MBRLC “HOW TO SERIES” NO.

3

HOW TO FARM BETTER

Published by: Asian Rural Life Development Foundation, International

To the Valued Reader: Many of these “How To” series were originally written in the 1970’s by Mr. Harold R. Watson, Dr. Warlito A. Laquihon and other MBRLC staff. They have served a generation of Filipino farmers in giving useful and practical information on farming systems for the small farm family. Interestingly enough, the demand for this type of information has only grown through the years. This revised and updated version of the “How To” series is an attempt to continue in the tradition of giving simple information, concepts and principles to small farmers, students and extension workers involved in growing vegetable and fruit crops, and in raising poultry and livestock If you have any questions, please fee free to write and/or contact us at our international offices of the Asian Rural Life Development Foundation (ARLDF): Mr. J. Jeffrey Palmer, Director ARLDF International P.O. Box 30 Samyaek Suanprung P.O. Chiang Mai, 50201 THAILAND e-mail: palmer@loxinfo.co.th You can also contact our base work in the Philippines at: Mr. Steven L. Musen, Director Mr. Henrylito Tacio, Program Information Officer MBRLC P.O. Box 41 Bansalan, 8005 PHILIPPINES e-mail: mbrlc@mozcom.com; website: http://www2.mozcom.com/~mbrlc We are very happy to share our experiences through this manual. Happy farming!

J. Jeffrey Palmer, Director ARLDF International

February 2004

UPDATED AND REVISED EDITION, 2004 With the purpose of facilitating wide information transfer, permission is hereby given for reproducing the contents of this manual, with the condition that proper acknowledgements are made and two copies are sent to the publisher. These “How To” series can serve as a practical and simple guide for engaging in various projects. The information is based on good research and the sound experiences and practices of the MBRLC. Bibliographic Citation: MBRLC Editorial Staff. How to Farm Better . MBRLC, Kinuskusan, Bansalan, Davao del Sur. 2004 Edition. How to Series No. 3. Editorial Staff: Mr. Henylito D. Tacio Mr. Steven L. Musen Mr. J. Jeffrey Palmer Note: The trade names, manufacturers and distributors cited in this publication are used solely for the purpose of providing specific information and do not endorse products named or imply criticism of similar ones not mentioned. Mention of a trade name, manufacturer or distributor does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product. Published by MBRLC, Kinuskusan, Bansalan, Davao del Sur, Philippines.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
How to Grow Ampalaya ……………………………………………………….. How to Propagate Fruit Trees Asexually …………………………………… How to Grow Azolla …………………………………………………………….. How to Grow Banana …………………………………………………………… How to Grow Barbados Cherry ………………………………………………. How to Make Basket Compost ……………………………………………….. How to Grow Black Pepper …………………………………………………… How to Raise Broiler Chickens……………………………………………….. How to Grow Cacao ……………………………………………………………. How to Grow Calamansi ………………………………………………………. How to Grow Cassava …………………………………………………………. How to Fatten Cattle in Your Backyard …………………………………….. How to Grow Coffee ……………………………………………………………. How to Grow Corn ……………………………………………………………… How to Raise Ducks with Fish and Snails …………………………………. How to Raise Ducks ……………………………………………………………. How to Grow Eggplant …………………………………………………………. How to Make a FAITH Garden ………………………………………………… How to Feed Swine …………………………………………………………….. How to Raise Dairy Goats …………………………………………………….. How to Raise Swine ……………………………………………………………. How to Farm Your Hilly Land ………………………………………………… How to Inoculate Leguminous Plants ………………………………………. How to Grow Pigeon Pea ……………………………………………………… How to Raise Layer Chickens ……………………………………………….. How to Grow Mangosteen ……………………………………………………. How to Grow Okra ……………………………………………………………… How to Grow Pineapple ………………………………………………………. How to Raise Rabbits …………………………………………………….…… How to Grow Rambutan ………………………………………………….…… How to Grow Lowland Rice ……………………………………………….….. How to Produce Your Own Seeds ……………………………………….….. How to Grow Sesame ……………………………………………………….… How to Grow Bush Sitao ……………………………………………………… How to Raise Golden Apple Snails …………………………………………. How to Grow Sorghum ……………………………………………………….. How to Grow Soybeans ………………………………………………………. How to Grow Stringbeans ……………………………………………………. How to Grow Sweet Corn …………………………………………………….. How to Grow Sweet Pepper …………………………………………………. How to Grow Sweet Potato ………………………………………………….. How to Tan Rabbit Skins …………………………………………………….. How to Raise Tilapia ………………………………………………………….. How to Grow Tomato …………………………………………………………. How to Grow Vegetable Transplants ………………………………………. How to UPLIFT Your Small Lowland Farm ……………………………….. How to Grow Winged Beans ………………………………………………… 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 64 66 68 70 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95

HOW TO GROW AMPALAYA (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA)

IMPORTANCE

1) Ampalaya is one of the vegetables you need to plant in your farm or garden. Aside from being a good source of vitamins and minerals, it is also a good source of income because it has a ready market. Almost all the parts of this plant are useful. Its fruits and leaves--and sometimes its stalks--can be sold. 2) There are two types of ampalaya: the white and the green types. The latter, however, is more popular among consumers. Among the varieties you can grow in your farm or garden are the following: Lagus Africa, Indang (or BPI Long Green), Iloilo Long, Santa Rita, Laur, Polo, Karela, and Silang. 3) The ampalaya vine is found everywhere in the country for it grows on different kinds of soils. However, for best result, plant it on a well-drained, sandy-loam or clay-loam soil which is rich in organic matter. Do not plant ampalaya in wet areas because it cannot tolerate too much moisture. You can grow ampalaya any time of the year as long as there is sufficient moisture. 4) Prepare the land thoroughly before planting ampalaya. Plow and harrow the field three times and then furrow it with a distance of two meters between rows. If you intend to plant ampalaya in your garden, be sure you prepare the plot thoroughly. Usually the ampalaya is planted in hills about one meter apart. 5) There are two ways of planting ampalaya: transplanted and direct seeded. If your area doesn't have enough water supply and ampalaya seeds are rather limited, it is much better to sow the seeds first in a seed box or seedbed. Press the seeds into sterilized soil and then water the seed box or seedbed every day until transplant-ing time. (Sterilize the soil by pouring boiling water on the surface of the soil or by burning dried leaves of banana on top of the soil.) The seedlings are ready for transplanting when they have one or two pairs of true leaves. Seeds to be used for direct planting should be dried in the sun for two days. Then plant three to five seeds per hill five centimeters deep in rows. After several days, when sprouts are seen on the ground, thin out the plants leaving only two to three of the strongest looking plants per hill.

VARIETIES

ADAPTATION

LAND PREPARATION

PLANTING

TRELLISING

6) When the plants are about one foot long, you can erect two-meter high vine supports of either ipil-ipil or madre de cacao on each hill. Reinforce the supports with plastic twine or rope and weave one-foot square wire mesh to top the trellises. Later on, inspect the fruits to be sure they hang well. This is done in order for you to avoid harvesting curled or deformed fruits. 7) You can start doing a shallow cultivation with a hoe or "guna" or animaldrawn plow three months after planting.

CULTIVATION

WEEDING

8) This is very important in amplaya growing. Weeding is done in order to eliminate weeds, which will compete with your plants for moisture and nutrients. 9) Apply just enough water to keep the soil moist--not too wet but not too dry. Do not over water your ampalaya plants since, as stated earlier, they cannot bear too much moisture. 10) Proper watering coupled with adequate fertilization will increase plant vigor. At planting, apply a complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at the rate of two table spoons per hill eight centimeters from the base of the plants. When plants are three weeks to one month old, side-dress with one tablespoon of urea and two table spoons of ammonium sulphate. 11) The most common pests that attack ampalaya are the melon fruit fly, thrips and aphids. You can control melon fruit fly by using Foliafume-soap, which is available from your agricultural stores or from the Bureau of Plant Industry and its local agencies. Thrips can be controlled by spraying with Hamidop 600. To control aphids, Orthene 75 or Malathion may be used at regular intervals. 12) There are two common diseases of ampalaya: fusarium wilt and anthracnose. Fusarium wilt can be controlled by crop rotation and by observing sanitation in the farm or garden. Control measures for anthracnose include spraying the plants with fungicides, sanitation, and disinfecting seed before planting. 13) You can start harvesting ampalaya when most of the fruits have reached marketable size and when seeds are still immature. This is usually 50 days after planting. Fruits are harvested every four days thereafter. 14) To prevent bruising and to prolong the freshness of ampalya fruits, place them in bamboo baskets lined with fresh banana leaves while harvesting.

IRRIGATION

FERTILIZATION

CONTROL OF PESTS

CONTROL OF DISEASES

HARVESTING

FRUIT PROTECTION

HOW TO PROPAGATE FRUIT TREES ASEXUALLY INTRODUCTION 1) You can multiply the number of your favorite fruit trees and even enhance their good characteristics by propagating them asexually. Asexual propagation means the reproduction of a plant by its vegetative parts that is, by stems, leaves or roots. Sexual propagation, on the other hand, is the reproduction of plants through seeds. Many trees do not reproduce their own desirable characteristics when propagated through seeds, and some trees do not even bear seeds. 2) The advantage of asexual propagation over sexual is that you can reproduce the exact characteristics of the trees you want, shorten their maturity period and decrease their size. You can also enhance the adaptability of your trees to poor soil conditions by combining a resistant rootstock with a less resistant but more desirable scion. 3) There are five most common methods of asexually propagating trees. These are: cuttings, marcotting, inarching, grafting and budding. The easiest to do and most popular among these methods are the cuttings and marcotting. 4) Trees that you can propagate by cuttings are citrus (calamansi, oranges, lime), guava, rambutan, chico, Barbados cherry, coffee, and many others. Choose young stems from your favorite and healthy trees. Cut them in the nodes with a length of about seven to ten centimeters. Cut their leaves in half to prevent too much evaporation of water, but do not strip off all the leaves.

ADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL PROPAGATION

METHODS OF ASEXUAL PROPAGATION PROPAGATION BY CUTTINGS

Figure 1. A simple method to propagate plants by cuttings. ROOT FORMATION 5) To speed up root formation, you can treat the tips of your cuttings with Rootone or Alpha-napthalene Acetic Acid. (A.N.A.A). You can buy these rooting chemicals from agricultural stores in your area.

PLANTING

6) Plant your cuttings in a box filled with ordinary sand. You can adjust the size of the box according to the number of cuttings you need. Sand will only serve as a rooting medium. 7) Water your cuttings three times a day and cover the box with a transparent plastic sheet (this will conserve moisture and maintain a humid and warmer temperature suitable for root development). 8) When your cuttings have already developed a pair of about two-inch roots (this will take about two months), transplant them in plastic bags filled with sterilized fertile soil. They should remain for another month under a partial shade before transferring them to the field. 9) Marcotting is similar but easier and more sure of success than cuttings. As long as you follow the steps illustrated below (Figure 2), you can just wait until your stem develops its own roots. The mother tree will do its usual feeding and watering until the stem can feed itself. When new shoots appear just below the ball of the soil, roots have already grown. If you can see whitish roots breaking through the soil inside the plastic wrap, your marcotted stem is ready for transfer.

WATERING

TRANSPLANTING

PROPAGATION BY MARCOTTING

Figure 2. Propagation by marcotting CUTTING 10) In cutting the rooted stem from the mother tree, be careful not to twist the ball of earth. Cut it just below the tied end. Remove the plastic wrap before transplanting the new plant in a bag of sterilized fertile soil. Let it remain in partial shade until it is hardened.

HOW TO GROW AZOLLA (ANABAENA AZOLLAE) INTRODUCTION 1) Chemical fertilizers are getting more expensive these days. As a result, rice farmers are discouraged to apply the recommended amounts of fertilizers. But rice farmers should not feel that the situation is hopeless. They could still increase their yield by using Azolla. 2) What is special about this water fern is that it contains a bluegreen algae, ”Anabaena Azollae ”. This algae has the ability to convert or "fix" nitrogen from the air, as much as 30 to 40 kilograms per hectare. 3) Based on the chemical analysis of Azolla, the plant nutrients available per ton of fresh Azolla are as follows: 2.10 kilograms of nitrogen (N), 1.05 kilograms of phosphorous (P), and 1.75 kilograms of potassium (K). For 20 tons of Azolla biomass incorporated in the soil, it will contribute more or less 42 kilograms of N, 21 kilograms of P, and 35 kilograms of K, or a total of 98 kilograms of NPK per hectare. 4) To grow enough Azolla biomass for one hectare of rice-field, start with a small nursery bed of three square meters. This requires 600 grams of Azolla seeding materials and will produce in 12 to 16 days about eight to 10 kilograms of fresh Azolla biomass. This is enough to seed a 40square-meter bed which will yield in 12 to 16 days about 120 kilograms of fresh Azolla sufficient to seed a 600-square-meter multiplication bed. A 600square-meter bed seeded with 120 kilograms of fresh Azolla seeding materials will produce in 12 to 16 days two tons of fresh Azolla sufficient to seed one hectare. 5) It takes about one and a half months to grow enough Azolla biomass to seed one hectare, assuming that a healthy growth of Azolla doubles its biomass every four days. It is a must for Azolla growers/users to maintain a nursery or multiplication bed of at least 40 square meters to provide a continuous supply of Azolla seeding material or inoculum. 6) Azolla is grown throughout the country, mostly by rice farmers. Secure from them your Azolla seeding material. 7) Here are eight steps in growing this small aquatic fern: *Select in your farm an area that is not directly exposed to sunlight. *Prepare the field just like you prepare for rice culture. *Maintain the water level at five to seven centimeters deep. *Sow fresh Azolla inoculum at the rate of 200 grams per square meter which is equivalent to about two and a half level cans of condensed milk.

IMPORTANCE OF AZOLLA CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

GROWING AZOLLA

MULTIPLICATION

SECURING AZOLLA INOCULUM STEPS IN AZOLLA CULTURE

*Broadcast super phosphate fertilizer (powdered form, 0-18-0) at the rate of 8.3 grams per square meter or about one heaping table-spoonful of the fertilizer on top of the Azolla biomass. Tap the Azolla biomass gently immediately after fertilization to moisten and dissolve fertilizer to prevent frond burning. Follow these rates of appli-cation: three-square-meter nursery or multiplication bed, 12.5 grams; 40-square-meter nursery bed, 170 grams; 600-square-meter nursery bed, 2.5 kilograms. Make four applications at four days interval. *If visible infestation occurs, apply a pinch of carbofuran per square meter. Do this every time you ob serve such infestation. *If your nursery is bigger than one square meter, gently tap the Azolla with a "tingting" broom spread wide to scatter them and accelerate their growth. *After eight to 12 days, the whole one square meter area will be covered fully with more than one kilo of fresh Azolla biomass. This is now ready as a source for further multiplication in bigger nursery beds. UTILIZATION 8) Aside from its uses as a green manure, Azolla can also be utilized as livestock and poultry feed and as organic fertilizer. *As livestock and poultry feed - Azolla contains 22 to 73 per cent crude protein (on a dry weight basis). It can be dried, pulverized and mixed with other low protein rations up to 20 to 25 per cent, as generally recommended. However, it is not recommended as a pure ration because it needs supplementation with three essential amino acids (lycine, methionine and histidine). *As organic fertilizer - Azolla makes an excellent compost with rice straw. Since Azolla has a high protein content, it enhances decomposition. For example, rice straw alone rarely decomposes readily. When rice straw and Azolla are piled together in alternate layers and kept moist, the whole mass turns into friable compost in only five to six weeks.

HOW TO GROW BANANA (MUSA SPP.) IMPORTANCE VARIETIES 1) Banana is one of the favorite fruits of Filipinos. This sweet, finger-like fruit comes in a number of varieties. 2) The most common varieties grown in the country are: Gros Michel, Latundan, Bungolan, Lakatan, Saba, Chinese Dwarf, and Giant Cavendish. Other common varieties are Morado, Pitogo, Los Banos Senorita, Tindok, Gloria, Granada, and Tumok. 3) Plant banana in a well-drained, fairly fertile soil. For best yields, grow banana in sandy loam to clay loam soils with excellent drainage and liberal amounts of organic matter. Regions having an average rainfall of about 4000 millimeters a year are ideal places for planting this fruit. 4) There are two common propagation materials: rhizomes and suckers. Large suckers are preferred. They should be removed from strong clumps with a spade when four to five feet tall. Cut off the largest leaves. Suckers should have many healthy roots. If healthy suckers are not available, the suckers are cut off and the rhizome is trimmed of all damaged roots and dark tissue, or cut into pieces containing only white, healthy tissue and few buds. 5) The land should be prepared thoroughly. Plowing and then harrowing must be done two to three times until the soil is wellpulverized. Remove stumps and bushes from newly-cleared fields. 6) Good spacing is 3.5 by 4.0 meters or even farther apart, particularly for large varieties. 7) The holes should be 45 centimeters (1.5 feet) in diameter and almost knee-deep. Place about 10 grams of complete fertilizer and a few grams of granular nematocide in the bottom of each hole. It is also desirable to cover the planting materials with compost and soil. A good thick layer of mulch will improve the recovery and growth of the planting material. Soil around each new plant should be tamped and watered. 8) In poor soils bananas should be fertilized frequently for maximum production. Since the potash requirement of banana is high, the fertilizer should contain N-P-K at a ration of 3-1-6. The amount of fertilizer depends on the size and age of the stalk and on the number of stalks per clump. Young plants should be started with one pound of a 6-2-12 mixture or a similar formula applied every two months. Increase this gradually to five to six pounds at flowering and fruiting time, 10 months later. 9) Prune or de-sucker the plants at least once a month. Allow only one or two suckers with well-developed underground stems and narrow, sword-like leaves to survive. De-sucker the plants before the side-shoots reach two feet in height.

ADAPTATION

PROPAGATION

LAND PREPARATION SPACING PLANTING HOLES

FERTILIZATION

PRUNING

PROPPING

10) To protect heavily bearing plants from wind damage and collapse, prop them up with bamboo poles. Two bamboo poles are tied together and opened like a pair of big scissors. Place the neck of the plant between the poles. 11) You can use plastic bags to wrap developing fruit bunches to prevent peel scratching by birds and bats, sun scalding, fungal infections (which cause spots and discoloration), and infestation by insects. The upper part of the bag should be tied to the neck of the bunch and its lower end should be left open. Remove the bags during harvesting.

BAGGING OF FRUIT

CONTROL OF DISEASES

12) The serious diseases that will attack your banana are the following: Panama disease (also known as banana wilt and vascular wilt), sigatoka disease, pitting disease, and Bunchy Top disease. You can control and/or prevent their occurrence by planting resistant varieties, spraying fungicides, and practicing field sanitation. 13) A common pest is the banana weevil which attacks the corms. It can be controlled by sanitation, by cutting affected corms, and by spraying with chemicals. Another pest is the red rust thrip, which destroys the leaves. It may be controlled by spraying with chemicals. 14) Saba may be harvested 15 to 16 months after planting (MAP); Lakatan, 14 to 15 MAP; Dwarf Cavendish, 8 MAP; and Giant Cavendish, 6 to 7 MAP. The usual practice in harvesting bananas in the country is to cut the bunch when they are green at varying stages of maturity. To harvest bananas, make a deep cut about the middle of the stalk or trunk and allow the top to fall gradually until the bunch can be caught or grasped by a worker below. The bunch is then cut, leaving a fruit stalk long enough for the bunch to be grasped and carried.

CONTROL OF INSECTS

HARVESTING

HOW TO GROW BARBADOS CHERRY (MALPIGHIA GLABRA) IMPORTANCE 1) How would you like to grow a valuable fruit tree in your garden that will bear fruit within six months? A tree that provides fruit with the highest known source of vitamin C? A tree that is attractive and easy to propagate? If you are interested in these qualities, then growing Barbados Cherry might be a worthwhile project for you. 2) The fruit, which is sour and turns bright cherry red when ripe, can either be eaten plain, preserved, or crushed and strained and mixed with sugar and water to make delicious juice or ice candy. Three ripe fruits provide a full day's supply of vitamin C (one fruit has eight times as much vitamin C as one calamansi or calamondin). 3) The climate in most regions of the country is suited for growing the Barbados Cherry. In planting this fruit tree, select an area in your farm or home lot where the soil is fertile, deep and well-drained. 4) You can propagate Barbados Cherry by hardwood cuttings, marcotting, and budding or layering. But the best method is by marcotting. 5) Marcotting is done by growing roots on a branch while the branch is still part of the tree. The branch with the new roots is then cut off and planted. Below are the steps in marcotting: a) Select a woody branch thicker than a pencil. Near the end of the branch use a sharp knife to remove a 1/4" strip of bark. Carefully clean the exposed strip, thus removing the cambium layer. Make a ball of moist clay soil or moss and place it around the exposed cut. Wrap securely with plastic and tie both ends. When roots are visible through the plastic (1-2 months), cut the new marcott from the mother tree. Remove about one-half to two-thirds of the leaves and prune for a balanced shape. Remove the plastic and transplant to a prepared seedling bag, taking care not to damage the delicate young roots while handling. Water it thoroughly Allow the seedling to "harden" in the shade for three to four weeks or until new leaves begin to grow.

USES

ADAPTATION

PROPAGATION MARCOTTING

b)

c)

LAND PREPARATION

6) If planted on the farm, it is better to plant Barbados Cherry in a land previously plowed and planted to other crops. But if the land has been idle for some time and is weedy, it should be plowed and harrowed at least two times in order to eliminate the weeds and loosen the soil. 7) Follow the recommended steps in planting Barbados Cherry:

PLANTING PROCEDURE

- The distance between the holes for the plants is three to four meters in a square pattern. - Dig a hole one-and-a-half feet deep and one-and-a-half feet in diameter. Then fill half of the hole with mixed soil consisting of one-third animal manure, one-third sand, and one-third garden soil. - Remove the plastic bag covering the marcotted Barbados Cherry with a sharp blade or knife. Then gently set the plant inside the hole, gradually covering with pulverized top soil. - Finish filling the hole with top soil, packing it lightly until the hole is filled up to ground level. - After planting, water the plant abundantly and regularly thereafter, making sure the area where the roots are concentrated is sufficiently wet so it can provide moisture needed to sustain the growth of the marcot until the next watering. FERTILIZATION 8) The amount and the kind of fertilizer to apply depend upon the soil fertility of your area. As a general guide, one to two handfuls of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) per plant will be enough. Frequency of application depends upon the growth of your plants. 9) Spray your plants regularly with insecticide like Malathion to get rid of insects destructive to Barbados Cherry. Follow carefully what is recommended on the manufacturer's label. 10) The Barbados Cherry will bear fruit four to six months after planting. The fruits are ready to harvest when they look cherry red.

SPRAYING

HARVESTING

HOW TO MAKE BASKET COMPOST WHAT IS BASKET COMPOSTING? 1) Basket composting is the process by which your home garbage, garden and farm waste and leguminous plants like ipil-ipil leaves are allowed to rot in baskets which are half buried in garden plots. The resulting product is called basket compost. The purpose of basket composting is to directly use plant nutrients that can be derived from the rotting materials for home food production. BENEFITS 2) Basket composting will give you these benefits: a. You can immediately use the basket compost without waiting for the usual 3 to 4 months period as is necessary in the old method of composting. b. It requires less work because you don't need to turn the composting materials. c. Your home and its surroundings will become cleaner because garbage and waste are collected and decomposed in compost baskets. d. There is higher vegetable crop production at less cost. MATERIALS NEEDED 3) The materials needed are all available in your backyard: a. Any old round baskets of at least 1 foot in diameter and 1 foot in height. Stakes or wire could be used by forming them into shapes of round baskets. The purpose of the basket is to hold your composting materials in place. b. All home organic garbage, farm and garden wastes, weeds and grasses which can be gathered while cleaning and preparing your garden plots. Leaves of nitrogen fixing trees/shrubs (NFT/S) such as Flemingia macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium rensonii, Indigofera anil, Glircicidia sepium , etc., if available, are excellent materials for basket composting. c. Any farm manure which will be the source of rotting organisms and nitrogen. PROCEDURE 4) You can modify or improve the procedure in basket composting. Generally, this is how it is done: a. Clean your garden site and prepare the garden plots thoroughly. Save weeds and grasses for composting materials. b. Make holes in the garden plots large enough to accommodate the size of your baskets. The baskets should be one meter apart. Then half bury the baskets in the holes.

c. Place the most decomposed garbage and manure into the basket first. The un-decomposed materials like ipil-ipil leaves, grasses and weeds should be placed into the basket last. d. If the materials placed in the bottom part of the basket are almost decomposed, you can immediately plant your seeds or seedlings 2 to 3 inches outside the baskets. Do not plant inside the basket. e. If the materials placed in the baskets are green leaves, plant your seeds or seedlings 2 to 3 weeks later. This will give the materials enough time to start decomposing. If you use green leaves of ipil-ipil you need at least 5 kilos to start it. Add 2 kilos of leaves every two weeks. In this way, you need not to buy commercial fertilizer for your plants. f. Water only at the center of the basket instead of watering the plants. The lower part of the basket is cool, moist, and has abundant nutrients for your crops. Later on, the roots will grow into the basket. g. Unlike the old procedure of composting, you don't need to turn the rotting materials. Just keep on adding new and un-decomposed materials. h. After harvesting your garden crops, remove the contents of the baskets and spread them evenly around the baskets, working the decomposed materials into the soil. This will act as a starter for the next plants until roots are able to penetrate into the baskets where abundant plant feeds are available. BASKET COMPOSTING IN YOUR PLOT 5) Here is how basket composting will look in your garden plots.

CROPS FOR USE WITH COMPOST

6) Some garden crops which have been successful with the use of basket composting are tomatoes, pepper, beans, soybeans, sweet corn, lima beans, acorn squash, eggplant, and okra. You can try other vegetables also.

HOW TO GROW BLACK PEPPER (PIPER NIGRUM) IMPORTANCE 1) Black pepper is one of the most important spices raised in the Philippines. It is used by food manufacturers and cooks as a seasoning for special and ordinary dishes. 2) Varieties of black pepper are generally classified into four groups, namely: large-leafed, small-leafed, tall, and short. You can plant any of these varieties in your farm or backyard. It is best to buy your rooted plants from farmers who are producing black pepper seedlings. 3) Black pepper can be propagated by cuttings or by seeds. With either method, it is necessary to have a propagation bed where the cuttings can be rooted or the seeds germinated and nursed to transplanting age. The seedling bed should be of fine, rich soil and should be in a shaded area. It should be kept constantly moist but not wet until the plants are ready for transplanting. 4) Since black pepper is a creeping plant, it needs posts to climb on. The supports must be at least three to four meters high, 2.5 meters between rows. Commonly used support trees include legumes like the madre de cacao or kakawate (Gliricidia sepium ), ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala ), and the dapdap (Erythrina spp.). TRANSPLANTING 5) Transplant the rooted seedlings at the start of the rainy season. Plant two or three seedlings a few centimeters away from the base of each support tree. Before placing the plants in the prepared holes, carefully remove the plastic bags holding the plants and soil. 6) The land for black pepper may vary from flat to gently sloping, but sloping land should be terraced. Black pepper grows well in many types of soil. Deep and well-drained soil rich in organic matter is best. It should not be planted in waterlogged areas. A warm, humid climate is ideal. Black pepper needs 100 to 300 centimeters of rainfall per year. 7) Use compost, dried chicken manure, other animal manures and/or one tablespoon of 16-20-0 or 14-14-14 per plant. 8) Remove the weeds growing between the rows of black pepper to reduce the competition between the weeds and black pepper for water and nutrients, air and sunlight. Also, ring-weed the plants. Place the cut weeds around the plants as mulch, especially during the dry season. Do not use thick mulch materials during the rainy season. Decaying mulch materials may serve as breeding sites for harmful microorganisms during the wet months. 9) Black pepper should not be allowed to grow tall. As the

VARIETIES

PROPAGATION

SUPPORTS

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS

FERTILIZATION WEEDING

CARE OF THE

PLANTS

vines climb the supports, the tops should be pulled down at the desired height of two to three meters. Every three months, manure or compost should be applied to each hill to maintain plant growth. 10) Two common insects attacking black pepper are the leafhopper and the mealy bug. To control these, spray the plants with either Sevin 85S, Malathion or Thiodan. Black pepper is also attacked by root grubs and African snails. To prevent root grubs, select a well-drained area for planting. Control the snails with poison bait which you can obtain from commercial agricultural stores. Another way to control the snails is to simply crush them and place them around the plants to decompose and become organic fertilizer. Ants should be prevented from building their nests around the pepper plants.

PEST MANAGEMENT

CONTROL OF DISEASES

11) Diseases found to cause damage are "sudden death" disease, wilt, and "pollu" disease. Sudden death is believed to be caused by eelworms and root fungus. No effective control measures have been found although pulling and burning infected plant parts may prevent spread. "Pollu" disease, characterized by hollow and light berries, is caused by insect damage (flea beetles and gall fly), fungus attack (Colectotricum spp.) or physiological disturbances of the plants that cause the premature shedding of spikes. This disease can be partly controlled by spraying the vines with Bordeaux mixture and insecticides.

HARVESTING

12) The first harvest of black pepper berries is on its third year. The spikes are ready for harvest when several berries attached to them have turned red. Remove the spikes by hand from the vines. Rub the berries off by hand or beat them lightly with a stick to separate them from the spikes. On the third year, the first harvest varies from one half to one kilogram per plant. At the age of seven years, the yield is approximately 1.5 kilograms per plant.

DRYING

13) After harvesting, dry berries immediately under the sunlight until they become black and wrinkled. The ideal remaining moisture content of black pepper is 12 percent. Dried berries can be stored for long periods of time. 14) Black pepper is sold in the market in two forms--black and white. If the latter is desired, select the best and ripest berries and submerge them in water for one to two weeks to let them soften. After soaking, allow the berries to ferment before removing the outer hull.

MAKING WHITE PEPPER

HOW TO RAISE BROILER CHICKENS IMPORTANCE 1) Protein is one of the most important elements in our daily diet. Production of broiler (or meat-type) chickens is one way to provide protein in your diet and to provide additional income for your family.

CONSIDERATIONS 2) Before deciding to raise broilers, you should consider IN BROILER the following factors: (1) interest plus knowledge on RAISING broiler production, (2) water supply, (3) availability of feed and veterinary supplies, (4) market and (5) the peace and order situation in your area. STOCK SELECTION 3) If you want to produce high-quality chicken meat, you have to raise broilers that are adaptable to local conditions, available any time of the year, and if possible, resistant to diseases. Some of the most common broilers in the country are Arbor Acres, Cobb, Hubbard, Peterson Chicks, and Stanbre. 4) Build your broiler house in an area with good drainage and plenty of water. 5) A broiler house should protect the birds from rains, strong winds, and extremes of temperature. It should be easy to clean. Provide one-half square foot of floor space per bird. 6) There are two types of brooding: natural and artificial. In natural brooding the mother hen provides the heat, but this system is good only for a limited number of chicks. Artificial brooding makes use of electric lamps, bulbs, etc. as sources of heat for the chicks. 7) There are three types of commercial feeds available in the market today: the broiler starter, the broiler finisher, and the straight broiler mash. Starter rations contain about 24-25% protein. Finisher rations are about 20-21% protein. The straight broiler or all-purpose mash contains 22% protein. The starter ration is fed to the birds during the first 5 weeks. From 5 weeks to marketing age (8 weeks) the finishing ration is fed. If you prefer to use the all-purpose ration, feed this from the start up to marketing age. The following ration is one which you can mix yourself: Tikitiki (rice bran) ................. 16 kilos Soybean meal ..........………. 15 " Binlud or crushed corn ……. 10 " Copra meal ............…………. 4 " Ipil-ipil leaf meal ...…………… 3 " Limestone ............………….... 1 " Meat & bone meal ........ …….. 1 " Salt ..................……………… 0.2 " Afsillin ..............…………….. 0.1 " Total 50.3 kilos

SITE SELECTION BROILER HOUSE BROODING

FEEDS AND FEEDING

FEED CONSUMPTION AND FEED CONVERSION OF BROILER CHICKS ==================================================================== Age of Chicks Average Weekly Feed Cumulative Feed Consumption (Days) Weight Consumption per kilo of weight gain ==================================================================== 0 43 gm. NA NA 1- 7 74 " 85 gm. 1.15 kilos 8 - 14 154 " 125 " 1.37 " 15 - 21 269 " 225 " 1.62 " 22 - 28 423 " 348 " 1.85 " 29 - 35 628 " 429 " 1.93 " 36 - 42 868 " 637 " 2.13 " 43 - 49 1123 " 723 " 2.50 " 50 - 60 1384 " 890 " 2.50 " ==================================================================== SOURCE: SEARCA, ”A Training Manual for Poultry Production” DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL 9) The most economical and best way to control disease is through prevention, which could be achieved by proper management, effective sanitation and a vaccination program. Even with all the precautionary procedures, however, communicable diseases still strike. The following symptoms are early signs of disease: sudden drop in feed consumption, difficulty in breathing, disturbed feathers, irritation, cloudy eyes and pale mucous membranes, and drop in weight. In case you suspect disease in your broilers, you need to isolate the affected birds right away. Consult your veterinarian or any other authority to determine the exact cause of the disease and how to treat it. Birds which die should be burned or buried. MARKETING 10) Broilers are marketed at 7-8 weeks of age. Plan the right time to produce your broilers so they will be ready for sale when the demand is highest. Studies show that the months of November and December are the best marketing times for broilers. It may be possible to locate buyers right in your own community...especially in areas where the family income is generally high.

HOW TO GROW CACAO (THEOBROMA CACAO) IMPORTANCE 1) Cacao is the source of the delicious chocolate drink. It is also used in flavoring candies, pastries and ice cream. The cacao oil is used in the manufacture of cosmetics (lipstick, facial creams, etc.) because it does not become smelly. It is also used in pharmaceuticals as a base for important antibiotics. For your own home consumption and to increase your income, plant cacao either in your farm or backyard. 2) There are three common varieties of cacao from which you can choose: the Criollo (the native variety), the Forastero and the Trinitario. 3) Plant cacao in areas where the rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. It grows well in a clay loam soil that is rich in organic matter. Cacao likes partially shaded sites; therefore you can grow it under coconut trees. For open areas, you can grow shade trees like ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala ) and/or madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium ), but you need to plant the trees six months ahead of the cacao. PROPAGATION 4) Cacao is usually propagated by means of seeds. Select your seeds from big pods obtained from strong, healthy and most productive trees. Remove first the slimy covering of the seeds by rubbing them with ashes or fermenting them for a day and then washing off the slimy covering with water. Cacao seeds cannot be stored for a long time; therefore, they must be planted immediately after taking them from the pods. 5) Prepare plastic bags (size: 15 cm x 20 cm x .002 mil) by making holes at the bottom for drainage. Fill each bag with fertile and easily crumbled top soil. Plant your seeds in the prepared plastic bags 2 centimeters deep and with their radicle (root point) down. You must provide shade for your seedlings. After two months, or when the leaves of your seedlings are already mature and hard, you can transplant them in the field. LAND PREPARATION AND TRANSPLANTING 6) Prepare your land by clearing all underbrush. Measure distances of 2.5 to 3.0 meters apart and put stakes for your guide. Dig holes big enough to accommodate the ball of soil around the roots of your seedlings. To prevent damaging the roots of your seedlings, cut the plastic bags with a sharp knife and lower carefully the seedlings into their respective holes. Cover first with topsoil then the subsoil. Water after transplanting. If possible, plant cacao at the start of the rainy season. 7) Control weeds by ring weeding about one meter around the trees. Weeding should be done only when necessary. Ring weed young cacao plants at least once a month during the rainy season. In sloping areas you can plant cover crops like wild peanut (Arahcis pintoi ).

VARIETIES ADAPTATION

GROWING SEEDLINGS

WEEDING

FERTILIZATION

8) Start fertilizing your cacao plants when you think it is needed or at one year after planting. Fertilize your non-bearing cacao plants with complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at one-half kilo per tree per year. As for bearing plants, provide them the same kind of fertilizer at one kilo per tree per year. Split your application into two: one-half at the start of the rainy season and the other half six months later. In the absence of commercial fertilizer, you can use ipil-ipil and madre de cacao leaves and/or manure. 9) A mulch of ipil-ipil leaves or grasses around the trees will lessen the need for weeding. It will also maintain the fertility and the organic matter content of your soil. 10) Prune your cacao trees to remove unwanted growth. This will make spraying and harvesting easier. In addition, it will help control pests and diseases and maintain high yields. 11) Cacao pod borer is the most serious pest of cacao. To reduce damage by this pest, cover all developing fruits with plastic bags. Insects can be controlled by spraying Malathion or any recommended insecticides. Be sure to follow the dosage written on the label. The most common cacao diseases are black rot and stem canker, which are caused by fungus. They can be controlled by spraying fungicides like Dithane. You can also control the spread of these diseases by removing and burning infected fruits, stems and heavily infected trees.

MULCHING

PRUNING

PEST MANAGEMENT

HARVESTING

12) Harvest only mature pods. Pods are mature when they change color: from red to yellowish orange and green to yellow. Remove the beans by breaking the pods. 13) Ferment the cacao beans after they have been extracted. Fermentation is accomplished by putting the mass of seeds in a box provided with 20-30 holes or in a basket. Stir the seeds at least once a day for three to seven days for uniform fermentation. When a cut section of a bean shows an outer brown ring, you can then dry and store the beans. Beans can be safely stored at eight per cent moisture content.

FERMENTATION

HOW TO GROW CALAMANSI (CITRUS MITIS VAR. MICROCARPA) USEFULNESS OF CALAMANSI 1) Calamansi is the most popular and commonly used citrus fruit in the Philippines. Its juice, which is rich in minerals and vitamin C, makes a nutritious fruit drink. It helps to prevent respiratory diseases, strengthens the bones and stimulates growth. Every household recognizes calamansi as a medicine, a kitchen ingredient, a beauty concoction and an essential fruit drink. You can have a year round supply of this versatile citrus fruit by growing the plant in your home lot. 2) It is easy to cultivate calamansi. The plant grows well in cool and elevated areas. It thrives best in rich and sandy soil. 3) You can buy calamansi seedlings from the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center. Plant the seedlings five meters apart. If you are planting grafted calamansi, dig a hole at least 40 centimeters in diameter and 40 centimeters deep. Set the seedling into the hole and put back the soil mixed with compost. Water the plant daily. 4) If you want to produce big, luscious fruits, fertilize the plants regularly. One month after planting, apply 50 to 100 grams (which is about one handful) of Urea and 16-20-0 (mixed) around each tree. Fertilize every four months. Starting on the second year, increase the fertilizer to 200 or 300 grams (Urea and 16-20-0 mixed) per tree every four months. The tree bears fruits after 1 to 2 years. By that time you should apply complete fertilizer like12-24-12 at the rate of 1.5 kilos per tree to increase fruit yield. By the time your tree is 8-10 years old you should increase the fertilizer to two to three kilos per tree three times per year. Apply the fertilizer properly by mixing it with the soil. Cover the soil around each tree with dry leaves to conserve moisture. Uproot weeds when necessary. Apply fertilizer to producing trees three times yearly: first, during the rainy season before flowering; second, two months after flowering; and the last, after harvesting. PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL 5) To keep the trees healthy, protect them from pests and diseases. To control citrus bark borers, spray the trees with EPN 300 solution. You can also use copper fungicide for the same problem. To prevent the pest from spreading, cut off the infected parts and burn them. The aphid is another harmful pest. To control aphids, spray the trees with either Malathion solution (3 tablespoons in 5 gallons water), Methyl Parathion (2 tablespoons in 5 gallons water), or Diazinon (3 tablespoons in

SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS PROPAGATING CALAMANSI

FERTILIZATION

5 gallons water). If aphids have already attacked, cut off the infected portions and burn them. Other harmful pests are the Purple Scale and Glover's Scale. Insecticides effective in controlling these pests include: EPN (3 tablespoons in 5 gallons water), lime sulfur (15 tablespoons in 5 gallons water), Malathion (3 tablespoons in 5 gallons water), or Methyl Parathion (2 tablespoons in 5 gallons water). DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL 6) Calamansi is prone to diseases such as Gummosis and citrus scab. Gummosis is caused by either a lack or excess of fertilizer or damage done by insect pests or farm machineries. To control both of these diseases, spray the plant with Zerlate or any recommended fungicide solutions. 7) Calamansi trees will start to bear fruit after one or two years. To harvest, detach the fruits from the branch either manually or using a scissor. Take care not to damage the branches or the leaves. You will have better quality fruit if you leave a portion of the stem attached to the fruit and do not tear the skin of the fruit when you harvest. You can sell the extra fruits in markets, hotels or restaurants. Use calamansi in your daily intake of fruit drinks.

HARVESTING THE FRUITS

HOW TO GROW CASSAVA (MANIHOT ESCULENTA) IMPORTANCE 1) Cassava, locally known as "kamoteng kahoy" or "balanghoy," deserves more attention than it presently receives. It has many different uses, and even its by-products can be used. 2) There are several varieties of cassava grown throughout the country. For food production, the following are recommended by the experts: Golden Yellow, Katabang, Macan, and Brazil. If you want to grow cassava for starch production, plant Java Brown or Hawaiian 5. Other common varieties include Rough Intermediate, White Smooth Intermediate, Kapo White, Kapo Colorado, Aipin Manteiga, and Vasscurinha. The poisonous variety is called Bogor 3) You can grow cassava any time of the year. But you can not grow cassava in a very cool area with a high altitude. For optimum growth and best performance, plant cassava in a warm climate with a well distributed rainfall of 1,000 to 2,000 millimeters per year. 4) Cassava grows in different kinds of soils, but for best root development you need to plant it in a deep, well drained, easily crumbled soil. 5) Cassava is planted through stem cuttings. The best planting materials come from healthy and mature plants at least 1.5 meters high. The stem with brown bark can be cut into 18-inch planting material. The stem among the leaves should not be used. As soon as you get the trunks and cut them into planting materials, you need to plant them immediately before they dry out and lose their vigor. But you can store the cuttings for up to 10 days provided you bundle them under a wet cloth or other covering. LAND PREPARATION 6) Prepare your land for planting cassava in the same way as you do for other crops. Be sure to plow deep or dig with a shovel to enable the tubers to grow big. Usually plowing and harrowing are done twice or three times depending on the soil and how many weeds you have. 7) You should plant cassava at the end of the dry season or at the start of the rainy season. This will ensure that the cuttings you planted will get enough water to sprout and grow well. 8) You can plant cassava cuttings 100 centimeters between rows and 75 centimeters between plants in the row. Where ridge planting is used, the distance between ridges is usually 120 centimeters. 9) If the soil is dry, plant the cuttings lying down and cover with soil to prevent them from drying up. If the soil is moist, you can plant the cuttings standing with about five centimeters of the tops

VARIETIES

CLIMATIC RANGE

TYPE OF SOILS PROPAGATION

PLANTING SEASON PLANTING DISTANCES

METHODS OF PLANTING

above the soil. Planting the stem cutting in a slanted position is the desired method of planting. This allows uniform distribution of tubers and makes harvesting easier. WEEDING 10) Weeds usually develop in the cassava field, especially after it rains. The first weeding should be done as early as two weeks after planting, and the second weeding one month after planting. Then weed the field for the last time two months before harvesting. 11) Cultivate your cassava field three weeks after planting either with the use of hand tools or by passing a carabao-drawn plow between rows. Cultivation is done to kill the weeds and to break the soil that has hardened due to rain. Avoid cultivating the field two months after planting since the tubers will have started to develop. 12) The usual rate of fertilizer is 50 to 100 kilos of nitrogen per hectare, plus 50 to 100 kilos of phosphorous, and 75 to 120 kilos of potassium...but cassava has the ability to produce on very poor soil. 13) Cassava is one of the most insect-resistant plants in agriculture. Spider mites, mound building termites, cerambycid borers, corn silk beetles, scale insects, mealy bugs, and white-¬flies occasionally attack cassava, but you can control them by using insecticides such as Malathion or Sevin, following the manufacturer's recommendations. 14) Disease incidence in cassava fields is very rare. However, the following are reported to be attacking cassava occasionally: cercospora leafspot, bacterial blight, tuber rot, and tip blight. These diseases can be controlled or eliminated by spraying affected plants with fungicides such as Manzate and Parzate. 15) Varieties used for food may be harvested as early as 4 months after planting. If the entire field is to be harvested at one time, you need to cut the stems just before harvesting. After doing this, you can start pulling them by hand or with the aid of hand tools. If progressive harvesting is to be done, select only the marketable tubers from a plant. Then replace the soil to cover the hole. 16) The cassava root has a very high perish ability. Cassava tubers should be milled into starch or consumed as food within twenty-four hours after harvest or they will deteriorate. You can, however, store cassava tubers by putting them in a dark place. Or you can bury them directly in either clay loam or sandy soil.

CULTIVATION

FERTILIZATION PEST CONTROL

DISEASE CONTROL

HARVESTING

STORING

HOW TO FATTEN CATTLE IN YOUR BACKYARD INTRODUCTION CATTLE BREEDS 1) Cattle raising is a profitable project you can make in your home lot. It will provide you a good source of extra income while working on your farm. 2) Our native stock, the so-called Philippine cattle, is a dual-purpose type. It is raised for beef purposes and can be used in plowing the field. The most popular of our native cattle is the Batangas strain. Other recommended breed of cattle for fattening is the Brahman. 3) In selecting feeder stock, carefully consider the following: the price of the animal at various ages, its weight, and its quality. Buy an animal that is active and healthy. The eyes should be bright, the hair coat soft and smooth, and the nose and jaws moist. BUYING FEEDERS 4) It is generally cheaper to buy feeder stock directly from ranches than in a livestock market. Feeder cattle are classified as steers, bulls, heifers or cows. Bulls are uncastrated males, steers are castrated males and heifers or cows are females. Generally bulls grow faster than steers or heifers but they are more difficult to handle. VACCINATION 5) Stock should be properly vaccinated before you bring them home for fattening. Refer them to the nearest Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) office in your area for vaccination against hoof-and-mouth disease and hemorrhagic septicemia. 6) In feeding beef cattle, economy is very important. Farm-grown forage is cheap, so it is very important that you grow your own forage crops. In addition to forages (legumes and grasses), the cattle should also be given grain supplements.

FEEDER STOCK SELECTION

FEEDING

CONFINING 7) Confine newly-arrived feeder stock as soon as possible NEWLY-ARRIVED in a shed or small lot where water is available. Allow FATTENER them to eat all the low-energy feed that they can consume. DEWORMING AND IMMUNIZATION 8) A week after their arrival, the cattle should be de-wormed with Benzimidazole compounds (Albendazole, Fenbendazole, Parbendazole, or Oxfendazole). In addition, immunize the animals from major infectious diseases. Spray the feeder stock with insecticides to do away with parasites like ticks and blood-sucking fleas. 9) Make water and salt available at all times. Be alert for signs of illness. If you observe sick animals, isolate them right away. 10) Cattle are ready for market at about 275 to 325 kilograms.

CARE AND MANAGEMENT MARKETING

HOW TO GROW COFFEE (COFEA SPP.) INTRODUCTION 1) Coffee is one of the favorite hot drinks of Filipinos. Only a very few homes from north to south of the country are without coffee to grace their tables. 2) There are four commercially known varieties of coffee grown in the country: Arabica, Liberica, Excelsa, and Robusta. 3) Plant coffee in a soil that is deep sandy clay loam, rich in humus, and with good drainage. Soil of volcanic origin is best. The tree suffers severely in areas that are water-logged or where the water level stays near the soil surface. 4) An environment which has a free air movement is most favorable to the plant's growth. Arabica can be planted 900 to 1,800 meters above sea level while Robusta, Liberica, and Excelsa can be planted from sea level up to 900 meters above sea level. 5) Always get seeds from healthy and high-yielding trees. Choose only large and fully ripe berries. Avoid dry, overripe berries left on branches. Small wrinkled, lightweight and abnormal berries should not be used. 6) Remove the pulp from the seeds and plant them in plastic bags filled with a fertile soil medium. When your seedlings develop six pairs of true leaves, they are ready for transplanting. 7) Coffee can also be propagated asexually through cloning. To reproduce a clone, split lengthwise into two halves a finger-sized vertical shoot about one foot long with 4 to 6 nodes. Cut leaves partially before splitting. Set nodal cuttings in germination boxes 1 x 2 inches apart and 1 inch deep, then place boxes in a shaded area. Nodal cuttings will produce roots and shoots within 45 days. Then transplant seedlings into individual plastic bags with soil. A full-grown seedling with 4 to 6 pairs of leaves could be attained in about 6 to 8 months. 8) Prepare your land by plowing and harrowing and then by digging holes. The holes for your coffee should be about 30 centimeters in diameter and 30 centimeters deep, depending on the size and height of your seedlings. 9) The distance between holes depends on the variety and pruning system adopted. Here are the suggested distances for planting: Arabica, 2-3 meters; Robusta, 3-4 meters; and Excelsa and Liberica, 4-5 meters. 10) The general recommendation for non-bearing trees in the absence of soil analysis is an equal amount of NPK and ammonium sulfate or urea (from 250 to 300 grams per tree per year); and for bearing trees (7 years

VARIETIES SOIL REQUIREMENTS

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS

SEED SELECTION

PROPAGATION

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION

LAND PREPARATION

PLANTING DISTANCE

FERTILIZATION

and above) one kilo of 14-14-14 per tree per year plus urea side dressed at the rate of 300 grams per tree per year. For one to two-year-old trees, make a furrow five centimeters deep around the plant, place recommended fertilizer in a continuous band and cover with soil. For fruit-bearing trees, apply the recommended fertilizer in holes or trenches around the trees or spread the fertilizer over the area one-half meter away from the trees. WEEDING PRUNING 11) Weeds compete with coffee plants for nutrients in the soil. Control weeds by weeding about one meter around each plant. 12) This means the removal of unnecessary branches (excess, old and dead branches) and undesirable water sprouts. Pruning is best done before general flowering or after harvest. 13) Mulching your coffee plants improves soil texture, nutrients, and water absorption and retention. It also minimizes soil erosion and lowers soil temperature. The mulch should be as thick as possible and done continuously.

MULCHING

COVERCROPPING 14) Non-climbing crops like ”Desmodium heterophylum ” or “Arachis pintoi ” can increase organic matter, hold water and minimize soil erosion under your coffee. The Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center is one good source of cuttings of hetero and wild peanut. Cover crops which compete with coffee for nutrients and moisture should be used only in between rows to minimize soil erosion. INSECT CONTROL 15) Insects such as coffee berry borer, coffee leaf folder, scale insects, stem borers and leaf miners cause damage in coffee. Chemicals like Malathion and Gusathion will control these insects. Follow the recommendations on the label. CONTROL OF DISEASES FLOWERING HARVESTING 16) Coffee rust and other diseases can be controlled by using copper base fungicides. 17) Arabica coffee flowers in about two and one-half to three years after transplanting. Other varieties flower somewhat later. 18) Berries mature in a shorter period in lower and warmer areas than in higher and cooler areas. Arabica berries mature after 10 to 11 months from flowering. Robusta takes 10 months and Liberica and Excelsa, 11 to 12 months. The first harvest, however, is not yet commercial in quantity or quality.

HOW TO GROW CORN (ZEA MAYS) IMPORTANCE 1) Corn, or “mais” as it is commonly referred to in the Philippines, is a food crop that is rich in starch or carbohydrates but comparatively low in protein. It is the second staple food in the country, next to rice, but contains more vitamin A, protein and fats than rice. Aside from being used as a staple food, corn is also utilized for animal feeds and can be made into oil, corn syrup, fuel, paper, and many other products. VARIETIES 2) There are many recommended and available varieties for production. Hybrids (HV) are available and have potential high yields, however, they usually require high inputs and are more susceptible to diseases. Open pollinated (OP) varieties are usually lower yielding but are true-to-type in that the seeds can be saved over and over and still produce the same variety with little or no loss of yield and characteristic. Composite varieties are popular in that they are a step above open pollinated varieties but still not dependent on chemical inputs for good yields. Our favorite open pollinated varieties used at the RLC include: Tiniguib (a traditional white corn) and Hawaiian Super Sweet (a delicious sweet corn for eating). These varieties can easily be grown and perpetuated by the local farm family. Our favorite composite varieties include: DMR 1 and 2 (Downy Mildew Resistance) and USMARC 1 and 2. These are proven local composites that have good food and feed values. Each has a yellow and a white variety. The yellow corn is usually used for feed. The white for human consumption. CLIMATIC RANGE SOILS 3) Corn grows best in a warm sunny climate with sufficient water supply. A rainfall of 200 mm to 1500 mm is needed during its growing period. 4) The best soil for corn is one which is well drained and with a texture of silt loam or loam type. Light sandy soils, gravelly soils and heavy clays do not induce healthy root development. Soil which is deep, well pulverized, and yet fairly compact is excellent for corn. 5) Plowing should be done when the soil is moist. For an animal-drawn plow, a depth of 4-6 cm is enough. The field should be harrowed after plowing and again within two days before planting to level the soil. 6) The two most common methods of planting corn are: a) surface or flat-bed planting in which seeds are drilled or hill-planted; b) ridge planting in which the seeds are placed on top of the ridge. In sloping areas, corn should be planted in contour rows. 7) If the soil contains considerable moisture at planting time, the seeds should be planted from 2-5 cm. deep. In dry soil the seeds should be planted 5-8 cm deep.

LAND PREPARATION

PLANTING METHODS

DEPTH OF PLANTING

SPACING

8) You need 6-7 gantas (cups) of good seeds to plant a hectare. The rows should be spaced at 75 cm with hill spacing of 50 cm with 2 plants per hill or drilled at 25 cm between hills with one plant to each hill. 9) Corn requires an abundance of nitrogen and liberal amounts of phosphate and potash. It also needs considerable amounts of calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. The recommended rate of fertilizer to be applied per hectare is 90 kilos of nitrogen, 30 kilos of phosphorous, and 30 kilos of potash. During dry season, it is advisable that you apply all the recommended amounts of fertilizer just before planting. A basal application and side-dressing application are recommended for wet season. One half of the recommended amount of nitrogen fertilizer is applied at planting time while phosphorous and potassium are applied in the furrow and then covered. The remaining half of the nitrogen is side-dressed 4-5 weeks after germination or when the corn plants are about knee-high. If commercial fertilizer is very expensive, you can use leaves of nitrogen fixing plants (tree/shrubs). One hundred kilos of dry NFT/S leaves can give you 4.0 kilos of nitrogen, 2.0 kilos of phosphorus and 1.5 kilos of potassium. (Three kilos of fresh NFT/S leaves produce approximately one kilo of dry leaves.)

FERTILIZATION

CULTIVATION AND WEEDING PEST CONTROL

10) Cultivate your corn in order to control weeds. Weeds can also be suppressed by hand pulling, hoeing and by application of herbicides. 11) The following destructive insects will attack your corn: white grubs, armyworms, cutworms, corn borer, corn ear-worm, rice weevil, lesser grain borer, flour beetle, rice moth, and maggots. You can control these insects by spraying chemicals, handpicking, or removing and burning infested corn plants. 12) Downy mildew, leaf rust, leaf spot, kernel blast, ear and stalk rot, bacterial leaf stripe, rhizoctonia disease, corn smut, and pythium root rot are diseases that infect corn. Control them by planting resistant varieties, by spraying chemicals, by removing and burning infected corn, and by practicing crop rotation. 13) Harvest your corn when the ears are mature. This is usually 110-115 days after planting. Remove the husk and dry to about 15% moisture.

DISEASE CONTROL

HARVESTING

HOW TO RAISE DUCKS WITH FISH AND SNAILS IMPORTANCE 1) Ducks, fish, and snails can be grown together in the same pond without these animals competing with each other for food. By growing them together, you can maximize production and increase your income. 2) This depends on the size of your lot, but the minimum size should be at least fifty square meters per dozen ducks. 3) Be sure to construct your pond in a site where a steady supply of water is available. It must receive sunlight throughout the day. 4) When you dig your pond, see to it that the side where you drain the water is deeper than the other side. This will facilitate draining your pond and harvesting the fish. Dig out just enough soil to maintain a water depth of 1/2 to 3/4 meter. Use the excavated soil to construct dikes. The dikes should be thicker at the base than at the top to prevent erosion. Next, install a water control gate near the water source and drainage canal. Provide the gate with a wire screen with one-square-centimeter holes. The screen should be placed before the gate door. MANURING THE POND 5) Cow dung, pig dung, chicken droppings, duck manure, kitchen waste, compost, and green manure such as green leaves and grasses can be used to fertilize your pond. Spread the manure on the surface at the rate of five kilograms for every 50 square meters. You can also use commercial fertilizer. Broadcast evenly one-fourth kilogram of urea and one-fourth kilogram of 12-24-12 on every 50 square meters of surface. FILLING THE POND STOCKING OF FISH 6) After applying fertilizer, let water into the pond and leave the pond for two weeks to allow algae to grow. 7) For this project, the recommended fish breed is ”Tilapia nilotica.” It grows fast and starts breeding in five months. Unlike ”Tilapia mossambica”, nilotica does not need frequent restocking in ponds and separation of male from female fish. Stock 2-3 tilapia per square meter. Construct the duck house in one side above the water of your pond. For a pond area of 50 square meters, 12 to 15 ducks are sufficient. Provide two males and 10 to 13 females. Build them a house with a floor area of 4 square meters or 6 by 6 feet. The floor should be made of bamboo or wooden slats. In addition, build a swimming pen beside the duck house with an area equal to the floor area of the house. 9) The Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center recommends the Khaki Campbell duck for this project. Compared to other

AREA OF THE POND POND SITE SELECTION POND CONSTRUCTION

BUILDING OF 8) THE DUCK HOUSE

BREED OF DUCK TO

RAISE

duck breeds, the Khaki Campbell is bigger in size and best for egg production. If you cannot secure this breed, start with the native or Pateros duck. 10) Instead of becoming a full-fledged rural industry supplying protein for the Filipino diet, the backyard raising of golden apple snail turned into a serious problem in rice fields. But while rice farmers consider golden apple snail a pest, duck raisers consider it a good source of protein for ducks. With proper water management and use of ducks, the snails can be controlled in the rice fields. (See "How to Raise Golden Apple Snails.") The golden snail contains almost all the nutrients that ducks need. Snail meat provides protein and iron and its fat gives energy. The shell contains calcium, phosphorus, vitamins and minerals. Ducks given good quality snails have a very high egg production.

RAISING OF GOLDEN APPLE SNAILS

DUCK FEEDING

11) The ducks are fed with a ration of one part snail, one one part rice bran, and one part palay (un-husked rice) or broken corn. They should also be given green leaves like kangkong (Ipomea aquatica) and leguminous cover crops. 12) Feed and water your ducks regularly every morning and afternoon. They will start laying eggs at five to six-months. Maximum egg production lasts for 1-1/2 to 2 years. Before gathering the eggs, first lead the ducks out to their swimming pen. Then gather their eggs and clean their feeding troughs by scraping wasted feed towards the water where the fish are waiting. The feeds will be eaten by the fish, and duck manure will fertilize the pond and promote algae growth.

DUCK MANAGEMENT

SNAIL FEEDING HARVESTING TILAPIA

13) Feeding is not a problem for golden apple snail. This snail eats almost anything: vegetables, tree leaves, aquatic ferns, and even kitchen leftovers. 14) Harvest full-grown tilapia at least once every two weeks. This is both economical and necessary because if the fish in the pond multiply too fast, the food for fish will become inadequate. This will result in small, stunted fish. 15) This duck-fish-snail integration technology is an efficient feed conversion project. Fish, duck eggs and snails can provide high protein food for your family and the surplus can be sold.

CONCLUSION

HOW TO RAISE DUCKS IMPORTANCE OF DUCK RAISING 1) More and more Filipinos are now raising ducks in their backyard. Ducks are productive for a longer period of time than chickens. Generally, only about one-half or one-third of the laying flock has to be replaced each year. Duck raising offers another advantage: The birds don't require any complicated housing with plenty of windows, droppings-boards, perches, nest boxes, etc. Generally, you can keep ducks in simple sheds at night and let them loose during the day. BREEDS 2) There are different breeds of ducks which you can raise: the Philippine duck (commonly known as ”itik”), the Khaki Campbell, the Indian Runner, the Peking duck, and the Muscovy. The first three breeds are excellent egg layers. For meat production, raise either the Peking or the Muscovy. 3) Buy your breeding stock from reliable duck raisers in your area. Start with day-old ducklings. But buy only birds with steady legs, alert eyes and healthy-looking down feathers. 4) The ducklings need to be warmed until they are 1 month old. Do not allow the ducklings to get wet during their first month. The temperatures for brooding are as follows: 95 degrees Fahrenheit for the first week; 80 degrees for the second week; 75 degrees for the third week; and 70 degrees for the succeeding weeks. 5) When your ducklings show signs of sickness, give them a DUCKLINGS solution of three tablespoons of Noxal in one gallon of water for two to three days. Withdraw medication for three days, then give it again for another three days. Terramycin can also be used. To prevent avian pest, immunize your ducklings with avian pest vaccine which is obtainable from agricultural stores in your area or from the Bureau of Animal Industry. HOUSING FOR DUCKS 6) Provide each duck with at least 1-1/2 to 2 square feet of floor space. The floor of the duck house should be covered with rice hulls, corncobs, peanut hulls or any similar materials to make it dry and clean. A dry and clean floor helps prevent the spread of pests and diseases. 7) Raising ducks near bodies of fresh water is ideal because of the natural food that is available in rivers, irrigation canals, etc., but you can raise ducks without a body of water. If you want to provide water for the ducks to swim in, you may use clay or plastic water tubs or build a small concrete pond. 8) One-day to six-week old ducklings should be fed with starter ration containing 10 to 21 per cent crude protein. Six-week-old to four-month-old ducklings should be given a growing ration with at least 16 percent protein.

BUYING DUCKLINGS BROODING DUCKLINGS

CARE OF THE

ARTIFICIAL POND

FEEDING

Four-month-old ducks and older should receive a laying ration containing 16 per cent crude protein. ALL-PURPOSE FEED FORMULA 9) Commercial feeds are good for your ducks, but they are rather expensive. You can mix your own feed. The MBRLC recommends this allpurpose feed formula: First class tiki-tiki (rice bran), 34 kilograms; ”binlud” (cracked rice or corn), 30 kilograms; soybean meal, 15 kilograms; copra meal, 8 kilograms; shell powder, 2 kilograms; ipil-ipil leaf meal, 4 kilograms; meat and bone meal, 7 kilograms; salt, 500 grams; and Afsillin, 250 grams. 10) Also feed your ducks plenty of chopped green leaves of either kangkong (Ipomea aquatica ), camote (sweet potato), ipil-ipil (NFT/S) or cassava. Give each duck at least 10 grams of chopped green leaves daily. You can also feed fresh Golden Apple snails to your ducks. Studies at the MBRLC showed that Golden Apple snails in the birds' diet help increase egg production. (See, "How to Raise Ducks with Fish and Snails," for additional information.) SOME REMINDERS 11) Provide your ducks plenty of fresh, clean water all the time. Do not directly expose the birds to rain. This will cause a drop in egg production and make them susceptible to diseases. If you provide a swimming pond, limit their water "playing" to two hours a day. Too much playing will tire them and make them eat more feed. Watering troughs should be placed above the floor level if you place the ducks inside a house. This will prevent the floor from becoming wet and messy. Ducks are active birds and may run in circles if they get excited in the dark. To minimize stampeding, provide dim lighting approximately equivalent to a 15-watt bulb per 18.6 square meters (200 square feet) of floor space. GATHERING DUCK EGGS 12) Ducks lay eggs at night and early in the morning. It is advisable to gather the eggs immediately after releasing the layers for their early morning feeding. Ducks still laying should be allowed to continue nesting; their eggs could be collected later. 13) Practice strict sanitation, correct feeding and proper care and management to ensure a disease-free flock. Immediately remove ducks that avoid the rest of the flock or refuse to eat. Confine them in a separate pen. Call a veterinarian or any authority. Ducks that die from diseases should be buried immediately in a deep hole. For more extensive information on duck raising, refer to our manual "How to Raise Ducks for Food and Profit."

SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDS

CONTROLLING DISEASES

HOW TO GROW EGGPLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA) IMPORTANCE 1) Locally known as ”talong”, eggplant is cultivated through-out the country for its edible fruit. The fruit is a fairly good source of calcium, phosphorus, and iron and a good source of vitamin B. It contains about six percent carbohydrates and one per cent protein. 2) There are several varieties of eggplant you can grow in the country, among them: Dumaguete Long Purple, Dingras Multiple Purple #1, Economic Garden Long Purple, and UPL-Eg-2 (Tanglaw). Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center is growing the Long Purple variety. 3) You can grow eggplant throughout the year provided the soil is fertile and well-drained. It grows in different kinds of soil but grows best in sandy loam or clay loam soils that are rich in organic matter. 4) Eggplants are propagated by seeds. Plant disease-free and treated seeds in a seed box or seedbed just before the end of the rainy season. 5) Water the seed box or seedbed with fine drops of water using a sprinkling can. Make sure the seeds do not get washed out. Keep the seedbed or seed box moist (not too wet nor too dry) all the time until the seedlings are well-established. 6) Before transplanting the seedlings in the field or garden, prepare the area thoroughly. Pulverize the soil well using a hoe or animaldrawn plow. 7) Soak well the seed box or seedbed with water before transplanting to facilitate lifting the seedlings. Then "harden" the seedlings from 7 to 10 days. This is done by gradually reducing the frequency of watering and by exposing the seedlings in the sun. They should be allowed to suffer from temporary wilting before watering. A hardened seedling will stand the rigors of transplanting better and will resume normal growth much sooner than a non-hardened one. 8) Make holes with a trowel. Plant the seedlings on squares 50 to 60 centimeters apart, each way. Set the young plants in the holes at a depth of about 1 centimeter or at the level of the base of the seedlings. Water, then firm again. 9) Mulching around the stem with rice straw or dried leaves is a very good way to keep the soil moist all the time. In addition, mulching stops the growth of weeds and eliminates the need for cultivation. 10) If you plant eggplants during the rainy season, it is always necessary to provide the plants with stakes that are strong enough to prevent the plants from falling down to the ground. Tie the main branch of the plants to stakes to keep the plants in place. Fruiting capability of the plants will be reduced if the plants fall to the ground.

VARIETIES

ADAPTATION

PROPAGATION GROWING TRANSPLANTS

LAND PREPARATION TRANSPLANTS PREPARATION

PLANTING TRANSPLANTS

MULCHING

STAKING

CONTROL OF DISEASES

11) In the Philippines the most common and destructive diseases are bacterial wilt, phomopsis, and phytophthora root and fruit rot. These can be controlled by planting healthy, resistant varieties or spraying with recommended chemicals such as Benlate and Captan 50 WP. 12) The most destructive insects that attack eggplants are stem borers, spotted ladybird beetles, leafhoppers, and flea beetles. You can control these pests by practicing clean culture, crop rotation, and spraying with insecti-cides such as Gusacarb and Decis. 13) Harvest eggplants before the fruits lose their purple color and while they are still young and tender. Harvesting is usually done 3 to 4 months after transplanting the seedlings. Late harvesting makes poor quality fruits which are susceptible to rapid decay. Do the harvesting during the late afternoon.

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS

HARVESTING

HOW TO MAKE A FAITH GARDEN (Food Always In The Home) INTRODUCTION 1) The FAITH (Food Always In The Home) Garden plan was developed by the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center for home lot family gardening. This type of vegetable gardening can provide the necessary protein, vitamins, and mineral requirements needed by a family of six. It is also designed to require minimum labor. As its name suggests, there will be food always in the home if the recommended plan is properly followed. 2) Select the most fertile area in your home lot. It should contain humus, a form of plant food. The types of soils needed for vegetable gardening are: loam, silt-loam, or clay loam. Establish your garden on a light slope to provide drainage, especially during the rainy season. If the area is flat, dig drainage channels or ditches around the planting site. Your garden site must also receive sunshine throughout the day. Growing plants need sunshine to manufacture food. In addition, the area should have a constant source of water. Water is very important particularly during the dry season. SIZE OF THE GARDEN 3) The ideal FAITH garden is six meters wide and sixteen meters long (or approximately 100 square meters). If managed properly, a garden this size is large enough for growing various kinds of vegetables throughout the year to supply the daily needs of a family of six. 4) Divide the garden into three sections, with one-half of each section held in reserve for replanting. Plant one section with short-term vegetables that will be ready for use in two to four months like soybeans, tomatoes, pechay, cowpeas, bush sitao, and sweet corn. The second plot is given over to vegetables which can produce for six to nine months, including okra, onions, garlic, eggplant, winged beans, golden squash, alugbati (Ceylon spinach), and ginger. Vegetables that will produce for 11 to 12 months are grown on the third plot: patani (local or U.S. lima beans), kangkong (Ipomea aquatica ), camote (vegetable variety), taro, cassava, and pigeon pea or kadios. Along the boundary of the garden and in the yard, permanent and semipermanent type plants are grown. Among these are malunggay (Moringa ), papaya, kalamansi, Barbados cherry, and guava. For fencing purposes, plant nitrogen fixing tree species (NFTS) like ipil-ipil, madre de cacao, flemingia, and villosa. They can also be used as sources of green manures. BASKET COMPOSTING 5) The central feature in FAITH Gardening is a series of raised garden beds into which bamboo baskets are set about one foot in diameter and depth. These are filled with a little manure (goat, duck, chicken, horse, etc.) and some decomposable garbage (peelings of banana, corn stalks, vegetable stalks, etc.), and packed with NFTS leaves. If manure is not available, NFTS leaves alone can be stuffed into the baskets to provide

LOCATION OF THE GARDEN

PLANTING SYSTEM

nitrogen and other nutrients. (For further details about basket composting, read "How to Make Basket Compost.") PLANTING THE FAITH GARDEN 6) The time to plant seedlings around the compost baskets in your garden plots depends on the state of decomposition of materials inside the compost baskets. If the materials at the bottom part are nearly decomposed, you can plant seedlings immediately. But if most of your plant materials are still fresh and green, plant seedlings two to three weeks later. Since camote (sweet potato), alugbati (Ceylon spinach), and kangkong (Ipomea aquatica ) are crawling plants, plant them in separate beds one meter wide and six meters long with a distance of 50 centimeters between beds. Plants should be set 20 centimeters apart. These leafy vegetables are high in iron, calcium, vitamin A, and other vitamins and minerals. Your family should eat some of these every day. For patani (lima bean) and winged beans, plant two to three seeds per hill around each compost basket. Patani and winged beans are the two main protein producing plants in the FAITH Garden. Other plants which are good sources of protein are soybeans, string beans, and bush sitao. Golden squash should be planted in hills 1.5 to 2.0 meters apart. You will need to construct a trellis for cucumber, patola (gourd), and ampalaya (bitter gourd); otherwise the vines will become a problem. Malunggay (Moringa olifera ) should be planted two meters apart along the boundary of your FAITH Garden. The leaves of malunggay are very nutritious and should be eaten often. Kalamansi, Barbados cherry and papaya should be grown in your yard. In order to fight diseases, our bodies need vitamin C, and these trees are very good sources of this vitamin. If you would like to know more about FAITH gardening, read our manual on "How to Make FAITH Garden in Your Homeyard.”

HOW TO FEED SWINE INTRODUCTION 1) Feeds constitute almost 80 per cent of the production cost of swine raising. Because of this, you need to know what kind of feedstuffs you should give to your pigs. 2) Give your pigs the recommended amount of feed for their age (see feeding guide). Be sure to feed regularly. 3) The following are the suggested amounts of feeds to be given to your pigs at different ages:

PIG RATIONS SWINE FEEDING GUIDE

SWINE FEEDING GUIDE Kind of Feed Age Weight Amount of Feed ==================================================================== Pre-starting Starting Growing Fattening/Finishing Breeding 0-4 wks. 4-8 " 8-12 " 4 " 0.6-5.0 kg. 5.0-10 " 10.0-60 " 60.0-85 " 60.0 " 0.3-0.6 kg./day 0.6-1.5 1.5-2.5 2.5-3.5 2.0-4.0 " " " "

Lactating 4- 6 " 5.0-5.5 " ==================================================================== Source: ”The Philippines Recommends for Pork Production” (1976) PIG RATIONS 4) Only give your pigs the feed which is necessary for their growth and appropriate for their age. In this way you can be sure they grow well and you can also avoid spending too much. Be sure to feed at regular times. Your major feed should be hog concentrates which provide protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Sweet potato tops, kangkong and other green leafy feeds are to be given only as supplements. Mungo and other beans can be used as substitute for soybean oil meal. Fresh leftovers from the kitchen are good food for pigs. These may be rice or corn, gills and entrails of fish, fruit peelings, sweet potato, and other scraps. Fresh golden apple snails are also an excellent feed. FEED FORMULATION 5) Swine can adjust well to almost any kind of feed. To the practical swine raiser, there is no standard ration for any class of swine. The formula can be adjusted if there is a change in the price of feed ingredients or when one ingredient becomes more readily available than others. The nutrient requirements of the hogs, however, have to be satisfied.

In formulating swine rations, know the particular class of swine for which a ration is to be formulated. Be acquainted also with the nutrient components and unit prices of the available feedstuffs. In addition, decide on a suitable combination of feedstuffs so that the ration will be palatable, safe, economical and nutritionally balanced. ALL-PURPOSE FEED FORMULA 6) A complete, all-purpose feed for swine has been developed by the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center. Table 1 shows this formula:

==================================================================== Ingredients Volume (in kilograms) ==================================================================== Binlud (Ground corn) 10 Tiki-tiki (Fine rice bran) 57 Ipil-ipil leaf meal (Dried) 7 Soybean oil meal 8 Copra oil meal 15 Shell powder 2.5 Salt 0.5 Afsillin or Pigromix* 0.5 ==================================================================== *Optional FEED MIXING 6) Feed mixing is a simple farm operation. You can mix swine feeds on concrete floors or in a mixing box with a shovel or any other suitable equipment. Irrespective of the equipment used, it is important to mix the ingredients thoroughly to produce a uniform mixture. 2) There are three methods of preparing feeds for your swine: cooking, grinding, and soaking. Most popular among backyard swine raisers is cooking, which If ever you have some questions regarding swine feeding, please let us know. This makes the feed easy to digest, more palatable, and safer to eat. Grinding the feed into particle size can also increase its digestibility. Soaking is done only when the grains have hardened from storage and are difficult to chew.

FEED PREPARATION

HOW TO RAISE DAIRY GOATS INTRODUCTION BREEDS OF GOATS 1) Goat raising is one of the simple low-cost food production projects that a small farmer can get involved in. 2) You may start with a native goat and mate it with a purebred, preferably a Nubian. From Nubia, in northeastern Africa, this breed weighs about 65 kilograms. A superb breed for Philippine farms, its does produce an average of two liters of milk daily. The MBRLC is one good source of purebred Nubian stocks. Philippines Native Goat - Small but hardy, it weighs about 35 kilograms at maturity. Its average daily milk produc-tion is only 350 grams. Therefore, it is necessary that to improve its milk production the Philippine goat must be upgraded with the purebred Nubian goat. Dadiangas Goat - This breed--common in Dadiangas, South Cotabato--is a cross between the native goat and other breeds like Nubian and Jumnapari. Other good milkes include Saanen, Alpine, La Mancha, and Toggenburg. A new, widely adapted meat breed is the Boer Goat from South Africa. HOUSING 3) Dairy goats need a simple house for protection. It can be constructed using local materials available in your area. Bamboo slats, ipil-ipil poles, and coconut leaves make fine flooring, sidings and roofing, respectively. Nipa or cogon grass can also be utilized for roofing. Provide at least 15 to 20 square feet floor space per adult goat. Raise the floor of the goat house about 4 feet off the ground to facilitate easy cleaning and manure collecting. Remember, goats do not like rain and damp places. FEEDS AND FEEDING 4) Goats will eat almost any kind of green plants with a preference of leaves of certain trees. Green feeds like ipil-ipil (L. leucocephala ), Flemingia macrophylla , Desmodium rensonii , Indigofera tyesmani , kudzu, madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium ), para grass, napier grass, and star grass should be given to your goats daily. In addition, feed your dairy goats concentrates. (First class rice bran mixed with leaf meal in a ratio of 2/3:1/3 makes an excellent feed.) It is important to provide fresh clean water and salt at all times. BREEDING 5) The female goat (doe) comes "in heat" when she is about 3 to 4 months old, but she should not be bred until she is 9 to 12 months old. Mating too early retards the growth of the animal and the newborn may be difficult to rear. 6) About one week before the female goat is due to kid (give birth), separate her from the herd. Give her special attention and care. As soon as the kid is born, observe the mother and see if she licks off the mucus covering the kid's body and around the nostrils. If she doesn't, wipe off the mucous

REARING THE KIDS

material so that the kid could start breathing. Dip the umbilical cord in a solution of 50% iodine and 50% alcohol to prevent infection. If the kid does not succeed in sucking milk from its mother, bring it to the doe and induce it to suck by opening its mouth. After the kid is about one week old, separate it from the doe during the night so you can milk the doe in the morning to provide milk for your family. Then leave the kid with the doe during the day. DISBUDDING AND DEHORNING 7) Disbud the kid four days after it is born using the hot-iron method. Adults can be dehorned using a dehorning instrument or by sawing off the horn close to the skull. Consult a veterinarian or an agricultural extension worker about the procedure. Disbudding is important because goats with horns will fight and may damage each other. 8) Your goat's feet must be trimmed regularly once a month, unless they are in a pasture or outside. Use a sharp knife when trimming goat's feet. 9) Goats are liable to cold and pneumonia. Young kids often die of them. As prevention, it is recommended that some bedding consisting of old sacks or rags or dried rice straw be provided. Goats are also susceptible to stomach and intestinal worms. These make the animals weak and sick and if untreated, goats die of them. De-worm your goats every six months with Tetrasole and Triabenzole. MILKING THE GOAT 10) Be regular in milking and feeding your goats. In this way, you will teach the goats to be regular in their milk letdown. (Note: Let the buck stay with the doe for a short period of time only. Otherwise, the milk will have a goat's odor.) Dairy goats may be fed before they are milked, while they are milked, or after they are milked. It does not make any difference when they are fed, but the most important is they are fed according to schedule. DISPOSING THE GOATS RECORD KEEPING CONCLUSION 11) When castrated goats have reached the age of 9 months to one year, they are ready for slaughter. Does can be butchered for meat when their productivity declines (about 6-8 years). 12)Keeping records of goat stock is a good practice. The records will provide you with information as to which are good milkers, which are good producers of offspring, which are good meat producers, etc. 13) Raise goats and you can produce your own milk, butter, cheese, and meat, plus a generous supply of fertilizer for your farm or garden. (For a more thorough discussion of goat raising, refer to our manual "How to Raise Goats.")

HOOF TRIMMING DISEASE PREVENTION

HOW TO RAISE SWINE IMPORTANCE BREEDS OF SWINE 1) Swine raising can be a profitable venture for a farmer who puts up a small backyard piggery project. 2) Among the well-known breeds are: Yorkshire, Landrace Duroc, Hampshire, Berkshire, and Poland China. Some newer breeds such as the Hypor are “hybrids” and are now commonly available. If you are a newcomer in swine raising, it is good for you to raise the breeds popular in your area. These breeds are easier to replace and adapted to the environmental conditions in the locality. You may also start with crossbreeds because they do not require the techno-logy needed in raising purebreds. HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT 3) Pigs are easily affected by cold and heat. You need, therefore, to provide a house that will protect your pigs from heat and rain. Construct your hog house on a slightly sloping and well-drained site so that the area will not become too muddy. You may also build your pig house at the site of a fishpond. The waste of the pig goes directly to the pond which helps fertilize the tiny plants (algae) that serve as food for tilapia. If you are planning to build a permanent house, cement the floor to make the cleaning easier and to reduce the presence of parasites and diseases. Provide your pig house with feeding and drinking troughs and a farrowing pen. A 9 x 10 foot pigpen can accommodate one sow and her piglets or 10 to 20 growing pigs or 6 to 8 fattening pigs. The walls separating your pens should be about three feet high for convenience in doing your work. BREEDING OF PIGS 4) Select your pigs for breeding purposes at about 2 to 3 months old. Choose those that come from sows which are noted for their mothering ability, are heavy milkers, and adapted to rugged conditions. They must be healthy and in good form. Start to mate them when they are about 6 to 9 months. Breeding them earlier than 6-9 months is not advisable; it may disturb the growth and shorten the productive lives of both the boar and sow. The mating should be carried out early in the morning on the second or third day of heat. The sow should be mated a second time the following day. Record the date of mating so that you can calculate the expected time when she will farrow. CARE OF THE SOW AND HER LITTER 5) Give your pregnant sow a balanced ration including green feeds because the young piglets in her womb also require nutrients. The sow will be pregnant for about 115 days. Ten days before giving birth, transfer her to a clean and disinfected farrowing pen.

Provide bedding materials in the farrowing pen. Dried banana leaves, rice straw and similar materials are good bedding materials. If possible, install guard rails or a farrowing crate to prevent the sow from crushing the piglets. During farrowing, the sow should not be disturbed. Farrowing may take as long as 24 hours or as short as 5 to 6 hours. When the piglets are born, it is sometimes necessary to wipe the nose and the mouth with a piece of clean, dry cloth to remove the mucus. The umbilical cord should be dipped into an iodine solution. In addition, clip off the milk teeth of the piglets to prevent injuries to sows' teats which could lead to infections. FEEDING THE LITTER 6) Eight days after birth, start giving piglets small amounts of prestarter feed. This will get them used to eating a solid and well-balanced diet early, thereby realizing their full growth potential. It will also help the sow feed her young and prevent her from over-nursing. 7) Two to 4 weeks after birth, castrate the young male piglets which are not selected for breeding purposes. Castration is done to speed up the growth of the animals which will be fattened for market. 8) Wean your piglets when they are about eight weeks old. In weaning, it is best to take the sow away completely out of sight and hearing of her young ones. 9) Keep your hog pen clean. Strict sanitation and cleanliness produce disease-free and healthy pigs. Wash the pen with clean water every day and disinfect it regularly with lysol (weak ammonia) solution or any reliable disinfectant. If a pig or piglet is sick, isolate it right away. Allow the pen to be vacant for three to five days before housing other piglets or pigs in it. The common diseases of pigs are hog cholera, anemia, pneumonia, diarrhea, parasites, and swine plague. Contact your BAI technician or MBRLC extensionist in your area or the local veterinarian to let you know how to detect, control and prevent these diseases. MARKETING 10) When castrated male pigs and fattening females reach the age of 8 to 10 months old or about 100 kilograms in weight, sell them right away. Unproductive pigs should also be sold.

CASTRATING

WEANING

SANITATION AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT

HOW TO FARM YOUR HILLY LAND INTRODUCTION The Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center (RLC) has developed a technique of farming hilly land which helps minimize erosion and restore soil fertility. This technique is popularly known as Sloping Agricultural Land Technology or SALT. (For a more complete explanation of the SALT system see our manual "How to Farm Your Hilly Land Without Losing Your Soil.") Here are the basic steps of doing it: 1) Locate the contour lines of the hilly land by using a carpenter’s level mounted on an A-frame. (See page 3 "How to UPLIFT Your Small Lowland Farm" for explanation of how to make A-frame and locate contour lines.) Space the contour lines from 4 to 6 meters apart.

LOCATE THE CONTOUR LINES

PLANT LEGUMINOUS TREES/SHRUBS

2) Plant two thick rows of ipil-ipil, flemingia, madre de cacao or any other leguminous trees (such as Desmodium rensonii , Leucaena diversifolia, Flemingia macrophylla, Indigofera tyesmani, Gliricidia sepium , etc.) on cultivated contour lines. You can also plant one row with ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala ) and the second row with flemingia or some other variety. The roots of these leguminous trees will hold the soil. In addition, the leaves will provide mulch and fertilizer for the crops. 3) The land between the double rows of leguminous trees is called a strip or alley. It is in the strip where crops are grown. Plant your permanent crops in every third strip. (Also plant permanent crops on the boundaries of your land.) Grow non-permanent crops in between strips of permanent ones. To help prevent soil erosion while the leguminous trees are still young, cultivate alternate strips and leave alternate strips uncultivated.

PLANTING DIFFERENT CROPS

PICTURE OF A SALT-ED HILLY LAND

4) This is how your hilly land will look if the SALT technique is properly followed.

TRIMMING OF LEGUMINOUS TREES ROTATE NONPERMANENT CROPS BUILD YOUR GREEN

5) Once a month trim your leguminous trees to one meter from the ground. Gather and pile the trimmings at the base of your crops. These trimmings are excellent organic fertilizer. 6) Rotate your non-permanent crops. Plant leguminous crops (peanuts, beans, etc.) where non-legumes (corn, sweet potato, pineapple, etc.) were previously planted and vice versa. 7) You can do this by continually gathering and piling all leaves, stalks, stakes, branches, rocks and stones at the base

TERRACES

of the leguminous trees. This is a good way to anchor down your precious soil.

HOW TO INOCULATE LEGUMINOUS PLANTS IMPORTANCE OF LEGUMES 1) Legumes are the richest and cheapest common source of protein among all foods of plant origin. The protein found in legumes is a cheap substitute for animal protein. Legumes are recognized as important food in the human diet and supplementary feed for livestock and poultry. 2) Examples of leguminous plants are: soybean, mung bean, peanut, hyacinth bean, lima bean, string bean, bush sitao, winged bean, Baguio bean, cowpea, Mississippi silver pea, garden pea, pigeon pea (”kadios”), and sesban. 3) Legumes are special kinds of plants. They have the ability to hide bacteria in their roots which form nodules ("numerous rounded masses in the roots"). The bacteria present in these nodules catch nitrogen from the air and transform it into usable form and supply it to the soil to be used by the next crop. Nitrogen is present in large quantities in the air. However, without the aid of bacteria, plants cannot use this free nitrogen in the air. And legumes are plants which consume large amounts of nitrogen. If the nitrogen-fixing bacteria are not present in the soil, the legumes will have to depend much on soil nitrogen, thereby depleting the soil of nitrogen. But you can make these nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called Rhizobiaœ, present in your soil by a procedure is known as inoculation. BENEFITS OF INOCULATION 4) There are several benefits you can get when you inoculate the seeds of legumes before planting. Consider the following: * It will prevent early nitrogen starvation of your plants. * The demand for soil nitrogen will be reduced. * The grain and protein yields will be improved. WHEN TO INOCULATE 5) You need to inoculate the legume seeds before planting: * When the legume you are going to plant has not been grown previously in that location. * If the leguminous plant which was grown recently on the land lacked good nodulation. * When a legume is to be planted on land currently planted in non-leguminous crop. * When the legume to be planted is a species widely different from those which were grown previously on the land.

EXAMPLES OF LEGUMES

SPECIAL KIND OF PLANTS

* When land has not been properly managed or has been subjected to unfavorable natural conditions. HOW TO INOCULATE 6) There are two ways of inoculating seeds. The first is done this way: Put your seeds in a large container and moisten them with water. Sprinkle with the inoculant and stir to ensure that it evenly sticks to the seeds. Inoculation should be done in the shade within one hour before planting. Do not expose inoculated seeds directly to sunlight to avoid killing the Rhizobia. This is the second way: Well-pulverized soil from a field recently planted to the same leguminous plant, which is positively known to have produced plenty of root nodules, should be mixed thoroughly with the seeds to be planted. Plant the seeds as soon as possible after they are inoculated. WHERE TO GET INOCULANTS INSPECT FOR THE KIND AND QUALITY 7) You can buy inoculants at your nearest Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) office or at the Bureau of Soils. You can also buy them at agricultural stores in your area. 8) Every type of legume has its own type of inoculant. Be sure to buy the right inoculant for the legume you intend to plant. Check for the expiration date written on the package. Do not expose your inoculants to direct sunlight but rather store them in a cool and dark place. 9) You can see the effect of inoculation two to three weeks after planting. You can pull up some of your plants and see the nodules or "bumps" attached to the roots. These are where the nitrogenfixing bacteria live.

SEE THE RESULT

HOW TO GROW PIGEON PEA (CAJANUS CAJAN) IMPORTANCE 1) Kadios is grown in many places throughout the country. It is a rich source of protein, vitamins and minerals and is recommended by nutritionists as a substitute for meat and fish. It is commonly used in such native dishes as ”tinola”, ”binakol”, and ”guinata-an”. It is also a nutritious forage crop for goats. Kadios is a good cover crop since it helps give new vitality to barren, overused land. Because it is a legume, its roots develop nodules, which bring back nitrogen to the soil. Observations at the Rural Life Center show that it can help control soil erosion. CLIMATIC RANGE SOILS 2) Kadios grows best in places with a long dry season. It is a drought-tolerant crop. In fact, kadios can grow in dry areas not suitable for other legumes. 3) Like other legumes, kadios can be grown in any type of soil, but it prefers soils that are well suited to growth of corn and sorghum. Don't plant kadios in waterlogged areas, for it will not grow well. Better still, plant it in hilly or sloping areas. 4) Good soil preparation is a prerequisite for successful production. All debris and trash from previous crops must be plowed under well in advance to afford good decomposition of the organic matter. Two to three alternate plowings and harrowings are suggested for this crop. 5) Kadios is propagated by seeds. You can plant them at the end of the dry season or the early part of the rainy season. 6) When planted as a single crop, you need to plant kadios in rows, at least five to six meters apart. Drop two to three seeds per hole. 7) Kadios can be intercropped with either corn or sorghum. You can also plant kadios between rows of coconut trees. In Mindanao it is a common practice to plant kadios on the embankment of the rice paddies. It serves as a windbreak and a fence. 8) Since legumes are soil-improving crops, some believe that a fertilizer application is no longer needed. However, kadios has been found to perform better when fertilized. Apply one tablespoon of 1620-0 per plant as soon as you see them sprouting from the soil. 9) Kadios has a reputation for competing strongly with weeds, but this is true only with full stands after it reaches a height of about 1 meter. In early growth stages you need to control weeds in order to conserve soil nutrients and moisture. 10) Kadios is attacked by a number of root-rots and leaf and stem diseases. The two major preventive measures that are effective

LAND PREPARATION

PROPAGATION SINGLE CROPPING INTERCROPPING

FERTILIZATION

WEEDING

PEST MANAGEMENT

in controlling such diseases and pests are: (1) planting disease-resistant varieties and (2) practicing crop rotation and removing and burning any diseased plants. If you will remove the entire top growth after harvest (either by feeding to livestock or plowing under), this will greatly reduce the amount of disease present when the following crop of kadios is planted. HARVESTING 11) You can start harvesting kadios fruits at about five months after planting. You can harvest kadios for as long as 3 to 4 years.

HOW TO RAISE LAYER CHICKENS IMPORTANCE 1) In the Philippines the per person egg consumption is 100 pieces a year. But the nutritional recommended consumption is one egg per day or 365 eggs per person per year. Egg production is steadily increasing every year, but it cannot keep pace with the demand. 2) You must be very careful in buying chicks and selecting the laying flocks. Be sure to buy good layers from reliable sources. The White Leghorn and its strains, which lay an average of about 220-250 eggs per year, is the most popular breed for egg production. 3) Brooding is the care given to chicks until they are able to live by themselves. Place the baby chicks in a brooder house which has adequate openings to allow fresh air to come in. Artificial brooding can be done by means of an electric or lamp brooder. The ideal temperature for the first week is 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Then lower the temperature by 5 degrees Fahrenheit every week until room temperature is reached. Overcrowding may result in the loss of many chicks. It is suggested that in a 5 x 5 feet brooder house you put only 50 chicks. On the fifth month, transfer them to individual laying cages. SELECTION OF LAYERS 4) Selection involves the grouping of layers. Choose them very carefully. Only birds with large, well-developed bodies and those which are vigorous and healthy and showing signs of early maturity should be kept as layers. 5) Build individual cages inside a house located in a well-ventilated place. The cages must also be well ventilated. Local materials like nipa and cogon may be used for the roof of the cage. Bamboo or slatted lumber may be used for flooring. The walls of the cages may be of wire. The laying house should be dry, clean, well ventilated, comfortable and quiet. TRANSFERRING LAYERS TO THE CAGES FEEDS AND FEEDING 6) Transfer the layers to the cages when they are 20 weeks. old or before they actually begin laying eggs. Transfer only the healthy layers -- those which are strong and alert with sharp eyes, good feathers and yellow bills and legs. 7) The principal types of feeds which are available commercial are: starting mash, growing mash, and laying mash. These feeds come in the form of meal, but some factories make them into pellets or small pills which are broken into smaller pieces called crumbles. Those who cannot afford to buy commercial feeds may mix their own. One formula which you can follow is:

BREED SELECTION

BROODING

LAYING HOUSE

Ingredients ” Fine tiki-tiki Corn meal Soybean meal Copra meal Ipil-ipil meal Meat & bone meal Limestone Salt Afsillin CONTROL OF DISEASES AND PARASITES

Starter Mash (1 day - 2 mo) 32 kilos 20 " 30 " 8 " 6 " 2 " .4 " .2 "

Growing Mash (3-5 mo) 50 kilos 18 " 14 " 8 " 6 " 2 " 2 " .6 " .2 "

Laying Mash (6 mo. up) 32 kilos 28 " 12 " 8 " 4 " 2 " 2 " .5 " .5 "

8) You must be aware of the common poultry diseases and parasites so that you can plan a systematic program of prevention and care. The common diseases are Coccidiosis, Avian Pest, Roups and Fowl Cholera. The common parasites are cecal worms, round worms, lice and mites. A recent illness that comes around from time to time and is various serious is called Avian flu. Coccidiosis is the most serious disease of chicks. Cocciodiostats like sulfamethazine are the best cure. Chicks must be kept dry. Vaccination is the prevention for Avian Pest and Cholera. It is very important that you keep the surroundings very clean. surroundings and employing sanitary methods. Dead birds suspected of having been infected with these diseases should be burned. The most serious internal parasites are large round-worms and cecal worms. De-worm chickens affected by large roundworms. The most important thing is to keep cages and equipment thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. In case of lice and mice infection, the best control is spraying with insecticide.

MAINTAINING QUALITY LAYERS

9) Separate the poor layers from the good ones. To maintain a continuous supply of eggs the whole year, layers have to be changed. Layers are most productive only during their first year. It is necessary to start raising another group of layers 6 months before the old layers are to be changed. 10) Gather the eggs not less than 3 times a day. During hot days, eggs should be gathered immediately. Group the eggs according to size. Clean the dirty ones and store them in a cool place. (A storage temperature of 100 to 15.6 degrees Centigrade is ideal.)

GATHERING AND STORING EGGS

HOW TO GROW MANGOSTEEN (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA) IMPORTANCE 1) One of the most delicious fruits in tropical areas, mangosteen is greatly valued for its white, juicy, sweet pulp. Mangosteen preserves and candy bars are popular among local and foreign tourists. 2) In the Philippines, mangosteen is grown on a large scale in Mindanao. But it can be grown throughout the country. However, any temperature lower than 20 degrees Centigrade slows down its growth. 3) Mangosteen is commonly propagated by seeds. However, it takes from 10 to 15 years for a mangosteen propagated by seeds to bear fruits. Marcotted trees bear fruit in eight to nine years after planting. 4) Plant mangosteen in rich, porous, deep, well-drained soil. The best soil is heavy clay with a generous mixture of sand and silt. The tree is especially suited for planting along river banks, canals, ponds, and lakes. 5) Plant the seedlings at the start of the rainy season. Ideally, the trees should be spaced seven by seven meters between plants and eight by ten meters between rows. 6) Partial shade is desirable during the first years of the tree's growth to prevent premature death. Dried coconut palm is a good shading material. 7) Weed the area around the trees at least twice a year. In the dry season, cover the area around the trees with mulch to reduce moisture loss from the soil and to control weeds. The mulch will also cushion the impact of falling fruit, preventing damage during fruit harvest. 8) During the dry season, water the trees twice a month. Trees growing near ponds or streams, however, don't need watering. 9) Apply generous amounts of nitrogen fertilizer to promote vegetative growth. Also, apply compost around the plants to enrich the soil. 10) In large plantings, plant intercrops like peanut, soybean, winged bean, and other leguminous field crops. 11) Look out for insects like mites, aphids, fruit borers, and flies and diseases like anthracnose and bacterial leaf spot. To control pests, use Methyl Parathion, Malathion, and Diazinon at the rate of two to three tablespoons in five gallons of water. Use Manzate and Dithane Z-78 to check fungus. Rats and bats damage fruit by eating the pulp and seeds. The best control method is to keep the orchard as clean as possible and to use the poison baiting method against rats.

ADAPTATION

PROPAGATION

SOIL REQUIREMENTS PLANTING

SHADING

WEEDING AND MULCHING WATERING FERTILIZATION INTERCROPPING PEST MANAGEMENT

HARVESTING

12) Harvest mangosteen fruits when they are fully ripe. This is when the cortex (covering) of the fruit changes from green to reddish purple. Unlike most perishable fruit crops, mangosteen fruits picked when fully ripe can stay fresh for several weeks under refrigeration.

HOW TO GROW OKRA (HISBISCUS ESCULENTUS) IMPORTANCE 1) Okra is a vegetable crop that has proved to be very profitable. If properly managed, a crop can provide fresh and delicious young okra fruits and a year-round income to a farm family. 2) Okra can be eaten boiled, broiled, or fried. It is also widely used as an ingredient in ”pinakbet”, a famous Ilocano dish. Young okra fruits are also used in salads and in many meat and fish dishes. 3) Okra can tolerate a wide range of soils but for good yield, grow okra in silty to clay loam soils that are well-drained and contain adequate organic matter. It likes a long, warm growing season. 4) The recommended varieties of okra which you can grow in your farm or garden are as follows: Perfected Perkins, Emerald, Sabour Selection, Smooth Green, Climson Spineless, Lavelna, Lady Finger, Long Green, White Velvet, Levadian, and Perkin Dwarf. 5) Plow the field first and then harrow immediately. Let the field stand for seven days to allow weed seeds to germinate and grasses to decompose. Plow again and harrow immediately to break soil clods not pulverized in the first plowing. Let the field stand for another seven days to allow second-growth weeds to grow. Plow the field for the third time and harrow immediately to obtain excellent soil texture. 6) Okra should be directly seeded in the field. Plant okra seeds in a soil that is slightly moist. Drop two to three seeds per hill and cover with fine soil. Plant your okra seeds in hills 30 centimeters apart with 60 centimeters between rows. To get uniform plant population, replant dead or missing hills three days after the seedlings emerge. THINNING 7) Fifteen days after planting, thin the plants to two seedlings per hill. Remove small and sickly seedlings by hand-pulling; be sure not to disturb or destroy the healthy seedlings. 8) To attain maximum yield, you need to fertilize your okra plants. In the absence of soil analysis, apply 300 to 500 kilograms of 12-24-12 (NPK) per hectare. Put 5 to 8 grams per plant. 9) To cultivate, off-bar the field by passing a plow or hoe 15 centimeters away from the base of the plants to a depth of 5 centimeters. Throw the soil clods between the inter-row spaces. The plants covered by soil during the off-barring should be saved by removing the soil carefully from the stems and leaves. 10) Okra plants are attacked by several insects and diseases: common cutworm, corn earworm, melon aphid, flea beetle,

UTILIZATION

ADAPTATION

VARIETIES

LAND PREPARATION

DIRECT SOWING

FERTILIZATION

CULTIVATION

PEST MANAGEMENT

leafhopper, eelworm, mosaic, root knot nematode, and pod spot of okra. Protect your okra plants from them by spraying with chemicals following the recommended dosage stated in the label, planting resistant varieties and and crop rotation. HARVESTING 11) Harvest fruits frequently when they are still young and tender. You can commence harvesting usually two to three months after sowing. You can get about 20 to 25 tons of fruits per hectare. 12) Plant okra in your farm now. This will give you an extra income while doing other farm works.

CONCLUSION

HOW TO GROW PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSUS) IMPORTANCE 1) The pineapple fruit is eaten raw by most Filipino people. However, It can also be made into a variety of products: jam, juices, preserves, marmalade, ”nata de pina”, frozen pineapple, dehydrated pineapple, and candied pineapple. 2) Plant pineapple in an area where it can get plenty of sunlight. It will not grow well and will not produce big fruits if planted in a shaded place. The soil should also be fertile and well-drained. 3) There are several varieties of pineapple grown in the country, among them: Smooth Cayenne, Queen (also known as Formosa), Red Spanish, Hawaii, Cabezona, Hilo, Sugar Leaf, Singapore Spanish, Natal Caning, Buitzenzorg, and Bogor. Select the best variety for your area. 4) Select only planting materials (crown, suckers and slips) that are healthy, vigorous and uniform in size and shape. To prevent rotting, sun-dry your planting materials for a week or two before planting. 5) There are three systems of planting pineapple. Select a system which fits your purpose best: Single Row System - In this system, the plants are spaced about one to one-and-a-half feet apart. Weeding, spraying and harvesting are easier. The fruits are bigger, but the total plant population is lesser than the double row system. The single row system can accommodate only about 30,000 to 40,000 plants per hectare. Double Row System - This is the most common method of planting pineapple. The planting materials are grown in double rows with paths between them to allow entry for weeding and other cultural practices. The spacing is one foot between hills and one-and-a-half feet within double rows and four feet between rows. This system gives about 40,000 to 50,000 plants per hectare but the fruits may not be as big as in the single row system. Multiple Row System - This system appears like a big plot or bed with three to eight rows of plants. The distance between plants in a bed is one foot and the distance between beds is four feet. This system has a population of about 50,000 to 60,000 per hectare but the yields are not as big as in the single and double row systems. FERTILIZATION 6) Pineapple needs nitrogen and potassium. Phosphorous is also needed, but Philippine soils generally have sufficient phosphorous. During the first month, apply one-half tablespoon of 0-0-60 plus one tablespoon of 20-0-0 or 46-0-0 per plant. Four months later, fertilize each plant with three-fourth tablespoon of 20-0-0 or one teaspoon of 46-0-0. Apply one-half tablespoon of 0-0-60 plus one tablespoon of 20-0-0 or one teaspoon of 46-0-0 per plant. On the tenth month, fertilize with three-fourth tablespoon of 20-0-0 or one teaspoon of 46-0-0 per plant.

ADAPTATION

VARIETIES

SELECTING PLANTING MATERIALS SYSTEMS OF PLANTING

CULTIVATION IRRIGATION

7) Give regular light hoeing around the base and between your pineapple rows to eliminate weeds and improve air and water circulation in the soil. 8)If your farm is irrigated, you may flood it for 12 hours once every 15 days during the driest part of the year. There should be enough moisture in the soil from flowering to fruiting; otherwise, fruit size will be affected. 9) If your farm is flat and has many low areas, construct drainage canals so that the plants won't be injured by excess water after heavy rainfall. 10) There are few serious pests that attack pineapple. Disease attacks are more serious than insect infestation. Major diseases include heart rot, water blister, brown spot, yeasty rot, marbling, pink disease and root knot. The insects are root-grub, mealy bug, armored scale insects, mites, fruit and stem borers. They can be controlled and/or eliminated by spraying affected and infected plants with pesticides recommended by the manufacturers. 11) If you want pineapple to bear fruits out of season, here is what you should do: Mix two kilos of carburo in a big kerosene can of water. Then stir the mixture thoroughly. Be sure that only pineapple with 36 matured leaves or at the age of 14 months are applied with carburo mixture. Younger plants should not be flower-induced because they cannot give good size fruits. For your measuring cup, use a small sardine can. Pour one-half can of carburo mixture on the heart of every pineapple plant with 36 matured leaves. Apply only once per plant. Do this in the late afternoon to avoid evaporation of the chemical.

DRAINAGE PEST MANAGEMENT

FLOWER INDUCTION

HARVESTING

12) Harvest pineapple fruits only when fully matured, usually when they reach the age of 16 to 18 months. Care should be taken so that the fruits are not injured during harvest.

HOW TO RAISE RABBITS IMPORTANCE 1) Rabbit raising is one of the most simple, low-cost food production projects that a farmer can get involved in. Rabbits are easy to care for and can supply meat for your family as well as additional source of income. 2) Select young rabbits which are offspring of prolific (rapid multiplier) does which know how to suckle or nurse their young. As for the buck (male), select those that are aggressive and well developed. Both the buck and doe should be vigorous and healthy and free from any defect. Ideally, you should start with one male and two females. It is best to buy them at two months old, right after they are weaned. Be sure to buy your breeding stock from reliable sources. HOUSING 3) For a home rabbit project, it is necessary to build hutches (cages). The cage should be located in a quiet place. Avoid constructing the rabbit house in an area where it could be hit directly by sunlight. Each rabbit should have at least 8 square feet of floor space although 10 square feet is better. A good pen size is 2-1/2 feet long by 4 feet wide by 2 feet high. Each rabbit must be housed in separate pen. Buck and does must be separated. FEEDS AND FEEDING 4) Rabbits are greedy eaters. Their diet consists of a mixture of legumes, grasses, camote tops, and tubers. Bean and pea leaves, kudzu, centrosema, Japanese weed, and ipil-ipil are good sources of protein plant material, although you must be careful not to give more than 5 percent ipiipil. It is good to supplement with other available greens, so feel free to experiment. But ”minimize feeding of kangkong (Ipomea aquatica) to your rabbits. You will also need to feed some form of concentrate to get maximum production. Feed millers sell concentrates good for rabbits. Chicken feed can also be used. If pellets are available, they can be mixed with other kinds of feed. Give 1 ounce of concentrate mixed with green feeds and leftovers to a 2month old rabbit twice every day. Give 4 ounces of concentrates mixed with green feeds to a more than 3-month old. Provide plenty of fresh clean water and salt at all times. The rabbits drink plenty of water, especially during lactation. Feeds should be given twice a day: once in the morning and once in the afternoon. FEED MIXTURE 5) A suggested mixed feed for rabbits is the following: Binlud (cracked rice) - l5.250 kilograms

SELECTION OF BREEDERS

Copra meal Ipil-Ipil leaf meal Soybean meal Shell powder Salt BREEDING

3.725 " l.000 " 5.000 " .l25 " .250 "

6) It is very important that you take the female to the pen of the male for breeding. Do not place the male in the pen of the female. The male should serve the female two times. If the female runs from the male, restrain her or take her out and place her back with the male the following day. In breeding, avoid the hot hours of the day. Breed rabbits early in the morning (5:00 to 8:00 a.m.) or late in the afternoon (4:00 to 7:00 p.m.). Do not leave the female in the pen overnight with the male.

KINDLING

7) Does will kindle (give birth) about 31 days after breeding. Place a boxshaped nest (12" x 24" x 12") in the hutch one week before kindling. Do not disturb the doe during kindling. Wait 24 hours after kindling to look at the babies and to remove any that are dead. At kindling time, the doe will be extremely nervous. Keep children, dogs, cats, and other animals away.

CARE AND MANAGEMENT

8) When baby rabbits show signs of sickness, dissolve one-half teaspoon of Sulmet in one liter of water. Give this solution for three days. (Terramycin powder, animal formula, can also be used.) The young rabbits will come out of the nest box after ten days and begin to eat greens and concentrates at three weeks. After two months, they are ready to be weaned. At this time, the mother should be rebred and the young fattened to be butchered at five months.

RECORD KEEPING

9) It is a good idea to keep records for good management and control of the stock. The basic information, which should be recorded are: age of the doe, date doe was bred, expected date of delivery, and number of young weaned per litter. You must know when to prepare the doe for kindling to prevent the loss of her young. The more you know about each doe, the better you will be able to distinguish between a quality doe and one which should be replaced. 10) You can easily see the benefits of raising rabbits. They consume only a little of your time, reproduce rapidly, and are a source of high quality protein for your table. In addition, rabbit raising will provide employment of idle hours of some members of the family, particularly the boys and girls, and thus direct their excess energies to productive efforts.

CONCLUSION

HOW TO GROW RAMBUTAN (NEPHELIUM LAPPACEUM) IMPORTANCE 1) Rambutan is one of the most exotic fruits in the world and is gaining much popularity and wide acceptance in the Philippines since its introduction at the start of the century. 2) There are several cultivars grown on commercial scale in various parts of the country: Seematjan, Seenjonja, and Maharlika. They are distinguished from each other by the length of their spines, their shape, the weight of edible fruit portions, and the ease with which the pulp separates from the seed. Newer varieties that are popular are the Rongrien and S-2. 3) Rambutan grows well in the Philippines, particularly in areas where the rainfall is well distributed. It also performs well in places having three dry months or an average length of less than four months dry season. Rambutan trees can tolerate many soil types, but for best results grow them on a deep, well-drained, loamy soil. 4) Rambutan is propagated by vegetative means and by seed. Propagation by marcottage is not advisable because when the root-bearing young plants are transplanted in the field, a large number die. For rapid production of high-quality rambutan trees, propagation by budding is recommended. 5) Prepare a planting hole large enough to accommodate the root system. Before planting, it is advisable to mix some topsoil, fortified with 50 to 100 grams of commercial fertilizer or with a shovelful of well-rotted compost, with the soil at the bottom of the hole. It is very important to have the crown roots no deeper than they were in the nursery or in the containers. The soil should be firmly packed around the roots and water should be used liberally to avoid air pockets. 6) The amount and kind of fertilizer to apply on rambutan trees will vary with the age and condition of the tree, the size of the crop, and the environmental factors including the soil. However, it is not possible to outline specific directions as to the recommended fertilization guide. While the tree will grow and fruit under conditions of total neglect, it very definitely responds to fertilization. We have found rambutan to be very responsive to heavy applications of goat manure. 7) In rambutan, like many other tropical fruit trees, very little pruning is normally practiced. This tree tends to develop balanced branches which makes it weak and subject to breakage whenever strong winds blow. Branches with narrow angles are also common. Therefore, pruning is necessary to produce a stronger tree. 8) Generally, the fruits are ripe about 3-1/2 months or 14 weeks from fruit set. The color of the fruit will change from dark green to dark red, reddish pink or yellow, depending on the variety. Rambutan fruits do not all ripen at one time. It is necessary to pick only ripe fruits. That is why, in most orchards, harvesting is done three times a week.

VARIETIES

ADAPTATION

PROPAGATION

PLANTING

FERTILIZATION

PRUNING

HARVESTING

HOW TO GROW LOWLAND RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) IMPORTANCE 1) More than half of the world's population rely entirely on rice as a staple food. Aside from its numerous uses as food, other products include fuel, compost, mulch, and fertilizer from the hulls and rope, brooms, mats, sacks, and hay from the straw. 2) Lowland rice is grown mostly on rather heavy clay soils. It can be grown throughout the year provided there is a sufficient supply of water or a relatively abundant rainfall--particularly during the growing stage. 3) One to three days before sowing, treat the seeds with any of the following: Spergon, Arasan, Furadan 3G and Ceresan M. Be sure to follow the recommended dosage in the label. 4) Soak the seeds in clean water for 24 hours and then drain. Spread them uniformly to a depth of two to four inches over wet sacks. Cover the seeds with another layer of wet sacks to keep them moist and warm. Maintain the moisture throughout the period of incubation. You can incubate the seeds for 36 to 48 hours, but do not go beyond this specified duration. 5) You can plant rice seeds in three ways: the wet-bed method, the so-called "dapog" method, and the dry-bed method. 6) You need to plow the field at least three times in order for the short stumps of grain left standing after harvesting to decompose and for poisonous decay products to be eliminated before transplanting. Clean, repair and mud line all dikes. Harrow the field twice to break up clods, bury weeds, and to level and puddle the soil. Do the last harrowing one day before transplanting. 7) Seedlings are transplanted in the field at the rate of two to three seedlings per hill. If planted randomly, space the seedlings about 20 x 25 centimeters. In straight-row planting, there is no definite spacing followed. (Normally, however, for wet season the spacing followed is 25 x 25 centimeters and for dry season it is 20 x 25 centimeters. 8) Water is a very essential element in rice production. However, irrigation management practices depend on the amount of water supply. If your area is greatly dependent on the rain, retain the water within the paddy for as long as it does not reach a depth which can be dangerous to the rice plants. 9) Weeds in rice fields may best be controlled by a combination of cultural practices like thorough field preparation, timely application of suitable chemicals, clean cultivation of rice growing in rows, and hand weeding. Control of weeds in other crops grown in rotation with rice is also very important.

ADAPTATION

SEED TREATMENT SOAKING AND INCUBATING THE SEEDS

PLANTING SEEDS FIELD PREPARATION

TRANSPLANTING

IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

WEED CONTROL

FERTILIZATION

10) During the dry season, the irrigated transplanted rice must be fertilized with a formulation of 90+30+30 per hectare. For rain fed areas, clay soils, the required rate is 60+30+0. For wet season, the rate of fertilizer application on irrigated, transplanted rice varies depending on soil conditions. However, the rate falls within 60-70 kg N, 30 kg P, and 30 kg K. Irrigated, transplanted rice requires 3 bags of 16-20-0 and 2 bags of 46-0-0 per hectare.

PEST CONTROL

11) The most common insect pests that will attack your rice crop are the following: rice stem borer, leafhopper, rice whorl maggot, planthopper, grain sucking insect, army worm, cutworm, rice leaf folder, and rice caseworm. You can control these by planting resistant varieties, spraying of recommended insecticides and sanitation in the field. 12) There are many rice diseases which threaten the rice plants, among them: rice blast, tungro, brown spot, bacterial leaf blight, bacterial leaf streak, yellow dwarf, grassy stunt, and orange leaf. Preventive and control measures include: spraying of fungicides, crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, treating seeds before planting, and sanitation in the field. 13) Some varieties can be harvested as early as 110 days af ter transplanting (DAT). Others can be harvested 135 DAT. Only very few are harvested 145 DAT. It is important that you know the characteristic of the rice variety you have planted, particularly the date of maturity or number of days after heading. Usually the rice is harvested using a sickle (”lilik’ in Tagalog or ”garab” in Visayan). The sickle is held in one hand for cutting and the other hand is used for gathering.

CONTROL OF DISEASES

HARVESTING

THRESHING

14) Manual methods of rice threshing are foot treading by both man and animal, rubbing action, flail threshing (”hampasan”) or beating on tubs, logs, boards, or rocks (impact) and pedal threshing. ”Hampasan” is the most common method where a handful of harvested stalks is beaten on bamboo slats, stones, logs, or other objects for three to ten times, depending upon the threshing characteristics of the variety, until all the grains are removed. 15) Immediate and proper drying of newly harvested rice is necessary to prevent spoilage losses and maintain seed quality. You can do the drying by spreading the ”palay” on concrete floors or any other surfaces favorable for drying.

DRYING

HOW TO PRODUCE YOUR OWN SEEDS INTRODUCTION 1) The propagation of plants is basically divided into two types: the sexual (or propagation by seeds) and the asexual (or propagation using vegetative parts of plants). This leaflet deals mainly on one aspect of propagation--the production of seeds. 2) In maintaining seeds of desirable quality, the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center is recommending these simple steps – a result of years of experience and actual work. 3) Select the plants most resistant to pests and diseases, those that flower and ripen earlier, have more fruits or pods, and the type that you need (as to size of the fruit, height, and other unique characteristics). Selection should be done preferably a week before harvesting the entire crop. Tag your selected plants with a bright-colored ribbon. 4) Harvest the seeds or pods when they are matured. This is usually when the seed parts are fully developed. 5) In processing, carefully extract the seeds from their pod or fruit. Extraction may be accomplished by beating the pods, by threshing or treading them under foot, by drying them under the heat of the sun, or by manually opening the fruit and extracting the seeds by hand. 6) Drying under the heat of the sun is the most convenient to use. Dry processed seeds (like mungo, string beans and other legumes) usually take three days to dry under the sun whereas wet processed seeds (such as tomato and eggplant) need to be dried for four days. In cases where there is off-and-on sunshine, you can test the dryness of your seeds by biting one of them with your teeth. Dry seeds are brittle and hard to bite. 7) After drying, select the best seeds, culling those with insect holes, undersized or damaged in some way. Then treat the seeds with pesticides to prevent insects and diseases from attacking them. Sevin powder, an insecticide, is generally used at one teaspoonful per three kilograms of seeds. To keep fungus in check, Captan powder is recommended, following the same dosage as Sevin. 8) After treating seeds, store them in airtight containers. In general, seeds have the ability to absorb water from the air for some time after drying. If their moisture content changes, this will result in a shorter storage life. Any old, unused jar could be used for storage, but be sure to wash the jars and dry them under the sun before using them. 9) Testing the viability (or germination percentage) of seeds is important before planting them in the field so you will have and idea as to the quantity of the seeds you are going to use. If germination is poor, you need to increase your seed quantity or discard the seeds. 10) Germination testing falls under three methods: the rag-doll, the plate,

STEPS IN SEED PRODUCTION ”Step One”: SELECTION

”Step Two”: HARVESTING “Step Three”: EXTRACTING

”Step Four”: DRYING

”Step Five”: TREATING SEEDS

”Step Six”: STORING SEEDS

”Step Seven”: GERMINATION TESTING METHODS OF

GERMINATION TESTING

and the seed box. Below is a brief description of each method: ”Rag-doll method” - In the rag-doll method, take 100 seeds at random from the sample and place them in a piece of moistened cloth (about 12" by 18"). Then roll the cloth containing the seeds around a pencil-sized stick 18 inches long. After rolling, tie the edges to prevent the seeds from falling. Place in a dark, cool place and keep moist. After 7 to 10 days, open the rag-doll and count the germinated seeds. The number of germinated seeds will be equal to the percent germination. If 80 seeds have germinated, the germination rate is 80 per cent. This means for every 100 kilos of seeds, 80 kilos will germinate and the remaining 20 will not. ”Plate method” - Cover a kitchen plate with 5-6 folds of tissue paper. Place one hundred seeds on top of the tissue paper. Cover it with a second layer of tissue paper. Sprinkle the covered seeds with water three times a day. Follow the same procedure used in determining percent germination in the rag-doll method. ”Seed box method” - The soil to be used in the seed box method should composed of one part sand, one part compost and one part ordinary garden soil mixed thoroughly. After mixing, you need to sterilize the soil by pouring boiling water on the surface of the soil or burning dried leaves of banana on top of the soil. Then plant the seeds. If you plant 100 seeds and 80 seeds germinate, the germination rate is 80 percent.

CONCLUSION

11) Doing these simple procedures will provide you seeds of good quality-seeds that will increase your production and your farm income.

HOW TO GROW SESAME IMPORTANCE 1) Sesame is a major oil seed crop for the tropics and the subtropics. The oil is used extensively for cooking, for direct use as food in dressings of various sorts, and for lighting. It can be used also for the production of margarine. 2) Sesame performs best when the temperature is high throughout its entire growing period. An average daily temperature of about 26 degrees Centigrade favors growth and fruiting. Seeds will not germinate when soil temperature is below 21 degrees Centigrade. The plant is fairly droughtresistant but it needs a minimum of 300 millimeters of rainfall in the entire growing period. 3) Sesame is adapted to a wide range of soils, but prefers well-drained, fertile, medium-textured soil. It grows in plains and up to an elevation of 1,200 meters above sea level. 4) There are two varieties of sesame grown in the country: the white and the black varieties. Some high yielding white-seeded varieties that may be used for oil extraction and for confectionaries and delicacies are Japanese white, Guatemala white, Mexican varieties, and the white-seeded native. Most black varieties are good for oil extraction. 5) Since sesame seed is small, it should be planted rather shallow on a firm but mellow seedbed. All living weeds should be destroyed, and trash removed or plowed under. Since the crop is usually grown in areas with limited rainfall, land preparation should run across the slope to aid in retention of rainfall and to minimize runoff. 6) As soon as the field is ready for planting, drill the seeds 50 to 60 centimeters apart for non-branching types, and 70 to 80 centimeters apart for branching types to get better yields. To plant one hectare, you need four to six kilograms of sesame seeds. 7) Irrigation is very important at planting time, but afterwards the crop requires irrigation only once or twice during the growing period. However, make sure water is available to the plants during the pre-flowering and prefruiting stages. 8) Seeds sprout from five to seven days after sowing. If there is a need, thinning or replanting should be done two to three weeks after seedling emergence, leaving two vigorous healthy plants in each hill. 9) When the plants are well-established three to four weeks after seeding, do the first cultivation. Carry out the second cultivation when the plants are 30 centimeters in height. Then hill-up. 10) To increase yield, fertilize your sesame plants. Apply a balanced commercial fertilizer at 200 kilograms per hectare at planting time. Organic fertilizer can also be applied at the rate of 750 kilograms per

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS

SOIL REQUIREMENTS

VARIETIES

LAND PREPARATION

PLANTING

IRRIGATION

THINNING AND REPLANTING CULTIVATION AND WEEDING FERTILIZATION

hectare as basal application. The most common commercial fertilizers used are urea, complete, and ammonium sulphate. DISEASE CONTROL 11) Frequent rains and high relative humidity may produce disease outbreaks on sesame. In areas having a moderate to limited rainfall, disease prevention is feasible by two practices: (1) growing strains or varieties that are resistant to locally prevalent diseases, and (2) field sanitation. Field sanitation should include crop rotation so that sesame is not grown on the same field in successive seasons, and also the removal of all crop residues after harvest. These practices greatly reduce the disease hazards. In extreme cases, however, spray with fungicides. 12) Prompt planting at the very beginning of the rainy season will eliminate many or most of the insect problems. There are two preventive measures that should be practiced: (1) planting of strains or varieties that have resistance to the prevalent insect pests, and (2) removing all residues immediately after harvest. These practices, combined with early planting, will reduce insect damage. However, whenever specific insects multiply to the point of serious injury, an insecticide that is toxic to the species should be applied. Prompt treatment is most likely to be effective. Be sure to follow the recommended dosage written in the label. Never apply insecticides just before harvesting and avoid using insecti-cides containing sulphur for they affect sesame plants. HARVESTING, DRYING, AND THRESHING 13) Varieties differ in length of growth period, from 85 to 150 days. Generally, however, harvesting starts as soon as the plants cease flowering, and the leaves have turned yellowish and are being shed. Since Sesame capsules ripen unevenly and shatter (in the shattering varieties), cut the crops when they are still green. Cut the plants at their bases. Tie them in bundles. Place the bundles on mats and thick cloth when drying them under the sun and beating them. After threshing and drying the seeds, remove inert materials, weeds or weed seeds, and deteriorated seeds by winnowing. STORAGE 14) Dry sesame seeds down to 10 to 14 per cent moisture content before bagging and storing them in open air. If the seeds are to be used for planting, treat them with either fungicide or insecticide. But if intended for food, pack the seeds in bags without treating and then sell or use.

INSECT PEST CONTROL

HOW TO GROW BUSH SITAO (VIGNA SPP.) INTRODUCTION 1) Bush sitao, a widely grown legume in the Philippines, can provide you with a good source of income besides giving you a cheap source of proteinrich food. This dry season crop is easy to plant and takes only a short period of time (about one and one-half months after planting) to grow. 2) There are several varieties of bush sitao grown in the country. You can plant any of the following: UPL-BS 1, UPL-BS 2, UPL-BS 3 (Sumilang), UPL-BS 4, LBBS #1, E.G. #2. 3) Prepare the land thoroughly by plowing and then harrowing the field two to three times. This will ensure healthy and uniform growth of bush sitao. Make furrows 50 to 75 centimeters apart. 4) Like most legumes, bush sitao is propagated by seeds. If your seeds have not been treated, you need to treat the seeds with fungicide and insecticide before planting. Mix three to five grams of Sevin 85S and two to three and a half grams of Orthocide 50WP with every one kilo of seeds. 5) Drill holes on each furrow and drop 3-4 seeds in each hole. The distance between each hole should be 10-20 centimeters. 6) Apply proper fertilizer to ensure a good yield. If properly fertilized and managed, bush sitao yields as much as 8,000 kilos per hectare. The fertilizers needed are: 30-50 kilos of nitrogen, 70-120 kilos of phosphorous, and 30-50 kilos of potassium per hectare. During the dry season, apply all the required fertilizer at seed planting. Apply manually in bands 5-8 centimeters along the sides of each furrow and bury 5-8 centimeters deep. If you plant during wet season, apply half of the required nitrogen and all of the phosphorous and potassium at the time of planting. These should be buried and spaced 5-8 centimeters from each furrow. Side-dress the plants with the remaining amount of nitrogen three weeks after planting the bush sitao seeds. IRRIGATION WEEDING PEST MANAGEMENT HARVESTING 7) You need to water the field evenly and thoroughly to ensure uniform germination and flowering of the plants. 8) Uproot weeds since they compete with your plants for light, nutrients and moisture. 9) Control pests, insects and diseases that will attack your bush sitao plants. Use insecticides and fungicides to fight them. Just follow what the label states. 10) Harvest the pods seven to eight days after blooming or when the seeds are partly developed. This would be 40 to 55 days after planting.

VARIETIES

LAND PREPARATION SEED TREATMENT

PLANTING FERTILIZATION

HOW TO RAISE GOLDEN APPLE SNAILS IMPORTANCE 1) The golden apple snail is much larger than the native kuhol and can grow to the size of a human fist. In addition, the meat is very delicious. The native kuhol has a thick shell while that of the golden apple snail is much thinner. 2) Golden apple snail culture is very simple. They reproduce rapidly. Each cluster of eggs numbers about 125, and hatchability under normal conditions is about 80%. 3) The golden apple snail is adaptable to a high rate of stocking. You can grow them in a small space with water one inch to one meter deep. In fact, under intensive culture, the water level should be kept low so the snails can extend their breathing tubes above the water. 4) You can grow golden apple snails in almost any pond or container. You can start with small home lot ponds, concrete tanks, old aquariums or any water container (wooden, metal or plastic). A container measuring 2 to 4 square feet and 1 to 2 feet high can be stocked with a dozen breeders. Apartment dwellers can stock golden apple snails in plastic cans, drums, or aquariums. People in subdivisions with garden pools or ponds can also produce golden apple snails for home consumption. Fish farmers can stock golden apple snails in freshwater ponds, nearby lakes, fish pens, fish cages, irrigation canals, and paddies. Any pool or container can be utilized as a grow-out pond. FEEDS AND FEEDING 5) The golden apple snail eats anything that decomposes. This means it feeds on almost any organic matter or aquatic vegetation. Kangkong (Ipomea aquatica ) and azolla are found to be the best aquatic foods and can be acquired almost without cost. You can also feed them with duckweed, hydrilla, water hyacinth, grasses, Ipil-ipil leaves, camote tops, kulitis, malunggay, vegetable scraps (pechay, cabbage, etc.) as well as papaya and gabi (taro) leaves. They will also consume your kitchen scraps (such as banana and papaya fruit peelings and leftovers of boiled corn the cob itself), rice straw, corn stalks, etc. They will feed and grow well on livestock and fish feeds like rice bran, corn bran, and chicken mash, but these should be used sparingly as they are expensive. REPRODUCTIVITY 6) Depending on the size of the breeders, the golden apple snail can lay between 50 and 300 tiny, pink eggs, which are 2 millimeters in diameter. The female lays eggs about two times a month. The eggs are bright pink and will become whitish when about to hatch. Hatching takes 12-15 days and maturation takes from 2©1/2 to 3 months. 7) The golden apple snail can be raised in ponds with other varieties of fish such as tilapia and carp and with clams.

PROPAGATION

ADAPTABILITY

CULTURE

COMPATIBILITY

PREDATORS

8) Here at the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center we have observed that the golden apple snail has very few enemies. In fact, the snails reproduce well in nearby streams and canals. Though we have observed tilapia eating the tiny baby snails, this does not interfere with snail population. 9) The female snail lays a large number of eggs about twice a month in a very peculiar way. She crawls out of the water at night or during late afternoon and lays her eggs above the water. She will lay eggs on the sides of the pond or container or on sticks, which have been placed in the water. Place sticks 1 to 1-1/2 meters long and 2" to 4" in diameter in the pond for the snails to climb on and lay their eggs. 10) Fresh snails are an excellent source of protein for ducks and hogs and can also be utilized as feed for other animals. At present the Rural Life Center is testing ways of using golden apple snails in duck raising. The high cost of protein feeds is a limiting factor in duck egg production on Mindanao. A system has been developed to raise snails in an economical way so farmers can enjoy modest profit from duck raising. Test results show that ducks raised on an ample supply of snails, first class rice bran mixed 50-50 with ground corn, and green forage sustain about 60-80% egg production. 11) The golden apple snails attack one to two-week old rice seedlings, starting from the base of the plants, then devouring the young leaves. In just 3-5 minutes, an adult snail can consume a whole blade of rice. Because of this, it is recommended that rice should always be planted in an ”upright” position if golden apple snails are present. In areas where the snails have invaded the rice paddy, the farmer can bring in ducks after harvest to help control the snails. You can also collect the snails to be used as duck feed or food for your family. There are sprays that are effective against snails if they become a problem in the rice field. You can also drain the water from the paddy for one week in order to kill the snails since they cannot live without water.

EGG-LAYING

POTENTIAL USE

NOTE OF WARNING

HOW TO GROW SORGHUM (SORGHUM VULGARE) IMPORTANCE 1) Sorghum is a good source of extra income for farmers during the lean, dry months. It is also a good substitute for yellow corn as feed for your animals. 2) There are hundreds of varieties of sorghum but they are usually classified into four basic groups: grain sorghum, forage (or grass) sorghum, sweet sorghum (or sorgo), and broomcorn sorghum. 3) Sorghum can tolerate various types of soils. It can grow well on heavy clay or light sandy soils and can tolerate waterlogged conditions for a few days. However, a well-drained soil is highly preferable for best growth and development. 4) Sorghum can be grown during both the wet and the dry seasons. During the wet season, planting should be timed so that harvest falls within the early dry season. 5) A well prepared seedbed is necessary for a good stand, an effective weed control and the conservation of soil moisture. Sorghum requires a seedbed that is deep, well pulverized, and free from weeds at planting time. 6) Plant sorghum in rows 75 centimeters apart. Drop two to three seeds per hill at a distance of four centimeters apart. 7) In the absence of soil analysis, apply 100 kilograms of nitrogen (N), 50 kilograms of phosphorus (P), and 50 kilograms of potassium (K) per hectare. One half of the recommended N and all of P and K should be applied as a basal at planting time. The remaining N is applied as a side dress when sorghum is already knee high. Eight sacks of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) plus two sacks of urea (46-0-0) per hectare will meet these requirements. IRRIGATION 8) In dry areas, two or three irrigations are suggested, the first given 35 to 45 days after emergence, the second during the flowering stage and the third during the milky ripening stage. 9) Cultivate the field at least two times and then hand weed the second cultivation. 10) Insects such as shoot flies, maggots, and thrips cause damage during the seeding stage. Borers, sorghum midge, and sorghum head worms cause damage in the heading stage. You can control these pests by spraying with chemicals like Lannate, Malathion, Furadan, Sevin, and Basudin. Follow the recommendations written on the label. 11) Fungus leaf diseases including leaf spots, downy mildew, rusts and blight can cause problems--especially in humid areas. You can use resistant

GROUPS OF SORGHUM SOIL REQUIREMENTS

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS LAND PREPARATION PLANTING FERTILIZATION

CULTIVATION AND WEEDING INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL

DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL

varieties to control these diseases. In some cases, use chemicals like Dithane M-45 and Tekto-90. Also, treat the seeds with Arasan before planting. In addition, practice field sanitation and burn infested leaves and stalks after harvest. CONTROL OF OTHER PESTS HARVESTING 12) The most destructive pests of sorghum are the birds called “maya.” They eat the developing grain but cause more damage when grains are matured. Any practice to repel these birds is advisable. 13) Harvesting is done about 35 days after flowering during dry season. Grain sorghum intended for feeds is harvested 30 days after flowering, at which time the grain moisture content is about 24 per cent. For seed purposes, sorghum is harvested 35 days after flowering at moisture level of about 18 per cent. 14) Sorghum panicles are harder to thresh than rice. Newly harvested grain sorghum must first be dried to facilitate threshing. When the grain sorghum has a moisture content of 14 per cent or less, threshing can be done manually or mechanically. Many rice threshing machines of the hold-on feeding type provided with a cylinder and wire loop teeth can be used effectively for threshing sorghum. 15) Newly harvested grain sorghum should be dried to a moisture content of 13 to 14 per cent. This is equivalent to 3-4 full days of drying under the sun. 16) Well dried sorghum grain can be stored in sacks. The sacks can be stacked for storage, but good ventilation should be provided.

THRESHING

DRYING STORING

HOW TO GROW SOYBEANS (GLYCINE MAX var.) IMPORTANCE 1) Soybeans are perhaps the world's oldest food crop and are one of the most concentrated and nutritious foods known to man. They rank as one of the five great protein foods and are often referred to as "the meat that grows on vines." Dry soybeans contain twice the amount of protein found in meat and ten times that of milk. Growing soybeans is one of the most economical ways you can add more protein to your diet. Soybean is one of the most useful leguminous plants. Viands, snacks, and desserts are made from the green mature beans. Soybean flour, soybean sprouts, and fermented products like ”tausi” and soy sauce are prepared from the dried beans. Soy cheese and tofu are made from soymilk. The oil from soybeans is used in the manufacture of cooking oil, margarine, salad dressing and vegetable shortening. VARIETIES 2) There are several varieties of soybeans grown throughout the country. For commercial production, the following varieties are recommended: BPI L114, CES 434, Clark 63, TK-5, and UPLB-Sy2. For vegetable purposes you need to plant Kanrich, E.G. Special, or Kahala. 3) Soybeans can be grown in nearly all types of soil, but best results will be obtained from mellow, fertile, sandy or clay loam soil. Soybean seeds do not germinate well in soil that is too dry or too wet. 4) Most varieties mentioned above can be grown throughout the country. They need plenty of water during the growing period and dry weather during the stage of ripening of fruits. 5) Prepare the land thoroughly. Plow the field and then harrow until the soil is well pulverized. 6) Be sure that the seeds you are using for planting come from healthy and disease-free plants. Treat the seeds with fungicide such as Arasan or Captan to protect them from soil-borne diseases and insect pests. 7) Like string beans, soybeans can get free nitrogen from the air. To help them produce their own nitrogen, you need to inoculate the seeds before planting. (Please read our leaflet "How to Inoculate Leguminous Crops.") However, you can plant soybeans without inoculating the seeds. 8) Plant your soybeans in rows 75 centimeters apart. Drop 2 to 3 seeds per hill at a distance of 5 centimeters apart. Sow the seeds at a depth of 2 to 3 centimeters. After germination thin your soybeans to 20 plants per linear meter. 9) Soybeans are legumes; therefore, they meet their requirement for nitrogen through the root nodules. In the absence of soil analysis, you need 45 kilos of phosphorous and 45 kilos of potassium per hectare. All the recommended fertilizers should be applied as basal at planting. (Four and

SOILS

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS LAND PREPARATION SEED TREATMENT SEED INOCULATION

PLANTING

FERTILIZATION

one-half sacks of 0-20-0 plus one and one-half sacks of 0-0-60 will meet the necessary fertilizer requirements.) WEEDING AND CULTIVATION 10) Soybeans compete poorly with weeds at their early stages of growth. One way of eliminating weeds is through cultivation. Cultivation may be started two weeks after planting and continued when the plants are about six inches tall. Extra care should be taken during cultiva-tion so that the roots of the plants are not injured. Cultivation should stop when the plants begin to bear flowers. 11) Soybeans are susceptible to insect attack. Insects that considerably damage soybeans include cutworms, aphids, nematodes and bugs. Control cutworms by spraying the plants with Basudin 20 EC. You can control bugs and aphids by spraying the plants with Furadan 3G, Mipcin 50 WP, or Malathion 57 EC. 12) Bacterial pustule, soybean rust, and soybean mosaic are common diseases of soybeans. Selection of seeds from disease-free plants, the use of resistant varieties, crop rotation, clean culture, and the use of fungicides are good control measures. 13) The soybean crop is ready for harvest 120 to 150 days after planting, depending upon the variety you planted and the season you are growing them. For general purposes, the crop can be harvested when about 90% are mature. The plants may be pulled up and tied into small bundles. These bundles may be set into stacks and threshed as soon as they are dry. 14) Do not burn the stalks or leaves of the soybeans after harvest. They are very good fertilizer so just leave them in the field. It is advisable to plant corn after the soybeans because there will be lots of nitrogen left in the soil which corn needs for its growth.

CONTROL OF PESTS

CONTROL OF DISEASES

HARVESTING

POSTSCRIPT

HOW TO GROW STRING BEANS (VIGNA SPP.) IMPORTANCE VARIETIES 1) The string bean, also known as pole sitao, is a nutri-tious vegetable and is one of the most popular edible legumes grown in the country. 2) There are several varieties of string beans grown throughout the country. Examples of these varieties are Yard Long, Economic Garden Pole Sitao No. 1, DES Pole Sitao No. 1, UPCA 1, UPCA 2, UPCA 5, BPI-Pole Sitao 1, BPI-Pole Sitao 2, BPI-PS 3 (Maagap), and UPL-PS 2(Sandi-gan). 3) You can grow string beans in well-drained sandy loam to clay loam soils. They can be intercropped with other vegetables. Also, they can be planted anywhere: rice dikes, fishpond dikes and backyards. 4) String beans grow well in a well-prepared field. The number of plowings depends upon the soil condition and weed population in the area where you are going to plant the crop. After each plowing immediately harrow the field. 5) String bean is a leguminous plant and for best results you should inoculate the seeds before planting. To do this, put the seeds in a big container. Moisten them with a small amount of water. Then mix the inoculant thoroughly until all the seeds are coated. Legumes need a special inoculant. Ask from your provincial agriculturist or extension worker the kind of inoculant to be used for mixing with your seeds. The inoculant will help string beans produce their own nitrogen. You can, however, grow string beans without inoculant. PLANTING 6) Seeds should be planted in furrows by drilling two to three seeds per hill. They should be planted as shallow as soil moisture permits, (usually 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters deep). Seeds should be covered with soil two times the diameter of the seed. The spacing requirement between rows is 100 centimeters and 30 to 50 centimeters between hills. 7) String beans need stakes to support them. The best materials for stakes are madre de cacao and ipil-ipil. Stakes should be placed as soon as the seeds start to germinate. 8) While the string beans are still young, you need to train them to climb on their respective stakes. Do this carefully so as not to break the stems, leaves or buds. 9) Twenty days after planting you need to cultivate the soil around the plants thoroughly. Also uproot weeds. Cultivation and weeding are necessary to prevent competition for nutrients by grasses and weeds. 10) If you plant string beans during rainy season, irrigating the plants is not necessary. Rainfall during the period is sufficient to support the normal growth and development of the string beans until harvest time.

SOILS

LAND PREPARATION INOCULATION

STAKING

CARE OF THE PLANT CULTIVATION & WEEDING IRRIGATION

However, if the string beans are planted during dry season or at the end of the rainy season, you need to flood the field once a week until the soil is saturated. Do not allow excess or running water to stay in the field. Drain extra water immediately. FERTILIZATION 11) In the absence of soil analysis, apply 50 kilos nitrogen, 120 kilos phosphorous, and 50 kilos potash per hectare. Put the fertilizer twelve centimeters away from the plant and cover it with fine soil, 2 centimeters thick. Thereafter, water the plant just enough to make the soil moist (not too wet and not too dry). 12) During dry season, it is advisable for you to mulch your plants with rice straw, dried leaves or any other suitable material to conserve as much soil moisture as possible. Mulching also prevents the soil from baking. 13) There are a number of insects that attack string beans: bean flies, bean pod borer pyralid, aphids, common cutworms, bean bugs and spotted ladybird beetles. Control these insects by planting resistant varieties, crop rotation and spraying insecticides. 14) Fusarium root rot and bean rust are the most destructive diseases of string beans. To date there is no chemical known which can control fusarium root rot. Bean rust can be controlled by spraying with either Benlate, Dithane M-45 or Zerlate. 15) Harvest your string beans when they are tender, right before they become fibrous and have developed prominent seeds. This is about 7 to 10 days after blooming. Pick the pods every two to four days. Harvesting should be done early in the morning so that the pods will not be exposed to strong sunlight. Heat causes shriveling and hastens the deterioration of vegetables. Handle pods carefully to avoid damaging them.

MULCHING

INSECT CONTROL

DISEASE CONTROL

HARVESTING

HOW TO GROW SWEET CORN INTRODUCTION 1) You can grow sweet corn in your farm as food for your family and as cash crop. Sweet corn is a good vegetable and makes a very nice crop. Sweet corn is very saleable in the market and at the bus stop. 2) There are three high-yielding sweet corn varieties that you can grow in your farm: Hawaiian Super Sweet, Golden Cross Bantam, and Huron. There are many other hybrids but for home yard production, we recommend open pollinated varieties. 3) Sweet corn grows well in moderately heavy loam which is rich in organic matter and well drained during the rainy months. You can produce goodquality sweet corn if you grow it in places where the temperature becomes cool at night (70 degrees Fahrenheit), or where the elevation is 1000 feet above sea level. The Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center is growing the Hawaiian Super Sweet which produces well at low altitudes. 4) Plow the field and then harrow until the soil is well pulverize to provide a mellow seedbed and to promote rapid germination. 5) Plant your sweet corn in rows 75 centimeters apart. Plant three to four seeds per hill at a distance of 50 centimeters apart in a moist soil having a depth of three to four centimeters. After germination, thin your sweet corn to two plants per hill. 6) Sweet corn responds well to fertilizer. Apply a basal application of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at one tablespoon per hill at planting time. Apply a side dress application of urea (46-0-0) at one tablespoon per hill when your sweet corn is knee high. 7) Weeding and cultivation are necessary to prevent nutrient competition with grasses and weeds. Weed and cultivate when you see it is necessary. 8) Insects such as shoot flies, cutworms, corn borers, army worms, and earworms cause damage to your sweet corn. You can control these pests by using Furadan 3 G. Apply three grams per hill as basal application with your fertilizer at planting time. At six weeks, apply Furadan 3 G to the whorl at three grams per plant. These pests can also be controlled by spraying with Furadan, Lannate and Malathion. Follow the recommended dosage written on the manufacturer's label. 9) Harvest your sweet corn at its late milk stage and at its early dough stage. For best sweetness, harvest late in the evening and deliver to the vendors that same night. Sweet corn should be boiled immediately after harvest, and if it cannot be boiled right away, it should be stored in a cool place. Golden Cross Bantam can be harvested in about 75 days after planting; Hawaiian Sweet, and Huron in about 100 days. You will have to wait 150 days after planting before you can harvest glutinous corn.

VARIETIES

ADAPTATION

LAND PREPARATION PLANTING

FERTILIZATION

WEEDING AND CULTIVATION PEST MANAGEMENT

HARVESTING

At harvest, trim off the flag-leaf including the butt to prevent fast shrinkage of kernels. Never allow corn to stand in piles as deep as 50 centimeters except when they are in transit. When they are not in transit, spread them apart or pour water over them to keep them cool. While glutinous corn can stand rough handling, good-quality sweet corn should be handled with extra care.

HOW TO GROW SWEET PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) IMPORTANCE 1) Known locally as ”atsal”, sweet pepper is one of the fruit vegetables you should plant. The fleshy fruit is an excellent source of vitamin A, iron, phosphorous and niacin. The green leaves are an excellent source of calcium. 2) Among the varieties of sweet pepper grown in the Philippines are: California Wonder, Dingras All Season, Improved World Beater, Pimiento, and Giant King. The Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center is using the Yolo Wonder variety which grows well in this area. 3) Sweet peppers are an important ingredient in many Filipino dishes. Fresh sweet peppers are a common part of tossed salads and relish trays; they are particularly tasty when stuffed with any of a vast number of mixtures of meat and vegetables. 4) You can plant sweet pepper during hot or rainy season since it can tolerate a range of climates from warm temperate to tropical. 5) Sweet pepper, like tomato and eggplant, is propagated by seeds. Buy your seeds from reliable sources. Sow the seeds in a seed box following the distance of one inch between hills and two inches between rows. If you sow in a seedbed, the seeds should be sown five centimeters apart in rows and in hills. Then cover the seeds, level the soil surface, press firmly and water moderately. 6) You should not let the seed box or seedbed dry up. Until the seedlings are well-established, keep the soil fairly moist. Water the seedlings in the morning before the sun is hot. Thin the seedlings after they develop two pairs of true leaves. Remove weak, abnormal seedlings. Fifteen days after sowing spray the seedbed or seed box with 24 grams of complete fertilizer (12-24-12) mixed with 10 liters of water. Rinse the seedlings with tap water after fertilizing. TRANSPLANTING 7) You can start transplanting your sweet pepper if they have attained at least four true leaves. Do this in the late afternoon to prevent wilting. You should plant the seedlings at a distance of 30 centimeters by 40 centimeters apart in hills and in rows. 8) Put one to two handfuls of manure in each planting hole you have prepared. Whether planted during the dry or rainy season, you should mulch the spot where the seedlings have been transplanted. You can use either dry leaves or rice straw. Mulching is more effective when done right after transplanting the seedlings. 9) You should control weeds to attain maximum crop yield. You can control weeds by timely cultivation, and cultivation also helps your plants absorb water and improves soil aeration.

VARIETIES

USES

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS SOWING THE SEEDS

CARE OF THE SEEDLINGS

MANURING AND MULCHING

WEEDING

IRRIGATION

10) Your sweet pepper plants need moderate irrigation. Lack of moisture in the soil will result in poor yield. Provide your field with drainage canals so as to avoid injury to your plants in case of sudden heavy rain. 11) To attain maximum yield, you need to fertilize your sweet pepper. The recommended fertilizers for one hectare are 60 kilos of nitrogen, 130 kilos of phosphorous, and 95 kilos of potassium. Use half of this as basal treatment. The remaining will be applied as a side dressing one month after planting. 12) Prune your sweet pepper to maximize production. Pruning should be done carefully with a sharp knife. 13) Aphids, spider mites and leafhoppers can attack your sweet pepper any time. You can control them by spraying your plants with chemicals at manufacturer's recommended dosage. For aphids, use either Malathion or Azodrin 202R. Dimethoate controls spider mites. Leafhoppers can be controlled by either Meptox, Folidol, or Fosferno. 14) The diseases of sweet pepper are bacterial wilt, anthracnose and fruit rot. You can prevent bacterial wilt by planting healthy, vigorous seedlings which are soaked in antibiotics like AgriStrep and Phytomycin. Anthracnose can be controlled by a continuing and thorough spray program using Dithane M-45. To prevent fruit rot, spray the infected plants with Benlate and copper fungicide. Also collect and remove infected plants and burn them.

FERTILIZATION

PRUNING INSECTS AND THEIR CONTROL

DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL

SUNSCALDING

15) Sun scalding is not a disease. It is caused by the unequal exposure of fruit to the scorching heat of the sun. It can be prevented or minimized by covering the fruit with cut grasses or tying the leaves together. 16) Sweet pepper, depending on the variety you planted, can be harvested 80 to 120 days after transplanting. You should use a sharp knife in cutting the stem.

HARVESTING

HOW TO GROW SWEET POTATO (IPOMEA BATATAS) IMPORTANCE 1) The sweet potato, locally known as "kamote" is considered to be the most important root crop in the Philippines. It is an important part of the diet in many parts of the country and is a good cash crop. You can cook sweet potato in various ways: boiled, baked, fried or mixed with other root crops to form the Filipino delicacy "guinata-an." You can also make it into a candy. Sweet potato tops are eaten as a vegetable. The tubers and the leaves can be utilized as feed for hogs, golden snails, goats, etc. VARIETIES 2) There are several varieties of sweet potato grown in the country. Among the most common are BNAS 15, Georgia Yellow Yam, C-430, Leyte, SP #45, Variga, U.P.R., Mississippi, and Initlog. 3) Sweet potato can be grown any time of the year. It can endure considerable drought but cannot bear water logging. 4) You can plant sweet potato anywhere. It has a wide range of soil adaptability. It grows in sandy loam to clay loam soils. 5) The best planting materials for sweet potato are the terminal cuttings although tubers and slips could also be used. Terminal cuttings should have at least four nodes. To obtain this number they are usually cut about 20-25 centimeters long. Prepare the cuttings a day or two before planting. Remove the leaves of the cuttings by trimming close to the nodes to prevent evaporation and to induce root formation. Then bundle the cuttings and arrange upright under a shade. LAND PREPARATION PLANTING METHODS CULTIVATION WEEDING 6) To have a good yield of root crops, soil should be thoroughly prepared. Land should be plowed and harrowed twice or until soil is very loose and friable. 7) Raised beds could be used, especially on small-scale production. For large areas, plant the cuttings on ridges at the following distances: 75-100 centimeters between rows and 20-30 centimeters between hills. 8) You need to cultivate your sweet potato plants before the vines start to crawl. 9) Try to control weeds. Weeding is done while the vines have not yet covered the spaces between them. When the plants have covered entirely the spaces between them, you need not to weed any more. 10) You should water your sweet potato plants especially during their

CLIMATIC RANGE TYPES OF SOIL PROPAGATION

WATERING

vegetative growth. Frequent light watering is better than heavy watering at long intervals. Sweet potatoes need constant moisture throughout their growing season for best production. PRUNING FERTILIZATION 11) You should not prune your sweet potato plants. If you do, there will be a lesser yield of tubers. 12) Under high soil fertility or normal soil conditions, none or little fertilization is needed. But under low soil fertility you need to fertilize your sweet potato plants. 13) Sweet potato weevil is the number one pest of sweet potatoes. You can control it by spraying with Lebaycid. Tortoise shell beetle can be stopped by using Malathion E-57 or Hytox. Diazinon 20EC or Basudin 40WP is sprayed to combat cutworms. 14) Sclerotium blight is a disease which causes infected plants to wrinkle and wilt. A well-planned crop rotation checks the disease. Black rot may also be controlled by crop rotation. 15) Early maturing varieties mature in 70 to 90 days from planting while late maturing varieties require 120 days or more. Sweet potatoes may be harvested by shallow plowing if the area is large or with a shovel or “guna” if the area is small.

INSECT CONTROL

DISEASE CONTROL HARVESTING

HOW TO TAN RABBIT SKINS INTRODUCTION 1) Aside from their meat, rabbits are also valued for their skin. There is a ready market for the skins that are produced from the rabbitry. Rabbit skins are used extensively in the making of furs and garments, as well as in the pelting industry. Some of the high-quality men's hats are made largely from rabbit fur. The additional income from pelt will help cover the cost of raising rabbits, so it pays to remove the skin properly when dressing the rabbits. 2) Do not feed the rabbits the day before butchering them, because much of the skins are wasted during the cutting process. In order to skin a rabbit properly, you should first suspend the rabbits by its hind legs securely facing you. Hold the head firmly with your left hand and a sharp knife in your right hand. Pull down the rabbit with a jerk to break its neck with your left hand and cut just behind the head to drain the blood. When the blood is drained, continue the cutting across the back of the head down to the tip of the jaw including all of the thick fur covering the neck and jaw. Then, make a slit down the back of both hocks. At this point, loosen the flesh at the sides of the hocks with your fingers preparatory to skinning the carcass. Cut the tail at its base and also the two front legs above the joints at least half an inch high. With two hands, pull the skin down the carcass until the skin is pulled off whole like a sock. Immediately afterwards, soak the skin, tail, and feet in a soap solution. Meanwhile, make a slit on the rabbit's flesh from the rectum, down to the breast, taking care not to puncture the intestines. Remove the entrails. Wash the meat and hang it to air. The last step is to wash the skin thoroughly with soap and again in clear water to remove all the blood and dirt. Gently squeeze the skin between your hands. Never twist or wring the skin. Drain to remove the water. CURING THE SKIN 3) First, soak the skins in highly concentrated salt solution for one night. The following day, squeeze the water from the skin but again do not twist. Salt thoroughly the flesh side of the skins (1 k salt/pelt). From time to time examine the skins to see if any portion is not covered with the salt. Rub more salt on any uncovered portion. Poor salting will result in the later dropping off the fur. 4) Before de-fleshing the skin, prepare the tanning solution as follows: a. Dissolve 500 grams of alum in one gallon of hot water in a pail. b. Dissolve 250 grams of salt and 125 grams of soda in another pail. c. One cup formalin When these solutions are already dissolved, pour the salt-soda solution into the alum solution slowly at the same time stirring with a wooden paddle. DE-FLESHING THE SKINS 5) While waiting for the mixed solutions to cool off, de-flesh the skins to be tanned. De-fleshing is one of the hardest parts of tanning. It is done by

SLAUGHTERING

ACTUAL TANNING

starting from the back portion of the skin and working circularly. When all the skins are de-fleshed, immerse them in the tanning solutions for three to thirty days. Stir the skins three times a day since the chemicals separate and settle to the bottom of the pail. (De-fleshing is accomplished by scraping the skin with a small drawing knife.) WASHING THE SKINS 6) After immersing the skins in tanning solutions, wash them in soft water. Start with water that had been mixed with borax (one spoonful to a gallon) to remove the tanning chemicals, then wash several more times in plain clear water. Press and squeeze out the water but do not twist or wring the skins. 7) Stretch the skins on a piece of No. 9 galvanized iron wire 1.5 meters long bent like an inverted V shape and covered with plastic tubes to prevent the frames from rusting. The fur sides should be down and the flesh out. When this is done, apply mineral oil or castor oil thinly and evenly on the skins. Hang the skins in a shaded place not under the direct sunlight to dry. 8) When the skins are about 95 per cent dried, commence working or kneading them. Buffing or stretching the skins until they are as soft as linen handkerchief may take hours. This is also one of the most critical part of tanning process. Negligence can never be repaired. The more you buff the skins, the better. When the skins are well dried and soft and are ready for use, powder them with talcum.

STRETCHING AND OILING

BUFFING

HOW TO RAISE TILAPIA IMPORTANCE 1) There are many good things about the tilapia which make raising it profitable. You can secure fries or fingerlings from a variety of sources including the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center. All that you need is initiative, industry, and patience and in four months tilapia are ready for your table. 2) Select a site where water is accessible throughout the year. It should be well exposed to sunlight, which hastens the growth and multiplication of small aquatic plants called algae ("lumot"), which serve as food for the tilapia. More important, it should not be flooded during rainy season. 3) The size of the pond should be determined by the number of fish you want to raise. A good guide is 2 to 3 mature fish per square meter of water surface. The depth of the pond should be 1 meter with water not less than three-fourths meter deep. Manage the water so that it will not flow continuously through the pond. To insure that no fish will escape, fine-meshed bamboo or fence should screen ponds that have waterways connecting them to canals or outside water. Both the inside and outside end of each waterway should be screened. Use big bamboos for inlets and outlets for small ponds. FERTILIZING THE POND 4) Since the pond is newly-constructed, you have to apply fertilizer. Do this one week before stocking. Apply chicken manure on the pond bottom with water depth of about 6 centimeters at the rate of one kilo for every 10 square meters. Fertilize the pond once a month to insure good production of algae. You can either use commercial fertilizer or organic matter like manure, compost, ipilipil leaves, etc. If you do not have organic matter, apply every month onehalf kilo of urea and one-half kilo of 15-15-15 for every 100 square meters of water surface. SECURING FISH FINGERLINGS 5) Obtain your first supply of young tilapia from any reliable fishpond owner. One source of tilapia fingerlings is the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center. If fingerlings are unavailable, you need about 20-30 pairs of good breeders to start reproducing in your tilapia pond of 10 x 20 feet. If fingerlings are available, you will need to plan on about 5 to 6 fingerlings per square meter of water surface area. The most common breeds of talipia available are: Nilotica, Mozambique, and GIF (genetically modified). STOCKING THE POND 6) Before stocking the pond with tilapia, be sure to drain it thoroughly and remove the weeds and unwanted fish that may be present. Allow your pond to dry up until it cracks before refilling with fresh, clean water. Fertilize the pond one week before stocking.

SELECTING POND SITE

PREPARING THE POND

Stock the pond either early in the morning or late in the afternoon when the water temperature is low in order to avoid weakening of the fish. Allow the water in the pond to mix gradually with the water in the fish container before putting the fish into the pond. FEEDING YOUR TILAPIA 7) Since fish ponds do not always provide enough natural food (algae), you may want to feed your fish with supplementary fees such as rice bran, copra meal, etc. During the first month, give fingerlings supplementary feed twice a day at the rate of two to three percent of their body weight. Grow kangkong along the border of the pond, but the kangkong (Ipomea aquatica ) should occupy not more than 5% of the water surface to enable the fish to get sufficient oxygen. Aside from giving you a fresh leafy vegetable, kangkong will also provide food for the fish. CONTROLLING TILAPIA ENEMIES 8) Man, nature, and other kinds of fish are enemies of tilapia. Keep your pond off-limits to children and other people for they might throw in poisonous chemicals which are disastrous to tilapia. Nature does its damage by means of heavy rain. Heavy rain causes flooding which will wash away the fish and algae. It also kills fingerlings and destroys dikes. Repair immediately any destroyed dikes. If your home lot is easily flooded, place stones around the top of dikes to prevent the escape of fish if the water overflows. Find ways to keep the mudfish (“haluan”) out of your tilapia pond. The mudfish is a ferocious predator of tilapia fingerlings and ever larger fish. HARVESTING 9) You can harvest tilapia by using a dip net or a lift net. Lower the net down to the bottom of the pond and spread a small amount of feed on the water just above the net. Lift the net as fast as possible to prevent the escape of the tilapia. After harvesting, stock the pond again. 10) Research at the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center shows that you can make your fishpond more productive and profitable by raising a pig at the site of the pond. Waste of the pig goes directly to the pond and helps to fertilize the tiny plants (algae or “lumot”) that serve as the tilapia's main food. Tests prove that tilapia cultured in this kind of pond can be eaten without any harmful effect. Many farmers in Mindanao have already adopted this technology in their own fishponds. USES OF TILAPIA 11) Tilapia is a good quality food and has a firm and delicious flesh. Unlike bangus, it has few fine bones. Tilapia is suitable also for processing into dried, salted-dried, smoked or pickled products. Tilapia is a good insect and worm predator and is known to help clean many injurious insects from ponds. To a certain extent, tilapia can help in keeping down the number of mosquito larvae, thus preventing them from developing into troublesome and harmful mosquitoes.

PIG AND TILAPIA

HOW TO GROW TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM) IMPORTANCE 1) Commonly known among Filipinos as ”kamatis”, tomato is one of the most common ingredients of Filipino dishes. It is served raw or cooked and can be processed into tomato sauce, ketchup, or seasonings. 2) Tomato grows best in areas with mild seasons and without too much heat or rainfall. 3) You can grow tomato anywhere, but for best results you should plant it in a fertile, well-drained and easily crumbled soil (sandy to clay loam). 4) There are several varieties of tomato grown in the country. Here at Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center, we find the VC 11 performs more satisfactorily. It has proven to be resistant to many types of diseases. 5) Tomatoes are propagated by seeds. Sow seeds in a seed box or seedbed just before the end of the rainy season. A seed box (45 x 30 x 7.5 centimeters in dimension) is very convenient for starting seedlings. Seeds bought from reliable seed sources like the Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center are usually treated with fungicides and insecticides prior to storage. However, if no treatment was done, you need to treat your seeds with Captan (Orthocide) at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 3 kilograms of seeds. 7) The seedbed or seed box should be watered moderately once or twice a day so as to provide sufficient moisture to cause seeds to sprout after 3 to 7 days from the date of sowing. Harden the seedlings before you transplant them in order for the seedlings to withstand the shock of transplanting. You can do this by reducing gradually the frequency of watering and by exposing your seedlings in the sun. They should be allowed to suffer from temporary wilting before watering. A "hardened" seedling will stand the rigors of transplanting much better than a non-hardened one. A starter solution (made by dissolving 40 grams or 4 tablespoons of 16-20-0 analysis of fertilizer to one big kerosene can of water) can be applied 5 to 7 days before transplanting the seedlings to the field or garden. LAND PREPARATION TRANSPLANTING 8) The field should be thoroughly prepared by two to three plowings to a depth of 20 to 30 centimeters with alternate harrowing. 9) When the seedlings are 3 to 4 weeks old, they are ready for transplanting. You should plant the seedlings on raised beds (50 centimeters high) during rainy season. Raise the beds ahead of time--before the start of rainy season. Plant the seedlings 75 centimeters between rows and 30 centimeters between hills. 10) In the absence of soil analysis, apply one tablespoon of complete fertilizer per plant at the transplanting stage. At planting time apply 120-192

CLIMATIC RANGE SOILS VARIETIES

PROPAGATION

SEED 6) TREATMENT

CARE OF THE SEEDLINGS

FERTILIZATION

kilograms of phosphorus, 30-48 kilograms of nitrogen, and 30-48 kilograms of potassium per hectare. The fertilizer should be placed about 6 centimeters deeper than the seedlings' root crowns and to the sides of the seed-lings. One month after transplanting apply the following as side dressing: 30-48 kilograms of potassium and 30-48 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare. WATERING 11) Soon after transplanting, saturate the soil in order to provide the plants with a favorable condition for their rapid recovery. Thereafter, watering should be done as often as necessary. 12) A good weed control program starts with good land preparation. If your land is well-prepared before transplanting, weeds will not be much of a problem. Although the application of herbicides has been found to effectively control weeds, hand weeding and shallow cultivation are still the most popular methods of controlling weeds in tomato fields. 13) During the rainy season staking is usually done to keep the plant and its fruit above the ground. There are several ways of doing this. You may use sliced bamboo sticks or nylon ropes. Madre de cacao and/or ipil-ipil are also good materials for staking. 14) In preparing the field for mulching, beds are raised a little bit by deep furrowing and planting is done on the ridges. Mulching materials like rice hulls or straw are spread out either before or after transplanting. 15) Tomato fruit worm, spotted lady beetle, melon or cotton aphid, and spider mite are the common insects that attack tomatoes. You can control these insects by spraying with insecticides like Sumithion 25 EC, Basudin 40 WP, or Sevin 85S. 16) The common diseases of tomato are bacterial wilt, leaf mold, powdery mildew, bacterial spot, and tomato mosaic virus. They can be controlled by planting resistant varieties, by practicing crop rotation, and by spraying with fungicides. 17) The time of harvesting is dependent on the purpose for which you grow tomatoes. You can harvest them either mature-green, pink or breaker, or red ripe. Fruit intended for distant markets should be harvested mature green. For nearby markets the fruit are usually harvested either in their breaker stage or ripe stage.

CONTROLLING WEEDS

STAKING

MULCHING

INSECT CONTROL

DISEASE CONTROL

HARVESTING

HOW TO GROW VEGETABLE TRANSPLANTS INTRODUCTION 1) Some vegetables may be seeded directly in the field. Others are grown first in a seed box nursery and then transplanted. Vegetable crops that should be started in seed box or nursery include lettuce, broccoli, mustard, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato, and radish. 2) There are advantages in growing your own transplants. Two advantages are that they are immediately available when you need them and they are often less expensive to grow than to buy. Also, extra seedlings can be sold to neighbors. But most important of all, you avoid the danger of bringing diseases to your farm or garden. 3) Before sowing the seeds, you need to treat the seeds with pesticides if you think they are not yet treated. Sevin powder, an insecticide, is generally used at the rate of one teaspoonful for every three kilograms of seed. To keep fungus in check, Captan powder is recommended using the same dosage as Sevin. 4) Transplants can be produced in a seedbed or seed box. The method to be used will depend on the grower and the available facilities. The Seedbed Method - The seedbed method of growing transplants utilizes a selected outdoor area, which is fully exposed to sunlight. Since the seedlings are grown under full sunlight, hardening is not necessary before transplanting. The Seed box Method - Vegetable transplants can also be grown in seed boxes containing a sterilized soil mix-ture. (Soil is sterilized either by pouring boiling water on the surface of the soil or by burning banana leaves on the soil.) Before sowing the seeds, fill the seed box to the edge with the soil and level it but do not pack because, after watering the seed box, the soil will settle down. SOWING THE SEEDS 5) In the seed box method, sow the seeds thinly in shallow furrows. Do not broadcast the seeds. To have more or less uniform distribution of seeds in the furrow, place the seeds in a paper packet and tap gently so that the seeds will drop evenly. Cover them with fine sand and gently press the soil. Soon after sowing, water the seed box with a fine sprinkler. In the seedbed method, make rows five to seven centimeters apart. In each row, place two to three seeds at a distance of five centimeters between hills. (To hasten germination, some growers cover the seedbed with a plastic sheet or rice straw which keeps the seed bed moist and warm.) WATERING 6) The seedbed or seed box should be watered carefully every morning, taking care not to pack the soil or wash away the top layer. Use a sprinkling can in watering the transplants. 7) When seedling growth is poor, fertilize them with a highly soluble fertilizer dissolved in water. The most common practice is to use ammonium sulfate

ADVANTAGES

SEED TREATMENT

PRODUCING TRANSPLANTS

FERTILIZATION

at the rate of one tablespoon for every gallon of water. PEST PROTECTION 8) The most common disease which attacks seedlings in seed boxes/seed beds is damping-off. It is difficult to control but can be minimized by using sterilized soil medium, treating the seeds with pesticides before sowing, sowing thinly, and watering the seedlings at the right time. 9) To harden seedlings, you should place them in the open then gradually withhold water from them. You should not withhold water suddenly as this may injure the plants. Hardening seedlings grown under shelters or in seed boxes is simply done by bringing them under the sun. 10) The age and size of the seedlings when transplanted considerably affects their recovery and subsequent growth. In general, the smaller the seedlings, the easier they are to transplant. Pechay, lettuce and mustard are ready for transplanting 2 to 3 weeks after sowing. Tomato, sweet pepper, cauliflower, broccoli, bulb onion, cabbage and eggplant should be transplanted 4 to 5 weeks after sowing.

HARDENING

TRANSPLANTING

HOW TO UPLIFT YOUR SMALL LOWLAND FARM INTRODUCTION 1) UPLIFT (or Using Properly Lowland Integrated Farming Technology) is a simple but effective way of increasing the productivity of small irrigated lowland farms. It integrates rice production with vegetable, tree, aquatic animal, poultry and livestock production by recycling and utilizing organic resources. This technology consists of ten basic steps which are discussed below: 2) The A-frame is a simple tool for determining contour lines. To make an A-frame, three sturdy wooden poles, an ordinary carpenter’s level, and string (for tying) or nails are needed. Cut two pieces of wood two meters long to serve as the legs of the A-frame. Cut the third piece one meter long to serve as the crossbar of the frame. The A-frame is used in locating the contour lines of the farm. 3) Start on one side of your farm. Let the A-frame stand on the ground. Without moving the rear leg, lift the front leg. Then put the front leg down on the ground so that the air space in the carpenter's level stops in the middle. When this happens, it means you have found the contour line, which is the level line between the two legs of the A-frame. Mark with a stick the spot where the rear leg stands. Move the A-frame forward by placing the rear leg on the spot where the front leg stood before. Adjust the front leg again until it levels with the rear leg. Follow this procedure until you reach the entire length of the contour line, which is the other end of your farm. 4) Build big dikes following the contour lines. The ideal dike is one meter wide and one-half meter high; its length, however, depends on the size and shape of your farm. Big dikes will allow you to grow different crops, thereby avoiding dependence on rice crops only. 5) Divide your farm into four parts. Use one-fourth of the land for your home, tilapia fishpond, FAITH vegetable garden, animal-raising projects (swine fattening, goats, rabbits, and ducks). Locate these at the highest portion of your land, providing adequate land space reuirements.

#1: CONSTRUCTING AN A-FRAME

FINDING CONTOUR LINES

#2: CONSTRUCTING DIKES #3: USING ONE-FOURTH FOR HOME, GARDEN AND LIVESTOCK

#4: USING 6) Use three-fourths of the land for lowland rice. Stagger your rice THREE-FOURTHS production by dividing the rice area into three equal parts. The newly FOR RICE PROharvested rice area will serve as a “pasture” for your ducks. Be sure the DUCTION ducks do not visit one section of the rice area more than the other sections. #5: PLANTING THE DIKES 7) Plant the middle dikes to calamansi, coffee, black pepper, guava and non-permanent fruit trees like papaya. You can plant the boundary dikes to multipurpose tree species (MPTS), which could be used for firewood, charcoal, and light construction. 8) Fence the farm by planting closely on single row any or all of the following nitrogen fixing tree species (NFTS): ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala ), madre de cacao or kakawate (Gliricidia sepium ), katuray (Sesbania grandiflora ), and other sesbanias. Prune them regularly and use the leaves as the

#6: FENCING THE FARM

protein sources of your animals like goats and swine. You can also utilize the leaves as fertilizer for your basket compost in your garden plots. #7: MANAGING THE FARM 9) Manage the water in such a way that it passes through the animal projects first, then to the fishponds, then to the garden plots, and finally to the rice field. In this way, the water becomes fertile by the time it reaches the rice farm, thus reducing the need for expensive commercial fertilizer. 10) Feed the leaves of NFTS like ipil-ipil, madre de cacao, flemingia, or rensonii and grasses to your goats and swine. The leftovers should be given to your Golden Apple snails. You may use snails in your feed rations for ducks and pigs. 11) Set aside one-half of your rice harvest for home consumption and sell the surplus. You may do this also with your fish, eggs, milk, chevon, and pork. 12) Plan your farm operations in such a manner that you will always have adequate food, fuelwood, feeds, fertilizer, fertile soil and some cash.

#8: MANAGING ANIMAL FEED

#9: MARKETING SURPLUS #10: PLANNING YOUR FARM OPERATION CONCLUSION

13) Uplift yourself and your farm now! We have proven that this farming system is simple, applicable, low-cost and timely.

HOW TO GROW WINGED BEANS (PSOPHOCARPUS TETRAGONOLOBUS) INTRODUCTION 1) In the Philippines, winged bean is known by several local names: sigadilyas, kalamismis, cigarillas (Tagalog); pallang, palag, palam (Ilokano); parupagulong (Bikolano); amale (Ibanag); buligan (Ifugao); beyed, buligan (Bontoc); sererella, segadilla, kamaluson, karabansos (Bisaya); and batung-baimbing (Sulu). 2) Winged bean has many useful characteristics compared to other legumes. Consider the following: - Almost all of its parts are edible. You can eat its pods as well as its leaves, flowers, shoots, and even its tuberous roots. - It is a highly nutritious plant. Its roots and seeds have about 20 to 34 percent crude protein. Its other parts have plenty of vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (calcium, iron, phosphorous). - You can grow it even in a very poor soil. As a matter of fact, it can help make your soil rich. Roots of winged bean have plenty of tiny roots which have the ability of getting nitrogen from the air and changing it into fertilizer. WINGED BEAN VARIETIES 3) There are many known varieties of winged bean. Based on the length of pods, there are short, medium, and giant varieties. Short varieties are from 2-4 inches long; medium varieties are from 5-6 inches; and giant varieties are 9 inches long or more. Winged beans are also classified according to the color of the seeds: white, brown, light purple, and dark purple. As to the color of its flowers, winged bean is classified into white, light purple, and dark purple. PROPAGATION 4) Like all beans, winged bean is propagated by seeds. Harvest your materials for seeds from strong, healthy and ripened fruits. Pick out only firm, full and glossy seeds. Then dry them for one to two days and mix with Sevin powder before planting or storing. Be sure to select and plant only the variety that grows well in your own area. 5) To ensure good stand of winged bean, plow and harrow your soil thoroughly until it loosens and pulverizes well. Properly prepared soil allows plant roots to get more nutrients. In addition, it helps control weeds which compete with winged bean for air, sunlight, and nutrients. 6) Plant two to five seeds per hill at a distance of one meter between hills and one meter between rows. The seeds should be planted at a depth of 5.08 to 6.35 centimeters (2 to 2.5 inches). Cover them with fine, loose and easily crumbled soil. 7) Being a climbing plant, winged bean grows and produces well on poles or trellis. Build your trellis one to two weeks after planting. A good height of the trellis or pole is about 1.5 meters (4 to 5 feet) high.

USEFUL CHARACTERISTICS

LAND PREPARATION

PLANTING

TRELLISING

WATERING WEEDING AND CULTIVATION PEST MANAGEMENT

8) Winged bean requires no special care except supplying water during drought. Water the plants twice a day: morning and afternoon. 9) If ever you observe there are weeds competing with your plants, control the growth of the weeds. You can control them by timely cultivation. Cultivation also helps your plants absorb water and improves soil aeration. 10) Although winged bean seems to be not so affected by insect pests, it is wise to protect the plants by spraying with either Lannate, Malathion or Thiodan. For fungus diseases, spray the plants with Benlate. Winged bean is seldom attacked by fungus. 11) You can start harvesting your winged bean pods about two and a half months after sowing. The pods have four longitudinal "wings" and they contain up to 20 seeds, each weighing about three grams. The fresh young pods may be used in soup, pickles, salads, etc. The young leaves and shoots of the winged bean can also be harvested and eaten as leafy vegetables as well as pickles. The ripe seeds can be roasted and eaten like peanuts. Seeds may also be eaten raw. They can be ground and used as substitute for coffee beans. You can harvest about 2,000 kilograms of seeds per hectare. Winged beans have numerous roots. The roots grow horizontally at shallow depth and become thick and tuberous like sweet potato or camote. The roots contain about 20 percent crude protein. The old vines and leaves may also be harvested and can be utilized as feed for farm animals like goats, swine, cows, and carabao.

HARVESTING

CONCLUSION

12) The winged bean is a perennial plant. It will grow and continue to bear abundant fruits for several years if you add a handful of fertilizer per hill every two to three months.

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