored for building heating and cooling. Using this system the temperature inside a house will stay at68%OF during even the coolest day. (This fswelldiscussed in another chapter on Electrical and Mechanical equipments. (See Chapter 130n HVAC)
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN IS ACHIEVED BY:
a. Orientation- By carefully considering the location of the building, how it will relate to the sun and breezes.
The layout or planning major rooms are suggested to face south. The west is solid masonry which intercepts the sun and reduces and delays heat transmission to be tolerated during cooler evening hours. Building facade act as a wind deflector as well and channels the breeze to other areas.
a.1. ORIENTATION TO THE WIND
By using windbreaks consisting of elther a fence or a row of trees or shrubswhich reduce air infiltration through windows by diminishing the wind pressure .
The most effective location fora windbreak is upwind a distance of 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 times the height of
abuilding. This reduces the pushing action on the building's windward side and the pulling action on its leeward side.
1. blower wheel 8. bronze bearing
2. blower mountsupport 9. even-drip water trough
3. snap-shut type pad frames 10. ground for air volume
4. switches 11. blower pulley
5. motor (quiet section)
6. weather resistant ext. fin 12. support
7. bolts 13. blower shaft AN AIR COOLER
water pump, plastic impeller
hollow block, masonry wall
B.) ACTIVE COOLING
~ A windbreak is more effective if IT allows part of the wind to penetrate. This tends to relieve the .,eward suction.
A solid windbreak creates a low pressure area on its leeward side with resulting strong eddy currents.
Research has shown that the highest air velocity and the best air movement result from orienting a building at a 45-degt€e angJetothe prevailingwinds,dUI;) to the broader wake and thus greater suction forces pulling aff through the building.
_ "eddy - a little whirlpool or whirlwind.
Lee - side away from the wind
h11l2:-! to 2112 .hfheight)
WINDOW LOCATION VS AIR CIRCULATION
It will be seen that if the wind encounters and inlet and outlet in alignment with its outside direction, it will pass through the intervening space in a narrowly defined, high velocity stream. Very little ventilation will occur beyond that narrowly defined stream. This building should be oriented slightly askew to the direction of the wind.
* askew - to one side
However, if the wind is forced to change direction in transit between inlet and outlet,a turbulence within the room will develop. A circular current will encompass the side and corners of the room. The maximum airspeed is reduced compared to windows in direct alignment with the wind, but the average velocity of air movement within the entire space will be greater.
USing Natural ventilation to cool a building's mass rather than its people affects the placement of windows. When the wind strikes a building, it moves around the structure, creating positive pressures on the windward sides and negative pressures in the leeward wall.
EFFECT DIFFERENT WINDOW AND WING WALL CONFIGURATIONS HAVE ON INTERIOR VENTILATION
Use prevailing breezes as cooling device; Use landscaping as Wind protection and blowing dust; Use roof forms to minimize lifting wind pressure;turnblJildings back to wind; Protect small buildings with tall ones; Use land forms to protect against wind; Provide fish or lily pools to make the breeze cool and also use evaporation from roof as cooling device; Placement of interior partitions can provide the disruption of the
. otherwise straight path of airflow.
a.2. ORIENTATION TO THE SUN
The general strategy forthe placement of windows calls forthe largest window area on the side where the sun exposure minimizes combined heating and cooling needs. Sunlighttransmissionwill be a net benefit on an annual basis if thewinter (cold months) solar heat exceeds winter heatloss and summer solar heat gain.
Usually, on the west and on the east, very minimal windows is made.
The percentage of the incident solar energy that a window transmits for any given day depends on the angle at which rays of sunllqhtsintercepts the window and for how many hours the window receives sunlight.
In general, buildings located in southern latitudes should have window areas concentrated on the northern and southern exposure (ideally with a projecting horizontal shading device over south facing windows) to minimize the air-conditioning burden.
Manila (warmer area) , hioher .unray.
-8eguio (colder area)
To obtain the greatest benefit from the sun as cold month (winter) heat source, buildings located in northern latitudes should have window areas concentrated on the south (with minimal window areas to the north).
Windows in Summer are shaded by wooden overhangs, increased roof eaves, venetian blinds, etc.
a.3. OFFSETIING TEMPERATURE
Raise building for maximum drying and cooling of surfaces. It also avoids damp earth; allow hot air up and out; air registers at Windows where heat loss and gain occurs.
Another feature which maybe added to a building is patio or interior garden in the middle of the structure Irorn where the breeze would circulatetothe building's other parts, The "garden may have a concretetrellis with decorative hanging plants which filter the air.
Open plan for warm climates; Compact plan for cold climates to preserve heat inside; Using fullveranda louvered.openmqs-open plan with cross ventilation in a breezy hillside location and using lightweight construction.
Raise building for maximum drying
and cooling of surfaces. ard out.
b. Materials- for passive design approach, materials to be used should not absorb heat. For instance, metal should be avoided.
The basic material is ceramic (clay) and perlite for the roof and walls. Both materials possess exceptional insulating capabilities. However, during cold season, high-mass materials absorb the sun's heat, such as tile floors and Formica (plastic laminates). Now gypsum board heating panels 5/8 inch. thick are used completely concealed in a drywall ceiling.
Roofing materials should be painted in light colors so as to reflect the sun and not absorb heat. Ceiling and walling should be lined with heat insulating materials such as aluminum foil, fiber glass batts and blankets, loos~fill miMralfibers or rigid insulation.
Use.refiectiYf3gla~s, preferably emerald green color. This versatlle solar control glass, blocks up to 65% of.t~~sul)'~:~§!.at:lNhil~lettiDg in over 40% more natural daylight. This material combines effective solar heat
·re:dUctionand·.'<1~Yli@t}iingntorlower operating costs .
. _., ,~, -,:<'tH'-",:/>::~< """'-"'\q:~;i-/')<"""<;'--"
c. Building Shape - the less skin, the less exposure. Use steep roofing for colder climates and amore or less flat roofing for warmer climates.
d. Features and Nature of the Envelope - Fenestration, insulation, thermal mass, wall shading, color and reflectivity, openings and penetrations. The building should be designed to allow the free flow of the breeze to all work spaces. Windows for instance,are low, wide and structured in such a way thatthe prevailing wind increases its speed as it enters the building.
The energy crisis is forcing us to return to our traditions, as the cost of fuel is becoming more and more expensive to maintain mechanical and electrical design and passive design is the solution.
CONVENTIONAL BUILDING, RECTANGULAR -Greater surfaces are to enclose same volume. ENERGY CONSERVATION BUILDING, CUBICAL - Minimum surface are to enclose given volume.
Plastic-domed ventilating skylight is the way to create beautiful light-filled rooms, to add new dimension and greater flexibility to interior and exterior designs. These skylights offer passive solar heat, natural air conditioning and can be used in any climate on any roof. Features are copper flashed, shatter-proof, insulated dome, screening and sunshade, operable by manual, pole or electric motor.
A dramatic new glass enclosure is now available. The Solarium. It combines architectural beauty and engineering excellence with the most technologically advanced energy saving features: Summer venting; Winter heating; South facing movable vertical louvers keep direct sun out of the atrium in summer and let in winter sun for passive heating.,
4. NATURAL HEATING AND DAYUGHTING
If the sun's energy is to be used directly for heating in the season (winter), it can also contribute to the illumination of the heated space. Hot air is-effectively vented out with the use of strategically located clerestories, which are windows located on the side-of the roof for ventilation purposes. The size of rooms especially offices should be determined by the available natural light.
By avoiding transport system of ducts, pipes, fans, and pumps as well as heat exchangers and complicated controls, significant amount of money are saved, the operation and maintenance are simplified and reduced in cost and comfort and efficiency can actually be increased.
As the sun hits the blackened surface of the wall, the concrete in this case absorbs some of the heat while some of it simultaneously heats the air which rises and enters the room. The heat in the concrete migrates slowly inward, and when the sun has set, radiates into the building while warm convection currents continue inside between the black concrete and the transparent cover.
tr space work best when only 2t05 inches thick (0.025-1.25) but may be enlarQad to accomodate a porch.
_ fan (OPtlo~ solar radiation
~--------:1~~~~~.parant cover( lor2layers) blackened, p'bble heat collectlno surface spoce to reci.va slldlnQ Insulotlno shutter solaroaln and natutal dayliOhtlno
_lor .. at V.alr in .• lila tlon radla.t hot (optional)
f..,r. r eN I GIl t ~ boof .,0.- ....... ", ......
The east wall is largely.blank against low summer sun, as is the west wall.'
Natural daylight does much to relieve the electric lighting demand not only in the areas receiving direct solar gain in cold months (winter) but also in the two month classrooms where clerestory glass supplements the sliding glass doors in the north wall. The figure on the previous page shows this top-lighting.
5. WINDOWLESS BUILDING
It is quite evident that glass is frequently a problem, sometimes it can be omitted. Buildings or large sections thereof can be closed by opaque walls. An example of a department store designed in this way is shown in the figure below. The problem is a complex one and should have careful study in each instance by engineering consultants.
Department stores are often best designed this way. Schools sometimes are. Parameters including function, aesthetics and thermal interchanges must be examined. During daylight hours they are densely occupied and well lighted. The space gains of people-load and lighting load are usually sufficient to heat the building by day inwinter (cold months). Often they exceed this state and must be cooled. Hopefully this is done by the low-energy method of circulating cool outdoor air.
Glass, no matter how well-handled In summer, would add additional and instantaneous heat that is not needed. Quite differently, the transmission of heat in through heavy masonry wall is minimal by comparison and usually delayed by 8 to 10 hours. Merchants do not need to have shoppers distracted by views of the exterior. In schools, children at study can wait for relaxation, to be enjoyed later in windowed recreational area.
6. UTILIZATION OF NATURAL GROWTH
a. Shade Trees
Deciduous trees provide shade in the summer and admit light in the winter. Evergreen's provide shade in the summer and reduce window heat loss to the right sky in winter.
A south-facing window shaded by a deciduous tree receives less solar heat than an unshaded northfacing window (the north window received diffused radiation from clouds).
Trees reduce window heat gain not only by blocking direct sunlight penetration but also by lowering the ground surface temperature, as for example. When they shade an adjacent parking lot. Placement of the trees should permit winter (cold month) penetration while blocking summer heat.
b. Deciduous Ivy can also shade a building facade in summer and allow the sun to shine through to warm it during the cold (winter) months.
7. EQUIPMENT ON THE ROOF
The chase at Manhattan Services that connect to an active large building are Building, New York City. numerous.
(Bird's eye view)
a. Entering Services - can comprise electricity, oil, gas, & water.
b. Leaving the Building - Sewage and storm water, obviously related to lower levels of the structure.
Fresh airforventilation and used air, rejected by exhausted fans, frequently pass through the building envelope near the points of use. This can be at open mechanical stories adjacent to air-handling equipment. On the roof in tall buildings, one finds a multitude of items including elevator machinery, cooling towers, water storage tanks and chimney.
IVY in full leaf summer
On the roofs of smaller, low-rise buildings, rooftop facilities can include chimneys, fan exhausts; plumbing vents, security lights, and roof access stairs. (all weather resistant)
Unlike some central-station installations, the zones can operate separate and turn-off when not in demand. Hence energy is saved. Units are identified as white in color and space exhaust fans as silver-dome elements on black bases. Appearance of the
. equipment is not unpleasant and no surrounding parapet is needed to mask them.
8. UTILIZATION OF WATER AND AIR
Thermal energy can be stored in three-foot (1.00 M) high waterfilled drums in front to the south-facing windows. Once the sun sets, this heat radiate through the house, trapped by the insulation. A back-up gas heater takes the Chill off cold mornings and a woodburning stove in the living room provide additional warmth.
Provision of a water pool or even a fountain is also very effective.
A fireplace effectively heats the living room in the cold (winter) months. However, this heat can be harnessed and distributed to the different rooms by using a hollow steel plate body form of a fire-place instead of solid brick masonry. (See Chapter 13 HVAC
A few centimeters (inches) above the floor are small openings to admit cold air to fill the hollow fireplace form. When a fire is produced, the cold air around or inside the hollow form is heated and the hot air goes above to the ducts which goes to bedrooms through the ceiling and out through registers.
In some cases, it is possible to move the fluids (liquid or air) without mechanical aid, by natural convection orthermosiphonihg. As the fluid is heated, lttendsto rise, andcooler fluid flows in to take its place. Pumping, however, usually gives greater collection efficiencies.
This heat is directly used for warming the living spaces of a building in conventional.ways, Ex: Through radiators and hot air registers. When the building does not requue heat, the warmed air or liquid (called the heat transfer medium) from the collector can be moved to a heat storage container.
A backup gas heater takes the chill of cold mornings and a wood burning stove or fireplace in the living room provides additional warmth;
A 190-gallon cylinders hold water that absorbs daytime heat and then radiates it into the house at night.
In case of Air Medium, the storage is often a pile of rocks, or some other heat-holding material; This also requires duct work and Jarger installation space; Heat-transfer coefficient is less than that of the water requiring larger collector surfaces; Panel construction is simpler and not subject to problems of freezing, leakage, and corrosion.
In the case of Liquid-Medium or water, the storage is usually a large, well-insulated tank of water, which has considerable heat capacity. This requires piping for circulation and distribution; it usually contains an anti-freeze solution and corrosion-retarding additive is required for aluminum piping.
Heat is also stored in containers of chemicals called eutectic or phase-changing salts. These salts which store large quantities of heat in a relatively small volume, melt when they are heated and release heat later as they cool and crystalize. When the building needs heat, the air or water from its heating system passes through the storage, is warmed, and is then fed through the conventional heaters to warm the space.
10. BUILDING CONFIGURATION
The overall shape of a building affects the amount of energy it will consume. In general, a configuration that resists unwanted heat transmission for a given enclosed volume, a building should be constructed with minimum exposed surface area. A spherical or round building has less surface and thus less heat gain or loss than any other shape for an equal amount of total floor area. A square building has less surface than a rectangular one of equal area per floor, and so undergoes less thermal transmission or heat gain. However, the number of stories modifies this relationship for the building as a whole.
The EXCEPTION to this generalization about abuilding's configuration is the situation where the primary , thermal load is the result not of the environment, but rather of internally generated conditions. Where an office building, for example, generates large amounts of heat from its lighting and computers, the problem may be one of dissipating rather than conserving thermal energy. In this case it may, (depending on the climate}, be desirable to have as large an amount of building skin as possible to facilitate heat dissipation.
In its "Energy Conservation Design Guidelines" for NeW Office Buildings GSA adds lITe foJlowing observations with respect to building configuration.
1. Tall Building: A taJi building has a proportionately smaller roof and is less affected by solar gains on that surface. On the other hand, tall buildings generally are subjected to greater wind velocities, which increase infiltration and heat losses. Tall buildings are less likely to be shaded or protected from winds by surrounding buildings and trees. They require more mechanical sUPR0rt systems, including elevators and longer exhaust duct systems. The stack induction action in tall buildings increase infiltration, thus requiring special measures to reduce its influence on heat gain and heat loss.
Research has shown that the buildings located downwind of a substantially taller structure have better ventilation than when downwind of buildings. Their same size because of the large amount of turbulence created behind the taller building. When planning groups of buildings, though, it is best to space them apart and to stagger them against the prevailing wind to minimize the chance of one building's wall preventing another's ventilation. Also avoid planting dense foliage upwind of buildings. or placing pavement or attic vents in front of inlet windows.
2. Floorto Ceiling Height: Greaterceiling heights improve environmental conditions in the summertime by permitting warm air to rise. However, greater ceiling heights increase the perimeter areas. Thus increasing heat transmission through the walls.
Reduced ceiling height reduce the exposed exterior wall surface area, and the enclosed volume. A reduced ceiling height can also increase illumination effectiveness.
Floor to ceiling height is determined by psychological comfort, height of light fixtures for proper light distribution and height of windows necessary for good natural lighting.
In general, increases in ceiling height need increase only the exposed wall surface (not window surface). The effect of greater heights on energy consumption may be rather small, depending on the thermal characteristics of the wall.
3. Ceiling Plenum Height: Deep ceiling plenums, allow the use of larger duct sizes with low pressure drop and reduced heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) air handler and fan requirements. Ducts can be larger, allowing greater volumes and air to be moved with smaller pressure drops, permitting reduced fan horsepower.
4. Roofs: Very low buildings may have greater roof area in proportion to wall area, and the heating and cooling leads which they generate may, in turn, influence on the total heat gain and loss, and will rarely influence the selection of the total heating and cooling systems.
5. Exposed Floors: Buildings that are elevated on columns or with first-floor areas and large overhanging upper floors increase heat loss and heat gain because of the extra exposed floor surfaces. While this may be of slight advantage all year in southern regions, or anywhere in the summertime, it presents a serious increased heat loss in colder climates. Locating parking garages on intermediate levels similarly increases energy consumption from additional exposed surfaces.
6. Building Forms: A dome roof can permit warm air to rise and collect at the top leaving the floor area cooler. Pyramids, zigzag exterior walls, rhomboid-shaped buildings, and otherforms can all be used to control the influence of climate on consumption.
7. Zigzag Walls: Zigzag configuration of east and west walls provides self-shading to reduce summer solar loads. Provides natural windbreaks, and can permit low ray to penetrate the building in the winter to supplement the heating system, if the windows in the zigzag are facing south. By facing the windows north in the zigzag in a southern location, heat gain is reduced year-round; but, in both summer and winter, natural lighting and views can be available at both east and west facades without the penalty of increasing summer heat gains. However, the energy requirements resulting from the additional wall surface for the zigzag form must be weighed against the other energy benefits.
GROUND SURFACE (Paved and Planted)
This option involves the use of light-colored ground surfaces to reflectsunlight onto a building, dark-colored surfaces to absorb sunlight and lower outside temperatures.
Ground reflected light transmitted through windows strikes the ceiling. This is beneficial for daylighting in two respects. First, the light is projected deeper into the room than direct sunlight. Second, ceiling are usually light-colored and thus lights better than darker floors.
Plant cover absorbs sunlight, yet has a lower temperature than paving because of evaporative cooling which occurs during the transpiration of plants. The net heat gain from the sun is rapidly dissipated by the enormous surface area of the leaves. Very little heat is absorbed in vegetation because of its minimal mass.
White paint: New 75%
Marble (White) 45%
Brick buff 48%
dark glazed 30%
Vegetation (average) 25%
Macadam 18% Night air temperatures over grass, for example, are therefore cooler than over pavement. The lower day temperatures and lower right temperatures of planted surfaces result in less window heat gain and a reduced air-conditioning burden compared to the situation of having paved surfaces adjacent to the building.
12. UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Placed between a building and the outside elements, earth slows the heat transfer from one to the other, reduces the temperature difference between exterior and interior, and at the same time protects the building from cold winds and the direct rays of the sun. While earth does provide some degree
of thermal resistance, it is not a particularly good insulator. A layer of insulation therefore, must be located between the building and the earth which surround it, or else the earth will ., , act as a heat sink, always drawing heat away from the ' interior of the buildings.
3.ASIC PRECEPTS to keep in mind when working with underground structures include the following:
1. Gentle south slopes are ideal for underground structures. They are easily built into the hill and have south sunlight and positive drainage.
2. Avoid low-lying depressions. Heavy cold air drains into them; Frost and dampness are more likely in these areas.
3. Make sure that surrounding construction (parking lots, septic systems, etc.) do not drain into the site.
4. Identify ground levels before making decisions on placement and depth.
5. Adequate soil percolation is essential, particularly for sunken courtyards and atrium. If there are problems, consider the installation of overflow drains.
-6. Any structural system can be used. Provided it is designed to applicable loading conditions. General rules are 150 Ib/sq. fit (705 kg/sq.m.) for roofs with grass cover and 400 Ib/sq. ft (1,850 kg/sq. m.) for roofs when the earth cover is to support small trees. Add water, (snow) and pedestrian loads.
7. Wall design is generally the same as conventional basement wall or other.below grade construction.
8. Place insulation outside the below-ground building structure; this allow the structure to serve as a heat storage mass. Insulation can be reduced in thickness as the depth below grade increases.
9. Butyl sheets provide both waterproofing" and a vapor barrier.
1 O. For earth Berming against existing exterior walls, a cement plaster finish applied to metal lath (hyrib) and a vapor barriers in the existing wall are advisable.
Berm -' a ledge or shoulder, as along the edge of a paved road
This detail discourages roots, insects, and rodents from getting into the wall.
11. Avoid curbs or parapets to retain earth covering. Freezing and thawing action will tend to crack these elements.
12. To control interior dampness, dry the air through circulation and ordehumidication.
13. Earth pipes can be used to provide natural cooling. Air taken from the outside during warm weather can be cooled by being passed through long pipes buried in the berm or below grade. The same piping can provide some degree of pre-heating of fresh outside air during cold weather.
14. Examine local codes, especially in relation to fire exits and ventilation.
15. Lighting usage should be thought out carefully. It will affect both comfort and energy use more critically in an underground structure.
RETROFITTING - to retrofit is to replace. Old windows can be replaced to the thermal windows to reduce air and water infiltration, eliminate drafts and cold spots, and assure superiorsound attenuation. This literally create a new living environment in old buildings.