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Rheology (pronounced /riˈɒlədʒi/) is the study of the flow of matter: mainly liquids but also soft solids or solids under conditions in which they flow rather than deform elastically. It applies to substances which have a complex structure, including muds, sludges, suspensions, polymers, many foods, bodily fluids, and other biological materials. The flow of these substances cannot be characterized by a single value of viscosity (at a fixed temperature) - instead the viscosity changes due to other factors. For example ketchup can have its viscosity reduced by shaking, but water cannot. Since Isaac Newton originated the concept of viscosity, the study of variable viscosity liquids is also often called Non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The term rheology was coined by Eugene C. Bingham, a professor at Lafayette College, in 1920, from a suggestion by a colleague, Markus Reiner. The term was inspired by the quotation mistakenly attributed to Heraclitus, (actually coming from the writings of Simplicius) panta rei, "everything flows". The experimental characterisation of a material's rheological behavior is known as rheometry, although the term rheology is frequently used synonymously with rheometry, particularly by experimentalists. Theoretical aspects of rheology are the relation of the flow/deformation behavior of material and its internal structure (e.g., the orientation and elongation of polymer molecules), and the flow/deformation behavior of materials that cannot be described by classical fluid mechanics or elasticity.
In practice, rheology is principally concerned with extending the "classical" disciplines of elasticity and (Newtonian) fluid mechanics to materials whose mechanical behavior cannot be described with the classical theories. It is also concerned with establishing predictions for mechanical behavior (on the continuum mechanical scale) based on the micro- or nanostructure of the material, e.g. the molecular size and architecture of polymers in solution or the particle size distribution in a solid suspension. Materials flow when subjected to a stress, that is a force per area. There are different sorts of stress and materials can respond in various ways, so much of theoretical rheology is concerned with forces and stresses. Rheology unites the seemingly unrelated fields of plasticity and non-Newtonian fluids by recognizing that both these types of materials are unable to support a shear stress in static equilibrium. In this sense, a plastic solid is a fluid. Granular rheology refers to the continuum mechanical description of granular materials. One of the tasks of rheology is to empirically establish the relationships between deformations and stresses, respectively their derivatives by adequate measurements. These experimental techniques are known as rheometry and are concerned with the determination with well-defined rheological material functions. Such relationships are then amenable to mathematical treatment by the established methods of continuum mechanics.
The characterisation of flow or deformation originating from a simple shear stress field is called shear rheometry (or shear rheology). The study of extensional flows is called extensional rheology. Shear flows are much easier to study and thus much more experimental data are available for shear flows than for extensional flows.
A rheologist is an interdisciplinary scientist who studies the flow of complex liquids or the deformation of soft solids. It is not taken as a primary degree subject, and there is no general qualification. He or she will usually have a primary qualification in one of several fields: mathematics, the physical sciences, engineering, medicine, or certain technologies, notably materials or food. A small amount of rheology may be given during the first degree, but the professional will extend this knowledge during postgraduate research or by attending short courses and by joining one of the professional associations
Rheology has applications in engineering, geophysics, physiology and pharmaceutics. In engineering, it affects the production and use of polymeric materials, but plasticity theory has been similarly important for the design of metal forming processes. Many industrially important substances such as concrete, paint and chocolate have complex flow characteristics. Geophysics includes the flow of lava, but in addition measures the flow of solid Earth materials over long time scales: those that display viscous behavior, e.g. granite , are known as rheids. In physiology, many bodily fluids are have complex compositions and thus flow characteristics. In particular there is a specialist study of blood flow called hemorheology. The term biorheology is used for the wider field of study of the flow properties of biological fluids.
Elasticity, viscosity, solid- and liquid-like behavior, plasticity
One generally associates liquids with viscous behavior (a thick oil is a viscous liquid) and solids with elastic behavior (an elastic string is an elastic solid). A more general point of view is to consider the material behavior at short times (relative to the duration of the experiment/application of interest) and at long times. Liquid and solid character are relevant at long times We consider the application of a constant stress (a so-called creep experiment):
if the material, after some deformation, eventually resists further deformation, it is considered a solid if, by contrast, the material flows indefinitely, it is considered a liquid
By contrast, elastic and viscous (or intermediate, viscoelastic) behavior is relevant at short times (transient behavior) We again consider the application of a constant stress:
• • •
if the material deformation strain increases linearly with increasing applied stress , then the material is purely elastic if the material deformation rate increases linearly with increasing applied stress, then the material is purely viscous if neither the deformation strain, nor its derivative with time (rate) follows the applied stress, then the material is viscoelastic
Plasticity is equivalent to the existence of a yield stress A material that behaves as a solid under low applied stresses may start to flow above a certain level of stress, called the yield stress of the material. The term plastic solid is often used when this plasticity threshold is rather high, while yield stress fluid is used when the threshold stress is rather low. There is no fundamental difference, however, between both concepts.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search A Newtonian fluid (named for Isaac Newton) is a fluid whose stress versus rate of strain curve is linear and passes through the origin. The constant of proportionality is known as the viscosity.
A simple equation to describe Newtonian fluid behaviour is where
τ is the shear stress exerted by the fluid ("drag") [Pa] μ is the fluid viscosity - a constant of proportionality [Pa·s]
is the velocity gradient perpendicular to the direction of shear [s−1] In common terms, this means the fluid continues to flow, regardless of the forces acting on it. For example, water is Newtonian, because it continues to exemplify fluid properties no matter how fast it is stirred or mixed. Contrast this with a non-Newtonian fluid, in which stirring can leave a "hole" behind (that gradually fills up over time - this behaviour is seen in materials such as pudding, starch in water (oobleck), or, to a less rigorous
extent, sand), or cause the fluid to become thinner, the drop in viscosity causing it to flow more (this is seen in non-drip paints, which brush on easily but become more viscous when on walls). For a Newtonian fluid, the viscosity, by definition, depends only on temperature and pressure (and also the chemical composition of the fluid if the fluid is not a pure substance), not on the forces acting upon it. If the fluid is incompressible and viscosity is constant across the fluid, the equation governing the shear stress, in the Cartesian coordinate system, is with comoving stress tensor (also written as ) where, by the convention of tensor notation,
τij is the shear stress on the ith face of a fluid element in the jth direction ui is the velocity in the ith direction xj is the jth direction coordinate
If a fluid does not obey this relation, it is termed a non-Newtonian fluid, of which there are several types, including polymer solutions, molten polymers, many solid suspensions and most highly viscous fluids.
A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid whose flow properties are not described by a single constant value of viscosity. Many polymer solutions and molten polymers are nonNewtonian fluids, as are many commonly found substances such as ketchup, starch suspensions, paint, blood and shampoo. In a Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the strain rate is linear (and if one were to plot this relationship, it would pass through the origin), the constant of proportionality being the coefficient of viscosity. In a non-Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the strain rate is nonlinear, and can even be time-dependent. Therefore a constant coefficient of viscosity cannot be defined. A ratio between shear stress and rate of strain (or shear-dependent viscosity) can be defined, this concept being more useful for fluids without timedependent behavior. Although the concept of viscosity is commonly used to characterize a material, it can be inadequate to describe the mechanical behavior of a substance, particularly nonNewtonian fluids. They are best studied through several other rheological properties which relate the relations between the stress and strain rate tensors under many different flow conditions, such as oscillatory shear, or extensional flow which are measured using different devices or rheometers. The properties are better studied using tensor-valued constitutive equations, which are common in the field of continuum mechanics.
An inexpensive, non-toxic example of a non-Newtonian fluid is a suspension of starch (e.g. cornflour) in water, sometimes called oobleck (uncooked imitation custard, being a suspension of primarily cornflour, has the same properties). The sudden application of force — for example by stabbing the surface with a finger, or rapidly inverting the container holding it — leads to the fluid behaving like a solid rather than a liquid. This is the "shear thickening" property of this non-Newtonian fluid. More gentle treatment, such as slowly inserting a spoon, will leave it in its liquid state. Trying to jerk the spoon back out again, however, will trigger the return of the temporary solid state. A person moving quickly and applying sufficient force with their feet can literally walk across such a liquid. Shear thickening fluids of this sort are being researched for bullet resistant body armor, useful for their ability to absorb the energy of a high velocity projectile impact but remain soft and flexible while worn. Some shear thickening fluids are also used in all wheel drive systems utilising a viscous coupling unit for power transmission. A familiar example of the opposite, a shear thinning fluid, or pseudoplastic fluid, is paint: one wants the paint to flow readily off the brush when it is being applied to the surface being painted, but not to drip excessively. There are fluids which have a linear shear stress/shear strain relationship which require a finite yield stress before they begin to flow. That is the shear stress, shear strain curve doesn't pass through the origin. These fluids are called Bingham plastics. Several examples are clay suspensions, drilling mud, toothpaste, mayonnaise, chocolate, and mustard. The classic case is ketchup which will not come out of the bottle until you stress it by shaking. There are also fluids whose strain rate is a function of time. Fluids that require a gradually increasing shear stress to maintain a constant strain rate are referred to as rheopectic. An opposite case of this, is a fluid that thins out with time and requires a decreasing stress to maintain a constant strain rate (thixotropic).
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