Soap and Detergent

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CONTENTS
• • • • • • meaning of soap soap preparation process meaning of detergent detergent preparation process cleansing action of soap and detergent compare and contrast the effectiveness of the cleansing action of soap and detergent • additives in detergent and their respective functions
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MEANING OF SOAP
• General formula: RCOOˉNa
+

or

RCOO ˉK

+

• Example: Sodium palmitate, CH3(CH2)14COO-K+ Potassium stearate, CH3(CH2)16COO-K+
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SOAP PREPARATION PROCESS
• Soaps are prepared by the alkaline hydrolysis of fats and oils. This process is known as saponification.

Oil or fat

Alkali

Glycerol

Soaps

A by-product of this reaction is glycerol which is useful as in foods, as an antifreeze, as a tobacco-moistening agent, and in the manufacture of nitroglycerine and dynamite.
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aponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of ester using alkali solutions

Example:

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MEANING OF DETERGENT

R – OSO3alkyl sulphate ion

alkylbenzene sulphonate ion
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DETERGENT PREPARATION PROCESS
Preparation of sodium alkyl sulphate: • Step 1: Reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid

Step 2: Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution.

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Preparation of sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate • Step 1 : Alkylation

Step 2 : Sulphonation

Step 3 : Neutralisation

hsleonhs@hotmail.com lkylation is the introduction of the alkyl group to an organic molecule ulphonation is the introduction of the sulphonic acid group, -SO3H to an organic molecule to form sulphonic acid

CLEANSING ACTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT
• • • • A piece of cloth with a greasy stain on it, is dipped in a soap or detergent solution. Soap or detergent reduces the surface tension of water. This increases the wetting ability of water. Therefore, the surface of the cloth is wetted thoroughly. The hydrophobic part of the soap or detergent anion dissolves in the grease. The hydrophilic part is attracted to the water molecules. Mechanical agitation during scrubing helps pull the grease free and also break the grease into small droplets. The droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the cloth due to the repulsion between the negative charges on their surface. These droplets are suspended in water forming an emulsion. Rinsing washes away these droplets and leaves the surface clean.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CLEANSING ACTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT
Characteristic Cleansing ability Rinsing ability Soap Weaker Detergent Stronger

difficult to rinse completely. Rinses easily and completely out of Soap that is left behind damages clothes and other objects. the material It can only be determined by the It can be modified to suit the job of structure of the fatty acid used to cleaning. For example, the formula of produce soap a detergent can be specially made to be able to clean dishes and other utensils only Alkaline Forms scum in hard water Can be controlled to suit the type of detergent required Does not form scum or any other kinds of suspension in hard water

Molecular structure

pH Suspension

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ADDITIVES USED IN DETERGENT AND THEIR RESPECTIVE FUNCTIONS
Additives Function Biological enzymes Break down fat and protein molecules in food stains to (amylase, lipase, protease)produce fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids that are soluble in water, thus increase the cleansing power of a detergent Whitening agents (sodium Remove stains, clothes become white and cleaner perborate) Builders (sodium tripolyphosphate) Brighteners Soften hard water by removing calcium ions, Ca2+ and magnesium ions, Mg2+, increase the pH value of water Make fabrics appear white and brighter

Drying agents (sodium Ensure that the detergent in powdered form is always in a dry sulphate, sodium silicate) condition Stabilisers Perfumes Prevent the formation of foam Make clothes smell fresh and clean
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