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Green… From An Architect Point of View …
Ghozlan, Ayah Section : 03
PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control
Dr. Tarek Saker
INTRODUCTION GREEN CONSTRUCTION
*EMBODIED ENERGY *THE LEED PROGRAM * ADVANTAGES
** HEATING, VENTILATION AND COOLING SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ** ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION * BUILDING PLACEMENT * SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS * WATER MANAGEMENT
** RE‐USING STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS ** SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY IN ARCHITECTURE
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS * BENEFITS * GREEN BUILDING MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA ** RESOURCE EFFICIENCY **INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) **ENERGY EFFICIENCY **WATER CONSERVATION **AFFORDABILITY *THREE BASIC STEPS OF PRODUCT SELECTION ** RESEARCH
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VIII.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. 3 of 21 . VI. Tarek Saker ** EVALUATION ** SELECTION * RECYCLED MATERIALS * LOWER VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS V. THE VALUE OF GREEN BUILDINGS CONCLUSION REFERENCES NOTES VII.
The Engineers. and improvements in insulation and window construction.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Tarek Saker INTRODUCTION In a time faced with an energy crisis. This is most notable in changes to heating and cooling systems. and technology. all resources we cannot afford to waste. economic. environmentally sound spaces in which we can thrive and endure. soaring housing costs. Architects and Developers of today. dwindling natural resources. Buildings and development have an enormous impact on our quality of life and the quality of our environment. 25% of its wood harvest and account for 16% of its water consumption. share an obligation to create new and innovative structures that turn this cycle around. economic instability. and has grown in popularity as awareness of the earth’s many ecological problems became more wide spread. Buildings expend 40% of the world’s energy. more than ever. Economic factors have also helped the green movement by causing changes in building materials. both in construction and in operations. Green Architecture began with the first Earth Day in 1970. 4 of 21 . critical levels of air pollution and an inordinate amount of waste produced each day it is essential to begin taking steps to prevent this pattern from continuing down the road of environmental destruction. Buildings of the future need to take the step beyond shelter and work places and perform as efficient. water shortages.
Such rating systems as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). Although there is no magic formula. The calculation must be complete enough to include the extraction of raw materials including the associated energy or fuels used for its extraction to the end of the products lifetime. Other energies to be included in the calculation are transportation. and its local availability. There are many certification organizations and rating systems for new constructions. Sustainable or ‘Green Building’ design and construction is the opportunity to use our resources more efficiently.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. “EMBODIED ENERGY” Embodied Energy refers to the total energy required to procure a material from its raw state. its calculation would ideally include the total energy consumed during a products life time. In other words. there does not seem to be standardized method for calculating a materials embodied energy. success comes in the form leaving a lighter footprint on the environment through conservation of resources. manufacture it. its durability. With energy reliance in the 21st 5 of 21 . Tarek Saker GREEN CONSTRUCTION The "Green" refers to a method of design and construction that minimizes burdens on our natural resources and the environment. cost‐effective. low‐maintenance products for our construction needs. seem to devote much importance on what is known as embodied energy. we then have a quantiﬁable means of our consumption. manufacturing. transport it and process it for its intended use. materials. and other processing requirements right down to the heating. The selection of materials is reviewed by its ability to be recycled or reused. its assembly. None of the systems available however. while at the same time balancing energy‐efficient. will review a building. green building design involves finding the delicate balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment. If we consider this accounting methodology when building. energy from manipulation and processing equipment. however. cooling and lighting of the processing facility. Unfortunately at this time. and how it exchanges with its environment. while creating healthier and more energy‐ efficient homes. including removal and energies required for its reuse.
That’s would be a truly green building. 6 of 21 . conservation of materials and resources. Tarek Saker century being primarily based on carbon based fuels. we are ultimately building sustainably and then able building within our means. The rating system awards points for a range of state‐of‐the‐art strategies including sustainable site planning. Products with lower embodied energies are typically more economical. energy efficiency and renewable energy use. One example is the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System developed by the U. Imagine a building equipped with renewable energy sources which will eventually completely offset the total energy required to construct the building. and are less damaging to the environment.S. we are also reducing the effects of the use these associated energy types. If a sustainability rating system could be created which included a materials embodied energy. By using the least amount of energy to build a structure and by being conscious of our dependence for this energy. “THE LEED PROGRAM” Responding to the increased global interest and awareness of environmental issues and the principle of sustainable development. if we reduce the total embodied energy in the building. This could be assembled in a handbook for architects and builders to establish buildings total energy requirements.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. easier to work with. Through the use of embodied energy calculations. Since construction is one of the most energy intensive and wasteful processes. Green Building Council (USGBC). and indoor environmental quality. it provides us with a means to quantify our use and our waste. safeguarding water quality and water efficiency. we can accurately measure a building’s energy requirement. There is a clear advantage to building with a low total embodied energy. The LEED program is a voluntary national standard for developing high‐ performance sustainable buildings. it would be ideal to see materials durability and recoverability factor included as well. environmental assessment systems have been created specifically for the construction industry.
S. reduced strain on local infrastructure. build "green. owners from the public and private sector are attracted to the concept of green construction and are starting to demand high‐ performance buildings. Some state and local governments have established "green" guidelines and incentive programs. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop an environmental management system (EMS) "template" that is specifically designed for the construction industry. storing and handling fuels. higher productivity due to increased occupant comfort and health (which also may lead to reduced insurance costs). a construction company will be able to identify company actions that impact the environment. as well as requirements for their own public‐sector buildings. protecting wetlands and endangered species. 7 of 21 . managing waste. the construction industry is increasingly challenged to demonstrate its commitment to the environment." and achieve certifications such as LEEDs or participate in programs such as EPA's National Performance Track. an EMS would provide the necessary framework for contractors to effectively manage environmental obligations. An EMS is a tool that helps companies from all industries manages their environmental impacts. set improvement goals. Some environmental impacts to address in an EMS include controlling soil erosion and sedimentation. Reduced environmental impacts. In the construction industry. Building on the EMS template. and plan how to achieve them. lower operating costs. “ADVANTAGES” There are numerous advantages to designing for sustainability that far outweigh the up‐front construction costs. and community stewardship are just some of the benefits. Tarek Saker As part of a nationwide effort toward conservation and sustainability. the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) is working with the U. As interest expands. and handling hazardous materials. minimizing dust and noise.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. More and more. preserving natural resources.
“SUSTAINABLE ENERGY” Energy efficiency over the entire life cycle of a building is the most important single goal of sustainable architecture. Also site and building orientation have a major effect on a building's HVAC efficiency. VENTILATION AND COOLING SYSTEM EFFICIENCY The most important and cost effective element of an efficient heating. blinds or shutters. In the broad context. by means of awnings. and development space. on‐site energy recycling technologies can effectively recapture energy from waste hot water and stale air and transfer that energy into incoming fresh cold water or fresh air. Typically passive solar building designs incorporate materials with high thermal mass that retain heat effectively and strong insulation that works to prevent heat escape. Significant amounts of energy are flushed out of buildings in the water. Architects use many different techniques to reduce the energy needs of buildings and increase their ability to capture or generate their own energy. Passive Solar Building Design allows buildings to harness the energy of the sun efficiently without the use of any active solar mechanisms such as photovoltaic cells or solar hot water panels.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Off the shelf. sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials. A more efficient building requires less heat generating or dissipating power. Low energy designs also requires the use of (mobile) solar shading. but may require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air. to relieve the solar heat gain in summer and to 8 of 21 . Recapture of energy for uses other than gardening from compost leaving buildings requires centralized anaerobic digesters. Tarek Saker SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE Sustainable architecture is a general term that describes environmentally‐conscious design techniques in the field of architecture. and air conditioning (HVAC) system is a well insulated building. energy. Sustainable architecture is framed by the larger discussion of sustainability and the pressing economic and political issues of our world. ventilating. air and compost streams. HEATING.
In addition. provide much better insulation than single‐pane glass windows. This means that sprawling multi‐winged building designs (often thought to look more "organic") are often avoided in favor of more centralized structures. Louvers or light shelves are installed to allow the sunlight in during the winter (when the sun is lower in the sky) and keep it out in the summer (when the sun is high in the sky). In the northern hemisphere this usually involves installing a large number of south‐facing windows to collect direct sun and severely restricting the number of north‐ facing windows. In addition builders often opt for sprawling single story structures in order to maximize surface area and heat loss. when heat is recaptured (to be used immediately or stored). passive solar designs can also be very effective. Tarek Saker reduce the need for artificial cooling. 9 of 21 . Preventing excess solar gain by means of solar shading devices in the summer months is important to reduce cooling needs. Windows are placed to maximize the input of heat‐creating light while minimizing the loss of heat through glass. when it is sited to work with the forces of nature. low energy buildings typically have a very low surface area to volume ratio to minimize heat loss. particularly the especially cool winds coming from nearby bodies of water. such as double or triple glazed insulated windows with gas filled spaces and low emissivity (low‐E) coatings. when the heat plant relying on fossil fuels or electricity is greater than 100% efficient.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. and when renewable energy is utilized. Certain window types. Coniferous or Evergreen Plants are often planted to the north of buildings to shield against cold north winds. Deciduous Trees are often planted in front of windows to block excessive sun in summer with their leaves but allow light through in winter when their leaves fall off. an integrated energy system will increase in efficiency: when the building is well insulated. heating systems are a primary focus for sustainable architecture because they are typically one of the largest single energy drains in buildings. In climates with four seasons. Masonry building materials with high thermal mass are very valuable for retaining the cool temperatures of night throughout the day. In Colder Climates. Buildings are often designed to capture and channel existing winds. In Warmer Climates where cooling is a primary concern. a poor insulator.
PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Careful mixed use zoning can make commercial. high and ultra high performance concrete. such structures often serve as the unknowing frontlines of suburban sprawl. “BUILDING PLACEMENT” One central and often ignored aspect of sustainable architecture is building placement. sustainably harvested wood. bicycle. For small wind turbines. Second. most building should avoid suburban sprawl in favor of the kind of light urban development articulated by the New Urbanist movement. In considering costs. and light industrial areas more accessible for those traveling by foot. wood fiber plates. clay. locally‐obtained stone and rock. First. “SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS” Some examples of sustainable building materials include recycled denim or blown‐in fiber glass insulation. which is one of the strongest and fastest growing woody plants. panels made from paper flakes. and some buildings even move throughout the day to follow the sun. vermiculite. rammed earth. maintenance costs can be a deciding factor at sites with marginal wind‐ harnessing capabilities. maintenance can consume much of a small wind turbines revenue. expanded clay grains. and non‐toxic low‐VOC glues and paints. calcium sand stone. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency. The use of undersized wind turbines in energy production in sustainable structures requires the consideration of many factors. Linoleum. At low‐wind sites. coconut. or public transit. residential. as proposed in the Principles of Intelligent Urbanism. cork. sisal. small wind systems are generally more expensive than larger wind turbines relative to the amount of energy they produce. flax linen. Although many may envision the ideal environmental home or office structure as an isolated place in the middle of the woods. this kind of placement is often detrimental to the environment. see grass. Ideally. baked earth. sheep wool. Trass. Tarek Saker ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRODUCTION Active solar devices such as photovoltaic solar panels help to provide sustainable electricity for any use. they usually increase the energy consumption required for transportation and lead to unnecessary auto emissions. and bamboo. 10 of 21 .
RE‐USING STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS Some sustainable architecture incorporates recycled or second hand materials. can help people to see the benefit of living sustainably. incorporating things such as grey water systems for use on garden beds. Sustainable Architectural Design can help to create a sustainable way of living within a community. Cost/effectiveness is an important issue in sustainable architecture projects. “WASTE MANAGEMENT” Sustainable Architecture focuses on the on‐site use of waste.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Often sustainable architects attempt to retro‐fit old structures to serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary development. and composting toilets to reduce sewage. While the existing social constructs can be seen to influence architecture. An overtly socially sustainable building. this can be seen in many of Rural Studio's buildings in and around Hale County." located at Rock Lodge Club in Stockholm. Tarek Saker Sustainable Materials will be fatherly discussed with more details later on. and one of the most efficient designs here in is the Public Housing Approach. SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY IN ARCHITECTURE The building structure must also be considered.” 11 of 21 . buildings which were designed with the specific intention of controlling or directing the flow of everyday life to "create socially equitable spaces". is that “Architecture Can Lead The Way For A Greater Community. These methods. if successful. the opposite can also be true. and in the design of ALA Himmelwright's "model fireproof farmhouse. The reduction in use of new materials creates a corresponding reduction in Embodied Energy. when combined with on‐site food waste composting and off‐site recycling. can reduce a house's waste to a small amount of packaging waste. Alabama. Latrines & public showers. This approach lets everyone have their own sleeping/recreation space. yet incorporate communal spaces eg. New Jersey. Communist Russia's Constructivist Social condensers are a good example of this. The same can be said for environmentally sustainable design. Mess halls. Architectural design can play a large part in influencing the ways that social groups interact.
“GREEN BUILDING MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA” • • • • • Resource efficiency Indoor air quality Energy efficiency Water conservation Affordability 12 of 21 . Green materials are environmentally responsible because impacts are considered over the life of the product. processing. fabrication. transport. “BENEFITS” Green Building Materials offer specific Benefits to the building owner and building occupants: • Reduced maintenance/replacement costs over the life of the building. rather than nonrenewable resources. • Greater design flexibility. recycling. In addition. integrating green building materials into building projects can help reduce the environmental impacts associated with the extraction. installation. and disposal of these building industry source materials. Using green building materials and products promotes conservation of dwindling nonrenewable resources internationally. • Energy conservation. Building and construction activities worldwide consume 3 billion tons of raw materials each year or 40 percent of total global. reuse. construction and operation of building projects. an assessment of green materials may involve an evaluation of one or more of the criteria listed below. Depending upon project‐specific goals. The use of green building materials and products represents one important strategy in the design of a building. Tarek Saker SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS The concept of sustainable building incorporates and integrates a variety of strategies during the design. • Improved occupant health and productivity.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. • Lower costs associated with changing space configurations. Green Building Materials are composed of renewable.
• • • • • • INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) Indoor air quality is enhanced by utilizing materials that meet the following criteria: • LOW OR NON‐TOXIC: Materials that emit few or no carcinogens. SALVAGED. or generally improving the appearance.g. or value of a product. LOCALLY AVAILABLE: Building materials. and reducing greenhouse gases. restoring. minimizing waste (recycled. recyclable and or source reduced product packaging). quality. including postindustrial content with a preference for postconsumer content. REUSABLE OR RECYCLABLE: Select materials that can be easily dismantled and reused or recycled at the end of their useful life. OR REMANUFACTURED: Includes saving a material from disposal and renovating. or irritants as demonstrated by the manufacturer through appropriate testing..PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. functionality. RECYCLED OR RECYCLABLE PRODUCT PACKAGING: Products enclosed in recycled content or recyclable packaging. components. and systems found locally or regionally saving energy and resources in transportation to the project site. 13 of 21 . RESOURCE EFFICIENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS: Products manufactured with resource‐efficient processes including reducing energy consumption. • NATURAL. performance. REFURBISHED. reproductive toxicants. Tarek Saker RESOURCE EFFICIENCY Resource Efficiency can be accomplished by utilizing materials that meet the following criteria: • RECYCLED CONTENT: Products with identifiable recycled content. PLENTIFUL OR RENEWABLE: Materials harvested from sustainably managed sources and preferably have an independent certification (e. repairing. DURABLE: Materials that are longer lasting or are comparable to conventional products with long life expectancies. certified wood) and are certified by an independent third party.
LOW‐VOC ASSEMBLY: Materials installed with minimal VOC‐producing compounds. Products that also maximize resource and energy efficiency while reducing chemical emissions. or low‐VOC methods of cleaning. Tarek Saker MINIMAL CHEMICAL EMISSIONS: Products that have minimal emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). “THREE BASIC STEPS OF PRODUCT SELECTION” Product selection can begin after the establishment of project‐specific environmental goals. • • • • ENERGY EFFICIENCY Energy Efficiency can be maximized by utilizing materials. or no‐VOC mechanical attachment methods and minimal hazards. and systems that require only simple. SYSTEMS OR EQUIPMENT: Products that promote healthy IAQ by identifying indoor air pollutants or enhancing the air quality. components. AFFORDABILITY Affordability can be considered when building product life‐cycle costs are comparable to conventional materials or as a whole. The environmental assessment process for building products involves three basic steps. and systems that help reduce energy consumption in buildings and facilities.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control • Dr. MOISTURE RESISTANT: Products and systems that resist moisture or inhibit the growth of biological contaminants in buildings. are within a project‐ defined percentage of the overall budget. non‐toxic. HEALTHFULLY MAINTAINED: Materials. components. WATER CONSERVATION Water Conservation can be obtained by utilizing products and systems that help reduce water consumption in buildings and conserve water in landscaped areas. • Research • Evaluation • Selection 14 of 21 .
the evaluation process is more complex when comparing different products with the same function. a recycled content assessment between various manufacturers of medium density fiberboard is a relatively straightforward "apples to apples" comparison. Evaluation and assessment is relatively simple when comparing similar types of building materials using the environmental criteria. Although rather simple in principle. For example. Tarek Saker 1.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Research helps identify the full range of the project’s building material options. including manufacturers' information such as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). model green building product specifications. source material characteristics. The software was developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory. government regulations. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluation of the relative "greenness" of building materials and products. this approach has been difficult and expensive in actual practice (although that appears to be changing). However. building codes. product warranties. For example. 2. building industry articles. In addition. RESEARCH This step involves gathering all technical information to be evaluated. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) test data. recycled content data. One tool that uses the LCA methodology is BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) software. as well as filling in information gaps. 15 of 21 . and other sources of product data. Then it may become necessary to process both descriptive and quantitative forms of data. the evaluator may request product certifications from manufacturers to help sort out possible exaggerated environmental product claims. this step may involve researching other environmental issues. environmental statements. EVALUATION This step involves confirmation of the technical information. It allows users to balance the environmental and economic performance of building products. and durability information. LCA addresses the impacts of a product through all of its life stages.
and hardware. for example. This step often involves the use of an evaluation matrix for scoring the project‐specific environmental criteria. if a new structure is being constructed in a wooded area. renewed. Tarek Saker 3. wood from the trees which were cut to make room for the building would be re‐used as part of the building itself. building materials may be gleaned from the site itself. When older buildings are demolished. which can be harvested for commercial use after only 6 years of growth. A study of emissions from materials by the State of California has shown that there are some green materials that have substantial emissions whereas some more "traditional" materials actually were lower emitters. or cork oak. Thus. a common fallacy is that "green" materials are always better for the health of occupants or the environment. thus reducing the consumption of new goods. SELECTION. Organic or milk‐based paints may be used. such as doors. “LOWER VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS” Low‐impact building materials are used wherever feasible: for example. windows. mantels. arsenic. the subject of 16 of 21 . The total score of each product evaluation will indicate the product with the highest environmental attributes. insulation may be made from low VOC (volatile organic compound)‐emitting materials such as recycled denim or cellulose insulation. and sold as flooring. frequently any good wood is reclaimed. Any good dimension stone is similarly reclaimed. green designers look for materials that are rapidly replenished.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. “RECYCLED MATERIALS” Architectural salvage and reclaimed materials are used when appropriate as well. When new materials are employed. To discourage insect damage. in which only the outer bark is removed for use. When possible. thus preserving the tree. Many other parts are reused as well. rather than the building insulation materials that may contain carcinogenic or toxic materials such as formaldehyde. However. and asbestos) are naturally occurring and are not without their histories of use with the best of intentions. these alternate insulation materials may be treated with boric acid. such as bamboo. Individual criteria included in the rating system can be weighted to accommodate project‐specific goals and objectives. Many harmful substances (including formaldehyde.
Tarek Saker emissions must be carefully investigated before concluding that natural materials are always the healthiest alternatives for occupants and for the Earth. they can cause additive and multiplicative effects. This is because many VOCs have been known to cause sensory irritation and central nervous system symptoms characteristic to sick building syndrome. Green products are usually considered to contain less VOCs and be better for human and environmental health. and when there are many VOCs present. indoor concentrations of VOCs are higher than in the outdoor atmosphere. A case study conducted by the Department of Civil. and Environmental Engineering at the University of Miami that compared three green products and their non‐green counterparts found that even though both the green products and the non‐green counterparts both emitted levels of VOCs. Architectural. the amount and intensity of the VOCs emitted from the green products were much safer and comfortable for human exposure.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be found in any indoor environment coming from a variety of different sources. VOCs have a high vapor pressure and low water solubility and are suspected of causing sick building syndrome type symptoms. 17 of 21 .
operations. Now in 2009. and that's driving them to look at ways of creating energy efficient buildings. 18 of 21 . On the commercial side. It is also becoming much more available and the costs have come down.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. There's a much bigger sense of urgency about energy efficiency today than before. and how much that improves their home environment. Alternative water systems are more expensive. and a lot of the building codes are now going toward green. lets discuss why green construction and renovation may become standard building practice. It has also kind of become the cause to support in the entertainment industry. as well as improving their health. Is green construction and renovation more expensive? It's hard to get an accurate estimate of the additional costs of building green. and why paying more now saves money down the road. So. and improving occupants' health. Tarek Saker THE VALUE OF GREEN BUILDINGS Green buildings were once the domain of visionary architects and their rich clients. I think it’s because there's an awareness of the importance of efficiency. I think we'll continue to move forward on energy conservation and environmental consciousness. especially when the cost of doing so is not much more than purchasing products that have those harmful chemicals in them. There's a push politically. and automobiles. Every indication is that it is becoming the way of the future. But if a building owner puts in an alternative energy system. There are reports suggesting that it costs just as much to build green as a conventional building. there's a great deal of interest. I think that people are almost getting panicky about energy prices. it's going to be more expensive. There's a lot of technology available to homeowners that can greatly improve their environment and health. much of the increased cost reflects how green you want your building to be. conserving energy. Many people are interested in doing their part for the environment. When they understand the benefits of low volatile organic compounds (VOC) carpets and paint. green buildings offer really profound economic value. Now more people and businesses opt for green buildings.
it's green. We need to be careful not to saturate green because people see it as potentially increasing costs in these hard economic times. and it's not inherently more expensive." you notice when it's not green. but it is interesting that I'm starting to notice companies that are not green. that instead of noticing. that when you have a manual sink. Tarek Saker CONCLUSION My sense is that green building is going to become standard building practice. It has become so common that once you put your hands under the sink. 19 of 21 . This is actually going to save money. I don't know if I'm typical. "Oh.PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. you start thinking they are really behind the times. I think it’s nice when you go into restrooms in businesses and airports. As long as that message goes out. the water comes out and turns itself off. I think we'll be seeing more and more green homes.
PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr. http://www. http://www.gov/ 2. htt p://knowledge. http://en.ciwmb.wikipedia.doityourself.allianz.org/wiki/Sustainable_architecture 5.ca.ca/?p=40 4. htt p://greenconstruction.com/en/globalissues/energy_co2/energy_eﬃ ci ency/ 3. Tarek Saker REFERENCES 1.com/stry/greenconstruction 20 of 21 .
Tarek Saker NOTES 21 of 21 .PRMG 030 Project Budgeting & Financial Control Dr.
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