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The Seven Tablets of Creation

by Leonard William King


Luzac's Semitic text and translation series. vol. xii-xiii

Luzac and Co. London !"#$%


Scanned at sacred-texts.com& 'ecember& $##$. (.). *are& +edactor. This text is in the ,ublic domain. This file may be used for any non-commercial ,ur,ose& ,rovided that this attribution is left intact.

-reface
PERHAPS no section of Babylonian literature has been more generally studied than the legends which record the Creation of the world. On the publication of the late r. !eorge Smith"s wor#$ %&he Chaldean Account of !enesis$% which appeared some twenty'se(en years ago$ it was recogni)ed that there was in the Babylonian account of the Creation$ as it e*isted in the se(enth century before Christ$ much which in(ited comparison with the corresponding narrati(e in the Boo# of !enesis. +t is true that the Babylonian legends which had been reco(ered and were first published by him were (ery fragmentary$ and that the e*act number and order of the &ablets$ or sections$ of which they were composed were ,uite uncertainand that$ although they recorded the creation of the hea(ens and of the hea(enly bodies$ they contained no direct account of the creation of man. +n spite of this$ howe(er$ their resemblance to the Hebrew narrati(e was unmista#able$ and in conse,uence they at once appealed to a far larger circle of students than would otherwise ha(e been the case. After the appearance of r. Smith"s wor#$ other scholars produced translations of the fragments which.
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he had published$ and the names of Oppert$ Schrader$ and Sayce will always be associated with those who were the first to de(ote themsel(es to the interpretation of the Creation /egends. oreo(er$ new fragments of the legends ha(e from time to time been ac,uired by the &rustees of the British useum$ and of these the most important is the fine te*t of the 0ourth &ablet of the Creation Series$ containing the account of the fight between the god ardu# and the dragon &iamat$ which was published in 1223 by 4r. 5allis Budge$ and translated by Professor Sayce in the same year. Professor Sayce"s translation of the Creation /egends mar#ed a distinct ad(ance upon those of his predecessors$ and it was the most complete$ inasmuch as he was enabled to ma#e use of the new tablet which restored so much of the central portion of the story. +n the year 1267$ in his important wor# Die Kosmologie der Babylonier$ Professor 8ensen of arburg ga(e a translation of the legends together with a transliteration and commentary- in 1269 Professor :immern of /eip)ig translated all the fragments then #nown$ and a year later Professor 4elit)sch of Berlin also published a rendering. 0inally$ two years ago$ Professor 8ensen issued a new and re(ised translation of the Creation /egends in the opening pages of the first part of his wor# Mythen and Epen$ the second part of which$ containing his notes and commentary$ appeared some months ago.
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+n the course of the year 1677$ the writer was entrusted with the tas# of copying the te*ts of a number of Babylonian and Assyrian legends for publication in the series of Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, etc., in the British Museum$ and$ among the documents selected for issue$ were those relating to the Creation of the world. Se(eral of the te*ts of the Creation /egends$ which had been used by pre(ious translators$ had ne(er

been published$ and one tablet$ which r. !eorge Smith had consulted in 123;$ had not been identified by subse,uent wor#ers. 4uring my wor# + was so fortunate as to recogni)e this tablet$ and was enabled to ma#e copies of all the te*ts$ not only of those which were pre(iously #nown$ but also of a number of new duplicates and fragments which + had meanwhile identified. &hese copies appeared in Cuneiform Texts$ Part .+++ <1671=$ Plates 1'>1. &he most interesting of the new fragments there published was a tablet which restored a missing portion of the te*t of the Second &ablet of the Creation Series$ and of this$ on account of its interest$ + ga(e a translation in a note to the plate on which the te*t appeared. +t was not my intention at that time to publish anything further upon the sub?ect of the Creation /egends. 5hile + was engaged$ howe(er$ in searching for fragments of other Babylonian legends for publication officially$ it was my good fortune to come across a fine duplicate of the Second &ablet of the Creation.
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Series. A further prolonged search was rewarded by the finding of other fragments of the poem$ and a study of these showed me that the earlier portions of the te*t of the Creation Story$ as already #nown$ could be considerably augmented. Among them$ moreo(er$ was a fragment of the poem which refers to the Creation of an- this fragment is e*tremely important$ for in addition to its (aluable contents it also settles the disputed ,uestion as to the number of &ablets$ or sections$ of which the Creation Series was composed. +n (iew of the additional information as to the form and contents of the poem which this new material afforded$ it was clearly necessary that a new translation of the Creation /egends should be made$ and this + undertoo# forthwith. &he new fragments of the poem which + had identified up to the summer of last year are inscribed upon tablets of the Ceo'Babylonian period. At the conclusion of the e*amination of tablets of this class$ + lithographed the newly identified te*ts in a series of plates which are published in the second (olume of the present wor#. &hese plates were already printed off$ when$ at the beginning of the present year$ after my return from Assyria$ + identified a fresh group of fragments of the poem inscribed$ not upon Ceo' Babylonian$ but upon Assyrian tablets. At that time + was engaged on ma#ing a detailed catalogue$ or hand'list$ of the smaller fragments in the (arious collections of Assyrian tablets from
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Duyun?i#$ and$ as a result of pre(ious study of the legends themsel(es and of the Assyrian commentaries to the Se(enth &ablet of the series$ + was enabled to identify ten new fragments of the poem which are inscribed upon tablets from the library of Ashur'bani'pal at Cine(eh. +n order to a(oid upsetting the arrangement of the plates in @ol. ++$ the te*ts of the new Assyrian fragments are published by means of outline bloc#s in Appendices + and ++ to the present (olume. &hose who ha(e studied the published te*ts of the Creation Series will remember that the material used by pre(ious translators of the legends has consisted of some twenty'one tablets and fragments inscribed with portions of the poem. &he number of new tablets and fragments belonging to the Creation Series which are here used and translated for the first time
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reaches the total of thirty'four$ but$ as + ha(e ?oined up si* of these to other similar fragments$ this total has been reduced to twenty'eight. &hus$ in place of the twenty'one tablets pre(iously #nown$ forty'nine separate tablets and fragments ha(e now been identified as containing portions of the te*t of the Creation Series. &he new information$ furnished by the recently disco(ered material regarding the Story of Creation$ may here be briefly summari)ed. Hitherto our #nowledge of the contents of &ablets + and ++ of the series has been (ery fragmentary. After the
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narrati(e of the creation of the great gods in the opening lines of the poem$ and a fragmentary reference to the first symptoms of re(olt e*hibited by the prime(al monsters$ ApsE and &iamat$ and ummu$ the minister of ApsE$ there occurred a great gap in the te*t$ and the story began again with the account of how &iamat prepared to wage war against the gods. ApsE and ummu ha(e at this point entirely disappeared from the narrati(e$ and the ally of &iamat is the god Dingu$ whom she appoints to command her forces. 5hat followed the creation of the great gods$ what was the cause of the re(olt$ what was the fate of ApsE and ummu$ and what were the e(ents which led up to &iamat"s preparations for battle$ are ,uestions that ha(e hitherto remained unanswered. 5e now #now that the account of the creation of the gods was no fuller than that which has come down to us from 4amascius. After the birth of /a#hmu and /a#hamu$ Anshar and Dishar$ Anu$ BFl <i.e.$ Enlil$ or +llil=$ and Ea <Cudimmud=$ the te*t does not proceed to narrate in detail the coming forth of the lesser deities$ but plunges at once into the story of the re(olt of the prime(al forces of chaos. 5e now #now also that it was ApsE$ and not &iamat$ who began the re(olt against the gods- and that$ according to the poem$ his enmity was aroused$ not by the creation of light as has been pre(iously suggested$ but by the disturbance of his rest in conse,uence of the new %way% of the gods$ which tended to produce order in place of chaos.
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One of the most stri#ing facts which the new fragments furnish with regard to the contents of the legends is the prominent part played by the god Ea in the earlier episodes of the story. After ApsE and ummu had repaired to &iamat and had hatched with her their plot against the gods$ it was the god Ea$ who$ abounding in all wisdom$ detected their plan and frustrated it. &he details of Ea"s action are still a matter of uncertainty$ but$ as + ha(e shown in the +ntroduction$ it is clear that ApsE and ummu were o(erthrown$ and that their con,ueror was Ea. oreo(er$ it was only after their downfall$ and in order to a(enge them$ that &iamat began her preparations for battle. She was encouraged in her determination by the god Dingu$ and it was in conse,uence of the assistance he then ga(e her that she afterwards appointed him leader of her host. Another point which is e*plained by the new fragments concerns the repetitions in &ablets +$ ++$ and +++ of the lines containing the account of &iamat"s preparations for battle. &he lines describing this episode are gi(en no less than four timesG in &ablet +$ in &ablet ++$ and twice in &ablet +++. 5e now #now that the first description of &iamat"s preparations occurs after the account of her determination to a(enge her former allies- and in

the Second &ablet the lines are put into the mouth of Ea$ who continues to play a prominent part in the narrati(e$ and carries the tidings to Anshar. How Anshar repeated the lines
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to !aga$ his messenger$ and how !aga deli(ered the message to /a#hmu and /a#hamu$ is already well #nown. Perhaps the most stri#ing of all the new fragments of the poem here published is that which contains the opening and closing lines of the Si*th &ablet$ and$ at last$ furnishes us with a portion of the te*t describing the Creation of an. 5e now #now that$ as in the Hebrew narrati(e$ the culminating act of Creation was the ma#ing of man. ardu# is here represented as declaring to Ea that he will create man from his own blood$ and from bone which he will form- it is important to note that the Assyrian word here used for %bone$% issimtu$ which has not hitherto been #nown$ corresponds to the Hebrew word 'esem$ %bone$% which occurs in !en. ii$ H I$ in connection with the account of the creation of woman. &he te*t thus furnishes another point of resemblance between the Babylonian and the Hebrew stories of Creation. &he new fragment also corroborates in a remar#able degree the account gi(en by Berossus of the Babylonian (ersion of the creation of man. According to the writer"s rendering of the passage$ ardu# declares that he will use his own blood in creating man#ind$ and this agrees with the statement of Berossus$ that BFl directed one of the gods to cut off his <i.e. BFl"s= head$ and to form man#ind from his blood mi*ed with earth. &his sub?ect is discussed at length and in detail in the +ntroduction$ as well as a number of new points.
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of resemblance between the Babylonian and the Hebrew accounts of the Creation which are furnished by other recently identified fragments of the poem. 5ith regard to the e*tent and contents of the Creation Series$ we now #now that the &ablets of which the series was composed are se(en in number- and we also possess the missing conte*t or frame'wor# of the Se(enth &ablet$ which contains addresses to ardu# under his fifty titles of honour. 0rom this we learn that$ when the wor# of Creation was ended$ the gods gathered together once more in Jpshu##ina##u$ their council' chamber- here they seated themsel(es in solemn assembly and proceeded to do honour to ardu#$ the Creator$ by reciting before him the remar#able series of addresses which form the contents of the last &ablet of the poem. any of the missing portions of the Se(enth &ablet$ including the opening lines$ it has been found possible to restore from the new fragments and duplicates here published. +n the following pages a transliteration of the te*t of the Creation Series is gi(en$ which has been constructed from all the tablets and fragments now #nown to be inscribed with portions of the poem$ together with a translation and notes. 0or comparison with the legends contained in the Creation Series$ translations ha(e been added of the other Babylonian accounts of the history of Creation$ and of some te*ts closely connected therewith. Among
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these mention may be made of the e*tracts from a Sumerian te*t$ and from a somewhat similar one in Babylonian$ referring to the Creation of the

oon and the Sun- these are here published from a so'called %practice' tablet$% or student"s e*ercise. A remar#able address to a mythical ri(er$ to which the creation of the world is ascribed$ is also gi(en. +n the first Appendi* the Assyrian commentaries to the Se(enth &ablet are e*amined in detail$ and some fragments of te*ts are described which bear a stri#ing resemblance to the Se(enth &ablet$ and are of considerable interest for the light they throw on the literary history of the poem. Among the te*ts dealt with in the second Appendi* one of the most interesting is a Babylonian duplicate of the tablet which has been supposed to contain the instructions gi(en by ardu# to man after his creation$ but is now shown by the duplicate to be part of a long didactic composition containing moral precepts$ and to ha(e nothing to do with the Creation Series. Similarly$ in the fourth Appendi* + ha(e printed a copy of the te*t which has been commonly$ but erroneously$ supposed to refer to the &ower of Babel. &he third Appendi* includes some hitherto unpublished astrological te*ts of the period of the Arsacidae$ which contain astrological interpretations and e*planations of episodes of the Creation story- they indicate that &iamat$ in her astrological character$ was regarded as a star or constellation in the neighbourhood of the ecliptic$
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and they moreo(er furnish an additional proof of the identification of her monster brood with at any rate some of the :odiacal constellations. 4uring the preparation of this wor# + ha(e$ of course$ consulted the translations and renderings of the Creation /egends which ha(e been made by other wor#ers on the sub?ect$ and especially those of Professors 8ensen$ :immern$ and 4elit)sch. + ha(e much pleasure in e*pressing here my indebtedness to their published wor#s for suggestions which + ha(e adopted from them. &o r. R. Campbell &hompson + am indebted for the ready assistance he has afforded me during my search for new fragments and duplicates of the legends. +n conclusion$ my than#s are due to 4r. 5allis Budge for his friendly suggestions which + ha(e adopted throughout the progress of the wor#. /. 5. D+C!. /OC4OC$ 8uly I1st$ 167H.
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C./T0/TS
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PRE0ACE +C&RO4JC&+OCG'' +. 4ESCR+P&+OC AC4 /+&ERA&JRE O0 &HE POE E !M" E#$%&

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AC4 4+SCJSS+OC O0 CE5

A&ER+A/

... /.@+ /..++ /... .C@++ C..

+++. CO POS+&+OC O0 &HE POE +@. 4A&E AC4 OR+!+C O0 &HE BABK/OC+AC CREA&+OC /E!EC4S @. +C0/JECCE O0 &HE BABK/OC+AC CREA&+OC /E!EC4S AC4 PARA//E/S +C HEBRE5 /+&ERA&JRE @+. AJ&HOR+&+ES 0OR &HE &E.& O0 &HE POE ASSKR+AC CO EC&AR+ES E !M" E#$%& AC4 &HE

@++. RECOCS&RJC&+OC AC4 ARRAC!E EC& O0 &HE &E.& &RACS/+&ERA&+OCS AC4 &RACS/A&+OCSG'' +. &HE SE@EC &AB/E&S O0 &HE H+S&ORK O0 CREA&+OC. +. &HE 0+RS& &AB/E& ++. &HE SECOC4 &AB/E& +++. &HE &H+R4 &AB/E& +@. &HE 0OJR&H &AB/E& @. &HE 0+0&H &AB/E& @+. &HE S+.&H &AB/E& @++. &HE SE@EC&H &AB/E& EP+/O!JE ++. O&HER ACCOJC&S O0 &HE H+S&ORK O0 CREA&+OC. +. ACO&HER @ERS+OC O0 &HE 4RA!OC' K&H ++. A RE0ERECCE &O &HE CREA&+OC O0 &HE CA&&/E AC4 &HE BEAS&S O0 &HE 0+E/4 +++. A RE0ERECCE &O &HE CREA&+OC O0 &HE +@. AC A44RESS &O &HE R+@ER O0 CREA&+OC @. ACO&HER @ERS+OC O0 &HE CREA&+OC O0 &HE 5OR/4 BK @+. &HE %CJ&HAEAC /E!EC4 O0 &HE CREA&+OC% AR4JD OOC AC4 &HE SJC

H HH I2 92 32 2; 6H 117

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APPEC4+CESG'' +. ASSKR+AC CO EC&AR+ES AC4 PARA//E/ &E.&S &O &HE SE@EC&H &AB/E& O0 &HE CREA&+OC SER+ES ++. OC SO E 0RA! EC&S O0 &HE SER+ES E !M" E#$%&$ AC4 OC SO E &E.&S RE/A&+C! &O &HE H+S&ORK O0 CREA&+OC +++. OC SO E &RACES O0 &HE H+S&ORK O0 CREA&+OC +C RE/+!+OJS AC4 AS&RO/O!+CA/ /+&ERA&JRE +@. SJPPOSE4 ASSKR+AC /E!EC4S O0 &HE &E P&A&+OC AC4 &HE &O5ER O0 BABE/ @. A %PRAKER O0 &HE RA+S+C! O0 &HE HAC4% &O +SH&AR +C4+CES$ !/OSSARK$ E&C.G'' +. +C4E. &O &E.&S. A. CJCE+0OR &E.&S 0RO BABK/OC+AC &AB/E&S$ E&C.$ +C &HE BR+&+SH JSEJ $ PAR& .+++ <1671=$ P/A&ES 1'>1 B. SJPP/E EC&ARK &E.&S$ PJB/+SHE4 +C @O/. ++$ P/A&ES$ +'/...+@ C. SJPP/E EC&ARK &E.&S$ PJB/+SHE4 +C APPEC4+CES +$ ++$ AC4 +++. ++. +C4E. &O RE!+S&RA&+OC CJ BERS +++. !/OSSARK O0 SE/EC&E4 5OR4S +@. +C4E. &O CA ES O0 4E+&+ES$ S&ARS$ P/ACES$ E&C. P/A&ESG'' +. &HE S+.&H &AB/E& O0 &HE CREA&+OC SER+ES ++. &HE 0+RS& &AB/E& O0 &HE CREA&+OC SER+ES +++. &HE SECOC4 &AB/E& O0 &HE CREA&+OC SER+ES +@. &HE 0OJR&H &AB/E& O0 &HE CREA&+OC SER+ES @. &HE 0+0&H &AB/E& O0 &HE CREA&+OC SER+ES @+. &HE SE@EC&H &AB/E& O0 &HE CREA&+OC SER+ES @+++ ...@ ./+++ ./@++ /+ /.+ HI6 H>1 H>> H>9 H91 H;; 193 12H H7> H16 HHH

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1/T+.'2CT1./.
&HE great Assyrian poem$ or series of legends$ which narrates the story of the Creation of the world and man$ was termed by the Assyrians and Babylonians Enuma elish$ %5hen in the height$% from the two opening words of the te*t. &he poem consisted of some nine hundred and ninety' four lines$ and was di(ided into se(en sections$ each of which was inscribed upon a separate &ablet. &he &ablets were numbered by the Assyrian scribes$ and the separate sections of the poem written upon them do not (ary (ery much in length. &he shortest &ablet contains one hundred and thirty'eight lines$ and the longest one hundred and forty'si*$ the a(erage length of a &ablet being about one hundred and forty'two lines. &he poem embodies the beliefs of the Babylonians and Assyrians concerning the origin of the uni(erse- it describes the coming forth of the gods from chaos$ and tells the story of how the forces of disorder$ represented by the prime(al water'gods ApsE and &iamat$ were o(erthrown by Ea and ardu# respecti(ely$ and how ardu#$ after completing the triumph of the gods o(er chaos$ proceeded to create the world and man. &he poem is #nown to us from portions of se(eral Assyrian and late'Babylonian copies of the wor#$ and from
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e*tracts from it written out upon the so'called %practice'tablets$% or students" e*ercises$ by pupils of the Babylonian scribes. &he Assyrian copies of the wor# are from the great library which was founded at Cine(eh by Ashur'bani'pal$ #ing of Assyria from B.C. ;;2 to about B.C. ;H;- the Babylonian copies and e*tracts were inscribed during the period of the #ings of the Ceo'Babylonian and Persian periods- and one copy of the Se(enth &ablet may probably be assigned to as late a date as the period of the Arsacidae. All the tablets and fragments$ which ha(e hitherto been identified as inscribed with portions of the te*t of the poem$ are preser(ed in the British useum. 0rom the time of the first disco(ery of fragments of the poem considerable attention has been directed towards them$ for not only are the legends themsel(es the principal source of our #nowledge of the Babylonian cosmogony$ but passages in them bear a stri#ing resemblance to the cognate narrati(es in the Boo# of !enesis concerning the creation of the world. &he late r. !eorge Smith$ who was the first to publish an account of the poem$ recogni)ed this resemblance and emphasi)ed it in his papers on the sub?ect in 1239. 1 +n the following year in
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his wor# %&he Chaldean Account of !enesis% 1 he ga(e translations of the fragments of the poem which had been identified$ and the copies which he had made of the principal fragments were published. H After Smith"s death the interest in the te*ts which he had published did not cease$ and scholars continued to produce renderings and studies of the legends. I
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+n 122I 4r. 5allis Budge ga(e an account of a fine Babylonian duplicate of what pro(ed to be the 0ourth &ablet of the Creation Series- this document

restored considerable portions of the narrati(e of the fight between ardu# and the dragon &iamat$ and added considerably to our #nowledge of the story of Creation and of the order in which the e(ents related in the story too# place. 1 +n the Hibbert /ectures for 1223 Professor Sayce translated the new fragment of the te*t$ H and in the following year published a complete translation I of all fragments of the Creation /egends which had up to that time been identified. +n 1267 Professor 8ensen$ in his studies on the Babylonian cosmogony$ included a translation of the legends together with a transliteration and a number of (aluable philological notes and discussion. > +n 1269
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Professor :immern published a translation of the legends$ similar in plan to Sayce"s earlier edition- in it he too# ad(antage of some recently identified fragments and duplicates$ and put forward a number of new renderings of difficult passages. 1 +n 126; a third !erman translation of the legends made its appearance- it was published by Professor 4elit)sch and included transliterations and descriptions of the (arious tablets and fragments inscribed with portions of the te*t. H 0inally$ in 1677 Professor 8ensen published a second edition of his rendering of the legends in his Mythen und Epen- I this wor# was the best which could be prepared with the material then a(ailable. >
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+n the most recent translations of the Creation Series$ those of 4elit)sch and 8ensen$ use was made in all of twenty'one separate tablets and fragments which had been identified as inscribed with portions of the te*t of the poem. 1 +n the present wor# thirty'four
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additional tablets and fragments$ inscribed with portions of the te*t of the Creation Series$ ha(e been employed- but$ as si* of these ?oin other similar fragments$ the number of separate tablets and fragments here used for the first time is reduced to twenty'eight. &he total number of separate fragments of the te*t of the Creation Series is thus brought up to forty' nine. 1 &he new material is distributed among the Se(en &ablets of the Creation Series as followsG''&o the four #nown fragments of the 0irst &ablet may now be added eight others$ H consisting of two fragments of an Assyrian tablet and four Babylonian fragments and two e*tracts inscribed upon Babylonian %practice'tablets.% &o the three #nown fragments of the Second &ablet may be added four others$ I consisting of parts of one Assyrian and of three Babylonian tablets. &o the four #nown fragments of the &hird &ablet may be added fi(e other$ >
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consisting of fragments of one Assyrian and one Babylonian tablet and e*tracts inscribed upon three Babylonian %practice'tablets.% &o the fi(e #nown fragments of the 0ourth &ablet only one new duplicate can be added$ 1 which is inscribed upon a Babylonian %practice'tablet.% &o the three #nown fragments of the 0ifth &ablet may be added two others$ H consisting of parts of two Assyrian tablets. Of the Si*th &ablet no fragment has pre(iously been #nown$ and its e*istence was only inferred from a fragment of the catch'line preser(ed on copies of the 0ifth &abletfragments of the te*t of the Si*th &ablet are published for the first time in the present wor# from part of a Babylonian tablet. I 0inally$ to the two

#nown fragments of the Se(enth &ablet may now be added se(en other > inscribed upon fi(e Assyrian fragments and portions of two Babylonian tablets. &he new fragments of the te*t of the 0irst and Second &ablets of the Creation Series throw light on the earlier episodes in the story of Creation$ and enable us to fill up some of the gaps in the narrati(e. By the identification of the &ablet D. 9$>16 c$ 9 !eorge Smith reco(ered the opening lines of the 0irst &ablet$ which describes the condition of things before Creation
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when the prime(al water'gods$ ApsE and &iamat$ personifying chaos$ mingled their waters in confusion. &he te*t then briefly relates how to ApsE and &iamat were born the oldest of the gods$ the first pair$ /ahmu and /ahamu$ being followed after a long inter(al by Anshar and Dishar$ and after a second inter(al by other deities$ of whose names the te*t of D. 9$>16 c only preser(es that of Anu. !eorge Smith percei(ed that this theogony had been reproduced by 4amascius in his summary of the beliefs of the Babylonians concerning the creation of the world. 1 Cow$ since 4amascius mentions LMMNOPQ and RST along with ROST$ it was clear that the te*t of the poem included a description of the birth of the elder Bel <i.e. Enlil or +llil= and of Ea in the passage in which Anu"s name occurs. But as the te*t inscribed upon the ob(erse of D. 9$>16 c$ to ApsE$ UNTTVWX to Dishar$ RTTYWST to Anshar$ and ROST to Anu- ZY[\]T corresponds to ummu <see below$ p. ***(iii$ note 1=.^
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and of its Ceo'Babylonian duplicate 2H'3'1>$ >7H$ 1 brea#s off at l. 19$ the course of the story after this point has hitherto been purely a matter for con?ecture. +t appeared probable that the lines which followed contained a full account of the origin of the younger gods$ and from the fact that 4amascius states that _`MPQ$ the Creator of the world$ was the son of <i.e. Ea= and aVbcd <i.e. 4am#ina=$ it has Seen concluded that at any rate special prominence was gi(en to the birth of Bel$ i.e. ardu#$ who figures so prominently in the story from the close of the Second &ablet onwards. &he new fragments of the 0irst &ablet show that the account of the birth of the gods in the Creation Series is e(en shorter than that gi(en by 4amascius$ for the poem contains no mention of the birth and parentage of ardu#. After mentioning the birth of Cudimmud <i.e. Ea=$ H the te*t proceeds to describe his mar(ellous wisdom and strength$ and states that he had no ri(al among the gods- the birth of no other god is recorded after that of Ea$ and$ when ardu# is introduced later on$ his e*istence$ li#e that of ummu and of !aga$ appears to be tacitly assumed. +t would seem$ therefore$ that the reference made by
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4amascius to ardu#"s parentage was not deri(ed from the te*t of the Creation Series$ but was added by him to complete his summary of the Babylonian beliefs concerning the origin of the gods. &his omission of ardu#"s name from the earlier lines of the 0irst &ablet and the prominence gi(en to that of Ea may at first sight seem strange$ but it is in accordance with the other newly reco(ered portions of the te*t of the 0irst and Second &ablets$ which indirectly throw an interesting light on the composite character and literary history of the great poem. 1 +t will

be seen that of the deities mentioned in these earlier lines Cudimmud <Ea= is the only god whose characteristics are described in detail- his birth$ moreo(er$ forms the clima* to which the pre(ious lines lead up$ and$ after the description of his character$ the story proceeds at once to relate the rebellion of the prime(al gods and the part which Ea played in detecting and frustrating their plans. +n fact$ Ea and not ardu# is the hero of the earlier episodes of the Creation story. &he new fragments of the te*t show$ moreo(er$ that it was ApsE and not &iamat who began the rebellion against the gods. 5hile the newly created gods represented the birth of order and system in the uni(erse$ ApsE and &iamat still remained in confusion and undiminished in might. ApsE$ howe(er$ finding the earlier part
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that his slothful rest was disturbed by the new order of beings whom he had begotten$ summoned ummu$ 1 his minister$ and the two went together to &iamat$ and lying down before her$ too# counsel with her
p. ...+.

regarding the means to be adopted to restore the old order of things. +t may be noted that the te*t contains no direct statement that it was the creation of light which caused the rebellion of the prime(al gods. 1 ApsE merely states his hatred of the al#atu or %way% of the gods$ in conse,uence of which he can get no rest by day or night- and$ from the fact that he ma#es use of the e*pressions %by day% and %by night$% it may be inferred that day and night were (aguely concei(ed as already in e*istence. +t was therefore the substitution of order in place of chaos which$ according to the te*t of the poem$ roused ApsE"s resentment and led to his rebellion and downfall H
p. ./

Our #nowledge of the part played by Ea in the o(erthrow of ApsE and ummu is still fragmentary$ but we #now from l. ;7 of the 0irst &ablet that it was he who detected the plot against the gods- it is also certain that the following twenty lines recorded the fate of ApsE and his minister$ and there are clear indications that it was Ea to whom their o(erthrow was due. +n &ablet ++$ ll. 9I E$ Anshar$ on learning from Ea the news of &iamat"s preparations for battle$ contrasts the con,uest of ummu and ApsE with the tas# of opposing &iamat$ and the former achie(ement he implies has been accomplished by Ea. +t is clear$ therefore$ that Ea caused the o(erthrow of ApsE 1 and the capture of ummu H but in what way he brought it about$ whether by actual fighting or by %his pure incantation$% I is still a matter for con?ecture. +n (iew of the fact that Anshar at first tried peaceful means for o(ercoming &iamat > before e*horting ardu# to wage battle against her$ the latter supposition is the more probable of the two. &he sub?ugation of ApsE by Ea e*plains his subse,uent disappearance from the Creation story. 5hen ApsE is ne*t mentioned$ it is as %the 4eep$% 9 and not as an acti(e and &iamat"s male(olent deity. After the o(erthrow of ApsE$ &iamat remained uncon,uered$ and she continued to represent in her
p. ./+

own person the unsubdued forces of chaos. 1 But$ as at first she had not herself begun the rebellion$ so now her continuation of the war against the gods was due to the prompting of another deity. &he speech in which this

deity urges &iamat to a(enge ApsE and ummu occurs in &ablet +$ ll. 6I' 17>$ and$ inasmuch as she subse,uently promoted Dingu to be the leader of her forces ""because he had gi(en her support$% it may be concluded that it was Dingu who now prompted her to a(enge her former spouse. H Ea$ howe(er$ did not cease his acti(e opposition to the forces of disorder$ but continued to play the chief rele on the side of the gods. He heard of &iamat"s preparations for battle$ he carried the news to Anshar$ his father$ and he was sent by him against the monster. +t was only after both he and Anu had failed in their attempts to approach and appease &iamat I that Anshar appealed to ardu# to become the champion of the gods. Another point completely e*plained by the new fragments of the te*t is the reason for the repetitions which occur in the first three tablets of the series. +t will be seen that &ablet +$ ll. 176'1>H$ are repeated in &ablet ++$ ll. 19'>2- that &ablet ++$ ll. 1. 1'>2$ are
p. ./++

repeated in &ablet +++$ ll. 19'9H- and that &ablet +++$ ll. 19';;$ are repeated in the same &ablet$ ++. 3I'1H>. &he lines which are repeated ha(e reference to &iamat"s preparations for battle against the gods$ and to Anshar"s summons of the gods in order that they may confer power on ardu# as their champion. 0rom the new fragments of the te*t we now #now that the lines relating to &iamat"s preparations occur on the 0irst &ablet in the form of narrati(e$ immediately after she had adopted Dingu"s suggestion that she should a(enge the o(erthrow of ApsE and ummu- and that in the Second &ablet they are repeated by Ea in his speech to Anshar$ to whom he carried the news. &he conte*t of the repetitions in the &hird &ablet is already #nown- Anshar first repeats the lines to his minister !aga$ when telling him to go and summon the gods to an assembly$ and later on in the &ablet !aga repeats the message word for word to /ahmu and /ahamu. &he constant repetition of these lines was doubtless intended to emphasi)e the terrible nature of the opposition which ardu# successfully o(ercame- and the fact that Berossus omits all mention of the part played by Ea in the earlier portions of the story is also due to the tendency of the Babylonian priests to e*alt their local god at the e*pense of other deities. &he account which we ha(e recei(ed from Berossus of the Babylonian beliefs concerning the origin of the uni(erse is largely ta#en up with a description of
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the mythical monsters which dwelt in the deep at a time when the world had not come into being and when dar#ness and water alone e*isted. 1 O(er these monsters$ according to Berossus$ reigned a woman named f\SWcV$ who is to be identified with &iamat$ H
p. ./@+

while the creatures themsel(es represent the monster'brood which &iamat formed to aid her in her fight against the gods. 1 Compared with the description of the monsters$ the summary from Berossus of the incidents related on the 0ourth &ablet is not (ery full- the te*t states that _`MPQ <i.e. Bel= slew f\SWcV$
p. ./+.

and ha(ing cleft her in twain$ 1 from one half of her he made the earth$ and from the other the hea(ens$ while he o(ercame the creatures that were within her$ i.e. the monsters of the deep.

&he actual account of the creation of the world by ardu#$ as related in the Creation Series$ begins towards the end of the 0ourth &ablet$ H where the narrati(e closely agrees with the summary from Berossus. ardu# is there related to ha(e split &iamat into hal(es$ and to ha(e used one half of her as a co(ering for hea(en. &he te*t then goes on to state that he founded hea(en$ which is termed E'shara$ a mansion li#e unto the 4eep in structure$ and that he caused Anu$ BFl$ and Ea to inhabit their respecti(e districts therein. &he 0ifth &ablet does not begin with the account of the creation of the earth$ but records the fi*ing of the constellations of the :odiac$ the founding of the year$ and ardu#"s charge to the oon'god and the Sun'god$ to the former of whom he entrusted the night$ his instructions relating to the phases of the oon$ and the relati(e positions of the oon and the Sun during the month. &he new fragments of the 0ifth &ablet contain some interesting (ariants to this portion of the te*t$ I but$
p. /

with the e*ception of the last few lines of the te*t$ they throw no light on what the missing portions of the &ablet contained. +n (iew$ howe(er$ of the statement of Berossus that from one half of &iamat BFl formed the earth$ we may con?ecture that an account of the creation of the earth occurred upon some part of the 0ifth &ablet. +t is also probable that the 0ifth &ablet recorded the creation of (egetation. &hat. this formed the sub?ect of some portion of the poem is certain from the opening lines of the Se(enth &ablet$ where ardu# is hailed as %Asari$ "Bestower of planting$" "A0ounder of sowingB$" "Creator of grain and plants$" "who caused Athe green herb to spring upBg"%- and the creation of plants and herbs would naturally follow that of the earth. 0rom the new fragment of the Si*th &ablet$ Co. 6H$;H6$ we #now that this portion of the poem related the story of the creation of man. As at the
p. /+++

beginning of his wor# of creation ardu# is said to ha(e %de(ised a cunning plan% 1 while ga)ing upon the dead body of &iamat$ so now$ before proceeding to man"s creation$ it is said that %his heart prompted him and he de(ised Aa cunning planB.% H +n the repetition of this phrase we may see an indication of the importance which was ascribed to this portion of the story$ and it is probable that the creation of man was regarded as the culmination of ardu#"s creati(e wor#. +t is interesting to note$ howe(er$ that the creation of man is not related as a natural se,uel to the formation of the rest of the uni(erse$ but forms the solution of a difficulty with which ardu# has been met in the course of his wor# as Creator. &o o(ercome this difficulty ardu# de(ised the %cunning plan% already referred to- the conte*t of this passage is not (ery clear$ but the reason for man"s creation may be gathered from certain indications in the te*t. 5e learn from the beginning of the Si*th &ablet that ardu# de(ised his cunning plan after he had %heard the word of the gods$% and from this it is clear that the 0ifth &ablet ends with a speech of the gods. Cow in &ablet @+$ l. 2$ ardu# states that he will create man %that the ser(ice of the gods may be established%- in l. 6. f.$ howe(er$ he adds that
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he will change the ways of the gods$ and he appears to threaten them with punishment. +t may be con?ectured$ therefore$ that after ardu# had completed the creation of the world$ the gods came to him and

complained that there were no shrines built in their honour$ nor was there anyone to worship them. &o supply this need ardu# formed the de(ice of creating man$ but at the same time he appears to ha(e decided to (ent his wrath upon the gods because of their discontent. +t is possible$ howe(er$ that Ea dissuaded ardu# from punishing the gods$ though he no doubt assisted him in carrying out the first part of his proposal. 1 +n ll. 9 ff. of the Si*th &ablet ardu# indicates the means he will employ for forming man$ and this portion of the te*t corroborates in a remar#able manner the account gi(en by Berossus of the method employed by BFl for man"s creation. &he te*t of the summary from Berossus$ in the form in which it has come down to us$ H is not ,uite satisfactory$ as the
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course of the narrati(e is confused. &he confusion is apparent in the repetition of the description of man"s creation and in the interruption of the naturalistic e*planation of the slaying of Omor#a. An ingenious but simple emendation of the te*t$ howe(er$ was suggested by (on !utschmidt which remo(es both these difficulties. &he passage which interrupts the naturalistic e*planation$ and apparently describes a first creation of man$ he regarded as ha(ing been transposed- but if it is placed at the end of the e*tract it falls naturally into place as a summary by Eusebius of the preceding account of man"s creation which is said by Ale*ander Polyhistor to ha(e been gi(en by Berossus in the 0irst Boo# of his History. 1 By adopting this emendation we obtain the te*t.
p. /@+

a clear and consecuti(e account of how BFl$ after the creation of hea(en and earth$ percei(ed that the land was desolate- and how he ordered one of the gods to cut off his <i.e. BFl"s= head$ and$ by mi*ing the blood which flowed forth with earth$ to create men and animals. &his passage from Berossus has gi(en rise to considerable discussion$ and more than one scholar has attempted to e*plain away the beheading of BFl$ the Creator$ that man might be formed from his blood. !un#el has suggested that in the original legend the blood of &iamat was used for this purpose- 1 Stuc#en$ H followed by Cheyne$ I has emended the te*t so that it may suggest that the head of &iamat$ and not that of Bel$ was cut offwhile :immern would ta#e the original meaning of the passage to be that the god
p. /@++

beheaded was not Bel$ but the other deity whom he addressed. 1 +n l. 9 of the Si*th &ablet$ howe(er$ ardu# states that he will use his own blood for creating man- H the te*t of this passage from Berossus is thus shown to be correct$ and it follows that the account which he ga(e of the Babylonian beliefs concerning man"s creation does not re,uire to be emended or e*plained away.
p. /@+++

8ensen has already suggested 1 that the god whom Bel addressed was Ea$ and the new fragment of. the Si*th &ablet pro(es that this suggestion is correct. +n the Si*th &ablet ardu# recounts to Ea his intention of forming man$ and tells him the means he will employ. 5e may therefore conclude that it was Ea who beheaded ardu# at his re,uest$ and$ according to his instructions$ formed man#ind from his blood. Ea may thus ha(e performed the actual wor# of ma#ing man$ but he acted under ardu#"s directions$

and it is clear from &ablet @++$ ll. H6 and IH$ that ardu#$ and not Ea$ was regarded as man"s Creator. According to Berossus$ man was formed from the blood of BFl mi*ed with earth. &he new fragment of the Si*th &ablet does not mention the mi*ing of the blood with earth$ but it is ,uite possible that this detail was recounted in the subse,uent narrati(e. On the other hand$ in the Babylonian poem ardu# declares that$ in addition to using his own blood$ he will create bone for forming man. Berossus ma#es no mention of bone$ but it is interesting to note that issimtu$ the Assyrian word here used for %bone$% H is doubtless the e,ui(alent of the Hebrew word 'esem$
p. /+.

%bone$% which occurs at the end of the narrati(e of the creation of woman in !en. ii$ HI. &he blood of BFl$ according to Berossus$ was employed not only in man"s creation but in that of animals also$ and it is possible that this represents the form of the legend as it was preser(ed upon the Si*th &ablet. &hough$ in that case$ the creation of animals would follow that of man$ the opening lines of the Si*th &ablet pro(e that man"s creation was regarded as the culmination of ardu#"s creati(e wor#. &he %cunning plan$% which ardu# de(ised in order to furnish worshippers for the gods$ concerned the creation of man$ and if that of animals followed it must ha(e been recorded as a subsidiary and less important act. 1 +n this connection it may be noted that the e*pression hi jk\l\mOV hnO opWV qpWmNO$ which Berossus applies to the men and animals created from the blood of Bel$ was probably not based on any description or episode in the Creation story as
Aparagraph continuesB p. /.

recorded on the Se(en &ablets$ but was suggested by the naturalistic interpretation of the legend furnished by Berossus himself. 5ith reference to the creation of man$ it was suggested by !eorge Smith that the tablet D. I$I;> was a fragment of the Creation Series$ and contained the instructions gi(en to man after his creation by ardu#. &his (iew has been pro(isionally adopted by other translators of the poem$ but in Appendi* ++ 1 + ha(e shown by means of a duplicate$ Co. II$291$ that the suggestion must be gi(en up. Apart from other reasons there enumerated$ it may be stated that there would be no room upon the Si*th &ablet of the Creation Series for such a long series of moral precepts as is inscribed upon the tablets D. I$I;> and Co. II$291. +t may be that ardu#$ after creating man$ ga(e him some instructions with regard to the worship of the gods and the building of shrines in their honour$ but the greater part of the te*t must ha(e been ta#en up with other matter. &he concluding lines of the Si*th &ablet are partly preser(ed$ and they afford us a glimpse of the filial scene in the Creation story. As the gods had pre(iously been summoned to a solemn assembly that they might confer power upon ardu# before he set out to do battle on their behalf$ so now$ when he had (an,uished &iamat and had finished his wor# of instructions to
p. /.+++

creation$ they again gathered together in Jpshu##i'na#u$ their council' chamber$ and proceeded to magnify him by e(ery title of honour. 5e thus obtain the conte*t or setting of the Se(enth$ and last$ &ablet of the

Creation Series$ the greater part of which consists of the hymn of praise addressed by the gods to ardu# as the con,ueror of &iamat and the Creator of the world. &he hymn of the gods ta#es up lines 1'1H> of the Se(enth &ablet$ and consists of a series of addresses in Creation which ardu# is hailed by them under fifty titles of honour. &he titles are Sumerian$ not Semitic$ and each is followed by one or more Assyrian phrases descripti(e of ardu#$ which either e*plain the title or are suggested by it. Of the fifty titles which the hymn contained$ the following list of ele(en occur in the first forty' se(en lines of the te*tG'' AsariG ilu "sar'ri$ &abl. @++$ l. 1- p. 6H f. Asaru'alimG ilu "saru'alim$ &abl. @++$ l. I- p. 6H f. Asaru'alim'nunaG ilu "saru'alim'nun'na$ &abl. @++$ l. 9- p. 6H f. &utuG ilu Tu'tu$ &abl. @++$ l. 6- p. 6H f. :i'u##inaG ilu (i'u))in'na$ (ar. ilu (i'u))in$ &abl. @++$ l. 19- p. 6>f. :i'a)agG ilu (i'a*ag$ &abl. @++$ l. 16- p. I; f.- (ar. ilu a'*i'a*ag' gAaB$ p. 1;1. Aga'a)agG ilu "ga'a*ag$ &abl. @++$ l. H9- p. 6; f. u'a)agG ilu Mu<i.e. DA r /+='a*ag$ &abl. @++$ l. II- (ar. ilu Mu<i.e. SHAR='a*ag$ p. 13I.
p. /.+@

Shag')uG ilu %hag'*u$ &abl. @++$ l. I9- p. 62 f. :i'siG ilu (i'si$ &abl. @++$ l. >1- p. 177 f. Sub'#urG ilu %uh')ur$ &abl. @++$ l. >I- p. 177 f . +n the gap in the te*t of the Se(enth &ablet$ between ll. >3 and 179$ occur the following ten titles of ardu#$ which are ta#en from the fragments D. 1I$3;1 and D. 2$916 <and its duplicate D. 1I$II3=$ and from the commentary D. >$>7;G'' AgiAl . . . . B- ilu "'giAl' . . . . B$ &abl. @++ <D. 1I$3;1=- p. 17H f.- (ar. ilu +ilA B$ p. 1;I. :ulummuG ilu (u'lum'mu$ &abl. @++ <D. 1I$3;1=- p. 17H f. ummuG ilu Mu'um'mu$ &abl. @++ <D. 1I$3;1=- p. 17H f. ulilG ilu Mu'lil$ &abl. @++ <D. 1I$3;1=- p. 17H f. !ish#ulG ilu +ish')ul$ &abl. @++ <D. 1I$3;1=- p. 17H f. /ugal'abA . . . . BG ilu #ugad'ab'A . . . . B$ &abl. @++ <D. 1I$3;1=- p. 17H f. Pap'A . . . . BG ilu ,ap'A . . . . B$ &abl. @++ <D. 1I$3;1=- p. 17H f. /ugal'durmahG ilu #ugal'dur'mah$ &abl. @++ <D. 2$916=$ and D. >$>7;$ Re(.$ col. ii$ l. 2- pp. 17>f.$ 1;9. Adu'nunaG ilu "'du'nun'na$ &abl. @++ <D. 2$916= and D. >$>7;$ Re(.$ col. ii$ l. HI- pp. 17>f.$ 1;;. /ugal'dul<or du='a)agaG ilu #ugal'dul'a*ag'ga$ &abl. @++ <D. 2$916=- p. 17; f.
p. /.@

0our other titles$ occurring in the concluding portion of the te*t of the Se(enth &ablet$ areG'' CibiruG ilu i'bi'ru$ (ar. AiluB e'bi'ri$ &abl. @++$ l. 176- p. 172 f. BFl'mststiG be'el m-t-ti$ (ar. ilu B.l m-t-ti$ &abl. @++$ l. 11;$ p. 117 f.- cf. also EC DJR'DJR <i.e. b.l m-t-ti=$ p. 1;2. EaG ilu E'a$ &abl. @++$ l. 1H7- p. 177 f.

HanshaG Hanshs $ (ar. &a'an'sha'a$ &abl. @++$ l. 1HI$ p. 117 f.cf. also ilu &ansh-$ p. 132. 0rom the abo(e lists it will be seen that the reco(ered portions of the te*t of the Se(enth &ablet furnish twenty'fi(e out of the fifty names of ardu#. 0rom the list of the titles of ardu# preser(ed on D. H$173 r D. ;$72;$ 1 and from Co. 9>$HH2$ a parallel te*t to the Se(enth &ablet$ H se(en other names may be obtained$ which were probably among those occurring in the missing portion of the te*t- these areG'' /ugal'en'an#iaG ilu #ugal'en'an')i'a$ D. H17$ col. ii$ l. 16- p. 13I. !uguG ilu +u'gu$ D. H$173$ col. ii$ l. HH- p. 13I. umuG ilu Mu'mu$ D. H$173$ col. ii$ l. HI- p. 13I. 4utuG ilu Du'tu$ D. H$173$ col. ii$ l. H>- p. 13I.
A'AC

p. /.@+

4uduG ilu Du'du$ D. H$173$ col. ii$ l. H9- p. 13I. Shag'gar<t=G %hag'gar$ Co. 9>$HH2$ Ob(.$ l. 1I- p. 133. En'biluluG ilu En'bi'lu'lu$ Co. 9>$HH2$ Ob(.$ l. 1>- p. 132. 1 By these titles of honour the gods are represented as conferring supreme power upon ardu#$ and the clima* is reached in ll. 11; ff. of the Se(enth &ablet$ when the elder BFl and Ea$ ardu#"s father$ confer their own names and power upon him. ardu#"s name of Hanshs$ %0ifty$% by which he is finally addressed$ in itself sums up and symboli)es his fifty titles. At the conclusion of these addresses there follows an epilogue H of eighteen lines$ in which the study of the poem is commended to man#ind$ and prosperity is promised to those that re?oice in ardu# and #eep his wor#s in remembrance. &he story of the Creation$ in the form in which it has come down to us upon tablets of the se(enth and later centuries before Christ$ is of a distinctly
p. /.@++

composite character$ and bears traces of a long process of editing and modification at the hands of the Babylonian priests. 0i(e principal strands may be traced which ha(e been combined to form the poem- these may be described as <1= &he Birth of the gods- parts <H = &he /egend of Ea and ApsE- <I= &he 4ragon' yth- <>= &he actual account of Creation- and <9= &he Hymn to ardu# under his fifty titles. Since the poem in its present form is a glorification$ of ardu# as the champion of the gods and the Creator of the world$ it is natural that more prominence should be gi(en to episodes in which ardu# is the hero than is assigned to other portions of the narrati(e in which he plays no part. &hus the description of &iamat and her monster'brood$ whom ardu# con,uered$ is repeated no less than four times$ 1 and the preparations of ardu# for battle and his actual fight with the dragon ta#e up the greater part of the 0ourth &ablet. On the other hand$ the birth of the older gods$ among whom ardu# does not figure$ is confined to the first twenty'one lines of the 0irst &ablet- and not more than twenty lines are gi(en to the account of the sub?ugation of ApsE by Ea. &hat these elements should ha(e been incorporated at all in the Babylonian (ersion of the Creation story may be e*plained by the fact that they ser(e to enhance the position of prominence subse,uently attained by
p. /.@+++

ardu#. &hus the description of the birth of the older gods and of the opposition they e*cited among the forces of disorder$ was necessarily included in order to ma#e it clear how ardu# was appointed their champion- and the account of Ea"s success against ApsE ser(ed to accentuate the terrible nature of &iamat$ whom he was unable to withstand. 0rom the latter half of the Second &ablet onwards$ ardu# alone is the hero of the poem. &he central episode of the poem is the fight between ardu# and &iamat$ and there is e(idence to pro(e that this legend e*isted in other forms than that under which it occurs in the Creation Series. &he con,uest of the dragon was ascribed by the Babylonian priests to their local god$ and in the poem the death of &iamat is made a necessary preliminary to the creation of the world. On a fragment of a tablet from Ashur'bani'pal"s library we possess$ howe(er$ part of a copy of a legend 1 which describes the con,uest of a dragon by some deity other than ardu#. H oreo(er$ the fight is there described as ta#ing place$ not before creation$ but at a time when men e*isted and cities had been built. +n this (ersion
p. /.+.

men and gods are described as e,ually terrified at the dragon"s appearance$ and it was to deli(er the land from the monster that one of the gods went out and slew him. &his fragmentary tablet ser(es to pro(e that the 4ragon' yth e*isted in more than one form in Babylonian mythology$ and it is not improbable that$ many of the great cities of Babylonia possessed local (ersions of the legend in each of which the city' god figured as the hero. 1 +n the Creation Series the creation of the world is narrated as the result of ardu#"s con,uest of the dragon$ and there is no doubt that this (ersion of the story represents the belief most generally held during the reigns of the later Assyrian and Babylonian #ings. 5e possess$ howe(er$ fragments of other legends in which the creation of the world is not connected with the death of a dragon. +n one of these$ which is written both in Sumerian and Babylonian$ H the great Babylonian cities and temples are described as coming into e*istence in conse,uence of a mo(ement in the waters which alone e*isted before the creation of the world. ardu# in this
p. /..

(ersion also figures as the Creator$ for$ together with the goddess Aruru$ 1 he created man by laying a reed upon the face of the waters and forming dust which he poured out beside it- according to this (ersion also he is described as creating animals and (egetation. +n other legends which ha(e come down to us$ not only is the story of Creation unconnected with the 4ragon' yth$ but ardu# does not figure as the Creator. +n one of these %the gods% generally are referred to as ha(ing created the hea(ens and the earth and the cattle and beasts of the field- H while in another the creation of the oon and the Sun is ascribed to Anu$ Bel$ and Ea. I 0rom the (ariant accounts of the story of Creation and of the 4ragon' yth$ which are referred to in the preceding paragraphs$ it will be clear that the priests of Babylon made use of independent legends in the composition of their great poem of Creation >- by
p. /..+

assigning to ardu# the con,uest of the 4ragon 1 and the creation of the world they ?ustified his claim to the chief place among the gods. As a fit

ending to the great poem they incorporated the hymn to ardu#$ consisting of addresses to him under his fifty titles. &his portion of the poem H is pro(ed by the Assyrian commentary$ R. I;;$ etc.$ I as well as by fragments of parallel$ but not duplicate$ te*ts > to ha(e been an independent composition which had at one time no connection with the series Enuma elish. +n the poem the hymn is placed in the mouth of the gods$ who at the end of the Creation ha(e assembled together in Jpshu##ina#u- and to it is added the epilogue of eighteen lines$ which completes the Se(enth &ablet of the series.
p. /..++

+n discussing the ,uestion as to the date of the Creation legends$ it is necessary to distinguish clearly between the date at which the legends assumed the form in which they ha(e come down to us upon the Se(en &ablets of the series Enuma elish$ and the date which may be assigned to the legends themsel(es before they were incorporated in the poem. Of the actual tablets inscribed with portions of the te*t of the Creation Series we possess none which dates from an earlier period than the se(enth century B.C. &he tablets of this date were made for the library of Ashur'bani'pal at Cine(eh$ but it is ob(ious that the poem was not composed in Assyria at this time. &he legends in the form in which we possess them are not intended to glorify Ashur$ the national god of Assyria$ but ardu#$ the god of Babylon$ and it is clear that the scribes of Ashur'bani'pal merely made copies for their master of older tablets of Babylonian origin. & o what earlier date we may assign the actual composition of the poem and its arrangement upon the Se(en &ablets$ is still a matter for con?ecture- but it is possible to offer a con?ecture$ with some degree of probability$ after an e*amination of the (arious indirect sources of e(idence we possess with regard to the age of Babylonian legends in general$ and of the Creation legends in particular. 5ith regard to the internal e(idence of date furnished by the Creation legends themsel(es$ we may
p. /..+++

note that the (ariant forms of the 4ragon' yth and of the account of the Creation$ to which reference has already been made$ presuppose many centuries of tradition during which the legends$ though deri(ed probably from common originals$ were handed down independently of one another. 4uring this period we may suppose that the same story was related in different cities in different ways$ and that in course of time (ariations crept in$ with the result that two or more forms of the same story were de(eloped along different lines. &he process must ha(e been gradual$ and the considerable differences which can be traced in the resultant forms of the same legend may be cited as e(idence in fa(our of assigning an early date to the original tradition from which they were deri(ed. E(idence as to the e*istence of the Creation legends at least as early as the ninth century B.C. may be deduced from the representations of the fight between ardu# and the dragon &iamat$ which was found sculptured upon two limestone slabs in the temple of Cinib at CimrEd. 1 &he temple was built by Ashur'nasir'pal$ who reigned from B.C. 22> to B.C. 2;7$ and across the actual sculpture was inscribed the te*t of a dedication to Cinib

by this #ing. &he slab therefore furnishes direct proof of the e*istence of the legend more than two hundred years before the
p. /..+@

formation of Ashur'bani'pal"s library. oreo(er$ the fight between ardu# and &iamat is fre,uently found engra(ed upon cylinder'seals$ and$ although the ma?ority of such seals probably date from the later Assyrian and Persian periods$ the (aried treatment of the scene which they present points to the e*istence of (ariant forms of the legend$ and so indirectly furnishes e(idence of the early origin of the legend itself. 0rom an e*amination of the Babylonian historical inscriptions which record the setting up of statues and the ma#ing of temple furniture$ we are enabled to trace bac# the e*istence of the Creation legends to still earlier periods. 0or instance$ in a te*t of Agum$ 1 a Babylonian #ing who reigned not later than the se(enteenth century B.C.$ we find descriptions of the figures of a dragon H and of other monsters I which he set up in the temple E'sagil at Babylon- and in this passage we may trace an unmista#able reference to the legend of &iamat and her monster'brood. Agum also set up in the temple beside the dragon a great basin$ or la(er$ termed in the inscription a t-mtu$ or %sea.% > 0rom the name of the la(er$ and from its position beside the figure of the dragon$
p. /..@

we may conclude that it was symbolical of the abyss of water personified in the Creation legends by &iamat and ApsE. oreo(er$ in historical inscriptions of still earlier periods we find allusions to similar (essels termed aps.$ i.e. %deeps% or %oceans$% 1 the presence of which in the temples is probably to be traced to the e*istence of the same traditions. &he three classes of e(idence briefly summari)ed abo(e tend to show that the most important elements in the Creation legends were not of late origin$ but must be traced bac# in some form or other to remote periods$ and may well date from the first half of the third millennium B.C.$ or e(en earlier. +t remains to consider to what date we may assign the actual wea(ing together of these legends into the poem termed by the Babylonians and Assyrians Enuma elish. Although$ as has already been remar#ed$ we do not possess any early copies of the te*t of the Creation Series$ this is not the case with other Babylonian legends. Among the tablets found at &ell el'Amarna$ which date from the fifteenth century B.C.$ were fragments of copies of two Babylonian legends$ the one containing the story of Cergal and Eresh#igal$ H and
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the other inscribed with a part of the legend of Adapa and the South 5ind. 1 Both these compositions$ in style and general arrangement$ closely resemble the legends #nown from late Assyrian copies$ while of the legend of Adapa an actual fragment$ though not a duplicate$ e*ists in the library of Ashur'bani'pal. H 0ragments of legends ha(e also been recently found in Babylonia which date from the end of the period of the 0irst 4ynasty of Babylon$ about B.C. H177$ and the resemblance which these documents bear to certain legends pre(iously #nown from Assyrian copies only is not only of a general nature$ but e*tends e(en to identity of language. &hus one of the reco(ered fragments is in part a duplicate of the so'called %Cuthaean /egend of Creation%- I two others contain phrases found upon

the legend of Ea and Atar'hasis$ while upon one of them are traces of a new (ersion
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of the 4eluge'story. 1 Still more recently the &rustees of the British useum ha(e ac,uired three fragments of Babylonian legends inscribed upon tablets which date from a still earlier period$ i.e. from the period of the #ings of the Second 4ynasty of Jr$ before B.C. HH77- H
p. /..@+++

and to the same period is to be assigned the fragment of a legend which was published a few wee#s ago by 4r. eissner$ 1 and probably also the new fragment of the Etana'myth$ published last year by 0ather Scheil. H &hese fi(e fragments are of peculiar interest$ for they show that early Semitic$ as opposed to Sumerian$ legends were in e*istence$ and were carefully preser(ed and studied in other cities of esopotamia
p. /..+.

than Babylon$ and at a period before the rise of that city to a position of importance under the #ings of the 0irst 4ynasty. &he e(idence furnished by these recently disco(ered tablets with regard to the date of Babylonian legends in general may be applied to the date of the Creation legends. 5hile the origin of much of the Creation legends may be traced to Sumerian sources$ 1 it is clear that the Semitic inhabitants of esopotamia at a (ery early period produced their own (ersions of the compositions which they borrowed$ modifying and augmenting them to suit their own legends and beliefs. &he connection of ardu# with the 4ragon' yth$ and with the stories of the creation of the world and
p. /...

man$ may with considerable probability be assigned to the subse,uent period during which Babylon gradually attained to the position of the principal city in esopotamia. On tablets inscribed during the reigns of #ings of the 0irst 4ynasty we may therefore e*pect to find copies of the Creation legends corresponding closely with the te*t of the series Enuma elish. +t is possible that the di(ision of the poem into se(en sections$ inscribed upon separate tablets$ too# place at a later period- but$ be this as it may$ we may conclude with a considerable degree of confidence that the bul# of the poem$ as we #now it from late Assyrian and Ceo'Babylonian copies$ was composed at a period not later than B.C. H777. &he political influence which the Babylonians e*erted o(er neighbouring nations during long periods of their history was considerable$ and it is not surprising that their beliefs concerning the origin of the uni(erse should ha(e been partially adopted by the races with whom they came in contact. &hat Babylonian elements may be traced in the Phoenician cosmogony has long been admitted$ but the imperfect$ and probably distorted$ form in which the latter has come down to us renders uncertain any comparison of details. 1 Some of the beliefs concerning the
p. /...+

creation of the world which were current among the Egyptians bear a more stri#ing resemblance to the corresponding legends of Babylonia. 5hether this resemblance was due to the proto'Semitic strain which probably e*isted in the ancient Egyptian race$ 1 or is to be e*plained as the result of later Babylonian influence from without$ is yet uncertain. But$ whate(er

e*planation be adopted$ it is clear that the conception of chaos as a watery mass out of which came forth successi(e generations of prime(al gods is common to both races. H +t is in Hebrew literature$ howe(er$ that the most stri#ing e*amples of the influence of the Babylonian Creation legends are to be found. &he close relation e*isting between the Babylonian account of the Creation and the narrati(e in !enesis i$ 1'11$ >a has been recogni)ed from the time of the
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first disco(ery of the former$ 1 and the old and new points of resemblance between them may here be briefly discussed. According to each account the e*istence of a watery chaos preceded the creation of the uni(erse- and the Hebrew word teh/m$ translated %the deep% in !en. i$ H$ is the e,ui(alent of the Babylonian Tiamat$ the monster of the deep personifying chaos and confusion. +n the details of the Creation there is also a close resemblance between the two accounts. +n the Hebrew narrati(e the first act of creation is that of light <!en. i$ I'9=$ and it has been suggested that a parallel possibly e*isted in the Babylonian account$ in that the creation of light may ha(e been the cause of the re(olt of &iamat. 0rom the new fragments of the poem we now #now that the rebellion of the forces of disorder$ which was incited by ApsE and not &iamat$ was due$ not to the creation of light$ but to his hatred of the way of the gods which produced order in place of chaos H A parallelism may still be found$ howe(er- in the original form of the Babylonian myth$ according to which the con,ueror of the dragon was undoubtedly a solar deity. I oreo(er$ as has been pointed out abo(e$ > day and night are (aguely concei(ed in the poem as already in e*istence at the
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time of ApsE"s re(olt$ so that the belief in the e*istence of light before the creation of the hea(enly bodies is a common feature of the Hebrew and the Babylonian account. &he second act of creation in the Hebrew narrati(e is that of a firmament which di(ided the waters that were under the firmament from the waters that were abo(e the firmament <!en. i$ ;'2=. +n the Babylonian poem the body of &iamat is di(ided by ardu#$ and from one'half of her he formed a co(ering or dome for hea(en$ i.e. a firmament$ which #ept her upper waters in place. oreo(er$ on the fragment S. H$71I 1 we find mention of a Ti'amat e'(i'ti and a Ti'amat shap'li'ti$ that is$ an Jpper &iamat <or Ocean= and a /ower &iamat <or Ocean=$ which are the e*act e,ui(alents of the waters abo(e and under the firmament. H
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&he third and fourth acts of creation$ as narrated in !en. i$ 6'1I$ are those of the earth and of (egetation. Although no portion of the Babylonian poem has yet been reco(ered which contains the corresponding account$ it is probable that these acts of creation were related on the 0ifth &ablet of the series. 1 Berossus e*pressly states that Bel formed the earth out of one half of Omor#a"s body$ and as his summary of the Babylonian Creation story is pro(ed to be correct where(er it can be controlled$ it is legitimate to assume that he is correct in this detail also. ore' o(er$ in three passages in the Se(enth &ablet the creation of the earth by ardu# is referred toG l. 119 reads$ %Since he created the hea(en and fashioned the

firm earth%- H the new fragment D. 1H$2I7 <restored from the commentary D. 2$H66= states$ %He named the four ,uarters <of the world=%- I and another new fragment$ D. 1I$3;1 <restored from the commentary D. >$>7;1$ definitely ascribes to ardu# the title %Creator of the earth.% > &hat the creation of (egetation by ardu# was also recorded in the poem may be concluded from the opening lines of the Se(enth &ablet$ which are inscribed on the new fragment D. H$29>$ and <with restorations from the commentary S. ++$ etc.= ascribe to him the titles %Bestower of
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planting$% %0ounder of sowing$% % Creator of grain and plants$% and add that he %caused the green herb to spring up.% 1 &o the fifth act of creation$ that of the hea(enly bodies <!en. i$ 1>'19=$ we find an e*ceedingly close parallel in the opening lines of the 0ifth &ablet of the series. H +n the Hebrew account$ lights were created in the firmament of hea(en to di(ide the day from the night$ and to be for signs$ and for seasons$ and for days$ and years. +n the Babylonian poem also the stars were created and the year was ordained at the same time- the twel(e months were to be regulated by the stars- and the oon'god was appointed %to determine the days.% As according to the Hebrew account two great lights were created in the firmament of hea(en$ the greater light to rule the day and the lesser to rule the night$ so according to the Babylonian poem the night was entrusted to the oon'god$ and the oon' god"s relations to the Sun'god are described in detail. On the Se(enth &ablet$ also$ the creation of hea(en and the hea(enly bodies is referred t oin l. 1; ardu# is stated %to ha(e established for the gods the bright hea(ens$% I and l. 111 f. read$ %0or the stars of hea(en he upheld the paths$ he shepherded all the gods li#e sheepg% >
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&o the si*th and se(enth acts of creation$ i.e.$ the creation of creatures of the sea and winged fowl$ and of beasts and cattle and creeping things <!en. i$ H7'H9=$ the Babylonian poem as yet offers no parallel$ for the portion of the te*t which refers to the creation of animals is still wanting. But since Berossus states that animals were created at the same time as man$ it is probable that their creation was recorded in a missing portion either of the 0ifth or of the Si*th &ablet. +f the account was on the lines suggested by Berossus$ and animals shared in the blood of Bel$ it is clear that their creation was narrated$ as a subsidiary and less important episode$ after that of man. 1 But$ although this episode is still wanting in the poem$ we find references on other Assyrian Creation fragments to the creation of beasts. &hus$ for the creation of the creatures of the sea in !enesis$ we may compare the fragmentary te*t D. I>>9rR. I6;$ which records the creation of nahir.- %dolphins <t=.% H And for the creation of beasts of the earth and cattle$ we may compare the tablet 4.&. >1$ I which$ after referring generally to the creation of %li(ing creatures% by %the gods$% proceeds to classify them as the cattle and beasts of the field$ and the creatures of the city$ the two of animals.
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classes referring respecti(ely to wild and domesticated animals. 1 &he account of the creation of man$ which is recorded as the eighth and last act of creation in the Hebrew account <!en. i$ H;'I1=$ at length finds its parallel in the Babylonian poem upon the new fragment of the Si*th

&ablet$ Co. 6H$;H6. H +t has already been pointed out that the Babylonian account closely follows the (ersion of the story handed down to us from Berossus$ I and it may here be added that the employment by ardu#$ the Creator$ of his own blood in the creation of man may perhaps be compared to the Hebrew account of the creation of man in the image and after the li#eness of Elohim. > oreo(er$ the use of the plural in the phrase %/et us ma#e man% in !en. i$ H;$ may be compared with the Babylonian narrati(e which relates that ardu# imparted his purpose of forming man to his father Ea$
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whom he probably afterwards instructed to carry out the actual wor# of man"s creation. 1 A parallel to the charge which$ according to the Hebrew account$ Elohim ga(e to man and woman after their creation$ has hitherto been belie(ed to e*ist on the tablet D. I$I;>$ which was supposed to contain a list of the duties of man as deli(ered to him after his creation by ardu#. &he new Babylonian duplicate of this te*t$ Co. II$291$ pro(es that D. I$I;> is not part of the Creation Series$ but is merely a tablet of moral precepts$ so that its suggested resemblance to the Hebrew narrati(e must be gi(en up. +t is not improbable$ howe(er$ that a missing portion of the Si*th &ablet did contain a short series of instructions by ardu# to man$ since man was created with the special ob?ect of supplying the gods with worshippers and building shrines in their honour. &hat to these instructions to worship the gods was added the gift of dominion o(er beasts$ birds$ and (egetation is possible$ but it must be pointed out that the Babylonian (ersion of man"s creation is related from the point of (iew of the gods$ not from that of man. Although his creation forms the culmination of ardu#"s wor#$ it was concei(ed$ not as an end and aim in itself$ but merely as an e*pedient to satisfy the discontented gods. H &his e*pedient is referred to in the Se(enth
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&ablet$ l. H6$ in the phrase %0or their forgi(eness <i.e.$ the forgi(eness of the gods= did he create man#ind$% and other passages in the Se(enth &ablet tend to show that ardu#"s mercy and goodness are e*tolled in his relations$ not to man#ind$ but to the gods. 1 +n one passage marl"s creation is referred to$ but it is in connection with the charge that he forget not the deeds of his Creator. H &he abo(e considerations render it unli#ely that the Babylonian poem contained an e*act parallel to the e*alted charge of Elohim in which He placed the rest of creation under man"s dominion. +t is possible$ howe(er$ that upon the new fragment of the Se(enth &ablet$ D. 1H$2I7 <restored from the commentary D. 2$H66= I we ha(e a reference to the superiority of man o(er animals$ in the phrase %man#ind Ahe createdB$ Aand uponB him understanding Ahe bestowed <t= . . .B%- and if this be so$ we may compare it to !en. i$ H2;. oreo(er$ if my suggested restoration of the last word in l. 3 of the Si*th &ablet be correct$ so that it may read %+ will create man who shall inhabit Athe earthB$ >% we may
Aparagraph continuesB p. .C

compare it to !en. i$ H2a in which man is commanded to be fruitful$ and multiply$ and replenish the earth. 1

A suggestion has been made that the prominence gi(en to the word of the Creator in the Hebrew account may ha(e found its parallel in the creation by a word in the Babylonian poem. +t is true that the word of ardu# had magical power and could destroy and create ali#e- but ardu# did not employ his word in any of his acts of creation which are at present #nown to us. He first concei(ed a cunning de(ice$ and then proceeded to carry it out by hand. &he only occasion on which he did employ his word to destroy and to create is in the 0ourth &ablet$ ll. 16'H;$ H when$ at the in(itation of the gods$ he tested his power by ma#ing a garment disappear and then appear again at the word of his mouth. &he parallelism between the two accounts under this heading is not (ery close. &he order of the separate acts of creation is also not ,uite the same in the two accounts$ for$ while in the Babylonian poem the hea(enly bodies are created immediately after the formation of the firmament$ in the Hebrew account their creation is postponed until after the earth and (egetation ha(e been made. +t is possible that the creation of the earth and plants has been displaced by the writer to whom the present form of the Hebrew account is due$ and that the
p. .C+

order of creation was precisely the same in the original forms of the two narrati(es. But e(en according to the present arrangement of the Hebrew account$ there are se(eral stri#ing points of resemblance to the Babylonian poem. &hese may be seen in the e*istence of light before the creation of the hea(enly bodies- in the di(iding of the waters of the prime(al flood by means of a firmament also before the creation of the hea(enly bodies- and in the culminating act of creation being that of man. +t would be tempting to trace the framewor# of the Se(en 4ays of Creation$ upon which the narrati(e in !enesis is stretched$ to the influence of the Se(en &ablets of Creation$ of which we now #now that the great Creation Series was composed. &he reasons for the employment of the Se(en 4ays in the Hebrew account are$ howe(er$ not the same which led to the arrangement of the Babylonian poem upon Se(en &ablets. +n the one the writer"s intention is to gi(e the original authority for the obser(ance of the Sabbath- in the other there appears to ha(e been no special reason for this arrangement of the poem beyond the mystical nature of the number %se(en.% oreo(er$ acts of creation are recorded on all of the first si* 4ays in the Hebrew narrati(e$ while in the Babylonian poem the creation only begins at the end of the 0ourth &ablet. 1 &he resemblance$ therefore$ is somewhat superficial$ but
p. .C++

it is possible that the employment of the number %se(en% in the two accounts was not fortuitous. 5hether the Sabbath was of Babylonian origin <as seems probable= or not$ it is clear that the writer of the narrati(e in !enesis was #eenly interested in its propagation and its due obser(ance. Cow in E*ilic and post'E*ilic times the account of the Creation most pre(alent in Babylonia was that in the poem Enuma elish$ the te*t of which was at this time absolutely fi*ed and its arrangement upon Se(en &ablets in(ariable. &hat the late re(i(al of mythology among the 8ews was partly due to their actual study of the Babylonian legends at this period is sufficiently pro(ed by the minute points of resemblance between the

accounts of the 4eluge in !enesis and in the poem of !ilgamesh. 1 +t is probable$ therefore$ that the writer who was responsible for the final form of !en. i'ii$ >a$ was familiar with the Babylonian legend of Creation in the form in which it has come down to us. &he supposition$ then$ is perhaps not too
p. .C+++

fanciful$ that the connection of the Sabbath with the story of Creation was suggested by the mystical number of the &ablets upon which the Babylonian poem was inscribed. 0urther resemblances to the Babylonian Creation legends may be traced in the second Hebrew account of the Creation which follows the first in !en. ii$ >b'3. According to this (ersion man was formed from the dust of the ground$ which may be compared to the mi*ing of Bel"s blood with earth according to the account of Berossus$ the use of the Creator"s blood in the one account being paralleled by the employment of His breath in the other for the purpose of gi(ing life to the dust or earth. Earth is not mentioned in the reco(ered portion of the Si*th &ablet$ but its use in the creation of men is fully in accordance with Babylonian beliefs. &hus$ according to the second Babylonian account of the Creation$ 1 ardu# formed man by pouring out dust beside a reed which he had set upon the face of the waters. Clay is also related to ha(e been employed in the creation of special men and heroes- thus it was used in Ea'bani"s creation by Arum$ H and it is related to ha(e been mi*ed with di(ine blood for a similar purpose in the fragmentary legend Bu. 61'9'6$ H;6. I &o the account of the creation of woman in !en. ii$ 12 ff. we find a new parallel in l. 9 of the
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Si*th &ablet of the Creation Series$ in the use of the word issimtu$ % bone$% corresponding to the Hebrew 'esem which occurs in the phrase %bone of my bones % in !en. ii$ HI. +n addition to the Babylonian colouring of much of the story of Paradise we may now add a new parallel from the Babylonian address to a mythical Ri(er of Creation$ inscribed on S. 137> and the Ceo'Babylonian &ablet 2H' 6'12$ 9I11. 1 &his short composition is addressed to a Ri(er to whom the creation of all things is ascribed$ H and with this ri(er we may compare the mythical ri(er of Paradise which watered the garden$ and on lea(ing it was di(ided into four branches. &hat the Hebrew Ri(er of Paradise is Babylonian in character is clear- and the origin of the Babylonian Ri(er of Creation is also to be found in the Euphrates$ from whose waters southern Babylonia deri(ed its great fertility. I &he
Aparagraph continuesB p. .C@

life'gi(ing stream of Paradise is met with elsewhere in the Old &estament$ as$ for instance$ in E)e#iel *l(ii$ and it is probable that we may trace its influence in the Apocalypse. 1 +t is unnecessary here to discuss in detail the e(idence to pro(e that the Hebrew narrati(es of the influence on Creation were ultimately deri(ed from Babylonia$ and mythology. were not inherited independently by the Babylonians and Hebrews from a common Semitic ancestor. H 0or the local Babylonian colouring of the stories$ and the great age to which their e*istence can be traced$ e*tending bac# to the time of the Sumerian inhabitants of esopotamia$ I are conclusi(e e(idence against the second

alternati(e. On the other hand$ it is e,ually unnecessary to cite the well' #nown arguments to pro(e
p. .C@+

the e*istence among the Hebrews of Creation legends similar to those of Babylonia for centuries before the E*ile. &he allusions to (ariant Hebrew forms of the Babylonian 4ragon' yth in Amos i*$ I$ +saiah li$ 6$ Psalm l**i($ 1I f.$ and l***i*$ 6 f.$ and 8ob **(i$ 1H f.$ and i*$ 1I$ may be cited as sufficient proof of the early period at which the borrowing from Babylonian sources must ha(e ta#en place- and the stri#ing differences between the Biblical and the #nown Babylonian (ersions of the legends pro(e that the E*ilic and post'E*ilic 8ews must ha(e found ready to their hand ancient Hebrew (ersions of the stories$ and that the changes they introduced must in the main ha(e been confined to details of arrangement and to omissions necessitated by their own more spiritual conceptions and beliefs. &he disco(ery of the &ell el'Amarna tablets pro(ed conclusi(ely that Babylonian influence e*tended throughout Egypt and 5estern Asia in the fifteenth century B.C.$ and the e*istence of legends among the letters demonstrated the fact that Babylonian mythology e*erted an influence coe*tensi(e with the range of her political ties and interests. 5e may therefore con?ecture that Babylonian myths had become naturali)ed in Palestine before the con,uest of that country by the +sraelites. any such Palestinian (ersions of Babylonian myths the +sraelites no doubt absorbedwhile during the subse,uent period of the Hebrew #ings Assyria and Babylonia e*erted a direct influence upon them. +t is clear$ therefore$ that at the time of their of Babylonian
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e*ile the capti(e 8ews did not find in Babylonian mythology an entirely new and unfamiliar sub?ect$ but recogni)ed in it a series of #indred beliefs$ differing much from their own in spiritual conceptions$ but presenting a startling resemblance on many material points. Cow that the principal problems with regard to the contents$ date$ and influence of the Creation Series$ Enuma elish$ ha(e been dealt with$ it remains to describe in some detail the forty'nine fragments and tablets from which the te*t$ transliterated and translated in the following pages$ has been made up. After each registration'number is gi(en a reference to the published copy of the te*t in Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets$ etc.$ in the British Museum$ pt. *iii$ or in @ol. ++ of this wor#$ or in Appendices + and ++ of this (olume- a brief description of each tablet is added$ together with references to any pre(ious publication of the te*t. After the enumeration of the #nown copies of each tablet$ a list is gi(en of the authorities for the separate lines of the tablet$ in order to enable the reader to (erify any passage in the te*t with as little delay as possible. &he following twel(e tablets and fragments are inscribed with portions of the te*t of the 0irst &ablet of the seriesG'' 1. D. 9$>16cG Cuneiform Texts$ pt. *iii <illegible=$ pl. +. Ob(erseG ll. 1'1;Re(erseG catch'line and colophon.
p. .C@+++

Jpper part of an Assyrian tablet$ I> in. by 1 3u2 in. 0or earlier publications of the te*t$ see !eorge Smith$ T.%.B.".$ (ol. i($ the Creation Series$ p. I;I f.$ pl. i- 0o* &albot$ T.%.B.".$ (ol. ($ pp. >H2 ff.- enant$ Manuel de la langue "syrienne$ p. I32 f.- 4elit)sch$ "syrische

#esest0c)e$ 1st ed.$ p. >7$ Hnd ed.$ p. 32$ Ird ed.$ p. 6I- /yon$ "ssyrian Manual$ p. ;H- and my 1irst %teps in "ssyrian$ p. 1HH f.

H. Co. 6I$719 <2H'3'1>$ >7H=G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pls. 1 and I. Ob(erseG ll. 1'1;- Re(erseG ll. 1H>'1>H and colophon.
Jpper part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ H 1u2 in. by H 1u> in. 0or an earlier publication of the te*t$ see Pinches$ Bab. 2r. 3ec.$ (ol. i($ p. H;f. &he fragment is probably part of the same tablet as that to which Co. 17 belonged.

I. Co. >9$9H2 r >;$;1>G @ol. ++$ pls. i'(i. Ob(erseG ll. 1'>2- Re(erseG ll. 111' 1>H$ catch'line$ and colophon.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ formed from two fragments$ which + ha(e ?oined- H 1u> in. by 9 v in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

>. Co. I9$1I>G @ol. ++$ pl. (ii. Ob(erseG ll. 11'H1- no re(erse.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ 1 Iu2 in. by H in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

9. Co. I;$3H;G @ol. ++$ pl. (iii. Ob(erseG ll. H2'II.


Ceo'Babylonian %practice'tablet%- the te*t$ which forms an e*tract$ measures H 3u2. by 1 1u> in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

;. 21'3'H3$ 27G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. H. Ob(erseG ll. I1'9;- Re(erseG ll. 112'1>H.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ H9u2 in. by I in. &his te*t$ which was referred to by Pinches in the Bab. 2r. 3ec.$ (ol. i($ p. II$ was used by :immern for his translation in !un#el"s %ch4pfung
p. .C+.

und Chaos$ p. >7H f.- it was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. H9 f.$ and by 8ensen$ Mythen una Epen$ pp. H ff.

3. D. I$6I2G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. I. Ob(erseG ll. II'>H- Re(erseG ll. 1H2' 1>H.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 1u; in. by 1 Iu> in. &his fragment was used by !eorge Smith$ Chaldean "ccount of +enesis$ p. 6I f.$ and by subse,uent translators- the te*t was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. H3.

2. D. 3$231G @ol. +$ Appendi* ++$ pp. 12I ff. Ob(erseG ll. II'>3- no re(erse.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 1u; in. by 1 Iu> in. &he fragment may belong to the same tablet as Co. ++. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

6. Co. I;$;22G @ol. ++$ pl. (ii. Ob(erseG ll. I2'>>.


Part of a Ceo'Babylonian %practice'tablet%- the te*t$ which forms an abstract$ measures 1v in. by 1 1u2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

17. Co. >;$27IG @ol. ++$ pls. i*'*i. Ob(erse ll. >;';3- Re(erseG ll. 2I'17I.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ H in. by H in. &he fragment is probably part of the same tablet as that to which Co. H belonged. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

11. D. >$>22G @ol. +$ Appendi* ++$ pp. 129 ff. Ob(erseG ll. 97';I- no re(erse.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 Iu> in. by 1v in.- see abo(e$ Co. 2. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

1H. 2H'6'12$ ;$236G @ol. ++$ pls. *ii and *iii. Co ob(erse- Re(erseG ll. 6I'1 12.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ 1 3u2 in. by H 9u2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.
p. C

&he authorities for the lines of the 0irst &ablet are as followsG'' &AB/E& +. ll. 1'17G Cos. 1$ H$ and I. ll. 11'1;G Cos. 1$ H$ I$ and >. ll. 13'H1G Cos. I and >.

ll. HH'H3G Co. I. ll. H2'I7G Cos. I and 9. ll. I1'IHG Cos. I$ 9$ and ;. l. IIG Cos. I$ 9$ ;$ 3$ and 2. ll. I>'I3G Cos. I$ ;$ 3$ and 2. ll. I2'>HG Cos. I$ ;$ 3$ 2$ and 6. l. >IG Cos. I$ ;$ and 2. 1. >>G Cos. I$ ;$ 2$ and 6. l. >9G Cos. I$ ;$ and 2. ll. >;'>3G Cos. I$ ;$ 2$ and 17. l. >IG Cos. I$ ;$ and 17. l. >6G Cos. ; and 17. ll. 9I'9;G Cos. ;$ 17$ and 11. ll. 93';IG Cos. 17 and 11. ll. ;>';3G Co. 17. ll. ;2'2HG 5anting. ll. 2I'6HG Co. 17. ll. 6I'17IG Cos. 17 and 1H. ll. 17>'117G Co. 1H. ll. 111'113G Cos. I and 1H. l. 112G Cos. I$ ;$ and 1H. ll. 116'1HIG Cos. I and ;. ll. 1H>'1H3G Cos. H$ I$ and ;. ll. 1H2'1>HG Cos. H$ I$ ;$ and 3.
p. C+

&he following se(en tablets and fragments are inscribed with portions of the te*t of the Second &ablet of the seriesG'' 1I. Co. >7$996G @ol. ++$ pls. *i('**i. Ob(erseG ll. 1'>7- Re(erseG ll. <111=' <1>7=$ catch'line$ and colophon.
Jpper part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ H 9u2 in. by > 1u; in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

1>. Co. I2$I6;G Cun. &e*ts$ pt. *iii$ pl. >. Ob(erseG ll. 11'H6- Re(erseG ll. <179='<1IH=.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ I 1u> in. by H in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

19. Co. 6H$;IH r 6I$7>2G @ol. ++$ pls. **ii'**i(. Ob(erseG ll. 1>'H6- Re(erseG ll. <17>='<1I2=.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ formed from two fragments which + ha(e ?oined- 1 3u2 in. by 1 ;u2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

1;. D. >$2IHG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 9. Ob(erseG ll. IH'92- Re(erseG ll. <17>=' <1I2=.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1v in. by I 1u> in. &his tablet was #nown to !eorge Smith$ see Chald. "cc. of +en.$ p. 6H- its te*t was published by S. A. Smith$ Miscellaneous Texts$ pl. 2 f.

13. 36'3'2$ 132G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. ;. Ob(erseG ll. <;6='<39=- Re(erseG ll. <3;='<29=.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ I 1u2 in. by 1 Iu> in. &his te*t$ which was identified by Pinches$ was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. I7$ and by 8ensen$ Mythen und Epen$ p. 17 f.

12. D. 17$772G @ol. +$ App. ++$ pp. 123 ff. Co ob(erse- Re(erseG probably between 11.29 and 17>.

Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 9u2 in. by H 1u> in &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.
p. C++

16. D. H6HG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. ;. Co ob(erse- Re(erseG ll. <1I1='< 1>7=.
/ower part of an Assyrian tablet$ Hv in. by H 1u> in. &he te*t of this tablet$ which was #nown to !eorge Smith$ was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. I1$ and by 8ensen$ Mythen and Epen$ p. 17.

&he authorities for the lines of the Second &ablet are as followsG'' &AB/E& ++. ll. 1'17G Co. 1I. ll. 11'1IG Cos. 1I and 1>. ll. 1>'H6G Cos. 1I$ 1>$ and 19. ll. I7'I1G Co. 1I. ll. IH'>7G Cos. 1I and 1;. ll. >1'92G Co. 1;. ll. 96'<;2=G 5anting. ll. <;6='<29=G Co. 13. between ll. <2;= and <17I=G Co. 12. l. <17>=G Co. 1;. ll. <179='<117=G Cos. 1> and 1;. ll. <111='<11I=G Cos. 1I$ 1>$ and 1;. ll. <11>='<1H;=G Cos. 1I$ 1>$ 19$ and 1;. l. <1H3=G Cos. 1I$ 19$ and 1;. ll. <1H2='<1H6=G Cos. 1I$ 1>$ 19$ and 1;. l. <1I7=G Cos. 1I$ 19$ and 1;. l. <1I1=G Cos. 1I$ 19$ 1;$ and 16. l. <1I'H=G Cos. 1I$ 1>$ 1;$ and 16. ll. <1II='<1I2=G Cos. 1I$ 1;$ and 16. ll. <1I6='<1>7=G Cos. 1I and 16.
p. C+++

&he following nine tablets and fragments are inscribed with portions of the te*t of the &hird &abletG'' H7. D. I$>3I r 36'3'2$ H6; r R. ;19G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pls. 3'6. Ob(erseG ll. 1'29- Re(erseG ll. 2;'1I2.
Parts of an Assyrian tablet$ Hv in. by 2 Iu2 in. &he three fragments of this tablet$ which ha(e been reco(ered$ ?oin$ but$ as they are much warped by fire$ they ha(e not been stuc# together. 0or earlier publications of the te*t$ see S. A. Smith$ Miscellaneous Texts$ pls. 1'9$ and my 1irst %teps in "ssyrian$ pp. 1H> ff. &he te*t of D. I$>3I had been already recogni)ed by !eorge Smith$ see Chald. "cc. +en.$ p. 6H f.

H1. Co. 6I$713 A22'>'16$ 1IBG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pls. 17 and 11. Ob(erseG ll. >3'33- Re(erseG ll. 32'179.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ Hv in. by I 9u2 in. &his te*t$ which was identified by Pinches$ was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. I9 f.$ and by 8ensen$ ythen und Epen$ pp. 1> ff.

HH. 2H'6'12$ 1$>7Ir;$I1; ACo. ;1$>H6BG @ol. ++$ pls. **('**(iii. Ob(erseG ll. 9'19$ 9H';1- Re(erseG ll. ;H'3;$ 1H>'1H2.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian %practice'tablet$% inscribed with a series of fi(e'line e*tracts from the te*t- H in. by I in. A copy of the te*t of 2H'6'12$ 1$>7I$ is gi(en in Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 1IG since then + ha(e ?oined to it the fragment 2H'6'12$ ;$I1;$ and the te*t is therefore repeated in @ol. ++. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

HI. D. 2$9H>G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 1H. 0ragment from the end of Ob(. or beginning of Re(.G ll. 39'2;.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 3u2 n . by 1 Iu2 in. &he te*t was
p. C+@

referred to by Pinches in the Bab. 2r. 3ec.$ (ol. i($ p. I7$ and was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. I1.

H>. 2H'6'12$ ;$697r2I'1'12$ 1$2;2G @ol. ++$ pl. **i*. 4uplicate of ll. 16'H; and 33'2>- (ariants are noted in the te*t under ll. 16'H;.
Ceo'Babylonian %practice'tablet%- the te*t forms an e*tract measuring H 9u2 in. by 1 1u> in. A copy of the te*t of 2I'1'12$ 1$2;2$ is gi(en in Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 1H- since then + ha(e ?oined to it the fragment 2H'6'12$ ;$697$ and the te*t is therefore repeated in @ol. ++. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

H9. D. ;$;97G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 6. 4uplicate of ll. I2'99 and 6;'11I(ariants are noted in the te*t under ll. I2'99.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ I in. by I Iu2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

H;. Co. >H$H29G @ol. ++$ pls. ***'***iii. Ob(erseG ll. >;';2- Re(erseG ll. ;6'23.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ Hv in. by H 9u2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

H3. 2H'6'12$ 9$>>2r2I'1'12$ H$11;G @ol. ++$ pl. ***i(. Ob(erseG ll. ;>'3H.

Part of a Ceo'Babylonian %practice'tablet%- the te*t$ which forms an e*tract$ measures H Iu> in. by 1v in. A copy of the te*t of 2I'1'12$ H$11;$ is gi(en in Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 1Hsince then + ha(e ?oined to it the fragment 2H'6'12$ 9$>>2$ and the te*t is therefore repeated in @ol. ++. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

H2. D. 2$939G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 1H. Ob(erseG ll. ;6'3;- Re(erseG ll. 33' 29.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ H 9u2 in. by H 1u; in. &his te*t$ which was identified by Be)old$ Catalogue$ p. 6>1$ was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. I2.
p. C@

&he authorities for the lines of the &hird &ablet are as followsG'' &AB/E& +++. ll. 1'>G Co. H7. ll. 9'19G Cos. H7 and HH. ll. 1;'12G Co. H7. ll. H6'H;G Cos. H7 and H>. ll. I2'>9G Cos. H7 and H9. l. >;G Cos. H7$ H9$ and H;. ll. >3'91G Cos. H7$ H1$ H9$ and H;. ll. 9H'99G Cos. H7$ H1$ HH$ H9$ and H;. ll. 9;';IG Cos. H7$ H1$ HH$ and H;. ll. ;>';2G Cos. H7$ H1$ HH$ H;$ and H3. ll. ;6'3HG Cos. H7$ H1$ HH$ H;$ H3$ and H2. ll. 3I'3>G Cos. H7$ H1$ HH$ H;$ and H2. ll. 39'3;G Cos. H7$ H1$ HH$ HI$ H;$ and H2. ll. 33'2>G Cos. H7$ H1$ HI$ H>$ H;$ and H2. l. 29G Cos. H7$ H1$ HI$ H;$ and H2. l. 2;G Cos. H7$ H1$ HI$ and H;. l. 23G Cos. H7$ H1$ and H;. ll. 22'69G Cos. H7 and H1. ll. 6;'179G Cos. H7$ H1$ and H9. ll. 17;'11IG Cos. H7 and H9.

ll. ll. ll. ll.

1H>'1H2G Cos. H7 and HH. H3'I3G Co. H7. 11>'1HIG Co. H7. 1H6'1I2G Co. H7.

p. C@+

&he following si* tablets and fragments are inscribed with portions of the te*t of the 0ourth &abletG'' H6. Co. 6I$71; A2H'6'12$ I$3I3BG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pls. 1>'19. Ob(erseG ll. 1'>>- Re(erseG ll. 11;'1>;.
Jpper part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ I Iu2 in. by > 3u2 in. 0or an earlier publication of the te*t$ see Budge$ ,.%.B.".$ (ol. *$ p. 2;$ pls. 1';.

I7. D. I$>I3 r R. ;>1G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pls. 1;'16. Ob(erseG ll. I;'2IRe(erseG ll. 2>'116.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ I in. by 9v in. 0or an earlier publication of" the te*t of D. I$>I3$ see !eorge Smith$ T.%.B.".$ (ol. i($ p. I;I f.$ pls. 9 and ;- and of D. I$>I3rR. ;>1$ see 4elit)sch$ "syrische #esest0c)e$ pp. 63 ff.$ and my 1irst %teps in "ssyrian$ pp. 1I3 ff.

I1. 36'3'2$ H9 +G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. H7. Ob(erseG ll. I9'>6- Re(erseG ll. 17I'173.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 in. by H 1u2 in. &he te*t$ which was identified by Pinches$ was used in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ pp. >1 ff.$ and by 8ensen$ Mythen und Epen$ pp. HH ff. &his fragment probably belongs to the same tablet as Co. I>.

IH. Co. 6I$791G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. H7. Ob(erseG ll. >H'9>- Re(erseG ll. 29'6>.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian %practice'tablet$% inscribed with the te*t di(ided into sections of fi(e lines- H 1u> in. by 1 Iu> in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

II. D. 9$>H7cG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. H1. Ob(erseG ll. 3>'6H- Re(erseG ll. 6I' 116.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ I Iu2 in. by I 1u2 in. Restorations and (ariants were ta#en from this tablet by !eorge Smith for his edition of D. I$>I3- see abo(e$ Co. I7.

I>. R. H$ 2IG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 16. Co ob(erse- Re(erseG ll. 113'1H6.
p. C@++

Part of an Assyrian tablet$ H 1u> in$ by 1 9u2 in. &he te*t$ which was identified by Pinches$ was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. >9. &his fragment probably belongs to the same tablet as Co. I1.

&he authorities for the lines of the 0ourth &ablet are as followsG'' &AB/E& +@. l. I9G Cos. H6 and I1. ll. I;'>1G Cos. H6$ I7$ and I1. ll. >H'>>G Cos. H6$ I7$ I1$ and IH. ll. >9'>6G Cos. I7$ I1$ and IH. ll. 97'9>G Cos. I7 and IH. ll. 99'3IG Co. I7. ll. 3>'2>G Cos. I7 and II. ll. 29'6>G Cos. I7$ IH$ and II. ll. 69'17HG Cos. I7 and II. ll. 17I'173G Cos. I7$ I1$ and II. ll. 172'119G Cos. I7 and II. l. 11;G Cos. H6$ I7$ and II. ll. 113'116G Cos. H6$ I7$ II$ and I>. ll. 1H7'1H6G Cos. H6 and I>. ll. 1I7'1>;G Co. H6. ll. 1'I>G Co. H6.

&he following fi(e tablets and fragments are inscribed with portions of the te*t of the 0ifth &abletG'' I9. D. I$9;3 r D. 2$922G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. HH. Ob(erseG ll. 1'H;Re(erseG catch'line.
Jpper part of an Assyrian tablet$ I 1u2 in. by H 3u2 in. 0or earlier publications of the te*t$ see !eorge Smith$ T.%.B.".$ (ol. i($ p. I;I f.$ pl. H- 4elit)sch$ "ssyrische #esest0c)e$ Ird ed.$ p. 6>- and my 1irst %teps in "ssyrian$ pp. 192 ff.
p. C@+++

I;. D. 2$9H;G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. HI. Ob(erseG ll. 1'12- Re(erseG ll. <1I2=' < 1>7=.
Jpper part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 v in. by H 1u> in. &he te*t was used by !eorge Smith for his edition of Co. I9$ and in the other copies of that tablet mentioned abo(e- it was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. >2 f.

I3. D. 1I$33>G @ol. +$ Appendi* ++$ pp. 167 ff. Ob(erseG ll. ;'16- no re(erse.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 1u> in. by 1v in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

I2. D. 11$;>1G @ol. +$ Appendi* ++$ pp. 16H ff. Ob(erseG ll. 1>'HH- Re(erseG ll. <1H2='<1>7=$ catch'line$ and colophon.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ H Iu> in. by I Iu2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

I6. D. I$>>6aG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. HI. Ob(erseG ll. <;;='< 3>=- Re(erseG ll. <39='<23=.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ Hv in. by 1v in. &his te*t$ which was first identified and translated by !eorge Smith$ Chald. "cc. of +en.$ p. 6> f.$ was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p$ 97$ and the re(erse by 8ensen$ Mythen and Epen$ p. IH.

&he authorities for the lines of the 0ifth &ablet are as followsG'' &AB/E& @. ll. 1'9G Cos. I9 and I;. ll. ;'1IG Cos. I9$ I;$ and I3. ll. 1>'12G Cos. I9$ I;$ I3$ and I2. 1. 16G Cos. I9$ I3$ and I2. ll. H7'HHG Cos. I9 and I2. ll. HI'H;G Co. I9.
p. C+.

ll. H3'<;9=G 5anting. ll. <;;='<23=G Co. I6. ll. <22='< + H3=G 5anting. ll. <1I2='<1>7=G Cos. I; and I2. ll. <1H2='< 1I3=G Co. I2. &he following fragment is inscribed with a portion of the te*t of the Si*th &abletG'' >7. Co. 6H$;H6G @ol. ++$ pls. ***( and ***(i. Ob(erseG ll. 1'H1- Re(erseG ll. 1I2'1>;$ catch'line$ and colophon$
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ H 1u2 in. by H 1u> in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

&he following nine tablets and fragments are inscribed with portions of the te*t of the Se(enth &abletG'' >1. D. H$29>G @ol. +$ Appendi* +$ p. 196. Ob(erseG ll. 1'12- Re(erse uninscribed.
Jpper part of an Assyrian tablet$ Hv in. by 1 Iu> in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

>H. Co. 61$ 1I6 r 6I$73IG @ol. ++. pls. ***(iii'*l(. Ob(erseG ll. I'>7- Re(erseG ll. 17;'1>1.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ H Iu> in. by > 3u2 in. &his te*t is made up of two fragments which + ha(e ?oined- it has not pre(iously been published.

>I. D. 2$9HHG Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pls. H; and H3. Ob(erseG ll. 19'>9Re(erseG ll. 179'1I3.

Part of an Assyrian tablet$ Hv in. by I 1u> in. 0or earlier publications of the te*t$ see !eorge Smith$ T.%.B.".$ (ol. i($ p. I;I f.$ pls. I and >$ and 4elit)sch$ "ssyrische #esest0c)e$ Ird ed.$ p. 69 f.
p. C.

>>. Co. I9$97;G @ol. ++$ pls. *l(i'*l(iii. Ob(erseG ll. 1>'I;- Re(erseG ll. 179' 1>H.
Part of a Ceo'Babylonian tablet$ H 1u> in. by > 1u> in. &his te*t$ which probably dates from the period of the Arsacidae$ has not been pre(iously published.

>9. D. 6$H;3G Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. H2. Ob(erseG ll. >7'>3- Re(erseG ll. 176' 1I2.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ I 9u2 in. by H in. Restorations and (ariants were ta#en from this tablet by !eorge Smith for his edition of D. 2$9HH- see abo(e$ Co. >I.

>;. D. 1H$2I7G @ol. +$ Appendi* +$ p. 1;I. Ob(erse or Re(erseG between ll. >3 and 179.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 3u2 in. by 3u2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

>3. D. 1I$3;1G @ol. +$ Appendi* +$ p. 1;>. End of Ob(erse and beginning of Re(erseG between ll. >3 and 179.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 1u2 in. by 1 9u2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published.

>2. D. 2$916G @ol. +$ Appendi* +$ p. 1;9. End of Ob(erse and beginning of Re(erseG between ll. >3 and 179.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 1 Iu> in. by 1 Iu2 in. &his te*t has not been pre(iously published. 1

>6. D. 1I$II3G @ol. +$ Appendi* +$ p. 1;;. 4uplicate of Co. >2- between ll. >3 and 179.
Part of an Assyrian tablet$ 3u2 in. by 1 in. &his te*t$ which is a duplicate of D. 2$916$ has not been pre(iously published.
p. C.+

&he authorities for the lines of the Se(enth &ablet are as followsG'' &AB/E& @++. ll. 1'HG Co. >1. ll. I'1IG Cos. >1 and >H. l. 1>G Cos. >1$ >H$ and >>. ll. 19'12G Cos. >1$ >H$ >I$ and >>. ll. 16'I;G Cos. >H$ >I$ and >>. ll. I3'I6G Cos. >H and >I. l. >7G Cos. >H$ >I$ and >9. ll. >1'>9G Cos. >I and >9. between ll. >3 and 179G Cos. >;$ >3$ >2$ and >6. l. 179G Cos. >I and >>. ll. >;'>3G Co. >9. ll. 17;'172G Cos. >H$ >I$ and >>. ll. 176'1I3G Cos. >H$ >I$ >>$ and >9. l. 1I2G Cos. >H$ >>$ and >9. ll. 1I6'1>1G Cos. >H and >>.

l. 1>HG Co. >>. &he abo(e forty'nine tablets and fragments$ inscribed with portions of the te*t of the Creation Series$ belong to two distinct periods. &he older class of tablets were made for the library of Ashur'bani'pal at Cine(eh$ and they are beautifully written in the Assyrian character upon tablets of fine clay. 1 &he
p. C.++

Ceo'Babylonian tablets$ on the other hand$ are$ as a rule$ less carefully written- they (ary considerably in si)e and shape$ and were made at different periods for pri(ate indi(iduals$ either for their own use$ 1 or that they might be deposited in the temples as (oti(e offerings. H Some of these Babylonian copies
p. C.+++

are fine specimens of their class$ e.g. Cos. I$ 1I$ H1$ H6$ and >H$ 1and the characters and words upon them are carefully written and spaced- others$ howe(er$ consist of small$ carelessly made tablets$ on to which the poem is crowded. HOn all the tablets$ whether Assyrian or Babylonian$ which possess colophons$ the number of the &ablet in the Series is carefully gi(en. I &he e*tracts from the te*t$ which were written out by students upon %practice'tablets$% no doubt in order to gi(e them practice in writing and at the same time to enable them to learn the te*t by heart$ are naturally rather rough productions. > One characteristic which applies to all the tablets$
p. C.+@

whether Assyrian or Ceo'Babylonian$ is that the te*t is ne(er written in columns$ but each line of the poem is written across the tablet from edge to edge. 1 As a result$ the tablets are long and narrow in shape$ and are handled far more con(eniently than broader tablets inscribed with two or more columns of writing on each side. &he forms of the te*t of the poem$ which were in use in the Assyrian and Ceo'Babylonian periods$ are identical$ and it is incorrect to spea# of an Assyrian and a Babylonian %recension.% At the time of Ashur'bani'pal the te*t had already been definitely fi*ed$ and$ with the e*ception of one or two phrases$ the words of each line remained unchanged from that time forward. +t is true that on the Babylonian tablets the words are$ as a rule$ written more syllabically$ but this is a general characteristic of Babylonian copies of historical and literary te*ts. oreo(er$ upon se(eral of the more carefully written tablets$ the metre is indicated by the di(ision of the
p. C.@

hal(es of each (erse$ 1 an arrangement which is not met with on any of the Assyrian tablets. But both the Assyrian and Ceo'Babylonian copies represent the same %recension% of the te*t$ and$ as has already been indicated$ H are probably the descendants of a common Babylonian original. &he following table will ser(e to show the number of Assyrian and Ceo' Babylonian copies of each of the Se(en &ablets under which the forty' nine separate fragments of the te*t may be arrangedG'' &AB/E&. + ASSKR+AC &E.&. 0our copies <Cos. 1$ ;$ 3$ 2$ 11=. CEO'BAB. &E.&. 0our copies <Cos. H$ I$ >$ 17$ 1H=. CEO'BAB. E.&RAC&S. &wo %practice' tablets%<Cos. 9$ 6=.

Cos. 2 and 11 are probably parts of the same tablet.

Cos. H and 17 are probably parts of the same tablet.

++

0our copies <Cos. 1;$ 13$ 12$ 16=


Cos. 12 and 16 are probably not parts of the same tablet.

&hree copies <Cos. 1I$ 1>$ 19=.

+++.

0our copies <Cos. H7$ HI$ H9$ H2=.


Cos. HI and H9 are probably not parts of the same tablet- it is possible$ howe(er$ that Co. HI is part of a copy of &abl. ++$ its te*t corresponding to ll. 1I'H>.

&wo copies <Cos. H1$ H;=.

&hree %practice' tablets% <Cos. HH$H>$ H3=.

p. C.@+

+@

&hree copies <Cos. I7$ I1$ II$ I>=.


Cos. I1 and I> are probably parts of the same tablet.

One copy <Co. H6=.

One %practice'tablet% <Co. IH=.

0our$ or fi(e$ copies <Cos. I9$ I;$ I3$ I2$ I6=.


Cos. I9 and I6 are possibly parts of the same tablet.

@+ @++ 0our$ or fi(e$ copies <Cos. >1$ >I$ >91 >;$ >3$ >2$ >6=.
Cos. >1 and >; are probably parts of the same tablet$ and Cos. >3 and >6 are probably parts of another tablet- it is possible that Co. >9 is a part of the same tablet as Cos. >1 and >;.

One copy <Co. >7=. &wo copies <Cos. >H$ >>=.

+n the arrangement and interpretation of the te*t of the Se(enth &ablet we recei(e considerable assistance from some fragments of Assyrian commentaries which ha(e come down to us. &hese were compiled by the Assyrian scribes in order to e*plain that composition$ and they are of the

greatest (alue for the study of the te*t. &he contents of these documents$ and their relation to the te*t of the Se(enth
p. C.@++

&ablet$ are described in detail in Appendi* +$ 1 but the following facts with regard to the si)e of the tablets inscribed with the commentaries$ and to pre(ious publications of portions of them$ may here be con(eniently gi(en. &he most important class of commentary ta#es the form of a bilingual list$ and$ as has been pointed out elsewhere$ H presupposes the e*istence of a Sumerian (ersion of part of the te*t of the Se(enth &ablet of the Creation Series. &he te*t of the commentary is inscribed in a series of double columns- in the left half of each column it gi(es a list of the Sumerian words$ or ideograms$ and$ in the right half$ opposite each word is added its Assyrian e,ui(alent. +t is noteworthy that the list is generally arranged in the order in which the words occur in the Assyrian te*t of the Se(enth &ablet. &he columns of the commentary are di(ided into a number of compartments$ or sections$ by hori)ontal lines impressed upon the clay$ and the words within each compartment refer either to separate couplets$ or to separate lines$ of the Se(enth &ablet. Of this class of commentary we possess si* fragments of two large tablets which were inscribed with fi(e or si* double columns of writing on each side- the two tablets are duplicates of one another$ ha(ing been inscribed with the same
Aparagraph continuesB p. .C.@+++

(ersion of the commentary. &he following is a description of the si* separate fragments$ the two large tablets$ to which they belong$ being headed respecti(ely A and BG'' A. <1= S. ++ r S. 627r S. 1$>1;. 0or the te*t$ see @ol. ++$ pls. li'liii and l(- cf. also App. +$ pp. 192 ff.$ 1;3f.
&he fragment is the top left hand portion of the tablet- it measures > in. by 3 in. &he te*t of S. ++ r S. 627 was published in @ R.$ pl. H1$ Co. >. &he fragment S. 1$>1;$ which + ha(e ?oined to the other two$ has not been pre(iously published.

<H= D. >$>7;. 0or the te*t$ see @ol. ++$ pls. li('l(- cf. also App. +$ pp. 1;I ff.
&he fragment is the top right hand portion of the tablet- it measures > 1u> in. by > 3u2 in. &he te*t has been pre(iously published in ++ R.$ pl. I1$ Co. H.

<I= 2H'I'HI$ 191. 0or the te*t$ see @ol. ++$ pl. li(- cf. also App. +$ p. 1;H. &he fragment measures 1 Iu2 in. by H 1u2 in.- it has not been pre(iously published. B. <1= R. I;;r27'3'16$ H22t'H6I. 0or the te*t$ see @ol. ++$ pls. l(i'l(iii- cf. also App. +$ pp. 1;7$ 1;2 f.
&he fragment is from the left side of the tablet- it measures H 1u2 in. by 9 1u2 in. &he fragment R. I;; was published in @ R.$ pl. H1$ Co. I- 27'3'16$ H6I$ was ?oined to it by Be)old$ Catalogue$ p. 1$;72. &he third fragment$ 27'3'16$ H22$ was identified by :immern and published in the (eits. f0r "ssyr.$ *ii$ p. >71 f.
p. C.+.

<H= D. H$79I. 0or the te*t$ see @ol. ++$ pls. li*'l*- cf. also App. +$ pp. 1;1$ 1;3 f.

&his fragment measures H Iu2 in. by Hv in.- it has long been #nown to be a duplicate of S. + + r S. 627 <see Be)old$ Catalogue$ p. I6;=$ but its te*t has not been pre(iously published.

<I= E<. 2$H66. 0or the te*t$ see @ol. ++$ pl. l*- cf. also App. +$ p. 1;H f. &his fragment measures I in. by 1v in.- it has not been pre(iously published.

+n addition to the abo(e commentary in the form of a bilingual list$ we possess single specimens of a second and a third class of e*planatory te*t. &he second class contains a running commentary to passages selected from other &ablets of the Creation Series in addition to the Se(enth$ and is represented by the tablet S. 3>3. 1 &he third class$ represented by the ob(erse of the tablet D. H$1.73 r D. ;$72;$ H gi(es e*planations of a number of titles of ardu#$ se(eral of which occur in the reco(ered portions of the te*t of the Se(enth &ablet. Each of these two commentaries furnishes information on (arious points with regard to
p. C..

the interpretation of the Se(enth &ablet$ but$ as may be supposed$ they do not approach in interest the si* fragments of the commentary of the first class. &he transliteration of the te*t of the Creation Series$ which is gi(en in the following pages$ has been made up from the tablets$ fragments$ and e*tracts enumerated on pp. *c(ii ff.- while se(eral passages in the Se(enth &ablet ha(e been con?ecturally restored from the Assyrian Commentaries ?ust described. +n the reconstruction of the te*t preference has usually been gi(en to the readings found upon the Assyrian tablets$ and the (ariant readings of all duplicates$ both Assyrian and Ceo'Babylonian$ are gi(en in the notes at the foot of the page. &he lines upon each tablet of the Series ha(e been numbered$ and$ where the numbering of a line is con?ectural$ it is placed within parentheses. !reat assistance in the numbering of the lines of detached fragments of the te*t has been afforded by the fact that upon many of the$ Ceo'Babylonian copies e(ery tenth line is mar#ed with a figure %17% in the left'hand margin- in but few instances can the position of a detached fragment be accurately ascertained by its shape. &he lines upon the Second and 0ifth &ablets ha(e been con?ecturally numbered up to one hundred and forty. Jpon the Si*th &ablet the total number of lines was one hundred and thirty'si* or one hundred and forty'si*- and$ in (iew of the fact that the scribe of Co. 6H$;H6 has continued the te*t to the bottom of
p. C..+

the re(erse of the tablet$ the larger number is the more probable of the two. &he following is a list of the total number of lines inscribed upon each of the Se(en &ablets of the SeriesG'' &ablet % % % % % % +$ 1>H ++$ <1>7= +++$ 1I2 +@$ 1>; @$ <1>7= @+$ 1>; @++$ 1>H lines. % % % % % %

Although it is now possible to accurately estimate the number of lines contained by the Creation Series$ there are still considerable gaps in the te*t of se(eral of the &ablets. &he only &ablets in which the whole or portions of e(ery line are preser(ed are the &hird and 0ourth of the Series. !aps$ where the te*t is completely wanting$ occur in &ablet +$ ll. ;2'2H$ and in &ablet ++$ ll. 96'<;2=. 1 &he greater part of the te*t of &ablet @ is wanting$ but by roughly estimating the position of the fragment D. I$>>6a$ which occurs about in the centre of the te*t$ we obtain two gaps$ between ll. H; and <;;= and between ll. <23= and <1H2=. Of &ablet @+ we possess only the opening and closing lines$ the rest of the te*t$ from l. HH to l. 1I3$ being wanting. 0inally$ the gap in the te*t of
p. C..++

&ablet @++$ between ll. >3 and 179$ is partly filled up by the fragments DD. 1H$2I7$ 1I$3;1$ 2$916$ 1I$II3$ which together gi(e portions of thirty'nine lines. Jpon some of the Babylonian copies the metre is indicated in writing by the di(ision of the hal(es of each (erse$ 1 and$ where(er this occurs upon any tablet or duplicate$ the di(ision has$ as far as possible$ been retained in the transliteration of the te*t. +n accordance with the rules of Babylonian poetry$ the te*t generally falls into couplets$ the second (erse fre,uently echoing or supplementing the first- each of the two (erses of a couplet is di(ided into hal(es$ and each half'(erse may be further subdi(ided by an accented syllable. H &his four'fold di(ision of each
Aparagraph continuesB p. C..+++

(erse will be apparent from the following connected &he metre of transliteration of the first half'do)en lines of the poem$ in which the subdi(isions of the (erses are mar#ed in accordance with the system of the Babylonian scribes as found upon the tablet Sp. ii$ H;9a 1G'' 1. f. enuma shaplish I. f. "ps6ma mummu 9. f. m.' gip-ra w elish w ammatum w r7sht6 w Tiamat shunu w l- )issura ww l- nab6 ww shuma ww *aru' ww muallidat ww ishtenish ww susw shamamu w l- *a)rat shun w gimrishun w ih7)6ma w l- she'i

+t will be seen that the second (erse of each couplet balances the first$ and the caesura$ or di(ision$ in the centre of each (erse is well mar#ed. &he second half of (erse I and the first half of (erse 9$ each of which contains only one word$ may appear rather short for scansion$ but the rhythm is retained by dwelling on the first part of the word and treating the suffi* almost as an independent word. +t is unnecessary to transliterate more of the te*t of the poem in this manner$ as the simple metre$ or rather rhythm$ can be detected without difficulty from the syllabic transliteration which is gi(en in the following pages.

3ootnotes
..@+G1 r. Smith described the legends in a letter to the Daily Telegraph$ published on arch >th$ 1239$ Co. ;$192$ p. 9$ col. >. He there ga(e a summary of the contents of the fragments$ and on Co(ember and in the same year he read a paper on them before the p. ..@++ Society of Biblical Archxology. +n noting the resemblance between the Babylonian and the Hebrew legends it was not unnatural that he should ha(e seen a closer resemblance between them than was really the case. 0or instance$ he traced allusions to %the 0all of an% in what is the Se(enth &ablet of the Creation Series- one tablet he interpreted as containing the instructions gi(en by %the 4eity% to man after his creation$ and another he belie(ed to represent a (ersion of the story of the &ower of Babel. Although these identifications were not ?ustified$ the outline which he ga(e of the contents of the legends was remar#ably accurate. +t is declared by some scholars that the general character of the larger of the Creation fragments was correctly identified by Sir H. C. Rawlinson se(eral years before. ..@++G1 The Chaldean "ccount of +enesis$ /ondon$ 123;- !erman edition$ edited by 4elit)sch$ /eip)ig$ + 23;. Cew English edition$ edited by Sayce$ /ondon$ 1227. ..@++GH By Co(ember$ 1239$ Smith had prepared a series of si* plates containing copies of portions of the 0irst and 0ifth &ablets$ and also of the 0ourth &ablet which he entitled %5ar between the !ods and Chaos=% and of the Se(enth &ablet which he styled %&ablet describing the 0all.% &hese plates were published in the Transactions of the %ociety of Biblical "rch8ology$ (ol. i( <123;=$ and appeared after his death. ..@++GI See the papers by H. 0o* &albot in &.S.B.A.$ (ol. i($ pp. I>6 ff.$ and (ol. ($ pp. + ff.$ >H; ff.$ and Records of the Past$ (ol. i* <1233=$ pp. 119 ff.$ 1I9 ff.- and the translations made by Oppert in an appendi* to /edrain"s &istoire d'$srael, premi9re partie <1236=$ pp. >11 ff.$ and by /enormant in #es origines de p. ..@+++ l'histoire <1227=$ app. i$ pp. >6>ff. &he best discussion of the relations of the legends to the early chapters of !enesis was gi(en by Schrader in the second edition <122I= of his Keilinschriften und das "lte Testament$ English translation$ 1229'1222- + hear from Professor :immern that the new edition of this wor#$ a portion of which he is editing$ will shortly ma#e its appearance. ..@+++G1 &he tablet was numbered 2H'6'12$ I$3I3- see below$ p. c(i$ Co. H6. Budge ga(e a description of the tablet in the ,roceedings of the %ociety of Biblical "rch8ology for Co(. ;th$ 122I$ and published the te*t in ,.%.B.".$ (ol. * <1223 =$ p. 2;$ pls. 1';. ..@+++GH See #ectures on the 2rigin and +ro:th of 3eligion as illustrated by the 3eligion of the "ncient Babylonians <Hibbert /ectures for 1223=$ pp. I36. ff. ..@+++GI $n 3ecords of the ,ast$ new series$ (ol. i <1222=$ pp. 1HH ff. ..@+++G> See Die Kosmologie der Babylonier <Strassburg$ 1267=$ pp. H;I ff. ..+.G1 :immern published his translation as an appendi* to !un#el"s %ch4pfung und Chaos in !r*eit und End*eit <!ottingen$ 1269=$ pp. >71 ff.

..+.GH Bas Babylonische 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ published in the "bhandlungen der philologisch'historischen Classe der K4nigl. %0chsischen +esellschaft der 5issenschaffen$ *(ii$ Co. ii. ..+.GI "ssyrisch'Babylonische Mythen und Epen$ published as the si*th (olume of Schrader"s Keilinschriftliche Bibliothe)- part +$ containing transliterations and translations <1677=- part H$ containing commentary <1671=. ..+.G> +n addition to the translations of the legends mentioned in the te*t$ a number of papers and wor#s containing descriptions and discussions of the Creation legends ha(e from time to time been published. Among those which ha(e appeared during the last few years may be mentioned the translations of portions of the legends by 5inc#ler in his Keilinschriftliches Textbuch *um "lten Testament$ ii <126H=$ pp. 22 ff.- Barton"s article on Tiamat$ published in the ;ournal of the "merican 2riental %ociety$ (ol. *( <126I=$ pp. 1 ff.- and the translations and discussions of the p. ... legends gi(en in 8astrow"s 3eligion of Babylonia and "ssyria <1262=$ pp. >73 ff.$ in my own Babylonian 3eligion and Mythology <1266=$ pp. 9 I ff.$ by uss' Arnolt in "ssyrian and Babylonian #iterature$ edited by R. 0. Harper <1671=$ pp. H2H ff.$ and by /oisy$ #es mythes babyloniens et les premiers chapitres de la +en9se <1671=. 4iscussions of the Babylonian Creation legends and their connection with the similar narrati(es in !enesis ha(e been gi(en by /u#as in Die +rundbegriffe in den Kosmogonien der alten <4l)er <126I=$ pp. 1'>;$ by !un#el in %ch4pfung und Chaos in !r*eit und End*eit <1269=$ pp. 1; ff.$ by 4ri(er in "uthority and "rcheology$ edited by Hogarth <1266=$ pp. 6 ff.$ and by :immern in Biblische und babylonische !rgeschichte <Der alte 2rient$ 1671=- an e*hausti(e article on %Creation% has also been contributed by :immern and Cheyne to the Encyclopedia Biblica$ (ol. i <1266=$ cols. 6I2 ff. ...G1 4elit)sch"s list of fragments$ enumerated on pp. 3 ff. of his wor#$ ga(e the total number as twenty'two. As Co. H1 he included the tablet D. I$I;>$ but in Appendi* ++ <pp. H71 ff.= + ha(e pro(ed$ by means of the Ceo' Babylonian duplicate Co. II$291$ that this tablet is part of a long composition containing moral precepts$ and has no connection with the Creation Series. H e also included D. I$>>9 r R. I6; <as Co. H7= but there are strong reasons for belie(ing that this tablet does not belong to the series Enuma elish$ but is part of a (ariant account of the story of Creation- see further$ Appendi* ++$ pp. 163 ff. On the other hand he necessarily omitted from his list an unnumbered fragment of the Se(enth &ablet$ which had been used by !eorge Smith$ but had been lost sight of after his death- this fragment + identified two years ago as D. 6$H;3. +t may be added that the total number of fragments correctly identified up to that time was twenty'fi(e$ but$ as four of these had been ?oined to others$ the number of separate tablets and fragments was reduced to twenty'one. ...+G1 On pp. *c(ii ff. brief descriptions are gi(en of these forty' nine separate fragments of the Creation Series$ together with references to pre(ious publications in which the te*t of any of them ha(e appeared. &he whole of the old material$ together with part of the new$ was published in Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, etc., in the British Museum$ part *iii. &he te*ts of the new tablets and fragments which + ha(e since identified are published in the lithographed plates of @ol. ++$ and by means

of outline bloc#s in Appendices + and ++ <see pp. 196 ff.=. 0or the circumstances under which the new fragments were identified$ see the Preface to this (olume. ...+GH See below$ p. *c(iii f.$ Cos. I$ >$ 9$ 2$ 6$ 17$ 11$ and 1H. ...+GI See below$ p. ci$ Cos. 1I$ 1>$ 19$ and 12. ...+G> See below$ p. ciii f.$ Cos. HH$ H>$ H9$ H;$ and H3. ...++G1 See below$ p. c(i$ Co. IH. ...++GH See below$ p. c(iii$ Cos. I3 and I2. ...++GI See below$ p. ci*$ Co. >7. ...++G> See below$ p. ci* f.$ Cos. >1$ >H$ >>$ >;$ >3$ >2$ and >6. ...++G9 See below$ p. *c(ii f.$ Co. 1. ...+++G1 &he following is the te*t of the passage in which 4amascius summari)es the Babylonian beliefsG'' yyy ''zuaestiones de primis principiis$ cap 1H9 <ed. Dopp$ p. I2>=. &he aV{dO and aV{PO of the te*t should be emended to |V{dO and |V{PO$ which correspond to /ahamu and /ahmu. Of the other deities$ }Vk~p corresponds to &iamat$ <!ree# Atpasw"n ...+@G1 See below$ p. *c(iii$ Co. H. ...+@GH +t is interesting to note that Ea is referred to under his own name and not by his title Cudimmud upon new fragments of the poem in &abl. +$ l.;7 <p. 1H f.=$ &abl. ++$ l. 9 <p. HH f.=$ and &abl. @+$ l. I <p. 2; f.= and l. 11 <p. 22 f.=. ...@++G1 See further$ pp. l*(i ff. ...@+++G1 &he ZY[\]T of 4amascius- see abo(e$ p. ***iii$ n. +. &he title ummu was not only borne by ApsE"s minister$ who$ according to 4amascius$ was the son of ApsE and &iamat$ but in &abl. +$ 1.>$ it is employed as a prefi* to the name of &iamat herself. +n this passage + ha(e con?ecturally rendered it as %chaos% <see p. H f.=$ since the e*planatory te*t S. 3>3$ Re(.$ l. 17 <see below$ pp. 1;H$ 137=$ gi(es the e,uation Mu'um'mu rig'mu. &here is$ howe(er$ much to be said for 8ensen"s suggestion of the e*istence of a word mummu meaning %form$% or ""mould$% or %pattern% <cf. Mythen und Epen$ p. I7H f.=. 8ensen points out that Ea is termed mu' um'mu ba'an )a'la$ %the mummu <possibly$ pattern= who created all% <cf. Beitr=ge *ur "ssyriologie$ ii$ p. H;1=$ and he adds that the title might ha(e been applied in this sense to &iamat$ since in &abl. +$ l. 11I$ and the parallel passages$ she is described as pa'ti'sha'ad )a'la'ma$ and from her body hea(en and earth were created- the e*planation$ gi(en by 4amascius$ of ummu$ the son of ApsE and &iamat$ as OPdhnQ cST\PQ is also in fa(our of this suggestion. oreo(er$ from one of the new fragments of the Se(enth &ablet$ D. 1I$3;1 <see p. 17H f.=$ we now #now that one of ardu#"s fifty titles was ummu$ which is there e*plained as ba'aAn . . . . B$ i.e.$ probably$ ba'aAn ha'laB$ %Creator Aof allB% <cf. Ea"s title$ cited abo(e=. +n (iew of the e,uation Mu'urn'mu rig'mu <8ensen"s suggested alternati(es shim'mu and bi'ish'mu are not probable=$ we may perhaps conclude that$ in addition to the word mummu$ %form$ pattern$% there e*isted a word mummu$ ""chaos$ confusion$% and that conse,uently the title Mummu was capable of two separate interpretations. +f such be the case$ it is possible that the application of the title to &iamat and her son was suggested by its ambiguity of meaning- while ardu# <and also Ea= might ha(e borne the name as the %form% or %idea% of order and system$ &iamat and her son

might ha(e been concei(ed as representing the opposing %form% or ""idea% of chaos and confusion. ...+.G1 8ensen"s translation of what is l. 97 of the 0irst &ablet represents ummu as urging ApsE to ma#e the way of the gods %li#e night$% and implies that it was the creation of light which caused the rebellion. /. 9 7$ howe(er$ is parallel to l. I2$ and it is certain that the ad(. mu'shish is to be rendered %by night$% and not %li#e night.% +n l. I2 ApsE complains that %by day% he cannot rest$ and %by night% he cannot lie down in peace- ummu then counsels him to destroy the way of the gods$ adding in l. 97$ %&hen by day shalt thou ha(e rest$ by night shalt thou lie down <in peace=%- see pp. 2 ff. 8ensen"s suggested rendering of im'ma as'ru'nim'ma$ in place of im' ma'as'ru'nim'ma$ in &abl. +$ l. 176 and the parallel passages$ is therefore also improbable. ...+.GH &his fact does not preclude the interpretation of the fight between ardu# and &iamat as based upon a nature'myth$ representing the disappearance of mist and dar#ness before the rays of the sun. 0or ardu# was originally a solar deity$ and Berossus himself mentions this interpretation of the legend <see further$ p. l***ii$ and the ,uotation on p. li( f.$ notes H and 1=. ./G1 Cf. &abl. +$ l. 63. ./GH Cf. &abl. +$ l. ;H. ./GI Cf. &abl. +@$ l. 1>H. ./G> Cf. &abl. +$ l. 62. ./G9 Cf. &abl. ++$ ll. 39 ff. ./+G1 +t is possible that the fragments of l. 22 f. of &abl. + are not to be ta#en as part of a speech$ but as a description of &iamat"s state of confusion and restlessness after learning of ApsE"s fate. ./+GH See also p. 1>$ n. 1. ./+GI On the probable order of the attempts made by Ea and Anu respecti(ely to oppose &iamat$ see Appendi* ++$ p. + 22$ n. 1. ./@G1 &he account of the Creation gi(en by Berossus in his history of Babylonia was summari)ed by Ale*ander Polyhistor$ from whom Eusebius ,uotes in the first boo# of his Chronicon- the following is his description of the mythical monsters which e*isted before the creation of the worldG'' yyy Eusebi chronicorum liber prior$ ed. Schoene$ col. 1> f. ./@GH &he reading f\SWcV is an emendation for P\PWYcV$ cf. op. cit.$ col. 1;$ n. ;- while for VMVh~ we should probably read V\hp$ i.e.$ the Babylonian &smtu$ %sea$ ocean% &iamat$ cf. Robertson'Smith$ (eits. f0r "ssyr.$ (i$ p. II6. &he name f\SWcV may probably be identified with Jmmu'Hubur$ ""the other'Hubur$% a title of &iamat which occurs in &abl. +$ l. 11I and the parallel passages. &he first part of the name gi(es the e,uation \ !mmu$ but how Hubur has gi(en rise to the transcription PWcV is not clear. 8ensen has attempted to e*plain the difficulty p. ./@+ by suggesting that f\SWcV !mmu'ur)i$ and ur#i he ta#es as an Assyrian translation of Hubur. 0or &ubur he suggests the meaning %that which is abo(e$ the Corth% <mainly from the occurrence of &u'bu'ur K$ %u'bar'tum$ the Jpper or Corthern part of esopotamia$ in ++ R$ pl. 97$ l. 91$ cf. also @ R$ pl. 1;$ l. 16=- and$ since what is in the Corth would ha(e been regarded by the Babylonians as %behind$% the title &ubur might ha(e been rendered in Babylonian as ur)u. &his e*planation is ingenious$ but that the title

&ubur$ as applied to &iamat$ had the meaning %that which is abo(e$ the Corth$% cannot be regarded as pro(ed <cf. also Mythen$ p. 9;>=. !un#el and :immern$ on the other hand$ see in f\SWcV the e,ui(alent of the Aramaic words '2m 'or>a$ % other of the 4eep$% the e*istence of which they trace to the pre(alence of the Aramaic dialect in Babylonia at the time of Berossus <see %ch4pfung und Chaos$ p. 12 f.$ n. 1=- according to this e*planation the title f\SWcV would be the Aramaic e,ui(alent of 2mmu*ubur$ for &ubur may well ha(e had the meaning %deep$ depth.% &hus$ on the fragment S. H$71I <see below$ p. 16; f.= the meaning %depth$% rather than %the Corth$% is suggested by the word- in l. 6 of this fragment the phrase &u'bur pal')a'ti$ %the broad Hubur$% is employed in antithesis to sham.<e= ru')u'u'ti$ %the distant hea(ens$% precisely as in the following couplet Ti'amat shap'li'ti$ %the /ower Ocean <&iamat=$% is opposed to Ti' amat e'*i'ti$ %the Jpper Ocean <&iamat=.% 0or a possible connection between the lower waters of &iamat and Hubur$ the Ri(er of the Jnderworld$ see below$ p. l***iii$ n. H$ and p. *ci( f.$ n. I. ./@+G1 According to the poem$ &iamat is definitely stated to ha(e created ele(en #inds of monsters. &he summary from Berossus bears only a general resemblance to the description of the monsters in the poem. ./+.G1 See below$ p. li( f.$ note 1. ./+.GH cf. ll. 1I9 ff. ./+.GI 0or instance$ the fragment D. 1I$33> <see below$ pp. 167 ff.= in l. 2$ in place of %He set the stations of Bel and Ea along with him$% reads %He set the stations of Bel and Anu along with him.% According to the te*t ardu# appoints Cibir <8upiter=$ BFl <the p. / north pole of the e,uator=$ and Ea <probably a star in the e*treme south of the hea(ens= as guides to the stars$ pro(ing that they were already thus employed in astronomical calculations. +n place of Ea$ D. 1I$33> substitutes Anu$ who$ as the pole star of the ecliptic$ would be of e,ual$ if not greater$ importance in an astronomical sense. Another (ariant reading on D. 1I$39> is the substitution of )a))aba'shu$ %his star$% in place of ilu annar'ru$ the oon' god$ in l. 1H- the conte*t is bro#en$ but we cannot doubt that shu)'nat mu' shi$ %a being of the night$% in l. 1I refers to the oon'god$ and that ardu# entrusted the night to the oon'god according to this (ersion also. 0urther (ariants occur in l. 13 f. in the days enumerated in the course of ardu#"s address to the oon'god- see below$ p. 161 f. /+++G1 See &abl. +@$ l. 1I;. /+++GH See &abl. @+$ l. H /+@G1 See below$ p. l(iii. /+@GH After the description of the monsters of the deep referred to abo(e <see p. *l(=$ the summary from Berossus records the creation by Bel of the earth$ and the hea(ens$ and man#ind$ and animals$ as followsG'' yyy p. /@.''Euseb. chron. lib. pri.$ ed. Schoene$ col. 1; f. 0or the probable transposition of the passage which occurs in the te*t after mmOOd\pOYO$ see the following note. /@G1 &he transposition of the passage suggested by (on !utschmidt necessitates only one emendation of the te*t$ (i). the reading of hPNYOjm in place of hPO jm before _`MPO. &he conte*t of this passage would then read yyy and the summary by Eusebius$ at the end of the e*tract$ would read yyy cf. Schoene$ op. cit.$ col. 1; f.$ note 6. &he emendation has been

accepted by Budde$ Die Biblische !rgeschichte$ p. >33 f.G$ by 8ensen$ Kosmologie$ p. H6H$ and by !un#el and :immern$ %ch4pfung und Chaos$ p. 16 f. /@+G1 Cf. %ch4pfung und Chaos$ p. H7 f. /@+GH 0or VkhP in both passages Stuc#en would read Vh`Q cf. "stralmythen der &ebaeer, Babylonier und "egypter$ i$ p. 99. /@+GI Cheyne$ who adopts Stuc#en"s suggestion$ remar#sG %+t stands to reason that the se(ered head spo#en of in connection with the creation of man must be &ismat"s$ not that of the Creator%- cf. Encyclop8dia Biblica$ i$ col. 6>3$ note. /@++G1 +n the (eits. f0r "ssyr.$ *i($ p. H2H$ :immern remar#sG %Somit darf man wol doch nicht . . . . annehmen$ dass ursprnglich das Blut der &ismat gemeint sei$ allerdings auch nicht das Blut des Schpfergottes selbst$ sondern das irgend eines !ottes . . .$ der )u diesem :wec#e geschlachtet wird.% +n ma#ing this suggestion :immern was influenced by the episode related in col. iii of the fragmentary and badly preser(ed legend Bu. 61'9' 6$ H;6 <cf. Cuneiform Texts$ pt. (i$ and Mythen$ p. H39$ note=$ which he pointed out contained a speech by a deity in which he gi(es orders for another god to be slain that apparently a man may be formed from his blood mi*ed with clay <cf. (.".$ *i($ p. H21=. &he episode$ howe(er$ has no connection with the first creation of man$ but probably relates to the creation of a man or hero to perform some special e*ploit$ in the same way as Jddushu'namir was created by Ea for the rescue of +shtar from the Jnderworld$ and as Ea'bani was created by the goddess Aruru in the 0irst &ablet of the !ilgamesh'epic <cf. also 8ensen"s remar#s in his Mythen und Epen$ p. H39 f.=. + learn from Professor :immern and Professor Be)old that it was the tablet Bu. 61'9'6$ H;6$ and not an actual fragment of the Creation Series$ to which Professor :immern refers on p. 1> of his Biblische una' babylonische !rgeschichte. Although$ as already stated$ this fragment is not$ strictly spea#ing$ part of a creation'legend$ it illustrates the fact that the use of the blood of a god for the creation of man was fully in accordance with Babylonian beliefs. /@++GH See below$ p. 2; f.$ n. 3. /@+++G1 See Kosmologie$ p. H6I. /@+++GH &he word is here met with for the first time$ the reading of !+R'PA4' 4J <(ar. 4A=$ the ideogram for %bone$% not ha(ing been #nown pre(iously. /+.G1 On p. H77 it is remar#ed that$ until more of the te*t of the 0ifth and Si*th &ablets is reco(ered$ it would be rash to assert that the fragment D. I$>>9 r R. I6; <cf. Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. H> f.= cannot belong to the Creation Series. &he phrase is''3un)a))ada <Ob(.$ l. I9 = might perhaps refer to the head of &iamat <cf. ru'pu'ush'tu sha Ti'aAmatB$ in l. 16=$ which would not be inconsistent with the fragment forming part of the 0ifth &ablet as suggested on p. 162. +f the fragment were part of the Si*th &ablet$ the )a))adu in l. I9 might possibly be ardu#"s head <compare also i)'sur'ma in l. I1 with lu'u)'sur in &abl. @+$ l. 9 =. +n (iew$ howe(er$ of the inconsistencies noted on p. 166 f.$ it is preferable to e*clude the fragment at present from the Creation Series. /.G1 See pp. H71 ff. /.@G1 See pp. 131 ff. /.@GH See pp. 139 ff.

/.@+G1 +n (iew of the fact that the Semitic name B.l'm-t-ti occurs as one of ardu#"s titles$ it is not impossible that the title B.l'il-ni$ which is applied to him in the Epilogue to the Se(enth &ablet <l. 1H6$ see p. 11H=$ also occurred as one of his fifty titles in the body of the te*t. +t is unli#ely that the name ardu# itself was included as one of the fifty titles$ and in support of this (iew it may be noted that the colophon to the commentary R. I;;$ etc. <see p. 1;6=$ ma#es mention of %fifty'one names% of ardu#$ which may be most easily e*plained by supposing that the scribe rec#oned in the name ardu# as an additional title. /.@+GH See below$ p. 1;6. /.@++G1 See abo(e$ p. *li f. /.@+++G1 See below$ pp. 1'1; ff. /.@+++GH 8ensen ma#es Bel the slayer of the dragon in this legend <cf. Mythen und Epen$ p. >;=$ from which it might be argued that ardu# is the hero in both (ersions of the story. But 8ensen"s identification of the deity as BFl was due to a mista#e of 4elit)sch$ who published an inaccurate copy of the traces of the deity"s name upon the tablet- see below$ p. 1H7$ n. 1. /.+.G1 &he so'called %Cuthaean /egend of the Creation% <cf. pp. 1>7 ff.= was at one time belie(ed to represent another local (ersion of the Creation story$ in which Cergal$ the god of Cuthah$ was supposed to ta#e the place of ardu#. But it has been pointed out by :immern that the legend concerns the deeds of an Old'Babylonian #ing of Cuthah$ and is not a Creation legend- see below$ p. 1>7 f.$ note 1. /.+.GH See below$ pp. 1I7 ff. /..G1 Elsewhere this goddess figures in the rele of creatress$ for from the 0irst &ablet of the !ilgamesh'epic$ col. ii$ ll. I7 ff.$ we learn that she was credited with the creation of both !ilgamesh and Ea'bani. Her method of creating Ea'bani bears some resemblance to that employed in the creation of man according to the Sumerian and Babylonian (ersion abo(e referred to- she first washed her hands$ and then$ brea#ing off a piece of clay$ she cast it upon the ground and thus created Ea'bani <cf. 8ensen$ Mythen und Epen$ p. 1H7 f.=. /..GH See below$ p. 1HH f. /..GI See below$ pp. 1H> ff. /..G> +n addition to the fi(e principal strands which ha(e been described abo(e as forming the framewor# of the Creation Series$ p. /..+ it is possible to find traces of other less important traditions which ha(e been wo(en into the structure of the poem. &hus the association of the god Dingu with &iamat is probably due to the incorporation of a separate legend with the 4ragon' yth. /..+G1 +t may be here noted that the poem contains no direct description of &iamat$ and it has been suggested that in it she was concei(ed$ not as a dragon$ but as a woman. &he e(idence from sculpture and from cylinder' seals$ howe(er$ may be cited against this suggestion$ as well as se(eral phrases in the poem itself <cf. e.g.$ &abl. +@$ ll. 63 ff.=. +t is true that in one of the new fragments of the poem &iamat is referred to as sinnishatu$ i.e. %woman% or %female% <cf. &abl. ++$ l. 1HH=$ but the conte*t of this passage pro(es that the phrase is employed with reference to her se* and not to her form. /..+GH &abl. @++$ ll. 1'1H>.

/..+GI See below$ p. 1;6. /..+G> See below$ pp. 139 ff. /..+++G1 &he slabs are preser(ed in the British useum$ Cimroud !allery$ Cos. H2 and H6. /..+@G1 An Assyrian copy of this inscription$ which was made for the library of Ashur'bani'pal$ is preser(ed in the British useum$ and is numbered D. >$1>6- the te*t is published in @ R$ pl. II. /..+@GH Cf. col. iii$ l. 1I. /..+@GI Cf. col. i($ ll. 97 ff. /..+@G> Cf. col. iii$ l. II. /..@G1 Such %deeps% were set up by Bur'Sin$ Ding of Jr about B.C. H977 <cf. + R$ pl. I$ Co. *ii$ 1=$ and by Jr'Cins$ a still earlier #ing of Shirpurla <cf. 4e Sar)ec$ D?cou@eries en Chald?e$ pl. ii$ Co. +$ col. iii$ l. 9 f.=. /..@GH &wo separate fragments of this legend were found$ of which one is in the British useum and the other$ made up of four p. /..@+ smaller fragments$ is in Berlin. &heir te*ts are published by Budge and Be)old$ &he &ell el'Amarna &ablets$ p. 1>7 f. and pl. 13 <Bu. 22'17'1I$ ;6=$ and by 5inc#ler and Abel$ Beer Thonfafelfund @on El'"marna$ p. 1;>f. <Cos. H I >$ HI;$ HI3$ and HI6=- cf. also Dnudt)on$ Beitr=ge (ur "ssyr.$ i($ pp. 1I7 ff. 0or a translation of the fragments$ see 8ensen$ Mythen und Epen$ pp. 3> ff. /..@+G1 0or the te*t$ see 5inc#ler and Abel$ op. cit.$ p. 1;; a and b$ and cf. Dnudt)on$ B.".$ i($ pp. 1H2 ff. 0or translations$ see E. &. Harper$ B.".$ ii$ pp. >H7 ff.$ :immern in !un#el"s %ch4pfung und Chaos$ pp. >H7 ff.$ and 8ensen$ Mythen und Epen$ pp. 6> ff. /..@+GH D. 2$H1>$ published by Strong$ ,.%.B.".$ *(i$ p. H3>f.- see 8ensen$ Mythen und Epen$ pp. 62 ff. /..@+GI See below$ p. 1>; f.$ n. >. /..@++G1 &he old Babylonian fragment Bu. 61'9'6$H;6 <cf. Cun. Texts$ (i$ and see abo(e$ p. l(ii- n. 1=$ and the 4eluge'fragment of the reign of Ammi)aduga <published by Scheil$ 3eceueil de tra@aux$ **$ pp. 99 ff.= both contain phrases found upon the legend of Atar'basis$ D. I$I66- cf. :immern$ (eits. fur "ssyr.$ *i($ p. H32 f. &he te*t of D. I$I66$ which has not hitherto been published$ is included as plate >6 in part *( of Cuneiform Texts- for translations$ see :immern$ op. cit.$ pp. H23 ff.$ and 8ensen$ ythen$ pp. H3> ff. /..@++GH &he tablets are numbered 23$9I9$ 6I$2H2$ and 23$9H1$ and they are published in Cuneiform Texts$ pt. *( <176H=$ plates 1';. &he opening addresses$ especially that upon Co. 23$9I9$ are of considerable interest- in this tablet the poet states that he will sing the song of ama$ the /ady of the gods$ which he declares to be better than honey and wine$ etc. <col. i$ <+ = A*Ba'ma'ar ilu Bi'li'it'ili a'*a'ma'ar <H= ib'ru us'si'ra )u'ra'du A'me'a <I = $lu Ma'ma *a'ma'ra'la'ma e'li di'ish'pi'i'im u )a'ra'nim ta'bu <>= Aa'du'u e' (i di'ish'pi u )a'ra'ni'i'im$ etc.=. &he goddess ama is clearly to be identified with ami$ who also bore the title B.lit'ili <cf. 8ensen$ ythen$ p. H2; f.$ n. 11=- and with the description of her offspring in col. i$ ll. 2 ff. <ilu Ma'ma ish'ti'na'am u'li'id'ma . . . . ilu Ma'ma shi'e'na u'(i'id'ma . . . . ilu Ma' ma sha'la'ti u'lAiB'iAd'maB= we may compare ami"s creation of se(en men and se(en women in the legend of Atar'hasis <cf. 8ensen$ op. cit.$ p. H2; f.=. &he legend Co. 6I$2H2 also concerns a goddess referred to as B.lit'ili$ whom Bel summons into his presence <cf. col. i$ ll. 17 ff.=. &he te*ts are

written syllabically almost throughout$ and simple syllables preponderateand it is interesting to note that the ending ish with the force of a preposition$ which occurs in the Creation legends$ is here also employed$ cf. Co. 23$9H1$ col. iii$ l. >$ mu'ut'ti'is' um'mi'shu and possibly col. (i$ l. I$ gi'ir'di'ish &he te*ts are p. /..@+++ carefully written <it may be noted that a na has been omitted by the scribe in Co. 6I$2H2$ col. i$ l. 3=$ the lines (ary considerably in length$ and the metre is not indicated by the arrangement of the te*t. &hough fragmentary the episodes described or referred to in the te*ts are of considerable interest$ perhaps the most stri#ing being the reference to the birth of +shum in col. (iii of Co. 23$9H1$ and the damming of the &igris with which the te*t of Co. 23$9I9 concludes. + intend elsewhere to publish translations of the fragments. /..@+++G1 Ein altbabylonisches 1ragment des +ilgamosepos$ in the Mitteilungen der <oderasiatischen +esellschaft$ 167H$ +. &he fragment here published refers to episodes in the !ilgamesh'epic$ the name of !ilgamesh being written ilu !+SH$ i.e. ilu !+SH'&J'BAR. 0rom the photographic reproductions published by 4r. eissner$ it is clear that the !ilgamesh fragment$ in the nature of the clay employed$ and in the archaic forms of the characters$ resembles the three fragments in the British useum. Jnli#e them$ howe(er$ the lines of its te*t do not appear to be separated by hori)ontal lines ruled upon the clay. /..@+++GH 0ather Scheil has published the te*t in late Assyrian characters in the 3ecueil de tra@aux$ **iii$ pp. 12 ff.$ and he does not gi(e a photograph of the tablet. 0rom his description <%C"tait une belle grande tablette de terre cuite$ a(ec$ par face$ trois ou ,uatre colonnes . . . /"criture en est archa,ue et$ sans aucun doute possible$ antrieure Hammurabi%=$ we may conclude that it dates from the same period as the three tablets in the British useum described abo(e. /..+.G1 See abo(e$ p. l**(. Cf. also the Sumerian influence e*hibited by the names of the older pairs of deities /ahmu and /ahamu$ Anshar and Dishar$ as well as in the names of Dingu$ !aga$ etc.- while the ending ish$ employed as it constantly is in the Creation Series with the force of a preposition$ may probably be traced to the Sumerian )u$ later shu$ shi <cf. 8ensen$ Kosmologie$ p. H;;=. &he Assyrian commentaries to the Se(enth &ablet$ moreo(er$ pro(e the e*istence of a Sumerian (ersion of this composition$ and as the hymn refers to incidents in the Creation legends$ the Sumerian origin of these$ too$ is implied. &he Sumerian (ersion of the story of the Creation by ardu# and Aruru <see below$ pp. 1I7 ff.= cannot with certainty be cited as e(idence of its Sumerian origin$ as from internal e(idence it may well be a later and artificial composition on Sumerian lines. &hat we may e*pect$ howe(er$ one day to find the original Sumerian (ersions of the Creation legends is not unreasonable- with respect to the reco(ery of the ancient religious literature of the Sumerians$ the remar#able series of early Sumerian religious te*ts published in Cun. Texts$ pt. *($ plates 3'I7$ may be regarded as an earnest of what we may loo# for in the future. /...G1 0or the account of the Phoenician cosmogony according to Sanchuniathon$ see Eusebius$ ,raep. e@.$ i$ 6 f.$ who ,uotes from the !ree# translation of Philo Byblius- the accounts of Eudemus and ochus are described by 4amascius$ cap. 1H9 <ed. Dopp$ p. /...+ p. I29=. 0or summaries

and comparisons of these cosmogonies$ see /u#as$ Die +rundbegriffe in den Kosmogonien der alten <4l)er$ pp. 1I6 ff. /...+G1 Cf. Budge$ &istory of Egypt$ (ol. i$ pp. I6 ff. /...+GH Other Egyptian beliefs$ according to which the god ShE separated hea(en and earth and upheld the one abo(e the other$ may be compared to the Babylonian conception of the malting of hea(en and earth by the separation of the two hal(es of &iamat"s body. 0or detailed descriptions of the Egyptian cosmogonies$ see Brugsch$ 3eligion und Mythologie der alten "egypter$ pp. 177 ff.- and for a con(enient summary of the principal systems$ see /u#as$ op. cit.$ pp. >3 ff. &hough the Babylonian and Egyptian cosmogonies$ in some of their general features$ resemble one another$ the detailed comparisons of the names of deities$ etc.$ which Hommel attempts in his Babylonische Jrsprung der gyptischen Dultur$ are rather fanciful. /...++G1 See abo(e$ p. **(i f. /...++GH See abo(e$ p. ***i*$ and below$ p$ 17$ n. 1. /...++GI See abo(e$ p. ***i*$ n. H. /...++G> See abo(e$ p. ***i*. /...+++G1 See below$ p. 16; f. /...+++GH According to Babylonian belief the upper waters of &iamat formed the hea(enly ocean abo(e the co(ering of hea(en- but it is not clear what became of her lower waters. +t is possible that they were (aguely identified with those of ApsE$ and were belie(ed to mingle with his around and beneath the earth. +t may be suggested$ howe(er$ that perhaps all or part of them were identified with Hubur$ the Ri(er of the Jnderworld which was belie(ed to e*ist in the depths of the earth <cf. 8ensen$ Mythen$ p. I73=. &he fact that &iamat bore the title Jmmu'Hubur$ %the other Hubur$% may be cited in support of this suggestion$ as well as the occurrence upon S. H$71I <cf. p. 163= of the phrases sham.<e= ru')u'u' ti and &u'bur pal')a'ti$ corresponding to Ti'amat e'(i'ti and Ti'amat shap' li'ti respecti(ely- see also p. *l(i$ note. /...+@G1 See abo(e$ p. 1. /...+@GH See below$ p. 176. /...+@GI See below$ p. 171. /...+@G> See below$ p. 17I. /...@G1 See abo(e$ p. 1$ and below$ p. 6I. /...@GH See below$ pp. 32 ff. /...@GI See below$ p. 69. /...@G> See below$ p. 176. /...@+G1 See abo(e$ p. li*. /...@+GH See abo(e$ p. li*$ n. 1$ and below$ p. 162. /...@+GI See below$ p. 1HH f. /...@++G1 &he portion of the te*t on which this reference to the creation of beasts is inscribed forms an introduction to what is probably an incantation$ and may be compared to the Creation legend of ardu# and Aruru which is employed as an introduction to an incantation to be recited in honour of the temple E')ida <see below$ p. 1I7 f.$ n. 1=. &he account gi(en of the creation of the beasts is merely incidental$ and is introduced to indicate the period of the creation by Cin'igi'a)ag of two small

creatures$ one white and one blac#$ which were probably again referred to in the following section of the te*t. /...@++GH See below$ pp. 2; ff. /...@++GI See abo(e$ pp. li( ff. /...@++G> See also below$ p. *ciii. +t may be also noted that$ according to Babylonian belief$ the great gods <cf. the plural of Elohim= were always pictured in human form. /...@+++G1 See abo(e$ p. l(iii. /...@+++GH See abo(e$ p. liii f.$ and below$ p. 29$ note I$ and p. 22 f.$ notes 1 and I. /...+.G1 See especially$ ll. 3 f.$ 6 ff.$ 19 ff.$ HI$ and H3 f. /...+.GH /. I1 f.$ which read$ % ay his <i.e. ardu#"s= deeds endure$ may they ne(er be forgotten in the mouth of man#ind whom his hands ha(e madeg% /...+.GI See below$ p. 177 f. /...+.G> See below$ p. 23- the account of Berossus is in fa(our of this restoration. .CG1 &he new parallel to !en. ii$ HI$ furnished by l. 9 of the Si*th &ablet$ is referred to below$ p. *ci(. .CGH See below$ p. ;7 f. .C+G1 &here is$ howe(er$ a parallel between the Se(enth 4ay on p. .C++ which Elohim rested from all His wor#$ and the Se(enth &ablet which records the hymns of praise sung by the gods to ardu# after his wor# of creation was ended. .C++G1 See my Babylonian 3eligion and Mythology$ pp. 1I2 ff. &he fact that the 8ews of the E*ile were probably familiar with the later forms of Babylonian legends e*plains some of the close resemblances in detail between the Babylonian and Hebrew (ersions of the same story. But this is in perfect accordance with the borrowing of that (ery story by the Hebrews many centuries before- indeed$ to the pre(ious e*istence of ancient Hebrew (ersions of Babylonian legends may be traced much of the impetus gi(en to the re(i(al of mythology among the e*iled 8ews. .C+++G1 See below$ pp. 1I7 ff. .C+++GH See abo(e$ p. l**$ n. 1. .C+++GI See abo(e$ p. l(ii$ n. 1. .C+@G1 See below$ p. 1H2 f. .C+@GH 5ith the Babylonian Ri(er of Creation$ suggested by the Euphrates$ we may compare the Egyptian beliefs concerning Hsp or Hspi$ the god of the Cile$ who became identified with most of the great prime(al Creation gods and was declared to be the Creator of all things. Considering the importance of the Cile for Egypt$ it is easy to understand how he came to attain this position. Brugsch sums up his account of this deity in the wordsG %So ist der Cilgott im let)ten !runde der geheimniss(olle Jrheber aller 5ohlthaten$ welche die (on ihm befruchtete gyptische Erde den !ttern und enschen )u bieten (ermag$ er ist "der star#e Schopfer (on allem"%see 3eligion und Mythologie der alten "egypter$ p. ;>1. .C+@GI +t is possible that this Ri(er$ though suggested by the p. .C@ Euphrates$ is to be identified with &ubur$ the Ri(er of the Jnderworld$ to whom an incantation in the terms of the one under discussion might well ha(e been addressed. A connection between &iamat and the ri(er &ubur

has been suggested abo(e <cf. p. l***iii$ n. H=$ and$ should this pro(e to be correct$ we might see in the phrase banat<at= )a'la'ma$ applied to the Ri(er$ a parallel to pa'ti')a'at )a'la'ma$ the description of !mmu'&ubur <&iamat= in &ablet +$ l. 11I and the parallel passages. .C@G1 &he connection which !un#el and :immern would trace between the Ri(er of Paradise and the Ri(er of 5ater of /ife in the Apocalypse on the one side and the %water of life$% mentioned in the legend of Adapa$ on the other$ cannot be regarded as pro(ed. &he resemblance in the e*pressions may well be fortuitous$ since there are few other points of resemblance between the narrati(es in which the e*pressions occur. .C@GH On these sub?ects$ see my Bab. 3el. and Myth.$ pp. 172 ff. .C@GI See abo(e$ pp. l**( and l**i*. C.G1 + learn from Professor :immern that he also has identified this fragment as part of the Se(enth &ablet by its correspondence with the commentary D. >$>7;$ published in ++ R$ pl. I1 <see below$ p. c*(iii=. C.+G1 &hat the copies were not always made from Babylonian tablets is pro(ed by the colophon of D. H6H <cf. Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. ;=$ which states that this copy of the Second &ablet was made from p. C.++ an Assyrian archetype <gab'ri m-tu "shshur K$=. Jpon some tablets Ashur'bani'pal"s label was scratched after the tablet had been ba#ed$ e.g.$ D. I$9;3 r D. 2$922 <Cun. &e*ts$ pt. *iii$ pl. HH=. Other Assyrian copies$ though gi(ing the catch' line to the ne*t tablet$ are without colophons$ e.g.$ D. I$>3I$ etc. <cf. Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 6=$ and D. 2$9H; <cf. Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. HI=- the copy of the last tablet$ D. H$29> <see below$ p. 196=$ the re(erse of which is blan#$ was probably also without a colophon. C.++G1 Cf. Co. >7$996 <(ol. ii$ pl. **i=$ a copy of the Second &ablet which was made for a certain CabE'ahF'iddina- and Co. >9$9H2f >;$;1> <(ol. ii$ pl. (i=$ a copy of the 0irst &ablet$ which is described as the property of CabE' meshFti#'urri$ a worshipper of ardu# and Sarpanitu$ and is said to ha(e been copied from an original at Babylon on the ninth day of +yyar$ in the twenty'se(enth year of 4arius. A certain CabE'balstsu'i#bi$ the son of Ca"id' ardu#$ appears to ha(e owned a complete set of the Se(en Creation &ablets$ for we possess fragments of the 0irst and of the Si*th &ablet in the series which belonged to him <cf. Co. 6I$719$ Cun. Texts$ pl. I$ where the first word of the second line of the colophon$ which pu))led 4elit)sch$ is clearly bush6- Co. >;$27I$ (ol. ii$ pls. i* ff.- and Co. 6H$;H6$ (ol. ii$ pl. ***(ii=. C.++GH &hus the fine copy of the 0ourth &ablet$ Co. 6I$71;$ which was written by the scribe CabE'bFlishu$ was$ according to its colophon <cf. Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 19=$ deposited by the smith Ca"id' ardu# as a (oti(e offering in the temple E')ida. +n his transliteration of this colophon 4elit)sch has made an odd blunder- he has not recogni)ed the common phrase ana bal-t napsh-ti pl 'shu$ %for the preser(ation of his life$% which occurs at the end of line I of the colophon$ and has ta#en it as a proper name p. C.+++ m &+C':+ pl 'shu <see 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. >1=$ a transliteration which turns the sentence into nonsense. C.+++G1 See pls. ii$ iii$ i($ and (i$ and the frontispiece to @ol. ++. Photographic reproductions of the re(erse of Co. H1 and the ob(erse of Co. H6 are gi(en in the +uide to the Babylonian and "ssyrian "nti>uities in the British Museum$ pls. (i and (ii.

C.+++GH Cf. e.g.$ Cos. 6I$719 <Co. H=$ >;$27I <Co. 17=$ and 6H$;H6 <Co. >7=$ all of which were probably written by the same scribe. C.+++GI Cf. the notes duppu $ K" E'nu'ma e'lish on Co. >9$9H2$ etc. <(ol. ii$ pl. (i=- duppu E'nu'ma e'lish ri'esh on Co. 6I$719 <Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. I=- AduppBu $$ K" E'nu'ma e'lish- on D. H6H <Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. ;=duppu $< K" 'M" E'nu'ma e'lish$ which follows a note as to the number of lines in the te*t upon Co. 6I$71; <Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. 19=- and dup'pi < K"M'ME E'nu'ma e'lish on D. I$9;3 BCun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ pl. HH=. C.+++G> &he %practice'tablets% fall into two classes. +n one class the tablets are wholly ta#en up with portions of the te*t of the Creation Series$ which is written out upon them in sections of fi(e (erses separated by hori)ontal lines- cf. Cos. 2H'6'12$ p. C.+@ 1$>7I r ;$I;1 <Co. HH= and 6I$791 <Co. IH=. +n the other class short e*tracts from the te*t are inscribed upon tablets containing other matter$ all of which the pupil has written out for practicecf. Cos. I;$3H; <Co. s=$ I;$;22 <Co. 6=$ 2H'6'12$ ;$697 r 2I'1'12$ 1$2;2 <Co. H>1$ and 2H'6'12$ 9$>>2 r 2I'1'12$ H$11; <Co. H3=. &he second class are the more carelessly written of the two. C.+@G1 &he only apparent e*ceptions to this rule occur on some of the Ceo' Babylonian tablets$ in which two lines of the te*t are occasionally written on one line of the tablet when they are separated from each other by a di(ision'mar#. &his is simply due to want of space$ which necessitated the crowding of the te*t. C.@G1 See below$ p. c**ii. C.@GH See abo(e$ pp. l**ii ff. C.@++G1 See below$ pp. 193 ff. C.@++GH See abo(e$ p. l**i*$ n. 1$ and below$ p. 192. C.+.G1 &he tablet S. 3>3$ which measures >6 in. by I 1u2 in.$ is published in Cun. Texts$ pt. *iii$ p1. IH$ and its connection with the te*t of the Creation Series is described in Appendi* +$ p. 137 f. &he te*t was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. 92f. C.+.GH &he tablet D. H$173rD. ;$72;$ which measures > in. by 9v in.$ is published in @ol. ++$ plate l*i f.$ and a transliteration and a translation of the te*t are gi(en in Appendi* +$ pp. 131 ff. Col. ii of the single fragment D. H$ 173 was gi(en in transliteration by 4elit)sch$ 5eltsch4pfungsepos$ p. 199. C..+G1 +n the gap in &ablet ++$ ll. 2;'17I$ may probably be inserted the new fragment D. 17$772- see Appendi* ++$ pp. + 23 ff. C..++G1 On Cos. >9$9H2 r >;$;1> <Co. I=$ 2H'6'12$ ;$236 <Co. 1H=$ I2$I6; <Co. 1>=$ >H$H29 <Co. H;=$ and 6I$71; <Co. H6=- cf. also the %practice' tablets$% Cos. 2H'6'12$ 1$>7I r ;$I1; <Co. HH= and 2H'6'12$ 9$>>2 r 2I'1' 12$ H$11; <Co. H3=. C..++GH 0or the first description of the metre of the poem$ see Budge$ ,.%.B.".$ (ol. (i$ p. 3- and for later discussions of the metre of Babylonian poetry in general$ see :immern"s papers in the (eits. f0r "ssyr.$ (iii$ pp. 1H1 ff.$ *$ pp. 1 ff.$ *i$ pp. 2; ff.$ and *ii$ pp. I2H ff.- cf. also 4. . ueller$ Die ,ropheten in ihrer urspr0nglichen 1orm$ i$ pp. 9 ff. +t may be noted that in addition to the di(ision of the te*t into couplets$ the poem often falls naturally into stan)as of four lines each. &hat the metre was not (ery carefully studied by the Ceo'Babylonian scribes is pro(ed by the somewhat faulty di(ision of the (erses upon some of the tablets on which the metre is indicated$ and also by the fact that the pupils of the scribes

were allowed$ and perhaps told$ to write out portions of the poem in sections$ not of four$ but of fi(e lines each <see abo(e$ p. c*iii f.$ n. >=. C..+++G1 Published by :immern$ (.".$ *$ p. 13 f.
p. I Redactors noteG &he transliteration of the Babylonian and most of the footnotes in this section ha(e been omitted for technical reasons. All ellipsis ha(e been turned into three periods$ no matter how long in the original document. '' 8BH.

1.

The Seven Tablets of the *istory of Creation.


The 3irst Tablet
1. H. I. >. 9. ;. 3. 2. 6.
p. 9

5hen in the height hea(en was not named$ And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name$ And the prime(al ApsE$ who begat them$ And chaos$ &iamat$ the mother of them both$'' &heir waters were mingled together$ And no field was formed$ no marsh was to be seen5hen of the gods none had been called into being$ And none bore a name$ and no destinies Awere ordainedB&hen were created the gods in the midst of Ahea(enB$ /ahmu and /ahamu were called into being A...B. Ages increased$ A...B$ &hen Anshar and Dishar were created$ and o(er them A...B. /ong were the days$ then there came forth A...B Anu$ their son$ A...B Anshar and Anu A...B And the god Anu A...B Cudimmud$ whom his fathers AhisB begetters A...B Abounding in all wisdom$ A...B He was e*ceeding strong A...B He had no ri(al A...B <&hus= were established and Awere ... the great gods <t=B.

17. 11. 1H. 1I. 1>. 19. 1;. 13. 12. 16. H7. H1.
p. 3

HH . But &Aiamat and psEB were <still= in confusion A...B$ HI. &hey were troubled and A...B H>. +n disorder<t= ... A...B H;. And &iamat roared A...B H9. ApsE was not diminished in might A...B H3. She smote$ and their deeds A...B H2. &heir way was e(il ... A...B ... H6. &hen ApsE$ the begetter of the great gods$ I7. Cried unto ummu$ his minister$ and said unto himG

I1. IH. II. I>. I9.


p. 6

%O ummu$ thou minister that re?oicest my spirit$ %Come$ unto &iamat let us AgoBg% So they went and before &iamat they lay down$ &hey consulted on a plan with regard to the gods Atheir sonsB. ApsE opened his mouth Aand spa#eB$

I;. And unto &iamat$ the glistening one$ he addressed Athe wordBG I3. %A...B their way A...B$ I2. %By day + cannot rest$ by night A+ cannot lie down <in peace=B. I6. %But + will destroy their way$ + will A...B$ >7. %/et there be lamentation$ and let us lie down <again in peace=.% >1. 5hen &iamat AheardB these words$ >H. She raged and cried aloud A...B. >I. AShe ...B grie(ously A...B$ >>. She uttered a curse$ and unto AApsE she spa#eBG >9. %5hat then shall we AdoBt >;. %/et their way be made difficult$ and let us Alie down <again= in peaceB.% >3. ummu answered$ and ga(e counsel unto ApsE$ >2. A...B and hostile <to the gods= was the counsel uAmmu ga(eBG
p. 11

>6. %Come$ their way is strong$ but thou shalt destroy AitB97. %&hen by day shalt thou ha(e rest$ by night shalt thou lie down <in peace=.% 91. ApsE Ahear#ened untoB him and his countenance grew bright$ 9H. ASinceB he <i.e. ummu= planned e(il against the gods his sons. 9I. A...B he was afraid A...B$ 9>. His #nees Abecame wea#<t=B$ they ga(e way beneath him$ 99. ABecause of the e(ilB which their first'born had planned. 9;. A...B their A...B they altered<t=. 92. /amentation A...B they sat in AsorrowB " 93. A...B they A...B$ 96. A...B
p. 1I

;7. &hen Ea$ who #noweth all that AisB$ went up and he beheld their muttering. ;1. A...B ;H. A...B ... his pure incantation ;I. A...B ... A...B ;>. A...B ;9. A...B misery ;;. A...B ;3. A...B A/ines ;2'2H are wanting.B 2I. A...B 2> A...B ... 29. A...B the god Anu$ 2;. A... an a(enBger. 23. A...B 22. A...B and he shall confound &iamat. 26. A...B he ...

67. A...B for e(er. 61. A...B the e(il$


p. 19

6H. A...B ... he spa#eG 6I. %A...B thy A...B he hath con,uered and 6>. % A...B he AweepethB and sitteth in tribulation<t=. 69. %A...B of fear$ 6;. %A...B we shall not lie down <in peace=. 63. %A...B ApsE is laid waste<t=$ 62. %A...B and ummu$ who were ta#en capti(e$ in A...B 66. %A...B thou didst$ ... 177. %A...B let us lie down <in peace=. 171. %A...B ... they will smite <t= A...B. 17H. % A...B let us lie down <in peace=. 17I. %A...B thou shalt ta#e (engeance for them$ 17>. %A...Bunto the tempest shalt thou A...Bg% 179. AAnd &iamat hear#ened untoB the word of the bright god$ <and said=G
p. 13

17;. %A...B shalt thou entrustg let us wage AwarBg% 173. A...B the gods in the midst of A...B 172. A...B for the gods did she create." 176. A&hey banded themsel(es together andB at the side of &iamat AtheyB ad(anced117. A&hey were furious$ they de(ised mischief without restingB night and AdayB. 111. A&hey prepared for battleB$ fuming and raging11H. A&hey ?oined their forcesB and made war. 11I. AJmmu'HubuBr$ who formed all things$ 11>. A ade in additionB weapons in(incible$ she spawned monster' serpents$ 119. ASharp ofB tooth$ and merciless of fang11;. A5ith poison instead ofB blood she filled AtheirB bodies. 113. 0ierce Amonster'(ipersB she clothed with terror$ 112. A5ith splendourB she dec#ed them$ Ashe made themB of lofty stature. 116. A5hoe(er beheldB them$ terror o(ercame him$ 1H7. &heir bodies reared up and none could withstand Atheir attac#B.
p. 16

1H1. AShe setB up (ipers$ and dragons$ and the <monster= A/ahamuB$ 1HH. AAnd hurricanesB$ and raging hounds$ and scorpion'men$ 1HI. And mighty AtempestsB$ and fish'men$ andAramsB1H>. A&hey boreB cruel weapons$ without fear of Athe fightB. 1H9. Her commands Awere mightyB$ AnoneB could resist them1H;. After this fashion$ huge of stature$ Ashe madeB ele(en <monsters=. 1H3. Among the gods who were her sons$ inasmuch as he had gi(en Aher supportB$ 1H2. She e*alted Dingu- in their midst Ashe raisedB him Ato powerB. 1H6. &o march before the forces$ to lead Athe hostB$ 1I7. &o gi(e the battle'signal$ to ad(ance to the attac#$
p. H1

1I1. &o direct the battle$ to control the fight$

1IH. Jnto him she entrusted- in Acostly raimentB she made him sit$ <saying=G 1II. %+ ha(e uttered thy spell$ in the assembly of the gods + ha(e raised thee to power. 1I>. %&he dominion o(er all the gods Aha(e + entrusted unto himB. 1I9. %Be thou e*alted$ thou my chosen spouse$ 1I;. % ay they magnify thy name o(er all Aof them ... the Anunna#iB.% 1I3. She ga(e him the &ablets of 4estiny$ on AhisB breast she laid them$ <saying=G 1I2. %&hy command shall not be without a(ail$ andAthe word of thy mouth shall be establishedB.% 1I6. Cow Dingu$ <thus= e*alted$ ha(ing recei(ed Athe power of AnuB$ 1>7. A4ecreedB the fate among the gods his sons$ <saying=G 1>1. %/et the opening of your mouth A,uenchB the 0ire'god1>H. %5hoso is e*alted in the battle$ let him Adisplay <his= mightBg%
p. HI

The Second Tablet


1. &iamat made weighty her handiwor#$ H. AE(ilB she wrought against the gods her children. I. A&o a(engeB ApsE$ &iamat planned e(il$ >. But how she had collected her Aforces$ the god ...B unto Ea di(ulged. 9. Ea Ahear#ened toB this thing$ and ;. He was Agrie(ousBly afflicted and he sat in sorrow. 3. A&he daysB went by$ and his anger was appeased$ 2. And to Athe place ofB Anshar his father he too#Ahis wayB. 6. AHe wentB and standing before Anshar$ the father who begat him$ 17. AAll thatB &iamat had plotted he repeated unto him$ 11. ASaying$ %&iBamat our mother hath concei(ed a hatred for us$ 1H. %5ith all her force she rageth$ full of wrath. 1I. %All the gods ha(e turned to her$ 1>. %A5ithB those$ whom ye created$ they go at her side.
p. H9

19. %&hey are banded together and at the side of &iamat they ad(ance1;. %&hey are furious$ they de(ise mischief without resting night and day. 13. %&hey prepare for battle$ fuming and raging12. %&hey ha(e ?oined their forces and are ma#ing war. 16. %Jmmu'Hubur$ who formed all things$ H7. %Hath made in addition weapons in(incible$ she hath spawned monster'serpents$ H1. %Sharp of tooth$ and merciless of fang. HH. %5ith poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies. HI. %0ierce monster'(ipers she hath clothed with terror$ H>. %5ith splendour she hath dec#ed them$ she hath made them of lofty stature. H9. %5hoe(er beholdeth them is o(ercome by terror$% H;. %&heir bodies rear up and none can withstand their attac#.

H3. %She hath set up (ipers$ and dragons$ and the


p. H3

H2. %And hurricanes and raging hounds$ and scorpion'men$ H6. %And mighty tempests$ and fish'men and ramsI7. %&hey bear cruel weapons$ without fear of the fight. I1. %Her commands are mighty$ none can resist themIH. %After this fashion$ huge of stature$ hath she made ele(en <monsters=. II. %Among the gods who are her sons$ inasmuch as he hath gi(en her support$ I>. She hath e*alted Dingu- in their midst she hath raised him to power. I9. %&o march before the forces$ to lead the host$ I;. %&o gi(e the battle'signal$ to ad(ance to the attac#$ I3. %A&o directB the battle$ to control the fight$ I2. %Jnto him Ahath she entrustedB- in costly raiment she hath made him sit$ <saying=G I6. %"A+ ha(e utteredB thy AspellB$ in the assembly of the gods + ha(e raised thee to power$ >7. %"A&he dominion o(er allB the gods ha(e + entrusted Aunto theeB. >1. %"ABe thou e*altedB$ thou Amy chosen spouseB$
p. H6

>H. %"A ay they magnify thy name o(er all of them ...B ..." >I. %AShe hath gi(en him the &ablets of 4estiny$ on his breast sheB laid them$ <saying=G >>. %"A&hy command shall not be without a(ailB$ and the AwordB of thy mouth shall be established." >9. %ACow Dingu$ <thus= e*altedB$ ha(ing recei(ed the power of Anu$ >;. %4ecreed the fate Afor the gods$ her sonsB$ <saying=G >3. %"/et Athe opening of your mouthB ,uench the 0ire'god>2. %"A5hoso is e*alted in the battleB$ let him display <his= mightg"% >6. A5hen Anshar heard how &iamatB was mightily in re(olt$ 97. A...B$ he bit his lips$ 91. A...B$ his mind was not at peace$ 9H. His A...B$ he made a bitter lamentationG 9I. A...B battle$ 9>. %A...B thou .... 99. %A ummu andB ApsE thou hast smitten$
p. I1

9;. %ABut &iamat hath e*alted DinBgu$ and where is one who can oppose hert% 93. A...B deliberation 92. A ... the ... ofB the gods$ CAuBdiAmmudB AA gap of about ten lines occurs here.B <;6= A...B <37= A...B <31= A...B <3H= AAnshar untoB his son addressed Athe wordBG <3I= %A...B ... my mighty hero$ <3>= %A5hoseB strength Ais greatB and whose onslaught cannot be withstood$ <39= %A!oB and stand before &iamat$ <3;= %A&hatB her spirit Amay be appeasedB$ that her heart may be merciful.

<33= <32= <36= <27= <21=


p. II

%ABut ifB she will not hear#en unto thy word$ %Our AwordB shalt thou spea# unto her$ that she may be pacified.% AHe heard theB word of his father Anshar And Ahe directedB his path to her$ towards her he too# the way. Anu Adrew nighB$ he beheld the muttering of &iamat$

<2H= ABut he could not withstand herB$ and he turned bac#. <2I= A...B Anshar <2>= A...B he spa#e unto himG <29= %A...B upon me AA gap of about twenty lines occurs here.B <17>= A...B <179= A...B an a(enger A...B <17;= A...B (aAliantB <173= A...B in the place of his decision <172= A...B he spa#e unto himG <176= %A...B thy father <117= %&hou art my son$ who ma#eth merciful his heart. <111= % A...B to the battle shalt thou draw nigh$ <11H= %A...B he that shall behold thee shall ha(e peace.% <11I= And the lord re?oiced at the word of his father$ <11>= And he drew nigh and stood before Anshar. <119= Anshar beheld him and his heart was filled with ?oy$
p. I9

<11;= He #issed him on the lips and his fear departed from him. <113= %AO my fatherB$ let not the word of thy lips be o(ercome$ <112= %/et me go$ that + may accomplish all that is in thy heart. <116=. %AO AnsharB$ let not the word of thy lips be o(ercome$ <1H7= %. A/et meB go$ that + may accomplish all that is in thy heart.% <1H1= %5hat man is it$ who hath brought thee forth to battlet <1HH= %A...B &iamat$ who is a woman$ is armed and attac#eth thee.% <1HI= %A...B ... re?oice and be glad<1H>= %&he nec# of &iamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot. <1H9= %A...B ... re?oice and be glad<1H;= %A&he nec#B of &iamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot.
p. I3

<1H3= <1H2= <1H6= <1I7= <1I1= <1IH= <1II= <1I>= <1I9= <1I;= <1I3= <1I2= <1I6= <1>7=

%O my AsonB$ who #noweth all wisdom$ %Pacify A&iamaBt with thy pure incantation. %Speedily set out upon thy way$ %0or Athy blood <t=B shall not be poured out$ thou shalt return again.% &he lord re?oiced at the word of his father$ His heart e*ulted$ and unto his father he spa#eG %O /ord of the gods$ 4estiny of the great gods$ %+f +$ your a(enger$ %Con,uer &iamat and gi(e you life$ %Appoint an assembly$ ma#e my fate preeminent and proclaim it. %+n Jpshu##ina#u seat yoursel(es ?oyfully together$ %5ith my word in place of you will + decree fate. % ay whatsoe(er + do remain unaltered$ % ay the word of my lips ne(er be changed nor made of no a(ail.%

p. I6

The Third Tablet


1. Anshar opened his mouth$ and H. AJnto !agaB$ his AministerB$ spa#e the wordG I. %AO !aga$ thou minisBter that re?oicest my spirit$ >. ""AJnto /ahmu and /ahBamu will + send thee. 9. %A...B thou canst attain$ ;. ""A...B thou shalt cause to be brought before thee. 3. A... letB the gods$ all of them$ 2. %A a#e ready for a feastB$ at a ban,uet let them sit$ 6. %A/et them eat breadB$ let them mi* wine$ 17. ""A&hat for ardu#B$ their a(enger$ they may decree the fate. 11. %A!o$B !aga$ stand before them$ 1H. ""AAnd all thatB +$ tell thee$ repeat unto them$ <and say=G
p. >1

1I. %AAnsharB$ your son$ hath sent me$ 1>. %A&he purposeB of his heart he hath made #nown unto me. 19. %AHe saith that &iaBmat our mother hath concei(ed a hatred for us$ 1;. %A5ith allB her force she rageth$ full of wrath. 13. %All the gods ha(e turned to her$ 12. %5ith those$ whom ye created$ they go at her side. 16. ""&hey are banded together$ and at the side of &iamat they ad(anceH7 . %&hey are furious$ they de(ise mischief without resting night and day. H1. ""&hey prepare for battle$ fuming and ragingHH. %&hey ha(e ?oined their forces and are ma#ing war. HI. %Jmmu'Hubur$ who formed all things$ H>. %Hath made in addition weapons in(incible$ she hath spawned monster'serpents$ H9. %Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang. H;. %5ith poison instead of blood she hath filled heir bodies.
p. >I

H3. %0ierce monster'(ipers she hath clothed with terror$ H2. %5ith splendour she hath dec#ed them$ she hath made them of lofty stature. H6. %5hoe(er beholdeth them$ terror o(ercometh him$ I7. %&heir bodies rear up and none can withstand their attac#. I1. %She hath set up (ipers$ and dragons$ and the <monster= /ahamu$ IH. %And hurricanes$ and raging hounds$ and scorpion'men$ II. %And mighty tempests$ and fish'men$ and ramsI>. &hey bear merciless weapons$ without fear of the fight. I9. %Her commands are mighty$ none can resist themI;. %After this fashion$ huge of stature$ hath she made ele(en <monsters=. I3. %Among the gods who are her sons$ inasmuch as he hath gi(en her AsupportB$ I2. %She hath e*alted Dingu- in their midst she hath raised AhimB to power. I6. ""&o march before the forces$ Ato lead the hostB$ >7. %A&oB gi(e the battle'signal$ to ad(ance Ato the attac#B$ >1. %A&o directB the battle$ to control the AfightB$

p. >9

>H. %Jnto him Ahath she entrusted- in costly raimentB she hath made him sit$ <saying=G >I. %"A+ ha(eB uttered thy spell$ in the assembly of the gods A+ ha(e raised thee to powerB$ >>. %"A&heB dominion o(er all the gods Aha(e + entrusted unto theeB. >9. %"ABeB thou e*alted$ AthouB my chosen spouse$ >;. %" ay they magnify thy name o(er all of Athem ... the Anunna#iB." >3. %She hath gi(en him the &ablets of 4estiny$ on his breast she laid them$ <saying=G >2. %"&hy command shall not be without a(ail$ and the word of AthyB mouth shall be established." >6. %Cow Dingu$ <thus= e*alted$ ha(ing recei(ed Athe power of AnuB$ 97. %4ecreed the fate for the gods$ her sons$ <saying=G 91. %"/et the opening of your mouth ,uench the 0ire'god9H. %"5hoso is e*alted in the battle$ let him display <his= mightg "
p. >3

9I. ""+ sent Anu$ but he could not withstand her9>. %Cudimmud was afraid and turned bac#. 99. %But ardu# hath set out$ the director of the gods$ your son9;. ""&o set out against &iamat his heart hath prompted <him=. 93. %He opened his mouth and spa#e unto me$ <saying=G 92. %"+f +$ your a(enger$ 96. %"Con,uer &iamat and gi(e you life$ ;7. %"Appoint an assembly$ ma#e my fate preeminent and proclaim it. ;1. %"+n Jpshu##ina#u seat yoursel(es ?oyfully together;H. %"5ith my word in place of you will + decree fate. ;I. %" ay whatsoe(er + do remain unaltered$ ;>. %" ay the word of my lips ne(er be changed nor made of no a(ail." ;9. %Hasten$ therefore$ and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow$
p. >6

;;. ;3. ;2. ;6. 37. 31. 3H. 3I. 3>. 39. 3;. 33.
p. 91

%&hat he may go and fight your strong enemyg% !aga went$ he too# his way and Humbly before /ahmu and /ahamu$ the gods$ his fathers$ He made obeisance$ and he #issed the ground at their feet. He humbled himself- then he stood up and spa#e unto them$ <saying=G %Anshar$ your son$ hath sent me$ ""&he purpose of his heart he hath made #nown unto me. %He saith that &iamat our mother hath concei(ed a hatred for us$ %5ith all her force she rageth$ full of wrath. %All the gods ha(e turned to her$ %5ith those$ whom ye created$ they go at her side. %&hey are banded together and at the side of &iamat they ad(ance-

32. ""&hey are furious$ they de(ise mischief without resting night and day. 36. %&hey prepare for battle$ fuming and raging27. ""&hey ha(e ?oined their forces and are ma#ing war. 21. ""Jmmu'Hubur$ who formed all things$ 2H. %Hath made in addition weapons in(incible$ she hath spawned monster'serpents$

2I. %Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang. 2>. %5ith poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies. 29. ""0ierce monster'(ipers she hath clothed with terror$ 2;. %5ith splendour she hath dec#ed them$ she hath made them of lofty stature. 23. ""5hoe(er beholdeth them$ terror o(ercometh him$ 22. %&heir bodies rear up and none can withstand their attac#. 26. ""She hath set up (ipers$ and dragons$ and the <monster= /ahamu$ 67. %And hurricanes$ and raging hounds$ and scorpion'men$
p. 9I

61. ""And mighty tempests$ and fish'men$ and AramsB6H. %&hey bear merciless weapons$ without fear of the fight. 6I. %Her commands are mighty$ none can resist them6>. ""After this fashion$ huge of stature$ hath she made ele(en <monsters=. 69. ""Among the gods who are her sons$ inasmuch as he hath gi(en her support$ 6;. %She hath e*alted Dingu- in their midst she hath raised him to power. 63. %&o march before the forces$ to lead the host$ 62. ""&o gi(e the battle'signal$ to ad(ance to the attac#$ 66. %&o direct the battle$ to control the fight$ 177. ""Jnto him hath she entrusted- in costly raiment she hath made him sit$ <saying=G 171. %"+ ha(e uttered thy spell$ in the assembly of the gods + ha(e raised thee to power$ 17H. %"&he dominion o(er all the gods ha(e + entrusted unto thee. 17I. %"Be thou e*alted$ thou my chosen spouse$ 17>. %" ay they magnify thy name o(er all of them ... the AnunnaA#iB." 179. %She hath gi(en him the &ablets of 4estiny$ on AhisB breast Ashe laid themB$ <saying=G
p. 99

17;. %"&hy command shall not be without a(ail$ Aand the word of thy mouth shall be establishedB. 173. %Cow Dingu$ <thus= e*alted$ Aha(ing recei(ed the power of AnuB$ 172. %A4ecreed the fateB for the gods$ her sons$ <saying=G 176. %"/et the opening of your mouth A,uenchB the 0ire'god117. %"5hoso is e*alted in the battle$ Alet him displayB <his= mightg" 111. %+ sent Anu$ but he could not Awithstand herB11H. %Cudimmud was afraid and Aturned bac#B. 11I. %But ardu# hath set out$ the director of theAgods$ your sonB11>. %& o set out against &iamat Ahis heart hath prompted <him=B. 119. %He opened his mouth Aand spa#e unto meB$ <saying=G 11;. %"+f +$ Ayour a(engerB$ 113. %"Con,uer &iamat and Agi(e you lifeB$ 112. %"Appoint an assembly$ Ama#e my fate preeminent and proclaim itB. 116. %"+n Jpshu##ina#u Aseat yoursel(es ?oyfully togetherB1H7. %"5ith my word in place of Ayou will + decree fateB. 1H1. %" ay whatsoe(er A+B do remain unaltered$ 1HH. %" ay the word of Amy lipsB ne(er be changed nor made of no a(ail."
p. 93

1HI. ""Hasten$ therefore$ and swiftly Adecree for himB the fate which you bestow$

1H>. 1H9. 1H;. 1H3. 1H2. 1H6. 1I7. 1I1. 1IH. 1II. 1I>. 1I9. 1I;. 1I3. 1I2.
. 96

%&hat he may go and fight your strong enemyg% /ahmu and /ahamu heard and cried aloud$ All of the +gigi wailed bitterly$ <saying=G ""5hat has been altered so that they should ... A...B ""5e do not understand the dAeedB of &iamatg% &hen did they collect and go$ &he great gods$ all of them$ who decree AfateB. &hey entered in before Anshar$ they filled A...B&hey #issed one another$ in the assembly A...B. &hey made ready for the feast$ at the ban,uet Athey satB&hey ate bread$ they mi*ed Asesame'wineB. &he sweet drin#$ the mead$ confused their A...B$ &hey were drun# with drin#ing$ their bodies were filled. &hey were wholly at ease$ their spirit was e*alted&hen for ardu#$ their a(enger$ did they decree the fate.

The 3ourth Tablet


1. &hey prepared for him a lordly chamber$ H . Before his fathers as prince he too# his place. I. %&hou art chiefest among the great gods$ >. %&hy fate is une,ualled$ thy word is Anug 9. %O ardu#$ thou art chiefest among the great gods$ ;. %&hy fate is une,ualled$ thy word is Anug 3. %Henceforth not without a(ail shall be thy command$ 2. %+n thy power shall it be to e*alt and to abase. 6. %Established shall be the word of thy mouth$ irresistible shall be thy command17. %Cone among the gods shall transgress thy boundary. 11. %Abundance$ the desire of the shrines of the gods$ 1H. %Shall be established in thy sanctuary$ e(en though they lac# <offerings=. 1I. %O ardu#$ thou art our a(engerg 1>. %5e gi(e thee so(ereignty o(er the whole world. 19. %Sit thou down in night$ be e*alted in thy command. 1;. %&hy weapon shall ne(er lose its power$ it shall crush thy foe.
p. ;1

13. %O lord$ spare the life of him that putteth his trust in thee$ 12. %But as for the god who began the rebellion$ pour out his life.% 16. &hen set they in their midst a garment$ H7. And unto ardu# their first'born they spa#eG H1. % ay thy fate$ O lord$ be supreme among the gods$ HH. %&o destroy and to create- spea# thou the word$ and <thy command= shall be fulfilled. HI. %Command now and let the garment (anishH>. %And spea# the word again and let the garment reappearg% H9. &hen he spa#e with his mouth$ and the garment (anished-

H;. Again he commanded it$ and the garment reappeared. H3. 5hen the gods$ his fathers$ beheld <the fulfilment of= his word$ H2. &hey re?oiced$ and they did homage <unto him$ saying=$ % ardu# is #ingg % H6. &hey bestowed upon him the sceptre$ and the throne$ and the ring$ I7. &hey gi(e him an in(incible weapon$ which o(erwhelmeth the foe. I1. %!o$ and cut off the life of &iamat$ IH. %And let the wind carry her blood into secret places.%
p. ;I

II. After the gods his fathers had decreed for the lord his fate$ I>. &hey caused him to set out on a path of prosperity and success. I9 . He made ready the bow$ he chose his weapon$ I;. He slung a spear upon him and fastened it . . . I3. He raised the club$ in his right hand he grasped <it=$ I2. &he bow and the ,ui(er he hung at his side. I6. He set the lightning in front of him$ >7. 5ith burning flame he filled his body. >1. He made a net to enclose the inward parts of &iamat$ >H. &he four winds he stationed so that nothing of her might escape>I. &he South wind and the Corth wind and the East wind and the 5est wind >>. He brought near to the net$ the gift of his father Anu. >9. He created the e(il wind$ and the tempest$ and the hurricane$ >;. And the fourfold wind$ and the se(enfold wind$ and the whirlwind$ and the wind which had no e,ualp. ;9

>3. >2. >6. 97. 91. 9H. 9I. 9>. 99. 9;. 93.
p. ;3

He sent forth the winds which he had created$ the se(en of them& o disturb the inward parts of &iamat$ they followed after him. &hen the lord raised the thunderbolt$ his mighty weapon$ He mounted the chariot$ the storm une,ualled for terror$ He harnessed and yo#ed unto it four horses$ 4estructi(e$ ferocious$ o(erwhelming$ and swift of paceA...B were their teeth$ they were flec#ed with foam&hey were s#illed in A...B$ they had been trained to trample underfoot. A...B$ mighty in battle$ /eft and Aright ... His garment was A...B$ he was clothed with terror$ 5ith o(erpowering brightness his head was crowned. &hen he set out$ he too# his way$ And towards the AragBing &iamat he set his face. On his lips he held A...B$ ... A...B he grasped in his hand. &hen they beheld him$ the gods beheld him$ &he gods his fathers beheld him$ the gods beheld him. And the lord drew nigh$ he ga)ed upon the inward parts of &iamat$ He percei(ed the muttering of Dingu$ her spouse. As < ardu#= ga)ed$ <Dingu= was troubled in his gait$ His will was destroyed and his motions ceased. And the gods$ his helpers$ who marched by his side$ Beheld their leader"s A...B$ and their sight was troubled.

92. 96. ;7. ;1. ;H. ;I. ;>. ;9. ;;. ;3. ;2. ;6. 37.

31. But &iamat A...B$ she turned not her nec#$ 3H. 5ith lips that failed not she uttered rebellious wordsG
p. ;6

3I. %A...B thy coming as lord of the gods$ 3>. %0rom their places ha(e they gathered$ in thy place are theyg% 39. &hen the lord AraisedB the thunderbolt$ his mighty weapon$ 3;. AAnd againstB &iamat$ who was raging$ thus he sent <the word=G 33. %A&houB art become great$ thou hast e*alted thyself on high$ 32. %And thy Aheart hath promptedB thee to call to battle. 36. %A...B their fathers A...B$ 27. %A...B their A...B thou hatest A...B. 21. %A&hou hast e*alted DingBu to be AthyB spouse$ 2H. %A&hou hast . . . B him$ that$ e(en as Anu$ he should issue decrees. 2I. %A...B thou hast followed after e(il$ 2>. %And AagainstB the .gods my fathers thou hast contri(ed thy wic#ed plan. 29. %/et then thy host be e,uipped$ let thy weapons be girded ong 2;. %Standg + and thou$ let us ?oin battleg%
p. 31

23. 5hen &iamat heard these words$ 22. She was li#e one possessed$ she lost her reason. 26. &iamat uttered wild$ piercing cries$ 67. She trembled and shoo# to her (ery foundations. 61. She recited an incantation$ she pronounced her spell$ 6H. And the gods of the battle cried out for their weapons. 6I. &hen ad(anced &iamat and ardu#$ the counsellor of the gods6>. &o the fight they came on$ to the battle they drew nigh. 69. &he lord spread out his net and caught her$ 6;. And the e(il wind that was behind <him= he let loose in her face. 63. As &iamat opened her mouth to its full e*tent$ 62. He dro(e in the e(il wind$ while as yet she had not shut her lips. 66. &he terrible winds filled her belly$ 177. And her courage was ta#en from her$ and her mouth she opened wide. 171. He sei)ed the spear and burst her belly$ 17H. He se(ered her inward parts$ he pierced <her= heart. 17I. He o(ercame her and cut off her lifep. 3I

17>. He cast down her body and stood upon it. 179. 5hen he had slain &iamat$ the leader$ 17;. Her might was bro#en$ her host was scattered. 173. And the gods her helpers$ who marched by her side$ 172. &rembled$ and were afraid$ and turned bac#. 176. &hey too# to flight to sa(e their li(es117. But they were surrounded$ so that they could not escape. 111. He too# them capti(e$ he bro#e their weapons11H. +n the net they were caught and in the snare they sat down. 11I. &he A...B ... of the world they filled with cries of grief. 11>. &hey recei(ed punishment from him$ they were held in bondage. 119. And on the ele(en creatures which she had filled with the power of stri#ing terror$

11;. Jpon the troop of de(ils$ who marched at her A...B$ 113. He brought affliction$ their strength Ahe ...B112. &hem and their opposition he trampled under his feet.
p. 39

116. oreo(er$ Dingu$ who had been e*alted o(er them$ 1H7. He con,uered$ and with the god 4ug'ga he counted him. 1H1. He too# from him the &ablets of 4estiny that were not rightly his$ 1HH. He sealed them with a seal and in his own breast he laid them. 1HI. Cow after the hero ardu# had con,uered and cast down his enemies$ 1H>. And had made the arrogant foe e(en li#e ...$ 1H9. And had fully established Anshar"s triumph o(er the enemy$ 1H;. And had attained the purpose of Cudimmud$ 1H3. O(er the capti(e gods he strengthened his durance$ 1H2. And unto &iamat$ whom he had con,uered$ he returned. 1H6. And the lord stood upon &iamat"s hinder parts$ 1I7. And with his merciless club he smashed her s#ull. 1I1. He cut through the channels of her blood$ 1IH. And he made the Corth wind bear it away into secret places. 1II. His fathers beheld$ and they re?oiced and were gladp. 33

1I>. 1I9. 1I;. 1I3. 1I2. 1I6. 1>7. 1>1. 1>H. 1>I. 1>>. 1>9. 1>;.

Presents and gifts they brought unto him. &hen the lord rested$ ga)ing upon her dead body$ 5hile he di(ided the flesh of the ...$ and de(ised a cunning plan. He split her up li#e a flat fish into two hal(esOne half of her he stablished as a co(ering for hea(en. He fi*ed a bolt$ he stationed a watchman$ And bade them not to let her waters come forth. He passed through the hea(ens$ he sur(eyed the regions <thereof=$ And o(er against the 4eep he set the dwelling of Cudimmud. And the lord measured the structure of the 4eep$ And he founded E'shara$ a mansion li#e unto it. &he mansion E'shara which he created as hea(en$ He caused Anu$ BFl$ and Ea in their districts to inhabit.

The 3ifth Tablet


1. He.<i.e. ardu#= made the stations for the great godsH. &he stars$ their images$ as the stars of the :odiac$ he fi*ed. I. He ordained the year and into sections he di(ided it>. 0or the twel(e months he fi*ed three stars. 9. After he had A...B the days of the year A...B images$ ;. He founded the station of Cibir 1to determine their bounds3. &hat none might err or go astray$ 2. He set the station of BFl and Ea along with him. 6. He opened great gates on both sides$ 17. He made strong the bolt on the left and on the right. 11. +n the midst thereof he fi*ed the )enith1H. &he oon'god he caused to shine forth$ the night he entrusted to him.

1I. He appointed him$ a being of the night$ to determine the days1>. E(ery month without ceasing with the crown he co(ered<t= him$ <saying=G
p. 21

19. %At the beginning of the month$ when thou shinest upon the land$ 1;. %&hou commandest the horns to determine si* days$ 13. %And on the se(enth day to Adi(ideB the crown. 12. %On the fourteenth day thou shalt stand opposite$ the half A...B. 16. %5hen the Sun'god on the foundation of hea(en A...B thee$ H7. %&he A...B thou shalt cause to ...$ and thou shalt ma#e his A...B. H1. %A...B ... unto the path of the Sun'god shalt thou cause to draw nigh$ HH. %AAnd on the ... dayB thou shalt stand opposite$ and the Sun'god shall ... A...B HI. %A...B to tra(erse her way. H>. %A...B thou shalt cause to draw nigh$ and thou shalt ?udge the right. H9. %A...B to destroy H;. %A...B me. %...%
p. 2I

A&he following twenty'two lines are ta#en from D. I$>>6a$ and probably form part of the 0ifth &ablet.B <;; =. A...B <;3= A...B <;2 = 0rom A...B <;6= +n E'sagil A...B <37= &o establish A...B <31= &he station of A...B <3H= &he great gods A...B <3I= &he gods A...B <3>= He too# and A...B <39= &he gods Ahis fathersB beheld the net which he had made$ <3;= &hey beheld the bow and how Aits wor#B was accomplished. <33= &hey praised the wor# which he had done A...B <32= &hen Anu raised Athe ...B in the assembly of the gods. <36= H e #issed the bow$ <saying=$ %+t is A...Bg% <27= And thus he named the names of the bow$ <saying=$ <21= %"/ong'wood" shall be one name$ and the second name Ashall be ...B <2H= %And its third name shall be the Bow'star$ in hea(en Ashall it ...B%
p. 29

<2I= &hen he fi*ed a station for it A...B <2>= Cow after the fate of A...B <29= AHe setB a throne A...B <2;= A...B in hea(en A...B <23= A...B ... A...B A&he following traces of the last thirteen lines of the 0ifth &ablet are ta#en from the re(erse of D. 11$;>1 and from the re(erse of D. 2$9H;.B <1H2= %A...B him A...B% <1H6= %A...B them A...B% <1I7= %A...B him A...B% <1I1= %A...B them A...B% <1IH= %A...B their A...B may A...B%

<1II= <1I>= <1I9= <1I;= <1I3= <1I2= <1I6= <1>7=

A...B the gods spa#e$ A...B the hea(ens A...BG 1 %A... yourB son A...B% %A...B our A...B hath he A...B% %A...B he hath caused to li(e A...B% %A...B splendour A...B% %A...B not A...Bg% %A...B we A...Bg%

3ootnotes
33G1 8upiter 29G1 +n the speech that follows it may be con?ectured that the gods complained that$ although ardu# had endowed the hea(ens with splendour and had caused plants to li(e upon the earth$ yet there were no shrines built in honour of the gods$ and there were no worshippers de(oted to their ser(ice- see below$ p. 22$ note 1
p. 23

The Sixth Tablet


1. H. I. >. 9. ;. 3. 5hen ardu# heard the word of the gods$ His heart prompted him and he de(ised Aa cunning planB. He opened his mouth and unto Ea Ahe spa#eB$ A&hat whichB he had concei(ed in his heart he imparted Aunto himBG % y blood will + ta#e and bone will + AfashionB$ %+ will ma#e man$ that man may ... A...B. %+ will create man who shall inhabit Athe earthB$%

p. 26

2. %&hat the ser(ice of the gods may be established$ and that AtheirB shrines 1 Amay be builtB. 6. %But + will alter the ways of the gods$ and + will change Atheir pathsB17. %&ogether shall they be oppressed H$ and unto e(il shall Athey ...B.% 11. And Ea answered him and spa#e the wordG 1H. %A...B the A...B of the gods + ha(e AchangedB 1I. A...B ... and one ... A...B 1>. A...shall be deBstroyed and men will + A...B 19. A...B and the gods A...B 1;. A...B ... and they A...B 13. A...B ... and the gods A...B 12. A...B .... A...B 16. A...B the gods A...B H7. A...B the Anunna#i A...B H1. A...B ... A...B
p. 61

A&he rest of the te*t is wanting 1 with the e*ception of the last few lines of the tablet$ which read as follows.B 1I2. A...B ... A...B

1I6. 1>7. 1>1. 1>H. 1>I. 1>>. 1>9. 1>;.

A...B ... A...B 5hen A...B ... A...B &hey re?oiced A...B ... A...B +n Jpshu##inna#u they set Atheir dwellingB. Of the heroic son$ their a(enger$ Athey criedBG %5e$ whom he succoured$ ... A...Bg% &hey seated themsel(es and in the assembly they named Ahim ...B$ &hey all Acried aloud <t=$ they e*alted Ahim ...B. H

3ootnotes
26G1 ... literally the line reads %/et the ser(ice of the gods be established$ and as for them let AtheirB shrines be built. +t is interesting to note the reason that is here implied for the creation of man#ind$ i.e.$ that the gods my ha(e worshipers. &here is clearly a reference to this in l. H6 of the Se(enth &ablet$ where$ after referring to ardu#"s mercy upon the gods$ the te*t goes on ... %0or their forgi(eness did he create man#ind.% 26GH +t seems preferable to assign to the Piel of A#abstuB its usual meaning %to oppress$% rather than to render the passage as %&ogether shall they be honoured.% &he sense seems to be that ardu#$ by the creation of man$ will establish the worship of the gods$ but at the same time will punish the gods for their complaints. +t is possible that in his speech that follows Ea dissuades ardu# from carrying out the second part of his proposal. 61G1 +t is probable that the missing portion of the te*t corresponded closely with the account of the creation of man and animals gi(en by Berossus- for a further discussion of this sub?ect$ see the +ntroduction. &he tablet D. I$I;> <Cun. Texts$ part *iii$ pl. H> f.= has been thought to belong to the Creation Series$ and to contain the instructions gi(en by ardu# to man after his creation. Had this been so$ it would ha(e formed part of the Si*th &ablet. On plates l*i( ff. of @ol. ++ is published the te*t of a Ceo' Babylonian tablet$ Co. II$291$ which gi(es a duplicate te*t to D. I$I;>and in Appendi* ++ + ha(e gi(en reasons for belie(ing that the te*t inscribed upon D. I$I;> and Co. II$291 has no connection with the Creation Series$ but is part of a long composition containing moral precepts. Another fragment which it has been suggested belongs to one of the later tablets of the Creation Series is D. I$>>9 r R. I6; <Cun. Texts$ part *iii$ pl. H> f.- cf. also its duplicate D. 1>$6>6$ pl. H>=- but there are strong reasons against the identification of the te*t as a fragment of the series Enuma elish$ though it may well be part of a parallel (ersion of the Creation story <see further$ Appendi* ++=. 61GH &he address of the gods to ardu# forms the sub?ect of the Se(enth &ablet of the series.

The Seventh Tablet


1. O Asari$ %Bestower of planting$% %A0ounder of sowingB$%

H. %Creator of grain and plants$% %who caused Athe green herb to spring upBg% I. O Asaru'alim$ %who is re(ered in the house of counsel$% %Awho aboundeth in counselB$% >. &he gods paid homage$ fear Atoo# hold upon themBg 9. O Asaru'alim'nuna$ %the mighty one$% %the /ight of Athe father who begat himB$% ;. 5ho directeth the decrees of Anu$ Bel$ Aand EaBg% 3. He was their patron$ he ordained Atheir . . . . B2. He$ whose pro(ision is abundance$ goeth forth A...Bg 6. &utu AisB 1 %He who created them anew-%
p. 69

17. Should their wants be pure$ then are they AsatisfiedB11. Should he ma#e an incantation$ then are the gods AappeasedB1H . Should they attac# him in anger$ he withstandeth Atheir onslaughtBg 1I. /et him therefore be e*alted$ and in the assembly of the gods Alet him ...B1>. Cone among the gods can Ari(al himBg 19. &utu is :i'u##ina$ %the /ife of the host Aof the godsB$% 1;. 5ho established for the gods the bright hea(ens. 13. He set them on their way$ and ordained Atheir path <t=B 12. Ce(er shall his A...B deeds be forgotten among men.
p. 63

16. &utu as :i'a)ag thirdly they named$ %the Bringer 1 of Purification$% H7. %&he !od of the 0a(ouring Bree)e$% %the /ord of Hearing and ercy$% H1. %&he Creator of 0ulness and Abundance$% %the 0ounder of Plenteousness$% HH. %5ho increaseth all that is small.% HI. %+n sore distress we felt his fa(ouring bree)e$% H>. /et them say$ let them pay re(erence$ let them bow in humility before himg H9. &utu as Aga'a)ag may man#ind fourthly magnifyg H;. %&he /ord of the Pure +ncantation$% %the zuic#ener of the 4ead$% H3. %5ho had mercy upon the capti(e gods$% H2. %5ho remo(ed the yo#e from upon the gods his enemies$%
p. 66

H6. %0or their forgi(eness did he create man#ind$% I7. %&he erciful One$ with whom it is to bestow lifeg% I1. ay his deeds endure$ may they ne(er be forgotten IH. +n the mouth of man#ind 1 whom his hands ha(e madeg II. &utu as u'a)ag$ fifthly$ his %Pure +ncantation% may their mouth proclaim$ I>. %5ho through his Pure +ncantation hath destroyed all the e(il onesg% I9. Shag')u$ %who #noweth the heart of the gods$% %who seeth through the innermost partg% I;. %&he e(il'doer he hath not caused to go forth with himg% I3. %0ounder of the assembly of the gods$% %Awho ...B their heartg % I2. %Subduer of the disobedient$% %A...Bg% I6. %5ho rebellion and A...Bg%
p. 171

>1. &utu as :i'si$ %the A...B$

>H. >I. >>. >9. >;. >3.

%5ho put an end to anger$% %Awho ...Bg% &utu as Suh'#ur$ thirdly$ %the A4estroyer of the foeB$% %5ho put their plans to confusion$% %A...B$% %5ho destroyed all the wic#ed$% %A...B$% A...B let them A...Bg A...B ... A...B A&he following lines are ta#en from the fragment D. 1H$2I7$ but their position in the te*t is uncertain.B AHe named the four ,uarters <of the world=B$ man#ind Ahe createdB$ AAnd uponB him understanding A...B A...B ... A...B A...B &iamat A...B A...B ... A...B A...B distant A...B A...B may A...B.
p. 17I

A&he following lines are ta#en from the fragment D. 1I$3;1.B A...B <17= 1 A...B %&he mighty one A...Bg% ... AgiAl ...B$ %&he Creator of Athe earth ...Bg% :ulummu ... A...B$ %&he !i(er of counsel and of whatsoe(er A...Bg% ummu$ %the Creator Aof ...Bg% ulil$ the hea(ens A...B$ %5ho for ... A...Bg% !ish#ul$ let A...B$ <17= %5ho brought the gods to naughtA...Bg% /ugal'ab'A...B$ %5ho in A ............ Bg% Pap'A...B$ %5ho in A...Bg% A...B
p. 179

A&he following lines are ta#en from the fragment D. 2$916 and its duplicate D. 1I$II3- this portion of the te*t was not separated by much from that preser(ed by D. 1I$3;1.B A...B. A...B ... A... the Chief <t= ofB all lords$% A... supremeB is his mightg A/ugal'durmah$ %the DingB 1 of the band of the gods$% %the /ord of rulers$% %5ho is e*alted in a royal habitation$% %A5hoB among the gods is gloriously supremeg% AAdu'nunaB$ %the Counsellor of Ea$% who created the gods his fathers$ Jnto the path of whose ma?esty
p. 173

ACoB god can e(er attaing A... inB 4ul'a)ag he made it #nown$ A...B pure is his dwellingg A... the ...B of those without understanding is /ugal'dul'a)agag

A...B supreme is his mightg A...B their A...B in the midst of &iamat$ A...B ... of the battleg A&he numbering of the following lines is based on the marginal numbers upon Co. 61$1I6. r 6I$73I.B 179. A...B ... A...B him$ 17;. A...B ... the star$ which Ashineth in the hea(ensB. 173. ay he hold the Beginning and the 0uture 1$ may they H pay homage unto him$ 172. Saying$ %He who forced his way through the midst of &iamat Awithout restingB$
p. 176

176. 117. 111. 11H. 11I. 11>. 119.


p. 111

%/et his name be Cibiru$ "the Sei)er of the idst"g %0or the stars of hea(en he upheld the paths$ %He shepherded all the gods li#e sheepg %He con,uered &iamat$ he troubled and ended her life$% +n the future of man#ind$ when the days grow old$ ay this be heard without ceasing$ may it hold sway for e(erg Since he created the realm <of hea(en= and fashioned the firm earth$ %&he /ord of the 5orld$% the father BFl hath called his name. <&his= title$ which all the Spirits of Hea(en proclaimed$ 4id Ea hear$ and his spirit was re?oiced$ <and he said=G %He whose name his fathers ha(e made glorious$ %Shall be e(en as +$ his name shall be Eag %&he binding of all my decrees shall he control$ %All my commands shall he ma#e #nowng % By the name of %0ifty% did the great gods Proclaim his fifty names$ they made his path pre'eminent.% 1

11;. 113. 112. 116. 1H7. 1H1. 1HH. 1HI. 1H>.

0,ilogue
1H9. /et them themp. 11I H

be held in remembrance$ and let the first man proclaim

1H;. /et the wise and the understanding consider them togetherg 1H3. /et the father repeat them and teach them to his son1H2. /et them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherdg 1H6. /et a man re?oice in ardu#$ the /ord of the gods$ 1I7. &hat he may cause his land to be fruitful$ and that he himself may ha(e prosperityg 1I1. His word standeth fast$ his command is unaltered1IH. &he utterance of his mouth hath no god e(er annulled. 1II. He ga)ed in his anger$ he turned not his nec#1I>. 5hen he is wroth$ no god can withstand his indignation. 1I9. 5ide is his heart$ broad is his compassionp. 119

1I;. 1I3. 1I2. 1I6.

&he sinner and e(il'doer in his presence A...B. &hey recei(ed instruction$ they spa#e before him$ A...B unto A...B. A...B of ardu# may the gods A...B.

1>7. A ayB they A... his B name A...Bg 1>1. A...B they too# and A...B1>H. A...Bg 1

3ootnotes
6IG1 &he title &utu is there e*plained as ba'a'nu$ % creator$% while its two component parts <&J r &J= occur in the Sumerian (ersion of the line as the e,ui(alents of la'nu'u and e'di'shu. 63G1 &he te*t of the commentary read mu')in$ i.e. %the 0ounder of Purification%- for other (ariant readings in the line$ see Appendi* +. 66G1 /iterally$ %the blac#'headed ones.% 17IG1 +n the margin of the fragment D. 1I$3;1 e(ery tenth line is indicated by the figure %17.% 179G1 &he word durmahu was employed as a Babylonian priestly title. +t may here be rendered by some such general phrase as %ruler$% unless it is to be ta#en as a proper name. 173G1 ... &he e*pression r.shu'ar)-t$ literally %the beginning''the future$% may be ta#en as implying ardu#"s complete control o(er the world$ both at its creation and during its subse,uent e*istence. +t is possible that s'u' nu is the pronominal suffi* and should be attached to the preceding word$ i.e. rFsh'ar#stu'shu'nu$ %their beginning and future$% that is$ %the beginning and future of man#ind.% 173GH +.e.$ man#ind. 111G1 0rom the commentary R. I;;$ etc.$ and the e*planatory te*t S. 3>3$ it may be concluded that the Se(enth &ablet$ in its original form$ ended at 1. 1H>. +t is probable that ll. 1H9'1>H were added as an epilogue at the time when the composition was incorporated in the Creation Series <see Appendi* +=. 111GH +.e.$ the names of ardu#. 119G1 &his is probably the last line of the tablet. +t may here be noted that$ for the te*t of the Se(enth &ablet gi(en in the preceding pages$ only those fragments ha(e been used which are pro(ed by the commentaries to contain missing portions of the te*t. Se(eral other fragments$ which from their contents and style of writing may possibly belong to copies of the te*t$ ha(e not been. included. &he te*t of one such fragment <S. H$71I= is of peculiar interest and is gi(en in Appendi* ++- in l. 17 f. it refers to Ti'amat e'li'ti and Ti'amat shap'li'ti$ %&he Ocean <&iamat= which is abo(e% and %&he Ocean <&iamat= which is beneath$% a close parallel to %the waters which were abo(e the firmament% and %the waters which were under the firmament% of !en. i$ 3- see the +ntroduction.
p. 113

11.

.ther 4ccounts of the *istory of Creation


1. 4nother 5ersion of the 'ragon-6yth
. +. &he cities sighed$ men A...B$ H. en uttered lamentation$ Athey ...B$ I. 0or their lamentation there was none Ato helpB$ >. 0or their grief there was none to ta#e Athem by the handB. 9. 5ho was the dragon A...Bt ;. &iamat H was the dragon A...Bg 3. BFl in hea(en hath formed A...B. 2. 0ifty #aspu in his length$ one #aspu Ahis heightB$ I
OB@ p. 116 !

6. Si* cubits is his mouth$ twel(e cubits Ahis ...B$ 17. &wel(e cubits is the circuit of his Aears ...B11. 0or the space of si*ty cubits he A...B a bird1H. +n water nine cubits deep he draggeth A...B. 1I. He raiseth his tail on high A...B1>. All the gods of hea(en A...B. 19. +n hea(en the gods bowed themsel(es down before Athe oon'god ...B1;. &he border of the oon'god"s robe they hastiAly graspedBG 13. %5ho will go and AslayB the dragon$ 1 12. %And deli(er the broad land Afrom ...B$ 16. %And become #ing Ao(er ...Bt% H7. %!o$ &ishhu$ AslayB the dragon$ H1. %And deli(er the broad land Afrom ...B$ HH. %And become #ing Ao(er ...Bt% HI. %&hou hast sent me$ O lord$ Ato ...B the raging <creatures= H of the ri(er$ H>. %But + #now not the A...B of the 4ragong% A&he rest of the Ob(erse and the upper part of the Re(erse of the tablet are wanting.B
p. 1H1

. 1. AAnd ...B opened his mouth and Aspa#eB unto the god 1A...BG H . %Stir up cloud$ and storm Aand tempestBg I. %&he seal of thy life Ashalt thou setB before thy face$ >. %&hou shalt grasp it$ and thou shalt AslayB the dragon.% 9. He stirred up cloud$ and storm Aand tempestB$ ;. He AsetB the seal of his life before his face$ 3. He grasped it$ and Ahe slewB the dragon. 2. 0or three years and three months$ one day and Aone nightB 6. &he blood of the dragon flowed A...B^ I
RE@

3ootnotes

113G1 0or the te*t$ see Cuneiform Texts$ part *iii$ pl. II f.$ Rm. H2H- for a pre(ious publication$ cf. 4elit)sch$ "ssyrisches 54rterbuch$ p. I67 f.translations ha(e been gi(en by :immern in !un#el"s %ch4pfung und Chaos$ pp. >13 ff.$ and by 8ensen in Schrader"s Keilins. Bibl.$ (i$ pp. >> ff. Strictly spea#ing$ the te*t is not a creation legend$ though it gi(es a (ariant form of the principal incident in the history of creation according to the (ersion Enuma elish. +n the tablet Rm. H2H the fight with the dragon did not precede the creation of the world$ but too# place after men had been created and cities had been built- see further the +ntroduction. 113GH &he form of the name here used is T-mtu$ i.e.$ the Sea.% 113GI &he #aspu is the space that can be co(ered in two hours tra(elling$ i.e.$ about si* or se(en miles. &hese general dimensions of the si)e of the dragon are in accordance with the statement made in l. 2f. of the re(erse to the effect that after the dragon had been slain his blood flowed for more than three years. &he. second measurement in the line is ta#en by :immern to refer to the dragon"s breadth$ but$ as 8ensen points out$ this is not consistent with the measurement of the mouth gi(en in the following line. E(en :immern"s readings of ;7 !AR in l. 17 and ;9 !AR in l. 11 do not e*plain$ but render still more anomalous$ the v !AR in l. 6. 5ithout going into the ,uestion of the probable length of the Babylonian cubit$ it is ob(ious that the dragon"s breadth can hardly ha(e been gi(en as so many miles$ if its mouth only measures so many feet. &his difficulty can be got o(er by restoring s7r6tishu in place of the suggested rupussu at the end of l. 2. 5e then ha(e a consistent picture of the dragon as a long thin sna#e$ rearing his head on high- his coils might well ha(e been belie(ed to e*tend for three hundred or three hundred and fifty miles$ and the raising of his head in the air to a height of si* or se(en miles would not be inconsistent with the measurement of his mouth as si* cubits$ i.e.$ some ten feet or more across. 116G1 /ines 13'16 are the appeal of the gods to the oon'god- ll. H7'HH contain the address of the oon'god to &ishhu- and ll. HI ff. gi(e &ishhu"s answer to the oon'god. 116GH 8ensen$ ri'hu'ut$ which he renders as %moisture.% &he plural$ dalh6ti$ may perhaps be e*plained by supposing that$ according to this (ersion also$ the dragon had other creatures to help her in the fight. 1H1G1 8ensen suggests the restoration ilu BA.lB$ which he deduces from the traces upon the tablet as published by 4elit)sch- for$ as he states$ the only other restoration possible would be ilu $AshtaarB$ and this is rendered unli#ely by the masculine form of the imperati(es in ll. H and >. &his would pro(e that the slayer of the dragon was BFl$ or ardu#$ in both the (ersions of the story. As a matter of fact$ the traces are incorrectly gi(en by 4elit)sch- they represent the sign AC and not the conflate sign AC rEC <cf. Cun. Txts.$ pt. *iii$ pl. I>=$ and it is not possible to conclude from the te*t who is the hero of this (ersion. 1H1GH 8ensen suggests the restoration u A . DAS'PJB$ i.e.$ %for three years$ three months$ a day and A . hoursB.% &he trace of the ne*t character after u is the single diagonal wedge <cf. Cun. &*ts.$ pt. *iii$ pl. I>=- according to 8ensen"s restoration this sign can only be the number %17$% i.e. . DAS'PJ$ %twenty hours$% a not (ery probable reading. &he diagonal wedge is more probably the beginning of the sign +$ i.e. m6shu$ and the end of the line

may be restored as umu $K" u Am6shu $K" B- this may be rendered %one day and one night$% or possibly$ as :immern in his translation suggests$ %day and night.% 1H1GI &he lower part of the tablet is ta#en up with the common colophon found upon tablets from Ashur'bani'pal"s palace.
. 1HI

11. 4 +eference to the Creation of the Cattle and the )easts of the 3ield !
1. 5hen the gods in their assembly had made Athe worldB$ H. And had created the hea(ens$ and had formed Athe earthB$ H I. And had brought li(ing creatures into being A...B$ >. And Ahad fashionedB the cattle of the field$ and the beasts of the field$ and the creatures Aof the cityB$'' 9. After Athey had ...B unto the li(ing creatures A...B$ ;. AAnd between the beastsB of the field and the creatures of the city had di(ided A...B 3. AAnd had ...B all creatures$ the whole of creation A...B$ 2. AAnd had ...B$ which in the whole of my family A...B$
p. 1H9

6. A&hen didB Cin'igi'a)ag AfashionB two small creatures A...B. 17. AAmongB all the beasts he made Atheir formB glorious 11. A...B the goddess !ula ... A...B 1H. A...B ... one white Aand one blac# ...B 1I. A...B ... one white and one blac# A...B 1>. A...B ... A...B A&he rest of the te*t is wanting.B

3ootnotes
1HIG1 0or the te*t$ see Cuneiform Texts$ part *iii$ pl. I>$ 4.&. >1- for a pre(ious publication$ cf. 4elit)sch$ "ssyrische #esest0c)e$ Ird ed.$ p. I> f.and for pre(ious translations$ see !eorge Smith$ The Chaldean "ccount of +enesis$ p. 3;f.$ :immern in !un#el"s %ch4pfung und Chaos$ and 8ensen in Schrader"s Keilins. Bibl.$ (i$ p. >H f. &his fragment$ which !eorge Smith suggested might be part of the Se(enth &ablet of the Creation Series$ does not belong to that series- it contains the introduction or opening lines of a te*t$ and describes the creation of two small creatures by Cin'igi'a)ag$ %&he lord of clear (ision.% &he reference to the creation of cattle and beasts of the field is merely incidental- it occurs in the long opening sentence and indicates the period at which the two small creatures were made- see further the +ntroduction. 1HIGH +t is probable$ that the second section of the te*t also dealt with the two small creatures whose creation is described in the first paragraph.

111. 4 reference to the Creation of the 6oon and the Sun

1. 5hen the gods Ana$ Enlil$ and En#i


p. 1H3

H. &hrough their sure counsel and by their great commands I. Ordained the renewal of the oon'god$ >. &he reappearance of the moon$ and the creation of the month$ 9. And ordained the oracle of hea(en and earth$ ;. &he Cew oon did Ana cause to appear$ 3. +n the midst of hea(en he beheld it come forth. 2. A@ersionB. 5hen Anu$ BFl and Ea$ 6. &he great gods$ through their sure counsel 17. 0i*ed the bounds of hea(en and earth$ 11. <And= to the hands of the great gods entrusted 1H. &he creation of the day and the renewal of the month which they might behold$ 1I. <And= man#ind beheld the Sun'god 1 in the gate of his going forth$ 1>. +n the midst of hea(en and earth they duly created <him=.

3ootnotes
1H3G1 + is interesting to note that in the Semitic (ersion the creation of the sun is substituted for that of the moon$ although in the preceding line the renewal of the month is referred to.
p. 1H6

15. 4n 4ddress to the +iver of Creation

1. O$ thou Ri(er$ who didst create all things$ H. 5hen the great gods dug thee out$ I. &hey set prosperity upon thy ban#s$ >. 5ithin thee Ea$ the Ding of the 4eep$ created his dwelling$ 9. &he deluge they sent not before thou wertg ;. 0ire$ and wrath$ and splendour$ and terror 3. Ha(e Ea and ardu# presented unto theeg 2. &hou ?udgest the cause of man#indg 6. O$ Ri(er$ thou art mightyg O Ri(er$ thou art supremeg O Ri(er$ thou art righteousg

3ootnotes
1H6G1 &his mystical ri(er of creation was e(idently suggested by the Euphrates$ on the waters of which the fertility of Babylonia so largely depended- for a comparison of similar conceptions of a ri(er of creation both in Egyptian and in Hebrew mythology$ see the +ntroduction. &he te*t forms the opening words of an incantation...
p. 1I1

5. 4nother 5ersion of the Creation of the World by 6ardu7. !


. 1. &he holy house$ the house of the gods$ in the holy place had not yet been madeH . Co reed had sprung up$ no tree had been created. I. Co bric# had been laid$ no building had been set up>. Co house had been erected$ no city had been built9. Co city had been made$ .no creature had been created. ;. Cippur had not been made$ E'#ur had not been built3. Erech had not been created$ E'ana had not been built2. &he 4eep had not been created$ Eridu had not been builtOB@ p. 1II

6. Of the holy house$ the house of the gods$ the habitation had not been made. 17. All lands were sea. 11. At that time there was a mo(ement in the sea1H . &hen was Eridu made$ and E'sagil was built$ 1I. E'sagil$ where in the midst of the 4eep the god /ugal'dul'a)aga 1 dwelleth1>. &he city of Babylon was built$ and E'sagil was finished. 19. &he gods$ the Anunna#i$ he H created at one time1;. &he holy city$ the dwelling$ of their hearts" desire$ they proclaimed supreme. 13. ardu# laid a reed upon the face of the waters$ 12. He formed dust and poured it out beside the reed. 16. &hat he might cause the gods to dwell in the habitation of their hearts" desire$
p. 1I9

H7. He formed man#ind. H1. &he goddess Aruru together with him 1 created the seed of man#ind. HH. &he beasts of the field and li(ing creatures in the field he formed. HI. H e created the &igris and the Euphrates$ and he set them in their placeH>. &heir names he declared in goodly fashion. H9. &he grass$ the rush of the marsh$ the reed$ and the forest he created$ H;. &he green herb of the field he created$ H3. &he lands$ the marshes$ and the swampsH2. &he wild cow and her young$ the wild calf- the ewe and her young$ the lamb of the foldH6. Plantations and forestsI7. &he he'goat and the mountain'goat ... him. I1. &he /ord ardu# laid in a dam by the side of the sea$ IH. AHe ...B a swamp$ he made a marsh$
p. 1I3

II. I>. I9. I;.

A...B he brought into e*istence. AReeds he formBed$ trees he createdA...B he made in their place. ABric#s he laidB$ buildings he set up-

I3. AHouses he madeB$ cities he builtI2. ACities he madeB$ creatures he created. I6. ACippur he madeB$ E'#ur he built>7. AErech he made$ E'anBa he built. A&he rest of the Ob(erse and the beginning of the Re(erse of the tablet are wanting.B RE@. 1. A...B the decree A...B H. A...B ... A...B If. &hy e*alted minister is Papsu#al$ the wise counsellor of the gods. 9. ay Cin'aha'#udE$ the daughter of Ea$
p. 1I6

;. Purify thee with the pure censer$ 3. And may she cleanse thee with cleansing fireg 2f. 5ith a cup of pure water from the 4eep shalt thou purify thy wayg 17. By the incantation of ardu#$ the #ing of the hosts of hea(en and earth$ 11. ay the abundance of the land enter into thee$ 1H. And may thy decree be accomplished for e(erg 1If. O E')ida$ thou glorious dwelling$ thou art dear unto the hearts of Anu and +shtarg 19. ay <E)ida= shine li#e the hea(ens$ may it be bright li#e the earth$ may it Abe gloriousB li#e the heart of hea(en$ 1;. AAnd may ...B be firmly establishedg

3ootnotes
1I1G1 ...A&hisB is merely an elaborate introduction to an incantation which was intended to be recited in honour of E')ida$ the great temple of CabE at Borsippa. &he re(erse of the tablet contains the concluding lines of the incantation. 0or a further discussion of the legend on the ob(erse$ see the +ntroduction. 1IIG1 Or$ /ugal'du'a)aga$ 1IIGH +.e.$ ardu#. 1I9G1 &he Sumerian (ersion reads %together with the god.%