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Compositores do Sculo XX

Parte 4 - R a Z

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Contents
Articles
Sergei Rachmaninoff Maurice Ravel Max Reger Steve Reich Ottorino Respighi Joaqun Rodrigo Luigi Russolo Erik Satie Pierre Schaeffer R. Murray Schafer Arnold Schoenberg Alexander Scriabin Dmitri Shostakovich Jean Sibelius Karlheinz Stockhausen Richard Strauss Igor Stravinsky Tru Takemitsu 1 17 33 36 46 51 55 59 66 75 78 93 99 113 122 147 156 170

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 230 235

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Sergei Rachmaninoff

Sergei Rachmaninoff
Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff,[1] also commonly spelled in English as Rachmaninov,[2] (Russian: , tr. Sergey Vasil'evich Rakhmaninov) (1 April 1873 [O.S. [3] 20 March] 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. He was considered one of the finest pianists of his day and, as a composer, very nearly the last great representative of Russian late Romanticism in classical music.[4] Early influences of Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and other Russian composers gave way to a thoroughly personal idiom which included a pronounced lyricism, expressive breadth, structural ingenuity and a tonal palette of rich, distinctive orchestral colors.[5] The piano features prominently in Rachmaninoff's compositional output, either as a solo instrument or as part of an ensemble. He made it a point to use his own skills as a performer to explore fully the expressive possibilities of the instrument. Even in his earliest works, he revealed a sure grasp of idiomatic piano writing and a striking gift for melody.

Rachmaninoff, in his later years, toured the United States extensively, and remained there from 1918 until his death.

Life
Youth
Rachmaninoff was born in 1873 in Semyonovo, near Veliky Novgorod, in north-western Russia. He was born into a noble family of Tatar descent, who had been in the service of the Russian tsars since the 16th century. His parents were both amateur pianists. When he was four, his mother gave him casual piano lessons,[6] but it was his paternal grandfather, Arkady Alexandrovich Rachmaninoff, who brought Anna Ornatskaya, a teacher from Saint Petersburg, to teach Sergei in 1882. Ornatskaya remained for "two or three years", until the family home had to be sold to settle debts and the Rachmaninoffs moved to Moscow. Sergei studied at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory before moving alone to Moscow to study piano under Nikolai Zverev and Alexander Siloti (who was his Rachmaninoff at age 10 cousin and a former student of Franz Liszt). He also studied harmony under Anton Arensky and counterpoint under Sergei Taneyev. Rachmaninoff was found to be quite lazy, failing most of his classes, and it was the strict regime of the Zverev home that instilled discipline in the boy.[7]

Sergei Rachmaninoff

2 In his early years, he showed great skill in composition. While still a student, he wrote the one-act opera, Aleko, for which he was awarded a gold medal in composition, his First Piano Concerto, and a set of piano pieces, Morceaux de fantaisie (Op. 3, 1892), which includes the famous Prelude in Csharp minor. The composer later became annoyed by the public's fascination with this piece, composed when he was 19 years old. He would often tease an expectant audience in the days when it was traditional for the audience to request particular compositions, by asking, "Oh, must I?" or claiming inability to remember anything else.[8]

In Moscow, he met the composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, who became an important mentor and commissioned the teenage Rachmaninoff to arrange a Rachmaninoff, 1892 piano transcription of the suite from his ballet The Sleeping Beauty. This commission was first offered to Siloti, who declined, but instead suggested Rachmaninoff would be more than capable. This alternative was accepted; Siloti supervised the arrangement.[9] Rachmaninoff confided in Zverev his desire to compose more, requesting a private room where he could compose in silence. Zverev saw him only as a pianist and severed his links with the boy, refusing even to speak to him for three years. Rachmaninoff moved out and continued to compose.[7]

Setbacks and recovery


The sudden death of Tchaikovsky in 1893 made a strong impression on Rachmaninoff; he immediately began writing a second Trio lgiaque to his memory, clearly revealing the depth and sincerity of his grief in the music's overwhelming aura of gloom.[10] His First Symphony (Op. 13, 1896) premiered on 27 March 1897 in one of a long-running series of "Russian Symphony Concerts", but was likened by nationalist composer and critic Csar Cui to a depiction of the ten plagues of Egypt, suggesting it would be admired by the "inmates" of a music conservatory in hell.[11] The deficiencies of the performance, conducted by Alexander Glazunov, were not commented on.[10] Alexander Ossovsky in his memoir about Rachmaninoff [12] tells, first hand, a story about this event.[13] In Ossovsky's opinion, Glazunov made poor use of The failure of Symphony No. 1 rehearsal time, and the concert program, which contained two other first (1896) long bothered Rachmaninoff. performances, was also a factor. Rachmaninoff's wife and other witnesses later suggested that Glazunov may have been drunk and, although this was never intimated by Rachmaninoff, it would not seem out of character.[14] [15] (Remarkably, Csar Cui is the only member of the group of Russian nationalist composers known as The Five whose music is hardly ever performed now.) After the horrific reception to the First Symphony came a period of severe depression that lasted three years, during which he wrote virtually no music. One stroke of good fortune came from Savva Mamontov, a famous Russian industrialist and patron of the arts, who two years earlier had founded the Moscow Private Russian Opera Company. He offered Rachmaninoff the post of assistant conductor for the 1897-8 season, which the cash-strapped composer accepted. He also met the bass Feodor Chaliapin through Mamontov's opera company, starting what would become a long, deep friendship.[16] In early January 1900, Rachmaninoff and Chaliapin were invited to Yasnaya Polyana, the home of Leo Tolstoy, whom Rachmaninoff had greatly respected. That evening, Rachmaninoff played one of his compositions, then accompanied Chaliapin in his song "Fate", one of the pieces Rachmaninoff had written after his First Symphony. After they had finished, Tolstoy took the composer aside and started, "Tell me, is such music needed by anyone? I

Sergei Rachmaninoff must tell you how I dislike it all. Beethoven is nonsense, Pushkin and Lermontov also." (The song "Fate" is based on the two opening measures of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.) And when they were leaving, Tolstoy said, "Forgive me if I've hurt you by my comments," and Rachmaninoff replied, "How could I be hurt on my own account, if I was not hurt on Beethoven's?" During this whole time, the Russian Orthodox Church maintained its objection to Rachmaninoff marrying his cousin, Natalia Satina, which only deepened his depression.[17] In 1900, Rachmaninoff began a course of autosuggestive therapy with psychologist Nikolai Dahl, himself an amateur musician. Rachmaninoff quickly recovered confidence and overcame his writer's block. A result of these sessions was the composition of Piano Concerto No. 2 (Op. 18, 190001), dedicated to Dr. Dahl. The piece was very well received at its premiere, at which Rachmaninoff was soloist. Rachmaninoff's spirits were further bolstered when, after years of engagement, he was finally allowed to marry Natalia. They were married in a suburb of Moscow by an army priest on 29April 1902, using the family's military background to circumvent the church. Although he had an affair with the 22-year-old singer Nina Koshetz in 1916,[18] his and Natalia's union lasted until the composer's death. A lesser-known fact is that Rachmaninoff had another outstanding singer protge. In 1911, at the request of Alexander Ossovsky, Rachmaninoff auditioned, in Kiev, Ossovsky's cousin, young Ksenia Derzhinskaia (18891951)[19] and helped to launch her operatic career.[20] She became an eminent singer and prima donna of the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.[21] After several successful appearances as a conductor, Rachmaninoff was offered a job as conductor at the Bolshoi Theatre in 1904, although political reasons led to his resignation in March 1906, after which he stayed in Italy until July. He spent the following three winters in Dresden, Germany, intensively composing, and returning to the family estate of Ivanovka every summer.[22] Rachmaninoff made his first tour of the United States as a pianist in 1909, an event for which he composed the Piano Concerto No. 3 (Op. 30, 1909) as a calling card. This successful tour made him a popular figure in America. Nevertheless, he loathed the tour and declined offers of future American concerts.[22] The death in 1915 of Alexander Scriabin, who had studied with him under Zverev, affected Rachmaninoff so deeply that he went on a tour giving concerts exclusively devoted to Scriabin's music. When asked to play some of his own music, he would reply, "Only Scriabin tonight."

Emigration
The 1917 Russian Revolution meant the end of Russia as the composer had known it. With this change followed the loss of his estate, his way of life, his livelihood and essentially his world. On 22 December 1917, he left St. Petersburg for Helsinki with his wife and two daughters on an open sled, having only a few notebooks with sketches of his own compositions and two orchestral scores, his unfinished opera Monna Vanna and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Golden Cockerel. He spent a year giving concerts in Scandinavia while also laboring to widen his concert repertory. Near the end of 1918, he received three offers of lucrative American contracts. Although he declined all three, he decided the United States might offer a solution to his financial concerns. He departed Rachmaninoff in California in 1919 Kristiania (Oslo) for New York on 1November 1918. Once there, Rachmaninoff quickly chose an agent, Charles Ellis, and accepted the gift of a piano from Steinway before playing 40 concerts in a four-month period. At the end of the 1919-20 season, he also signed a contract with the Victor Talking Machine Company. In 1921, the Rachmaninoffs bought a house in the United States, where they consciously recreated the atmosphere of Ivanovka, entertaining Russian guests, employing Russian servants, and observing Russian customs.[23]

Sergei Rachmaninoff

Friendship with Vladimir Horowitz


Just as the Rachmaninoff household in the United States strove to reclaim the lost world of the pre-revolutionary Russia of his youth, Rachmaninoff also sought out the friendship and company of some great Russian musical luminaries. In addition to befriending the operatic bass Chaliapin, he was to meet the pianist Vladimir Horowitz in 1928. The story has become legendary. Arranged by Steinway artist representative Alexander Greiner, the meeting took place at the basement of Steinway Hall on 57th Street, on 8 January 1928, just four days prior to Horowitzs debut at Carnegie Hall playing the Tchaikovsky First Piano Concerto. Referring to his own Third Piano Concerto, Rachmaninoff said to Greiner he heard that Mr. Horowitz plays my Concerto very well. I would like to accompany him.[24] For Horowitz, it was a dream come true to meet Rachmaninoff, to whom he referred as the musical God of my youth ... To think that this great man should accompany me in his own Third Concerto ... This was the most Vladimir Horowitz as he appeared at the unforgettable impression of my life! This was my real debut! For time Rachmaninoff met him Rachmaninoff their Steinway basement meeting was equally unforgettable. Speaking of Horowitzs interpretation to Abram Chasins, he said He swallowed it whole ... he had the courage, the intensity, the daring.[24] The meeting between composer and interpreter would mark the beginning of a friendship that continued until Rachmaninoff's death. In fact, the two men were quite supportive of each other's careers and greatly admired each other's work. Horowitz stipulated to his manager that If I am out of town when Rachmaninoff plays in New York, you must telegraph me, and you must let me come back, no matter where I am or what engagement I have. Likewise Rachmaninoff was always present at Horowitzs New York concerts and was always the last to leave the hall.[25] Notably, the composer was present at Carnegie Hall for Horowitzs American debut on 12 January 1928. Recognizing the great pianistic ability, Rachmaninoff offered his friendship and advice to Horowitz, telling him in a letter that You play very well, but you went through the Tchaikovsky Concerto too rapidly, especially the cadenza. Come and have dinner with me, and we will talk it over.[25] Though they did meet for dinner, Horowitz never agreed with the criticism of his tempo, and retained his interpretation in future performances of the work. But there was certainly no loss of admiration between the men as a result of the criticism.[25] Rachmaninoffs fatherly insights and advice regarding his own music were to prove invaluable to Horowitz. For Rachmaninoff, Horowitz was a champion of both his solo works and his Third Concerto, about which Rachmaninoff remarked publicly after the performance that This is the way I always dreamed my concerto should be played, but I never expected to hear it that way on Earth. In 1985, in the movie The Last Romantic, Horowitz said: "Rachmaninoff is a pianist. I played with him (Arturo Toscanini, who is also mentioned in the conversation), Rachmaninoff and we... [plays the beginning of 3rd piano concerto]. He was a wonderful pianist and a nice friend. He was my best friend! First of all he was composer, pianist and conductor. Three things at once and first class, all three, I think so."[26]

Sergei Rachmaninoff

Career in the West


Due to his busy concert career, Rachmaninoff's output as composer slowed tremendously. Between 1918 and his death in 1943, while living in the U.S. and Europe, he completed only six compositions. This was partly due to spending much of his time performing in order to support himself and his family, but the main cause was homesickness. It was during these years that he traveled the United States as a touring pianist.[27] When he left Russia, it was as if he had left behind his inspiration. His revival as composer became possible only after he had built himself a new home, Villa Senar on Lake Lucerne, Switzerland, where he spent summers from 1932 to 1939. There, in the comfort of his own villa which reminded him of his old family estate, Rachmaninoff composed the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, one of his best known works, in 1934. He went on to compose his Symphony No. 3 (Op. 44, 193536) and the Symphonic Dances (Op. 45, 1940), his last completed work. Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra premiered the Symphonic Dances in 1941 in the Academy of Music. In late 1940 or 1941 he was approached by the makers of the British film Dangerous Moonlight to write a short concerto-like piece for use in the film, but he declined. The job went to Richard Addinsell and the orchestrator Roy Douglas, who came up with the Warsaw Concerto.[28]

Illness and death


Rachmaninoff fell ill during a concert tour in late 1942 and was subsequently diagnosed with advanced melanoma. The family was informed but the composer was not. On 1 February 1943 he and his wife became American citizens.[29] His last recital, given on 17 February 1943 at the Alumni Gymnasium of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, included Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 2, which contains the famous Marche funbre (Funeral March). A statue called "Rachmaninoff: The Last Concert", designed and sculpted by Victor Bokarev, now stands in World Fair Grave at Kensico Cemetery. Note English lettering only. Park in Knoxville as a permanent tribute to Rachmaninoff. He became so ill after this recital that he had to return to his home in Los Angeles.[30] Rachmaninoff died of melanoma on 28 March 1943, in Beverly Hills, California, just four days before his 70th birthday. A choir sang his All Night Vigil at his funeral. He had wanted to be buried at the Villa Senar, his estate in Switzerland, but the conditions of World War II made fulfilling this request impossible.[31] He was therefore interred on 1 June in Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, New York.[32]

Sergei Rachmaninoff

Works
Rachmaninoff wrote five works for piano and orchestrafour concertos plus the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. Of the concertos, the Second and Third are the most popular. He also wrote three symphonies. The second and third symphonies are both considered among his greatest works. The cadenza of Piano Concerto No. 3 is famous for its large chords. (Ossia shown here) Other orchestral works include The Rock (Op. 7), Caprice Bohmien (Op. 12), The Isle of the Dead (Op. 29), and the Symphonic Dances (Op. 45). Works for piano solo include the Preludes, ten in Op. 23 and thirteen in Op. 32. Together with the Prelude in C-sharp minor (Op. 3, No. 2) from Morceaux de fantaisie (Op. 3), they traverse all 24 major and minor keys. Especially difficult are the two sets of tudes-Tableaux, Opp. 33 and 39, which are very demanding study pictures. Stylistically, Op. 33 hearkens back to the preludes, while Op. 39 shows the influences of Scriabin and Prokofiev. There are also the Six moments musicaux (Op. 16), the Variations on a Theme of Chopin (Op. 22), and the Variations on a Theme of Corelli (Op. 42). He wrote two piano sonatas, both of which are large scale and virtuosic in their technical demands. Rachmaninoff also composed works for two pianos, four hands, including two Suites (the first subtitled Fantasie-Tableaux), a version of the Symphonic Dances (Op. 45), and an arrangement of the C-sharp minor Prelude. He also wrote a Russian Rhapsody and arranged his First Symphony (below) for piano four-hands. Both these works were published posthumously. Rachmaninoff wrote two major a cappella choral worksthe Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom and the All-Night Vigil (also known as the Vespers). Other choral works include a choral symphony, The Bells, the Spring Cantata, the Three Russian Songs and an early Concerto for Choir (a cappella). He also completed three operas, Aleko, The Miserly Knight, and Francesca da Rimini. He started another opera in 1907, based on a work by Maurice Maeterlinck, titled Monna Vanna, but did not finish it. It was completed by Igor Buketoff and had its first performance in 1984. His chamber music includes two piano trios, both which are named Trio Elgiaque (the second of which is a memorial tribute to Tchaikovsky), and a Cello Sonata. In his chamber music, the piano tends to be perceived by some to dominate the ensemble. He also composed many songs for voice and piano, to texts by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Alexander Pushkin, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Victor Hugo and Anton Chekhov, among others. Among his most popular songs is the wordless Vocalise.

Sergei Rachmaninoff

Compositional style
Rachmaninoff's style showed initially the influence of Tchaikovsky. Beginning in the mid-1890s, his compositions began showing a more individual tone. His First Symphony has many original features. Its brutal gestures and uncompromising power of expression were unprecedented in Russian music at the time. Its flexible rhythms, sweeping lyricism and stringent economy of thematic material were all features he kept and refined in subsequent works. After the three fallow years following the poor reception of the symphony, Rachmaninoff's style began developing significantly. He started leaning towards sumptuous harmonies and broadly lyrical, often passionate melodies. His orchestration became subtler and more varied, with textures carefully contrasted, and his writing on the whole became more concise.[33] Especially important is Rachmaninoff's use of unusually widely spaced chords for bell-like sounds: this occurs in many pieces, most notably in the choral symphony The Bells, the Second Piano Concerto, the E flat major tude-Tableaux (Op. 33, No. 7), and the B-minor prelude (Op. 32, No. 10). He was also fond of Russian Orthodox chants. He uses them most perceptibly in his Vespers, but many of his melodies found their origins in these chants. The opening melody of the First Symphony is derived from chants. (Note that the opening melody of the Third Piano Concerto is not derived from chants; when asked, Rachmaninoff said that "it had written itself").[34] Rachmaninoff's frequently used motifs include the Dies Irae, often just the fragments of the first phrase. Rachmaninoff had great command of counterpoint and fugal writing, thanks to his studies with Taneyev. The above-mentioned occurrence of the Dies Irae in the Second Symphony is but a small example of this. Very characteristic of his writing is chromatic counterpoint. This talent was paired with a confidence in writing in both large- and small-scale forms. The Third Piano Concerto especially shows a structural ingenuity, while each of the preludes grows from a tiny melodic or rhythmic fragment into a taut, powerfully evocative miniature, crystallizing a particular mood or sentiment while employing a complexity of texture, rhythmic flexibility and a pungent chromatic harmony.[35] His compositional style had already begun changing before the October Revolution deprived him of his homeland. The harmonic writing in The Bells (composed in 1913 but not published until 1920[36] [37] ) became as advanced as in any of the works Rachmaninoff would write in Russia, partly because the melodic material has a harmonic aspect which arises from its chromatic ornamentation.[38] Further changes are apparent in the revised First Piano Concerto, which he finished just before leaving Russia, as well as in the Op. 38 songs and Op. 39 tudes-Tableaux. In both these sets Rachmaninoff was less concerned with pure melody than with coloring. His near-Impressionist style perfectly matched the texts by symbolist poets.[39] The Op. 39 tudes-Tableaux are among the most demanding pieces he wrote for any medium, both technically and in the sense that the player must see beyond any technical challenges to a considerable array of emotions, then unify all these aspects[40] The composer's friend Vladimir Wilshaw noticed this compositional change continuing in the early 1930s, with a difference between the sometimes very extroverted Op. 39 tudes-Tableaux (the composer had broken a string on the piano at one performance) and the Variations on a Theme of Corelli (Op. 42, 1931). The variations show an even greater textural clarity than in the Op. 38 songs, combined with a more abrasive use of chromatic harmony and a new rhythmic incisiveness. This would be characteristic of all his later works the Piano Concerto No. 4 (Op. 40, 1926) is composed in a more emotionally introverted style, with a greater clarity of texture. Nevertheless, some of his most beautiful (nostalgic and melancholy) melodies occur in the Third Symphony, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, and
Rachmaninoff with a piano score

Sergei Rachmaninoff Symphonic Dances.[39]

Fluctuating reputation
His reputation as a composer generated a variety of opinions, before his music gained steady recognition across the world. The 1954 edition of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians notoriously dismissed Rachmaninoff's music as "monotonous in texture ... consist[ing] mainly of artificial and gushing tunes" and predicted that his popular success was "not likely to last".[41] To this, Harold C. Schonberg, in his Lives of the Great Composers, responded, "It is one of the most outrageously snobbish and even stupid statements ever to be found in a work that is supposed to be an objective reference."[41] In a poll of classical music listeners announced in October 2007, the ABC in Australia found that Rachmaninoff's Second Piano Concerto came second, topped only by the Emperor Concerto of Beethoven[42] .
Entrance to Rachmaninoff Hall on the grounds of Moscow Conservatory

The Conservatoire Rachmaninoff in Paris, as well as streets in the cities of Veliky Novgorod and Tambov he used to visit, are named after the composer. In 1986, Moscow Conservatory dedicated a concert hall on its premises to Rachmaninoff, designating the 252-seat auditorium Rachmaninoff Hall.

Pianism
Technique
As a pianist, Rachmaninoff ranked among the finest pianists of his time, along with Leopold Godowsky, Ignaz Friedman, Moriz Rosenthal and Josef Hofmann, and perhaps one of the greatest pianists in classical music history. He was famed for possessing a flawless, clean and inhuman virtuoso piano technique, which listeners may dismiss as emotional conservatism at the first listen. His playing was marked by precision, rhythmic drive, an exceptionally accurate staccato and the ability to maintain complete clarity when playing works with complex textures. He applied these qualities to excellent effect in music by Chopin, especially the B flat minor Piano Sonata. Rachmaninoff's repertoire, excepting his own works, consisted mainly of standard 19th Century virtuoso works plus music by Bach, Beethoven, Borodin, Debussy, Grieg, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Mozart, Schubert, Schumann and Tchaikovsky.[43] Rhythmically, Rachmaninoff was one of the best Romantic performers. He never lost the basic metric pulse, yet he constantly varied it. Harold C. Schonberg suggests the young Vladimir Horowitz might have gotten this kind of rhythmic snap from Rachmaninoff. In addition, Rachmaninoff's playing had extreme musical elegance, with attention paid to the shape of the melodic line. His playing possessed a masculine, aristocratic kind of poetry. While never becoming sentimental, he managed to wring dry the emotional essence of the music. He did so through subtly nuanced phrasing within his strong, clear, unmannered projection of melodic lines.[44] Rachmaninoff possessed extremely large hands, with which he could easily maneuver through the most complex chordal configurations. His left hand technique was unusually powerful. His playing was marked by definitionwhere other pianists' playing became blurry-sounding from overuse of the pedal or

Young Rachmaninoff. Note the hands.

Sergei Rachmaninoff deficiencies in finger technique, Rachmaninoff's textures were always crystal clear. Only Josef Hofmann shared this kind of clarity with him.[45] Both men had Anton Rubinstein as a model for this kind of playingHofmann as a student of Rubinstein's[46] and Rachmaninoff from hearing his famous series of historical recitals in Moscow while studying with Zverev.[47] Incidentally, it might not have been a coincidence that the two pieces Rachmaninoff singled out for praise from Rubinstein's concerts became cornerstones for his own recital programs. The compositions were Beethoven's Appassionata and Chopin's Funeral March Sonata. Moreover, he may have based his interpretation of the Chopin sonata on Rubinstein's. Rachmaninoff biographer Barrie Martyn points out similarities between written accounts of Rubinstein's interpretation and Rachmaninoff's audio recording of the work.[48] As part of his daily warm-up exercises, Rachmaninoff would play the phenomenally difficult tude in A flat, Op. 1, No. 2, attributed to Paul de Schlzer.[49]

Tone
From those barely moving fingers came an unforced, bronzelike sonority and an accuracy bordering on infallibility. Correct notes seemed to be built into his constitution, and a wrong note at a Rachmaninoff recital was an exceedingly rare event.[50] Arthur Rubinstein wrote: He had the secret of the golden, living tone which comes from the heart ... I was always under the spell of his glorious and inimitable tone which could make me forget my uneasiness about his too rapidly fleeting fingers and his exaggerated rubatos. There was always the irresistible sensuous charm, not unlike Kreisler's.[51] Coupled to this tone was a vocal quality not unlike that attributed to Chopin's playing. With Rachmaninoff's extensive operatic experience, he was a great admirer of fine singing. As his records demonstrate, he possessed a tremendous ability to make a musical line sing, no matter Rachmaninoff at the piano how long the notes or how complex the supporting texture, with most of his interpretations taking on a narrative quality. With the stories he told at the keyboard came multiple voicesa polyphonic dialogue, not the least in terms of dynamics. His 1940 recording of his transcription of the song "Daisies" captures this quality extremely well. On the recording, separate musical strands enter as if from various human voices in eloquent conversation. This ability came from an exceptional independence of fingers and hands.[52]

Memory
Rachmaninoff also possessed an uncanny memoryone that would help put him in good stead when he had to learn the standard piano repertoire as a 45-year-old exile. He could hear a piece of music, even a symphony, then play it back the next day, the next year, or a decade after that. Siloti would give him a long and demanding piece to learn, such as Brahms' Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel. Two days later Rachmaninoff would play it "with complete artistic finish." Alexander Goldenweiser said, "Whatever composition was ever mentionedpiano, orchestral, operatic, or otherby a Classical or contemporary composer, if Rachmaninoff had at any time heard it, and most of all if he liked it, he played it as though it were a work he had studied thoroughly."[53]

Sergei Rachmaninoff

10

Interpretations
Regardless of the music, Rachmaninoff always planned his performances carefully. He based his interpretations on the theory that each piece of music has a "culminating point." Regardless of where that point was or at which dynamic within that piece, the performer had to know how to approach it with absolute calculation and precision; otherwise, the whole construction of the piece could crumble and the piece could become disjointed. This was a practice he learned from Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin, a staunch friend.[43] Paradoxically, Rachmaninoff often sounded like he was improvising, though he actually was not. While his interpretations were mosaics of tiny details, when those mosaics came together in performance, they might, according to the tempo of the piece being played, fly past at great speed, giving the impression of instant thought.[54] One advantage Rachmaninoff had in this building process over most of his contemporaries was in approaching the pieces he played from the perspective of a composer rather than that of an interpreter. He believed "interpretation demands something of the creative instinct. If you are a composer, you have an affinity with other composers. You can make contact with their imaginations, knowing something of their problems and their ideals. You can give their works color. That is the most important thing for me in my interpretations, color. So you make music live. Without color it is dead."[55] Nevertheless, Rachmaninoff also possessed a far better sense of structure than many of his contemporaries, such as Hofmann, or the majority of pianists from the previous generation, judging from their respective recordings.[52] A recording which showcases Rachmaninoff's approach is the Liszt Second Polonaise, recorded in 1925. Percy Grainger, who had been influenced by the composer and Liszt specialist Ferruccio Busoni, had himself recorded the same piece a few years earlier. Rachmaninoff's performance is far more taut and concentrated than Grainger's. The Russian's drive and monumental conception bear a considerable difference to the Australian's more delicate perceptions. Grainger's textures are elaborate. Rachmaninoff shows the filigree as essential to the work's structure, not simply decorative.[56]

Marfan syndrome
Along with his musical gifts, Rachmaninoff possessed physical gifts that may have placed him in good stead as a pianist. These gifts included exceptional height and extremely large hands with a gigantic finger stretch. They and Rachmaninoff's slender frame, long limbs, narrow head, prominent ears, and thin nose suggest that he may have had Marfan syndrome, a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue. This syndrome would have accounted for several minor ailments he suffered all his life. These included back pain, arthritis, eye strain and bruising of the fingertips.[57]

Recordings
Phonograph
Many of Rachmaninoff's recordings are acknowledged classics. Rachmaninoff recorded first for Edison Records on their "Diamond Disc" records, since they claimed the best audio fidelity in recording the piano at the time. Thomas Edison, who was quite deaf, didn't care for Rachmaninoff's playing and referred to him as a "pounder".[58] Further, Rachmaninoff recorded on an upright piano that the inventor admitted was below average; however, the discs provided the composer with some much-needed income. Rachmaninoff believed his

Rachmaninoff (1921 Victor advertisement)

Sergei Rachmaninoff own performances to be variable in quality and requested that he be allowed to approve any recordings for commercial release. Edison agreed but still issued multiple takes, a common practice in the gramophone record industry at the time. This angered Rachmaninoff, and he left Edison and signed a contract with the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1920 and with its successor, RCA Victor. The company was pleased to comply with Rachmaninoff's restrictions, and proudly advertised him as one of their great recording artists. His recordings for Victor continued until 1942, when the American Federation of Musicians imposed a recording ban in the U.S. Particularly renowned are his renditions of Schumann's Carnaval and Chopin's Funeral March Sonata, along with many shorter pieces. He recorded all four of his piano concertos with the Philadelphia Orchestra, including two versions of the second concerto with Leopold Stokowski conducting, and a world premiere recording of the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, soon after the first performance (1934) with the Philadelphians under Stokowski. The first, third, and fourth concertos were recorded with Eugene Ormandy. Rachmaninoff also made three recordings conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra in his own Third Symphony, his symphonic poem Isle of the Dead, and his orchestration of Vocalise.

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Piano rolls
Rachmaninoff was also involved in various ways with music on piano rolls. Several manufacturers, and in particular the Aeolian Company, had recorded his compositions on perforated music rolls from about 1900 onwards.[59] His sister-in-law, Sofia Satina, remembered him at the family estate at Ivanovka, pedalling gleefully through a set of rolls of his Second Piano Concerto, apparently acquired from a German source,[60] most probably the Aeolian Company's Berlin subsidiary, the Choralion Company. Aeolian in London created a set of three rolls of this concerto in 1909, which remained in the catalogues of its various successors until the late 1970s.[61] From 1919 he made 35 piano rolls (12 of which were his own compositions),[62] for the American Piano Company (Ampico)'s reproducing piano. According to the Ampico publicity department, he initially disbelieved that a roll of punched paper could provide an accurate record, so he was invited to listen to a proof copy of his first recording. After the performance, he was quoted as saying "Gentlemen I, Sergei Rachmaninoff, have just heard myself play!" For demonstration purposes, he recorded the solo part of his Second Piano Concerto for Ampico, though only the second movement was used publicly and has survived. He continued to record until around 1929, though his last roll, the Chopin Scherzo in B-flat minor, was not published until October 1933.[63]

Sergei Rachmaninoff

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Media
As performer As composer
Prelude in C minor, Op. 3, No. 2 tude-Tableau in E-flat minor Rachmaninoff's famous Prelude in C-sharp minor (Op. 3, No. 2), which he composed when he was 19, established his fame in America. It is here performed by himself. Karine Gilanyan performing tude-Tableau in E-flat minor, [64] Op. 39, No. 5 (4:31, 8.48 MB) . Courtesy of Musopen

Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 Rachmaninoff playing the first 4 minutes of Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2, recorded in 1919 by Edison Records

Piano Concerto No. 2, I. Moderato Performed by the Skidmore College Orchestra. Courtesy [65] of Musopen

Waltz in E flat major, Op. 18 Vocalise transcribed for violin and piano Rachmaninoff performing Waltz in E flat major, Op. 18, by Chopin. Recorded on January 21, 1921. Performed by Roxana Pavel Goldstein (violin) and Monica Goldstein (piano)

The Maiden's Wish An except from his 1942 recording of The Maiden's Wish by Chopin, arranged for solo piano by Liszt

Problems listening to the files? See media help.

Cultural references
Rachmaninoff's music is often quoted, especially themes from his second and third piano concertos, and the eighteenth variation of the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. The soundtrack of the 1945 film Brief Encounter, directed by David Lean, prominently features the second piano concerto played by Eileen Joyce. The 1953 film The Story of Three Loves, directed by Vincente Minnelli, features the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. Tom Ewell's character in the comedy The Seven Year Itch believes a recording of Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 2 is the key ingredient with which to seduce the character played by Marilyn Monroe.[64] In the motion picture Somewhere In Time (1980) the character played by Christopher Reeve uses the 18th variation of Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini to win the heart of the character played by Jane Seymour. The action is set in 1912, but the movie involved time travel from the early 1980s to the past, so the piece (premiered in 1934) would have been known to Christopher Reeve's character. In one scene, Reeve's character is humming the tune, Seymour's character asks what it is, and he tells her it is by Rachmaninoff. She says she had heard Rachmaninoff play with "the Philharmonic once. I love his music but I've never heard this piece". In an allusion to that, the movie Groundhog Day (1993) has Bill Murray's character learning to play the same piece.[65] In the 1996 film Shine, which is based on a true story, the pianist David Helfgott is obsessed with Rachmaninoff. Helfgott, played by Geoffrey Rush, enters a piano competition, choosing to play the third piano concerto despite the warnings of a teacher that the piece may be too demanding. Helfgott completes the piece and suffers a nervous breakdown. Bruce Beresford was signed in March 2006 to direct a feature film based on Rachmaninoff's life, as seen through the eyes of his widow, to be called Rhapsody.[66]

Sergei Rachmaninoff In the editorial comic strip 9 Chickweed Lane, the primary character Edda is known for playing Rachmaninoff's works with much enthusiasm.[67] Eric Carmen's first two solo singles were based on melodies from Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 2. The influence of Sergei Rachmaninoff's work (specifically Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor and also Piano Concerto No. 3 in D minor) can be heard in the songs "Space Dementia" and "Butterflies and Hurricanes" by Muse. Matthew Bellamy of Muse has cited Rachmaninoff, Liszt, and Chopin as a source of inspiration.[68] In 2010, a newly discovered 290-kilometre-wide impact basin on Mercury was named Rachmaninoff.[69] In the television show Lost, episode 9 of season 4 "The Shape of Things to Come" the character Ben Linus plays Rachmaninoff's Prelude in C sharp minor.

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See also
List of coupled cousins

Bibliography
Bertensson, Sergei and Jay Leyda, with the assistance of Sophia Satina, Sergei RachmaninoffA Lifetime in Music (Washington Square, New York: New York University Press, 1956)). ISBN n/a. D'Antoni, Claudio A. Rachmaninov - Personalit e poetica 2003 Roma, Bardi Editore, pp.400; ISBN 88-88620-06-0; ISBN 978-88-88620-06-0 D'Antoni, Claudio A. Dinamica rappresentativa del suono-parola- La drammaturgia compressa delle Romanze di Rachmaninov pp.480 (only available on www.ilmiolibro.it) 2009 Roma Harrison, Max, Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings (London and New York: Contunnum, 2005). ISBN 0-8264-5344-9. Kennedy, Michael, The Oxford Dictionary of Music (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). ISBN 0-19-311333-3. Maes, Francis, tr. Pomerans, Arnold J. and Erica Pomerans, A History of Russian Music: From Kamarinskaya to Babi Yar (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2002). ISBN 0-520-21815-9. Matthew-Walker, Robert, Arms of Steel, Heart of Gold, International Piano Quarterly, No. 11 (Spring 2000). Mattnew-Walker, Robert, Rachmaninoff (London and New York: Omnibus Press, 1980). ISBN 0-89524-208-7. Norris, Geoffrey, Rachmaninoff (New York: Schirmer Books, 1993). ISBN 0-02-870685-4. Norris, Geoffrey, ed. Stanley Sadie, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: MacMillan, 1980), 20 vols. ISBN 0-333-23111-2. Norris, Geoffrey (2002). "Rakhmaninov, Sergey (Vasil'yevich)". in Alison Latham. The Oxford Companion to Music. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN0198662122. OCLC59376677. Plaskin, Glenn, Horowitza biography (New York: William Morrow and Company, inc., 1983). ISBN 0-688-01616-2. Sergei Rachmaninoff, Rachmaninoff's Recollections Told to Oskar von Rieseman, translated by Dolly Rutherford; New York, MacMillan, 1934 Rakhmaninov, Sergei Vasil'yevich by Richard Taruskin, in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992) ISBN 0-333-73432-7 The Lives of the Great Composers by Harold C. Schonberg,(Abacus; 2Rev Ed edition) ISBN 978-0-349-10972-5 Schonberg, Harold (1988). The Virtuosi: Classical Music's Great Performers From Paganini to Pavarotti. Vintage. ISBN0394755324. Harrison, Max. 2006. Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-9312-2.

Sergei Rachmaninoff Obenchain, Elaine. 1987. The Complete Catalog of Ampico Reproducing Piano Rolls (Vestal Press edition). Vestal, NY: Vestal Press. ISBN 0-911572-62-7.

14

External links
Rachmaninoff Society, [72] Vladimir Ashkenazy President [73] (German) German Rachmaninoff page Rachmaninoff's Works for Piano and Orchestra [74]: Analysis of Rachmaninoff's Works for Piano and Orchestra Sergei Rachmaninoff discography [75] at MusicBrainz Complete list of Rachmaninoff's performances as a conductor [76] Works by or about Sergei Rachmaninoff [77] in libraries (WorldCat catalog) [78] (French) A complete and precise French site on Rachmaninoff [79] (Russian) A complete list of Rachmaninoff's works Biography [80] at allmusic.com Memorial Page at FindaGrave [81] Alexander Ossovsky about Rachmaninov (in Russian) [82] Sergei Rachmaninoff Photos [83] Sergei Rachmaninoff Videos [84]

Recordings and MIDI


(Russian) Rachmaninoff's own records (complete) [85] Selection of midi files [86] Rachmaninoff selected works (MP3) [87]

Free scores

(Russian) Free scores by Sergei Rachmaninoff (Italian)Free scores
[89] [88]

Free scores by Sergei Rachmaninoff in the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Sergei Rachmaninoff in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)

References
[1] Note: Sergei Rachmaninoff was the spelling the composer himself used while living in the West throughout the latter half of his life. However, alternative transliterations of his name include "Sergej Vasil'evi Rahmaninov" (ISO 9:1995 & GOST 7.79 System A), "Sergej Vasil'evich Raxmaninov" (GOST 7.79 System B), "Serge Vasil'evich Rakhmaninov" (ALA-LC), "Sergej Vasilevi Rachmaninov" (ISO/R 9:1968), "Sergey Vasil'yevich Rakhmaninov" (BGN/PCGN) & "Sergej Vasilevi Raxmaninov" (scientific transliteration) as well as Serge, Rachmaninow, and Rakhmaninoff (and other versions; Russian transliteration can vary between languages). [2] http:/ / www. naxos. com/ person/ Sergei_Rachmaninov_21001/ 21001. htm. Naxos. Retrieved 20100725. [3] Geoffrey Norris. "Rachmaninoff, Serge. " In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, http:/ / www. oxfordmusiconline. com/ subscriber/ article/ grove/ music/ 50146 . Retrieved November 11, 2009. [4] Other obvious candidates being Nikolai Medtner, Alexander Scriabin, Nikolai Myaskovsky, and Alexander Glazunov [5] Norris, New Grove, 2nd. ed. , 707. [6] Shelokhonov, Steve (2007). "Biography for Sergei Rachmaninoff" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0006245/ bio). IMDb. . Retrieved 2007-12-14. [7] Norris, New Grove, 15:550. [8] Francis Crociatas liner notes to RCA's 10-CD set of Rachmaninoffs recordings [9] "Talk Classical" (http:/ / www. talkclassical. com/ 2507-sergei-rachmaninoff. html). Talk Classical. 1943-03-28. . Retrieved 2010-03-13. [10] Norris, New Grove, 2nd. ed., 709. [11] Kyui, Ts., "Tretiy russkiy simfonicheskiy kontsert," Novosti i birzhevaya gazeta (17 March 1897(o.s.)), 3. [12] Ossovsky Alexander Viacheslavovich (1871-1957), renowned critic and musicologist and close friend of Rachmaninoff, see external links. [13] Also see, Harrison, Max (2006). Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings. Continuum,London, p.77.

Sergei Rachmaninoff
[14] Geraint Lewis. "Programme notes for Proms performance of Glazunov's Violin Concerto" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ proms/ aboutmusic/ glazunov_violincon. shtml). BBC. . [15] David Brown, Liner Notes to a Deutsche Grammophon recording of the 3rd Rachmaninov Symphony conducted by Mikhail Pletnev [16] Harrison, 84-85. [17] Norris, New Grove 2nd Ed., 709-710. [18] __Nina/hauptteil_koshetz__nina.html Koshetz, Nina (http:/ / www. cantabile-subito. de/ Sopranos/ Koshetz) at www.cantabile-subito.de [19] Derzhinskaia Ksenia Georgievna (1889-1951), cousin of the musicologist Alexander Ossovsky and the composer Mykola Vilinsky, outstanding Russian singer, also professor at Moscow Conservatory (1947-51), was called "Golden Soprano of the Bolshoi Theatre" (http:/ / www. belcanto. ru/ derzhinskaya. html) [20] Photo of Rachmaninoff (circa 1910) with inscription to Ksenia Derzhinskaia (second row, number 4) (http:/ / www. senar. ru/ photos/ portrait/ ) [21] See Osssovsky's memoir about Rachmaninoff, external links. [22] Norris, New Grove, 15:553. [23] Norris, New Grove, 15:554. [24] Plaskin, Glenn, Horowitz, a biography,, 107. [25] About Wizard Horowitz, Who Will Return Soon, The Milwuakee Journal (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?nid=1499& dat=19430418& id=E-8ZAAAAIBAJ& sjid=SIEAAAAIBAJ& pg=4799,1289334), Google News. Retrieved March 14, 2010. [26] Part of the movie "The Last Romantic" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=NZBQ3dicVPw) [27] "Sergei Rachmaninoff Biography" (http:/ / www. 8notes. com/ biographies/ rachmaninoff. asp). 8notes. . Retrieved 2008-03-02. [28] "Richard Addinsell - Films as composer" (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ Writers-and-Production-Artists-A-Ba/ Addinsell-Richard. html). filmreference.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-10. [29] Cunningham, Robert (2001). Sergei Rachmaninoff: a bio-bibliography - Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=k2YrwE8GaLEC& pg=PA6& lpg=PA6& dq=rachmaninoff+ american+ citizenship& q=rachmaninoff american citizenship). Books.google.com. ISBN9780313309076. . Retrieved 2010-03-13. [30] Norris, New Grove, 15:554-555. [31] Norris, New Grove, 2nd ed., 713. [32] Harrison, Max (2006). Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=HwSvhu1kLikC). London: Continuum. ISBN0-8264-9312-2. . [33] Norris, New Grove 2nd ed., 714-715. [34] Yasser, Joseph (1969). "The Opening Theme of Rachmaninoff's Third Piano Concerto and its Liturgical Prototype". Musical Quarterly LV: 313328. doi:10.1093/mq/LV.3.313. [35] Norris, New Grove 2nd ed., 715. [36] Harrison, 191. [37] This may have been due to Rachmaninoff's main publisher, Gutheil, having died in 1914 and Gutheil's catalog being acquired by Serge Koussevitsky. (Harrison, 191). [38] Harrison, 190-191. [39] Norris, New Grove, 2nd ed., 716. [40] Harrison, 207. [41] Schonberg, Composers, 520. [42] (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ classic/ classic100/ results. htm) Retrieved on August 24, 2010 [43] Norris, New Grove 2d ed., 714. [44] Schonberg, Virtuosi, 315, 317. [45] Schonberg, Virtuosi, 317. [46] Schonberg, Pianists, 384. [47] Riesemann, 49-52. [48] Martyn,368, 403-406 [49] Jorge Bolet Encores (http:/ / www. arkivmusic. com/ classical/ album. jsp?album_id=146796) [50] Schonberg, Virtuosi, 315. [51] Rubinstein, 1980., 87-89, 468. [52] Harrison, 270. [53] Schonberg, Composers, 522. [54] Harrison, 268. [55] From "Conversations with Rachmaninoff" by Basil Mayne, Musical Opinion, October 1936,. [56] Harrison, 251. [57] Young, 1986. [58] Ziemann, George (October 2003), Thomas Edison, Intellectual Property and the Recording Industry (http:/ / www. azoz. com/ newsarchive/ edison/ index. html), [59] Music for the Pianola and the Aeriol Piano, The Aeolian Company, New York, July 1901.

15

Sergei Rachmaninoff
[60] Harrison 2006, p.223 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HwSvhu1kLikC& pg=PA223& lpg=PA223& dq=rachmaninov+ satina+ pianola& source=web& ots=qW6vVyyGZ4& sig=dP2DkVhA9GD1kQzXafqqujcu8Ac#PPA223,M1) [61] Catalogue of Music for the Pianola and Pianola-Piano, The Orchestrelle Company, London, June 1910, and many successive catalogues. [62] Elaine Obenchain, The Complete Catalog of Ampico Reproducing Piano Rolls, 1977, William H. Edgerton, Darien CT ISBN 0-9601172-1-0 [63] Obenchain 1987. [64] Raines, Mary Elizabeth. "Marilyn Monroe, Rachmaninoff and...Hypnosis?" (http:/ / www. laughingcherub. com/ rachmaninoffandhypnosis. htm). in Laughing Cherub Hypnosis Site. . Retrieved 2009-03-03. [65] The Internet Movie Database, ed. "Groundhog Day (1993) - Trivia" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0107048/ trivia). . Retrieved 2009-03-03. [66] George, Sandy (2006-08-31). "Grasping the poetry of features" (http:/ / www. theaustralian. news. com. au/ story/ 0,20867,20295840-15803,00. html). The Australian. . Retrieved 2007-07-09. [67] McEldowney, Brooke (2005-07-22). "9 Chickweed Lane free online comic strip library at comics.com" (http:/ / comics. com/ 9_chickweed_lane/ 2005-07-22/ ). . [68] Keyboard (http:/ / www. keyboardmag. com) [69] http:/ / blogs. nature. com/ news/ thegreatbeyond/ 2010/ 07/ mercurys_volcanic_ventings. html

16

Maurice Ravel
Joseph-Maurice Ravel (March 7, 1875 December 28, 1937) was a French composer of Impressionist music known especially for his melodies, orchestral and instrumental textures and effects. Much of his piano music, chamber music, vocal music and orchestral music has entered the standard concert repertoire. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eau, Miroirs, Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit, demand considerable virtuosity from the performer, and his orchestral music, including Daphnis et Chlo and his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition, uses a variety of sound and instrumentation. Ravel is perhaps known best for his orchestral work Bolro (1928), which he considered trivial and once described as "a piece for orchestra without music."[1] According to SACEM, Ravel's estate earns more royalties than that of Maurice Ravel in 1912 any other French composer. According to international copyright law, Ravel's works are public domain since January 1, 2008 in most countries. In France, due to anomalous copyright law extensions to account for the two world wars, they will not enter the public domain until 2015.[2]

Maurice Ravel

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Biography
Early life
Ravel was born in the Basque town of Ciboure, France, near Biarritz, close to the border with Spain, during 1875. His mother, Marie Delouart, was of Basque descent and grew up in Madrid, Spain, while his father, Joseph Ravel, was a Swiss inventor and industrialist from French [3] Haute-Savoie. Both were Catholics and they provided a happy and stimulating household for their children. Some of Joseph's inventions were quite important, including an early internal-combustion engine and a notorious circus machine, the "Whirlwind of Death," an automotive loop-the-loop that was quite a success until a fatal Birthplace of Maurice Ravel in Ciboure accident at the Barnum & Bailey Circus during 1903.[4] Joseph delighted in taking his sons to factories to see the latest mechanical devices, and he also had a keen interest in music and culture.[5] Ravel substantiated his father's early influence by stating later, As a child, I was sensitive to music- to every kind of music. [6] Ravel was very fond of his mother, and her Basque heritage was a strong influence on his life and music. Among his earliest memories are folk songs she sang to him.[7] The family moved to Paris three months after the birth of Maurice, and there his younger brother douard was born. douard became his fathers favorite and also became an engineer.[7] At age seven, Maurice began piano lessons with Henry Ghys and received his first instruction in harmony, counterpoint, and composition with Charles-Ren. His earliest public piano recital was during 1889 at age fourteen.[8] Though obviously talented at the piano, Ravel demonstrated a preference for composing. He was particularly impressed by the new Russian works conducted by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov at the Exposition Universelle in 1889.[9] The foreign music at the exhibition also had a great influence on Ravels contemporaries Erik Satie, Emmanuel Chabrier, and most significantly Claude Debussy. That year Ravel also met Ricardo Vies, who would become one of his best friends, one of the foremost interpreters of his piano music, and an important link between Ravel and Spanish music.[10] The students shared an appreciation for Richard Wagner, the Russian school, and the writings of Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Baudelaire, and Stphane Mallarm.[11]

Maurice Ravel

18

The Conservatoire and early career


Ravels parents encouraged his musical pursuits and sent him to the Conservatoire de Paris, first as a preparatory student and eventually as a piano major. His teachers included mile Descombes. He received a first prize in the piano student competition in 1891.[12] Overall, however, he was not successful academically even as his musicianship matured dramatically. Considered very gifted, Ravel was also called somewhat heedless in his studies.[12] Around 1893, Ravel created his earliest compositions, and he was introduced by his father to the caf pianist Erik Satie, whose distinctive personality and unorthodox musical experiments proved influential.[11]

Thtre du Conservatoire, Paris: in Ravel's day, home to the Conservatoire de Paris

Ravel was not a "bohemian" and evidenced little of the typical trauma of adolescence. At twenty years of age, Ravel was already "self-possessed, a little aloof, intellectually biased, given to mild banter."[13] He dressed like a dandy and was meticulous about his appearance and demeanor. Short in stature, light in frame, and bony in features, Ravel had the "appearance of a well-dressed jockey".[14] His large head seemed suitably matched to his great intellect. He was well-read and later accumulated a library of over 1,000 volumes.[14] In his younger adulthood, Ravel was usually bearded in the fashion of the day, though later he dispensed with all whiskers. Though reserved, Ravel was sensitive and self-critical, and had a mischievous sense of humor.[13] He became a life-long tobacco smoker in his youth, and he enjoyed strongly flavored meals, fine wine, and spirited conversation.[15] After failing to meet the requirement of earning a competitive medal in three consecutive years, Ravel was expelled during 1895. He turned down a music professorship in Tunisia then returned to the Conservatoire in 1898 and started his studies with Gabriel Faur, determined to focus on composing rather than piano playing.[16] He studied composition with Faur until he was dismissed from the class in 1900 for having won neither the fugue nor the composition prize. He remained an auditor with Faur until he left the conservatoire in 1903.[17] Ravel found his teachers personality and methods sympathetic and they remained friends and colleagues. He also undertook private studies with Andr Gdalge, whom he later stated was responsible for "the most valuable elements of my technique."[18] Ravel studied the ability of each instrument carefully in order to determine the possible effects, and was sensitive to their color and timbre. This may account for his success as an orchestrator and as a transcriber of his own piano works and those of other composers, such as Mussorgsky, Debussy and Schumann.[19] His first significant work, Habanera for two pianos, was later transcribed into the well-known third movement of his Rapsodie espagnole. His first published work was Menuet antique (dedicated to and premiered by Vies).[20] During 1899, Ravel conducted his first orchestral piece, Shhrazade, and was greeted by a raucous mixture of boos and applause. The critics were somewhat unfavorable, e.g. reviling him as "a jolting debut: a clumsy plagiarism of the Russian School" and terming him a mediocrely gifted debutante ... who will perhaps become something if not someone in about ten years, if he works hard.[21] As the most gifted composer of his class and as a leader, with Debussy, of avant-garde French music, Ravel would continue to have a difficult time with the critics for some time to come.[22] Around 1900, Ravel joined with a number of innovative young artists, poets, critics, and musicians (but not women) who were referred to as the Apaches (hooligans), a name coined by Vies to represent his band of "artistic outcasts".[23] The group met regularly until the beginning of World War I and the members often inspired each other with intellectual argument and performances of their works before the group. For a time, the influential group included Igor Stravinsky and Manuel de Falla.[24] One of the first works Ravel performed for the Apaches was Jeux

Maurice Ravel d'eau, his first piano masterpiece and clearly a pathfinding impressionistic work. Vies performed the public premiere of this piece and Ravel's other early masterpiece Pavane pour une infante dfunte during 1902.[25] During his years at the Conservatoire, Ravel tried numerous times to win the prestigious Prix de Rome, but to no avail, likely because he was considered too radical by the conservatives, including Director Thodore Dubois.[26] One of Ravel's pieces, the String Quartet in F, likely modeled on Debussys Quartet (1893), is now a standard work of chamber music, though at the time it was criticized and found lacking academically.[27] After a scandal involving his loss of the prize during 1905 to Victor Gallois, despite being favored to win, Ravel left the Conservatoire. The incident named the "Ravel Affair" by the Parisian press engaged the entire artistic community, pitting conservatives against the avant-garde, and eventually caused the resignation of Dubois and his replacement by Faur, a vindication of sorts for Ravel.[28] Though deprived of the opportunity to study in Rome, the decade after the scandal proved to be Ravel's most productive, and included his "Spanish period".[29]

19

Ravel and Debussy


Ravel met Debussy during the 1890s. Debussy was older than Ravel by some twelve years and his pioneering "Prlude lAprs-midi dun faune" was influential among the younger musicians including Ravel, who were impressed by the new language of impressionism.[30] During 1900, Ravel was invited to Debussys home and they played each others works. Vies became the preferred piano performer for both composers and a go-between. The two composers attended many of the same musical events and were performed at the same concerts. Ravel and the Apaches were strong supporters of Debussys controversial public debut of his unconventional opera "Pellas et Mlisande", which garnered Debussy both fame and scorn.[26] The two musicians also appreciated much the same musical heritage and operated in the same artistic milieu, but they differed in terms of personality and their approach to music. Debussy was considered more spontaneous and casual in his composing while Ravel was more attentive to form and craftsmanship.[31] Even though they worked independently of one another, because they employed differing means to similar ends, and because superficial similarities and even some more substantive ones are evident, the public and the critics associated them more than the facts warranted.[32] Ravel wrote that Debussys genius was obviously one of great individuality, creating its own laws, constantly in evolution, expressing itself freely, yet always faithful to French tradition. For Debussy, the musician and the man, I have had profound admiration, but by nature I am different from Debussy.[33] Ravel further stated, I think I have always personally followed a direction opposed to that of the symbolism of Debussy.[16] They admired each others music and Ravel even played Debussys work in public on occasion. However, Ravel did criticize Debussy sometimes, particularly regarding his orchestration, and he once said, "If I had the time, I would reorchestrate La mer"[31] By 1905, factions formed for each composer and the two groups began feuding in public. Disputes arose as to questions of chronology about their respective works and who influenced whom. The public tension caused personal estrangement.[34] As Ravel said, It is probably better after all for us to be on frigid terms for illogical reasons.[32] Ravel stoically absorbed superficial comparisons with Debussy promulgated by biased critics, including Pierre Lalo, an anti-Ravel critic who stated, Where M. Debussy is all sensitivity, M. Ravel is all insensitivity, borrowing without hesitation not only technique but the sensitivity of other people.[34] During 1913, in a remarkable coincidence, both Ravel and Debussy independently produced and published musical settings for poems by Stphane Mallarm, again provoking comparisons of their work and their perceived influence on each other, which continued even after Debussys death five years later.[35]

Maurice Ravel

20

Early major works


The next of Ravels piano compositions to become famous was "Miroirs" (Mirrors, 1905), five piano pieces which marked a harmonic evolution and which one commentator described as intensely descriptive and pictorial. They banish all sentiment in expression but offer to the listener a number of refined sensory elements which can be appreciated according to his imagination.[36] Next was his "Histoires naturelles" (Nature Stories), five humorous songs evoking the presence of five animals.[37] Two years later, Ravel completed his Rapsodie espagnole, his first major "Spanish" piece, written first for piano four hands and then scored for orchestra. Though it employs folk-like melodies, no actual folk songs are quoted.[38] It premiered during 1908 to generally good reviews, with one critic stating that it was "one of the most interesting novelties of the season", while Lalo (as usual) reacted negatively, calling it "laborious and pedantic".[39] Next followed Ravels music for the opera L'heure espagnole (The Spanish Hour), full of humor and rich in color, employing a wide variety of instruments and their characteristic qualities, including the trombone, sarrusophone, tuba, celesta, xylophone, and bells.[40]

Ravel in 1906 (photograph by Pierre Petit)

Ravel further extended his mastery of impressionistic piano music with Gaspard de la nuit, based on a collection by the same name by Aloysius Bertrand, with some influence from the writings of Edgar Allan Poe, particularly in the second part.[41] Vies, as usual, performed the premiere but his performance displeased Ravel, and their relationship became strained from then on. For future premieres, Ravel replaced Vines with Marguerite Long.[42] Also unhappy with the conservative musical establishment which was discouraging performance of new music, around this time Ravel, Faur, and some of his pupils formed the Socit Musical Indpendante (SMI). During 1910, the society presented the premiere of Ravels Ma mre l'oye (Mother Goose) in its original piano version.[43] With this work, Ravel followed in the tradition of Schumann, Mussorgsky, and Debussy, who also created memorable works of childhood themes. During 1912, Ravel's Ma mre l'oye was performed as a ballet (with added music) after being first transcribed from piano to orchestra.[44] Looking to expand his contacts and career, Ravel made his first foreign tours to England and Scotland during 1909 and 1911.[45]

Daphnis et Chlo
Ravel began work with impresario Sergei Diaghilev during 1909 for the ballet Daphnis et Chlo commissioned by Diaghilev with the lead danced by the great Vaslav Nijinsky. Diaghilev had taken Paris by storm the previous year in his Parisian debut opera Boris Godunov.[44] Daphnis et Chlo took three years to reach final form, with conflicts constantly arising among the principal artists, including Lon Bakst (sets and costumes), Michel Fokine (libretto), and Ravel (music).[46] In frustration, Diaghilev nearly cancelled the project. The ballet had an unenthusiastic reception and lasted only two performances, only to be revived to acclaim a year later. Igor Stravinsky called Daphnis et Chlo "one of the most beautiful products of all French music" and author Burnett James claims that it is "Ravel's most impressive single achievement, as it is his most opulent and confident orchestral score".[47] The work is notable for its rhythmic diversity, lyricism, and evocations of nature. The score utilizes a large orchestra and two choruses, one onstage and one offstage.[48] So exhausting was the effort to score the ballet that Ravel's health deteriorated, with a diagnosis of neurasthenia soon forcing him to rest for several months.[49] During 1914, just as World War I began, Ravel composed his Trio in A minor (for piano, violin, and cello) with its Basque themes. The piece, difficult to play well, is considered a masterpiece among trio works.[50]

Maurice Ravel

21

War years
Although he considered his small stature and light weight an advantage to becoming an aviator, and he tried every means of securing service as a flyer, during the First World War Ravel was not allowed to enlist as a pilot because of his age and weak health.[51] Instead, he became a truck driver stationed at the Verdun front.[52] At one point Ravel's unit engaged a German unit that included a young Adolf Hitler.[53] With his mothers death during 1917, his fondest relationship ended and he began a horrible despair, adding to his ill health and the general gloom over the suffering endured by the people of his country during the war. However, during the war years, Ravel did manage some compositions, including one of his most popular works, Le tombeau de Couperin, a commemoration of the musical ideals of the early 18th century composer, which premiered during 1919.[54] Each movement is dedicated to a friend of Ravel who died by the war, with the final movement dedicated to the deceased husband of Ravels favorite pianist Marguerite Long.[54] During the war, a National League for the Defense of French Music was formed but Ravel, despite his strong antipathy for the German aggression, declined to join stating: it would be dangerous for French composers to ignore systematically the works of their foreign colleagues, and thus form themselves into a sort of national coterie: our musical, so rich at the present time, would soon degenerate and become isolated by its own academic formulas.[52] Ravel was exhausted and lacking creative spirit at the wars end during 1918. With the death of Debussy and the emergence of Satie, Schoenberg, and Stravinsky, modern classical music had a new style to which Ravel would shortly re-group and make his contribution.[55]

1920s
Around 1920, Diaghilev commissioned Ravel to write La valse, originally named Wien (Vienna), which was to be used for a projected ballet. The piece, conceived many years earlier, became a waltz with a macabre undertone, famous for its fantastic and fatal whirling. However, it was rejected by Diaghilev as not a ballet. Its a portrait of ballet. Ravel, hurt by the comment, ended the relationship.[56] Subsequently, it became a popular concert work and when the two men met again during 1925, Ravel refused to shake Diaghilev's hand. Diaghilev challenged Ravel to a duel (friends persuaded Diaghilev to recant). The men never met again.[57]

During 1920, the French government awarded Ravel the Lgion d'honneur, but he refused it.[58] The next year, he retired to the French countryside where he continued to write music, albeit even less prolifically, but in more tranquil surroundings.[59] He returned regularly to Paris for performances and socializing, and increased his foreign concert tours. Ravel maintained his influential participation with the SMI which continued its active role of promoting new music, particularly of British and American composers such as Arnold Bax, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Aaron Copland, and Virgil Thomson.[60] With Debussys passing, Ravel became perceived popularly as the main composer of French classical music. As Faur stated in a letter to Ravel (October, 1922), I am happier than you can imagine about the solid position which you occupy and which you have acquired so brilliantly and so rapidly. It is a source of joy and pride for your old professor.[61] During 1922, Ravel completed his Sonata for Violin and Cello. Dedicated to Debussys memory, the work features the thinner texture popular with the younger postwar composers.[61] The English, in particular, lauded Ravel, as the Times reported during 1923, Since the death of Debussy, he has represented to English musicians the most vigorous current in modern French music." In reality, however, Ravels

Ravel's house in Montfort-l'Amaury, where the composer lived from 1921 until his death

Maurice Ravel own music was no longer considered au courant in France. Satie had become the inspiring force for the new generation of French composers known as Les Six.[62] Ravel was fully aware of this, and was mostly effective in preventing a serious breach between his generation of musicians and the younger group.[62] In post-war Paris, American musical influence was strong. Jazz particularly was played in the cafes and became popular, and French composers including Ravel and Darius Milhaud were applying jazz elements to their work.[19] Also in vogue was a return to simplicity in orchestration and a transition from the great scale of the works of Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss. Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev were in the ascendant, and Arnold Schoenberg's experiments were leading music into atonality.[63] These trends posed challenges for Ravel, always a slow and deliberate composer, who desired to keep his music relevant but still revered the past. This may have played a part in his declining output and longer composing time during the 1920s.[63] Around 1922, Ravel completed his famous orchestral arrangement of Mussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition, commissioned by Serge Koussevitzky, which through its widespread popularity brought Ravel great fame and substantial profit.[19] The first half of the 1920s was a particularly lean period for composing but Ravel did complete successful concert tours to Amsterdam, Milan, London, Madrid, and Vienna, which also boosted his fame. By 1925, by virtue of the unwelcomed pressure of a performance deadline, he finally finished his opera, L'enfant et les sortilges, with its significant jazz and ragtime accents. Famed writer Colette provided the libretto.[64] Around this time, he also completed Chansons madcasses, the summit of his vocal art.[65] During 1927, Ravels string quartet received its first complete recording. By this time Ravel, like Edward Elgar, had become convinced of the importance of recording his works, especially with his input and direction. He made recordings nearly every year from then until his death.[66] That same year, he completed and premiered his Sonata for Violin and Piano, his last chamber work, with its second movement (titled Blues) gaining much attention.[67] Ravel also served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, a grant given between 1919-1954 to young French painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers, and musicians.[68]

22

American tour
After two months of planning, during 1928 Ravel made a four-month concert tour in North America, for a promised minimum of $10,000.[66] In New York City, he received a standing ovation, unlike any of his unenthusiastic premieres in Paris. His all-Ravel concert in Boston was equally acclaimed.[69] The noted critic Olin Downes wrote, Mr. Ravel has pursued his way as an artist quietly and very well. He has disdained superficial or meretricious effects. He has been his own most unsparing critic.[70] Ravel conducted most of the leading orchestras in the U.S. from coast to coast and visited twenty-five cities.[71]

He also met the American composer George Gershwin in New York and went with him to hear jazz in Harlem, likely hearing some of the famous jazz musicians such as Duke Ellington.[72] There is a story that when Gershwin met Ravel, he mentioned that he would like to study with the French composer. According to Gershwin, the Frenchman retorted, "Why do you want to become a second-rate Ravel when you are already a first-rate Gershwin?"[73] The second part of the story has Ravel asking Gershwin how much money he made. Upon

Ravel at the piano, accompanied by Canadian singer va Gauthier, during his American tour, March 7, 1928. At far right is George Gershwin.

Maurice Ravel hearing Gershwin's reply, Ravel suggested that maybe he should study with Gershwin. This tale may well be apocryphal: Gershwin seems also to have told a near-identical story about a conversation with Arnold Schoenberg, and some have claimed it was with Igor Stravinsky. (See George Gershwin.) In any event, this had to have been before Ravel wrote Bolro, which became financially very successful for him. Ravel then visited New Orleans and imbibed the jazz scene there as well. His admiration of American jazz, increased by his American visit, caused him to include some jazz elements in a few of his later compositions, especially the two piano concertos. The great success of his American tour made Ravel famous internationally.[74]

23

Final years
After returning to France, Ravel composed his most famous and controversial orchestral work Bolro, originally called Fandango. Ravel called it an experiment in a very special and limited direction.[75] He stated his idea for the piece, I am going to try to repeat it a number of times on different orchestral levels but without any development.[76] He conceived of it as an accompaniment to a ballet and not as an orchestral piece as, in his own opinion, it has no music in it, and was somewhat taken aback by its popular success.[76] A public dispute began with conductor Arturo Toscanini. The Italian maestro, taking liberties with Ravels strict instructions, conducted the piece at a faster tempo and with an accelerando at the finish. Ravel insisted I dont ask for my music to be interpreted, but only that it should be played. In the end, the feuding only helped to increase the works fame. A Hollywood film titled Bolero (1934), starring Carole Lombard and George Raft, made major use of the theme.[77] Ravel made one of his few recordings of his own music when he conducted his Bolro with the Lamoureux Orchestra in 1930. Remarkably, Ravel composed both of his piano concertos at the same time.[78] He completed the Concerto for the Left Hand first. The work was commissioned by Austrian pianist Paul Wittgenstein, who had lost his right arm during World War I. Ravel was inspired by the technical challenges of the project. As Ravel stated, In a work of this kind, it is essential to give the impression of a texture no thinner than that of a part written for both hands.[79] At the premiere of the work, Ravel- not proficient enough to perform the work with only his left hand- played two-handed and Wittgenstein was reportedly underwhelmed by it. But later Wittgenstein stated, Only much later, after Id studied the concerto for months, did I become fascinated by it and realized what a great work it was. [80] During 1933, Wittgenstein played the work in concert for the first time to instant acclaim.[81] One critic wrote, From the opening measures, we are plunged into a world in which Ravel has but rarely introduced us.[81] The other piano concerto was completed a year later. Its lighter tone follows the models of Mozart, Domenico Scarlatti, and Saint-Sans, and also makes use of jazz-like themes.[82] Ravel dedicated the work to his favorite pianist, Marguerite Long, who played it and popularized it across Europe in over twenty cities, and they recorded it together during 1932.[83] EMI later reissued the 1932 recording on LP and CD. Although Ravel was listed as the conductor on the original 78-rpm discs, it is possible he merely supervised the recording. Ravel, ever modest, was bemused by the critics' sudden favor of him since his American tour, Didnt I represent to the critics for a long time the most perfect example of insensitivity and lack of emotion?... And the successes they have given me in the past few years are just as unimportant. [81]

Illness and death


During 1932, Ravel suffered a major blow to the head in a taxi accident. This injury was not considered serious at the time.[84] However, afterwards he began to experience aphasia-like symptoms and was frequently absent-minded.[85] He had begun work on music for a film, Adventures of Don Quixote (1933) from Miguel de Cervantes's celebrated novel, featuring the Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin and directed by G. W. Pabst. When Ravel became unable to compose, and could not write down the musical ideas he heard in his mind, Pabst hired Jacques Ibert. However, three songs for baritone and orchestra that Ravel composed for the film were later published under the title Don Quichotte a Dulcine, and have been performed and recorded.[84]

Maurice Ravel On April 8, 2008, the New York Times published an article suggesting Ravel may have been in the early stages of frontotemporal dementia during 1928, and this might account for the repetitive nature of Bolro.[86] This accords with an earlier article, published in a journal of neurology, that closely examines Ravel's clinical history and argues that his works Bolro and Piano Concerto for the Left Hand both indicate the impacts of neurological disease.[87] This is contradicted somewhat, however, by the earlier cited comments by Ravel about how he created the deliberately repetitious theme for Bolro. During late 1937, Ravel consented to experimental brain surgery. One hemisphere of his brain was re-inflated with serous fluid. He awoke from the surgery, called for his brother douard, lapsed into a coma and died shortly afterwards at the age of 62. Ravel probably died as a result of a brain injury caused by the automobile accident and not from a brain tumor as some believe.[88] This confusion may arise because his friend George Gershwin had died from a brain tumor only five months earlier. Ravel was buried with his parents in a granite tomb at the cemetery at Levallois-Perret, a suburb of northwest Paris.

24

Personal life
Ravel is not known to have had any intimate relationships, and his personal life, and especially his sexuality, remains a mystery. Ravel made a remark at one time suggesting that because he was such a perfectionist composer, so devoted to his work, he could never have a lasting intimate relationship with anyone.[89] He is quoted as saying "The only love affair I have ever had was with music"[90] . Some of his friends suggested that Ravel frequented the bordellos of Paris, but no factual evidence has ever been found to substantiate this rumor. A recent hypothesis presented by David Lamaze, a composition teacher at the Conservatoire de Rennes in France, is that he hid in his music representations of the nickname and the name of Misia Godebska, transcribed into two groups of notes, Godebska = G D E B A and Misia = Mi + Si + A = E B A. He was invited onto her boat during a 1905 cruise on the Rhine after his failure at the Prix de Rome, for which her husband, Alfred Edwards, organized a scandal in the newspapers. This same man owned the "Casino de Paris" where the Ravel family had a number staged, the "Tourbillon de la mort", a car somersault. The family of her half-brother, Cipa Godebski, is said to have been like a second family for Ravel. In 1907 on Misia's boat L'Aime, Ravel completed L'heure espagnole and the Rapsodie espagnole, and at the premiere of Daphnis et Chlo, Ravel arrived late and did not go to his box but to Misia's, where he offered her a Japanese doll. In her memoires, Misia hid all these facts.[91]

Musicality
Musical sources
Active during a period of great artistic innovations and diversification, Ravel benefited from many sources and influences, though his music defies any facile classification. As Vladimir Janklvitch notes in his biography, "no influence can claim to have conquered him entirely []. Ravel remains ungraspable behind all these masks which the snobbery of the century has attempted to impose."[92] Ravel's musical language was ultimately very original, neither absolutely modernist nor impressionist. Like Debussy, Ravel categorically refused this description of impressionist which he believed was reserved exclusively for painting.[93] Ravel was a remarkable synthesist of disparate styles. Ravels music matured early into his innovative and distinct style. As a student, he studied the scores of composers of the past methodically: as he stated, "in order to know one's own craft, one must study the craft of others."[94] Though he liked the new French music, during his youth Ravel still felt fond of the older French styles of Franck and the Romanticism of Beethoven and Wagner. [13] Or, as Vies put it, discussing Ravel's aesthetics (not his religion): "He is, moreover, very complicated, there being in him a mixture of Middle Ages Catholicism and satanic impiety, but also a love of Art and Beauty which guide him and which make him react candidly."[94]

Maurice Ravel Certain aspects of his music can be considered to belong to the tradition of 18th century French classicism beginning with Couperin and Rameau as in Le Tombeau de Couperin. The uniquely 19th century French sensibilities of Faur and Chabrier are reflected in Srnade grotesque, Pavane pour une infante dfunte, and Menuet antique, while pieces such as Jeux d'eau, and the String Quartet in F owe something to the innovations of Satie and Debussy. The virtuosity and poetry of Gaspard de la nuit and Concerto for the left hand hint at Liszt and Chopin. His admiration and interest in American jazz is echoed in L'enfant et les sortilges, Violin Sonata and the Piano Concerto in G, while the Russian school of music inspired homage in " la manire de Borodin" and the orchestration of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition. Additionally, he variously cited Mozart, Saint-Sans, Schubert and Schoenberg as inspirations for various pieces.

25

Musical style
Ravel's music was innovative, though he did not follow the contemporary trend towards atonality, as pioneered by Schoenberg. Instead, he applied the aesthetics of the new French school of Chabrier, Satie, and particularly Debussy. Ravel's compositions rely upon modal melodies instead of using the major or minor scales for their predominant harmonic language. He preferred modes with major or minor flavors for example the Mixolydian (with its lowered 7th degree) instead of the major, and the Aeolian instead of the harmonic minor. As a result, there are virtually no leading tones in his output. Melodically, he tended to favor two modes: the Dorian and the Phrygian.[95] Following the teachings of Gdalge, Ravel placed high importance on melody, once stating to Vaughan Williams, that there is "an implied melodic outline in all vital music."[95] In no way dependent on exclusively traditional modal practices, Ravel used extended harmonies and intricate modulations. He was fond of chords of the ninth and eleventh, and his characteristic harmonies are largely the result of a fondness for unresolved appoggiaturas, such as in the Valses nobles et sentimentales.[96] He was inspired by various dances, his favorite being the minuet, composing the Menuet sur le nom d'Haydn during 1908, to commemorate the centenary of the death of Joseph Haydn. Other forms from which Ravel drew material include the forlane, rigaudon, waltz, czardas, habanera, passacaglia, and the bolro. He believed that composers should be aware of both individual and national consciousness. For him, Basque music was influential. He intended to write an earlier concerto, Zazpiak Bat, but it was never finished. The title is a result of his Basque heritage: meaning 'The Seven Are One', it refers to the seven Basque regions, and was a motto often used in association with the idea of a Basque nation.[97] Instead, Ravel abandoned the piece, using its nationalistic themes and rhythms in some of his other pieces. Ravel also used other folk themes including Hebraic, Greek, and Hungarian.[98] Ravel has almost always been considered one of the two great French impressionist composers, the other being Debussy. In reality Ravel is much more than an Impressionist (and in fact he resented being labelled as such). For example, he made extensive use of rollicking jazz tunes in his Piano Concerto in G in the first and third movements.[99] Ravel also imitates Paganini's and Liszt's virtuoso gypsy themes and technique in Tzigane.[100] In his la manire de...Borodine (In the manner of...Borodin), Ravel plays with the ability to both mimic and remain original. In a more complex situation, A la maniere de...Emmanuel Chabrier /Paraphrase sur un air de Gounod ("Faust IIme acte"), Ravel takes on a theme from Gounod's Faust and arranges it in the style of Chabrier. He also composed short pieces in the manner of Haydn and his teacher Faur.[101] Even in writing in the style of others, Ravel's own voice as a composer remained distinct. Ravel considered himself in many ways a classicist. He often relied on traditional forms, such as the A-B-A form, as well as traditional structures as ways of presenting his new melodic and rhythmic content, and his innovative harmonies.[102] Ravel stated, "If I were called upon to do so, I would ask to be allowed to identify myself with the simple pronouncements made by Mozart ... He confined himself to saying that there is nothing that music cannot undertake to do, or dare, or portray, provided it continues to charm and always remain music."[103] He often masked the sections of his structure with transitions that disguised the beginnings of the motif. This is apparent in his Valses

Maurice Ravel nobles et sentimentales inspired by Franz Schubert's collections, Valses nobles and Valses sentimentales where the seven movements begin and end without pause, and in his chamber music where many movements are in sonata-allegro form, hiding the change from developmental sections to recapitulation.[104] From his own experience, Ravel was cognizant of the effect of new music on the ears of the public and he insightfully wrote: On the initial performance of a new musical composition, the first impression of the public is generally one of reaction to the more superficial elements of its music, that is to say, to its external manifestations rather than to its inner contentoften it is not until years after, when the means of expression have finally surrendered all their secrets, that the real inner emotion of the music becomes apparent to the listener.[105]

26

Methods
His own composing method was craftsman-like and perfectionistic. Igor Stravinsky once referred to Ravel as "the most perfect of Swiss watchmakers", a reference to the intricacy and precision of Ravel's works.[106] Ravel might work on a piece over several years to develop it to the best possible result, My objective, therefore, is technical perfection. I can strive unceasingly to this end, since I am certain of never being able to attain it. The important thing is to get nearer to it all the time.[107] More specifically he stated: In my own compositions I judge a long period of conscious gestation necessary. During this interval I come progressively, and with growing precision, to see the form and the evolution that the final work will take in its tonality. Thus I can be occupied for several years without writing a single note of the work, after which composition goes relatively quickly. But one must spend much time in eliminating all that could be regarded as superfluous in order to realize as completely as possible the definitive clarity so much desired. The moment arrives when new conceptions must be formulated for the final composition, but they cannot be artificially forced for they come only of their own accord, often deriving their original from some far-off perception and only manifesting themselves after long years.
[106]

Many of his most innovative compositions were developed first as piano music. Ravel used this miniaturist approach to build up his architecture with many finely wrought strokes. To fill the requirements of larger works, he multiplied the number of small building blocks.[102] This demonstrates the great regard he had for the piano traditions of Scarlatti, Couperin, Mozart, Chopin and Liszt.[108] For example, Gaspard de la nuit can be viewed as an extension of Liszts virtuosity and advanced harmonics.[109] Even Ravels most difficult pieces, however, are marked by elegance and refinement. Walter Gieseking found some of Ravels piano works to be among the most difficult pieces for the instrument but always based on musically perfectly logical concepts; not just technically demanding but also requiring the right expression.[108] Ravels great regard as an orchestrator is also based on his thorough methods. He usually notated the string parts first and insisted that the string section sound perfectly in and of itself.[110] In writing for the other sections, he often preferred to score in tutti to produce a full, clear resonance. To add surprise and added color, the melody might start with one instrument and be continued with another.[111] Because of his perfectionism and methods, Ravels musical output over four decades is quite small. Most of his works were thought out over considerable lengths of time, then noted quickly, and refined painstakingly.[112] When a piece would not progress, he would abandon a piece until inspired anew.[113] There are only about sixty compositions in all, of which slightly more than half are instrumental. Ravels body of work includes pieces for piano, chamber works, two piano concerti, ballet music, opera, and song cycles.[6] Though wide-ranging in his music, Ravel avoided the symphonic form as well as religious themes and forms.[114]

Maurice Ravel Ravel crafted his manuscripts meticulously, and relentlessly polished and corrected them. He destroyed hundreds of sketches and even re-copied entire autographs to correct one mistake. Unfortunately, early printed editions of his works were prone to errors so he worked painstakingly with his publisher, Durand, to correct them.[112]

27

Pianist and conductor


Though a competent pianist, Ravel decided early on to have virtuosi, like Ricardo Vies, premiere and perform his work. As his career evolved, however, Ravel was again called upon to play his own piano music, and to conduct his larger works, particularly during a tour, both of which he considered chores in the same mold as "circus performances". Only rarely did he conduct works of other composers.[115] One London critic stated "His baton is not the magician's wand of a virtuoso conductor. He just stood there beating time and keeping watch."[116] As to how his music was to be played, Ravel was always clear and direct with his instructions.[116]

Transcriber and Orchestrator


Ravel was and is a leading figure in the art of transcription and orchestration. During his life Ravel studied the ability of each orchestral instrument carefully in order to determine its possible effects while being sensitive to their individual color and timbre.[117] Ravel regarded orchestration as a task separate from composition, involving distinct technical skills. He was always careful to ensure that the writing for each family of instruments worked in isolation as well as in the complete ensemble. While he disapproved of tampering with his own works once completed, orchestration gave him the opportunity to view works in a different context.[118] Among the most famous of his orchestra transcriptions is his own Le Tombeau de Couperin (1917) which he orchestrated the Prelude, Forlane, Minuet, and Rigaudon movements in 1919. The orchestral version clarifies the harmonic language of the suite and brings sharpness to its classical dance rhythms. Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition is best known through its orchestration by Ravel. In this version, produced in 1922, Ravel omits thePromenadebetween"Samuel" Goldenberg und "Schmule"andLimogesand applies artistic license to some particulars of dynamics and notation as well as putting forth the virtuoso effort of a master colourist throughout.

Musical influence
Ravel was always a supporter of young musicians, through his society and associations, and through his personal individual advice and his help in securing performance dates. His closest students included Maurice Delage, Manuel Rosenthal, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Alexis Roland-Manuel and Vlado Perlemuter.[119] Ravel modeled his teaching methods after his own teacher Gabriel Faur, avoiding formulas and emphasizing individualism. Ravel's preferred way of teaching would be to have a conversation with his students and demonstrate his points at the piano. He was rigorous and demanding in teaching counterpoint and fugue, as he revered Johann Sebastian Bach without reservation. But in all other areas, he considered Mozart the ideal, with the perfect balance between "classical symmetry and the element of surprise", and with works of clarity, perfect craftsmanship, and measured amounts of lyricism. Often Ravel would challenge a student with "What would Mozart do?", then ask the student to invent his own solution.[120] Though never a paid critic as Debussy had been, Ravel had strong opinions on historical and contemporary music and musicians, which influenced his younger contemporaries. In creating his own music, he tended to avoid the more monumental composers as models, finding relatively little kinship with or inspiration from Beethoven, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Hector Berlioz, or Franck. However, as an outspoken commentator on the Romantic giants, he found much of Beethoven "exasperating", Wagner's influence "pernicious" and Berlioz's harmony "clumsy". He had considerable admiration for other 19th century masters such as Chopin, Liszt, Mendelssohn, and Schubert.[121] Despite what he considered their technical deficiencies, Ravel was a strong advocate of Russian music and praised its spontaneity, orchestral color, and exoticism.[122]

Maurice Ravel

28

Notable compositions
Menuet antique (piano, 1895, orchestrated in 1929) Shhrazade (ouverture de ferie) (1897) Pavane pour une infante dfunte ("Pavane for a dead infanta") (piano 1899, orchestra 1910) Jeux d'eau (piano, 1901) String Quartet in F major (1902-3) Shhrazade (orchestral song cycle, 1903) Setting poems by his friend Tristan Klingsor Sonatine (piano, 19031905) Introduction and allegro (pedal harp, flute, clarinet, string quartet, 1905) Miroirs ("Reflections") (piano, 1905):

Noctuelles ("Night moths") Oiseaux tristes ("Sad birds") Une barque sur l'ocan ("A boat on the ocean"; orchestrated 1906) Alborada del Gracioso ("Dawn song of the jester"; orchestrated 1918) La valle des cloches ("Valley of the bells") Histoires naturelles ("Tales from nature") (song cycle for voice and piano, text by Jules Renard, 1906) Pice en forme de Habanera (bass voice and piano, 1907) Rapsodie espagnole ("Spanish Rhapsody") (orchestra, 1907) L'heure espagnole ("The Spanish Hour") (opera, 19071909) Gaspard de la nuit ("Demons of the night") (piano, 1908) Ma Mre l'Oie ("Mother Goose") (piano duet 19081910, orchestrated 1911, expanded into ballet 1912) Daphnis et Chlo ("Daphnis and Chlo") (ballet, 19091912) Trois Pomes de Stphane Mallarm, (voice, piano, flute/piccolo, clarinet/bass clarinet and string quartet, 1913) Valses nobles et sentimentales ("Noble and Sentimental Waltzes") (piano 1911, orchestra 1912) Piano Trio A minor (1914) Le Tombeau de Couperin ("Tombeau for Couperin"; piano 19141917; movements I, III, IV and V orchestrated 1919) I. Prelude II. Fugue III. Forlane IV. Rigaudon V. Minuet VI. Toccata La Valse (choreographic poem, 19061914 and 19191920) Sonata for Violin and Cello in C Major (19201922) Chansons Madcasses ("Songs of Madagascar") (voice, flute, cello and piano, text by Evariste Parny, 1926) L'enfant et les sortilges ("The Child and the Spells", lyric fantasy, 19201925, libretto by Colette 1917) Tzigane (violin and piano, 1924) Sonata for Violin and Piano in G major (19231927) Fanfare (1927; for the children's ballet L'ventail de Jeanne, to which ten French composers each contributed a dance) Bolro (ballet, 1928) Piano Concerto for the Left Hand in D major (19291930; composed for Paul Wittgenstein) Piano Concerto in G (19291931)

Don Quichotte Dulcine ("Serenade of Don Quixote to Dulcinea"; voice and piano, 19321933)

Maurice Ravel

29

Media depictions
Canadian filmmaker Larry Weinstein has produced two documentaries about Ravel, Ravel (1987)[123] and Ravel's Brain (2001).[124] The second of these two films dramatizes the musician's illness and death. Maurice Ravel is played as a "bit role" by actor Oscar Loraine in the 1945 Gershwin film biography Rhapsody in Blue.

See also
Category:Compositions by Maurice Ravel Expressionism Impressionist music Bolro

Further reading
"Maurice Ravel". Biography Resource Center [125] (subscription) (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale) 25 (Contemporary Musicians). 1999. Ivry, Benjamin (2000). Maurice Ravel: a Life. New York: Welcome Rain. ISBN1566491525. OCLC44172900. Larner, Gerald (1996). Maurice Ravel. London: Phaidon. ISBN0714832707. OCLC35985736. Mawer, Deborah, ed. (2000). The Cambridge Companion to Ravel. Cambridge Companions to Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN0521648564. OCLC59558270. Lamaze, David (2009). The Watchmaker's heart. thebookedition.com.

External links
Free Scores
Free scores by Maurice Ravel in the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Maurice Ravel in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Free scores [126] by Maurice Ravel in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA) www.kreusch-sheet-music.net [127] - Free Scores by Ravel

Miscellaneous
Maurice Ravel Frontispice [128] at www.maurice-ravel.net Epitonic.com: Maurice Ravel [129] featuring a track from Miroirs and Gaspard De La Nuit Biography of Maurice Ravel [130] Works by or about Maurice Ravel [131] in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Maurice Ravel [132] at Find a Grave The mystery of the missing Bolero millions - an artist's rights saga! - and a tale of greed? [133] Many quotations about Ravel's personality [134] Maurice Ravel "Vocalise Etude en form de Habanera" sung by [135] Varda Kotler.

Maurice Ravel

30

Recordings
Piano Rolls [136] (The Reproducing Piano Roll Foundation [137]) Maurice Ravel on Wikilivres

References
[1] Kavanaugh, Patrick (1996). "Orchestra Music" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=qSFD5A6r3QEC& pg=PA56& vq=ravel). Music of the Great Composers: A Listener's Guide to the Best of Classical Music. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. p.56. ISBN0310208076. OCLC34149901. . [2] Henley, Jon (2001-04-25). "Poor Ravel" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ g2/ story/ 0,3604,477906,00. html). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2008-08-12. [3] Joseph is sometimes described inaccurately as Swiss, Burnett James, Ravel, Omnibus Press, London, 1987, p. 11, ISBN 0-7119-0987-3 [4] James, 1987, p. 13 [5] Arbie Orenstein, Ravel: Man and Musician, Dover, New York, 1991, p. 10, ISBN 0-486-26633-8 [6] Orenstein, 1991, p. 130 [7] Orenstein, 1991, p. 8 [8] Orenstein, 1991, p. 11 [9] Orenstein, 1991, pp. 11-12 [10] James, 1987, p. 15 [11] Orenstein, 1991, p. 16 [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] Orenstein, 1991, p. 14 James, 1987, p. 22 Orenstein, 1991, p. 111 Orenstein, 1991, p. 110 James, 1987, p. 20 Barbara L. Kelly. "Ravel, Maurice." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 9 December 2009. James, 1987, p. 21 James, 1987, p. 101 Orenstein, 1991, p. 17 Orenstein, 1991, p. 24 Orenstein, 1991, p. 25 Orenstein, 1991, p. 28 Orenstein, 1991, p. 29 Orenstein, 1991, p. 37 James, 1987, p. 33 Orenstein, 1991, p. 39, 155 James, 1987, p. 40 James, 1987, p. 40, 46 Orenstein, 1991, p. 31 Orenstein, 1991, p. 127 James, 1987, pp. 30-31 Orenstein, 1991, p. 33 James, 1987, p. 46 Orenstein, 1991, p. 67 James, 1987, p. 44 Orenstein, 1991, p. 163 Orenstein, 1991, p. 166 Orenstein, 1991, p. 39 Orenstein, 1991, p. 169 Orenstein, 1991, p. 171 James, 1987, p. 61 James, 1987, p. 62 Orenstein, 1991, p. 65 James, 1987, p. 65 Orenstein, 1991, p. 60

[47] James, 1987, pp. 71-72 [48] Orenstein, 1991, p. 177 [49] James, 1987, p. 72

Maurice Ravel
[50] James, 1987, p. 79 [51] James, 1987, p. 78 [52] James, 1987, p. 83 [53] James, 1987, p. 84 [54] James, 1987, p. 81 [55] James, 1987, p. 86 [56] Orenstein, 1991, p. 78 [57] Schonberg, Harold C. (1981). The Lives of the Great Composers (revised ed.). New York, London: W.W. Norton. p.486. ISBN0393013022. OCLC6278261. [58] Orenstein, 1991, p. 77 [59] Orenstein, 1991, p. 81 [60] Orenstein, 1991, pp. 82-83 [61] Orenstein, 1991, p. 82 [62] James, 1987, p. 99 [63] Orenstein, 1991, p. 84 [64] James, 1987, p. 108 [65] Orenstein, 1991, p. 197 [66] James, 1987, p. 118 [67] Orenstein, 1991, p. 93 [68] "Florence Meyer Blumenthal" (http:/ / jwa. org/ encyclopedia/ article/ blumenthal-florence-meyer). Jewish Women's Archive, Michele Siegel. . [69] Orenstein, 1991, p. 94 [70] James, 1987, p. 119 [71] Orenstein, 1991, p. 95 [72] Orenstein, 1991, p. 97 [73] Smith, Jane Stuart; Betty Carlson (1995). The Gift of Music: Great Composers and Their Influence (3 ed.). Wheaton IL: Crossway Books. p.272. ISBN089107869X. OCLC32820672. [74] Orenstein, 1991, p. 98 [75] Orenstein, 1991, p. 201 [76] James, 1987, p. 121 [77] Orenstein, 1991, p. 99 [78] James, 1987, p. 125 [79] James, 1987, p. 126 [80] Orenstein, 1991, p. 101 [81] Orenstein, 1991, p. 104 [82] Orenstein, 1991, pp. 204-5 [83] Orenstein, 1991, p. 103 [84] James, 1987, p. 132 [85] Orenstein, 1991, p. 105 [86] Blakeslee, Sandra (2008-04-08). "A Disease That Allowed Torrents of Creativity" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 04/ 08/ health/ 08brai. html). New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-08-10. [87] Amaducci, L.; E. Grassi, and F. Boller (January 2002). "Maurice Ravel and right-hemisphere musical creativity: influence of disease on his last musical works?". European Journal of Neurology (subscription access) 9 (1): 7582. doi:10.1046/j.1468-1331.2002.00351.x. ISSN13515101. [88] James, 1987, p. 136 [89] Orenstein, 1991, p.112 [90] Limelight, July 2008, p. 11. [91] This hypothesis has been presented in a universitarian essay (Master) and published in French (Le Coeur de l'horloge) and in English ( The Watchmaker's Heart (http:/ / le-cygne-de-ravel. com/ indexEng. html)) [92] Janklvitch, Vladimir (1995). Ravel. Solfges (Nouv. d., rev. et augm ed.). Paris: Seuil. pp.78. ISBN2020234904. OCLC33209653. [93] Ravel, Maurice (1989). Lettres, crits, entretiens. Orenstein, Arbie, ed.. Paris: Flammarion. p.327. ISBN2080661035. OCLC20025651. "Si vous me demandez si nous avons une cole impressionniste en musique, je dois dire que je n'ai jamais associ ce terme la musique. La peinture, ah, a, c'est autre chose! Monet et son cole taient impressionnistes. Mais dans l'art sur, il n'y a pas d'quivalent cela." Interview extract printed in Musical Digest, March 1928. [94] Orenstein, 1991, p. 18 [95] Orenstein, 1991, p. 131 [96] Orenstein, 1991, p. 132 [97] James, 1987, p. 75 [98] Orenstein, 1991, p. 190

31

Maurice Ravel
[99] Orenstein, 1991, p. 203 [100] Orenstein, 1991, p. 193 [101] Orenstein, 1991, p. 192 [102] Orenstein, 1991, p. 135 [103] Orenstein, 1991, pp. 117-8 [104] Orenstein, 1991, p. 134 [105] Orenstein, 1991, p. 217 [106] James, 1987, p. 103 [107] Orenstein, 1991, p. 118 [108] Orenstein, 1991, p. 136 [109] James, 1987, p. 30 [110] Orenstein, 1991, p. 137 [111] Orenstein, 1991, p. 138 [112] Orenstein, 1991, p. 208 [113] Orenstein, 1991, p. 209 [114] Orenstein, 1991, p. 139 [115] Orenstein, 1991, p. 92 [116] Orenstein, 1991, p. 87 [117] James, 1987, p. 21 [118] Barbara L. Kelly. "Ravel, Maurice." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. 9 August 2010. [119] Orenstein, 1991, p. 112 [120] Orenstein, 1991, p. 120 [121] Orenstein, 1991, p. 123 [122] Orenstein, 1991, p. 125 [123] Weinstein, Larry (Director). (1988). Ravel. [Videotape]. Toronto: Rhombus Media. OCLC156633524. Abstract: Follows Ravel's life and career through the presentation of his many works by the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. [124] Weinstein, Larry (Director). (2001). Ravel's Brain. [Videotape]. Oley, PA: Bullfrog Films. Produced by Rhombus Media. ISBN1560299045. OCLC48513895. Abstract: The film portrays the inner being of a great artist who was rendered incapable of communicating with the outside world. For the last five years of his life, Maurice Ravel was the victim of his own lamentable circumstances. Afflicted with aphasia and apraxia, his brain produced music, but he was unable to write it down.

32

Max Reger

33

Max Reger
Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 May 11, 1916) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, organist, and teacher.

Life
Born in Brand, Bavaria, Reger studied music in Munich and Wiesbaden with Hugo Riemann. From September 1901 he settled in Munich, where he obtained concert offers and where his rapid rise to fame began. During his first Munich season, Reger appeared in ten concerts as an organist, chamber pianist and accompanist. He continued to compose without interruption. From 1907 he worked in Leipzig, where he was music director of the university until 1908 and professor of composition at the conservatory until his death. In 1911 he moved to Meiningen where he got the position of Hofkapellmeister at the court of Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. In 1915 he moved to Jena, commuting once a week to teach in Leipzig. He died in May 1916 on one of these trips of a heart attack at age 43.
Max Reger, postcard (1910)

He had been also active internationally as a conductor and pianist. Among his students were Joseph Haas, Jaroslav Kvapil, Ruben Liljefors, George Szell and Cristfor Taltabull. Reger was the cousin of Hans von Koessler.

Recording session with Max Reger for the Welte-Philharmonic-Organ, 1913.

Max Reger

34

Works
During a composing life of little more than 25 years, Reger produced an enormous output, nearly always in abstract forms, although few of his compositions are well known today. Many of his works are fugues or in variation form, including what is probably his best known orchestral work, the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Mozart (based on the opening theme of Mozart's Piano Sonata in A major, K. 331). He also wrote a large amount of music for organ, including the Fantasy and Fugue on BACH (this piece, based on the BACH motif, is considered one of the most difficult and demanding in organ literature). He was particularly attracted to the fugal form his entire life. Once he remarked: "Other people write fugues - I live inside them". He created music in almost every genre, opera and the symphony being the two exceptions. A firm supporter of absolute music, he saw himself as being part of the tradition of Beethoven and Brahms. His work often combines the classical structures of these composers with the extended harmonies of Liszt and Wagner, to which he added the complex counterpoint of Bach. His organ music, though also influenced by Liszt, was provoked by that tradition. Of his orchestral pieces, his richly elaborate Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Hiller and Mozart Variations are still performed now and then; few others are. Among his chamber compositions the lighter-textured trios have retained a small place in the repertory, and the Clarinet Quintet, his swan-song, is widely admired. Some of the works for solo string instruments turn up often on recordings, though less regularly in recitals. His solo piano and two-piano music places him as a successor to Brahms in the central German tradition. He pursued intensively, and to its limits, Brahms's continuous development and free modulation, often also invoking, like Brahms, the aid of Bach-influenced polyphony. He was a prolific writer of vocal works, Lieder, works for mixed chorus, men's chorus and female chorus, and extended choral works with orchestra such as Der 100. Psalm and Requiem. He composed texts of poets such as Otto Julius Bierbaum, Adalbert von Chamisso, Joseph von Eichendorff, Emanuel Geibel, Friedrich Hebbel, Nikolaus Lenau, Friedrich Rckert and Ludwig Uhland. His works could be considered retrospective as they followed classical and baroque compositional techniques such as fugue and continuo. The influence of the latter can be heard in his chamber works which are deeply reflective and unconventional.
Max Reger.

See also
List of compositions by Max Reger

Bibliography
Liu, Hsin-Hung. (2004) A study on compositional structure in Max Reger Phantasie fr Orgel ber den Choral, "Hallelujah! Gott zu loben, bleibe meine Seelenfreud! D.M.A. Dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle. Anderson, Christopher (2003). Max Reger and Karl Straube: Perspectives on an Organ Performing Tradition. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-3075-7. Bittmann, Antonius (2004). Max Reger and Historicist Modernisms. Baden-Baden: Koerner. ISBN 3-87320-595-5. Cadenbach, Rainer (1991). Max Reger und Seine Zeit. Laaber, Germany: Laaber-Verlag. ISBN 3-89007-140-6. Grim, William (1988). Max Reger: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-25311-0.

Max Reger

35

Sources
Geocities [1]

External links
The Max Reger Foundation of America, New York City [2] Max-Reger-Institut, Karlsruhe, Germany [3] (in German) Max Reger Archive [4] Meiningen (in German) Piano recital without Pianist or Max Reger plays Max Reger [5] Max Reger [6] at Find a Grave

Recordings
Max Reger String Trio No.1 sound-bite and short bio [7] Performances of works for organ and solo viola by Max Reger in MP3 format at Logos Virtual Library [8] organ works of Max Reger played on virtual organs [9] organ works of Max Reger played on a real organ [10]

Music scores
Free scores by Max Reger in the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Max Reger in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Free scores [11] by Max Reger in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA) The Mutopia Project has compositions by Max Reger [12]

Steve Reich
Stephen Michael Steve Reich (pronounced /ra/;[1] born October 3, 1936) is an American composer who pioneered the style of minimalist music. His innovations include using tape loops to create phasing patterns (examples are his early compositions, "It's Gonna Rain" and "Come Out"), and the use of simple, audible processes to explore musical concepts (for instance, "Pendulum Music" and "Four Organs"). These compositions, marked by their use of repetitive figures, slow harmonic rhythm and canons, have significantly influenced contemporary music, especially in the US. Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage, notably the Grammy Award-winning Different Trains.

Steve Reich in 2006

Reich's style of composition influenced many other composers and musical groups. Reich has been described by The Guardian as one of "a handful of living composers who can legitimately claim to have altered the direction of musical history",[2] and the critic Kyle Gann has said Reich "may...be considered, by general acclamation, America's greatest living composer."[3] On January 25, 2007, Reich was named the 2007 recipient of the Polar Music Prize, together with Sonny Rollins. On April 20, 2009, Reich was awarded the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Music for his Double Sextet.[4]

Steve Reich

36

Career
Early life
Reich was born in New York City to the Broadway lyricist June Sillman. When he was one year old, his parents divorced, and Reich divided his time between New York and California. He was given piano lessons as a child and describes growing up with the "middle-class favorites", having no exposure to music written before 1750 or after 1900. At the age of 14 he began to study music in earnest, after hearing music from the Baroque period and earlier, as well as music of the 20th century. Reich studied drums with Roland Kohloff in order to play jazz. While attending Cornell University, he took some music courses, but he graduated in 1957 with a B.A. in Philosophy. Reich's B.A. thesis was on Ludwig Wittgenstein; later he would set texts by that philosopher to music in Proverb (1995) and You Are (variations) (2006). For a year following graduation, Reich studied composition privately with Hall Overton before he enrolled at Juilliard to work with William Bergsma and Vincent Persichetti (19581961). Subsequently he attended Mills College in Oakland, California, where he studied with Luciano Berio and Darius Milhaud (19611963) and earned a master's degree in composition. At Mills, Reich composed Melodica for melodica and tape, which appeared in 1986 on the three-LP release Music from Mills.[5] Reich worked with the California Tape Music Centre along with Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Morton Subotnick, and Terry Riley. He was involved with the premiere of Riley's In C and suggested the use of the eighth note pulse, which is now standard in performance of the piece.

1960s
Reich's early forays into composition involved experimentation with twelve-tone composition, but he found the rhythmic aspects of the twelve-tone series more interesting than the melodic aspects.[6] Reich also composed film soundtracks for Plastic Haircut, Oh Dem Watermelons, and Thick Pucker, three films by Robert Nelson. The soundtrack of Plastic Haircut, composed in 1963, was a short tape collage, possibly Reich's first. The Watermelons soundtrack used two old Stephen Foster minstrel tunes as its basis, and used repeated phrasing together in a large five-part canon. The music for Thick Pucker arose from street recordings Reich made walking around San Francisco with Nelson, who filmed in black and white 16mm. This film no longer survives. A fourth film from 1965, about 25 minutes long and tentatively entitled "Thick Pucker II", was assembled by Nelson from outtakes of that shoot and more of the raw audio Reich had recorded. Nelson was not happy with the resulting film and never showed it. Reich was influenced by fellow minimalist Terry Riley, whose work In C combines simple musical patterns, offset in time, to create a slowly shifting, cohesive whole. Reich adopted this approach to compose his first major work, It's Gonna Rain. Written in 1965, the piece used recordings of a sermon about the end of the world given by a black Pentecostal street-preacher known as Brother Walter. Reich built on his early tape work, transferring the sermon to multiple tape loops played in and out of phase, with segments of the sermon cut and rearranged. The 13-minute "Come Out" (1966) uses similarly manipulated recordings of a single spoken line given by Daniel Hamm, one of the falsely accused Harlem Six, who was severely injured by police. The survivor, who had been beaten, punctured a bruise on his own body to convince police about his beating. The spoken line includes the phrase "to let the bruises blood come out to show them." Reich rerecorded the fragment "come out to show them" on two channels, which are initially played in unison. They quickly slip out of sync; gradually the discrepancy widens and becomes a reverberation. The two voices then split into four, looped continuously, then eight, and continues splitting until the actual words are unintelligible, leaving the listener with only the speech's rhythmic and tonal patterns. A similar, lesser known example of process music is "Pendulum Music" (1968), which consists of the sound of several microphones swinging over the loudspeakers to which they are attached, producing feedback as they do so. "Pendulum Music" has never been recorded by Reich himself, but was introduced to rock audiences by Sonic Youth in the late 1990s.

Steve Reich Reich's first attempt at translating this phasing technique from recorded tape to live performance was the 1967 Piano Phase, for two pianos. In Piano Phase the performers repeat a rapid twelve-note melodic figure, initially in unison. As one player keeps tempo with robotic precision, the other speeds up very slightly until the two parts line up again, but one sixteenth note apart. The second player then resumes the previous tempo. This cycle of speeding up and then locking in continues throughout the piece; the cycle comes full circle three times, the second and third cycles using shorter versions of the initial figure. Violin Phase, also written in 1967, is built on these same lines. Piano Phase and Violin Phase both premiered in a series of concerts given in New York art galleries. Reich also tried to create the phasing effect in a piece "that would need no instrument beyond the human body". He found that the idea of phasing was inappropriate for the simple ways he was experimenting to make sound. Instead, he composed Clapping Music (1972), in which the players do not phase in and out with each other, but instead one performer keeps one line of a 12-quaver-long (12-eighth-note-long) phrase and the other performer shifts by one quaver beat every 12 bars, until both performers are back in unison 144 bars later. The 1967 prototype piece Slow Motion Sound was never performed, but the idea it introduced of slowing down a recorded sound until many times its original length without changing pitch or timbre was applied to Four Organs (1970), which deals specifically with augmentation. The piece has maracas playing a fast eighth note pulse, while the four organs stress certain eighth notes using an 11th chord. This work therefore dealt with repetition and subtle rhythmic change. It is unique in the context of Reich's other pieces in being linear as opposed to cyclic like his earlier works the superficially similar Phase Patterns, also for four organs but without maracas, is (as the name suggests) a phase piece similar to others composed during the period. Four Organs was performed as part of a Boston Symphony Orchestra program, and was Reich's first composition to be performed in a large traditional setting.

37

1970s
In 1971, Reich embarked on a five-week trip to study music in Ghana, during which he learned from the master drummer Gideon Alorwoyie. Reich also studied Balinese gamelan in Seattle. From his African experience, as well as A. M. Jones's Studies in African Music about the music of the Ewe people, Reich drew inspiration for his 90-minute piece Drumming, which he composed shortly after his return. Composed for a nine-piece percussion ensemble with female voices and piccolo, Drumming marked the beginning of a new stage in his career, for around this time he formed his ensemble, Steve Reich and Musicians, and increasingly concentrated on composition and performance with them. Steve Reich and Musicians, which was to be the sole ensemble to interpret his works for many years, still remains active with many of its original members. After Drumming, Reich moved on from the "phase shifting" technique that he had pioneered, and began writing more elaborate pieces. He investigated other musical processes such as augmentation (the temporal lengthening of phrases and melodic fragments). It was during this period that he wrote works such as Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ (1973) and Six Pianos (1973). In 1974, Reich began writing what many would call his seminal work, Music for 18 Musicians. This piece involved many new ideas, although it also hearkened back to earlier pieces. It is based on a cycle of eleven chords introduced at the beginning (called "Pulses"), followed by a small section of music based on each chord ("Sections I-XI"), and finally a return to the original cycle ("Pulses"). This was Reich's first attempt at writing for larger ensembles. The increased number of performers resulted in more scope for psychoacoustic effects, which fascinated Reich, and he noted that he would like to "explore this idea further". Reich remarked that this one work contained more harmonic movement in the first five minutes than any other work he had written. Steve Reich and Musicians made the premier recording of this work on ECM Records. Reich explored these ideas further in his frequently recorded pieces Music for a Large Ensemble (1978) and Octet (1979). In these two works, Reich experimented with "the human breath as the measure of musical duration the chords played by the trumpets are written to take one comfortable breath to perform".[7] Human voices are part of the

Steve Reich musical palette in Music for a Large Ensemble but the wordless vocal parts simply form part of the texture (as they do in Drumming). With Octet and his first orchestral piece Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards (also 1979), Reich's music showed the influence of Biblical cantillation, which he had studied in Israel since the summer of 1977. After this, the human voice singing a text would play an increasingly important role in Reich's music.

38

The technique [] consists of taking pre-existing melodic patterns and stringing them together to form a longer melody in the service of a holy text. If you take away the text, you're left with the idea of putting together small motives to make longer melodies - a technique I had not [8] encountered before.

In 1974 Reich published a book, Writings About Music (ISBN 0814773583), containing essays on his philosophy, aesthetics, and musical projects written between 1963 and 1974. An updated and much more extensive collection, Writings On Music (19652000) (ISBN 0195111710), was published in 2002.

1980s
Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage. Tehillim (1981), Hebrew for psalms, is the first of Reich's works to draw explicitly on his Jewish background. The work is in four parts, and is scored for an ensemble of four women's voices (one high soprano, two lyric sopranos and one alto), piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, two clarinets, six percussion (playing small tuned tambourines without jingles, clapping, maracas, marimba, vibraphone and crotales), two electronic organs, two violins, viola, cello and double bass, with amplified voices, strings, and winds. A setting of texts from psalms 19:25 (19:14 in Christian translations), 34:1315 (34:1214), 18:2627 (18:2526), and 150:46, Tehillim is a departure from Reich's other work in its formal structure; the setting of texts several lines long rather than the fragments used in previous works makes melody a substantive element. Use of formal counterpoint and functional harmony also contrasts with the loosely structured minimalist works written previously. Different Trains (1988), for string quartet and tape, uses recorded speech, as in his earlier works, but this time as a melodic rather than a rhythmic element. In Different Trains Reich compares and contrasts his childhood memories of his train journeys between New York and California in 19391941 with the very different trains being used to transport contemporaneous European children to their deaths under Nazi rule. The Kronos Quartet recording of Different Trains was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Composition in 1990. The composition was described by Richard Taruskin as "the only adequate musical responseone of the few adequate artistic responses in any mediumto the Holocaust", and he credited the piece with earning Reich a place among the great composers of the 20th century.[9]

1990s to present
In 1993, Reich collaborated with his wife, the video artist Beryl Korot, on an opera, The Cave, which explores the roots of Judaism, Christianity and Islam through the words of Israelis, Palestinians, and Americans, echoed musically by the ensemble. The work, for percussion, voices, and strings, is a musical documentary, named for the Cave of Machpelah in Hebron, where a mosque now stands and Abraham is said to have been buried. The two collaborated again on the opera Three Tales, which concerns the Hindenburg disaster, the testing of nuclear weapons on Bikini Atoll, and other more modern concerns, specifically Dolly the sheep, cloning, and the technological singularity. As well as pieces using sampling techniques, like Three Tales and City Life (1994), Reich also returned to composing purely instrumental works for the concert hall, starting with Triple Quartet (1998) written for the Kronos Quartet that can either be performed by string quartet and tape, three string quartets or 36-piece string orchestra. According to Reich, the piece is influenced by Bartk's and Alfred Schnittke's string quartets, and Michael Gordon's Yo Shakespeare[10] . This series continued with Dance Patterns (2002), Cello Counterpoint (2003), and sequence of works centered around Variations: You Are (Variations) (2004) (a work which looks back to the vocal writing of

Steve Reich works like Tehillim or The Desert Music), Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings (2005, for the London Sinfonietta) and Daniel Variations (2006). Invited by Walter Fink, he was the 12th composer featured in the annual Komponistenportrt of the Rheingau Musik Festival in 2002. In an interview with The Guardian, Reich stated that he continues to follow this direction with his piece Double Sextet (2007) commissioned by eighth blackbird, an American ensemble consisting of the instrumental quintet (flute, clarinet, violin or viola, cello and piano) of Schoenberg's piece Pierrot Lunaire (1912) plus percussion. Reich states that he was thinking about Stravinsky's Agon (1957) as a model for the instrumental writing. Reich was awarded the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Music, on April 20, 2009, for Double Sextet.[11]

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Influence
Reich's style of composition has influenced many other composers and musical groups, including John Adams, the progressive rock band King Crimson, the new-age guitarist Michael Hedges, the art-pop and electronic musician Brian Eno, the experimental art/music group The Residents, the composers associated with the Bang on a Can festival (including David Lang, Michael Gordon, and Julia Wolfe), and numerous indie rock musicians including songwriter Sufjan Stevens[12] [13] and instrumental ensembles Tortoise,[14] [15] [16] The Mercury Program (themselves influenced by Tortoise),[17] So Many Dynamos, Do Make Say Think and A Silver Mt. Zion. Godspeed You! Black Emperor composed a song, unreleased, entitled "Steve Reich".[18] His music has also been a source of inspiration to ambient and techno musicians. John Adams commented, "He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride."[19] He has also influenced visual artists such as Bruce Nauman, and has expressed admiration of choreographer Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker's work set to his pieces. In featuring a sample of Reich's Electric Counterpoint (1987) the British ambient techno act the Orb exposed a new generation of listeners to the composer's music with its 1990 production Little Fluffy Clouds.[20] Further acknowledgment of Reich's influence on various electronic dance music producers came with the release in 1999 of the Reich Remixed[21] tribute album which featured reinterpretations by artists such as DJ Spooky, Kurtis Mantronik, Ken Ishii, and Coldcut, among others.[20] Reich often cites Protin, J.S. Bach, Debussy and Stravinsky as composers he admires, whose tradition he wished as a young composer to become part of. Jazz is a major part of the formation of Reich's musical style, and two of the earliest influences on his work were vocalists Ella Fitzgerald and Alfred Deller, whose emphasis on the artistic capabilities of the voice alone with little vibrato or other alteration was an inspiration to his earliest works. John Coltrane's style, which Reich has described as "playing a lot of notes to very few harmonies", also had an impact; of particular interest was the album Africa/Brass, which "was basically a half-an-hour in F."[22] Reich's influence from jazz includes its roots, also, from the West African music he studied in his readings and visit to Ghana. Other important influences are Kenny Clarke and Miles Davis, and visual artist friends such as Sol LeWitt and Richard Serra. Reich recently contributed the introduction to Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture (The MIT Press, 2008) edited by Paul D. Miller, a.k.a. DJ Spooky.

Quotations
[...] I drove a cab in San Francisco, and in New York I worked as a part-time social worker. Phil Glass and I had a moving company for a short period of time. I did all kinds of odd jobs [...] I started making a living as a performer in my own ensemble. I would never have thought that it was how I was going to survive financially. It was a complete wonder. From an interview with Gabrielle Zuckerman, 2002[22]

Steve Reich The point is, if you went to Paris and dug up Debussy and said, 'Excusez-moi Monsieurare you an impressionist?' he'd probably say 'Merde!' and go back to sleep. That is a legitimate concern of musicologists, music historians, and journalists, and it's a convenient way of referring to me, Riley, Glass, La Monte Young [...] it's become the dominant style. But, anybody who's interested in French Impressionism is interested in how different Debussy and Ravel and Satie areand ditto for what's called minimalism. [...] Basically, those kind of words are taken from painting and sculpture, and applied to musicians who composed at the same period as that painting and sculpture was made [...]. From an Interview with Rebecca Y. Kim, 2000 [23] All musicians in the past, starting with the middle ages were interested in popular music. (...) Bla Bartk's music is made entirely of sources from Hungarian folk music. And Igor Stravinsky, although he lied about it, used all kinds of Russian sources for his early ballets. Kurt Weill's great masterpiece Dreigroschenoper is using the cabaret-style of the Weimar Republic and that's why it is such a masterpiece. Only artificial division between popular an classical music happened unfortunately through the blindness of Arnold Schoenberg and his followers to create an artificial wall, which never existed before him. In my generation we tore the wall down and now we are back to the normal situation, for example if Brian Eno or David Bowie come to me, and if popular musicians remix my music like The Orb or DJ Spooky it is a good thing. This is a natural normal regular historical way. From an Interview with Jakob Buhre [24]

40

Works
Soundtrack for The Plastic Haircut, tape (1963) Music for two or more pianos (1964) It's Gonna Rain, tape (1965) Soundtrack for Oh Dem Watermelons, tape (1965) Come Out, tape (1966) Melodica, for melodica and tape (1966) Reed Phase, for soprano saxophone and tape (1966) Piano Phase for two pianos, or two marimbas (1967) Slow Motion Sound concept piece (1967) Violin Phase for violin and tape or four violins (1967) My Name Is for three tape recorders and performers (1967) Pendulum Music for 3 or 4 microphones, amplifiers and loudspeakers (1968) (revised 1973)[25] Four Organs for four electric organs and maracas (1970) Phase Patterns for four electric organs (1970) Drumming for 4 pairs of tuned bongo drums, 3 marimbas, 3 glockenspiels, 2 female voices, whistling and piccolo (1970/1971) Clapping Music for two musicians clapping (1972) Music for Pieces of Wood for five pairs of tuned claves (1973) Six Pianos (1973) - transcribed as Six Marimbas (1986) Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ (1973) Music for 18 Musicians (197476) Music for a Large Ensemble (1978) Octet (1979) - withdrawn in favor of the 1983 revision for slightly larger ensemble, Eight Lines Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards for orchestra (1979)

Tehillim for voices and ensemble (1981) Vermont Counterpoint for amplified flute and tape (1982) The Desert Music for chorus and orchestra or voices and ensemble (1984, text by William Carlos Williams)

Steve Reich Sextet for percussion and keyboards (1984) New York Counterpoint for amplified clarinet and tape, or 11 clarinets and bass clarinet (1985) Three Movements for orchestra (1986) Electric Counterpoint for electric guitar or amplified acoustic guitar and tape (1987, for Pat Metheny) The Four Sections for orchestra (1987) Different Trains for string quartet and tape (1988) The Cave for four voices, ensemble and video (1993, with Beryl Korot) Duet for two violins and string ensemble (1993) Nagoya Marimbas for two marimbas (1994) City Life for amplified ensemble (1995) Proverb for voices and ensemble (1995, text by Ludwig Wittgenstein) Triple Quartet for amplified string quartet (with prerecorded tape), or three string quartets, or string orchestra (1998) Know What Is Above You for four womens voices and 2 tamborims (1999) Three Tales for video projection, five voices and ensemble (19982002, with Beryl Korot) Dance Patterns for 2 xylophones, 2 vibraphones and 2 pianos (2002) Cello Counterpoint for amplified cello and multichannel tape (2003)

41

You Are (Variations) for voices and ensemble (2004) For Strings (with Winds and Brass) for orchestra (1987/2004) Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings dance piece for three string quartets, four vibraphones, and two pianos (2005) Daniel Variations for four voices and ensemble (2006) Double Sextet for 2 violins, 2 cellos, 2 pianos, 2 vibraphones, 2 clarinets, 2 flutes or ensemble and pre-recorded tape (2007) 2x5 for 2 drum sets, 2 pianos, 4 electric guitars and 2 bass guitars (2009) Mallet Quartet for 4 marimbas or 2 marimbas and 2 vibraphones (or solo percussion and tape) (2009) WTC 9/11 for String Quartet and Tape (2010) Piano Counterpoint for pianos - commissioning process for London Steve Reich Ensemble (2010/11) London Counterpoint for large ensemble - commissioning process by London Sinfonietta (2013)

Selected discography
Drumming. Steve Reich and Musicians (Two recordings: Deutsche Grammophon and Nonesuch) So Percussion (Cantaloupe) Music for 18 Musicians. Steve Reich and Musicians (Two recordings: ECM and Nonesuch), Grand Valley State University New Music Ensemble (Innova), Ensemble Modern (RCA). Octet/Music for a Large Ensemble/Violin Phase. Steve Reich and Musicians (ECM) Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards/Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ/ Six Pianos. San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, Edo de Waart, Steve Reich & Musicians (Deutsche Grammophon) Tehillim/The Desert Music. Alarm Will Sound and OSSIA, Alan Pierson (Cantaloupe) Different Trains/Electric Counterpoint. Kronos Quartet, Pat Metheny (Nonesuch) You Are (Variations)/Cello Counterpoint. Los Angeles Master Chorale, Grant Gershon, Maya Beiser (Nonesuch) Steve Reich: Works 1965-1995. Various performers (Nonesuch). Daniel Variations, with Variations for Vibes, Pianos and Strings. London Sinfonietta, Grant Gershon, Alan Pierson (Nonesuch) Double Sextet/2x5, Eighth Blackbird and Bang on a Can (Nonesuch)

Steve Reich

42

Further reading
D.J. Hoek. Steve Reich: A Bio-Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 2002. Steve Reich. Writings about Music. Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 1974. K. Robert Schwarz. Minimalists. Phaidon Press, 1996.

See also
Minimalist music Steve Reich and Musicians

References
Potter, Keith (2000). Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Music in the Twentieth Century series. Cambridge, UK; New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. Reich, Steve; Hillier, Paul (Editor) (April 1, 2002). Writings on Music, 1965-2000. USA: Oxford University Press. pp.272. ISBN0-19-511171-0. Reich, Steve (1974). Writings About Music. Halifax: Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design. pp.78. ISBN0-919616-02-x.

External links
SteveReich.com [26] - Official Website Boosey & Hawkes [27], Official Publisher: biography, works list, resources [28] (French) A biography of Steve Reich, from IRCAM's website. London Steve Reich Ensemble - Official website [29] Music and the Holocaust - Different Trains [30]

Interviews
A Steve Reich Interview with Christopher Abbot [31] Steve Reich Interview (7/98) with Richard Kessler [32] Time and Motion: an interview with Steve Reich, by Robert Davidson, 1999 [33] A Steve Reich Interview with Marc Weidenbaum, 1999 [34] "Drumming" - Interview & analysis [35], selected as one of the NPR 100 [36] most important musical works of the 20th century. Realaudio format, timing: 12:46, July, 2000 Steve Reich Interview with Jakob Buhre, August 2000 [37] In Conversation with Steve Reich, by Molly Sheridan, June 2002 [38] Steve Reich and Beryl Korot interviewed by David Allenby, 2002 [39] An interview in The Guardian, January 2, 2004 [40] The Next Phase: Steve Reich talks to Richard Kessler About Redefinition and Renewal, 2004 [41] "How Small a Thought it Takes to Fill a Whole Life" - An Interview with Not-So-Minimalist Composer Steve Reich on AdventuresInMusic.biz, 2005 [42] A Steve Reich Interview with Hermann Kretzschmar on You Are (Variations), 2005 [43] The beaten track, an interview with Reich, by Andrew Clements, The Guardian, October 28, 2005 [44] An interview with Steve Reich on RTE television, National Broadcaster in Ireland, May 29, 2006 [45] An interview with Steve Reich on musicOMH.com, October 2006 [46]

Interview: Steve Reich [47], by Joshua Klein, November 22, 2006. "Steve Reich at 70" [48] from NPR Fresh Air broadcast October 6, 2006 includes interview about "It's Gonna Rain", "Drumming", and "Tehillim" that first aired in 1999 and another on "Different Trains" from 1989

Steve Reich (Realaudio format, timing: 39:25) "Video Interview (Feb. 2006)" [49], Cit de la musique, Paris, France "Two Arts Beating As One" - Interviews with Steve Reich and his wife Beryl Korot with video and audio clips, May 2009 [50]

43

Listening
Steve Reich at UC Berkeley University Museum [51] (November 7, 1970) Streaming audio Steve Reich at the Whitney [52] "October 15, 2006" MP3 Reich speaks about Daniel Variations for the South Bank Show [53]

Others
Classical Music Pages: Steve Reich biography [54] [28] (French) A biography of Steve Reich, from IRCAM's website. A Description/documentary of Steve Reich [55] from Duke University, includes sound samples and quotes EST: [56] Steve Reich by Roger Sutherland Music as a Gradual Process [57] by Steve Reich Steve Reich: You Are (Variations) premiere in LA (October 2004) [58]

New York Fetes Composer Steve Reich at 70 [59] from NPR Fascinating rhythm. Celebrating Steve Reich. [60] Article by Alex Ross from The New Yorker. Steve Reich & Sonny Rollins winners of the Polar Music Prize for 2007 [61] Press release of Polar Prize announcement

References
[1] "Say How? A Pronunciation Guide to Names of Public Figures" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ nls/ other/ sayhow. html#r). National Library Service. May 2006. . Retrieved October 15, 2009. See also here (http:/ / iowapublicradio. org/ dictionary/ errata. htm#R) and here (sound clip) (http:/ / download. itv. com/ southbankshow/ reich. m4a). [2] "Steve Reich @ The Whitney A Celebration of the Composers 70th Birthday" (http:/ / www. whitney. org/ www/ exhibition/ stevereich. jsp). Whitney Museum of American Art. October 2006. . Retrieved September 27, 2008. [3] Gann, Kyle (July 13, 1999). "Grand Old Youngster" (http:/ / www. villagevoice. com/ 1999-07-13/ music/ grand-old-youngster). The Village Voice. . Retrieved September 27, 2008. [4] Pulitzer Prize for Music citation 2009 (http:/ / www. pulitzer. org/ citation/ 2009-Music) [5] Music from Mills (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ cg/ amg. dll?p=amg& sql=10:fifixqqhldhe) at Allmusic [6] Malcolm Ball on Steve Reich (http:/ / www. oliviermessiaen. org/ malcolmball/ reich. htm) [7] Liner notes for Music for a Large Ensemble [8] Schwarz, K. Robert. Minimalists, Phaidon Press, 1996, p.84 and p.86. [9] Taruskin, Richard (August 24, 1997). "A Sturdy Musical Bridge to the 21st Century" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9C0CE4D91F3FF937A1575BC0A961958260& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved September 27, 2008. [10] http:/ / www. stevereich. com/ articles/ NY-VT. html [11] "2009 Pulitzer Prizes for Letters, Drama and Music", The New York Times, 20 April 2009. [12] Wise, Brian (2006). "Steve Reich @ 70 on WNYC" (http:/ / www. wnyc. org/ music/ articles/ 66792). WNYC. . Retrieved on September 27, 2008. [13] Joana de Belm (November 12, 2006). "O passado e o presente de Steve Reich no Porto" (http:/ / dn. sapo. pt/ 2006/ 11/ 12/ artes/ o_passado_presente_steve_reich_porto. html) (in Portuguese). Dirio de Notcias. . Retrieved on September 27, 2008. [14] Hutlock, Todd (September 1, 2006). "Tortoise A Lazarus Taxon" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060917055800/ http:/ / www. stylusmagazine. com/ reviews/ tortoise/ a-lazarus-taxon. htm). Stylus Magazine. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. stylusmagazine. com/ reviews/ tortoise/ a-lazarus-taxon. htm) on 2006-09-17. . Retrieved on September 27, 2008. [15] Ratliff, Ben (March 23, 1998). "TNT : Tortoise : Review" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ reviews/ album/ 230069/ review/ 5941937/ tnt). Rolling Stone. . Retrieved on September 27, 2008. [16] "Performers: Tortoise (Illinois)" (http:/ / www. guelphjazzfestival. com/ 2008_season/ performers/ tortoise_illinois). Guelph Jazz Festival. 2008. . Retrieved on September 27, 2008.

Steve Reich
[17] Stratton, Jeff (May 10, 2001). "We Have Liftoff" (http:/ / www. browardpalmbeach. com/ 2001-05-10/ music/ we-have-liftoff). Broward-Palm Beach New Times. . Retrieved on September 27, 2008. [18] sad (http:/ / brainwashed. com/ godspeed/ music. html) [19] John Adams: "...For him, pulsation and tonality were not just cultural artifacts. They were the lifeblood of the musical experience, natural laws. It was his triumph to find a way to embrace these fundamental principles and still create a music that felt genuine and new. He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride." See for instance the articles section of the "Steve Reich Website" (http:/ / www. stevereich. com/ ). . Retrieved 2010-01-31. [20] Emmerson, S. (2007), Music, Electronic Media, and Culture, Ashgate, Adlershot, p.68. [21] Reich Remixed: (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ release/ 27570) album track listing at www.discogs.com [22] Steve Reich Interview with Gabrielle Zuckerman, July 2002 (http:/ / musicmavericks. publicradio. org/ features/ interview_reich. html) [23] http:/ / www. stevereich. com www.stevereich.com [24] Buhre, Jakob. Interview with Steve Reich: We tore the wall down (http:/ / www. planet-interview. de/ interviews/ pi. php?interview=reich-steve_en), Planet Interview (August 14, 2000). Accessed September 20, 2006. [25] *Reich, Steve (1975 (New Edition)). Writings on Music. USA: New York University Press. pp.1213. ISBN0-8147-7357-5.

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Ottorino Respighi
Ottorino Respighi (Italian pronunciation:[ot:o'rino rez'pi:gi]; July 9, 1879, Bologna - April 18, 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist and conductor. He is best known for his orchestral Roman trilogy: Fontane di Roma "Fountains of Rome"; Pini di Roma - "Pines of Rome"; and Feste Romane - "Roman Festivals". His musicological interest in 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century music led him to also compose pieces based on the music of this period. Born in Bologna, he studied composition with Giuseppe Martucci and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Many sources Elsa and Ottorino Respighi in the 1920s indicate that he also studied briefly with Max Bruch, but in her biography of the composer, Respighi's wife asserts that this is not the case.[1] Principally a violinist until 1908, he then turned primarily to composition. He lived in Rome from 1913.

Biography
Ottorino Respighi was born in Bologna, Italy. He was taught piano and violin by his father, who was a local piano teacher. He continued studying violin and viola with Federico Sarti at the Liceo Musicale in Bologna, composition with Giuseppe Martucci, and historical studies with Luigi Torchi, a scholar of early music. A year after receiving his diploma in violin in 1899, Respighi went to Russia to be principal violist in the orchestra of the Russian Imperial Theatre in St Petersburg during its season of Italian opera; while there he studied composition for five months with Rimsky-Korsakov. He then returned to Bologna, where he earned a second degree in composition. Until 1908 his principal activity was as first violin in the Mugellini Quintet. In 1908-09 he spent some time performing in Germany before finally returning to Italy and turning his attention entirely to composition. Upon being appointed a teacher of composition at the Conservatorio di Santa Cecilia in 1913, Respighi moved to Rome and lived there for the rest of his life. In 1919 he married a former pupil, singer Elsa Olivieri-Sangiacomo. From 1923 to 1926 he was director of the Conservatorio. In 1925 he collaborated with Sebastiano Arturo Luciani on an elementary textbook entitled Orpheus. He was elected to the Royal Academy of Italy in 1932.

Ottorino Respighi A visit to Brazil resulted in the composition Brazilian Impressions. Initially he intended to have a sequence of five pieces, but by 1928 he had completed only three, and decided to present what he had. Its first performance was in 1928 in Rio de Janeiro. The first piece is a nocturne, "Tropical Night", with fragments of dance rhythms suggested by the sensuous textures. The second piece is a sinister picture of a snake research institute, Instituto Butantan, that Respighi visited in So Paulo, with hints of birdsong (as in The Pines of Rome). The final movement is a vigorous and colorful Brazilian dance. On the ship back home from Rio de Janeiro, Respighi met up by chance with Italian physicist Enrico Fermi. During their long conversation Fermi tried to get Respighi to explain music in terms of physics, which Respighi was unable to do. Nonetheless, they remained close friends until Respighi's death in 1936.[2] Respighi maintained an uneasy relationship with Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party during his later years. He vouched for more outspoken critics such as Arturo Toscanini, allowing them to continue to work under the regime.[3] Feste Romane, the third part of his Roman trilogy, was premiered by Toscanini and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in 1929; Toscanini recorded the music twice for RCA Victor, first with the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1942 and then with the NBC Symphony Orchestra in 1949, and RCA released both versions, first on LP and then CD. Respighi's music had considerable success in the USA: the Toccata for piano and orchestra was premiered (with Respighi as soloist) under Willem Mengelberg with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra at Carnegie Hall in November 1928, and the large-scale theme and variations entitled Metamorphoseon was a commission for the fiftieth anniversary of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In his role as musicologist, Respighi was also an enthusiastic scholar of Italian music of the 16th-18th centuries. He published editions of the music of Claudio Monteverdi and Antonio Vivaldi, and of Benedetto Marcello's Didone. Because of his devotion to these older figures and their styles of composing, it is tempting to see him as a typical exponent of Neo-classicism. In fact, Neo-Renaissance or Neo-Baroque would probably more accurately describe his compositions that are based on earlier work. Respighi generally kept clear of the musical idiom of the classical period, unlike most neo-classical composers. He preferred combining pre-classical melodic styles and musical forms (like dance suites) with typical late 19th century romantic harmonies and textures. He continued to compose and tour until January 1936, after which he became increasingly ill. A cardiac infection led to his death by heart failure on April 18 of that year at the age of 56. A year after his burial, his remains were moved to his birthplace Bologna and reinterred at the city's expense.

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Works
Opera
Re Enzo (1905) Semirma (1909) Marie Victoire (completed in 1913, but not produced until 2004) La bella dormente nel bosco (1922) Belfagor (1923) La campana sommersa (1927) Maria Egiziaca (1932) La fiamma (1934) Lucrezia (1937) (completed posthumously by his wife, Elsa, and his pupil Ennio Porrino)

Ottorino Respighi

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Ballet
La Boutique fantasque (1918), which borrows tunes from the 19th century composer Rossini. Premiered in London on June 5, 1919. Svres de la vieille France (1920) La Pentola magica (1920) Le astuzie de Columbina (1920) Belkis, Regina di Saba (1930), his last work for ballet

Orchestral
Symphonic Variations (1900) Preludio, corale e fuga (1901) Suite in E major (Sinfonia) (1901 rev. 1903) Burlesca (1906) Ouverture carnevalesca (1913) Sinfonia Drammatica (191314) The Roman trilogy (three symphonic poems evoking Roman places and times of day) Fontane di Roma (Fountains of Rome) (19151916) Pini di Roma (Pines of Rome) (19231924) Feste Romane (Roman Festivals) (1928) Ancient Airs and Dances Suite No. 1 (1917), based on Renaissance lute pieces by Simone Molinaro, Vincenzo Galilei (father of Galileo Galilei), and additional anonymous composers. Suite No. 2 (1923), based on pieces for lute, archlute, and viol by Fabrizio Caroso, Jean-Baptiste Besard, Bernardo Gianoncelli, and an anonymous composer. It also interpolates an aria attributed to Marin Mersenne. Suite No. 3 (1932), which differs from the previous two suites in being arranged for strings only and somewhat melancholy in overall mood. It is based on lute songs by Besard, a piece for baroque guitar by Ludovico Roncalli, and lute pieces by Santino Garsi da Parma and additional anonymous composers. Ballata delle Gnomidi (Dance of the Gnomes) (1920), based on a poem by Claudio Clausetti Rossiniana (1925) - free transcriptions from Rossini's Les petits riens Vetrate di chiesa (Church Windows) (1925), four movements of which three are based on Tre Preludi sopra melodie gregoriane for piano (1919) Gli Uccelli (The Birds) (1927), based on Baroque pieces imitating birds. It comprises Introduzione (Bernardo Pasquini), La Colomba (Jacques de Callot), La Gallina (Rameau), L'Usignolo (anonymous English composer of the seventeenth century) and Il Cucu (Pasquini) Trittico Botticelliano (1927) Brazilian Impressions (1928) Metamorphoseon Modi XII: Tema e Variazioni (1930)

Ottorino Respighi

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Concerto
Piano Piano Concerto in A minor (1902) Fantasia Slava (1903) Concerto in modo misolidio (Concerto in the Mixolydian mode) (1925) Toccata for Piano and Orchestra (1928) Violin Concerto per Violino (in A major) (1903) - completed by Salvatore Di Vittorio (2009) Concerto all'antica (1908) Concerto Gregoriano (1921) Poema Autunnale (Autumn Poem) (1920-5) Suite in G major for organ and string orchestra (1905) Adagio con variazioni (1920), for cello and orchestra Concerto a cinque (Concerto for Five) (1933), for oboe, trumpet, piano, viola d'amore, double-bass, and strings

Vocal/Choral
Christus (text by Respighi) (189899), Biblical cantata for soloists, chorus and orchestra Nebbie (1906), voice and piano Stornellatrice (1906?), voice and piano Cinque canti all'antica (1906), voice and piano Aretusa (text by Shelley) (191011), cantata for mezzo-soprano and orchestra La Sensitiva (The Sensitive Plant, text by Shelley) (1914), for mezzo-soprano and orchestra Il Tramonto (The sunset, text by Shelley) (1914), for mezzo-soprano and string quartet (or string orchestra) Diet silvane (Woodland Deities, texts by Antonio Rubino) (1917), song-cycle for soprano and small orchestra Cinque liriche (1917), voice and piano Quattro liriche (Gabriele d'Annunzio) (1920), voice and piano La Primavera (The Spring, texts by Constant Zarian) (1922) lyric poem for soli, chorus and orchestra Lauda per la Nativit del Signore (Laud to the Nativity, text attributed to Jacopone da Todi) (1930), a cantata for three soloists (soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor), mixed chorus (including substantial sections for 8-part mixed and TTBB male chorus), and chamber ensemble (woodwinds and piano 4-hands)

Chamber/Instrumental
String Quartets String Quartet in D major in one movement (undated) String Quartet No. 1 in D major (189298) String Quartet No. 2 in B flat major (1898) String Quartet in D major (1907) String Quartet in D minor (1909) subtitled by composer "Ernst is das Leben, heiter ist die Kunst" Quartetto Dorico or Doric String Quartet (1924) Tre Preludi sopra melodie gregoriane, for piano (1921) Violin Sonata in B minor Piano Sonata in F minor Variazioni, for guitar

Double Quartet in D minor (1901) Piano Quintet in F minor (1902) Six Pieces for Violin and Piano (190106)

Ottorino Respighi Quartet in D major for 4 Viols (1906) Huntingtower: Ballad for Band (1932) Several instrumental sonatas String Quintet for 2 Violins, 2 Violas & Violoncello (undated) Organworks

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Note: The bulk of these chamber compositions have not been published and are in manuscript at the conservatories in Bologna and Rome. Three string quartets (1907, 1909 and 1924), the Huntingtower Ballad, and the Piano Quintet have been published.

Recordings
Note: The three works of the Roman Trilogy are among the most ubiquitous works in the catalogue, and have been recorded by all the major world ensembles under many prominent conductors. The recording of the first two with Fritz Reiner and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra is one of the most respected in the catalogue and features prominently in recommended listings in such publications as the Good CD Guide and the Penguin Guide to CDs. James Levine conducted the CSO's recording of Pines of Rome which appeared in Disney's Fantasia 2000 movie. I Pini di Roma/Fontane di Roma/Ancient Airs and Dances I-III (Antiche Arie e Danze) - Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra / Herbert von Karajan, (Deutsche Grammophon) I Pini di Roma/Feste Romane/Fontane di Roma - Orchestra dell'Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia/Antonio Pappano, (EMI Classics) I Pini di Roma/Fontane di Roma - Chicago Symphony Orchestra / Fritz Reiner, (RCA) (on JVC in Japan) I Pini di Roma/Feste Romane/Fontane di Roma - Montreal Symphony Orchestra / Charles Dutoit, (Decca) I Pini di Roma/Feste Romane/Fontane di Roma - NBC Symphony Orchestra / Arturo Toscanini, (RCA) I Pini di Roma/Feste Romane/Fontane di Roma - Royal Philharmonic Orchestra / Enrique Btiz, (Naxos) I Pini di Roma/Fontane di Roma/Feste Romane - Philadelphia Orchestra / Riccardo Muti, (EMI Digital) Brazilian Impressions/Metamorphoseon - Philharmonia Orchestra/ Geoffrey Simon, (Chandos) Ancient Airs and Dances I-III (Antiche Arie e Danze) - Philharmonia Hungarica/ Antal Dorti, (Mercury Records) Ancient Airs and Dances I-III (Antiche Arie e Danze) - RT National Symphony Orchestra/ Rico Saccani, (Naxos) I Pini di Roma/Fontane di Roma/The Birds (Gli Uccelli) - London Symphony Orchestra/ Istvn Kertsz, (Decca) Church Windows (Vetrate di Chiesa) - Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra / Jess Lpez-Cobos, (Telarc) Three Botticelli Pictures (Trittico Botticelliano)/The Birds - Academy of St. Martin in the Fields, Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra / Sir Neville Marriner, (EMI Classics) Belkis, Queen of Sheba - Suite / Metamorphoseon - Theme & Variations - Philharmonia Orchestra / Geoffrey Simon, (Chandos) Suite in G for Organ and Strings - Robert Boughen / Queensland Symphony Orchestra / Vanco Cavdarski, (ABC Classics) Pines of Rome/ Fountains of Rome/ Metamorphoseon Modi XII - Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra/ Jess Lpez-Cobos (Telarc) Belfagor Overture / Pines of Rome / Fountains of Rome - London Symphony Orchestra / Lamberto Gardelli; The Birds / Trittico Botticelliano - Academy of St. Martin in the Fields / Sir Neville Marriner; Ancient Airs and Dances I-III - Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra / Sir Neville Marriner, (EMI Classics) Gli uccelli / Vetrate di Chiesa - Philadelphia Orchestra / Eugene Ormandy, with Scarlatti/Tommasini: Le donne du buon umore - Cleveland Orchestra / Louis Lane, (Sony Classical) Sinfonia Drammatica - Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra / Daniel Nazareth, (Naxos) La Primavera / Quattro liriche su poesie popolari armene - Slovak Philharmonic Chorus/Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra / Adriano, (Marco Polo)

Ottorino Respighi Variazioni sinfoniche / Preludio, corale e fuga / Burlesca / Ouverture carnevalesca / Suite in E major - Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra / Adriano, Ferdinand Klinda, organ, (Naxos)

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Biographical Sources
Respighi, Elsa (1955) Fifty Years of a Life in Music Respighi, Elsa (1962) Ottorino Respighi, London: Ricordi Nupen, Christopher (director) (1983) Ottorino Respighi: A Dream of Italy, Allegro Films Barrow, Lee G (2004) Ottorino Respighi (18791936): An Annotated Bibliography, Scarecrow Press Viagrande, Riccardo, La generazione dell'Ottanta, Casa Musicale Eco, Monza, 2007

External links
Official website of Ottorino Respighi [4] (Italian) The Respighi Foundation [5] (Italian) Free scores [6] by Ottorino Respighi in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA) Ottorino Respighi String Quartet in D Major (1907) Sound-bites and discussion [7] Free scores by Respighi in the International Music Score Library Project

Ottorino Respighi [8] at Find a Grave

References
[1] Elsa Respighi, Ottorino Respighi, London, Ricordi, p. 25 [2] Spencer M. Di Scala, Ph.D., President of the Dante Alighieri Society of Massachusetts, in his introduction to a Christmas concert performed by the Italian Music Chorus of the Dante Alighieri Society at the Dante Alighieri Society headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, on December 6, 2009, which included Respighi's Lauda per la Nativit del Signore. [3] Liner notes from RCA Toscanini Edition CD Vol 32 (1990)

Joaqun Rodrigo

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Joaqun Rodrigo
Joaqun Rodrigo Vidre, 1st Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez (November 22, 1901 July 6, 1999), commonly known as Joaqun Rodrigo, was a composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. Despite being nearly blind from an early age, he achieved great success. Rodrigo's music counts among some of the most popular of the 20th century, particularly his Concierto de Aranjuez, considered one of the pinnacles of the Spanish music and guitar concerto repertoire.

Life
He was born in Sagunto, Valencia, and almost completely lost his sight at the age of three after contracting diphtheria. He began to study solfge, piano and violin at the age of eight; harmony and composition from the age of sixteen. Although distinguished by having raised the Spanish guitar to dignity as a universal concert instrument and best known for his guitar music, he never mastered the instrument himself. He wrote his compositions in braille, which was transcribed for publication.

Bust of Joaqun Rodrigo in Rosario city, Santa Fe, Argentina

Rodrigo studied music under Francisco Antich in Valencia and under Paul Dukas at the cole Normale de Musique in Paris. After briefly returning to Spain, he went to Paris again to study musicology, first under Maurice Emmanuel and then under Andr Pirro. His first published compositions[1] date from 1940. In 1943 he received Spain's National Prize for Orchestra for Cinco piezas infantiles ("Five Children's Pieces"), based on his earlier composition of the same piece for two pianos, premiered by Ricardo Vies. From 1947 Rodrigo was a professor of music history, holding the Manuel de Falla Chair of Music in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, at Complutense University of Madrid. His most famous work, Concierto de Aranjuez, was composed in 1939 in Paris, and in later life he and his wife declared that it was written as a response to the miscarriage of their first child.[2] It is a concerto for guitar and orchestra. The central adagio movement is one of the most recognizable in 20th century classical music, featuring the interplay of guitar with English horn. This movement was later adapted by the conductor Gil Evans for Miles Davis' 1960 album Sketches of Spain. The Concerto was adapted by the composer himself for Harp and Orchestra and dedicated to Nicanor Zabaleta. The success of this concerto led to commissions from a number of prominent soloists, including the flautist James Galway and the cellist Julian Lloyd Webber for whom Rodrigo composed his Concierto como un divertimento and Concierto serenata for Harp and Orchestra dedicated to Nicanor Zabaleta. In 1954 Rodrigo composed Fantasa para un gentilhombre at the request of Andrs Segovia. His Concierto Andaluz, for four guitars and orchestra, was commissioned by Celedonio Romero for himself and his three sons. None of Rodrigo's works, however, achieved the popular and critical success of the Concierto de Aranjuez and the Fantasia para un gentilhombre. These two works are very often paired in recordings. On 30 December 1991, Rodrigo was raised into the Spanish nobility by King Juan Carlos I with the hereditary title of Marqus de los Jardines de Aranjuez[3] [4] (English: Marquess of the Gardens of Aranjuez). He received the prestigious Prince of Asturias AwardSpain's highest civilian honorin 1996. He was named Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government in 1998.

Joaqun Rodrigo He married Victoria Kamhi, a Turkish-born pianist whom he had met in Paris, on 19 January 1933, in Valencia. Their daughter, Cecilia, was born 27 January 1941. Rodrigo died in 1999 in Madrid at the age of 97 and was succeeded as Marqus de los Jardines de Aranjuez by his daughter. Joaqun Rodrigo and his wife Victoria are buried at the cemetery at Aranjuez.

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Works
Orchestral
Symphonic Wind Ensemble Adagio Para Orquesta de Instrumentos de Viento - First public performance in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1966 Orchestra Soleriana- First performance by the Berlin Philharmonic, on August 22, 1953 in Berlin. Per la flor del Lliri Blau (1934); First prize, Crculo de Bellas Artes symphonic poem

Concertante
Cello Concierto en modo galante (1949) Concierto como un divertimento (19791981) Flute Concierto pastoral (1978) Guitar Concierto de Aranjuez (1939) Fantasa para un gentilhombre (1954) Sones en la giralda (1963; written as a wedding present for the harpist Marisa Robles) Concierto madrigal (1966) Concierto Andaluz (1967) Concierto para una fiesta (1982)

Harp Concierto serenata (1954) Piano Juglares (1923); first public performance: 1924, Valencia Concierto heroico (1943) Violin Concierto de esto (1944)

Joaqun Rodrigo

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Instrumental
Guitar Invocacin y danza (1961) First prize, Coupe International de Guitare, awarded by Office de Radiodiffusion-Tlvision Franaise (ORTF) Three Spanish Pieces - Tres Piezas Espanolas (Fandango,Passacaglia,Zapateado) Elogio de la guitarra (1971) Two Preludes En Los Trigales Sonata Giocosa

Vocal/Choral
Ausencias de Dulcinea (1948); First prize, Cervantes Competition Cuatro Madrigales Amatorios (1948) Tres viejos aires de danza (1994) Villancicos y canciones de navidad (1952); Ateneo de Madrid Prize; Cuatro canciones sephardies (1965); El Hijo Fingido, Zarzuela;

Guitar and Voice


Coplas del Pastor Enamorado (1935) Tres Canciones Espanola (1951) Tres Villancicos (1952) Romance de Durante (1955) Folas Canarias (1958) Aranjuez, ma pense (1988)

References
[1] A suite for piano, and "Dos esbozos", suite for piano and violn and Siciliana, for cello [2] BBC Radio 4, 20 Oct 2009, The Sound of Magnolias. Irma Kurtz investigates Spanish composer Rodrigo's Concerto de Aranjuez. (Downloadable audio documentary) (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ programmes/ b00n5404) [3] "Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez"; since 1999, his daughter Cecilia Rodrigo Camhi, has been 2nd Marquesa de los Jardines de Aranjuez. [4] http:/ / boe. es/ boe/ dias/ 1991/ 12/ 31/ pdfs/ A42047-42047. pdf [3] [1]

Donis, Jos Antonio (2005). The Musicologist Behind the Composer: The Impact of Historical Studies Upon the Creative Life in Joaqun Rodrigo's Guitar Compositions (http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/ etd-06302005-125300/). M. Mus. thesis. Florida State University. Retrieved 2006-07-14. Kamhi de Rodrigo, Victoria; translated by Ellen Wilkerson (1992). Hand in Hand With Joaqun Rodrigo: My Life at the Maestro's Side. Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press. ISBN 093548051X.

Joaqun Rodrigo

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External links
Joaqun Rodrigo website (http://www.joaquin-rodrigo.com/indexen.html) Joaqun Rodrigo website (http://www.joaquin-rodrigo.com/index2.html) (Spanish)

Articles
MUSIC; A Composer Who Found Strength in an Inner Vision (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. html?res=980DEFDE1F38F93AA1575BC0A96F958260) (Pablo Zinger, August 1999, NY Times)

Recordings
Joaqun Rodrigo interpreta a Rodrigo (http://joaquin-rodrigo.com/tienda/index. php?main_page=product_info&products_id=374) (EMI Classics, EAN 0724355643827) ( audio (http://www. los40.com/musica/artista/victoria-kamhi/canciones/19940306l40l40mus_20.Yes))

Videos
Grandes personajes, a fondo. Vol. 7 (http://www.editrama.com/ficha.asp?Idcoleccion=6&Idtitulo=72) Television Productions (http://www.joaquin-rodrigo.com/100filmse.html) Rodrigo: Pasos y huellas en la oscuridad The Rodrigo Collection (http://joaquin-rodrigo.com/tienda/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=68& products_id=384) - ASIN:B00076YNI2 DVD containing: Shadows and Light (http:/ / www. bullfrogfilms. com/ catalog/ shad. html) documentary, Concierto de Aranjuez (http://www.bullfrogfilms.com/catalog/cda.html) Concierto De Aranjuez: El Siglo De Joaqun Rodrigo (http://www.diagonaltv.es/detall_produccio.php?id=16) (Diagonal TV!) Joaqun Rodrigo - Concierto de Aranjuez by Narciso Yepes (http://www.just-video.net/video/ joaquin-rodrigo-concierto-de-aranjuez-by-narciso-yepes.html)

Luigi Russolo

54

Luigi Russolo
Luigi Russolo

Luigi Russolo ca. 1916 Background information Birth name Born Died Genres Luigi Russolo 30 April 1883 4 February 1947 (aged63) Experimental music

Occupations "Machine music" pioneer Futurist painter Custom instrument builder Years active 1901-1947

Luigi Russolo (30 April 1885 4 February 1947) was an Italian Futurist painter and composer, and the author of the manifesto The Art of Noises (1913).[1] He is often regarded as one of the first noise music experimental composers with his performances of "noise concerts" in 1913-14 and then again after World War I, notably in Paris in 1921.[2] He is also one of the first theorists of electronic music.

Biography
Luigi Russolo with his assistant Ugo Piatti and their Intonarumori Luigi Russolo was perhaps the first noise artist.[3] [4] (noise machines) His 1913 manifesto, L'Arte dei Rumori, translated as The Art of Noises, stated that the industrial revolution had given modern men a greater capacity to appreciate more complex sounds. Russolo found traditional melodic music confining and envisioned noise music as its future replacement.

The Art of Noises classified "noise-sound" into six groups: 1. 2. 3. 4. Roars, Thunderings, Explosions, Hissing roars, Bangs, Booms Whistling, Hissing, Puffing Whispers, Murmurs, Mumbling, Muttering, Gurgling Screeching, Creaking, Rustling, Humming, Crackling, Rubbing

Luigi Russolo 5. Noises obtained by beating on metals, woods, skins, stones, pottery, etc. 6. Voices of animals and people, Shouts, Screams, Shrieks, Wails, Hoots, Howls, Death rattles, Sobs He designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori and assembled a noise orchestra to perform with them. A performance of his Gran Concerto Futuristico (1917) was met with strong disapproval and violence from the audience, as Russolo himself had predicted. None of his intoning devices have survived, though recently some have been reconstructed and used in performances. Although Russolo's works bear little resemblance to modern noise music, his pioneering creations cannot be overlooked as an essential stage in the evolution of this genre,[5] [6] and many artists are now familiar with his manifesto. At first the art of music sought purity, limpidity and sweetness of sound. Then different sounds were amalgamated, care being taken, however, to caress the ear with gentle harmonies. Today music, as it becomes continually more complicated, strives to amalgamate the most dissonant, strange and harsh sounds. In this way we come ever closer to noise-sound.[7] Antonio Russolo, another Italian Futurist composer and Luigi's brother, produced a recording of two works featuring the original Intonarumori. The 1921 made phonograph with works entitled Corale and Serenata, combined conventional orchestral music set against the famous noise machines and is the only surviving sound recording.[8] Russolo and Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music, complete with intonarumori, in April 1914 (causing a riot).[9] The program comprised four "networks of noises" with the following titles: Awakening of Capital. Meeting of cars and aeroplanes Dining on the terrace of the Casino and Skirmish in the oasis.

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All of his instruments were destroyed in World War II during the bombings on Paris. In 2009 replica's are being made for the Performa Festival in New York City, where his musical pieces were played.

See also
Musica Futurista Experimental music Custom-made instruments List of custom-made instrument builders Noise music Futurism List of noise musicians

Luigi Russolo

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Further Reading & Audio Clips


Further reading
Luigi Russolo's "The Art of Noises" [10]

Audio
[11] mp3 audio files of the music of Luigi Russolo on UbuWeb Three audio clips by Luigi Russolo: Serenata, Corale and Risveglio di una citt. (Thereminvox.com) [12] Modern recordings of noise intoners and a fragment of Luigi Russolo's key Futurist

References
Ian Chilvers & John Glaves-Smith, A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art. Oxford University Press

External links
Intonarumori: history, working and photographs of Russolo's Intonarumori (noise makers) at thereminvox.com
[13]

Media Art Net | Russolo, Luigi: Intonarumori (at medienkunstnetz.de) [14] Peggy Guggenheim Collection: Luigi Russolo [15] "Art of Noise" at zakros.com [16] JahSonic.com: Luigi Russolo [17] Bob Osborn's Futurism: Luigi Russolo [18] Prof. Russolo & His Noise Intoners [19] [11] mp3 audio files of the noise music of Luigi Russolo on UbuWeb Russolo's Intonarumori [20]

References
[1] Ian Chilvers & John Glaves-Smith, A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art. Oxford University Press, p.619 [2] Ian Chilvers & John Glaves-Smith, A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art. Oxford University Press, p. 620 [3] In Futurism and Musical Notes, Daniele Lombardi discusses the mysterious case of the French composer Carol-Brard; a pupil of Isaac Albeniz. Carol-Brard is said to have composed a Symphony of Mechanical Forces in 1910 - but little evidence as emerged thus far to establish this assertion. [4] (http:/ / www. unknown. nu/ futurism/ noises. html) Luigi Russolo, "The Art of Noises". [5] Paul Hegarty, Noise/Music: A History (London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007), pp. 13-14. [6] Lszl Moholy-Nagy in 1923 recognized the unprecedented efforts of the Italian Futurists to broaden our perception of sound using noise. In an article in Der Storm #7, he outlined the fundamentals of his own experimentation: "I have suggested to change the gramophone from a reproductive instrument to a productive one, so that on a record without prior acoustic information, the acoustic information, the acoustic phenomenon itself originates by engraving the necessary Ritchriftreihen (etched grooves)." He presents detailed descriptions for manipulating discs, creating "real sound forms" to train people to be "true music receivers and creators" ( Rice 1994 (http:/ / ubu. com/ papers/ rice. html),). [7] Russolo, Luigi from The Art of Noises (http:/ / www. unknown. nu/ futurism/ noises. html), circa 1913. [8] Albright, Daniel (ed.) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Source. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2004. p. 174 [9] Benjamin Thorn, " Luigi Russolo (18851947) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=9-M_jhnOuboC& pg=PA415& lpg=PA415& dq=russolo+ riot& source=bl& ots=MeVcjrZCmP& sig=ku3et2V05tdekW4YHGDjzhrV7us& hl=en& ei=jySCS-KFDo76nAemqJGXBw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6& ved=0CBIQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage& q=russolo riot& f=false)", in Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook, edited by Larry Sitsky, foreword by Jonathan Kramer, 41519 (Westport and London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002). ISBN 0-313-29689-8. Citation on page 415.

Erik Satie

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Erik Satie
Erik Satie

Born

Erik Alfred Leslie Satie 17 May 1866 Honfleur, French Empire 1 July 1925 Paris, France Pianist, Composer Suzanne Valadon

Died Occupation Partner

ric Alfred Leslie Satie (17 May 1866 Paris, 1 July 1925) was a French composer and pianist. Starting with his first composition in 1884, he signed his name as Erik Satie. Satie was introduced as a "gymnopedist" in 1887, shortly before writing his most famous compositions, the Gymnopdies. Later, he also referred to himself as a "phonometrician" (meaning "someone who measures sounds") preferring this designation to that of "musician", after having been called "a clumsy but subtle technician" in a book on contemporary French composers published in 1911.[1] In addition to his body of music, Satie also left a remarkable set of writings, having contributed work for a range of publications, from the dadaist 391 to the American top culture chronicle Vanity Fair. Although in later life he prided himself on always publishing his work under his own name, in the late nineteenth century he appears to have used pseudonyms such as Virginie Lebeau and Franois de Paule in some of his published writings. Satie was a colourful figure in the early 20th century Parisian avant-garde. His work was a precursor to later artistic movements such as minimalism, repetitive music, and the Theatre of the Absurd.

Life and work


From Normandy to Montmartre
Erik Satie was born at Honfleur, and his home there is now open to the public. His youth was spent alternating between Honfleur, Basse-Normandie, and Paris. When he was four years old, his family moved to Paris, his father (Alfred), having been offered a translator's job in the capital. After his mother (born Jane Leslie Anton, who was born in London to Scottish parents) died in 1872, he was sent, together with his younger brother Conrad, back to

Erik Satie Honfleur, to live with his paternal grandparents. There he received his first music lessons from a local organist. When his grandmother died in 1878, the two brothers were reunited with their father in Paris, who remarried (a piano teacher) shortly afterwards. From the early 1880s onwards, Alfred Satie started publishing salon compositions (by his new wife and himself, among others). In 1879 Satie entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he was soon labelled untalented by his teachers. Georges Mathias, his professor of piano at the Conservatoire, described his pupil's piano technique in flatly negative terms, "insignificant and laborious" and "worthless". mile Descombes called him "the laziest student in the Conservatoire".[2] Years later Satie related that Mathias, with great insistence, told him that his real talent lay in composing. After being sent home for two and a half years, he was readmitted to the Conservatoire at the end of 1885, but was unable to make a much more favourable impression on his teachers than he had before, and, as a result, resolved to take up military service a year later. However, Satie's military career did not last very long; within a few weeks he left the army through deceptive means.[3] In 1887 Satie left home to take lodgings in Montmartre. By this Satie house and museum in Honfleur time he had started what was to be an enduring friendship with the romantic poet Patrice Contamine, and had had his first compositions published by his father. He soon integrated with the artistic clientle of the Le Chat Noir Caf-cabaret, and started publishing his Gymnopdies. Publication of compositions in the same vein (Ogives, Gnossiennes, etc.) followed. In the same period he befriended Claude Debussy. He moved to a smaller room, still in Montmartre (rue Cortot N 6), in 1890. By 1891 he was the official composer and chapel-master of the Rosicrucian Order "Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique, du Temple et du Graal", led by Sr Josphin Pladan, which led to compositions such as Salut drapeau!, Le fils des toiles, and the Sonneries de la Rose+Croix. By mid-1892 he had composed the first pieces in a compositional system of his own making (Fte donne par des Chevaliers Normands en l'honneur d'une jeune demoiselle), had provided incidental music to a chivalric esoteric play (two Prlude du Nazaren), had had his first hoax published (announcing the premiere of Le btard de Tristan, an anti-Wagnerian opera he probably never composed), and had broken with Pladan, starting that autumn with the Uspud project, a "Christian Ballet", in collaboration with Contamine de Latour. While the comrades from both the Chat Noir and Miguel Utrillo's Auberge du Clou sympathised, a promotional brochure was produced for the project, which reads as a pamphlet for a new esoteric sect. Satie and Suzanne Valadon, an artists' model and artist in her own right, and a long-time friend of Miguel Utrillo (and mother of Maurice Utrillo), began an affair early in 1893. After their first night together, he proposed marriage. The two did not marry, but Valadon moved to a room next to Satie's at the Rue Cortot. Satie became obsessed with her, calling her his Biqui, and writing impassioned notes about "her whole being, lovely eyes, gentle hands, and tiny feet". During their relationship, Satie composed the Danses gothiques as a kind of prayer to restore peace of mind, and Valadon painted a portrait of Satie, which she gave to him. After six months she moved away, leaving Satie broken-hearted. Afterwards, he said that he was left with "nothing but an icy loneliness that fills the head with emptiness and the heart with sadness".[4] It is believed this was the only intimate relationship Satie ever had.[5] In the same year he met the young Maurice Ravel for the first time, Satie's style emerging in the first compositions of the youngster. One of Satie's own compositions of that period, the Vexations, was to remain undisclosed until after his death. By the end of the year he had founded the Eglise Mtropolitaine d'Art de Jsus Conducteur (the Metropolitan Church of Art of the Leading Christ). As its only member, in the role of "Parcier et Matre de Chapelle" he started to compose a Grande messe (later to become known as the Messe des pauvres), and wrote a flood of

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Erik Satie letters, articles and pamphlets showing off his self-assuredness in religious and artistic matters. To give an example: he applied for membership of the Acadmie Franaise twice, leaving no doubt in the application letter that the board of that organisation (presided by Camille Saint-Sans) as much as owed him such membership. Such proceedings without doubt rather helped to wreck his popularity in the cultural establishment. In 1895 he inherited some money, allowing him to have more of his writings printed, and to change from wearing a priest-like habit to being the "Velvet Gentleman".

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Move to Arcueil
By mid-1896 all of Satie's financial means had vanished, and he had to move to cheaper and much smaller lodgings, first at the Rue Cortot,[6] and two years later, after he'd composed the two first sets of Pices froides in 1897, to Arcueil, a suburb some five kilometers from the centre of Paris. During this period he re-established contact with his brother Conrad for numerous practical and financial matters, disclosing some of his inner feelings in the process. The letters to Conrad made it clear that he had set aside any religious ideas. From 1899 on Satie started making money as a cabaret pianist, adapting over a hundred compositions of popular music for piano or piano and voice, adding some of his own. The most popular of these were Je te veux, text by Henry Pacory; Tendrement, text by Vincent Hyspa; Poudre d'or, a waltz; La diva de l'"Empire", text by Dominique Bonnaud/Numa Bls; Le Picadilly, a march; Lgende californienne, text by Contamine de Latour lost, but the music later reappears in La belle excentrique; and many more, many of which have been lost. In his later years Satie would reject all his cabaret music as vile and against his nature,[7] but for the time being, it was an income. Only a few compositions that Satie took seriously remain from this period: Jack-in-the-box, music to a pantomime by Jules Dpaquit (called a "clownerie" by Satie), Genevive de Brabant, a short comic opera on a serious theme, text by Lord Cheminot, The Dreamy Fish, piano music to accompany a lost tale by Lord Cheminot, and a few others that were mostly incomplete, hardly any of them staged, and none of them published at the time. Both Genevive de Brabant and The Dreamy Fish have been analysed by Ornella Volta as containing elements of competition with Claude Debussy, of which Debussy was probably not aware, Satie not making this music public. Meanwhile, Debussy was having one of his first major successes with Pellas et Mlisande in 1902, leading a few years later to who-was-precursor-to-whom debates between the two composers, in which Maurice Ravel would also get involved. In October 1905 Satie enrolled in Vincent d'Indy's Schola Cantorum to study classical counterpoint while still continuing his cabaret work. Most of his friends were as dumbfounded as the professors at the Schola when they heard about his new plan to return to the classrooms, especially as d'Indy was an admiring pupil of Saint-Sans, not particularly favoured by Satie. Satie would follow these courses at the Schola, as a respected pupil, for more than five years, receiving a first (intermediate) diploma in 1908. Some of his classroom counterpoint-exercises, such as the Dsespoir agrable, were published after his death. Another summary, of the period prior to the Schola, also appeared in 1911: the Trois morceaux en forme de poire, which was a kind of compilation of the best of what he had written up to 1903. Something that becomes clear through these published compilations is that Satie did not so much reject Romanticism and its exponents like Wagner, but that he rejected certain aspects of it. From his first composition to his last, he rejected the idea of musical development, in the strict definition of this term: the intertwining of different themes in a development section of a sonata form. As a result, his contrapuntal and other works were very short; the "new, modern" Fugues do not extend further than the exposition of the theme(s). Generally, he would say that he did not think it permitted that a composer take more time from his public than strictly necessary. Also Melodrama, in its historical meaning of the then popular romantic genre of "spoken words to a background of music", was something Satie avoided. His 1913 Le pige de Mduse could be seen as an absurdistic spoof of that genre. In the meantime, other changes had also taken place: Satie had become a member of a radical socialist party, and had socialised with the Arcueil community: Amongst other things, he'd been involved in the "Patronage laque" work for

Erik Satie children. He also changed his appearance to that of the 'bourgeois functionary' with bowler hat, umbrella, etc. He channelled his medieval interests into a peculiar secret hobby: In a filing cabinet he maintained a collection of imaginary buildings, most of them described as being made out of some kind of metal, which he drew on little cards. Occasionally, extending the game, he would publish anonymous small announcements in local journals, offering some of these buildings, e.g. a "castle in lead", for sale or rent.

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19121925
From this point, things started to move very quickly for Satie. First, starting in 1912, there was the success of his new humorous miniatures for piano; he was to write and publish many of these over the next few years (most of them premiered by the pianist Ricardo Vies). His habit of accompanying the scores of his compositions with all kinds of written remarks was now well established so that a few years later he had to insist that these not be read out during performances. He had mostly stopped using barlines by this time. In some ways these compositions were very reminiscent of Rossini's compositions from the final years of his life, grouped under the name Pchs de vieillesse. But the real acceleration in Satie's life did not come so much from the increasing success of his new piano pieces. In fact, it was Ravel who (perhaps unwittingly) triggered something that was to become a characteristic of Satie's remaining years and part of each progressive movement that manifested itself in Paris over the following years. These movements succeeded one another rapidly, at a time in which Paris was seen as the artistic capital of the world, and the beginning of the new century appeared to have set many minds on fire. In 1910 the "Jeunes Ravlites", a group of young musicians around Ravel, proclaimed their preference for Satie's earlier work (from before the Schola period), reinforcing the idea that Satie had been a precursor of Debussy. At first Satie was pleased that at least some of his works were receiving public attention, but when he realised that this meant that his more recent work was overlooked or dismissed, he looked for other young artists who related better to his more recent ideas, so as to have better mutual support in creative activity. Thus young artists such as Roland-Manuel, and later Georges Auric, and Jean Cocteau, started to receive more of his attention than the "Jeunes". As a result of his contact with Roland-Manuel, Satie again began publicising his thoughts, with far more irony than he had done before (amongst other things, the Mmoires d'un amnsique and Cahiers d'un mammifre).[8] With Jean Cocteau, whom he had first met in 1915, Satie started work on incidental music for a production of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream (resulting in the Cinq grimaces). From 1916, he and Cocteau worked on the ballet Parade, which was premiered in 1917 by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets russes, with sets and costumes by Pablo Picasso, and choreography by Lonide Massine. Through Picasso Satie also became acquainted with other cubists, such as Georges Braque, with whom he would work on other, aborted, projects. With Georges Auric, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, and Germaine Tailleferre Satie formed the Nouveaux jeunes, shortly after writing Parade. Later the group was joined by Francis Poulenc and Darius Milhaud. In September 1918, Satie giving little or no explanation withdrew from the Nouveaux jeunes. Jean Cocteau gathered the six remaining members, forming the Groupe des six (to which Satie would later have access, but later again would fall out with most of its members).
Erik Satie: project of bust, 1913

Erik Satie From 1919 Satie was in contact with Tristan Tzara, the initiator of the Dada movement. He became acquainted with other artists involved in the movement, such as Francis Picabia (later to become a Surrealist), Andr Derain, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Hugo and Man Ray, among others. On the day of his first meeting with Man Ray, the two fabricated the artist's first readymade: The Gift (1921). Satie contributed writing to the Dadaist publication 391. In the first months of 1922 he was surprised to find himself entangled in the argument between Tzara and Andr Breton about the true nature of avant-garde art, epitomised by the failure of the Congrs de Paris. Satie originally sides with Tzara, but manages to maintain friendly relations with most players in both camps. Meanwhile, an "Ecole d'Arcueil" had formed around Satie, with young musicians like Henri Sauguet, Maxime Jacob, Roger Dsormire and Henri Cliquet-Pleyel. Finally he composed an "instantaneist" ballet (Relche) in collaboration with Picabia, for the Ballets Sudois of Rolf de Mar. In a simultaneous project, Satie added music to the surrealist film Entr'acte by Ren Clair, which was given as an intermezzo for Relche.

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Death
After years of heavy drinking, Satie died on 1 July 1925, from cirrhosis of the liver.[9] At the time of his death no one else had ever entered his room in Arcueil since he had moved there 27 years earlier. After his burial, Satie's friends discovered compositions that were totally unknown or which were thought to have been lost. These were found behind the piano, in the pockets of the velvet suits, and in other odd places, and included the Vexations, Genevive de Brabant, and other unpublished or unfinished stage works, The Dreamy Fish, many Schola Cantorum exercises, a previously unseen set of "canine" piano pieces, and several other piano works, many untitled. Some of these works would be published later as more Gnossiennes, Pices froides, Enfantines, and Furniture music.

Recordings and arrangements


Piano works Recordings of Satie's piano works have been released by Cristina Ariagno, Jean-Pierre Armengaud, Aldo Ciccolini, Claude Coppens (live recording), Reinbert de Leeuw, Eve Egoyan, Philippe Entremont, Frank Glazer, Olof Hjer, Michel Legrand, Jacques Loussier, Anne Quefflec, Bill Quist, Pascal Rog, Joo Paulo Santos, Yuju Takahashi, Jean-Yves Thibaudet and Daniel Varsano, among others. Orchestral and vocal A recording of historical importance is probably Erik Satie, Les inspirations insolites, re-issued by EMI as a 2-CD set, containing among other pieces: Genevive de Brabant (in a version before Contamine's text had been recovered), Le pige de Mduse, Messe des pauvres, etc. Many other recordings exist: Parade/Relche (Michel Plasson / Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse), Satie: Socrate [etc.] (Jean-Paul Fouchcourt / Ensemble), and recordings of songs, e.g., by Anne-Sophie Schmidt. Arrangements in popular music In 1968, Blood Sweat & Tears released their second album, which included an adaptation of Erik Satie's Trois Gymnopdies (arranged by Dick Halligan) which they titled as Variations on a Theme by Erik Satie (First and Second Movements). Its instrumentation consisted only of flutes, an acoustic guitar and a triangle and the song's length was 2:35. In 1969, Halligan received a Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Performance for "Variations On A Theme By Erik Satie" from the album Blood, Sweat & Tears. In 1980, Gary Numan's 7-inch "We Are Glass" featured "Trois Gymnopedies (First Movement)" on the B-side. In 1999, electronic music act Plaid's CD "Restproof Clockwork" included a track called "Tearisci" which is an uncredited version of Satie's "Pices Froides, No. 2: Danses De Travers: III. Encore". In 2000, ex-Genesis guitarist Steve Hackett released the album, "Sketches of Satie", performing Satie's works on acoustic guitar, with contributions by his brother John on flute.

Erik Satie Frank Zappa was also a devoted fan of Satie, incorporating many elements into both his rock and orchestral works. The English electronic duo Isan recorded versions of the three Gymnopdies for a 2006 7-inch single, "Trois Gymnopedies" on the Morr Music record label.

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See also
List of compositions by Erik Satie

Sources
In English, unless indicated: Writings by Satie: A Mammal's Notebook: Collected Writings of Erik Satie (Serpent's Tail; Atlas Arkhive, No 5, 1997) ISBN 0-947757-92-9 (with introduction and notes by Ornella Volta, translations by Anthony Melville, contains several drawings by Satie) Correspondence presque complte: Runie, tablie et prsente par Ornella Volta (Paris: Fayard/Imes, 2000; 1265pp) ISBN 2-213-60674-9 (an almost complete edition of Satie's letters, in French) Books on Satie: Davis, Mary E., Erik Satie. Reaktion Books - Critical Lives. June 2007. ISBN 9781861893215 Gillmor, Alan M., Erik Satie (Twayne Pub., 1988, reissued 1992; 387pp) ISBN 0-393-30810-3 Myers, Rollo H., Erik Satie. (Dover Publications, New York 1968.) ISBN 0-486-21903-8 Orledge, Robert, Satie Remembered (London: Faber and Faber, London, 1995) Orledge, Robert, Satie the Composer Cambridge University Press: 1990; 437pp in the series Music in the Twentieth Century [ed.] Arnold Whittall) ISBN 0-521-35037-9 Templier, Pierre-Daniel (translated by Elena L. French and David S. French), Erik Satie (The MIT Press, 1969, reissued 1971) ISBN 0-262-70005-0 and (New York: Da Capo Press, 1980 reissue) ISBN 0-306-76039-8 note: Templier extensively consulted Conrad, Erik Satie's brother, when writing this first biography that appeared in 1932. The English translation was, however, criticised by John Cage; in a letter to Ornella Volta (25 May 1983) he referred to the translation as disappointing compared to the formidable value of the original biography. Volta, Ornella and Simon Pleasance, Erik Satie (Hazan: The Pocket Archives Series, 1997; 200pp) ISBN 2-85025-565-3 Volta, Ornella, transl. Michael Bullock, Satie Seen Through His Letters (Marion Boyars, 1989) ISBN 0-7145-2980-X Whiting, Steven, Satie the Bohemian: from Cabaret to Concert Hall (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999; 596pp) a fully researched account of Satie's musical career in what then was regarded as popular music. Other: Satie Home page [10] Niclas Fogwall's website dedicated to Satie

Erik Satie

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External links
www.erik-satie.com [11] Website dedicated to the musician, blog, timeline, gallery, biography, ... in French Public domain scores [12] Satie's Scores + Audio Free scores by Erik Satie in the International Music Score Library Project Free scores [13] by Erik Satie in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA) Free scores by Erik Satie in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) www.kreusch-sheet-music.net [14] Free Scores by Satie Satie's Scores [15] by the Mutopia Project Photos of Satie's tomb in Arcueil [16] UbuWeb's Erik Satie pages [17] - including an 'Erik Satie Primer' and recordings of arrangements of his work available to download as mp3s. JAZCLASS : About Erik SATIE - the eccentric Impressionist French composer and musician [18] Erik Satie at Pytheas Center for Contemporary Music [19]

References
[1] "Je suis phonomtre avant dtre musicien" Aperus phonomtriques & autres sous-entendus (http:/ / www. eilpianova. fr/ les-spectacles/ apercus-phonometriques) [2] The Ensemble Sospeso New York (http:/ / www. sospeso. com/ contents/ composers_artists/ satie. htm) [3] p.25 in: Mary E. Davis: Erik Satie. Reaktion Books - Critical Lives. ISBN 9781861893215. Published June 2007. http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1GjATpLsFuYC& lpg=PA25& ots=OzlOGxEZo1& dq=satie%20regiment%20drastic%20steps& pg=PA25#v=onepage& q=satie%20regiment%20drastic%20steps& f=false [4] Valadon and Erik Satie (http:/ / www. af. lu. se/ ~fogwall/ article5. html) Retrieved June 12, 2010 [5] Orledge, Robert. "Erik Satie" (http:/ / www. oxfordmusiconline. com/ subscriber/ article/ grove/ music/ 40105). Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. . Retrieved 17 April 2010. [6] Plaque #3265 on Open Plaques (http:/ / openplaques. org/ plaques/ 3265). [7] Erik Satie in a 17 January 1911 letter to his brother Conrad, quoted in Volta 1989 and in Gillmor 1992 (Chronology p. xxix) [8] English translations of these pieces were published in A Mammal's Notebook, see Sources section below. [9] Eric Satie - Biography at Humanitiesweb.org (http:/ / www. humanitiesweb. org/ human. php?s=c& p=a& a=i& ID=753)

Pierre Schaeffer

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Pierre Schaeffer
Pierre Schaeffer

Background information Birth name Born Died Genres Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer 14 August 1910 Nancy, Lorraine, France 19 August 1995 (aged 85) Aix, Provence, France Musique concrte, electroacoustic, acousmatic, classical, electronic

Occupations Composer, musician, writer, engineer, professor, broadcaster, acoustician, musicologist, activist, record producer, inventor, entrepreneur, cultural critic Instruments Years active Labels Website Various (electronic and experimental) 1942 - 1990 GRMC/GRM, INA, Phonurgia Nova, Philips, Disques Ads, EMF, Prospective 21e Sicle pierreschaeffer.com
[1]

Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (pronounced /pijr hnri mri efr/ Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Pierre Schaeffer - Pronunciation.ogg in English; 14 August 1910 19 August 1995) [1] was a French composer, writer, broadcaster, engineer, musicologist and acoustician of the 20th century. His innovative work and in both the sciences particularly communications and acoustics and the various arts of music, literature and radio presentation after the end of World War II, as well as his anti-nuclear activism and cultural criticism garnered him a wide array of appraisal in his lifetime. Of the vast assortment of works and endeavors undertaken by him, Schaeffer is most widely and currently recognized for his accomplishments in electronic and experimental music,[2] the epitome of which was his role as the chief developer of a unique and early form of avant-garde music known as musique concrte.[3] The genre emerged out of Europe from the utilization of new music technology developed in the post-Nazi Germany era, following the advance of electroacoustic and acousmatic music. Schaeffer's writings (which include written and radio-narrated essays, biographies, short novels, a number of musical treatises and several plays) [1] [3] [4] are often oriented towards his development of the genre, as well as the theoretics and philosophy of music in general.[5] Today, Schaeffer is considered one of the most influential experimental, electroacoustic and subsequently electronic musicians, having been the first composer to utilize a number of contemporary recording and sampling techniques that are now used worldwide by nearly all record production companies.[2] His collective endeavors are considered

Pierre Schaeffer milestones in the histories of electronic and experimental music.

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Life
Early life and education
Schaeffer was born in Nancy, in 1910.[3] His parents were both musicians (his father a violinist; his mother, a singer),[5] and at first it seemed that Pierre would also take on music as a career. However during his childhood his parents forbade his musical pursuits and rather opted for him to become educated in engineering.[2] He studied at several universities in this inclination, the first of which was Lyce Saint-Sigisbert located in his hometown of Nancy. Afterwards he transferred north in 1929 to the cole Polytechnique in Paris [3] [6] [7] and finally completed his education in the capital at the cole suprieure d'lectricit, in 1934.[7] Schaeffer ended his education receiving a diploma in radio broadcasting from the cole Polytechnique.[8] He may have also received a similar degree from the cole nationale suprieure des tlcommunications, although it is not verifiable as to whether he ever actually attended this university.[8]

First experimentations and work in broadcasting and engineering; marriage and fatherhood
Later in 1934 Schaeffer entered his first occupation as an engineer, briefly working in telecommunications in Strasbourg.[7] [9] In 1935 he began a relationship with a woman named Elisabeth Schmitt, and later in the year married her and with her had his first child, Marie-Claire Schaeffer.[7] He and his new family then officially relocated to Paris where he joined the Radiodiffusion Franaise (now called Radiodiffusion-Tlvision Franaise; French for French Radio and Television Broadcasting) in 1936 and began his work in radio broadcasting and presentation.[6] It was there that he began to defy his initial notions on telecommunications, and instead chose to pursue music by combining his abilities as an engineer with his passion for sound. In his work at the station, Schaeffer experimented with records and an assortment of other devicesthe sounds they made and the applications of those soundsafter coercing the radio station's management to allow him to use their equipment. This experimentationation was a point of significant influence on him, intriguing Schaeffer with many of his initial questions on the limits of modern musical expression.[6] In the experiments, Pierre tried playing sounds backwards, slowing them down, speeding them up and juxtaposing them with other sounds,[10] all techniques which were virtually unknown at that time.[6] He had begun working with new contemporaries whom he had met through RTF, and as such his experimentation deepened. Schaeffer's work gradually became more avante-garde, as he challenged traditional music style with the use of various devices and practices. A unique variety of electronic instrumentsones which Schaeffer and his colleagues created, in use of his and other early French Schaeffer presenting the Acousmonium. experimentalist's experience as engineerscame into play with his work, like the chromatic, sliding and universal phonogenes, Francois Bayle's Acousmonium and a host of other devices such as gramaphones and some of the earliest tape recorders.[10]

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Beginnings of writing career


In 1938 Schaeffer began his work in writing, penning various articles and essays for the Revue Musicale, a French journal of music. His first column, Basic Truths, provided a critical examination of musical aspects of the time. A known ardent Catholic, Schaeffer began to write minor religiously-based pieces, and in the same year as his Basic Truths published his first novel: Chlothar Nicole a short Christian novel.

Club d'essai & the origin of musique concrte


By that time in his life, Schaeffer had cofounded La Jeune France, which had interests in theatre and the visual arts, as well as music and certain aspects of mysticism. In 1942, he created the Studio D'Essai (later known as the Club D'Essai), which played a role in the activities of the French resistance during World War II, and later became a center of musical activity. It was from D'Essai that he successfully recorded his first work, which itself appeared on Dix Ans D'Essais Radiophoniques Du Studio Au Club D'Essai: 1942-1952, a compilation of his personal concrte, along with many other artists' experimental pieces, released later in his life 1953. The compilation has since become valued as a notable publication of the experimental music genre. With the rise of nuclear power after World War II, Pierre became a notable aficionado of the anti-nuclear movement, one of the main factors associated with his personal life, other than his work in the field of music.

Groupe de Recherche de Musique Concrte


In 1949, Schaeffer met the percussionist-composer Pierre Henry, with whom he collaborated with on many different musical compositions, and in 1951, he founded the Groupe de Recherche de Musique Concrte (GRMC) in the French Radio Institution. This gave him a new studio, which included a tape recorder. This was a significant development for Schaeffer, who previously had to work with phonographs and turntables to produce music. Schaeffer is generally acknowledged as being the first composer to make music using magnetic tape. His continued experimentation led him to publish la Recherche d'une Musique Concrte (French for "In Search of a Concrete Music") in 1952, which was a summation of his working methods up to that point. His only opera, Orphe 53 (Orpheus 53), premiered in 1953. Schaeffer left the GRMC in 1953 and reformed the group in 1958 as the Groupe de Recherche Musicale[s] (GRM) (at first without "s", then with "s"), where he briefly mentored the young Jean Michel Jarre, among other students. His last "etude" (study) came in 1959: the "Study of Objects" (Etudes aux Objets). In 1954 Schaeffer founded traditional music label Ocora ("Office de Coopration Radiophonique") alongside composer, pianist and musicologist Charles Duvelle, with a worldwide coverage in order to preserve African rural soundscapes. Ocora also served as a facility to train technicians in African national broadcasting services. Today, it is still run by Duvelle. In 1988, Schaeffer appeared in a New York Times article on the 1988 Spitak earthquake. Schaeffer had led a 498-member rescue team in Leninakan to help find survivors in the aftermath of the quake.

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Later life & death


Schaeffer became an associate professor at the Paris Conservatoire from 1968 to 1980 after creating a "class of fundamental music and application to the audiovisual." [1] He suffered from Alzheimer's disease later in his life, and died from the condition in Aix-en-Provence in 1995. He was 85 years old. Schaeffer was thereafter remembered by many of his colleagues with the title, "Musician of Sounds".

Legacy
Influences on music
The modern industrial and, to a certain extent, New Age music scenes attribute much of their influence to musique concrte, the brainchild of Schaeffer himself. .As well, Schaeffer is considered by many electronic and experimental musicians to have been a profound part of the development of those musical genres. His contribution has been compared to the likes of Luigi Russolo, Robert Moog, Edgard Schaeffer at the French symposium on "Training Professionals in Vision and Sound" organised by RIAVS. From right to left: Pierre Schaeffer, Colin Young Varse and others. Ishkur's Guide to (Founder of the NFTS and President of CILECT) and Jean-Michel Arnold. Electronic Music features sound samples by Pierre Schaeffer, as well as Iannis Xenakis and the aforementioned Varse (two of his contemporaries). Pierre's aforementiond student in GRM, Jean Michel Jarre, went on to great international success in his own musical career. Jarre's 1997 album, Oxygene 7-13, is dedicated to Schaeffer. Pierre Henry also made a tribute to the man, composing his cho d'Orphe, Pour P. Schaeffer alongside him for Schaeffer's last work and second compilation, Luvre Musicale. His other notable pupils include Joanna Bruzdowicz, Bernard Parmegiani, Micheline Coulombe Saint-Marcoux, Armando Santiago, and Elzbieta Sikora. Musique concrte

Schaeffer often created his "concrete music" with real-world sounds. The notable Railroad Study (French: "tude aux chemins de fer"), for instance, featured recordings of the noises made by trains running along railroad tracks.

Pierre Schaeffer

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Sound is the vocabulary of nature.

Pierre Schaeffer

The term musique concrte (French for "real music", literally "concrete music"), which was coined by Schaeffer in 1948[11] , can be misunderstood as simply referring to music made from "real-world" audibles or other naturally occurring sounds that do not include an instrumental/human interface. While this aspect of musique concrte is a major factor according to how Schaeffer had developed it, it should predominantly be seen as a term describing more than simply the recording and manipulation of everyday noises. In a broader sense, the phrase embodies new sensibilities of musical expression and entails a reconceptualized framework for the long-established "organized" sound of the world, one that does not rely on familiar descriptors of rhythm and timbre, or tone and tempo. Schaeffer believed traditionally classical (or as he called it, "serious") music begins as an abstraction (musical notation) that is later produced as audible music. Musique concrte, by contrast, strives to start at the "concrete" sounds that emanate from base phenomena and then abstracts them into a composition. The term musique concrte is then, in essence, the breaking down of the structured production of traditional instruments, harmony, rhythm, and even music theory itself, in an attempt to reconstruct music from the bottom up. From the contemporary point of view, the importance of Schaeffer's musique concrte is threefold. He developed the concept of including any and all sounds into the vocabulary of music. At first he concentrated on working with sounds other than those produced by traditional musical instruments. Later on, he found it was possible to remove the familiarity of musical instrument sounds and abstract them further by techniques such as removing the attack of the recorded sound. He was among the first musicians to manipulate recorded sound for the purpose of using it in conjunction with other sounds in order to compose a musical piece. Techniques such as tape looping and tape splicing were used in his research, often comparing to sound collage. The advent of Schaeffer's manipulation of recorded sound became possible only with technologies that were developed after World War II had ended in Europe. His work is recognized today as an essential precursor to contemporary sampling practices. Schaeffer was among the first to use recording technology in a creative and specifically musical way, harnessing the power of electronic and experimental instruments in a manner similar to Luigi Russolo, whom he admired and from whose work he drew inspiration. Furthermore, he emphasized the importance of "playing" (in his terms, jeu) in the creation of music. Schaeffer's idea of jeu comes from the French verb jouer, which carries the same double meaning as the English verb play: 'to enjoy oneself by interacting with one's surroundings', as well as 'to operate a musical instrument'. This notion is at the core of the concept of musique concrte, and reflects on freely improvised sound, or perhaps more specifically electroacoustic improvisation, from the standpoint of Schaeffer's work and research.

Research legacy
The writers Martial Robert and Carlos Palombini have mentioned Schaeffer frequently in their works, and have penned a number of books on or referring to his life and legacy. Schaeffer being a writer himself, he coauthored several works with a number of his colleagues, such as Sophie Brunet, Marc Pierret and Michel Chion, among others. Today Schaeffer's work is still being published. Many of Schaeffer's works have become rarities. As recently as 2006 a coauthored work of his, Sur les traces de Pierre Schaeffer, was published post-mortem.

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Other
Today, in his honor, the Qwartz Electronic Music Awards has named several of its past events after Schaeffer. Pierre himself was a prize winner at the awards more than once.

Works
Music
All of Schaeffer's musical compositions (concrte or otherwise) were recorded before the advent of the CD, either on cassettes or a more archaic form of magnetic tape (therefore the term "discography" cannot be appropriately used here; rather his music in general). Mass-production for his work was limited at best, and each piece was, by Schaeffer's terms, intended to be released foremost as an expos to the masses of what he believed was a new and somewhat revolutionizing form of music. The original production of his marketed work was done by the "Groupe de Recherches Musicales" (a.k.a. GRM; now owned and operated by INA or the Institut National de l'Audiovisuel), the company which he initially had formed around his creations. Other music was broadcast live (Pierre himself being notable on French radio at the time) and/or done in live "concert". Some individual tracks even found their way into the use of other artists, with Pierre's work being fronted in mime performances and ballets. Now after his death, various musical production companies, such as Disques Ads and Phonurgia Nova have been given rights to distribute his work. Below is a list of Schaeffer's musical works, showing his compositions and the year(s) they were recorded.
Composition Concertino Tuner Five Studies of Noises Study for Piano and Orchestra Continuation for Fourteen Instruments Variations on a Mexican Flute Whatchamacallit in C The RAI Bird Symphony for One Man Alone Orpheus 51 or the Whole Lyre The Thawed Words Masquerage Scenes of Don Juan Orpheus 53 Film Score for "The Sahara Today" Continuo Study of Paces Study of Animated Sounds Study of Objects Scene Music for Phdre Night of the Railroads Cameroonian Simultaneous Year(s) Recorded 1948 1948 1948 1949

1949 1950 1950 1950 1951 1952 1952 1952 1953 1957 1958 1958 1958 1959 1959 1959 1959

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Olga's Aura Theory of the Acoustic Object The Fertile Tridre Speech and Music Pierre Schaeffer: The Musical Works 1962 1967 1975 1982 1990

Broadcasted narratives
Apart from his published and publicized music, Schaeffer conducted several musical (and specifically musique concrte-related) presentations via French radio. Although these broadcasts contained musical pieces by Schaeffer they cannot be adequately described as part of his main line of musical output. This is because the radio "essays", as they were appropriately named, were mainly narration on Schaeffer's musical theories philosophies rather than compositions in and of themselves. Schaeffer's radio narratives include the following: The Shell Filled With Planets, 1944 Cantata to Alsace, 1945 An Hour of the World, 1947 From Claudel to Brangues, 1953 Ten Years of Radio Essays by the Studio at Club Essay: 1942-1952, 1955

Selected bibliography
Schaeffer's literary works span a range of genres, both in terms of fiction and non-fiction. He predominantly wrote treatises and essays, but also penned a film review and two plays. An ardent Catholic, Schaeffer wrote Chlothar Nicole (French: Clotaire Nicole; published 1938)a Christian novel or short storyand Tobias (French: Tobie; published 1939) a religiously-based play. Fiction Novels and short stories Chlothar Nicole (1938) The Guardian of The Volcano (1969) Prelude, Chorale and Fugue (1981) Plays Tobie (1939) Secular Games (1946) Non-fiction America, We Ignore You (1946) The Non-Visual Element of Films (1946) In Search of a Concrete Music (1952) Music and Acoustics (1967)

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Further reading
(French) Pierre Schaeffer (1966). Trait des objets musicaux (Treatise on Musical Objects). Paris, France: Le Seuil. ISBN 978-2020026086. (French) Martial Robert (1999). Communication et musique en France entre 1936 et 1986. Paris, France: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2738479758.

External links
PierreSchaeffer.com [1] Official website Le Groupe de Recherches Musicales [13] at the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (French) Club d'Essai [14] Unofficial website of Club d'Essai (Portuguese) Les Machines Communiquer [15] Unofficial website by French historian Elizabeth Antebiel (French) Pierre Schaeffer [16] at the online alumni community of the cole Polytechnique (French) Pierre Schaeffer [17] at the Electronic Music Foundation Pierre Schaeffer [18] at Allmusic Pierre Schaeffer [19] at Last.fm Pierre Schaeffer [20] at BBC Music

Pierre Schaeffer [21] at Discogs Pierre Schaeffer [22] at Artistdirect

References
[1] "Pierre Schaeffer" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 526992/ Pierre-Schaeffer). Encyclopdia Britannica: 2. . Retrieved December 4, 2008. "Schaeffer taught electronic composition at the Paris Conservatory from 1968 until 1980. His writings include novels, short stories, and essays, as well as theoretical works in music, such as la recherche dune musique concrte (1952; 'In Search of a Concrete Music'), Trait des objets musicaux (1966; 'Treatise on Musical Objects'), and the two-volume Machines communiquer (197072; 'Machines for Communicating')." [2] "Pierre Schaeffer & Pierre Henry: Pioneers in Sampling" (http:/ / emusician. com/ em_spotlight/ Pioneers_Sampling/ ). Unknown author (reproduction via Diliberto, John 2005: Electronic Musician) 1986: Electronic Musician. . Retrieved September 30, 2009. [3] "Pierre Schaeffer" (http:/ / csunix1. lvc. edu/ ~snyder/ em/ schaef. html). Snyder, Jeff 2007: CsUNIX1/Lebanon Valley College: 1, 3. . Retrieved December 3, 2008. [4] "Les crits de Pierre Schaeffer" (http:/ / www. olats. org/ pionniers/ pp/ schaeffer/ oeuvreSchaeffer. php). Couprie, Pierre & OLATS 2000. . Retrieved May 12, 2009. (French) [5] "Musique Concrte Revisited" (http:/ / www. rem. ufpr. br/ REMv4/ vol4/ arti-palombini. htm). Palombini, Carlos 1999: The Electronic Musicological Review: 1, 23. . Retrieved December 5, 2008. [6] "Pierre Schaeffer: Profile on Discogs.com" (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ artist/ Pierre+ Schaeffer). Anonymous/Various, submitted 2003: Discogs.com. . Retrieved December 4, 2008. [7] "Pierre Schaeffer Biographie" (http:/ / www. olats. org/ pionniers/ pp/ schaeffer/ biographieSchaeffer. php). Couprie, Pierre & OLATS 2000. . Retrieved December 6, 2009. (French) [8] "Excerpt from Electronic Music, 1948-1953" (http:/ / www. arts. rpi. edu/ rolnick/ classes/ computermusic/ Cross Article. pdf). Cross, Lowell [unverifiable date]: Forum: Electronic Music and Computer Research. . Retrieved December 17, 2009. [9] Excerpt from Music of the Twentieth-century Avant-garde (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=9-M_jhnOuboC& pg=PA432& lpg=PA432& dq=pierre+ schaeffer+ Strasbourg& source=bl& ots=MeS6euSxhI& sig=psT8Ax97SW4L8897E2t66tAympQ& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=2& ct=result). . Retrieved December 26, 2008. [10] "A-Z of Instruments - Other" (http:/ / www. foundry. co. uk/ musicfirebox/ a-zofinstrumentb. html). The Foundry Creative Media Company Ltd. 2005: sec. 2. . Retrieved December 7, 2009. "Musique concrte was an experimental technique that combined pre-recorded sounds natural as well as musical to make musical compositions. Using only the earliest tape recorders, sounds were edited, played backwards and speeded up and down to create fascinating sound-scapes. Pierre Henry was a prolific composer of musique concrte and collaborated with Schaeffer on many compositions. Luciano Berio and Steve Reich are also key figures in musique concrte composition. Karlheinz Stockhausen combined electronic and concrte sounds to become a leader of avant-garde music making." [11] *Kennedy, Michael (2006), The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4

R. Murray Schafer

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R. Murray Schafer
R. Murray Schafer

Background information Birth name Born Genres RaymondMurraySchafer July 18, 1933 Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Avant-garde, classical, opera, musical theater

Occupations Composer, librettist, pedagogue, writer, educator, environmentalist Instruments Piano

Raymond Murray Schafer (born 18 July 1933) is a Canadian composer, writer, music educator and environmentalist perhaps best known for his World Soundscape Project, concern for acoustic ecology, and his book The Tuning of the World (1977). He was notably the first recipient of the Jules Lger Prize in 1978.[1] [2]

Biography
Born in Sarnia, Ontario, he then studied at the Royal Schools of Music in London, the Royal Conservatory of Music, and the University of Toronto. At the latter institution he was a pupil of Richard Johnston. His music education theories are followed around the world. He started soundscape studies at Simon Fraser University in the 1960s. In addition to introducing the concept of soundscape he also coined the term schizophonia in 1969, the splitting of a sound from its source or the condition caused by this split: "We have split the sound from the maker of the sound. Sounds have been torn from their natural sockets and given an amplified and independent existence. Vocal sound, for instance, is no longer tied to a hole in the head but is free to issue from anywhere in the landscape."[3] Steven Feld, borrowing a term from Gregory Bateson, calls the recombination and recontextualization of sounds split from their sources schismogenesis.[4] In 1987 he was awarded the first Glenn Gould Prize in recognition of his contributions. In 2005 he was awarded the Walter Carsen Prize, by the Canada Council for the Arts, one of the top honours for lifetime achievement by a Canadian artist.[5] In 2009, he received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Artistic Achievement.[6] Schafer is particularly famous for his situational opera The Princess of the Stars.

R. Murray Schafer

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Selected works
Brief description of the complete Patria cycle [7] Patria Patria: The Prologue, The Princess of the Stars Patria 1: Wolfman Patria 2: Requiems for the Party Girl Patria 3: The Greatest Show Patria 4: The Black Theatre of Hermes Trismegistos Patria 5: The Crown of Ariadne Patria 6: Ra Patria 7: Asterion Patria 8: The Palace of the Cinnabar Phoenix [8] Patria 9: The Enchanted Forest Patria 10: The Spirit Garden Patria: The Epilogue: And Wolf Shall Inherit the Moon Carnival of Shadows The Tuning of the World (The Soundscape) ISBN 978-0394409665 Arcana Editions [9] The Enchanted Forest book & CD Arcana Editions [10] Voices of Tyranny: Temples of Silence: Studies and Reflections on the Contemporary Soundscape Arcana Editions [11] A Sound Education: 100 Exercises in Listening and Soundmaking Arcana Editions [12] HearSing Arcana Editions [13] The Thinking Ear: On Music Education Arcana Editions [14] Ear cleaning: Notes for an experimental music course included in The Thinking Ear above The Book of Noise Arcana Editions [15] The Composer in the Classroom Arcana Editions [16] When Words Sing Arcana Editions [17] Patria: The Complete Cycle Arcana Editions [18] E.T.A. Hoffmann and Music Arcana Editions [19] Wolf Tracks Arcana Editions [20] Dicamus et Labyrinthos Arcana Editions [21] Ariadne Arcana Editions [22] On Canadian Music Arcana Editions [23] Music in the Cold Arcana Editions [24] The Chaldean Inscription Arcana Editions [25] The Sixteen Scribes Arcana Editions [26] R. Murray Schafer: A Collection Arcana Editions [27] Music for Young Players: Minimusic for instruments or voices Universal Edition (UE 15449) [28] The Soundscape ISBN 978-0892814558 World Soundscape Project Adieu Robert Schumann The New Soundscape Arcana Editions [29] Patria and the Theatre of Confluence ISBN 1-895127-11-4 Creative Music Education: A Handbook for the Modern Music Teacher ISBN 978-0028723303 Sonatina for Flute and Harpsichord (or Piano) (1976) Berandol Music

R. Murray Schafer

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Further Reading
Steenhuisen, Paul. "Interview with R. Murray Schafer". In Sonic Mosaics: Conversations with Composers [30]. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 2009. ISBN-13: 978-0888644749

See also
Sound culture

External links
Arcana Editions bibliography [31] R. Murray Schafer [32] at the Canadian Encyclopedia R. Murray Schafer biography [33] at the Canadian Music Center R. Murray Schafer [34] at the Living Composers Project Music Behind Walls, 3:24 min, R. Murray Schafer [35] (realmedia) World Soundscape Project [36] A Tribute to R. Murray Schafer - National Arts Centre / Centre National des Arts (Canada) [37]
[38]

Listen, a short film on Schafer - Governor General's Performing Arts Award for Lifetime Artistic Achievement

References
[1] "World Soundscape Project" (http:/ / www. thecanadianencyclopedia. com/ index. cfm?PgNm=TCE& Params=U1ARTU0003743). The Canadian Encyclopedia. . Retrieved 2007-02-26. [2] Schafer, Raymond Murray (1977). The Tuning of the World. Random House Inc.. ISBN0394409663. [3] Mathieu, W.A. (1994). The Musical Life. Shambhala. p.223. ISBN0-87773-670-7. [4] Feld, Steven; Keil, Charles (1994). Music Grooves: Essays and Dialogues. University Of Chicago Press. pp.265271. ISBN0226429571. [5] Canada Council for the Arts (2005-11-08). "Composer R. Murray Schafer wins Walter Carsen Prize for Excellence in the Performing Arts" (http:/ / www. canadacouncil. ca/ news/ releases/ 2005/ lz127759414884220860. htm). Press release. . Retrieved 2007-02-22. [6] "Paul Gross, Robert Lepage, awarded performing arts Governor General's awards" (http:/ / www. vancouversun. com/ entertainment/ Paul+ Gross+ Robert+ Lepage+ awarded+ performing+ arts+ Governor+ General+ awards/ 1345209/ story. html). Vancouver Sun (Canwest). March 2, 2009. . Retrieved 10 December 2009.

Arnold Schoenberg

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Arnold Schoenberg
Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced[anlt nbk]) (13 September 1874 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. He used the spelling Schnberg until after his move to the United States in 1934 (Steinberg 1995, 463), whereupon he altered it to Schoenberg "in deference to American practice" (Foss 1951, 401), though one writer claims he made the change a year earlier (Ross 2007, 45). Schoenberg's approach, both in terms of harmony and development, is among the major landmarks of 20th century musical thought; at least three generations of composers in the European and American traditions have consciously extended his thinking or, in some cases, passionately reacted against it. During the rise of the Nazi party in Austria, his music was labeled, alongside jazz, as degenerate art. Schoenberg was widely known early in his career for Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 his success in simultaneously extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of both Brahms and Wagner. Later, his name would come to personify pioneering innovations in atonality that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century art music. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, a widely influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale. He also coined the term developing variation, and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea. Schoenberg was also a painter, an important music theorist, and an influential teacher of composition; his students included Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, and later John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim, and many other prominent musicians. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method, and his habit of openly inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in avant-garde musical thought throughout the 20th century. His often polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many of the 20th century's significant musicologists and critics, including Theodor Adorno, Charles Rosen, and Carl Dahlhaus. Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schnberg Center in Vienna.

Biography
Arnold Schoenberg was born into a lower middle class Jewish family in the Leopoldstadt district (in earlier times a Jewish ghetto) of Vienna, at "Obere Donaustrae 5" [1]. Although his mother Pauline, a native of Prague, was a piano teacher (his father Samuel, a native of Bratislava, was a shopkeeper), Arnold was largely self-taught, taking only counterpoint lessons with the composer Alexander von Zemlinsky, who was to become his first brother-in-law (Beaumont 2000, 87). In his twenties, he lived by orchestrating operettas while composing works such as the string sextet Verklrte Nacht ("Transfigured Night") in 1899. He later made an orchestral version of this, which has come to be one of his most popular pieces. Both Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler recognized Schoenberg's significance

Arnold Schoenberg as a composer; Strauss when he encountered Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder, and Mahler after hearing several of Schoenberg's early works. Strauss turned to a more conservative idiom in his own work after 1909 and at that point dismissed Schoenberg, but Mahler adopted Schoenberg as a protg and continued to support him even after Schoenberg's style reached a point which Mahler could no longer understand, and Mahler worried about who would look after him after his death. Schoenberg, who had initially despised and mocked Mahler's music, was converted by the "thunderbolt" of Mahler's Third Symphony, which he considered a work of genius, and afterwards "even spoke of Mahler as a saint" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 103; Schoenberg 1975, 136). In 1898 he converted to Lutheranism. He would remain Lutheran until 1933. The summer of 1908, during which his wife Mathilde left him for several months for a young Austrian painter, Richard Gerstl (who committed suicide after her return to her husband and children), marked a distinct change in Schoenberg's work. It was during the absence of his wife that he composed "You lean against a silver-willow" (German: Du lehnest wider eine Silberweide), the thirteenth song in the cycle Das Buch der Hngenden Grten, Op. 15, based on the collection of the same name by the German mystical poet Stefan George; this was the first composition without any reference at all to a key (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 96). Also in this year he completed one of his most revolutionary compositions, the String Quartet No. 2, whose first two movements, though chromatic in color, use traditional key signatures, yet whose final two movements, also settings of George, weaken the links with traditional tonality daringly (though both movements end on tonic chords, and the work is not yet fully non-tonal) and, breaking with previous string-quartet practice, incorporate a soprano vocal line. During the summer of 1910, Schoenberg wrote his Harmonielehre [2] (Theory of Harmony, Schoenberg 1922), which to this day remains one of the most influential music-theory books. From about 1911 Schnberg belonged to a circle of artists and intellectuals that included Lene Schneider-Kainer, Franz Werfel, Herwarth Walden and the latter's wife, Else Lasker-Schler. Another of his most important works from this atonal or pantonal period is the highly influential Pierrot Lunaire, Op. 21, of 1912, a novel cycle of expressionist songs set to a German translation of poems by the Belgian-French poet Albert Giraud. Utilizing the technique of Sprechstimme, or melodramatically spoken recitation, the work pairs a female vocalist with a small ensemble of 5 musicians. The ensemble, which is now commonly referred to as the Pierrot ensemble, consists of flute (doubling on piccolo), clarinet (doubling on bass clarinet), violin (doubling on viola), violoncello, speaker, and piano. World War I brought a crisis in his development. Military service disrupted his life. He was never able to work uninterrupted or over a period of time, and as a result he left many unfinished works and undeveloped "beginnings". So, at the age of 42 he found himself in the army. On one occasion, a superior officer demanded to know if he was "this notorious Schoenberg, then"; Schoenberg replied: "Beg to report, sir, yes. Nobody wanted to be, someone had to be, so I let it be me" (Schoenberg 1975, 104) (according to Norman Lebrecht (2001), this is a reference to Schoenberg's apparent "destiny" as the "Emancipator of Dissonance"). Later, Schoenberg was to develop the most influential version of the dodecaphonic (also known as twelve-tone) method of composition, which in French and English was given the alternative name serialism by Ren Leibowitz and Humphrey Searle in 1947. This technique was taken up by many of his students, who constituted the so-called Second Viennese School. They included Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Hanns Eisler, all of whom were profoundly influenced by Schoenberg. He published a number of books, ranging from his famous Harmonielehre [2] (Theory of Harmony) to Fundamentals of Musical Composition (Schoenberg 1967), many of which are still in print and still used by musicians and developing composers.

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Arnold Schoenberg

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Schoenberg viewed his development as a natural progression and he did not deprecate his earlier works when he ventured into serialism. In 1923 he wrote to the Swiss philanthropist Werner Reinhart: "For the present, it matters more to me if people understand my older works ... They are the natural forerunners of my later works, and only those who understand and comprehend these will be able to gain an understanding of the later works that goes beyond a fashionable bare minimum. I do not attach so much importance to being a musical bogey-man as to being a natural continuer of properly-understood good old tradition!" (Stein 1987, 100; quoted in Strimple 2005, 22 [3])

Schoenberg's grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna.

Following the 1924 death of composer Ferruccio Busoni, who had served as Director of a Master Class in Composition at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin, Schoenberg was appointed to this post the next year, but because of health reasons was unable to take up his post until 1926. Among his notable students during this period were the composers Roberto Gerhard, Nikos Skalkottas, and Josef Rufer. Schoenberg continued in his post until the election of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1933, when he was dismissed and forced into exile. He emigrated to Paris, where he is said to have acquired or formally reclaimed membership in the Jewish religion (Anon. 2002), and then to the United States. His first teaching position in the United States was at the Malkin Conservatory in Boston. He then moved to Los Angeles, where he taught at the University of Southern California and the University of California, Los Angeles, both of which later named a music building on their respective campuses Schoenberg Hall (UCLA Department of Music [2008]; University of Southern California Thornton School of Music [2008]). He settled in Brentwood Park, where he befriended fellow composer (and tennis partner) George Gershwin and began teaching at University of California, Los Angeles, where he resided for the rest of his life. Composers Leonard Rosenman and George Tremblay studied with Schoenberg at this time. During this final period he composed several notable works, including the difficult Violin Concerto, Op. 36 (1934/36), the Kol Nidre, Op. 39, for chorus and orchestra (1938), the Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte, Op. 41 (1942), the haunting Piano Concerto, Op. 42 (1942), and his memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46 (1947). He was unable to complete his opera Moses und Aron (1932/33), which was one of the first works of its genre to be written completely using dodecaphonic composition. In 1941, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. During this period, his notable students included John Cage, Lou Harrison, and H. Owen Reed. Schoenberg experienced triskaidekaphobia (the fear of the number 13), which possibly began in 1908 with the composition of the thirteenth song of the song cycle Das Buch der Hngenden Grten Op. 15 (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 96). Moses und Aron was originally spelled Moses und Aaron, but when he realised this contained 13 letters, he changed it. His superstitious nature may have triggered his death. According to friend Katia Mann, he feared he would die during a year that was a multiple of 13 (quoted in Lebrecht 1985, 294). He so dreaded his sixty-fifth birthday in 1939 that a friend asked the composer and astrologer Dane Rudhyar to prepare Schoenberg's horoscope. Rudhyar did this and told Schoenberg that the year was dangerous, but not fatal. But in 1950, on his seventy-sixth birthday, an astrologer wrote Schoenberg a note warning him that the year was a critical one: 7 + 6 = 13 (Nuria Schoenberg-Nono, quoted in Lebrecht 1985, 295). This stunned and depressed the composer, for up to that point he had only been wary of multiples of 13 and never considered adding the digits of his age. On Friday, 13 July 1951, Schoenberg stayed in bedsick, anxious and depressed. In a letter to Schoenberg's sister Ottilie, dated 4 August 1951, his wife, Gertrud, reported "About a quarter to twelve I looked at the clock and said to myself: another quarter of an hour and then the worst is over. Then the doctor called me. Arnold's throat rattled twice, his heart gave a

Arnold Schoenberg powerful beat and that was the end" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 521). Gertrud Schoenberg reported the next day in a telegram to her sister-in-law Ottilie that Arnold died at 11:45pm (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 520).

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Music
Works and ideas
Schoenberg's significant compositions in the repertory of modern art music extend over a period of more than 50 years. Traditionally they are divided into three periods though this division is arguably arbitrary as the music in each of these periods is considerably varied. The idea that his twelve-tone Schoenberg's Drei Klavierstcke Op. 11, no. 1 period "represents a stylistically unified body of works is simply not supported by the musical evidence" (Haimo 1990, 4), and important musical characteristicsespecially those related to motivic developmenttranscend these boundaries completely. The first of these periods, 18941907, is identified in the legacy of the high-Romantic composers of the late nineteenth century, as well as with "expressionist" movements in poetry and art. The second, 19081922, is typified by the abandonment of key centers, a move often described (though not by Schoenberg) as "free atonality". The third, from 1923 onward, commences with Schoenberg's invention of dodecaphonic, or "twelve-tone" compositional method. Schoenberg's most well-known students Hans Eisler, Alban Berg, and Anton Webern, followed Schoenberg faithfully through each of these intellectual and aesthetic transitions, though not without considerable experimentation and variety of approach. Beginning with songs and string quartets written around the turn of the century, Schoenberg's concerns as a composer positioned him uniquely among his peers, in that his procedures exhibited characteristics of both Brahms and Wagner, who for most contemporary listeners, were considered polar opposites, representing mutually exclusive directions in the legacy of German music. Schoenberg's Six Songs, Op. 3 (18991903), for example, exhibit a conservative clarity of tonality organization typical of Brahms and Mahler, reflecting an interest in balanced phrases and an undisturbed hierarchy of key relationships. However, the songs also explore unusually bold incidental chromaticism, and seem to aspire to a Wagnerian "representational" approach to motivic identity. The synthesis of these approaches reaches an apex in his Verklrte Nacht, Op. 4 (1899), a programmatic work for string sextet that develops several distinctive "leitmotif"-like themes, each one eclipsing and subordinating the last. The only motivic elements that persist throughout the work are those that are perpetually dissolved, varied, and re-combined, in a technique, identified primarily in Brahms's music, that Schoenberg called "developing variation". Schoenberg's procedures in the work are organized in two ways simultaneously; at once suggesting a Wagnerian narrative of motivic ideas, as well as a Brahmsian approach to motivic development and tonal cohesion. Schoenberg's music from 1908 onward experiments in a variety of ways with the absence of traditional keys or tonal centers. His first explicitly atonal piece was the second string quartet, Op. 10, with soprano. The last movement of this piece has no key signature, marking Schoenberg's formal divorce from diatonic harmonies. Other important works of the era include his song cycle Das Buch der Hngenden Grten, Op. 15 (19081909), his Five Orchestral Pieces, Op. 16 (1909), the disturbing Pierrot Lunaire, Op. 21 (1912), as well as his dramatic Erwartung, Op. 17 (1909). The urgency of musical constructions lacking in tonal centers, or traditional dissonance-consonance relationships, however, can be traced as far back as his Kammersymphonie, Op. 9 (1906), a work remarkable for its tonal development of whole-tone and quartal harmony, and its initiation of dynamic and unusual ensemble relationships, involving dramatic interruption and unpredictable instrumental allegiances; many of these features

Arnold Schoenberg would typify the timbre-oriented chamber music aesthetic of the coming century. In the early 1920s he worked at evolving a means of order which would enable his musical texture to become simpler and clearer, and this resulted in the "method of composing with twelve tones which are related only with one another" (Schoenberg 1984, 218), in which the twelve pitches of the octave (unrealized compositionally) are regarded as equal, and no one note or tonality is given the emphasis it occupied in classical harmony. He regarded it as the equivalent in music of Albert Einstein's discoveries in physics, and Schoenberg announced it characteristically, during a walk with his friend Josef Rufer, when he said "I have made a discovery which will ensure the supremacy of German music for the next hundred years" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 277). A number of works in this period include the Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31 (1928) piano pieces, opp. 33a & b (1931), and the Piano Concerto, Op. 42 (1942). Contrary to his reputation for strictness, Schoenberg's use of the technique varied widely according to the demands of each individual composition. Thus the structure of his unfinished opera Moses und Aron is very much unlike that of his Fantasy for Violin and Piano, Op. 47 (1949). Ten features of Schoenberg's mature twelve-tone practice are characteristic, interdependent, and interactive (Haimo 1990, 41): 1. Hexachordal inversional combinatoriality 2. Aggregates 3. Linear set presentation 4. Partitioning 5. Isomorphic partitioning 6. Invariants 7. Hexachordal levels 8. Harmony, "consistent with and derived from the properties of the referential set" 9. Metre, established through "pitch-relational characteristics" 10. Multidimensional set presentations

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Controversies and polemics


Understanding of Schoenberg's twelve-tone work has been difficult to achieve owing in part to the "truly revolutionary nature" of his new system, misinformation disseminated by some early writers about the system's "rules" and "exceptions" which bear "little relation to the most significant features of Schoenberg's music", the composer's secretiveness, and the widespread unavailability of his sketches and manuscripts until the late 1970s. During his life he was "subjected to a range of criticism and abuse that is shocking even in hindsight" (Haimo 1990, 23). After some understandable early difficulties, Schoenberg began to win public acceptance, with works such as the tone poem Pelleas und Melisande at a Berlin performance in 1907, and, especially, at the Vienna premire of the Gurre-Lieder on 13 February 1913, which received an ovation that lasted a quarter of an hour and culminated with Schoenberg being presented with a laurel crown (Rosen 1996, 4; Stuckenschmidt 1977, 184). Much of his work, however, was not well received. His Chamber Symphony No. 1 in E major Op. 9, premired unremarkably in 1907; when it was played again, however, in a 31 March 1913 concert which also included works by Alban Berg, Anton Webern and Alexander von Zemlinsky, thunderous applause contended with hisses and laughter during Webern's Six Pieces, Op. 6; though Zemlinsky's Four Maeterlinck Songs calmed the audience somewhat (according to a contemporary newspaper report), after Schoenberg's Op. 9 "one could hear the shrill sound of door keys among the violent clapping, and in the second gallery the first fight of the evening began." Later in the concert, during a performance of the Altenberg Lieder by Berg, fighting broke out after Schoenberg himself interrupted the performance to threaten removal by the police of any troublemakers (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 185). Mahler's Kindertotenlieder, which were to have concluded the concert, had to be canceled after a police officer was called in (Rosen 1996, 5). After this, Schoenberg's music made a break from tonality.

Arnold Schoenberg The deteriorating relation between contemporary composers and the public led him to found the Society for Private Musical Performances (Verein fr musikalische Privatauffhrungen in German) in Vienna in 1918. His aim was grandiose but scarcely selfish; he sought to provide a forum in which modern musical compositions could be carefully prepared and rehearsed, and properly performed under conditions protected from the dictates of fashion and pressures of commerce. From its inception through 1921, when it ended because of economic reasons, the Society presented 353 performances to paid members, sometimes at the rate of one per week, and during the first year and a half, Schoenberg did not allow any of his own works to be performed (Rosen 1975, 65). Instead, audiences at the Society's concerts heard difficult contemporary compositions by Scriabin, Debussy, Mahler, Webern, Berg, Reger, and other leading figures of early 20th-century music (Rosen 1996, 66). Schoenberg's serial technique of composition with twelve notes became one of the most central and polemical issues among American and European musicians during the mid- to late-twentieth century. Beginning in the 1940s and continuing to the present day, composers such as Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Luigi Nono and Milton Babbitt have extended Schoenberg's legacy in increasingly radical directions. The major cities in the USA (e.g. Los Angeles, NYC, Boston) have also been hosts for historically significant performances of Schoenberg's music, with advocates such as Babbitt in NYC and the Franco-American conductor-pianist, Jacques-Louis Monod; including the influence of Schoenberg's own pupils, who have taught at major American schools (e.g. Leonard Stein at USC, UCLA and CalArts; Richard Hoffmann at Oberlin; Patricia Carpenter at Columbia; and Leon Kirchner and Earl Kim at Harvard). Others include performers associated with Schoenberg, who have had a profound influence upon contemporary music performance practice in the USA (e.g. Louis Krasner, Eugene Lehner and Rudolf Kolisch at the New England Conservatory of Music; Eduard Steuermann and Felix Galimir at the Juilliard School). In Europe, the work of Hans Keller, Luigi Rognoni, and Ren Leibowitz has had a measurable influence in spreading Schoenberg's musical legacy outside of Germany and Austria. Schoenberg was not fond of Igor Stravinsky, and in 1926 wrote a poem titled "Der neue Klassizismus" (in which he derogates Neoclassicism and obliquely refers to Stravinsky as "Der kleine Modernsky"), which he used as text for the third of his Drei Satiren, Op. 28 (H. C. Schonberg 1970, 503). Quotations Richard Strauss on Schoenberg, written by Schoenberg himself: "Dear Sir, I regret that I am unable to accept your invitation to write something for Richard Strauss's fiftieth birthday. In a letter to Frau Mahler (in connection with Mahler Memorial Fund) Herr Strauss wrote about me as follows: "The only person who can help poor Schoenberg now is a psychiatrist ...". "I think he'd do better to shovel snow instead of scribbling on music-paper...". (Schoenberg - letter to an unknown correspondent, Berlin, April 22, 1914) (Schoenberg 1964, ) "Non, ce n'est pas de la musique... c'est du laboratoire" (Maurice Ravel) (Mahler 1960, ).

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Extramusical interests
Schoenberg was also a painter of considerable ability, whose pictures were considered good enough to exhibit alongside those of Franz Marc and Wassily Kandinsky (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 142). He was also interested in Hopalong Cassidy films, which Paul Buhle and David Wagner (2002, vvii) attribute to the films' left-wing screenwritersa rather odd claim in light of Schoenberg's statement that he was a "bourgeois" turned monarchist (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 55152).

Works
Complete list of compositions with opus numbers
2 Gesnge [2 Songs] for baritone, Op. 1 (1898) 4 Lieder [4 Songs], Op. 2 (1899) 6 Lieder [6 Songs], Op. 3 (1899/1903) Verklrte Nacht [Transfigured night], Op. 4 (1899) Pelleas und Melisande, Op. 5 (1902/03) 8 Lieder [8 Songs] for soprano, Op. 6 (1903/05) String Quartet no. 1, D minor, Op. 7 (1904/05) 6 Lieder [6 Songs] with orchestra, Op. 8 (1903/05) Kammersymphonie [Chamber symphony] no. 1, E major, Op. 9 (1906) String Quartet no. 2, F-sharp minor (with Soprano), Op. 10 (1907/08) Drei Klavierstcke, Op. 11 (1909) 2 Balladen [2 Ballads], Op. 12 (1906) Friede auf Erden [Peace on earth], Op. 13 (1907) 2 Lieder [2 Songs], Op. 14 (1907/08) 15 Gedichte aus Das Buch der hngenden Grten [15 Poems from The book of the hanging gardens] by Stefan George, Op. 15 (1908/09) Fnf Orchesterstcke [5 Pieces for Orchestra], Op. 16 (1909) Erwartung [Expectation], monodrama in one act, [for soprano and orchestra], Op. 17 (1909) Die glckliche Hand [The lucky hand], drama with music, for voices and orchestra, Op. 18 (1910/13) Sechs Kleine Klavierstcke [6 Little piano pieces], Op. 19 (1911) Herzgewchse [Foliage of the heart] for Soprano, Op. 20 (1911) Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21 (1912) 4 Lieder [4 Songs] for Voice and Orchestra, Op. 22 (1913/16) 5 Stcke [5 Pieces] for Piano, Op. 23 (1920/23) Serenade, Op. 24 (1920/23) Suite for Piano, Op. 25 (1921/23) Wind Quintet, Op. 26 (1924) 4 Stcke [4 Pieces], Op. 27 (1925) 3 Satiren [3 Satires], Op. 28 (1925/26) Suite, Op. 29 (1925) String Quartet no. 3, Op. 30 (1927) Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31 (1926/28) Von heute auf morgen [From today to tomorrow] opera in one act, Op. 32 (1928) 2 Stcke [2 Pieces] for Piano, Op. 33a (1928) & 33b (1931)

Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene [Accompanying music to a film scene], Op. 34 (1930) 6 Stcke [6 Pieces] for Male Chorus, Op. 35 (1930)

Arnold Schoenberg Violin Concerto, Op. 36 (1934/36) String Quartet No. 4, Op. 37 (1936) Kammersymphonie [Chamber symphony] no. 2, E-flat minor, Op. 38 (1906/39) Kol nidre for Chorus and Orchestra, Op. 39 (1938) Variations on a recitative for Organ, Op. 40 (1941) Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte for Voice, Piano and String Quartet, Op. 41 (1942) Piano Concerto, Op. 42 (1942) Theme and variations for Band, Op. 43a (1943) Theme and variations for Orchestra, Op. 43b (1943) Prelude to Genesis Suite for Chorus and Orchestra, Op. 44 (1945) String Trio, Op. 45 (1946) A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46 (1947) Phantasy for Violin and Piano, Op. 47 (1949) 3 Songs, Op. 48 (1933) 3 Folksongs, Op. 49 (1948) Dreimal tausend Jahre [Three times a thousand years], Op. 50a (1949) Psalm 130 De profundis, Op. 50b (1950)

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Modern psalm, Op. 50c (1950, unfinished)

Works by genre
Operas Erwartung [Expectation], monodrama for soprano and orchestra, Op. 17 (1909) Die glckliche Hand [The Lucky Hand], drama with music, for voices and orchestra, Op. 18 (191013) Von heute auf morgen [From Today to Tomorrow], opera in one act, Op. 32 (192829) Moses und Aron [Moses and Aaron], opera in three acts (193032, unfinished)

Orchestral Pelleas und Melisande, Op. 5 (1902/03) Fnf Orchesterstcke [5 Pieces for Orchestra], Op. 16 (1909) Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31 (1926/28) Suite, G major, for string orchestra (1934) Theme and Variations, Op. 43b (1943)

Concertante Cello Concerto after Monns Concerto in D major for harpsichord (1932/33) Concerto for String Quartet and Orchestra, "freely adapted from Handels Concerto grosso in B-flat major, Op. 6, no. 7" (1933) Violin Concerto, Op. 36 (1934/36) Piano Concerto, Op. 42 (1942)

Arnold Schoenberg Vocal/Choral Orchestral 6 Lieder [6 Songs] with orchestra, Op. 8 (1903/05) Gurre-Lieder [Songs of Gurre] (1901/11) 4 Lieder [4 Songs] for Voice and Orchestra, Op. 22 (1913/16) Kol nidre for Chorus and Orchestra, Op. 39 (1938) Prelude to Genesis for Chorus and Orchestra, Op. 44 (1945) A Survivor from Warsaw, Op. 46 (1947)

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Band Theme and Variations, Op. 43a (1943) Chamber String Quartet Presto, in C major for String Quartet (1894(?)) String Quartet, in D major (1897) Scherzo, in F major, and Trio in a minor for String Quartet, rejected from D major String Quartet (1897) String Quartet No. 1, D minor, Op. 7 (1904/05)

String Quartet No. 2, F-sharp minor (with Soprano), Op. 10 (1907/08) String Quartet No. 3, Op. 30 (1927) String Quartet No. 4, Op. 37 (1936) untitled work in D minor for Violin and Piano (unknown year) Verklrte Nacht [Transfigured night] (string sextet), Op. 4 (1899) Ein Stelldichein [A rendezvous] for Mixed Quintet (1905), fragment Kammersymphonie [Chamber Symphony] No. 1, E major, Op. 9 (1906) Die eiserne Brigade [The iron brigade] for Piano Quintet (1916) Serenade, for seven players, Op. 24 (1920/23) Weihnachtsmusik [Christmas music] for two Violins, Cello, Harmonium, and Piano (1921) Wind Quintet, Op. 26 (1924) Suite for Three clarinets (E-flat, B-flat, and Bass), Violin, Viola, Violoncello and Piano, Op. 29 (1925) (with ossia flute and bassoon parts substituting for E-flat and Bass clarinet) Sonata for Violin and Piano (1927) (a 43-bar fragment) Kammersymphonie [Chamber symphony] no. 2, E-flat minor, Op. 38 (1906/39) Fanfare on motifs of Die Gurre-Lieder (11 Brass instruments and Percussion) (1945) String Trio, Op. 45 (1946) Phantasy for Violin and Piano, Op. 47 (1949)

Arnold Schoenberg Keyboard Drei Klavierstcke [3 Pieces] (1894) 6 Stcke [6 Pieces] for 4 hands (1896) Scherzo (Gesamtausgabe fragment 1) (ca. 1894) Leicht, mit einiger Unruhe [Lightly with some restlessness], C-sharp minor (Gesamtausgabe fragment 2) (ca. 1900) Langsam [Slowly], A-flat major (Gesamtausgabe fragment 3) (1900/01) Wenig bewegt, sehr zart [Calmly, very gentle], B-flat major (Gesamtausgabe fragment 4) (1905/06) 2 Stcke [2 Pieces] (Gesamtausgabe fragments 5a & 5b) (1909) Drei Klavierstcke, Op. 11 (1909) Stck [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 6) (1909) Stck [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 7) (1909) Stck [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 8) (ca. 1910) Sechs kleine Klavierstcke, Op. 19 (1911) Mig, aber sehr ausdrucksvoll [Measured, but very expressive] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 9) (March 1918) Langsam [Slowly] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 10) (Summer 1920) Stck [Piece] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 11) (Summer 1920) Fnf Klavierstcke, Op. 23 (1923) Langsame Halbe [Slow half-notes], B (Gesamtausgabe fragment 12) (1925) Suite, Op. 25 (1925) Klavierstck, Op. 33a (1929) Klavierstck, Op. 33b (1931) Quarter note = mm. 80 (Gesamtausgabe fragment 13) (February 1931) Sehr rasch; Adagio [Very fast; Slowly] (Gesamtausgabe fragment 14) (July 1931) Andante (Gesamtausgabe fragment 15) (10 October 1931) Piece (Gesamtausgabe fragment 16) (after October 1933) Moderato (Gesamtausgabe fragment 17) (April 1934?) Organ Sonata (fragments) (1941)

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Choral Ei, du Ltte [Oh, you little one] (late 1890s) Friede auf Erden [Peace on earth], Op. 13 (1907) Die Jakobsleiter [Jacobs ladder] (1917/22, unfinished) 3 Satiren [3 Satires], Op. 28 (1925/26) 3 Volksliedstze [3 Folksong movements] (1929) 6 Stcke [6 Pieces] for Male Chorus, Op. 35 (1930) 3 Folksongs, Op. 49 (1948) Dreimal tausend Jahre [Three times a thousand years], Op. 50a (1949) Psalm 130 De profundis, Op. 50b (1950) Modern psalm, Op. 50c (1950, unfinished)

Arnold Schoenberg Songs Gedenken (Es steht sein Bild noch immer da) [Remembrance (His picture is still there)] (1893/1903?) In hellen Trumen hab ich dich oft geschaut [In vivid dreams so oft you appeared to me] (1893) 12 erste Lieder [12 First songs] (1893/96) Ein Schilflied (Drben geht die Sonne scheiden) [A bulrush song (Yonder is the sun departing)] (1893) Warum bist du aufgewacht [Why have you awakened] (1893/94) Waldesnacht, du wunderkhle [Forest night, so wondrous cool] (1894/96) Ecloge (Duftreich ist die Erde) [Eclogue (Fragrant is the earth)] (1896/97) Mdchenfrhling (Aprilwind, alle Knospen) [Maidens spring (April wind, all abud)] (1897) Mdchenlied (Sang ein Bettlerprlein am Schenkentor) [Maidens song (A pair of beggars sang at the giving gate)] (1897/1900) Mailied (Zwischen Weizen und Korn) [May song (Between wheat and grain)] Nicht doch! (Mdel, lass das Stricken) [But no! (Girl, stop knitting)] (1897) 2 Gesnge [2 Songs] for baritone, Op. 1 (1898) 4 Lieder [4 Songs], Op. 2 (1899) 6 Lieder [6 Songs], Op. 3 (1899/1903) Die Beiden (Sie trug den Becher in der Hand) [The two (She carried the goblet in her hand)] (1899) Mannesbangen (Du musst nicht meinen) [Mens worries (You should not...)] (1899) Gruss in die Ferne (Dunkelnd ber den See) [Hail from afar (Darkened over the sea)] (August 1900) 8 Brettllieder [8 Cabaret songs] (1901) Deinem Blick mich zu bequemen [To submit to your sweet glance] (1903) 8 Lieder [8 Songs] for soprano, Op. 6 (1903/05) 2 Balladen [2 Ballads], Op. 12 (1906) 2 Lieder [2 Songs], Op. 14 (1907/08) 15 Gedichte aus Das Buch der hngenden Grten [15 Poems from The book of the hanging gardens] by Stefan George, Op. 15 (1908/09) Am Strande [At the seashore] (1909) Herzgewchse [Foliage of the heart] for High Soprano (with harp, celesta & harmonium) Op. 20 (1911) Pierrot lunaire, Op. 21 (1912) (reciter with 5 instruments) Petrarch-Sonnet from Serenade, Op. 24 (1920/23) (bass with 7 instruments) 4 Deutsche Volkslieder [4 German folksongs] (1929) Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte for Voice, Piano and String Quartet, Op. 41 (1942) 3 Songs, Op. 48 (1933)

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Canons O da der Sinnen doch so viele sind! [Oh, the senses are too numerous!] (Brenreiter I) (April? 1905) (4 voices) Wenn der schwer Gedrckte klagt [When the sore oppressed complains] (Brenreiter II) (April? 1905) (4 voices) Wer mit der Welt laufen will [He who wants to run with the world] (for David Bach) (Brenreiter XXI) (March 1926; July 1934) (3 voices) Canon (Brenreiter IV) (April 1926) (4 voices) Von meinen Steinen [From my stones] (for Erwin Stein) (Brenreiter V) (December 1926) (4 voices) Arnold Schnberg beglckwnschst herzlichst Concert Gebouw [Arnold Schoenberg congratulates the Concert Gebouw affectionately] (Brenreiter VI) (March 1928) (5 voices) Mirror canon with two free middle voices, A major (Brenreiter VIII) (April 1931) (4 voices) Jedem geht es so [No man can escape] (for Carl Engel) (Brenreiter XIII) (April 1933; text 1943) (3 voices) Mir auch ist es so ergangen [I, too, was not better off] (for Carl Engel) (Brenreiter XIV) (April 1933; text 1943) (3 voices)

Arnold Schoenberg Perpetual canon, A minor (Brenreiter XV) (1933) (4 voices) Mirror canon, A minor (Brenreiter XVI) (1933) (4 voices) Es ist zu dumm [It is too dumb] (for Rudolph Ganz) (Brenreiter XXII) (September 1934) (4 voices) Man mag ber Schnberg denken, wie man will [One might think about Schoenberg any way one wants to] (for Charlotte Dieterle) (Brenreiter XXIII) (1935) (4 voices) Double canon (Brenreiter XXV) (1938) (4 voices) Mr. Saunders I owe you thanks (for Richard Drake Saunders) (Brenreiter XXVI) (December 1939) (4 voices) I am almost sure, when your nurse will change your diapers (for Artur Rodzinsky on the birth of his son Richard) (Brenreiter XXVIII) (March 1945) (4 voices) Canon for Thomas Mann on his 70th birthday (Brenreiter XXIX) (June 1945) (2 violins, viola, violoncello) Gravitationszentrum eigenen Sonnensystems [You are the center of gravity of your own solar system] (Brenreiter XXX) (August 1949) (4 voices)

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Transcriptions and arrangements Bach: Chorale prelude Schmcke dich, o liebe Seele [Deck thyself, oh dear soul], BWV 654 (arr. 1922: orchestra) Bach: Chorale prelude Komm, Gott, Schpfer, heiliger Geist [Come, God, Creator, Holy ghost], BWV 631 (arr. 1922: orchestra) Bach: Prelude and fugue in E-flat major St Anne, BWV 552 (arr. 1928: orchestra) Brahms: Piano quartet in G minor, Op. 25 (arr. 1937: orchestra) Busoni: Berceuse lgiaque, Op. 42 (arr. 1920: flute, clarinet, string quintet, piano, harmonium) Denza: Funicul, Funicul (arr. 1921: voice, clarinet, mandolin, guitar, violin, viola, violoncello) Mahler: Das Lied von der Erde [The Song of the Earth] (arr. Arnold Schoenberg & Anton Webern, 1921; completed by Rainer Riehn, 1983: soprano, flute & piccolo, oboe & English horn, clarinet, bassoon & contrabassoon, horn, harmonium, piano, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, double bass) Mahler: Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen [Songs of a Wayfarer] (arr. Arnold Schoenberg, 1920: voice, flute, clarinet, harmonium, piano, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, double bass, percussion) Monn: Concerto for cello in G minor, transcribed and adapted from Monns Concerto for harpsichord (1932/33) Max Reger: Eine romantische Suite [A Romantic Suite], Op. 125 (arr. Arnold Schoenberg & Rudolf Kolisch, 1919/1920: flute, clarinet, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, harmonium for 4 hands, piano for 4 hands) Schubert: Rosamunde, Frstin von Zypern Incidental music, D. 797 (arr. Arnold Schoenberg, 1903?: piano for 4 hands) Schubert: Stndchen [Serenade], D. 889 (arr. Arnold Schoenberg (1921) (voice, clarinet, bassoon, mandolin, guitar, 2 violins, viola, violoncello)) Sioly: Weil i a alter Drahrer bin [For Im a real old gadabout] (arr. 1921: clarinet, mandolin, guitar, violin, viola, violoncello) Johann Strauss II: Kaiser-Walzer [Emperor Waltz], Op. 437 (arr. 1925: flute, clarinet, 2 violins, viola, violoncello, piano) Johann Strauss II: Rosen aus dem Sden [Roses from the South], Op. 388 (arr. 1921: harmonium, piano, 2 violins, viola, violoncello) Johann Strauss II: Lagunenwalzer [Lagoon Waltz], Op. 411 (arr. 1921: harmonium, piano, 2 violins, viola, violoncello)

Arnold Schoenberg

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Quotations
"My music is not modern, it is merely badly played." "My works are 12-tone compositions, not 12-tone compositions" (Stuckenschmidt 1977, 349). "I was never revolutionary. The only revolutionary in our time was Strauss!" (Schoenberg 1975, 137)

See also
Arnold Schnberg Prize

References
Adorno, Theodor. 1967. Prisms, translated from the German by Samuel and Shierry Weber London: Spearman; Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Anon. 2002. "Arnold Schnberg and His God [4]". Vienna: Arnold Schnberg Center.(Accessed 1 December 2008) Beaumont, Antony. 2000. Zemlinsky. London: Faber. ISBN 057116983X Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801438035. Buhle, Pal, and David Wagner. 2002. Radical Hollywood: The Untold Story Behind America's Favorite Movies. New York: The New Press. ISBN 1565848195 Greissle-Schnberg, Arnold, and Nancy Bogen. [n.d.] Arnold Schnbergs European Family [5] (e-book). The Lark Ascending, Inc. (Accessed 2 May 2010) Foss, Hubert. 1951. "Schoenberg, 18741951" Musical Times 92, no. 1 (September): 401403. Haimo, Ethan. 1990. Schoenberg's Serial Odyssey: The Evolution of his Twelve-Tone Method, 19141928. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-3152-60-6. Lebrecht, Norman. 1985. The Book of Musical Anecdotes. New York: Simon and Schuster; London: Sphere Books. ISBN 0029187109 Lebrecht, Norman. 2001. "Why We're Still Afraid of Schoenberg [6]". The Lebrecht Weekly (July 8). Mahler, Alma. 1960. Mein Leben, with a foreword by Willy Haas. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer. Rosen, Charles. 1975. Arnold Schoenberg. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670133167 (pbk) ISBN 0670019860 (cloth). Reprinted 1996, with a new preface. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226726436 Ross, Alex. 2007. And the Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, ISBN 9780374249397 Schonberg, Harold C. 1970. The Lives of the Great Composers. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0393021467 (Revised ed., New York: W. W. Norton, 1980. ISBN 0393013022 Third ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997. ISBN 0393038572) Schoenberg, Arnold. 1922. Harmonielehre [2], third edition. Vienna: Universal Edition. (Originally published 1911). Translation by Roy E. Carter, based on the third edition, as Theory of Harmony. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978. ISBN 0-520-04945-4. Schoenberg, Arnold. 1959. Structural Functions of Harmony. Translated by Leonard Stein. London: Williams and Norgate Revised edition, New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company 1969. ISBN 0-393-00478-3. Schoenberg, Arnold. 1964. Arnold Schoenberg Letters, selected and edited by Erwin Stein, translated from the original German by Eithne Wilkins and Ernst Kaiser. London: Faber. Paperback reprint, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. ISBN 9780520060098. Schoenberg, Arnold. 1967. Fundamentals of Musical Composition. Edited by Gerald Strang, with an introduction by Leonard Stein. New York: St. Martin's Press. Reprinted 1985, London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571092764 Schoenberg, Arnold. 1975. Style and Idea: Selected Writings of Arnold Schoenberg. Edited by Leonard Stein, with translations by Leo Black. New York: St. Martins Press; London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-520-05294-3. Expanded from the 1950 Philosophical Library (New York) publication edited by Dika Newlin. The volume

Arnold Schoenberg carries the note "Several of the essays...were originally written in German (translated by Dika Newlin)" in both editions. Schoenberg, Arnold. 1984. Style and Idea: Selected Writings, translated by Leo Black. Berkeley: California University Press. Steinberg, Michael. 1995. The Symphony: A Listener's Guide. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506177-2 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-512665-3 (pbk) Strimple, Nick. 2005. Choral Music in the Twentieth Century. Portland, Oregon & Cambridge, UK: Amadeus. ISBN 1574671227 Stuckenschmidt, Hans Heinz. 1977. Schoenberg: His Life, World and Work. Translated from the German by Humphrey Searle. New York: Schirmer Books. UCLA Department of Music. [2008]. "Facilities and Maintenance [7]". (Accessed 1 December 2008) University of Southern California Thornton School of Music. [2008]. "Performance Halls and Studios [8]". (Accessed 1 December 2008) Worldspace Radio. 2007. Maestro "Concert Hall Presentation". 13 July 2007; Featured piece.

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Further reading
Auner, Joseph. 1993. A Schoenberg Reader. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09540-6. Brand, Julianne, Christopher Hailey, and Donald Harris (editors). 1987. The Berg-Schoenberg Correspondence: Selected Letters. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-01919-5. Byron, Avior. 2006. 'The Test Pressings of Schoenberg Conducting Pierrot lunaire: Sprechstimme Reconsidered', Music Theory Online, Volume 12, Number 1, February 2006. http://www.societymusictheory.org/mto/issues/ mto.06.12.1/mto.06.12.1.byron_frames.html Hyde, Martha M. 1982. Schoenberg's Twelve-Tone Harmony: The Suite Op. 29 and the Compositional Sketches. Studies in Musicology, series edited by George Buelow. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press. ISBN 0-8357-1512-4 [Described as a "prominent study" by Haimo (1990,).] Schoenberg, Arnold. 1964. Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint. Edited with a foreword by Leonard Stein. New York, St. Martin's Press. Reprinted, Los Angeles: Belmont Music Publishers 2003. Schoenberg, Arnold. 1979. Die Grundlagen der musikalischen Komposition. Ins Deutsche bertragen von Rudolf Kolisch; hrsg. von Rudolf Stephan. Vienna: Universal Edition (German translation of Fundamentals of Musical Composition). Shawn, Allen. 2002. Arnold Schoenberg's Journey. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-10590-1. Weiss, Adolph. 1932. "The Lyceum of Schonberg", Modern Music 9, no. 3 (MarchApril): 99-107.

Recordings by Schoenberg
recordings at archive.org [9] Video and audio as part of musicology studies [10] This list is incomplete.

External links
Arnold Schoenberg Center in Vienna [11] Belmont Music - The Works of Arnold Schoenberg [12] List of Links (compiled by Schoenberg's grandson Randol) [13] Complete Schoenberg Discography & List of Works [14]

Schoenberg's Paintings and Drawings [15] Video explaining the 12-note, atonal musical system [16]

Arnold Schoenberg Biographical Timeline at the Arnold Schoenberg Center [17] Recording [18] Phantasy, Op. 47 - Helen Kim, violin; Adam Bowles, piano Luna Nova New Music Ensemble [19] Recording [20] Chamber Symphony, Op. 9 (1906) Webern transcription (192223) Luna Nova New Music Ensemble [19] Arnold Schoenberg at Pytheas Center for Contemporary Music [21] Arnold Schoenberg [22] at Find a Grave Free scores by Arnold Schoenberg in the International Music Score Library Project (French) A biography [23] of Arnold Schoenberg, from IRCAM's website. Excerpts from sound archives [24] of Schoenberg's works. Dowson, Schoenberg and the birth of Modernism, Horizon Review [25] Music in the Air : 6 Kleine Klavierstucke op.19 [26] The Test Pressings of Schoenberg Conducting Pierrot lunaire: Sprechstimme Reconsidered [27]

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Alexander Scriabin
Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: -, Russian pronunciation:[lksandr nklavt skrbn], Aleksandr Nikolajevi Skrjabin; variously transliterated as Skriabin, Skrjabin, Skryabin, or Scriabine, 6 January 1872 [O.S. 25 December 1871] 27April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist who initially developed a highly lyrical and idiosyncratic tonal language inspired by the music of Frdric Chopin. Quite independent of the innovations of Arnold Schoenberg, Scriabin developed, via mysticism, an increasingly atonal musical language that presaged twelve-tone composition and other serial music. He may be considered to be the primary figure among the Russian Symbolist composers. Scriabin influenced composers like Sergei Prokofiev, Nikolai Roslavets and Igor Stravinsky, although Scriabin was reported to have disliked the music of both Prokofiev and Stravinsky.[1]

Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin

Scriabin stands as one of the most innovative and most controversial of early modern composers. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia said of Scriabin that, "No composer has had more scorn heaped or greater love bestowed..." Leo Tolstoy once described Scriabin's music as "a sincere expression of genius."[2] Scriabin was highly regarded during his lifetime and has consistently remained a favorite composer among pianists.[1]

Biography
Childhood and education (1871-1893)
Scriabin was born into an aristocratic family in Moscow on Christmas Day 1871, according to the Julian Calendar (this translates to 6 January 1872 in the Gregorian Calendar). The Scriabins had firm roots in the military; his father and all of his uncles had military careers.[3] When he was only a year old, his motherherself a concert pianist and former pupil of Theodor Leschetizkydied of tuberculosis. After her death, Scriabin's father completed tuition in the Turkish language in St. Petersburg, subsequently becoming a diplomat and finally leaving for Turkey, leaving the infant Sasha (as he was known) with his grandmother, great aunt, and aunt. Scriabin's father would later re-marry, giving Scriabin a number of half-brothers and sisters. His aunt Lyubov (his father's unmarried sister) was an amateur

Alexander Scriabin pianist who documented Sasha's early life up until he met his first wife. As a child, Scriabin was frequently exposed to piano playing, and anecdotal references describe him demanding his aunt play for him. Apparently precocious, Scriabin began building pianos after finding fascination with pianistic mechanisms. He often gave away pianos he built to unsuspecting house guests. Lyubov portrays Scriabin as very shy and unsociable with his peers, but appreciative of adult attention. Another Lyubov anecdote tells of Scriabin trying to conduct an orchestra composed of local children, an attempt that ended in frustration and tears. He would perform his own immature plays and operas with puppets to willing audiences. He studied the piano from an early age, taking lessons with Nikolai Zverev, a strict disciplinarian, who was teaching Sergei Rachmaninoff and a number of other prodigies at the same time, though Scriabin was not a pensionnaire like Rachmaninoff.[3] In 1882 he joined the 2nd Moscow Cadet Corps. As a student, he made friends with the actor Leonid Limontov, although in his memoirs Limontov recalls his reluctance to make friends with Scriabin, who was the smallest and weakest among all the boys and was sometimes teased because of this.[3] However, Scriabin won his peers' recognition and approval at a concert in which he played the piano.[3] He was generally at the top of his class in academics, but was exempt from drilling due to his physique and was given time each day to practice at the piano. Scriabin later studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Anton Arensky, Sergei Taneyev, and Vasily Safonov. He became a noted pianist despite his small hands, which could barely grasp a ninth. Feeling challenged by Josef Lhvinne, he seriously damaged his right hand while practicing Liszt's Don Juan Fantasy and Balakirev's Islamey.[4] His doctor said he would never recover, and he wrote his first large-scale masterpiece, the F minor sonata, as a "cry against God, against fate." It was his third sonata to be written, but the first to which he gave an opus number (his second was condensed and released as the Allegro Appassionata, Op. 4). In 1892, he graduated with the Little Gold Medal in piano performance, but did not complete a composition degree because of strong differences in personality and musical taste with Arensky (whose faculty signature is the only one absent from Scriabin's graduation certificate) and an unwillingness to compose pieces in forms that did not interest him.[3] Ironically, one requirement that he did complete, an Eminor fugue, became required learning for decades at the Conservatory.

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Career and later life (1894-1915)


In 1894, Scriabin made his debut as a pianist in St. Petersburg, performing his own works to positive reviews. In the same year, Mitrofan Belyayev agreed to pay Scriabin to compose for his publishing firm (he published works by notable composers such as Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Glazunov).[3] In August 1897, Scriabin married the young pianist Vera Ivanovna Isakovich, and went on to tour in Russia and abroad, culminating in a highly successful 1898 concert in Paris. That year he became a teacher at the Moscow Conservatory, supporting himself and his wife while attempting to establish his reputation as a composer. In this period he composed his cycle of tudes, Op. 8, several sets of preludes, his first three piano sonatas, and his only piano concerto, among other works, mostly for piano. For a period of five years Scriabin was based in Moscow, during which time the first two of his symphonies were conducted by his old teacher Safonov. By the winter of 1904, Scriabin and his wife had moved to Switzerland where work began on the composition of the Third Symphony (or The Divine Poem). This piece was performed in Paris in 1905, where Scriabin was now accompanied not by his wife, but by Tatiana Fyodorovna Schloezera former pupil and the niece of Paul de Schlzer. Scriabin's separation from his wife Vera had occurred during the stay in Switzerland.[3] With Schloezer, he had other children, including a son named Julian, who composed several sophisticated pieces before drowning in a boating accident at age 11 in 1919.Scriabin may have also had some homosexual encounters.[3] With the financial support of a wealthy sponsor, he spent several years traveling between Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium and United States, working on more orchestral pieces, including several symphonies. He was also beginning to compose "poems" for the piano, a form with which he is particularly associated. While in New York

Alexander Scriabin City in 1907 he made the acquaintance of Canadian composer Alfred La Libert, who went on to become a close personal friend and disciple.[5] In 1907 he settled in Paris with his family and was involved with a series of concerts organized by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev, who was actively promoting Russian music in the West at the time. He subsequently relocated to Brussels (rue de la Rforme 45) with his family. In 1909 he returned to Russia permanently, where he continued to compose, working on increasingly grandiose projects. For some time before his death he had planned a multi-media work to be performed in the Himalayas, that would bring about the armageddon, "a grandiose religious synthesis of all arts which would herald the birth of a new world."[6] Scriabin left only sketches for this piece, Mysterium, although a preliminary part, called L'acte pralable ("Preparatory Action") was eventually made into a performable version by Alexander Nemtin.[7] The Mysterium was, psychologically speaking, a world Scriabins genius created to sustain its own evolution.[8] Scriabin was small and reportedly frail, and a hypochondriac his entire life. At the age of 43, he died in Moscow from septicaemia, contracted as a result of a shaving cut or a boil on his lip.[8]

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Music
Style and musical influences
Many of Scriabin's works are written for the piano. The earliest pieces resemble Frdric Chopin's and include music in many forms that Chopin himself employed, such as the tude, the prelude, the nocturne, and the mazurka. Scriabin's music gradually evolved The introduction to Scriabin's tude, Op. 8, No. 12. over the course of his life, although the evolution was very rapid and especially short when compared to most composers. Aside from his earliest pieces, his works are strikingly original, the midand late-period pieces employing very unusual harmonies and textures. The development of Scriabin's voice and style can be followed in his twelve piano sonatas: the earliest are composed in a fairly conventional late-Romantic idiom and show the influence of Chopin and sometimes Franz Liszt, but the later ones move into new, original territory, the last five being written with no key signature. Many passages in them can be said to be atonal, though from 1903 through 1908, "tonal unity was almost imperceptibly replaced by harmonic unity."[9] Aaron Copland praised Scriabin's thematic material as "truly individual, truly inspired", but criticized Scriabin for putting "this really new body of feeling into the strait-jacket of the old classical sonata-form, recapitulation and all" calling this "one of the most extraordinary mistakes in all music." [10] According to Samson the sonata-form of Sonata No. 5 has some meaning to the work's tonal structure, but in Sonata No. 6 and Sonata No. 7 formal tensions are created by the absence of harmonic contrast and "between the cumulative momentum of the music, usually achieved by textural rather than harmonic means, and the formal constraints of the tripartite mould." He also argues that the Poem of Ecstasy and Vers la flamme "find a much happier co-operation of 'form' and 'content'" and that later Sonatas such as Sonata No. 9 employ a more flexible sonata-form.[9]

Alexander Scriabin

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Philosophical influences
Scriabin was interested in Friedrich Nietzsche's bermensch theory, and later became interested in theosophy. Both would influence his music and musical thought. In 190910 he lived in Brussels, becoming interested in Delville's Theosophist movement and continuing his reading of Helena Blavatsky.[9] Theosophist and composer Dane Rudhyar wrote that Scriabin was "the one great pioneer of the new music of a reborn Western civilization, the father of the future musician", and an antidote to "the Latin reactionaries and their apostle, Stravinsky" and the "rule-ordained" music of "Schoenberg's group." Scriabin developed his own very personal and abstract mysticism based on the role of the artist in relation to perception and life affirmation. His ideas on reality seem similar to Platonic and Aristotelian theory though much more ethereal and incoherent. The main sources of his philosophical thought can be found in his numerous unpublished notebooks, one in which he famously wrote "I am God". As well as jottings there are complex and technical diagrams explaining his metaphysics. Scriabin also used poetry as a means in which to express his philosophical notions, though arguably much of his philosophical thought was translated into music, the most recognizable example being the 9th sonata ('the Black Mass').

Influence of colour
Though these works are often considered to be influenced by Scriabin's synesthesia, a condition wherein one experiences sensation in one sense in response to stimulus in another, it is doubted that Alexander Scriabin actually experienced this.[11] [12] His colour system, unlike most synesthetic experience, lines up with the circle of fifths: it was a thought-out system based on Sir Isaac Newton's Opticks. Note that Scriabin did not, as far as his theory is concerned, recognize a difference between a major and a minor tonality of the same name (for example: c-minor and C-Major). Indeed, influenced also by the doctrines of theosophy, he developed his system of synesthesia toward what would have been a pioneering multimedia performance: his unrealized magnum opus Mysterium was to have been a grand week-long performance including music, scent, dance, and light in the foothills of the Himalayas that was to bring about the dissolution of the world in bliss.

Keys arranged in a circle of fifths in order to show the spectral relationship.

In his autobiographical Recollections, Sergei Rachmaninoff recorded a conversation he had had with Scriabin and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov about Scriabin's association of colour and music. Rachmaninoff was surprised to find that Rimsky-Korsakov agreed with Scriabin on associations of musical keys with colors; himself skeptical, Scriabin's keyboard (Colours described by Scriabin.) Rachmaninoff made the obvious objection that the two composers did not always agree on the colours involved. Both maintained that the key of D major was golden-brown; but Scriabin linked E-flat major with red-purple, while Rimsky-Korsakov favored blue. However, Rimsky-Korsakov protested that a passage in Rachmaninoff's opera The Miserly Knight supported their view: the scene in which the Old Baron opens treasure chests to reveal gold and jewels glittering in torchlight is written in D major. Scriabin told Rachmaninoff that "your intuition has unconsciously followed the laws whose very existence you have tried to deny." While Scriabin wrote only a small number of orchestral works, they are among his most famous, and some are frequently performed. They include a piano concerto (1896), and five symphonic works, including three numbered symphonies as well as The Poem of Ecstasy (1908) and Prometheus: The Poem of Fire (1910), which includes a part

Alexander Scriabin for a "clavier lumires", also known as the Luce (Italian for "Light"), which was a colour organ designed specifically for the performance of Scriabin's tone poem. It was played like a piano, but projected coloured light on a screen in the concert hall rather than sound. Most performances of the piece (including the premiere) have not included this light element, although a performance in New York City in 1915 projected colours onto a screen. It has erroneously been claimed that this performance used the colour-organ invented by English painter A. Wallace Rimington when in fact it was a novel construction personally supervised and built in New York specifically for the performance by Preston S. Miller, the president of the Illuminating Engineering Society. Scriabin's original colour keyboard, with its associated turntable of coloured lamps, is preserved in his apartment near the Arbat in Moscow, which is now a museum dedicated to his life and works.

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Performers and legacy


Scriabin himself made recordings of nineteen of his own works, spread over twenty piano rolls, six for the Welte-Mignon, and fourteen for Ludwig Hupfeld of Leipzig.[13] The Welte rolls were recorded in early February, 1910, in Moscow, and have been re-played and published on CD. Those recorded for Hupfeld include the Piano Sonatas, Op. 19 and Op. 23.[14] Scriabin's music has also been performed by Sergei Rachmaninoff, Vladimir Horowitz, Arthur Rubinstein, Sviatoslav Richter, Vladimir Sofronitsky, Wojciech Kocyan, Andrei Gavrilov, Bernd Glemser, Emil Gilels, Ruth Laredo, Marc-Andr Hamelin, Evgeny Kissin, Claudio Arrau, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Stanislav Neuhaus, Michael Ponti, Glenn Gould, Roberto Szidon, Robert Taub, Dimitri Alexeev, Matthijs Verschoor, Piers Lane, Stephen Coombs, Nikolai Demidenko, Alfred Cortot, Evgeny Zarafiants, and Mikhail Pletnev. Pianists who have performed Scriabin to particular critical acclaim include Vladimir Sofronitsky, Vladimir Horowitz and Sviatoslav Richter. Sofronitsky never met the composer, as his parents forbade him to attend a concert due to illness. The pianist said he never forgave them. Rubinstein premiered the 5th sonata in the West. Horowitz performed for Scriabin as an 11-year-old child, and Scriabin had an enthusiastic reaction, but cautioned that he needed further training.[15] As an elderly man, Horowitz remarked that Scriabin had nervous tics and could not sit still.[15] Despite Horowitz' assessment, Scriabin held the rapt attention of the musical world in Russia while he was alive. His funeral was attended by such numbers that tickets had to be issued. Rachmaninoff went on tour, playing only Scriabin's music. Sergei Prokofiev greatly admired the composer, and his Visions fugitives bears great likeness to the Scriabinic tone and style. Another admirer was the British-Parsi composer Sorabji who strenuously collected the obscure works of Scriabin while living in Essex as a youth. Sorabji promoted Scriabin even during the years when Scriabin's popularity had declined massively. Scriabin's great-great-grandson Elisha Abas is a concert pianist who divides his time between New York and Israel.[16]

Media
Scriabin's own recordings for the Welte-Mignon have been re-played in modern times and transferred to audio.

Eponym
Asteroid 6549 Skryabin is named after the composer.[17]

Relatives
Scriabin was the uncle of Metropolitan Anthony Bloom, a renowned bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church who headed the Russian Orthodox diocese in Great Britain between 1957 and 2003. His daughter Ariane (1906-1944) was born in Italy, converted to Judaism taking the name Sarah and married the Russian poet and Jewish WWII Resistance fighter David Knout. She was responsible for communications between the command in Toulouse and the underground forces in the Tarn district and for taking weapons to the partisans which led to her death ambushed by

Alexander Scriabin the French Militia.

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See also
Synthetic chord Mystic chord Atonality Romantic music 20th century classical music

External links
Rachmaninoff and Scriabin: Creativity and Suffering in Talent and Genius [18] by Emanuel E. Garcia Scriabin Society of America [19] The mythical time in Scriabin [20] by Lia Toms Was Scriabin a Synaesthete? [21] by B. Galeyev & I. Vanechkina Scriabin in Aspen No.2 on UBUWEB [22] (A short biography by Faubion Bowers; four preludes and the tenth sonata available for download) Alexander Scriabin discography [23] at MusicBrainz Aleksandr Scriabin - MIDI files [24] (subscription needed) Works by or about Alexander Scriabin [25] in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Scriabin Liner Notes [26] Russian-born pianist Yevgeny Sudbin discusses Scriabin's work and life.

Scores
Free scores by Alexander Scriabin in the International Music Score Library Project Scriabin's Sheet Music [27] by Mutopia Project Free scores [28] by Alexander Scriabin in the Werner Icking Music Archive (WIMA) www.kreusch-sheet-music.net [29] Free Scores by Alexander Scriabin

Recordings
Scriabin's own recording of the 3rd and 4th Movements from his Piano Sonata, no. 3, Op. 23 [30] (The Pianola Institute [31])* Piano Rolls [136] (The Reproducing Piano Roll Foundation [137])

References
[1] Bowers, Faubion (1966). "Scriabin Again and Again" (http:/ / www. ubu. com/ aspen/ aspen2/ scriabin. html). Aspen Magazine (New York: Roaring Fork Press) (2). OCLC50534422. . Retrieved 2008-04-14. [2] E.E. Garcia (2004): Rachmaninoff and Scriabin: Creativity and Suffering in Talent and Genius (http:/ / fdelius. free. fr/ RachScriabinPsaRev. pdf). Psychoanalytic Review, 91: 42342. [3] Bowers, Faubion (1996). Scriabin, a Biography. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN9780486288970. OCLC33405309. [4] Scholes, Percy (1969) [1924]. Crotchets: A Few Short Musical Notes (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=Zv-ICh8SFg8C& pg=PA141& vq="the+ damage+ was+ done"& dq=scriabin+ damage+ hand). Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press. pp.141. ISBN9780722258361. OCLC855415. . ISBN is for January 2001 edition. [5] Gilles Potvin. "Alfred La Libert" (http:/ / thecanadianencyclopedia. com/ index. cfm?PgNm=TCE& Params=U1ARTU0001926). The Canadian Encyclopedia. . Retrieved 22 April 2010. [6] Minderovic, Zoran. "Alexander Scriabin" (http:/ / allmusic. com/ cg/ amg. dll?p=amg& sql=41:7982~T1). Biography. Allmusic. . Retrieved 2007-12-09. [7] Benson, Robert E. (October 2000). "Scriabin's Mysterium" (http:/ / www. classicalcdreview. com/ mysterium. htm). Nuances. Preparation for The Final Mystery. Classical CD Review. . Retrieved 2007-12-09.

Alexander Scriabin
[8] Garcia, M.D., Emanuel E. (2005-01-19). "Scriabin's Mysterium and the Birth of Genius" (http:/ / www. componisten. net/ downloads/ ScriabinMysterium. pdf) (PDF). ]]. New York, New York. . Retrieved 2007-12-09. [9] Samson, Jim (1977). Music in Transition: A Study of Tonal Expansion and Atonality, 19001920. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN9780393021936. OCLC3240273. [10] Copland, Aaron (1957). What to Listen for in Music. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC269329. [11] *Harrison, John (2001). Synaesthesia: The Strangest Thing, ISBN 0-19-263245-0: "In fact, there is considerable doubt about the legitimacy of Scriabin's claim, or rather the claims made on his behalf, as we shall discuss in Chapter 5." (p.31-2). [12] B. M. Galeyev and I. L. Vanechkina (August 2001). "Was Scriabin a Synesthete?" (http:/ / prometheus. kai. ru/ skriab_e. htm), Leonardo (http:/ / www. google. com/ search?q=cache:DXJTemCsONQJ:mitpress. mit. edu/ catalog/ item/ default. asp?ttype=6& tid=7762+ scriabin+ synesthete& hl=en& gl=us& ct=clnk& cd=1), Vol. 34, Issue 4, pp. 357 - 362: "authors conclude that the nature of Scriabin's 'color-tonal' analogies was associative, i.e. psychological; accordingly, the existing belief that Scriabin was a distinctive, unique 'synesthete' who really saw the sounds of musicthat is, literally had an ability for 'co-sensations' is placed in doubt." [13] Smith, Charles Davis (1994). The Welte-Mignon: Its Music and Musicians. Vestal, NY: The Vestal Press, for the Automatic Musical Instrument Collectors' Association. ISBN1-879511-17-7. [14] Sitsky, Larry (1990). The Classical Reproducing Piano Roll. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN0-313-25496-6. [15] YouTube - Horowitz plays Scriabin in Moscow (http:/ / youtube. com/ watch?v=CWVvnZmT9_E) [16] "Elisha Abas - the official website" (http:/ / www. elishaabas. com). . Retrieved 2008-04-14. [17] Lutz D. Schmadel. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=KWrB1jPCa8AC& pg=PA540& dq=6549+ Skryabin). Springer. ISBN3540002383. .(p.540)

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Dmitri Shostakovich
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Russian: , tr. Dmitrij Dmitrievi ostakovi) (25 September [O.S. September 12] 1906 9 August 1975) was a Soviet Russian composer and one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century. Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Leon Trotsky's chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, but later had a complex and difficult relationship with the Stalinist bureaucracy. His music was officially denounced twice, in 1936 and 1948, and was periodically banned. Yet he also received accolades and state awards and served in the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. Despite the official controversy, his works were popular and well received. After a period influenced by Prokofiev and Stravinsky, Shostakovich developed a hybrid style, as exemplified by his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (1934). This single work juxtaposed a wide variety of trends, including the neo-classical style (showing the influence of Stravinsky) and post-Romanticism (after Mahler). Sharp contrasts and elements of the grotesque[1] characterize much of his music.

Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942

Shostakovich's orchestral works include 15 symphonies and six concerti. His music for chamber ensembles includes 15 string quartets, a piano quintet, two pieces for a string octet, and two piano trios. For the piano he composed two solo sonatas, an early set of preludes, and a later set of 24 preludes and fugues. Other works include two operas, and a substantial quantity of film music.

Dmitri Shostakovich

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Life
Early life
Born at 2 Podolskaya Ulitsa in Saint Petersburg, Russia, Shostakovich was the second of three children born to Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich and Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina. Though the Shostakovich family through his paternal grandfather (originally Szostakowicz) was of Polish (Litvin) Roman Catholic heritage (his family roots trace to the region of the town of Vileyka in Belarus), his immediate forebears came from Siberia.[2] His paternal grandfather, a Polish revolutionary in the January Uprising of 1863-4, had been Birthplace of Shostakovich (now School no. 267). Commemorative plaque at left. exiled to Narim (near Tomsk) in 1866 in the crackdown that followed Dmitri Karakozov's assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander II. When his term of exile ended Bolesaw Szostakowicz decided to remain in Siberia. He eventually became a successful banker in Irkutsk and raised a large family. His son, Dmitriy Boleslavovich Shostakovich, the composer's father, was born in exile in Narim in 1875 and attended Saint Petersburg University, graduating in 1899 from the faculty of physics and mathematics. After graduation, he went to work as an engineer under Dmitriy Mendeleyev at the Bureau of Weights and Measures in Saint Petersburg. In 1903, he married Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina, another Siberian transplant to the capital. Sofiya herself was one of six children born to Vasiliy Yakovlevich Kokoulin, a Russian Siberian native. Dmitri Shostakovich's family was politically liberal (one of his uncles was a Bolshevik, but the family also sheltered far-right activists). He was a child prodigy as both a pianist and composer, his talent becoming apparent after he began piano lessons with his mother at the age of eight. (On several occasions, he displayed a remarkable ability to remember what his mother had played at the previous lesson, and would get "caught in the act" of pretending to read, by playing the previous lesson's music when different music was placed in front of him.)[3] In 1918, he wrote a funeral march in memory of two leaders of the Kadet party, murdered by Bolshevik sailors. In 1919, he was allowed to enter the Petrograd Conservatory, then headed by Alexander Glazunov. Glazunov monitored Shostakovich's progress closely and promoted him.[4] Shostakovich studied piano with Leonid Nikolayev, after a year in the class of Elena Rozanova, composition with Maximilian Steinberg, and counterpoint and fugue with Nikolay Sokolov, with whom he became friends.[5] Shostakovich also attended Alexander Ossovsky's history of music classes.[6] However, he suffered for his perceived lack of political zeal, and initially failed his exam in Marxist methodology in 1926. His first major musical achievement was the First Symphony (premiered 1926), written as his graduation piece at the age of nineteen.

Dmitri Shostakovich

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After graduation, he initially embarked on a dual career as concert pianist and composer, but his dry style of playing (Fay comments on his "emotional restraint" and "riveting rhythmic drive") was often unappreciated. He nevertheless won an "honorable mention" at the First International Frederic Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw in 1927. After the competition Shostakovich met the conductor Bruno Walter, who was so impressed by the composer's First Symphony that he conducted it at its Berlin premiere later that year. Thereafter, Shostakovich concentrated on composition and soon limited performances primarily to those of his own works. In 1927 he wrote his Second Symphony (subtitled To October). While writing the symphony, he also began his satirical opera The Nose, based on the story by Gogol. In 1929, the opera was criticised as "formalist" by RAPM, the Stalinist musicians' organisation, and it opened to generally poor reviews in 1930.

Shostakovich in 1925

1927 also marked the beginning of the composer's relationship with Ivan Sollertinsky, who remained his closest friend until the latter's death in 1944. Sollertinsky introduced Shostakovich to the music of Gustav Mahler, which had a strong influence on his music from the Fourth Symphony onwards. In 1932, he married his first wife, Nina Varzar. Initial difficulties led to a divorce in 1935, but the couple soon remarried when Nina became pregnant with their first child.[7] In the late 1920s and early 1930s he worked at TRAM, a proletarian youth theatre. Although he did little work in this post, it shielded him from ideological attack. Much of this period was spent writing his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District; it was first performed in 1934 and was immediately successful, both on a popular and official level. It was said to be the result of the general success of Socialist construction, of the correct policy of the Party" and that such an opera could have been written only by a Soviet composer brought up in the best tradition of Soviet culture.[8]

First denunciation
In 1936 Shostakovich fell from official favour. The year began with a series of attacks on him in Pravda, in particular an article entitled Muddle Instead of Music. The campaign, which condemned Lady Macbeth as formalist, "coarse, primitive and vulgar,"[9] was thought to have been instigated by Stalin; consequently, commissions began to fall off, and his income fell by about three quarters. Rehearsal of the Fourth Symphony began that December, but the political climate made performance impossible. It was not performed until 1961, but Shostakovich did not repudiate the work: it retained its designation as his Fourth Symphony. A piano reduction was published in 1946. More widely, 1936 marked the beginning of the Great Terror, in which many of the composer's friends and relatives were imprisoned or killed. His only consolation in this period was the birth of his daughter Galina in 1936; his son Maxim was born two years later. The composer's response to his denunciation was the Fifth Symphony of 1937, which was, because of its fourth movement, musically more conservative than his earlier works. It was a success, and is still one of his most popular works. It was also at this time that Shostakovich composed the first of his string quartets. His chamber works allowed him to experiment and express ideas which would have been unacceptable in his more public symphonic pieces. In September 1937, he began to teach composition at the Conservatory, which provided some financial security but interfered with his own creative work.

Dmitri Shostakovich

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War
In 1939, before the Soviet forces invaded Finland, the Party Secretary of Leningrad Andrei Zhdanov commissioned a celebratory piece from Shostakovich, entitled "Suite on Finnish Themes" to be performed as the marching bands of the Red Army would be parading through the Finnish capital Helsinki. The Winter War was a humiliation for the Red Army, and Shostakovich would never lay claim to the authorship of this work.[10] It was not performed until 2001[11] . After the outbreak of war between the Soviet Union and Germany in 1941, Shostakovich initially remained in Leningrad, during which he wrote portions of his Seventh Symphony (nicknamed Leningrad). He also contributed to propaganda efforts, posing as a fire warden and delivering a radio broadcast to the Soviet people listen. In October 1941, three weeks into the Siege of Leningrad, the composer and his family evacuated to Kuybishev (now Samara), where the symphony was completed. It was adopted as a symbol of Russian resistance both in the USSR and in the West.

Wartime propaganda images of Shostakovich as a fire warden reached as far as the American Time magazine.

In spring 1943 the family moved to Moscow. While the Seventh Symphony depicts a heroic (and ultimately victorious) struggle against adversity, the Eighth Symphony of that year is perhaps the ultimate in sombre and violent expression within Shostakovich's output, resulting in it being banned until 1956. The Ninth Symphony (1945), in contrast, is an ironic Haydnesque parody, which failed to satisfy demands for a "hymn of victory." Shostakovich continued to compose chamber music, notably his Second Piano Trio (Op. 67), dedicated to the memory of Sollertinsky, with a bitter-sweet, Jewish-themed totentanz finale.

Second denunciation
In 1948 Shostakovich, along with many other composers, was again denounced for formalism in the Zhdanov decree. Most of his works were banned, he was forced to publicly repent, and his family had privileges withdrawn. Yuri Lyubimov says that at this time "he waited for his arrest at night out on the landing by the lift, so that at least his family wouldn't be disturbed."[12]

Lev A. Russov. The Leningrad Symphony. Conducted by Yevgeny Mravinsky. 1980.

Dmitri Shostakovich In the next few years his compositions were divided into film music to pay the rent, official works aimed at securing official rehabilitation, and serious works "for the desk drawer". The latter included the Violin Concerto No. 1 and the song cycle From Jewish Folk Poetry. The cycle was written at a time when the post-war anti-Semitic campaign was already under way, and Shostakovich had close ties with some of those affected. The restrictions on Shostakovich's music and living arrangements were eased in 1949, to secure his participation in a delegation of Soviet notables to the U.S. That year he also wrote his cantata Song of the Forests, which praised Stalin as the "great gardener." In 1951 the composer was made a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR. Stalin's death in 1953 was the biggest step towards Shostakovich's official rehabilitation, which was marked by his Tenth Symphony. It features a number of musical quotations and codes (notably the DSCH and Elmira motifs), the meaning of which is still debated, whilst the savage second movement is said to be a musical portrait of Stalin himself. It ranks alongside the Fifth as one of his most popular works. 1953 also saw a stream of premieres of the "desk drawer" works. During the forties and fifties Shostakovich had close relationships with two of his pupils: Galina Ustvolskaya and Elmira Nazirova. He taught Ustvolskaya from 1937 to 1947. The nature of their relationship is far from clear: Mstislav Rostropovich described it as "tender" and Ustvolskaya claimed in a 1995 interview that she rejected a proposal of marriage from him in the fifties. However, in the same interview, Ustvolskaya's friend, Viktor Suslin, said that she had been "deeply disappointed" in him by the time of her graduation in 1947. The relationship with Nazirova seems to have been one-sided, expressed largely through his letters to her, and can be dated to around 1953 to 1956. In the background to all this remained Shostakovich's first, open marriage to Nina Varzar until her death in 1954. He married his second wife, Komsomol activist Margarita Kainova, in 1956; the couple proved ill-matched, and divorced three years later. In 1954, Shostakovich wrote the Festive Overture, opus 96, that was used as the theme music for the 1980 Summer Olympics.[13] In addition his '"Theme from the film Pirogov, Opus 76a: Finale" was played as the cauldron was lit at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. In 1959, Shostakovich appeared on stage in Moscow at the end of a concert performance of his Fifth Symphony, congratulating Leonard Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra for their performance (part of a concert tour of the Soviet Union). Bernstein recorded the symphony later that year in New York for Columbia Records.

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Joining the Party


The year 1960 marked another turning point in Shostakovich's life: his joining of the Communist Party. This event has been interpreted variously as a show of commitment, a mark of cowardice, the result of political pressure, and as his free decision. On the one hand, the apparat was undoubtedly less repressive than it had been before Stalin's death. On the other, his son recalled that the event reduced Shostakovich to tears,[14] and he later told his wife Irina that he had been blackmailed.[15] Lev Lebedinsky has said that the composer was suicidal.[16] Around this time, his health also began to deteriorate. Shostakovich at the congress of the Union of Shostakovich's musical response to these personal crises was the Composers, 1974 Eighth String Quartet, composed in only three days. Like the Tenth Symphony, this quartet incorporates quotations and his musical monogram. In 1962 he married for the third time, to Irina Supinskaya. In a letter to his friend Isaak Glikman, he wrote, "her only defect is that she is 27 years old. In all other respects she is splendid: clever, cheerful, straightforward and very likeable."[17] According to Galina Vishnevskaya, who knew the Shostakoviches well, this marriage was a very happy one: "It was with her that Dmitri Dmitriyevich finally came to know domestic peace... Surely, she prolonged his life by several years." [18] In November Shostakovich made his only venture into conducting, conducting a couple of his

Dmitri Shostakovich own works in Gorky: otherwise he declined to conduct, citing nerves and ill health as his reasons. That year saw Shostakovich again turn to the subject of anti-Semitism in his Thirteenth Symphony (subtitled Babi Yar). The symphony sets a number of poems by Yevgeny Yevtushenko, the first of which commemorates a massacre of the Jews during the Second World War. Opinions are divided how great a risk this was: the poem had been published in Soviet media, and was not banned, but it remained controversial. After the symphony's premiere, Yevtushenko was forced to add a stanza to his poem which said that Russians and Ukrainians had died alongside the Jews at Babi Yar. In 1965 Shostakovich raised his voice in defense of poet Joseph Brodsky, who was unfairly sentenced to five years of exile and hard labor. Shostakovich co-signed protests together with Yevtushenko and fellow Soviet artists Kornei Chukovsky, Anna Akhmatova, Samuil Marshak, and the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. After the protests the sentence was commuted, and Brodsky returned to Leningrad. Shostakovich joined the group of 25 distinguished intellectuals in signing the letter to Leonid Brezhnev asking not to rehabilitate Stalin.

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Later life
In later life, Shostakovich suffered from chronic ill health, but he resisted giving up cigarettes and vodka. Beginning in 1958 he suffered from a debilitating condition that particularly affected his right hand, eventually forcing him to give up piano playing; in 1965 it was diagnosed as polio. He also suffered heart attacks the following year and again in 1971, and several falls in which he broke both his legs; in 1967 he wrote in a letter: "Target achieved so far: 75% (right leg broken, left leg broken, right hand defective). All I need to do now is wreck the left hand and then 100% of my extremities will be out of order."[19] A preoccupation with his own mortality permeates Shostakovich's later works, among them the later quartets and the Fourteenth Symphony of 1969 (a song cycle based on a number of poems on the theme of death). This piece also finds Shostakovich at his most extreme with musical language, with twelve-tone themes and dense polyphony used throughout. Shostakovich dedicated this score to his close friend Benjamin Britten, who conducted its Western premiere at the 1970 Aldeburgh Festival. The Fifteenth Symphony of 1971 is, by contrast, melodic and retrospective in nature, quoting Wagner, Rossini and the composer's own Fourth Symphony. Shostakovich died of lung cancer on 9 August 1975 and after a civic funeral was interred in the Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow. The official obituary did not appear in Pravda until three days after his death, apparently because the wording had to be approved at the highest level, by Brezhnev and the rest of the Politburo.[20] Even before his death he had been commemorated with the naming of the Shostakovich Peninsula on Alexander Island, Antarctica. He was survived by his third wife, Irina; his daughter, Galina; and his son, Maxim, a pianist and conductor A Russian stamp in Shostakovich's memory who was the dedicatee and first performer of some of his father's works. Shostakovich himself left behind several recordings of his own piano works, while other noted interpreters of his music include his friends Emil Gilels, Mstislav Rostropovich, Tatiana Nikolayeva, Maria Yudina, David Oistrakh, and members of the Beethoven Quartet. Shostakovich's opera Orango (1932) was found by Russian researcher Olga Digonskaya in his last home. It is being orchestrated by the British composer Gerard McBurney and will be performed some time in 2010-2011.[21] [22]

Dmitri Shostakovich Shostakovich's musical influence on later composers outside the former Soviet Union has been relatively slight, although Alfred Schnittke took up his eclecticism, and his contrasts between the dynamic and the static, and some of Andr Previn's music shows clear links to Shostakovich's style of orchestration. His influence can also be seen in some Nordic composers, such as Kalevi Aho[23] and Lars-Erik Larsson.[24] Many of his Russian contemporaries, and his pupils at the Leningrad Conservatory, however, were strongly influenced by his style (including German Okunev, Boris Tishchenko, whose 5th Symphony of 1978 is dedicated to Shostakovich's memory, Sergei Slonimsky, and others). Shostakovich's conservative idiom has nonetheless grown increasingly popular with audiences both within and beyond Russia, as the avant-garde has declined in influence and debate about his political views has developed.

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Music
For a complete list, see List of compositions by Dmitri Shostakovich. See also: Category:Compositions by Dmitri Shostakovich (thematical selection of works by Shostakovich). Shostakovich's works are broadly tonal and in the Romantic tradition, but with elements of atonality and chromaticism. In some of his later works (e.g., the Twelfth Quartet), he made use of tone rows. His output is dominated by his cycles of symphonies and string quartets, each numbering fifteen. The symphonies are distributed fairly evenly throughout his career, while the quartets are concentrated towards the latter part. Among the most popular are the Fifth and Seventh Symphonies and the Eighth and Fifteenth Quartets. Other works include the operas Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, The Nose and the unfinished The Gamblers based on the comedy of Nikolai Gogol; six concertos (two each for piano, violin and cello); two piano trios; and a large quantity of film music. Shostakovich's music shows the influence of many of the composers he most admired: Bach in his fugues and passacaglias; Beethoven in the late quartets; Mahler in the symphonies and Berg in his use of musical codes and quotations. Among Russian composers, he particularly admired Modest Mussorgsky, whose operas Boris Godunov and Khovanshchina he re-orchestrated; Mussorgsky's influence is most prominent in the wintry scenes of Lady Macbeth and the Eleventh Symphony, as well as in his satirical works such as "Rayok".[25] Prokofiev's influence is most apparent in the earlier piano works, such as the first sonata and first concerto.[26] The influence of Russian church and folk music is very evident in his works for unaccompanied choir of the 1950s. Shostakovich's relationship with Stravinsky was profoundly ambivalent; as he wrote to Glikman, "Stravinsky the composer I worship. Stravinsky the thinker I despise."[27] He was particularly enamoured of the Symphony of Psalms, presenting a copy of his own piano version of it to Stravinsky when the latter visited the USSR in 1962. (The meeting of the two composers was not very successful, however; observers commented on Shostakovich's extreme nervousness and Stravinsky's "cruelty" to him.)[28] Many commentators have noted the disjunction between the experimental works before the 1936 denunciation and the more conservative ones that followed; the composer told Flora Litvinova, "without 'Party guidance'... I would have displayed more brilliance, used more sarcasm, I could have revealed my ideas openly instead of having to resort to camouflage."[29] Articles published by Shostakovich in 1934 and 1935 cited Berg, Schoenberg, Krenek, Hindemith, "and especially Stravinsky" among his influences.[30] Key works of the earlier period are the First Symphony, which combined the academicism of the conservatory with his progressive inclinations; The Nose ("The most uncompromisingly modernist of all his stage-works"[31] ); Lady Macbeth. which precipitated the denunciation; and the Fourth Symphony, described by Grove as "a colossal synthesis of Shostakovich's musical development to date".[32] The Fourth Symphony was also the first in which the influence of Mahler came to the fore, prefiguring the route Shostakovich was to take to secure his rehabilitation, while he himself admitted that the preceding two were his least successful.[33] In the years after 1936, Shostakovich's symphonic works were outwardly musically conservative, regardless of any subversive political content. During this time he turned increasingly to chamber works, a field that permitted the composer to explore different and often darker ideas without inviting external scrutiny.[34] While his chamber works

Dmitri Shostakovich were largely tonal, they gave Shostakovich an outlet for sombre reflection not welcomed in his more public works. This is most apparent in the late chamber works, which portray what Groves has described as a "world of purgatorial numbness";[35] in some of these he included the use of tone rows, although he treated these as melodic themes rather than serially. Vocal works are also a prominent feature of his late output, setting texts often concerned with love, death and art.

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Criticism
According to Shostakovich scholar Gerard McBurney, opinion is divided on whether his music is "of visionary power and originality, as some maintain, or, as others think, derivative, trashy, empty and second-hand."[36] William Walton, his British contemporary, described him as "The greatest composer of the 20th century."[37] Musicologist David Fanning concludes in Grove that, "Amid the conflicting pressures of official requirements, the mass suffering of his fellow countrymen, and his personal ideals of humanitarian and public service, he succeeded in forging a musical language of colossal emotional power."[38] Some modern composers have been critical. Pierre Boulez dismissed Shostakovich's music as "the second, or even third pressing of Mahler."[39] The Romanian composer and Webern disciple Philip Gershkovich called Shostakovich "ahack in a trance."[40] A related complaint is that Shostakovich's style is vulgar and strident: Stravinsky wrote of Lady Macbeth: "brutally hammering... and monotonous."[41] English composer and musicologist Robin Holloway described his music as "battleship-grey in melody and harmony, factory-functional in structure; in content all rhetoric and coercion."[42] In the 1980s, the Finnish conductor and composer Esa-Pekka Salonen was critical of Shostakovich and didn't conduct his music. For instance, he said in 1987: "Shostakovich is in many ways a polar counter-force for Stravinsky. [...] When I have said that the 7th symphony of Shostakovich is a dull and unpleasant composition, people have responded: 'Yes, yes, but think of the background of that symphony.' Such an attitude does no good to anyone."[43] It is certainly true that Shostakovich borrows extensively from the material and styles both of earlier composers and of popular music; the vulgarity of "low" music is a notable influence on this "greatest of eclectics".[44] McBurney traces this to the avant-garde artistic circles of the early Soviet period in which Shostakovich moved early in his career, and argues that these borrowings were a deliberate technique to allow him to create "patterns of contrast, repetition, exaggeration" that gave his music the large-scale structure it required.[45]

Personality
Shostakovich was in many ways an obsessive man: according to his daughter he was "obsessed with cleanliness";[46] he synchronised the clocks in his apartment; he regularly sent cards to himself to test how well the postal service was working. Elizabeth Wilson's Shostakovich: A Life Remembered indexes 26 references to his nervousness. Mikhail Druskin remembers that even as a young man the composer was "fragile and nervously agile".[47] Yuri Lyubimov comments, "The fact that he was more vulnerable and receptive than other people was no doubt an important feature of his genius".[48] In later life, Krzysztof Meyer recalled, "his face was a bag of tics and grimaces".[49] In his lighter moods, sport was one of his main

Shostakovich with close friend Ivan Sollertinsky

Dmitri Shostakovich recreations, although he preferred spectating or umpiring to participating (he was a qualified football referee). His favourite football club was Zenit Leningrad, which he would watch regularly.[50] He also enjoyed playing card games, particularly patience. Both light and dark sides of his character were evident in his fondness for satirical writers such as Gogol, Chekhov and Mikhail Zoshchenko. The influence of the latter in particular is evident in his letters, which include wry parodies of Soviet officialese. Zoshchenko himself noted the contradictions in the composer's character: "he is... frail, fragile, withdrawn, an infinitely direct, pure child... [but he is also] hard, acid, extremely intelligent, strong perhaps, despotic and not altogether good-natured (although cerebrally good-natured)".[51] He was diffident by nature: Flora Litvinova has said he was "completely incapable of saying 'No' to anybody."[52] This meant he was easily persuaded to sign official statements, including a denunciation of Andrei Sakharov in 1973; on the other hand he was willing to try to help constituents in his capacities as chairman of the Composers' Union and Deputy to the Supreme Soviet. Oleg Prokofiev commented that "he tried to help so many people that... less and less attention was paid to his pleas."[53] Shostakovich was an atheist.[54]

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Orthodoxy and revisionism


Shostakovich's response to official criticism and, what is more important, the question of whether he used music as a kind of abstract dissidence is a matter of dispute. He outwardly conformed to government policies and positions, reading speeches and putting his name to articles expressing the government line. But it is evident he disliked many aspects of the regime, as confirmed by his family, his letters to Isaak Glikman, and the satirical cantata "Rayok", which ridiculed the "anti-formalist" campaign and was kept hidden until after his death. He was a close friend of Trotsky's protege Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who was executed in 1937 during the Great Purge.

Shostakovich represented himself in some works with the DSCH motif, consisting of D-E-C-B.

It is also uncertain to what extent Shostakovich expressed his opposition to the state in his music. The revisionist view was put forth by Solomon Volkov in the 1979 book Testimony, which was claimed to be Shostakovich's memoirs dictated to Volkov. The book alleged that many of the composer's works contained coded anti-government messages. That would place Shostakovich in a tradition of Russian artists outwitting censorship that goes back at least to the early 19th century poet Pushkin. It is known that he incorporated many quotations and motifs in his work, most notably his signature DSCH theme. His longtime collaborator Evgeny Mravinsky said that "Shostakovich very often explained his intentions with very specific images and connotations."[55] The revisionist perspective has subsequently been supported by his children, Maxim and Galina, and many Russian musicians. More recently, Volkov has argued that Shostakovich adopted the role of the yurodivy or holy fool in his relations with the government. Shostakovich's widow Irina, who was present during Volkov's visits to Shostakovich, denies the authenticity of Testimony. Other prominent revisionists are Ian MacDonald, whose book The New Shostakovich put forward more interpretations of his music, and Elizabeth Wilson, whose Shostakovich: A Life Remembered provides testimony from many of the composer's acquaintances.

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Many musicians and scholars (notably Laurel Fay and Richard Taruskin) contest the authenticity (and debate the significance) of Testimony, alleging that Volkov compiled it from a combination of recycled articles, gossip, and possibly some information direct from the composer. Fay documents these allegations in her 2002 article 'Volkov's Testimony reconsidered', showing that the only pages of the original Testimony manuscript that Shostakovich had signed and verified are word-for-word reproductions of earlier interviews given by the composer, none of which are controversial. (Against this, it has been pointed out by Tombstone of Shostakovich, showing his D-E-C-B motif. Allan B. Ho and Dmitry Feofanov that at least two of Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow. the signed pages contain controversial material: for instance, "on the first page of chapter 3, where [Shostakovich] notes that the plaque that reads 'In this house lived [Vsevolod] Meyerhold' should also say 'And in this house his wife was brutally murdered'.")[56] More broadly, Fay and Taruskin argue that the significance of Shostakovich is in his music rather than his life, and that to seek political messages in the music detracts from, rather than enhances, its artistic value.

Recorded legacy
In 1957, during a visit to Paris, Shostakovich recorded his two piano concertos with Andr Cluytens, as well as some short piano works. These were issued by EMI on an LP, reissued by Seraphim Records on LP, and eventually digitally remastered and released on CD. Shostakovich also recorded the Sonata, Op. 40, for Cello and Piano with cellist Daniil Shafran and also with Mstislav Rostropovich, the Sonata, Op. 134, for Violin and Piano with violinist David Oistrakh, and the Trio, Op. 67, for Violin, Cello, and Piano with violinist David Oistrakh and cellist Milo Sdlo. There is also a short sound film of Shostakovich as soloist in a concert performance of the closing moments of his first piano concerto.

Awards
Soviet Union Hero of Socialist Labor (1966) Order of Lenin (1946, 1956, 1966) Order of the October Revolution (1971) Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1940) Order of Friendship of Peoples (1972) People's Artist of the USSR (1954) Lenin Prize (1958) State Stalin Prize in arts (1941, 1941, 1942, 1946, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1949, 1949, 1950, 1952)

Finland Sibelius Award (1958) United States Oscar nomination for Khovanshchina, Best Score (Musical) in 1961 United Kingdom

Dmitri Shostakovich Gold Medal of the Royal Philharmonic Society (1966) Austria Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria in Silver (1967) Denmark Sonning Award (1974)

105

References
Ardov, Michael (2004). Memories of Shostakovich. Short Books. ISBN1-904095-64-X. Edwards, Robert (2006). White Death: Russia's War on Finland 193940. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN0297846302. Fay, Laurel (2002). "Volkov's Testimony Reconsidered". in Hamrick Brown, Malcolm (ed). A Shostakovich Casebook. Indiana University Press. ISBN0-253-21823-3. Fay, Laurel (2001). "Dmitri Shostakovich". Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Macmillan Publishers. Fay, Laurel (2000). Shostakovich: A Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN0-19-513438-9. Haas, David. "Shostakovich's Eighth: C minor Symphony against the Grain". in Bartlett (ed). Shostakovich in Context. Ho, Allan; Dmitry Feofanov (1998). Shostakovich Reconsidered. Toccata Press. ISBN0-907689-56-6. MacDonald, Ian (1990). The New Shostakovich. Northeastern University Press. ISBN1-55553-089-3. MacDonald, Ian. "Shostakovichiana" [57]. Music Under Soviet Rule. Retrieved August 17, 2005. McBurney, Gerard (2002). "Whose Shostakovich?". in Hamrick Brown, Malcolm (ed). A Shostakovich Casebook. Indiana University Press. ISBN0-253-21823-3. van Rijen, Onno. "Opus by Shostakovich" [58]. Shostakovich & Other Soviet Composers. Retrieved August 17, 2005. Sheinberg, Esti (2000-12-29). Irony, satire, parody and the grotesque in the music of Shostakovich [59]. UK: Ashgate. pp.378. ISBN0-7546-0226-5. Shostakovich, Dmitri; Glikman, Isaak; tr. Phillips, Anthony (2001). Story of a Friendship: The Letters of Dmitry Shostakovich to Isaak Glikman. Cornell University Press. ISBN0-8014-3979-5. Shostakovich, Dmitri; Volkov, Solomon (2000). Testimony (7th ed.). Proscenium (publisher). ISBN0-87910-021-4. Volkov, Solomon (2004). Shostakovich and Stalin: The Extraordinary Relationship Between the Great Composer and the Brutal Dictator. Knopf. ISBN0-375-41082-1. Wilson, Elizabeth (1994). Shostakovich: A Life Remembered. Princeton University Press. ISBN0-691-04465-1. "Lev A. Russov. The Leningrad Symphony. Conducted by Yevgeny Mravinsky. 1980. // Sergei V. Ivanov. Unknown Socialist Realism. The Leningrad School. - Saint-Petersburg: NP - Print, 2007, plate 86. ISBN 5-901724-21-6, ISBN 978-5-901724-21-7.

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External links
[60] Information regarding Shostakovich. Complete opus list, comprehensive discography, bibliography, filmography, list of first performances and links [61] by Yosuke Kudo The Shostakovich Debate: Interpreting the composer's life and music [62] Sikorskis Shostakovich Catalogue [63], complete chronological list of works, with many comments The New Collected Works (published by DSCH) [64] Journey of Dmitri Shostakovich [65] An Interview with Filmmaker Helga Landauer Epitonic.com: Dimitri Shostakovich [66] featuring tracks from Written With The Heart's Blood Archive of BBC's "Discovering Music" radio show [67], featuring Shostakovich's Symphony No. 5, Symphony No. 10, String Quartet No. 8, and Cello Concerto No. 1. Various pieces of him in streaming media by Classical Music Archives [68] Video of Shostakovich [69], at a rehearsal of his opera The Nose in 1975 BBC Presenter Stephen Johnson on Shostakovich and Depression [70] Shostakovich: Revolutionary life, revolutionary legacy [71], Weekly Worker, December 21, 2000 Shostakovich 24 preludes op. 34 [72] University of Houston Moderated Discussion List: Dmitri Shostakovich and other Russian Composers [73]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Sheinberg (2000) pp.207-309 Laurel Fay (2000), Shostakovich: A Life p. 7 Laurel Fay (2000), p. 9 Laurel Fay (2000), p. 17 Laurel Fay (2000), p. 18 The Cambridge Companion to Shostakovich, Cambridge Companions to Music by Pauline Fairclough (Editor), David Fanning (Editor). Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (November 17, 2008) p.73 [7] Fay (2000), p.80 [8] Dmitrii Shostakovich, Shostakovich: About Himself and His Times, compiled by L. Grigoryev and Ya. Platek, trans. Angus and Neilian Roxburgh (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1981), 33. [9] McBurney, p. 287. [10] Edwards 2006, p. 98 [11] MTV3: Shostakovitshin kiistelty teos kantaesitettiin (http:/ / www. mtv3. fi/ uutiset/ arkisto. shtml/ arkistot/ kulttuuri/ 2001/ 09/ 78462) (in Finnish) [12] Elizabeth Wilson, Shostakovich: A Life Remembered p. 183. [13] "1980 Summer Olympics Official Report from the Organizing Committee, vol. 2" (http:/ / www. la84foundation. org/ 5va/ reports_frmst. htm) (pdf). pp. 283. . Retrieved 2007-10-16. 40-megabyte document. [14] Ho and Feofanov, p. 390. [15] Manashir Yakubov, programme notes for the 1998 Shostakovich seasons at the Barbican, London). [16] Wilson p. 340. [17] Dmitri Shostakovich and Isaak Glikman, Story of a Friendship: The Letters of Dmitry Shostakovich to Isaak Glikman p. 102. [18] Galina Vishnevskaya, Galina, A Russian Story p. 274. [19] Glikman p. 147. [20] Volkov, Solomon. Obituary Came Three Days Late. (http:/ / english. mn. ru/ english/ issue. php?2005-31-23) Moscow News N49 2005. Retrieved on 23 December 2005. [21] Sirn, Vesa (April 6, 2009). "ostakovitin apinaooppera lytyi ('The ape opera by Shostakovich was found')" (http:/ / www. hs. fi/ kulttuuri/ artikkeli/ ostakovitin+ kadonnut+ apina-ooppera+ kesll+ esityskuntoon/ 1135244971728) (in fi). Helsingin Sanomat (Helsinki: Sanoma Oy): pp.C1. . Retrieved April 6, 2009. [22] Artsjournal (http:/ / www. artsjournal. com/ artsjournal1/ 2009/ 03/ unknown_shostak. shtml) accessed April 5, 2009 (English) [23] Finnish Music Information Centre. Kalevi Aho in Profile. (http:/ / www. fimic. fi/ fimic/ fimic. nsf/ mainframe?readform& 7118B64EF463A14FC22566A5003B5FB7) Retrieved on 18 November 2005. [24] Musicweb International. Lars-Erik Larsson. (http:/ / www. musicweb-international. com/ classrev/ 2003/ Aug03/ Larsson_concertinos. htm) Retrieved on 18 November 2005. [25] Fay (2000), pp. 119, 165, 224.

Dmitri Shostakovich
[26] Grove pp. 288, 290. [27] Glikman p. 181. [28] Wilson pp. 375377. [29] Wilson p. 426. [30] Fay (2000), p. 88. [31] Grove p. 289. [32] Grove p. 290. [33] Glikman p. 315. [34] See also Grove p. 294. [35] Grove p. 300. [36] McBurney, p. 283. [37] British Composers in Interview by R Murray Schafer (Faber 1960) [38] Grove p. 280. [39] McBurney, p. 288. [40] McBurney, p. 290. [41] McBurney, p. 286. [42] Holloway, Robin. "Shostakovich horrors." The Spectator, 26 August 2000. Available at Find articles. (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3724/ is_200008/ ai_n8906382) Retrieved on 2007-10-14. [43] Salonen, Esa-Pekka & Otonkoski, Lauri: Kirja puhetta musiikitta, p. 73. Helsinki: Tammi. ISBN 951-30-6599-5 [44] Haas, Shostakovich's Eighth: C minor Symphony against the Grain p. 125. [45] McBurney [46] Michael Ardov,Memories of Shostakovich p. 139. [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] Wilson pp. 4145. Wilson p. 183. Wilson p. 462. Mentioned in his personal correspondance (Shostakovich, tr. Phillips (2001)), as well as other sources. Quoted in Fay (2000), p. 121. Wilson p. 162. Wilson p. 40. Laurel Fay (2000), p. 263 Wilson p. 139. Ho & Feofanov, p. 211

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Jean Sibelius

108

Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius (pronunciation) (8 December 1865 20 September 1957) was a Finnish composer of the later Romantic period whose music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity. His mastery of the orchestra has been described as "prodigious".[1] The core of Sibelius's oeuvre is his set of seven symphonies. Like Beethoven, Sibelius used each one to develop further his own personal compositional style. Unlike Beethoven who used the symphonies to make public statements, and who reserved his more intimate feelings for his smaller works, Sibelius released his personal feelings in the symphonies. These works continue to be performed frequently in the concert hall and are often recorded. In addition to the symphonies, Sibelius's best-known compositions include Finlandia, the Karelia Suite, Valse triste, the violin concerto, and The Swan of Tuonela (one of the four movements of the Lemminkinen Suite). Other works include pieces Portrait of Jean Sibelius from 1913 inspired by the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala; over 100 songs for voice and piano; incidental music for 13 plays; the opera Jungfrun i tornet (The Maiden in the Tower); chamber music; piano music; Masonic ritual music; and 21 separate publications of choral music. Sibelius composed prolifically until the mid-1920s. However, after completing his Seventh Symphony (1924), the incidental music to The Tempest (1926), and the tone poem Tapiola (1926), he produced no large scale works for the remaining thirty years of his life. Although he is reputed to have stopped composing, he in fact attempted to continue writing, including abortive efforts to compose an eighth symphony. He wrote some Masonic music and re-edited some earlier works during this last period of his life, and retained an active interest in new developments in music, although he did not always view modern music favorably. The Finnish 100 mark bill featured his image.[2]

Life and work


Johan Julius Christian Sibelius was born into a Swedish-speaking family in Hmeenlinna in the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland, the son of Christian Gustaf Sibelius and Maria Charlotta Sibelius. Although known as "Janne" to his family, during his student years he began using the French form of his name, "Jean", inspired by the business card of his seafaring uncle. He is universally known as Jean Sibelius. Against the larger context of the rise of the Fennoman movement and its expressions of Romantic Nationalism, his family decided to send him to a Finnish language school, and he attended the Hmeenlinna Normal-Lyce from 1876 to 1885. Romantic Nationalism was to become a crucial element in Sibelius's artistic output and his politics.

Jean Sibelius

109 After Sibelius graduated from high school in 1885, he began to study law at the Imperial Alexander University of Finland (now the University of Helsinki). However, he was more interested in music than in law, and he soon quit his studies. From 1885 to 1889, Sibelius studied music in the Helsinki music school (now the Sibelius Academy). One of his teachers there was Martin Wegelius. Sibelius continued studying in Berlin (from 1889 to 1890 with Albert Becker) and in Vienna (from 1890 to 1891). Jean Sibelius married Aino Jrnefelt (18711969) at Maxmo on 10 June 1892; they were to be married for 64 years. Their home, called Ainola, was completed at Lake Tuusula, Jrvenp in 1903, and the two lived out the remainder of their lives there. They had six daughters: Eva, Ruth, Kirsti (who died at a very young age), Katarina, Margareta, and Heidi. In 1911, Sibelius underwent a serious operation for suspected throat cancer. The impact of this brush with death can be seen in several of the works that he composed at the time, including Luonnotar and the Fourth Symphony.

Sibelius in 1889.

Sibelius loved nature, and the Finnish landscape often served as material for his music. He once said of his Sixth Symphony, "[It] always reminds me of the scent of the first snow." The forests surrounding Ainola are often said to have inspired his composition of Tapiola. On the subject of Sibelius's ties to nature, one biographer of the composer, Erik W. Tawaststjerna, wrote the following: Even by Nordic standards, Sibelius responded with exceptional intensity to the moods of nature and the changes in the seasons: he scanned the skies with his binoculars for the geese flying over the lake ice, listened to the screech of the cranes, and heard the cries of the curlew echo over the marshy grounds just below Ainola. He savoured the spring blossoms every bit as much as he did autumnal scents and colours.[3] The year 1926 saw a sharp and lasting decline in Sibelius's output: after his Seventh Symphony, he only produced a few major works in the rest of his life. Arguably the two most significant were incidental music for Shakespeare's The Tempest and the tone poem Tapiola. For nearly the last thirty years of his life, Sibelius even avoided talking about his music. There is substantial evidence that Sibelius worked on an eighth numbered symphony. He promised the premiere of this symphony to Serge Koussevitzky in 1931 and 1932, and a London performance in 1933 under Basil Cameron was even advertised to the public. However, the only concrete evidence for the symphony's existence on paper is a 1933 bill for a fair copy of the first movement.[4] Sibelius had always been quite self-critical; he remarked to his close friends, "If I cannot write a better symphony than my Seventh, then

Sibelius in 1939

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it shall be my last." Since no manuscript survives, sources consider it likely that Sibelius destroyed all traces of the score, probably in 1945, during which year he certainly consigned a great many papers to the flames.[5] "In the 1940s there was a great auto da f at Ainola. My husband collected a number of the manuscripts in a laundry basket and burned them on the open fire in the dining room. Parts of the Karelia Suite were destroyed - I later saw remains of the pages which had been torn out - and many other things. I did not have the strength to be present and left the room. I therefore do not know what he threw on to the fire. But after this my husband became calmer and gradually lighter in mood."[1] On 1 January 1939, Sibelius participated in an international radio broadcast which included the composer conducting his Andante Festivo. The performance was preserved on transcription discs and later issued on CD. This is probably the only surviving example of Sibelius interpreting his own music.[6] His 90th birthday, in 1955, was widely celebrated and both the Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra under Sir Thomas Beecham gave special performances of his music in Finland. The orchestras and their conductors also met the composer at his home; a series of memorable photographs were taken to commemorate the occasions. Both Columbia Records and EMI released some of the pictures with albums of Sibelius's music. Beecham was honored by the Finnish government for his efforts to promote Sibelius both in the United Kingdom and in the United States. Tawaststjerna also relayed an endearing anecdote regarding Sibelius's death: [He] was returning from his customary morning walk. Exhilarated, he told his wife Aino that he had seen a flock of cranes approaching. "There they come, the birds of my youth," he exclaimed. Suddenly, one of the birds broke away from the formation and circled once above Ainola. It then rejoined the flock to continue its journey. Two days afterwards Sibelius died of a brain hemorrhage, at age 91 (on 20 September 1957), in Ainola, where he is buried in the garden. Another well-known Finnish composer, Heino Kaski, died that same day. Aino lived there for the next twelve years until she died on 8 June 1969; she is buried with her husband.[3] In 1972, Sibelius's surviving daughters sold Ainola to the State of Finland. The Ministry of Education and the Sibelius Society opened it as a museum in 1974.
The Statue of Sibelius in Helsinki

The grave in the garden of Ainola

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Musical style
Like many of his contemporaries, Sibelius was initially enamored of the music of Wagner. A performance of Parsifal at the Bayreuth Festival had a strong effect on him, inspiring him to write to his wife shortly thereafter, "Nothing in the world has made such an impression on me, it moves the very strings of my heart." He studied the scores of Wagner's operas Tannhuser, Lohengrin, and Die Walkre intently. With this music in mind, Sibelius began work on an opera of his own, entitled Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat). However, his appreciation for Wagner waned and Sibelius ultimately rejected Wagner's Leitmotif compositional technique, considering it to be too deliberate and calculated. Departing from opera, he later used the musical material from the incomplete Veneen luominen in his Lemminkinen Suite (1893). He did, however, compose a considerable number of songs for voice and piano, whose early interpreters included Aino Ackt and particularly Ida Ekman. More lasting influences included Ferruccio Busoni, Anton Bruckner and Tchaikovsky. Hints of Tchaikovsky's music are particularly evident in works such as Sibelius's First Symphony (1899) and his Violin Concerto (1905). Similarities to Bruckner are most strongly felt in the 'unmixed' timbral palette and sombre brass chorales of Sibelius's orchestration, as well as in the latter composer's fondness for pedal points and in the underlying slow pace of his music. Sibelius progressively stripped away formal markers of sonata form in his work and, instead of contrasting multiple themes, he focused on the idea of continuously evolving cells and fragments culminating in a grand statement. His later works are remarkable for their sense of unbroken development, progressing by means of thematic permutations and derivations. The completeness and organic feel of this synthesis has prompted some to suggest that Sibelius began his works with a finished statement and worked backwards, although analyses showing these predominantly three- and four-note cells and melodic fragments as they are developed and expanded into the larger "themes" effectively prove the opposite.[7] This self-contained structure stood in stark contrast to the symphonic style of Gustav Mahler, Sibelius's primary rival in symphonic composition. While thematic variation played a major role in the works of both composers, Mahler's style made use of disjunct, abruptly changing and contrasting themes, while Sibelius sought to slowly transform thematic elements. In November 1907 Mahler undertook a conducting tour of Finland, and the two composers had occasion to go on a lengthy walk together. Sibelius later reported that during the walk:

Portrait of Sibelius from 1894 by Akseli Gallen-Kallela

I said that I admired [the symphony's] severity of style and the profound logic that created an inner connection between all the motifs... [8] Mahler's opinion was just the reverse. 'No, a symphony must be like the world. It must embrace everything.'

However, the two rivals did find common ground in their music. Like Mahler, Sibelius made frequent use both of folk music and of literature in the composition of his works. The Second Symphony's slow movement was sketched from the motive of Il Commendatore in Don Giovanni, while the stark Fourth Symphony combined work for a planned "Mountain" symphony with a tone poem based on Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven". Sibelius also wrote several tone poems based on Finnish poetry, beginning with the early En Saga and culminating in the late Tapiola (1926), his last major composition.

Jean Sibelius Over time, he sought to use new chord patterns, including naked tritones (for example in the Fourth Symphony), and bare melodic structures to build long movements of music, in a manner similar to Joseph Haydn's use of built-in dissonances. Sibelius would often alternate melodic sections with noble brass chords that would swell and fade away, or he would underpin his music with repeating figures which push against the melody and counter-melody. Sibelius's melodies often feature powerful modal implications: for example much of the Sixth Symphony is in the (modern) Dorian mode. Sibelius studied Renaissance polyphony, as did his contemporary, the Danish composer Carl Nielsen, and Sibelius's music often reflects the influence of this early music. He often varied his movements in a piece by changing the note values of melodies, rather than the conventional change of tempi. He would often draw out one melody over a number of notes, while playing a different melody in shorter rhythm. For example, his Seventh Symphony comprises four movements without pause, where every important theme is in C major or C minor; the variation comes from the time and rhythm. His harmonic language was often restrained, even iconoclastic, compared to many of his contemporaries who were already experimenting with musical Modernism. As reported by Neville Cardus in the Manchester Guardian newspaper in 1958,

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Sibelius justified the austerity of his old age by saying that while other composers were engaged in manufacturing cocktails he offered the [9] public pure cold water.

Reception
Sibelius has fallen in and out of fashion, but remains one of the most popular 20th century symphonists, with complete cycles of his symphonies continuing to be recorded. In his own time, however, he focused far more on the more profitable chamber music for home use, and occasionally on works for the stage. Eugene Ormandy and, to a lesser extent, his predecessor Leopold Stokowski, were instrumental in bringing Sibelius's music to American audiences by programming his works often; the former developed a friendly relationship with Sibelius throughout his life. Later in life he was championed by critic Olin Downes, who wrote a biography of the composer. However, Sibelius has sometimes been criticized as a reactionary or even incompetent figure in 20th century classical music. Despite the innovations of the Second Viennese School, he continued to write in a strictly tonal idiom. Because of its alleged conservatism, Sibelius's music is thus sometimes considered insufficiently complex, but he was immediately respected by even his more progressive peers. In 1938 Theodor Adorno wrote a critical essay about the composer, notoriously charging that

If Sibelius is good, this invalidates the standards of musical quality that have persisted from Bach to Schoenberg: the richness of [10] inter-connectedness, articulation, unity in diversity, the 'multi-faceted' in 'the one'.

Adorno sent his essay to Virgil Thompson, then music critic of the New York Herald Tribune, who was also critical of Sibelius; Thompson, while agreeing with the essay's sentiment, declared to Adorno that "the tone of it [was] more apt to create antagonism toward [Adorno] than toward Sibelius"[1] . Later, the composer, theorist and conductor Ren Leibowitz went so far as to describe Sibelius as "the worst composer in the world" in the title of a 1955 pamphlet.[11] However, critics who have sought to re-evaluate Sibelius's music have cited its self-contained internal structure, which distills everything down to a few motivic ideas and then permits the music to grow organically, as evidence of a previously under-appreciated radical bent to his work. The severe nature of Sibelius's orchestration is often noted as representing a "Finnish" character, stripping away the superfluous from music. Perhaps one reason Sibelius has attracted both the praise and the ire of critics is that in each of his seven symphonies he approached the basic problems of form, tonality, and architecture in unique, individual ways. On the one hand, his symphonic (and tonal) creativity was novel, but others thought that music should be taking a different route. Sibelius's response to criticism was dismissive: "Pay no attention to what critics say. No statue has ever been put up to a critic."

Jean Sibelius In the latter decades of the twentieth century, Sibelius began to be re-assessed more favourably: Milan Kundera dubbed the composer's approach to be that of "antimodern modernism", standing outside the perpetual progression of the status quo[1] . In 1990, the composer Thea Musgrave was commissioned by the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra to write a piece in honour of the 125th anniversary of Sibelius's birth: Song of the Enchanter was premiered on 14 February 1991.[12] In 1984, American avant-garde composer Morton Feldman gave a lecture in Darmstadt, Germany, wherein he stated that "the people you think are radicals might really be conservatives - the people you think are conservatives might really be radical," whereupon he began to hum Sibelius' Fifth Symphony[1] .

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Political criticism
Research by T. L. Jackson of the University of North Texas, in which he investigated the composer's connections to Nazi Germany, led him to conclude that the composer's associations with and benefits from National Socialism mounted to active support. This runs counter to the standard view, that the composer was an apolitical observer of the rise of Nazism[13] . Other scholars have said such conclusions, which fail to account for the exclusively German origin of their source material, are simplistic: "[Jackson is attempting to make] Nazi out of a man who needed to deal with the Third Reich to earn his living, and who, along with most of the world, was perhaps too complacent about the rise of Hitler."[13] It has also been noted that, though Sibelius was happy to enjoy the Third Reich's "financial arrangements for artists", he also denounced Nazism's "bad social prejudices" in his diary.[13] Veijo Murtomki, professor of music history at the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki, stated of Jackson's claims: "[H]e is constructing with the pieces is rather strange for us who know better the cultural and political situation of Finland during the Third Reich ... Sibelius was selfish and flattered by his fame in Germany and wanted the money. I am sorry for that. But it does not make him a Nazi or a great friend of any SS person or acts made by them."[13]

Selected works
These are ordered chronologically; the date is the date of composition rather than publication or first performance.

Orchestral works
Kullervo, Symphonic Poem for soprano, baritone, chorus and orchestra, Op. 7 (1892) En Saga, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 9 (1892/1902) Karelia Overture for orchestra, Op. 10 (1893) Karelia Suite for orchestra, Op. 11 (1893) Rakastava (The Lover) for male voices and strings or strings and percussion, Op. 14 (1893/1911) Lemminkinen Suite (Four Legends from the Kalevala) for orchestra, Op. 22 (1893) - these legends, which include The Swan of Tuonela, are often performed separately Skogsret (The Wood Nymph), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 15 (1894) Vrsng for orchestra, Op. 16 (1894) Kung Kristian (King Christian), Suite from the incidental music for orchestra, Op. 27 (1898) Sandels, Improvisation for chorus and orchestra, Op. 28 (1898) Finlandia for orchestra and optional chorus, Op. 26 (1899) Snfrid for reciter, chorus and orchestra, Op. 29 (1899) Tulen Synty (The Origin of Fire), Op. 32 (1902) Symphony No. 1 in E minor for orchestra, Op. 39 (1899/1900) Symphony No. 2 in D major for orchestra, Op. 43 (1902) Violin Concerto in D minor, Op. 47 (1903/1905)

Kuolema (Valse triste and Scene with Cranes) for orchestra, Op. 44 (1904/06) Dance Intermezzo for orchestra, Op. 45/2 (1904/07)

Jean Sibelius Pellas et Mlisande, Incidental music/Suite for orchestra, Op. 46 (1905) Pohjolan tytr (Pohjola's Daughter), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 49 (1906) Symphony No. 3 in C major for orchestra, Op. 52 (1907) Svanevit (Swan-white), Suite from the incidental music for orchestra, Op. 54 (1908) Nightride and Sunrise, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 55 (1909) Dryadi (The Dryad) for orchestra, Op. 45/1 (1910) Two Pieces from Kuolema for orchestra, Op. 62 (1911) Symphony No. 4 in A minor for orchestra, Op. 63 (1911) Scenes Historiques, Suite No. 2, Op. 66 (1912) Two Serenades for violin and orchestra, Op. 69 (1912) Barden (The Bard), Tone Poem for orchestra and harp, Op. 64 (1913/14) Luonnotar, Tone Poem for soprano and orchestra, Op. 70 (1913) Aallottaret (The Oceanides), Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 73 (1914) Impromptu, Op. 78 (1915) Symphony No. 5 in E flat major for orchestra, Op. 82 (1915, revised 1916 and 1919) Oma Maa (Our Fatherland) for chorus and orchestra, Op. 92 (1918) Jordens sng (Song of the Earth) for chorus and orchestra, Op. 93 (1919) Valse Lyrique, Op. 96 (1920) Symphony No. 6 in D minor for orchestra, Op. 104 (1923) Symphony No. 7 in C major for orchestra, Op. 105 (1924) The Tempest, Incidental music for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op. 109 (1925) Vinn virsi (Vin's song) for chorus and orchestra, Op. 110 (1926) Tapiola, Tone Poem for orchestra, Op. 112 (1926) Andante Festivo for string orchestra (1925/30)

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Other works
Viisi joululaulua, Op. 1, five Christmas songs (18951913) Seven Songs, Op. 17, with lyrics by J. L. Runeberg, K.A. Tavaststjerna, Oscar Levertin, A.V. Forsman (Koskimies, Finnish surname), and Ilmari Calamnius (Kianto, Finnish surname). Composed between 1891 and 1904. Incidental music to Hjalmar Procop's play Belshazzar's Feast, Op. 51 (1906); this was mainly for orchestra but voices were called for in some places. He later rescored some sections of the incidental music as a purely orchestral suite; in 1939 he wrote a new version of the section called "Solitude" (originally called "The Jewish Girls Song" in the incidental music) as a song, dedicated to Marian Anderson Voces intimae, Op. 56, string quartet (1909) Jkrimarssi (1915)

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See also
Sibelius monument

References
Burnett-James, David (1989). Sibelius. London, New York: Omnibus Press. ISBN0711916837. Pike, Lionel (1978). Beethoven, Sibelius and 'the Profound Logic': Studies in Symphonic Analysis. London: The Athlone Press. ISBN0 485 11178 0.

Further reading
Layton, Robert. Sibelius. New York: Schirmer Books, 1993. Master Musicians Series. ISBN 0-02-871322-2. Ekman, Karl. "Jean Sibelius, His Life and Personality". New York, Tudor Publishing Co., 1945. Levas, Santeri. Sibelius: a personal portrait. London, Dent, 1972. ISBN 0460039784. Tawaststjerna, Erik. "Sibelius". London, Faber & Faber, vol.1 (1976), vol.2(1986). de Gorog, Lisa (with the collaboration of Ralph de Gorog) "From Sibelius to Sallinen: Finnish Nationalism and the Music of Finland". New York, Greenwood Press, 1989.

Tomi Mkel: "Poesie in der Luft. Jean Sibelius, Studien zu Leben und Werk". Wiesbaden, Breitkopf & Hrtel, 2007. 978-3-7651-0363-6 Barnett, Andrew. Sibelius. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-300-11159-0 Minnesota Orchestra's showcase concert magazine, May 6, page 44 Morgan, Robert P. (1991) [1990]. "Other European Currents". The Norton Introduction to Music History: Twentieth-Century Music (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp.121123. ISBN0-393-95272-X. Goss, Glenda Sibelius: A Composers Life and the Awakening of Finland. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2009. ISBN 0-226-30477-9 Goss, Glenda Jean Sibelius: Guide to Research. New York: Garland Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8153-1171-0

External links
Jean Sibelius the website [14] (English) The Sibelius Society of Finland [15] Fennica Gehrman's Sibelius page (publisher) [16] Films on Jean Sibelius by director Christopher Nupen [17] Jean Sibelius Museum [18] Finlandia by Jean Sibelius, thisisFINLAND [19] Ainola The home of Aino and Jean Sibelius [20] Jean Sibelius link collection [21] Free scores by Jean Sibelius in the International Music Score Library Project Works by or about Jean Sibelius [22] in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Eugene Ormandy - Jean Sibelius: A Reminiscence [23] Musical Finland in Brussels [24] Free scores by Jean Sibelius in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)

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References
[1] Ross, Alex (2009) [2007]. "5". The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century (3rd ed.). Harper Perennial. ISBN978-1-84115-476-3 [2] http:/ / www. setelit. com/ raha/ 347 [3] Tawaststjerna, Erik; Robert Layton (Translator) (19761986). Sibelius. London: Farber & Farber. Vol. I, 18651905. ISBN 0-571-08832-5; Vol. II, 19041914. ISBN 0-571-08833-3 [4] Kari Kilpelinen. ""Sibelius Eight. What happened to it?"" (http:/ / www. fimic. fi/ fimic/ fimic. nsf/ mainframe?readform& B17F0B92F76C013CC2256825004FBD08). Finnish Music Quarterly 4/1995. . [5] ""The war and the destruction of the eighth symphony 1939-1945"" (http:/ / www. sibelius. fi/ english/ elamankaari/ sib_kahdeksannen_tuhoaminen. htm). Sibelius.fi. . [6] http:/ / inkpot. com/ classical/ sibjarvi. html [7] Pike [8] Burnett-James, p. 41 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?vid=ISBN0711916837& id=0b7jnKpSrTEC& pg=PA41& lpg=PA41& ots=zVZtc5A0Xq& dq="It+ must+ embrace+ everything"+ mahler+ sibelius& sig=oDcPy4EhkarUsUlLUAOzglWOK0w) [9] Burnett-James, p. 94 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=0b7jnKpSrTEC& pg=PA94& vq="pure+ cold+ water"& dq=sibelius+ pure+ water& sig=Nz0r-hpGdAvtzWyUg-2Pl5jcpJU) [10] Adorno, Theodor (1938). "Trne, B. de, Sibelius; A Close Up". Zeitschrift fr Sozialforschung 7: 460463. Later reprinted as "Glosse ber Sibelius". Cited and translated in Jackson, Timothy L. (2001). "Preface" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=6p9lAkbz7fAC& pg=PR18& vq="if+ sibelius+ is+ good"& dq="sibelius+ studies"). in Jackson, Timothy L.; Murtomki, Veijo. Sibelius Studies. Cambridge University Press. xviii. ISBN0521624169. [11] Leibowitz, Ren (1955). Sibelius, le plus mauvais compositeur du monde. Lige, Belgium: ditions Dynamo. OCLC28594116. [12] Song of the Enchanter (http:/ / www. theamusgrave. com/ html/ song_of_the_enchanter. html), Thea Musgrave. [13] Monaghan, Peter (29 November 2009). "A Composer's Ties to Nazi Germany Come Under New Scrutiny" (http:/ / chronicle. com/ article/ A-Composers-Ties-to-Nazi/ 49256/ ). The Chronicle of Higher Education. . Retrieved 26 June 2010.

Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen (22 August 1928 5 December 2007) was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important (Barrett 1988, 45; Harvey 1975b, 705; Hopkins 1972, 33; Klein 1968, 117) but also controversial (Power 1990, 30) composers of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Another critic calls him "one of the great visionaries of 20th-century music" (Hewett 2007). He is known for his ground-breaking work in electronic music, aleatory (controlled chance) in serial composition, and musical spatialization. He was educated at the Hochschule fr Karlheinz Stockhausen in the Electronic Music Studio of the WDR, October 1994 Musik Kln and the University of Cologne, and later studied with Olivier Messiaen in Paris, and with Werner Meyer-Eppler at the University of Bonn. One of the leading figures of the Darmstadt School, his compositions and theories were and remain widely influential, not only on composers of art music, but also on jazz and popular-music artists. His works, composed over a period of nearly sixty years, eschew traditional forms. In addition to electronic musicboth with and without live performersthey range from miniatures for musical boxes through works for solo instruments, songs, chamber music, choral and orchestral music, to a cycle of seven full-length operas. His theoretical and other writings

Karlheinz Stockhausen comprise ten large volumes. He received numerous prizes and distinctions for his compositions, recordings, and for the scores produced by his publishing company. Some of his notable compositions include the series of nineteen Klavierstcke (Piano Pieces), Kontra-Punkte for ten instruments, the electronic/musique-concrte Gesang der Jnglinge, Gruppen for three orchestras, the percussion solo Zyklus, Kontakte, the cantata Momente, the live-electronic Mikrophonie I, Hymnen, Stimmung for six vocalists, Aus den sieben Tagen, Mantra for two pianos and electronics, Tierkreis, Inori for soloists and orchestra, and the gigantic opera cycle Licht. He died of sudden heart failure at the age of 79, on 5 December 2007 at his home in Krten, Germany.

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Biography
Childhood
Stockhausen was born in the Burg Mdrath, the so-called castle of the village of Mdrath, which served at the time as the maternity home of the Bergheim Kreis. The village, located near Kerpen in the vicinity of Cologne, was displaced in 1956 by the strip mining of lignite in the region, although the castle itself still exists. His father was a schoolteacher, and his mother was the daughter of a prosperous family of farmers in Neurath in the Cologne Bight. She played the piano and accompanied her own singing but, after three pregnancies in as many years, experienced a mental breakdown and was institutionalized in December 1932, followed a few months later by the death of her younger son, Hermann (Kurtz 1992, 8 & 13). From the age of seven, Stockhausen grew up in Altenberg, where he received his first piano lessons from the Protestant organist of the Altenberg Cathedral, Franz-Josef Kloth (Kurtz 1992, 14). His father, Simon Stockhausen, remarried in 1938 and with his new wife, Luzia, had two daughters (Kurtz 1992, 18). Because his relationship with his new stepmother was less than happy, in January 1942 Karlheinz became a boarder at the teachers' training college in Xanten, where he continued his piano training and also studied oboe and violin (Kurtz 1992, 18). In the first half of 1942, he learned that his mother had died, ostensibly from leukemia, although everyone at the same hospital had supposedly died of the same disease. It was generally understood that she had been a victim of the Nazi policy of killing "useless eaters" (Stockhausen 1989a, 2021; Kurtz 1992, 19). Stockhausen later dramatized his mother's death in hospital by lethal injection, in Act 1 scene 2 ("Mondeva") of the opera Donnerstag aus Licht (Kurtz 1992, 213). According to one source, as a young teenager he worked as a cobbler (Prendergast 2000, 52). In the autumn of 1944, he was conscripted to serve as a stretcher bearer in Bedburg (Kurtz 1992, 18). In February 1945, he met his father for the last time in Altenberg. Simon, who was on leave from the front, told his son, "I'm not coming back. Look after things" (Kurtz 1992, 19).

Education
From 1947 to 1951, Stockhausen studied music pedagogy and piano at the Hochschule fr Musik Kln (Cologne Conservatory of Music) and musicology, philosophy, and Germanics at the University of Cologne. He had the usual training in harmony and counterpoint, the latter with Hermann Schroeder, but he did not develop a real interest in composition until 1950. He was admitted at the end of that year to the class of Swiss composer Frank Martin, who had just begun a seven-year tenure in Cologne (Kurtz 1992, 28). At the Darmstdter Ferienkurse in 1951, Stockhausen met Belgian composer Karel Goeyvaerts, who had just completed studies with Olivier Messiaen (analysis) and Darius Milhaud (composition) in Paris, and Stockhausen resolved to do likewise (Kurtz 1992, 3436). He arrived in Paris on 8 January 1952 and began attending Messiaen's courses in aesthetics and analysis, as well as Milhaud's composition classes. He continued with Messiaen for a year, but he was disappointed with Milhaud and abandoned his lessons after a few weeks (Kurtz 1992, 4548). In March 1953, he left Paris to take up a position as assistant to Herbert Eimert at the newly established Electronic Music Studio of Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR) (from 1 January 1955, Westdeutscher Rundfunk, or WDR) in Cologne (Kurtz 1992, 5657). In 1962, he

Karlheinz Stockhausen succeeded Eimert as director of the studio (Morawska-Bngeler 1988, 19). From 1954 to 1956, he studied phonetics, acoustics, and information theory with Werner Meyer-Eppler at the University of Bonn (Kurtz 1992, 6872). Together with Eimert, Stockhausen edited the influential journal Die Reihe from 1955 to 1962 (Grant 2001, 12).

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Career and adult life


Family and home On 29 December 1951, in Hamburg, he married Doris Andreae (Kurtz 1992, 45; Maconie 2005, 47). Together they had four children: Suja (b. 1953), Christel (b. 1956), Markus (b. 1957), and Majella (b. 1961) (Kurtz 1992, 90; Tannenbaum 1987, 94). On 3 April 1967, in San Francisco, he married Mary Bauermeister, with whom he had two children: Julika (b. 22 January 1966) and Simon (b. 1967) (Kurtz 1992, 141 & 149; Tannenbaum 1987, 95). Four of Stockhausen's children became professional musicians (Kurtz 1992, 202), and he composed some of his works specifically for them. A large Karlheinz Stockhausen in the garden of number of pieces for the trumpetfrom Sirius (197577) to the trumpet his home in Krten, 2005 version of In Freundschaft (1997)were composed for and premired by his son Markus (Kurtz 1992, 208; Markus Stockhausen 1998, 1316; Tannenbaum 1987, 61). Markus, at the age of 4 years, had performed the part of The Child in the Cologne premire of Originale, alternating performances with his sister Christel (Maconie 2005, 220). Klavierstck XII and Klavierstck XIII (and their versions as scenes from the operas Donnerstag aus Licht and Samstag aus Licht) were written for his daughter Majella, and were first performed by her at the ages of 16 and 20, respectively (Maconie 2005, 430 & 443; Stockhausen Texte 5:190, 255, 274; Stockhausen Texte 6:64, 373). The saxophone duet in the second act of Donnerstag aus Licht, and a number of synthesizer parts in the Licht operas, including Klavierstck XV ("Synthi-Fou") from Dienstag, were composed for his son Simon (Kurtz 1992, 222; Maconie 2005, 480 & 489; Stockhausen Texte 5:186, 529), who also assisted his father in the production of the electronic music from Freitag aus Licht. His daughter Christel is a flautist who performed and gave a course on interpretation of Tierkreis in 1977 (Stockhausen Texte 5:105), later published as an article (C. Stockhausen 1978). In 1961, Stockhausen acquired a parcel of land in the vicinity of Krten, a village east of Cologne, near Bergisch Gladbach in the Bergisches Land. He had a house built there, which was designed to his specifications by the architect Erich Schneider-Wessling, and he resided there since its completion in the autumn of 1965 (Kurtz 1992, 11617, 13738). Teaching

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After lecturing at the Internationale Ferienkurse fr Neue Musik at Darmstadt (first in 1953), Stockhausen gave lectures and concerts in Europe, North America, and Asia (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 2, 1415). He was guest professor of composition at the University of Pennsylvania in 1965 and at the University of California, Davis in 196667 (Kramer 1998; Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 23). He founded and directed the Cologne Courses for New Music from 1963 to 1968, and was appointed Professor of Composition at the Hochschule fr Musik Kln in 1971, where he taught until 1977 (Kurtz 1992, 12628 & 194; Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 3). In 1998, he founded the Stockhausen Courses, which are held annually in Krten (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 68, 15).

Stockhausen lecturing at the 12th International Summer Courses for New Music in Darmstadt, 1957

"Space music" and Expo 70 Since the mid-1950s, Stockhausen had been developing concepts of spatialization in his works, not only in electronic music, such as the 5-channel Gesang der Jnglinge (195556) and Telemusik (1966), and 4-channel Kontakte (195860) and Hymnen (196667). Instrumental/vocal works like Gruppen for three orchestras (195557) and Carr for four choirs and orchestras (195960) also exhibit this trait (Stockhausen Texte 2:7172, 4950, 102103; Stockhausen 1989, 105108; Cott 1973, 200201). In lectures such as "Music in Space" from 1958 (Stockhausen Texte 1:15275), he called for new kinds of concert halls to be built, "suited to the requirements of spatial music". His idea was a spherical space which is fitted all around with loudspeakers. In the middle of this spherical space a sound-permeable, transparent platform would be suspended for the listeners. They could hear music composed for such standardized spaces coming from above, from below and from all points of the compass. (Stockhausen Texte 1:153) In 1968, the West German government invited Stockhausen to collaborate on the German Pavilion at the 1970 World Fair in Osaka and to create a joint multimedia project for it with artist Otto Piene. Other collaborators on the project included the pavilion's architect, Fritz Bornemann, Fritz Winckel, director of the Electronic Music Studio at the Technical University of Berlin, and engineer Max Mengeringhausen. The pavilion theme was "gardens of music", in keeping with which Bornemann intended "planting" the exhibition halls beneath a broad lawn, with a connected auditorium "sprouting" above ground. Initially, Bornemann conceived this auditorium in the form of an amphitheatre, with a central orchestra podium and surrounding audience space. In the summer of 1968, Stockhausen met with Bornemann and persuaded him to change this conception to a spherical space with the audience in the center, surrounded by loudspeaker groups in seven rings at different "latitudes" around the interior walls of the sphere (Kurtz 1992, 166; Fllmer 1996). Photos and architectural plans of the auditorium of the West German Pavilion and its sound system. [1] Although Stockhausen and Piene's planned multimedia project, titled Hinab-Hinauf, was developed in detail (Stockhausen, Texte 3:15574), the World Fair committee rejected their concept as too extravagant and instead asked Stockhausen to present daily five-hour programs of his music (Kurtz 1992, 178). Stockhausen's works were performed for 5 hours every day over a period of 183 days to a total audience of about a million listeners (Wrner 1973, 256). According to Stockhausen's biographer, Michael Kurtz, "Many visitors felt the spherical auditorium to be an oasis of calm amidst the general hubbub, and after a while it became one of the main attractions of Expo 1970" (Kurtz 1992, 179). More photos of the spherical auditorium at Expo 70 [2]

Karlheinz Stockhausen Publishing activities From the mid-1950s onward, Stockhausen designed (and in some cases had had printed) his own musical scores for his publisher, Universal Edition, which often involved unconventional devices. The score for his piece Refrain, for instance, includes a rotatable (refrain) on a transparent plastic strip. Early in the 1970s, he ended his agreement with Universal Edition and began publishing his own scores under the Stockhausen-Verlag imprint (Kurtz 1992, 184). This arrangement allowed him to extend his notational innovations (for example, dynamics in Weltparlament [the first scene of Mittwoch aus Licht] are coded in colour) and resulted in eight German Music Publishers Society Awards between 1992 (Luzifers Tanz) and 2005 (Hoch-Zeiten, from Sonntag aus Licht) (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 1213). The score of Momente, published just before the composer's death in 2007, won this prize for the ninth time (Deutscher Musikeditionspreis 2009 [3]) In the early 1990s, Stockhausen reacquired the licenses to most of the recordings of his music he had made to that point, and started his own record company to make this music permanently available on Compact Disc (Maconie 2005, 47778).

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Featured composer
Invited by Walter Fink, he was the ninth composer featured in the annual Komponistenportrt of the Rheingau Musik Festival in 1999.

Death
Stockhausen died of sudden heart failure on the morning of 5 December 2007 in Krten, North Rhine-Westphalia (Bumer 2007). He had just the night before finished a work recently commissioned for performance by the Mozart Orchestra of Bologna (Bumer 2007).
Grave of the Composer

Compositions
Stockhausen wrote 370 individual works. He often departs radically from musical tradition and his work is influenced by Olivier Messiaen, Edgard Varse, and Anton Webern, as well as by film (Stockhausen 1996b) and by painters such as Piet Mondrian (Stockhausen 1996a, 94; Texte 3, 9293; Toop 1998) and Paul Klee (Maconie 2005, 187).

1950s
Stockhausen began to compose in earnest only during his third year at the conservatory (Kurtz 1992, 2627). His early student compositions remained out of the public eye until, in 1971, he published Chre fr Doris, Drei Lieder for alto voice and chamber orchestra, Choral for a capella choir (all three from 1950), and a Sonatine for Violin and Piano (1951) (Maconie 1990, 56 and 11). In August 1951, just after his first Darmstadt visit, Stockhausen began working with a form of athematic serial composition that rejected the twelve-tone technique of Schoenberg (Felder 1977, 92). He characterized many of these earliest compositions (together with the music of other, like-minded composers of the period) as punktuelle ("punctual" or "pointist" music, commonly mistranslated as "pointillist") Musik, though one critic concluded after analysing several of these early works that Stockhausen "never really composed punctually" (Sabbe 1981). Compositions from this phase include Kreuzspiel (1951), the Klavierstcke IIV (1952the fourth of this first set of four Klavierstcke, titled Klavierstck IV, is specifically cited by Stockhausen as an example of "punctual music" in

Karlheinz Stockhausen Texte 2, 19), and the first (unpublished) versions of Punkte and Kontra-Punkte (1952) (Texte 2, 20). However, several works from these same years show Stockhausen formulating his "first really ground-breaking contribution to the theory and, above all, practice of composition" (Toop 2005, 3), that of "group composition" (Toop 2005, 3), found in Stockhausen's works as early as 1952 and continuing to the present time (Toop 2005, 3). This principle was first publicly described by Stockhausen in a radio talk from December 1955, titled "Gruppenkomposition: Klavierstck I" (Texte 1, 6374). In December 1952, he composed a Konkrete Etde, realized in Pierre Schaeffer's Paris musique concrte studio. In March 1953, he moved to the NWDR studio in Cologne and turned to electronic music with two Electronic Studies (1953 and 1954), and then introducing spatial placements of sound sources with his mixed concrte and electronic work Gesang der Jnglinge (195556). Experiences gained from the Studies made plain that it was an unacceptable oversimplification to regard timbres as stable entities (Texte 1, 56). Reinforced by his studies with Meyer-Eppler, beginning in 1955, Stockhausen formulated new "statistical" criteria for composition, focussing attention on the aleatoric, directional tendencies of sound movement, "the change from one state to another, with or without returning motion, as opposed to a fixed state" (Decroupet and Ungeheuer 1998, 9899). Stockhausen later wrote, describing this period in his compositional work, "The first revolution occurred from 1952/53 as musique concrte, electronic tape music, and space music, entailing composition with transformers, generators, modulators, magnetophones, etc; the integration of all concrete and abstract (synthetic) sound possibilities (also all noises), and the controlled projection of sound in space" (Stockhausen 1989b, 127; reprinted in Schwartz & Childs 1998, 374). His position as "the leading German composer of his generation" (Toop 2001) was established with Gesang der Jnglinge and three concurrently composed pieces in different media: Zeitmasze for five woodwinds, Gruppen for three orchestras, and Klavierstck XI (Kohl 1998a, 61). The principles underlying the latter three compositions are presented in Stockhausen's best-known theoretical article, ". . . wie die Zeit vergeht . . ." (". . . How Time Passes . . ."), first published in 1957 in vol. 3 of Die Reihe (Texte 1, 99139). His work with electronic music and its utter fixity led him to explore modes of instrumental and vocal music in which performers' individual capabilities and the circumstances of a particular performance (e.g., hall acoustics) may determine certain aspects of a composition. He called this "variable form" (Wrner 1973, 101105). In other cases, a work may be presented from a number of different perspectives. In Zyklus (1959), for example, he began using graphic notation for instrumental music. The score is written so that the performance can start on any page, and it may be read upside down, or from right to left, as the performer chooses (Stockhausen, Texte 2, 73100). Still other works permit different routes through the constituent parts. Stockhausen called both of these possibilities "polyvalent form" (Stockhausen, Texte 1, 24151), which may be either open form (essentially incomplete, pointing beyond its frame), as with Klavierstck XI (1956), or "closed form" (complete and self-contained) as with Momente (196264/69) (Kaletha 2004, 9798). In many of his works, elements are played off against one another, simultaneously and successively: in Kontra-Punkte ("Against Points", 195253), which, in its revised form became his official "opus 1", a process leading from an initial "point" texture of isolated notes toward a florid, ornamental ending is opposed by a tendency from diversity (six timbres, dynamics, and durations) toward uniformity (timbre of solo piano, a nearly constant soft dynamic, and fairly even durations). In Gruppen (195557), fanfares and passages of varying speed (superimposed durations based on the harmonic series) are occasionally flung between three full orchestras, giving the impression of movement in space (Maconie 2005, 486). In his Kontakte for electronic sounds (optionally with piano and percussion) (195860), he achieved for the first time an isomorphism of the four parameters of pitch, duration, dynamics, and timbre (Stockhausen 1962, 40).

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1960s
In 1960, Stockhausen returned to the composition of vocal music (for the first time since Gesang der Jnglinge) with Carr for four choirs and four orchestras (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 18). Two years later, he began an expansive cantata titled Momente (196264/69), for solo soprano, four choir groups and thirteen instrumentalists (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 18). In 1963, Stockhausen created Plus-Minus, "2 7 pages for realisation" containing basic note materials and a complex system of transformations to which those materials are to be subjected in order to produce an unlimited number of different compositions (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 20; Toop 2005, 17578). Through the rest of the 1960s, he continued to explore such possibilities of "process composition" in works for live performance, such as Prozession (1967), Kurzwellen, and Spiral (both 1968), culminating in the verbally described "intuitive music" compositions of Aus den sieben Tagen (1968) and Fr kommende Zeiten (196870) (Fritsch 1979; Kohl 1981, 19293, 22751; Kohl 1998b, 7; Toop 2005, 19192). Some of his later works, such as Ylem (1972) and the first three parts of Herbstmusik (1974), also fall under this rubric (Maconie 2005, 254 and 36668). Several of these process compositions were featured in the all-day programmes presented at Expo 70, for which Stockhausen composed two more similar pieces, Pole for two players, and Expo for three (Kohl 1981, 19293; Maconie 2005, 32324). In other compositions, such as Stop for orchestra (1965), Adieu for wind quintet (1966), and the Dr. K Sextett, which was written in 196869 in honour of Alfred Kalmus of Universal Edition, he presented his performers with more restricted improvisational possibilities (Maconie 2005, 262, 26768, 31920). He pioneered live electronics in Mixtur (1964/67/2003) for orchestra and electronics (Kohl 1981, 51163), Mikrophonie I (1964) for tam-tam, two microphones, two filters with potentiometers (6 players) (Maconie 1972; Maconie 2005, 25557), Mikrophonie II (1965) for choir, Hammond organ, and four ring modulators (Peters 1992), and Solo for a melody instrument with feedback (1966) (Maconie 2005, 26265). Improvisation also plays a part in all of these works, but especially in Solo (Maconie 2005, 264). He also composed two electronic works for tape, Telemusik (1966) and Hymnen (196667) (Kohl 2002; Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 21). The latter also exists in a version with partially improvising soloists, and the third of its four "regions" in a version with orchestra (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 21). At this time, Stockhausen also began to incorporate pre-existent music from world traditions into his compositions (Kohl 1981, 9395; Texte 4, 46876 [4]). Telemusik was the first overt example of this trend (Kohl 2002, 96). In 1968, Stockhausen composed the vocal sextet Stimmung, for the Collegium Vocale Kln, an hour-long work based entirely on the overtones of a low B-flat (Toop 2005, 39). In the following year, he created Fresco for four orchestral groups, a Wandelmusik ("foyer music") composition (Maconie 2005, 321). This was intended to be played for about five hours in the foyers and grounds of the Beethovenhalle auditorium complex in Bonn, before, after, and during a group of (in part simultaneous) concerts of his music in the auditoriums of the facility (Maconie 2005, 32123). The overall project was given the title Musik fr die Beethovenhalle (Maconie 2005, 296). This had precedents in two collective-composition seminar projects that Stockhausen gave at Darmstadt in 1967 and 1968: Ensemble and Musik fr ein Haus (Gehlhaar 1968; Ritzel 1970; Iddon 2004; Maconie 2005, 321), and would have successors in the "park music" composition for five spatially separated groups, Sternklang ("Star Sounds") of 1971, the orchestral work Trans, composed in the same year and the thirteen simultaneous "musical scenes for soloists and duets" titled Alphabet fr Lige (1972) (Maconie 2005, 33436, 338, 34143).

1970s
Beginning with Mantra for two pianos and electronics (1970), Stockhausen turned to formula composition, a technique which involves the projection and multiplication of a single, double, or triple melodic-line formula (Kohl 198384a; Kohl 1990; Kohl 2004). Sometimes, as in Mantra and the large orchestral composition with mime soloists, Inori, the simple formula is stated at the outset as an introduction. He continued to use this technique (e.g., in the two related solo-clarinet pieces, Harlekin ["Harlequin"] and Der kleine Harlekin ["The Little Harlequin"] of 1975, and the orchestral Jubilum ["Jubilee"] of 1977) through the completion of the opera-cycle Licht in 2003

Karlheinz Stockhausen (Blumrder 1982; Conen 1991; Kohl 198384a; Kohl 1990; Kohl 1993; Kohl 2004; Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 10). Some works from the 1970s did not employ formula techniquee.g., the vocal duet "Am Himmel wandre ich" ("In the Sky I am Walking", one of the 13 components of the multimedia Alphabet fr Lige, 1972), "Laub und Regen" ("Leaves and Rain", from the theatre piece Herbstmusik (1974), the unaccompanied-clarinet composition Amour, and the choral opera Atmen gibt das Leben ("Breathing Gives Life", 1974/77)but nevertheless share its simpler, melodically oriented style (Conen 1991, 57). Two such pieces, Tierkreis ("Zodiac", 197475) and In Freundschaft ("In Friendship", 1977, a solo piece with versions for virtually every orchestral instrument), have become Stockhausen's most widely performed and recorded compositions (Anon. 2007a; Deruchie 2007; Nordin 2004). This dramatic simplification of style provided a model for a new generation of German composers, loosely associated under the label neue Einfachheit or New Simplicity (Andraschke 1981). The best-known of these composers is Wolfgang Rihm, who studied with Stockhausen in 197273. His orchestral composition Sub-Kontur (197475) quotes the formula of Stockhausen's Inori (197374), and he has also acknowledged the influence of Momente on this work (Frobenius 1981, 53 + note 5960). Other large works from this decade include the orchestral Trans (1971) and two music-theatre compositions utilizing the Tierkreis melodies: Musik im Bauch ("Music in the Belly") for six percussionists (1975), and the science-fiction "opera" Sirius (197577) for eight-channel electronic music with soprano, bass, trumpet, and bass clarinet, which has four different versions for the four seasons, each lasting over an hour and a half (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 2325).

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19772003
Between 1977 and 2003, he composed seven operas in a cycle titled Licht: Die sieben Tage der Woche ("Light: The Seven Days of the Week") (Maconie 2005, 403544). The Licht cycle deals with the traits associated in various historical traditions with each weekday (Monday = birth and fertility, Tuesday = conflict and war, Wednesday = reconciliation and cooperation, Thursday = traveling and learning, etc.) and with the relationships between three archetypal characters: Michael, Lucifer, and Eve (Kohl 198384b, 489; Stockhausen Texte 6:15256, 175, 200201). Each of these characters dominates one of the operas (Donnerstag [Thursday], Samstag [Saturday], and Montag [Monday], respectively), the three possible pairings are foregrounded in three others, and the equal combination of all three is featured in Mittwoch (Wednesday) (Kohl 1990, 274).

Stockhausen's conception of opera was based significantly on ceremony and ritual, with influence from the Japanese Noh theatre (Stockhausen, Conen, and Hennlich 1989, 282), as well as Judeo-Christian and Vedic traditions (Bruno 1999, 134). In 1968, at the time of the composition of Aus den sieben Tagen, Stockhausen had read a biography by Satprem about the Bengali guru Sri Aurobindo (Guerreri 2009), and subsequently he also read many of the published writings by Aurobindo himself. The title of Licht owes something to Aurobindo's theory of "Agni" (the Hindu and Vedic fire deity), developed from two basic premises of nuclear physics; Stockhausen's definition of a formula and, especially, his conception of the Licht superformula, also owes a great deal to Sri Aurobindo's category of the "supramental" (Peters 2003, 227). Similarly, his approach to voice and text sometimes departed from traditional usage: Characters were as likely to be portrayed by instrumentalists or dancers as by singers, and a few parts of Licht (e.g., Luzifers Traum from Samstag, Welt-Parlament from Mittwoch, Lichter-Wasser and Hoch-Zeiten from Sonntag) use written or improvised texts in simulated or invented languages (Kohl 198384b, 499; Moritz 2005; Stockhausen 1999, 1825; Stockhausen 2001b, 20; Stockhausen 2003, 20). The seven operas were not composed in "weekday order" but rather starting (apart from Jahreslauf in 1977, which became the first act of Dienstag) with the "solo" operas and working toward the more complex ones: Donnerstag

Stockhausen on 7 March 2004 during the mix-down of the recording of Angel Processions from Sonntag aus Licht, in Sound Studio N, Cologne. (Photo: Kathinka Pasveer)

Karlheinz Stockhausen (197880), Samstag (198183), Montag (198488), Dienstag (1977/198791), Freitag (199194), Mittwoch (199597), and finally Sonntag (19982003) (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 37, 2648). Stockhausen had dreams of flying throughout his life, and these dreams are reflected in the Helikopter-Streichquartett (the third scene of Mittwoch aus Licht), completed in 1993. In it, the four members of a string quartet perform in four helicopters flying independent flight paths over the countryside near the concert hall. The sounds they play are mixed together with the sounds of the helicopters and played through speakers to the audience in the hall. Videos of the performers are also transmitted back to the concert hall. The performers are synchronized with the aid of a click track, transmitted to them and heard over headphones (Stockhausen 1996c, 215). The first performance of the piece took place in Amsterdam on 26 June 1995, as part of the Holland Festival (Stockhausen 1996c, 216). Despite its extremely unusual nature, the piece has been given several performances, including one on 22 August 2003 as part of the Salzburg Festival to open the Hangar-7 venue (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 7), and the German premire on 17 June 2007 in Braunschweig as part of the Stadt der Wissenschaft 2007 Festival (Stockhausen-Stiftung 2007). The work has also been recorded by the Arditti Quartet. In 1999, BBC producer Rodney Wilson asked Stockhausen to collaborate with Stephen and Timothy Quay on a film for the fourth series of Sound on Film International. Although Stockhausen's music had been used for films previously (most notably, parts of Hymnen in Nicolas Roeg's Walkabout in 1971), this was the first time he had been asked to provide music specially for the purpose. He adapted 21 minutes of material taken from his electronic music for Freitag aus Licht, calling the result Zwei Paare (Two Couples), and the Brothers Quay created their animated film, which they titled In Absentia, based only on their reactions to the music and the simple suggestion that a window might be an idea to use (Anon. 2001). When, at a preview screening, Stockhausen saw the film, which shows a madwoman writing letters from a bleak asylum cell, he was moved to tears. The Brothers Quay were astonished to learn that his mother had been "imprisoned by the Nazis in an asylum, where she later died. This was a very moving moment for us as well, especially because we had made the film without knowing any of this" (Aita 2001).

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20032007
After completing Licht, Stockhausen embarked on a new cycle of compositions, based on the hours of the day, entitled Klang ("Sound"). Twenty-one of these pieces were completed before the composer's death (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 4950). The works from this cycle performed to date are First Hour: Himmelfahrt (Ascension), for organ or synthesizer, soprano and tenor (20042005); Second Hour: Freude (Joy) for two harps (2005); Third Hour: Natrliche Dauern (Natural Durations) for piano (20052006); and Fourth Hour: Himmels-Tr (Heaven's Door) for a percussionist and a little girl (2005) (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 49). The Fifth Hour, Harmonien (Harmonies), is a solo in three versions for flute, bass clarinet, and trumpet (2006) (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 49); the bass clarinet and flute versions were premired in Krten on 11 July 2007 and 13 July 2007, respectively (Stockhausen 2007b and Stockhausen 2007c), and the trumpet version was premired on 2 August 2008 in London at a BBC Proms concert (Stockhausen-Stiftung 2008, 7). The Sixth through Twelfth hours are chamber-music works based on the material from the Fifth Hour (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 49). Of these, the Seventh (Balance, for flute, English horn, and bass clarinet), Ninth (Hoffnung, for string trio), and Tenth, Glanz (commission of the Asko Ensemble and the Holland Festival), were premired on 22 August (Stockhausen-Stiftung 2008, 9), 31 August (Stockhausen-Stiftung 2008, 10), and 19 June (Beer 2008; Voermans 2008), respectively. The premire of the Sixth (Schnheit, for flute, trumpet, and bass clarinet) took place on 5 October 2009 at the Grande Auditrio of the Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, and that of the Twelfth, Erwachen, on 13 October 2009 in Brussels. The Thirteenth Hour, Cosmic Pulsesan electronic work made by superimposing 24 layers of sound, each having its own spatial motion, among eight loudspeakers placed around the concert hallwas premired in Rome on 7 May 2007 at Auditorium Parco della Musica, (Sala Sinopoli) (Stockhausen 2007a). Hours 14 through 21 are solo pieces for bass voice, baritone voice, basset-horn, horn, tenor voice, soprano voice, soprano saxophone, and flute,

Karlheinz Stockhausen respectively, each with electronic accompaniment of a different set of three layers from Cosmic Pulses (Stockhausen-Verlag 2008, 50). Of these, the Twentieth (Edentia for soprano saxophone and electronic music) was premired on 6 August 2008 (Mischke 2008), the Nineteenth (Urantia for soprano and electronic music) on 8 November 2008 in London, the Fourteenth (Havona for bass voice and electronic music) on 10 January 2009 in Paris (Stockhausen-Stiftung 2008, 15 and 13), and the Twenty-first (Paradies, for flute and electronic music) at the Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, at the Laeiszhalle in Hamburg on 24 August 2009. All of the remaining pieces were first performed in the context of the collective premiere of the cycle, at the Festival MusikTriennale Kln on 89 May 2010, in 176 individual concerts (Gimpel 2010).

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Theories
In the 1950s and early 1960s, Stockhausen published a series of articles that established his importance in the area of music theory. Although these include analyses of music by Mozart, Debussy, Bartk, Stravinsky, Goeyvaerts, Boulez, Nono, Johannes Fritsch, Michael von Biel, and, especially, Webern (Texte 1:2431, 3944, 7585, 8698; Texte 2:13639, 14966, 170206; Texte 3:23638; Texte 4:66263), the items on compositional theory directly related to his own work are regarded as the most important generally. "Indeed, the Texte come closer than anything else currently available to providing a general compositional theory for the postwar period" (Morgan 1975, 16). His most celebrated article is "... wie die Zeit vergeht ..." (". . . How Time Passes . . ."), first published in the third volume of Die Reihe (1957). In it, he expounds a number of temporal conceptions underlying his instrumental compositions Zeitmae, Gruppen, and Klavierstck XI. In particular, this article develops (1) a scale of twelve tempos analogous to the chromatic pitch scale, (2) a technique of building progressively smaller, integral subdivisions over a basic (fundamental) duration, analogous to the overtone series, (3) musical application of the concept of the partial field (time fields and field sizes) in both successive and simultaneous proportions, (4) methods of projecting large-scale form from a series of proportions, (5) the concept of "statistical" composition, (6) the concept of "action duration" and the associated "variable form", and (7) the notion of the "directionless temporal field" and with it, "polyvalent form" (Stockhausen Texte 1:99139). Other important articles from this period include "Musik im Raum" ("Music in Space", 1958, Texte 1:15275), "Musik und Graphik" ("Music and Graphics", 1959, Texte 1:17688), "Momentform" (1960, Texte 1:189210), "Die Einheit der musikalischen Zeit" ("The Unity of Musical Time", 1961, Texte 1:21121; Stockhausen 1962), and "Erfindung und Entdeckung" ("Invention and Discovery", 1961, Texte 1:22258), the last summing up the ideas developed up to 1961. Taken together, these temporal theories suggested that the entire compositional structure could be conceived as "timbre": since "the different experienced components such as color, harmony and melody, meter and rhythm, dynamics, and form correspond to the different segmental ranges of this unified time" [Texte 1:120], the total musical result at any given compositional level is simply the "spectrum" of a more basic durationi.e., its "timbre," perceived as the overall effect of the overtone structure of that duration, now taken to include not only the "rhythmic" subdivisions of the duration but also their relative "dynamic" strength, "envelope," etc... Compositionally considered, this produced a change of focus from the individual tone to a whole complex of tones related to one another by virtue of their relation to a "fundamental"a change that was probably the most important compositional development of the latter part of the 1950s, not only for Stockhausen's music but for "advanced" music in general. (Morgan 1975, 6) Some of these ideas, considered from a purely theoretical point of view (divorced from their context as explanations of particular compositions) drew significant critical fire (Backus 1962, Fokker 1968, Perle 1960). For this reason, Stockhausen ceased publishing such articles for a number of years, as he felt that "many useless polemics" about these texts had arisen, and he preferred to concentrate his attention on composing (Texte 4:13). Through the 1960s, although he taught and lectured publicly (Texte 3:196211), Stockhausen published little of an analytical or theoretical nature. Only in 1970 did he again begin publishing theoretical articles, with "Kriterien", his

Karlheinz Stockhausen six seminar lectures for the Darmstdter Ferienkurse (Texte 3:22229).

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Reception
Musical influence
Stockhausen's two early Electronic Studies (especially the second) had a powerful influence on the subsequent development of electronic music in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in the work of the Italian Franco Evangelisti and the Poles Andrzej Dobrowolski and Wodzimierz Kotoski (Skowron 1981, 39). The influence of his Kontra-Punkte, Zeitmasse and Gruppen may be seen in the work of many composers, including Igor Stravinsky's Threni (195758) and Movements for piano and orchestra (195859) and other works up to the Variations: Aldous Huxley In Memoriam (196364), whose rhythms "are likely to have been inspired, at least in part, by certain passages from Stockhausen's Gruppen" (Neidhffer 2005, 340). Though music of Stockhausen's generation may seem an unlikely influence, Stravinsky said in a 1957 conversation: I have all around me the spectacle of composers who, after their generation has had its decade of influence and fashion, seal themselves off from further development and from the next generation (as I say this, exceptions come to mind, Krenek, for instance). Of course, it requires greater effort to learn from one's juniors, and their manners are not invariably good. But when you are seventy-five and your generation has overlapped with four younger ones, it behooves you not to decide in advance "how far composers can go," but to try to discover whatever new thing it is makes the new generation new. (Stravinsky and Craft 1959, 133) Amongst British composers, Sir Harrison Birtwistle readily acknowledges the influence of Stockhausen's Zeitmae (especially on his two wind quintets, Refrains and Choruses and Five Distances) and Gruppen on his work more generally (Cross 2000, 48; Cross 2001; Hall 1984, 3 and 78; Hall 1998, 99 and 108; Pace 1996, 27). Brian Ferneyhough says that, although the "technical and speculative innovations" of Klavierstcke IIV, Kreuzspiel and Kontra-Punkte escaped him on first encounter (Ferneyhough 1988), they nevertheless produced a "sharp emotion, the result of a beneficial shock engendered by their boldness" (Ferneyhough 1988) and provided "an important source of motivation (rather than of imitation) for my own investigations" (Ferneyhough 1988). While still in school, he became fascinated upon hearing the British premire of Gruppen, and listened many times to the recording of this performance, while trying to penetrate its secretshow it always seemed to be about to explode, but managed nevertheless to escape unscathed in its corebut scarcely managed to grasp it. Retrospectively, it is clear that from this confusion was born my interest for the formal questions which remain until today. (Ferneyhough 1988) With respect to Stockhausen's later work, he said, I have never subscribed (whatever the inevitable personal distance) to the thesis according to which the many transformations of vocabulary characterizing Stockhausen's development are the obvious sign of his inability to carry out the early vision of strict order that he had in his youth. On the contrary, it seems to me that the constant reconsideration of his premises has led to the maintenance of a remarkably tough thread of historical consciousness which will become clearer with time. . . . I doubt that there has been a single composer of the intervening generation who, even if for a short time, did not see the world of music differently thanks to the work of Stockhausen. (Ferneyhough 1988) In a short essay describing Stockhausen's influence on his own work, Richard Barrett concludes that "Stockhausen remains the composer whose next work I look forward most to hearing, apart from myself of course" and names as works that have had particular impact on his musical thinking Mantra, Gruppen, Carr, Klavierstck X, Inori, and Jubilum (Barrett 1998).

Karlheinz Stockhausen French composer Jean-Claude loy regards Stockhausen as the most important composer of the second half of the twentieth century, and cites virtually "all his catalog of works" as "a powerful discoveration [sic], and a true revelation" (loy 2008). Dutch composer Louis Andriessen acknowledged the influence of Stockhausen's Momente in his pivotal work Contra tempus of 1968 (Schnberger 2001). German composer Wolfgang Rihm, who studied with Stockhausen, was influenced by Momente, Hymnen, and Inori (Williams 2006, 382). Jazz musicians such as Miles Davis (Bergstein 1992), Cecil Taylor, Charles Mingus, Herbie Hancock, Yusef Lateef (Feather 1964; Tsahar 2006), and Anthony Braxton (Radano 1993, 110) cite Stockhausen as an influence. At the Cologne ISCM Festival in 1960, the Danish composer Per Nrgrd heard Stockhausen's Kontakte as well as pieces by Kagel, Boulez, and Berio. He was profoundly affected by what he heard and his music suddenly changed into "a far more discontinuous and disjunct style, involving elements of strict organization in all parameters, some degree of aleatoricism and controlled improvisation, together with an interest in collage from other musics" (Anderson 2001). Stockhausen was influential within pop and rock music as well. Frank Zappa acknowledges Stockhausen in the liner notes of Freak Out!, his 1966 debut with The Mothers of Invention. On the back of The Who's second LP released in the US, "Happy Jack", their primary composer and guitarist Pete Townshend, is said to have "an interest in Stockhausen". Rick Wright and Roger Waters of Pink Floyd also acknowledge Stockhausen as an influence (Macon 1997, 141; Bayles 1996, 222). San Francisco psychedelic groups Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead are said to have done the same (Prendergast 2000, 54); Stockhausen himself says the former band included students of Luciano Berio, and the Grateful Dead were "well orientated toward new music" (Texte 4, 505). Founding members of Cologne-based experimental band Can, Irmin Schmidt and Holger Czukay, both claim they studied with Stockhausen (Irmin Schmidt biography [5]; Holger Czukay biography [6]), and Schmidt is confirmed to have attended the 196566 Cologne Courses for New Music, though Czukay's name does not appear anywhere in the list of registrants (Texte 3, 196, 198, 200). German electronic pioneers Kraftwerk also say they studied with Stockhausen (Flur 2003, 228), and Icelandic vocalist Bjrk has acknowledged Stockhausen's influence (Heuger 1998, 15; Gumundsdttir 1996; Ross 2004, 53 & 55).

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Wider cultural renown


Stockhausen, along with John Cage, is one of the few avant-garde composers to have succeeded in penetrating the popular consciousness (Anon. 2007b; Broyles 2004; Hewett 2007). The Beatles famously included his face on the cover of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (Guy and Llewelyn-Jones 2004, 111). This reflects his influence on the band's own avant-garde experiments as well as the general fame and notoriety he had achieved by that time (1967). In particular, "A Day in the Life" (1967) and "Revolution 9" 1968) were influenced by Stockhausen's electronic music (Aldgate, Chapman, and Marwick 2000, 146; MacDonald 1995, 23334). Stockhausen's name, and the perceived strangeness and unlistenability of his music, was even a punchline in cartoons, as documented on a page on the official Stockhausen web site (Stockhausen Cartoons [7]). Perhaps the most caustic remark about Stockhausen was attributed to Sir Thomas Beecham. Asked "Have you heard any Stockhausen?", he is alleged to have replied, "No, but I believe I have trodden in some" (Lebrecht 1983, 334, annotated on 366: "Apocryphal; source unknown"). Stockhausen's fame is also reflected in works of literature. For example, he is mentioned in Philip K. Dick's 1974 novel Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said (Dick 1993, 101) and in Thomas Pynchon's 1966 novel The Crying of Lot 49. The Pynchon novel features "The Scope", a bar with "a strict electronic music policy". Protagonist Oedipa Maas asks "a hip graybeard" about a "sudden chorus of whoops and yibbles" coming out of "a kind of jukebox." He replies, "That's by Stockhausen... the early crowd tends to dig your Radio Cologne sound. Later on we really swing" (Pynchon 1999, 34).

Karlheinz Stockhausen Later in his life, Stockhausen came to be represented by at least one journalist, John O'Mahony of the Guardian newspaper, as an eccentric, for example being alleged to live an effectively polygamous lifestyle with two women, to whom O'Mahoney referred as his "wives", while at the same time stating he was not married to either of them (O'Mahoney 2001). In the same article, O'Mahony claims Stockhausen said he was born on a planet orbiting the star Sirius, notwithstanding the fact that, in an interview two years earlier, Stockhausen had categorically denied ever saying this (Hollings 1999).

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Criticism
Robin Maconie finds that, "Compared to the work of his contemporaries, Stockhausen's music has a depth and rational integrity that is quite outstanding. . . . His researches, initially guided by Meyer-Eppler, have a coherence unlike any other composer then or since" (Maconie 1989, 17778). Maconie also compares Stockhausen to Beethoven: "If a genius is someone whose ideas survive all attempts at explanation, then by that definition Stockhausen is the nearest thing to Beethoven this century has produced. Reason? His music lasts" (Maconie 1988), and "As Stravinsky said, one never thinks of Beethoven as a superb orchestrator because the quality of invention transcends mere craftsmanship. It is the same with Stockhausen: the intensity of imagination gives rise to musical impressions of an elemental and seemingly unfathomable beauty, arising from necessity rather than conscious design" (Maconie 1989, 178). Christopher Ballantine, while comparing and contrasting the categories of experimental and avant-garde music, concludes that Perhaps more than any other contemporary composer, Stockhausen exists at the point where the dialectic between experimental and avant-garde music becomes manifest; it is in him, more obviously than anywhere else, that these diverse approaches converge. This alone would seem to suggest his remarkable significance. (Ballantine 1977, 244) Igor Stravinsky expressed great, but not uncritical, enthusiasm for Stockhausen's music in the conversation books with Robert Craft (e.g., Craft and Stravinsky 1960, 118) and for years organised private listening sessions with friends in his home where he played tapes of Stockhausen's latest works (Stravinsky 1984, 356; Craft 2002, 141). In an interview published in March 1968, however, he says of an unidentified person, I have been listening all week to the piano music of a composer now greatly esteemed for his ability to stay an hour or so ahead of his time, but I find the alternation of note-clumps and silences of which it consists more monotonous than the foursquares of the dullest eighteenth-century music. ([Craft] 1968, 4) The following October, a report in Sovetskaia Muzyka (Anon. 1968) translated this sentence (and a few others from the same article) into Russian, substituting for the conjunction "but" the phrase "Ia imeiu v vidu Karlkheintsa Shtokkhauzena" ("I am referring to Karlheinz Stockhausen"). When this translation was quoted in Druskin's Stravinsky biography, the field was widened to all of Stockhausen's compositions and Druskin adds for good measure, "indeed, works he calls unnecessary, useless and uninteresting", again quoting from the same Sovetskaia Muzyka article, even though it had made plain that the characterization was of American "university composers" (Druskin 1974, 207). Early in 1995, BBC Radio 3 sent Stockhausen a package of recordings from contemporary artists Aphex Twin, Richie Hawtin (Plastikman), Scanner and Daniel Pemberton, and asked him for his opinion on the music. In August of that year, Radio 3 reporter Dick Witts interviewed Stockhausen about these pieces for a broadcast in October, subsequently published in the November issue of the British publication The Wire asking what advice he would give these young musicians. Stockhausen made suggestions to each of the musicians, who were then invited to respond. All but Plastikman obliged (Witts 1995).

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Controversy
In a press conference in Hamburg on 16 September 2001, Stockhausen was asked by a journalist whether the characters in Licht were for him "merely some figures out of a common cultural history" or rather "material appearances". The composer replied, "I pray daily to Michael, but not to Lucifer. I have renounced him. But he is very much present, like in New York recently" (Stockhausen 2002, 76). The same journalist then asked how the events of September 11th had affected him, and how he viewed reports of the attack in connection with the harmony of humanity represented in Hymnen. He answered: Well, what happened there is, of coursenow all of you must adjust your brainsthe biggest work of art there has ever been. The fact that spirits achieve with one act something which we in music could never dream of, that people practise ten years madly, fanatically for a concert. And then die. [Hesitantly.] And that is the greatest work of art that exists for the whole Cosmos. Just imagine what happened there. There are people who are so concentrated on this single performance, and then five thousand people are driven to Resurrection. In one moment. I couldn't do that. Compared to that, we are nothing, as composers. [...] It is a crime, you know of course, because the people did not agree to it. They did not come to the "concert". That is obvious. And nobody had told them: "You could be killed in the process." (Stockhausen 2002, 7677.) (To see how the excerpt appeared out of its context, and in English translation, see Tommasini 2001.) As a result of the reaction to the press report of Stockhausen's comments, a four-day festival of his work in Hamburg was canceled. In addition, his pianist daughter announced to the press that she would no longer appear under the name "Stockhausen" (Lentricchia and McAuliffe 2003, 7). In a subsequent message, he stated that the press had published "false, defamatory reports" about his comments, and clarified as follows: At the press conference in Hamburg, I was asked if Michael, Eve and Lucifer were historical figures of the past and I answered that they exist now, for example Lucifer in New York. In my work, I have defined Lucifer as the cosmic spirit of rebellion, of anarchy. He uses his high degree of intelligence to destroy creation. He does not know love. After further questions about the events in America, I said that such a plan appeared to be Lucifer's greatest work of art. Of course I used the designation "work of art" to mean the work of destruction personified in Lucifer. In the context of my other comments this was unequivocal. (Stockhausen 2001a)

Honours
Amongst the numerous honors and distinctions that were bestowed upon Stockhausen are: 1964 German gramophone critics award; 1966 and 1972 SIMC award for orchestral works (Italy); 1968 Grand Art Prize for Music of the State of North Rhine-Westfalia; Grand Prix du Disque (France); Member of the Free Academy of the Arts, Hamburg; 1968, 1969, and 1971 Edison Prize (Holland); 1970 Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music; 1973 Member of the Academy of the Arts, Berlin; 1974 Federal Cross of Merit, 1st class (Germany); 1977 Member of the Philharmonic Academy of Rome; 1979 Member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters; 1980 Member of the European Academy of Science, Arts and Letters; 1981 Prize of the Italian music critics for Donnerstag aus Licht; 1982 German gramophone prize (German Phonograph Academy);

Karlheinz Stockhausen 1983 Diapason d'or (France) for Donnerstag aus Licht; 1985 Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France); 1986 Ernst von Siemens Music Prize; 1987 Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Music, London; 1988 Honorary Citizen of the Kuerten community (Gemeinde Krten website [8]); 1989 Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 1990 Prix Ars Electronica, Linz, Austria; 1991 Honorary Fellow of the Royal Irish Academy of Music; Accademico Onorario of the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Caecilia, Rome; Honorary Patron of Sound Projects Weimar; 1992 IMC-UNESCO Picasso Medal; Distinguished Service Medal of the German state North Rhine-Westfalia; German Music Publishers Society Award for the score of Luzifers Tanz (3rd scene of Saturday from Light); 1993 Patron of the European Flute Festival; Diapason d'or for Klavierstcke IXI and Mikrophonie I and II; 1994 German Music Publishers Society Award for the score Jahreslauf (Act 1 of Tuesday from Light); 1995 Honorary Member of the German Society for Electro-Acoustic Music; Bach Award of the city of Hamburg; 1996 Honorary doctorate (Dr. phil. h. c.) of the Free University of Berlin; Composer of the European Cultural Capital Copenhagen; Edison Prize (Holland) for Mantra; Member of the Free Academy of the Arts Leipzig; Honorary Member of the Leipzig Opera; Cologne Culture Prize;

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1997 German Music Publishers Society Award for the score of Weltparlament (1st scene of Wednesday from Light); Honorary member of the music ensemble LIM (Laboratorio de Interpretacin Musical), Madrid; 1999 Entry in the Golden Book of the city of Cologne; 2000 German Music Publishers Society Award for the score of Evas Erstgeburt (Act 1 of Monday from Light); 20002001 The film In Absentia made by the Quay Brothers (England) to concrete and electronic music by Karlheinz Stockhausen won the Golden Dove (first prize) at the International Festival for Animated Film in Leipzig. More awards: Special Jury Mention, Montreal, FCMM 2000; Special Jury Award, Tampere 2000; Special Mention, Golden Prague Awards 2001; Honorary Diploma Award, Cracow 2001; Best Animated Short Film, 50th Melbourne International Film Festival 2001; Grand Prix, Turku Finland 2001; 2001 German Music Publishers Society Award for the score Helicopter String Quartet (3rd scene of Wednesday from Light); Polar Music Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of the Arts; 2002 Honorary Patron of the Sonic Arts Network, England; 2003 German Music Publishers Society Award for the score of Michaelion (4th scene of Wednesday from Light); 2004 Associated member of the Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres & des Beaux-arts (Belgium); Honorary doctorate (Dr. phil. h. c.) of the Queen's University in Belfast; German Music Publishers Society Award for the score of Stop and Start for 6 instrumental groups; 2005 German Music Publishers Society Award for the score of Hoch-Zeiten for choir (5th scene of Sunday from Light).

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Notable students
Maryanne Amacher Gilbert Amy Junsang Bahk Clarence Barlow Gerald Barry Mary Bauermeister Michael von Biel Konrad Boehmer Jean-Yves Bosseur Karl Gottfried Brunotte Boudewijn Buckinx Cornelius Cardew Stephen Chatman Tom Constanten Holger Czukay Hugh Davies Michel Decoust Jean-Claude loy Pter Etvs Julio Estrada Johannes G. Fritsch Renaud Gagneux Rolf Gehlhaar Jacob Gilboa Grard Grisey Jon Hassell York Hller Eleanor Hovda Nicolaus A. Huber Alden Jenks David C. Johnson Will Johnson Jonathan Kramer Helmut Lachenmann Andr Laporte Mario Lavista Henning Lohner Luca Lombardi Vincent McDermott John McGuire Jennifer Helen McLeod Robin Maconie Mesas Maiguashca Pierre Maritan Toms Marco Grard Masson Paul Mfano Costin Miereanu Dary John Mizelle Emmanuel Nunes Gonzalo de Olavide Jorge Peixinho Robert H.P. Platz Zoltn Pongrcz Horaiu Rdulescu Wolfgang Rihm Ingo Schmitt Irmin Schmidt Holger Schring Kurt Schwertsik Gerald Shapiro Makoto Shinohara Roger Smalley Avo Smer Tim Souster Atli Heimir Sveinsson Zsigmond Szathmry Ivan Tcherepnin Serge Tcherepnin Gilles Tremblay Stephen Truelove Claude Vivier Kevin Volans La Monte Young Hans Zender

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Karlheinz Stockhausen Schwartz, Elliott, and Barney Childs, with Jim Fox. 1998. Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music. Expanded edition. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306808196 Sigel, Paul. 2000. "Der deutsche Beitrag auf der Expo70 in Osaka." Arch plus no. 149150 (April): 11633. Reprinted online Thema 5, no. 1 (July 2000) [33] Skowron, Zbigniew. 1981. "Muzyka elektroniczna Karlheinza Stockhausena. Okres prb i doswiadczen" [Karlheinz Stockhausen's electronic music. A period of trials and experiences]. Muzyka: Kwartalnik Instytutu Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk 26, nos. 34:1740. Stenzl, Jrg. 1991. "York Hller's 'The Master and Margarita': A German Opera." Translated by Sue Rose. Tempo New Series, no. 179 (December): 815. Stephens, Suzanne, and Kathinka Pasveer (eds.). 2008. Gedenkschrift fr Stockhausen. Krten: Stockhausen-Stiftung fr Musik. ISBN 978-3-00-023528-3 Stockhausen, Christel. 1978. "Stockhausens Tierkreis: Einfhrung und Hinweise zur praktischen Auffhrung." Melos 45/Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 139 (July/August): 28387. Reprinted together with an English trans. as "Stockhausen's ZODIAC, Introduction and Instructions for Performance Practice", in a booklet now included with the score of Tierkreis. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. Texte zur Musik. 10 vols. Vols. 13 edited by Dieter Schnebel; vols. 410 edited by Christoph von Blumrder. Vols. 13, Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg (1963, 1964, 1971); vols. 46 DuMont Buchverlag (1978, 1989, 1989). Vols. 710 Krten: Stockhausen-Verlag (1998). English edition, as Texts on Music, edited by Jerome Kohl, with translations by Jerome Kohl, Richard Toop, Tim Nevill, Suzanne Stephens, et al. Krten: Stockhausen-Verlag, in preparation. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1962. "The Concept of Unity in Electronic Music". Translated by Elaine Barkin. Perspectives of New Music 1, no. 1 (Autumn): 3948. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1989a. Stockhausen on Music: Lectures and Interviews, edited by Robin Maconie. London and New York: Marion Boyars. ISBN 0-7145-2887-0 (cloth) ISBN 0-7145-2918-4 (pbk) Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1989b. Towards a Cosmic Music. Texts selected and translated by Tim Nevill. Shaftsbury: Element Books. ISBN 1852300841 Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996a. "Electroacoustic Performance Practice". Perspectives of New Music 34, no. 1 (Fall): 74105. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996b. "Kino-Bilder". In Bilder vom Kino: Literarische Kabinettstcke, edited by Wolfram Schtte, 13840. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996c. "Helikopter-Streichquartett". Grand Street 14, no. 4 (Spring, "Grand Street 56: Dreams"):21325. ISBN 1-885490-07-0. Online Variant of this text [34] (some omissions, some supplements, different illustrations). Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1998. "Bildung ist groe Arbeit: Karlheinz Stockhausen im Gesprch mit Studierenden des Musikwissenschaftlichen Instituts der Universitt zu Kln am 5. Februar 1997." In Stockhausen 70: Das Programmbuch Kln 1998. Signale aus Kln: Musik der Zeit 1, edited by Imke Misch and Christoph von Blumrder, 136. Saarbrcken: Pfau-Verlag. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1999. Stockhausen-Kurse Krten 1999: Kompositions-Kurs: Skizzen von Welt-Parlament (1995) fr Chor a capella (mit singenden Dirigenten/Klangregisseur (1. Szene vom Mittwoch aus Licht). Krten: Stockhausen-Verlag. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 2001a. "Message from Professor Karlheinz Stockhausen [35]" (Accessed 27 December 2007) Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 2001b. Stockhausen Courses Krten 2001: Composition Course on Lights-Waters (Sunday Greeting) for Soprano, Tenor, and orchestra with synthesizer (1999). Krten: Stockhausen-Verlag. Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 2002. "Huuuh! Das Pressegesprch am 16. September 2001 im Senatszimmer des Hotel Atlantic in Hamburg [36]". MusikTexte no. 91:6977.

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Karlheinz Stockhausen Toop, Richard. 2001. "Karlheinz Stockhausen". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians ed. S. Sadie and J. Tyrrell. London: Macmillan. Toop, Richard. 2005. Six Lectures from the Stockhausen Courses Krten 2002. Stockhausen-Verlag. ISBN 3-00-016-185-6 Toop, Richard. 2008. "Kulturelle Dissidenten: Die Stockhausen-Klasse der Jahre 1973 und 1974". MusikTexte: Zeitschrift fr neue Musik, no. 116 (February): 4649. Truelove, Stephen. 1984. "Karlheinz Stockhausen's Klavierstck XI: An Analysis of Its Composition via a Matrix System of Serial Polyphony and the Translation of Rhythm into Pitch." DMA diss. Norman: University of Oklahoma. Truelove, Stephen. 1998. "The Translation of Rhythm into Pitch in Stockhausen's Klavierstck XI." Perspectives of New Music 36, no. 1 (Winter): 189220. Tsahar, Assif. 2006. "Gentle Giant". Haaretz Daily Newspaper [Tel-Aviv] (17 March). Ulrich, Thomas. 2006. Neue Musik aus religisem Geist: theologisches Denken im Werk von Karlheinz Stockhausen und John Cage. Saarbrcken: Pfau. ISBN 9783897273283 Voermans, Erik. 2008. "Besluit van een machtig oeuvre". Het Parool (20 June). Wager, Gregg. 1998. "Symbolism as a Compositional Method in the Works of Karlheinz Stockhausen. College Park, Maryland; diss. phil. Free University Berlin, 1996. Wolfson, Richard. 2001. "Hit and mismatch [42]" The Telegraph (5 March). Wrner, Karl Heinz. 1973. Stockhausen: Life and Work. Translated by Bill Hopkins. Berkeley: University of California Press. Williams, Alastair. 2006. "Swaying with Schumann: Subjectivity and Tradition in Wolfgang Rihm's Fremde Szenen IIII and Related Scores". Music and Letters 87, no. 3:37997. Witts, Dick. 1995. "Karlheinz Stockhausen: Advice to Clever Children ... [43]". The Wire, issue 141 (November).

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Listening
Stockhausen website video and audio files [44] Epitonic.com: Karlheinz Stockhausen [45] featuring tracks from Mantra Excerpts from sound archives [46] of Stockhausen's works

External links
Karlheinz Stockhausen official site [47] The Stockhausen Society (International) [48] Catalogues of works by Stockhausen [49] (Stockhausen Verlag) Comprehensive Stockhausen Discography [50] Ingvar Loco Nordins Stockhausen pages [51]

Obituaries
[Editor]. 2007. Karlheinz Stockhausen [52]. The Times (8 December). (English) Ircam-Centre Pompidou, and Franois Decarsin. 2007. Karlheinz Stockhausen: Compositeur allemand n le 22 aot 1928 Mdrath, prs de Cologne, et dcd le 5 dcembre 2007, Krten, o il vivait [53]. (10 December).
(French)

Nonnenmann, Rainer. 2007. In Krten zu Hause und im Universum [54]. Klner Stadt-Anzeiger (7 December). (German)

Karlheinz Stockhausen

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Interviews
Weasel, Gary. 2007. Looping the Loop: Karlheinz Stockhausen [55]. Dazed Digital (31 May).

Further reading
Austin, Kevin. 2010. Kontakte by Karlheinz Stockhausen in Four Channels [56]. eContact! 12.4 Perspectives on the Electroacoustic Work/ Perspectives sur luvre lectroacoustique (August). Montral: CEC. Betsill, Daniel Joseph. 2007. The construction of Stockhausens Heavens Door [57]. Covell, Grant Chu. 2000. Stockhausen is Invisible. [58] La Folia 3/1 (November). Covell, Grant Chu. 2007. Ferneyhough & Stockhausen: Grubby and Gruppen. [59] La Folia (April). Essl, Karlheinz 1989. Aspekte des Seriellen bei Karlheinz Stockhausen [60]. First appeared in Lothar Knessl (Ed.) WIEN MODERN 89, pp.9097. Vienna. Fllmer, Golo. [n.d.] Karlheinz Stockhausen: Spherical Concert Hall [61] (Osaka World Expo, 1970). Medien Kunst Net / Media Art Net.

Richard Strauss
Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known particularly for his operas, Lieder, and tone poems. Strauss, along with Gustav Mahler, represents the extraordinary late flowering of German Romanticism after Richard Wagner, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style. Strauss's music had a profound influence on the development of music in the twentieth century. Strauss was also a prominent conductor.

Life and works


Early life
Strauss was born on 11 June 1864, in Munich, the son of Franz Strauss, who was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich. In his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father. He wrote his first music at the age of six, and continued to write music almost until his death.
Richard Strauss

Richard Strauss

141 During his boyhood Strauss attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra, and he also received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor there. In 1874 Strauss heard his first Wagner operas, Lohengrin and Tannhuser. The influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it. Indeed, in the Strauss household, the music of Richard Wagner was viewed with deep suspicion, and it was not until the age of 16 that Strauss was able to obtain a score of Tristan und Isolde. In later life, Richard Strauss said that he deeply regretted the conservative hostility to Wagner's progressive works.[1] Nevertheless, Strauss's father undoubtedly had a crucial influence on his son's developing taste, not least in Richard's abiding love for the French horn, whose warm sonority always had a central role in his orchestral style.

Richard Strauss, 20 October 1886

In 1882 he entered Munich University, where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music. He left a year later to go to Berlin, where he studied briefly before securing a post as assistant conductor to Hans von Blow, who had been enormously impressed by the young composer's Serenade for wind instruments, composed when he was only 16 years of age. Strauss learnt the art of conducting by observing Blow in rehearsal. Blow was very fond of the young man and decided that Strauss should be his successor as conductor of the Meiningen orchestra when Blow resigned in 1885. Strauss's compositions at this time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn, true to his father's teachings. His remarkably mature first Horn Concerto is representative of this period and is still regularly played. Richard Strauss married soprano Pauline de Ahna on 10 September 1894. She Richard Strauss was famous for being irascible, garrulous, eccentric and outspoken, but the marriage, to all appearances, was essentially happy and she was a great source of inspiration to him. Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others and all his operas contain important soprano roles.

Tone poems
Strauss's style began to change when he met Alexander Ritter, a noted composer and violinist, and the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces. It was Ritter who persuaded Strauss to abandon the conservative style of his youth, and begin writing tone poems; he also introduced Strauss to the essays of Richard Wagner and the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer. Strauss went on to conduct one of Ritter's operas, and later Ritter wrote a poem based on Strauss's own Death and Transfiguration (Tod und Verklrung). This newly found interest resulted in what is widely regarded [2] as Strauss's first piece to show his mature personality, the tone poem Don Juan (1888) which displays a new kind of virtuosity in its bravura orchestral manner. Strauss went on to write a series of increasingly ambitious tone poems: Death and Transfiguration (18881889), Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks (Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche, 189495), Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Also sprach Zarathustra, 1896), Don Quixote (1897), Ein Heldenleben (A Hero's Life, 189798), Sinfonia Domestica (Domestic Symphony, 190203) and An Alpine Symphony (Eine Alpensinfonie), (19111915). One commentator has observed of these works that "no orchestra could exist without his tone poems, written to celebrate the glories of the post-Wagnerian symphony orchestra."[3]

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Opera
Around the end of the 19th century, Strauss turned his attention to opera. His first two attempts in the genre, Guntram in 1894 and Feuersnot in 1901 were both controversial works. Guntram was the first significant critical failure of Strauss's career and Feuersnot was considered obscene by some critics.[4] However, in 1905 he produced Salome (based on the play by Oscar Wilde), and the reaction was passionate and extreme. The premire was a major success, with the artists taking more than thirty-eight curtain calls.[5] When it opened at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, there was such a public outcry that it was closed after just one performance. Doubtless, much of this was due to the subject matter, especially the scene in which Salome kisses the lips of the decapitated head of John the Baptist [6] . However, some of the negative reactions stemmed from Strauss's unprecedented use of dissonance for dramatic purposes. Nevertheless, the opera was a sensational success, not only with the general public but also with Strauss's peers: Ravel said that Salome was "stupendous'[7] and Mahler described it as "a live volcano, a subterranean fire".[8] Strauss reputedly financed his house in Garmisch-Partenkirchen completely from the revenues generated by the opera. Strauss's next opera was Elektra, which took his use of dissonance even further (see also: Elektra chord). It was also the first opera in which Strauss collaborated with the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. The two would work together on numerous other occasions. For these later works, however, Strauss moderated his harmonic language somewhat, with the result that works such as Der Rosenkavalier (1910) were great public successes. Strauss continued to produce operas at regular intervals until 1940. These included Ariadne auf Naxos (1912), Die Frau ohne Schatten (1918), Die gyptische Helena (1927), and Arabella (1932), all in collaboration with Hofmannsthal; and Intermezzo (1923), for which Strauss provided his own libretto, Die schweigsame Frau (1934), with Stefan Zweig as librettist; Friedenstag (19356) and Daphne (1937) (libretto by Joseph Gregor and Zweig); Die Liebe der Danae (1940) (with Gregor) and Capriccio (libretto by Clemens Krauss) (1941). Strauss also made live-recording player piano music rolls for the Hupfeld system, all of which survive today.

Solo and chamber works


Strauss's solo and chamber works include early compositions for piano solo in a conservative harmonic style, many of which are lost; a rarely heard string quartet (opus 2); a cello sonata; a piano quartet; the famous violin sonata in E flat which he wrote in 1887; as well as a handful of late pieces. After 1890 he composed very infrequently for chamber groups, his energies being almost completely absorbed with large-scale orchestral works and operas. Four of his chamber pieces are arrangements of portions of his operas, including the Daphne-Etude for solo violin and the string Sextet which is the overture to his final opera: Capriccio. His last independent chamber work, an Allegretto in E for violin and piano, dates from 1940.

Solo instrument with orchestra


Much more extensive was Strauss's output of works for solo instrument or instruments with orchestra. The most famous include two horn concerti, which are still part of the standard repertoire of most horn soloists; a concerto for violin; Burleske for piano and orchestra; the tone poem Don Quixote, for cello, viola and orchestra; a late oboe concerto (inspired by a request from an American soldier and oboist, John de Lancie, whom he met after the war); and the Duet-Concertino for bassoon, clarinet and orchestra, which was one of his last works (1947). Strauss admitted that the Duet-Concertino had an extra-musical "plot", in which the clarinet represented a princess and the

Richard Strauss bassoon a bear; when the two dance together, the bear transforms into a prince.

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Lieder
In 1948, Strauss wrote his last work, Four Last Songs for soprano and orchestra. He reportedly composed them with Kirsten Flagstad in mind, and she gave the first performance, which was recorded. All his life Strauss had produced Lieder, and the Four Last Songs are among his best known, along with "Zueignung", "Ccilie", "Morgen!" and "Allerseelen". Strauss's songs have always been popular with audiences and performers, and are generally considered along with many of his other compositions to be masterpieces of the first rank.

Death and legacy


Richard Strauss died at the age of 85 on 8 September 1949, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Georg Solti, who had arranged Strauss's 85th birthday celebration, also directed an orchestra during Strauss's burial.[9] During the singing of the famous trio from Rosenkavalier, Solti described how "each singer broke down in tears and dropped out of the ensemble, but they recovered themselves and we all ended together." Strauss's wife Paulina was inconsolable. She died six months later.[10] Although Strauss himself declared in 1947 with characteristic self-deprecation, "I may not be a first-rate composer, but I am a first-class second-rate composer" there are commentators who would disagree with his analysis. The Canadian Richard Strauss engraved by pianist Glenn Gould described Strauss in 1962 as "the greatest musical figure [11] Ferdinand Schmutzer (1922) who has lived in this century." There are certainly few composers in the twentieth century who can compare with Strauss in terms of orchestral imagination, and no composer since Wagner has made a more significant contribution to the history of opera. Strauss's late works, modelled quite self-consciously on "the divine Mozart at the end of a life full of thankfulness",[12] are perhaps the most remarkable works by any octogenarian composer.

Strauss in Nazi Germany


In 1933, when Richard Strauss was 68, Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power. Strauss never joined the Nazi party, and studiously avoided Nazi forms of greeting. For reasons of expediency, however, he was initially drawn into cooperating with the early Nazi regime in the hope that Hitler an ardent Wagnerian and music lover who had admired Strauss's work since viewing Salome in 1907 would promote German art and culture. Strauss's need to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law and Jewish grandchildren also motivated his behavior. In 1933, Strauss wrote in his private notebook: I consider the Streicher-Goebbels Jew-baiting as a disgrace to German honour, as evidence of incompetence the basest weapon of untalented, lazy mediocrity against a higher intelligence and greater talent.[13] Meanwhile, far from being an admirer of Strauss's work, Joseph Goebbels maintained expedient cordiality with Strauss only for a period. Goebbels wrote in his diary: Unfortunately we still need him, but one day we shall have our own music and then we shall have no further need of this decadent neurotic.[14] Nevertheless, because of Strauss's international eminence, in November 1933, he was appointed to the post of president of the Reichsmusikkammer, the State Music Bureau. Strauss decided to accept the position but to remain apolitical, a decision which eventually became untenable. He attempted to ignore Nazi bans on performances of

Richard Strauss works by Debussy, Mahler, and Mendelssohn, and continued to work on a comic opera, Die schweigsame Frau, with his Jewish friend and librettist Stefan Zweig. When the opera was premiered in Dresden in 1935, Strauss insisted that Zweig's name appear on the theatrical billing, much to the ire of the Nazi regime. Hitler and Goebbels avoided attending the opera, and it was halted after three performances and subsequently banned by the Third Reich.[15] On 17 June 1935, Strauss wrote a letter to Stefan Zweig, in which he stated: Do you believe I am ever, in any of my actions, guided by the thought that I am 'German'? Do you suppose Mozart was consciously 'Aryan' when he composed? I recognise only two types of people: those who have talent and those who have none.[16] This letter to Zweig was intercepted by the Gestapo and sent to Hitler. Strauss was subsequently dismissed from his post as Reichsmusikkammer president. The 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics nevertheless used Strauss's Olympische Hymne, which he had composed in 1934. Strauss's seeming relationship with the Nazis in the 1930s attracted criticism from some noted musicians, including Arturo Toscanini, who had said, "To Strauss the composer I take off my hat; to Strauss the man I put it back on again," when Strauss had accepted the presidency of the Reichsmusikkammer in 1933.[17] Much of Strauss's motivation in his conduct during the Third Reich was, however, to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice and his Jewish grandchildren from persecution. Both of his grandsons were bullied at school, but Strauss used his considerable influence to prevent the boys or their mother from being sent to concentration camps.[18] Friedenstag In 1938, when the entire nation was preparing for war, Strauss created Friedenstag (Peace Day), a one-act opera set in a besieged fortress during the Thirty Years' War. The work is essentially a hymn to peace and a thinly veiled criticism of the Third Reich. With its contrasts between freedom and enslavement, war and peace, light and dark, this work has a close affinity with Beethoven's Fidelio. Productions of the opera ceased shortly after the outbreak of war in 1939. When his Jewish daughter-in-law Alice was placed under house arrest in Garmisch-Partenkirchen in 1938, Strauss used his connections in Berlin, including the Berlin intendant Heinz Tietjen, to secure her safety. He drove to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in order to argue, albeit unsuccessfully, for the release of his son Franz's Jewish mother-in-law, Marie von Grab. Strauss also wrote several letters to the SS pleading for the release of her children who were also held in camps; his letters were ignored.[19] In 1942, Strauss moved with his family back to Vienna, where Alice and her children could be protected by Baldur von Schirach, the Gauleiter of Vienna. Strauss attempted to ingratiate himself with Goebbels by dedicating the orchestral song Das Bchlein (1942) to him.[20] However, Strauss was unable to protect his Jewish relatives completely; in early 1944, while Strauss was away, Alice and his son Franz were abducted by the Gestapo and imprisoned for two nights. Only Strauss's personal intervention at this point was able to save them, and he was able to take the two of them back to Garmisch where they remained under house arrest until the end of the war. Metamorphosen Strauss completed the composition of Metamorphosen, a work for 23 solo strings, in 1945. The title comes from a profoundly self-examining poem by Goethe which Strauss had considered setting as a choral work.[21] Generally regarded as one of the masterpieces of the string repertoire, Metamorphosen contains Strauss's most sustained outpouring of tragic emotion. When it was published the work provoked controversy from one hostile early critic, Dutchman Matthijs Vermeulen, because Strauss had written the words "In Memoriam" over a quotation therein from the slow movement of Beethoven's Eroica Symphony. Because Beethoven had originally dedicated that funeral march to Napoleon, Vermeulen inferred that Strauss had written his work as a threnody for Hitler.[21] [22] In actual fact, it was the destruction of German culture including the bombing of Strauss's favorite opera house, the Hoftheater in Munich which Strauss was mourning. At the end of war, Strauss wrote in his private diary:

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Richard Strauss The most terrible period of human history is at an end, the twelve year reign of bestiality, ignorance and anti-culture under the greatest criminals, during which Germany's 2000 years of cultural evolution met its doom.[23] In April 1945, Strauss was apprehended by American soldiers at his Garmisch estate. As he descended the staircase he announced to Lieutenant Milton Weiss of the US Army, "I am Richard Strauss, the composer of Rosenkavalier and Salome." Lt. Weiss, who, as it happened, was also a musician, nodded in recognition. An 'Off Limits' sign was subsequently placed on the lawn to protect Strauss;[24] and the American oboist, John de Lancie, asked Strauss to compose an oboe concerto. Initially dismissive of the idea, Strauss completed this late masterpiece, his Oboe Concerto, before the end of the year.

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Works
See List of compositions by Richard Strauss.

Operas
See List of operas by Richard Strauss.

Ballet music
Josephslegende (The Legend of Joseph), Op. 63 (1914) Schlagobers (Whipped Cream), Op. 70 (1921/2)

Tone poems
Aus Italien, Op. 16 (1886) Don Juan, Op. 20 (1889) Macbeth, Op. 23 (1888/90) Tod und Verklrung (Death and Transfiguration), Op. 24 (188889) Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks), Op. 28 (1895) Also sprach Zarathustra, Op. 30 (1896) Don Quixote, Op. 35 (1898) Ein Heldenleben, Op. 40 (1899) Symphonia Domestica (Domestic Symphony), Op. 53 (1904) Eine Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony), Op. 64 (1915)

Other orchestral works


Symphony in D minor (1880) Symphony in F minor, Op. 12 (1883) Festive Prelude for orchestra with organ (1913) Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, suite for orchestra Op. 60 (1917) Film music for Der Rosenkavalier (1925) Japanese Festival Music (1940) Metamorphosen, for 23 solo strings (1945)

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Concertante
Romance for Clarinet and Orchestra (1879) Violin Concerto in D minor, Op. 8 (1882) Horn Concerto No. 1 in E flat major, Op. 11 (1882/83) Romance for Cello and Orchestra (1883) Burleske for piano and orchestra (18861890) Parergon zur Symphonia Domestica, for piano (left hand) and orchestra, Op. 73 (1925; ded. Paul Wittgenstein) Panathenenzug, for piano (left hand) and orchestra, Op. 74 (19261927; ded. Wittgenstein) Horn Concerto No. 2 in E flat major (1942) Oboe Concerto in D major (1945) Duett-Concertino, for clarinet and bassoon with string orchestra (1947)

Vocal/Choral
Acht Lieder aus Letzte Bltter, Op. 10 (1885) Ccilie, Op. 27 No. 2 Heimliche Aufforderung ("Secret Invitation"), Op. 27 No. 3 Morgen! ("Tomorrow!"), Op. 27 No. 4 Zwei Gesnge, Op. 34 (1896/97) 1. Der Abend 2. Hymne Wiegenlied ("Lullaby"), Op. 41 No. 1 Deutsche Motette, Op. 62 (1913) Olympische Hymne, for chorus and orchestra (1934) Die Gttin im Putzzimmer (1935) Mnnerchre (1935) An den Baum Daphne (1943) Vier letzte Lieder (Four Last Songs) (1948)

Recordings
Richard Strauss made a number of recordings of his music, as well as music by German and Austrian composers. Harold C. Schonberg in The Great Conductors (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967) says that, while Strauss was a very fine conductor, he often put scant effort into his recordings. The 1929 performances of Till Eulenspiegel and Don Juan with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra have long been considered the best of his early electrical recordings; even the original 78 rpm discs had superior sound for their time and the performances were top-notch and quite exciting at times, despite a noticeable mistake by the French horn soloist in the famous opening passage of Till Eulenspiegel. The breaks for side changes, necessitated by the 78 rpm process, are rather curious because Strauss actually repeated a few notes each time the music resumed; careful editing for LP and CD reissues resolved the repetitions as well as the obvious interruptions in the music. Schonberg focused primarily on Strauss's recordings of Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G minor and Beethoven's Symphony No. 7 in A, as well as noting that Strauss played a breakneck version of Beethoven's ninth symphony in about 45 minutes. Concerning the Beethoven seventh symphony, Schonberg wrote, "There is almost never a ritard or a change in expression or nuance. The slow movement is almost as fast as the following vivace; and the last movement, with a big cut in it, is finished in four minutes, twenty-five seconds. (It should run between seven and eight minutes.)" Schonberg also complained that the Mozart symphony had "no force, no charm, no inflection, with a metronomic rigidity." Peter Gutmann's 1994 review for classicalnotes.com says the performances of the Beethoven fifth and seventh symphonies, as well as Mozart's last three symphonies, are actually quite good, even if they are sometimes unconventional. "The Koch CDs", Gutman wrote, "represent all of Strauss's recordings of works by other composers.

Richard Strauss (The best of his readings of his own famous tone poems and other music are collected on DGG 429 925-2, 3 CDs.) It is true, as the critics suggest, that the readings forego overt emotion, but what emerges instead is a solid sense of structure, letting the music speak convincingly for itself. It is also true that Strauss's tempos are generally swift, but this, too, contributes to the structural cohesion and in any event is fully in keeping with our modern outlook in which speed is a virtue and attention spans are defined more by MTV clips and news sound bites than by evenings at the opera and thousand page novels." Koch Legacy has also released recordings of overtures by Gluck, Carl Maria von Weber, Peter Cornelius and Wagner. The preference for German and Austrian composers in Germany in the 1920s through the 1940s was typical of the German nationalism that existed after World War I. Strauss clearly capitalized on national pride for the great German-speaking composers. One of the more interesting of Strauss's recordings was perhaps the first complete performance of his An Alpine Symphony, made in 1941 and later released by EMI, because Strauss used the full complement of percussion instruments required in this spectacular symphony. The intensity of the performance rivaled that of the digital recording Herbert von Karajan made many years later with the Berlin Philharmonic. There were many other recordings, including some taken from radio broadcasts and concerts, during the 1930s and early 1940s. Undoubtedly, the sheer volume of recorded performances would yield some definitive performances from a very capable and rather forward-looking conductor. In 1944, Strauss celebrated his 80th birthday and conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in recordings of his major orchestral works, as well as the seldom-heard Schlagobers (Whipped Cream) ballet music. Some find more feeling in these performances than in Strauss's earlier recordings, which were recorded on the Magnetophon tape recording equipment. Vanguard Records later issued the recordings on LPs. Some of these recordings have been reissued on CD by Preiser and are of remarkable fidelity. Richard Strauss was the composer of the music on the first compact disc to be commercially released: Deutsche Grammophon's 1983 release of their 1980 recording of Herbert von Karajan conducting the Alpine Symphony.

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Depictions in other media


The English playwright Ronald Harwood wrote Collaboration (2008), a play largely sympathetic of Strauss. Themes in this play interweave with Harwood's more ambiguous treatment of Wilhelm Furtwngler in Taking Sides (1995), and many of the characters and events are mentioned or figure in both plays.

Sources
Kennedy, Michael (1999). Richard Strauss: Man, Musician, Enigma. [25] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58173-7. Kennedy, Michael. "Richard Strauss", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2 Kennedy, Michael (2006). The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4 Gilliam, Bryan. "Richard Strauss", in Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed August 19, 2005), (subscription access) [26] (This article is very different from the one in the 1980 Grove; in particular, the analysis of Strauss's behavior during the Nazi period is more detailed.) Dubal, David. The Essential Canon of Classical Music, North Point Press, 2003. ISBN 0-86547-664-0

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Selective bibliography
Del Mar, Norman (1962). Richard Strauss. London: Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 0-214-15735-0. Tuchman, Barbara W. (1966, reprinted 1980). The Proud Tower chapter 6. Macmillan, London. ISBN 0-333-30645-7. Gilliam, Bryan (1999). The Life of Richard Strauss. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57895-7. Osborne, Charles (1991). The Complete Operas of Richard Strauss. New York City: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80459-X. Wilhelm, Kurt (1989). Richard Strauss: An Intimate Portrait. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01459-0. Youmans, Charles (2005). Richard Strauss's Orchestral Music and the German Intellectual Tradition: the Philosophical Roots of Musical Modernism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34573-1. Karpath, Ludwig and Strauss, Richard (19051936). The handwritten correspondence between Richard Strauss and Ludwig Karpath, covering 31 years was acquired by the National Library of Austria in 1962 from the daughters of Dr. Alfred Marill who was Mr. Karpath's attorney. It consists of approximately 150 items covering Strauss relationships with the Vienna State Opera and other musical events of the period. It stops at the death of Ludwig Karpath in 1936. Dr. Alfred Marill was Mr. Karpath's executor. The terms of the will stipulated that the correspondence between Karpath and Strauss not be published until after Richard Strauss death. In keeping with these terms Dr. Marill transported it to the United States when he emigrated in 1940. After Dr. Marill's death his daughters provided the letters to the library so that Mr. Karpath's wishes could be carried out. There is no evidence that these letters have been published.

External links
Chronological list of Strauss's works [27] Richard Strauss online [28] Free scores by Richard Strauss in the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Richard Strauss in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Works by or about Richard Strauss [29] in libraries (WorldCat catalog) In America with Richard Strauss: Elisabeth Schumann's 1921 diary: in English, German and facsimile, accessed 5 August 2010 [30]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Boyden, M (1999) "Richard Strauss". Weidenfeld & Nicolson Kennedy, Michael. Richard Strauss, Man, Musician, Enigma (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0521027748) (1999), page 69 Kennedy, Richard Strauss, Man, Musician, Enigma, page 395 Ashley, Tim. " Feuersnot (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ reviews/ story/ 0,3604,404766,00. html)". The Guardian (UK), 30 November 2000. Retrieved on 27 October 2007. [5] Puffett, Derrick; Tethys Carpenter, Craig Ayrey, et al. (1989). Richard Strauss, Salome. Cambridge University Press. p.5. ISBN9780521359702. online at Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ABrNsZOXIr4C) [6] Kennedy, page 141 [7] Kennedy, page 145 [8] Kennedy, page 149 [9] Portrait of Sir Georg Solti., documentary (1984), directed by Valerie Pitts [10] Kennedy, 394 [11] Kennedy, page 3 [12] Kennedy, page 365 [13] Kennedy, p.274 [14] Kennedy, page 293 [15] Kennedy, page 285 [16] Kennedy, page 297

Richard Strauss
[17] Kennedy, Michael. Review of "A Confidential Matter: The Letters of Richard Strauss and Stefan Zweig, 19311935". Music & Letters, Vol.59, No.4, October 1978. pp.472475. [18] Kennedy, page 316 [19] Kennedy, page 339 [20] Kennedy, Richard Strauss, Man, Musician, Enigma page 282 [21] Alex Ross, p. 338 [22] Kennedy, page 380 [23] Kennedy, page 361 [24] Ross, Alex. "The Rest is Noise: Listening to the 20th Century" (published by Fourth Estate)

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Igor Stravinsky
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: , tr. Igor' Fdorovi Stravinskij) (17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 6April 1971) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. He is widely acknowledged as one of the most important and influential composers of 20th century music.[1] [2] [3] He was a quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian who was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the century.[4] He became a naturalized US citizen in 1946. In addition to the recognition he received for his compositions, he also achieved fame as a pianist and a conductor, often at the premieres of his works. Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (Russian Ballets): The Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911/1947), and The Rite of Spring (1913). The Rite, whose premiere Igor Stravinsky provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure, and was largely responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary, pushing the boundaries of musical design. After this first Russian phase Stravinsky turned to neoclassicism in the 1920s. The works from this period tended to make use of traditional musical forms (concerto grosso, fugue, symphony), frequently concealed a vein of intense emotion beneath a surface appearance of detachment or austerity, and often paid tribute to the music of earlier masters, for example J. S. Bach and Tchaikovsky. In the 1950s he adopted serial procedures, using the new techniques over his last twenty years. Stravinsky's compositions of this period share traits with examples of his earlier output: rhythmic energy, the construction of extended melodic ideas out of a few two- or three-note cells, and clarity of form, of instrumentation, and of utterance. He also published a number of books throughout his career, almost always with the aid of a collaborator, sometimes uncredited. In his 1936 autobiography, Chronicles of My Life, written with the help of Walter Nouvel, Stravinsky included his infamous statement that "music is, by its very nature, essentially powerless to express anything at all."[5] With Alexis Roland-Manuel and Pierre Souvtchinsky he wrote his 193940 Harvard University Charles Eliot Norton Lectures, which were delivered in French and later collected under the title Potique musicale in 1942 (translated in 1947 as Poetics of Music).[6] Several interviews in which the composer spoke to Robert Craft were published as Conversations with Igor Stravinsky.[7] They collaborated on five further volumes over the following decade.

Igor Stravinsky

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Biography
Russia
Stravinsky was born in 1882 in Oranienbaum (renamed Lomonosov in 1948), Russia and brought up in Saint Petersburg. His childhood, he recalled in his autobiography, was troubled: "I never came across anyone who had any real affection for me."[8] His father, Fyodor Stravinsky, was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in Saint Petersburg,[9] and the young Stravinsky began piano lessons and later studied music theory and attempted some composition. In 1890, Stravinsky saw a performance of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty at the Mariinsky Theater; the performance, his first exposure to an orchestra, mesmerized him.[10] At fourteen, he had mastered Mendelssohn's Piano Concerto in G minor, and the next year, he finished a piano reduction of one of Alexander Glazunov's string quartets.[11] Despite his enthusiasm for music, his parents expected him to become a lawyer. Stravinsky enrolled to study law at the University of Saint Petersburg in 1901, Igor Stravinsky, (1903) but was ill-suited for it, attending fewer than fifty class sessions in four years.[12] By the death of his father in 1902, he had already begun spending more time on his musical studies. Because of the closure of the university in the spring of 1905, in the aftermath of Bloody Sunday, Stravinsky was prevented from taking his law finals, and received only a half-course diploma, in April 1906.[9] Thereafter, he concentrated on music. On the advice of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time, he decided not to enter the Saint Petersburg Conservatoire; instead, in 1905, he began to take twice-weekly private tutelage from Rimsky-Korsakov, who became like a second father to him.[12] These lessons continued until 1908. In 1905 he was betrothed to his cousin Katerina Nossenko, whom he had known since early childhood. They were married on 23 January 1906, and their first two children, Fyodor and Ludmilla, were born in 1907 and 1908 respectively. In 1909, his Feu d'artifice (Fireworks), was performed in Saint Petersburg, where it was heard by Sergei Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. Diaghilev was sufficiently impressed to commission Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations, and then to compose a full-length ballet score, The Firebird.

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Switzerland
Stravinsky travelled to Paris in 1910 to attend the premiere of The Firebird. His family soon joined him, and decided to remain in the West for a time. He moved to Switzerland, where he lived until 1920 in Clarens and Lausanne. During this time he composed three further works for the Ballets RussesPetrushka (1911), written in Lausanne, and The Rite of Spring (1913) and Pulcinella, both written in Clarens. While the Stravinskys were in Switzerland, their second son, Soulima (who later became a minor composer), was born in 1910; and their second daughter, Maria Milena, was born in 1913. During this last pregnancy, Katerina was found to have tuberculosis, and she was placed in a Swiss sanatorium located in Leysin for her confinement. After a brief return to Russia in July 1914 to collect research materials for Les Noces, Stravinsky left his homeland and returned to Switzerland just before the outbreak of World War I brought about the closure of Igor Stravinsky the borders. He was not to return to Russia for nearly fifty years. Stravinsky was one of the few Eastern Orthodox or Russian Orthodox community representatives living in Switzerland at that time and is still remembered as such in Switzerland to date.[13] He had a significant artistic relationship with the Swiss philanthropist Werner Reinhart. He approached Reinhart for financial assistance when he was writing Histoire du soldat (The Soldiers Tale). The first performance was conducted by Ernest Ansermet on 28September 1918, at the Theatre Municipal de Lausanne. Werner Reinhart sponsored and to a large degree underwrote this performance. In gratitude, Stravinsky dedicated the work to Reinhart,[14] and even gave him the original manuscript.[15] [16] Reinhart continued his support of Stravinsky's work in 1919 by funding a series of concerts of his recent chamber music.[17] These included a suite of five numbers from The Soldier's Tale, arranged for clarinet, violin, and piano, which was a nod to Reinhart, who was an excellent amateur clarinettist.[14] [18] The suite was first performed on 8 November 1919, in Lausanne, long before the better-known suite for the seven original performers became widely known.[19] In gratitude for Reinharts ongoing support, Stravinsky dedicated his Three Pieces for Clarinet (composed OctoberNovember 1918) to Reinhart.[14] [20] Reinhart later founded a music library of Stravinskiana at his home in Winterthur.[21]

France
Stravinsky moved to France in 1920, where he formed a business and musical relationship with the French piano manufacturer Pleyel. Pleyel essentially acted as his agent in collecting mechanical royalties for his works, and in return provided him with a monthly income and a studio space in which to work and to entertain friends and business acquaintances. Stravinsky also arranged (and to some extent re-composed) many of his early works for the Pleyela, Pleyel's brand of player piano. Stravinsky did so in a way that made full use of the piano's 88 notes, without regard for the number or span of human fingers and hands. These were not recorded rolls, but were instead marked up from a combination of manuscript fragments and handwritten notes by the French musician, Jacques Larmanjat (musical director of Pleyel's roll department). While many of these works are now part of the standard repertoire, at the time many orchestras found his music beyond their capabilities and unfathomable. Major compositions issued on Pleyela piano rolls include The Rite of Spring, Petrushka, Firebird, Les Noces and Song of the Nightingale. During the 1920s he also recorded Duo-Art rolls for the Aeolian Company in both London and New York, not all of which survive.[22] After a short stay near Paris, Stravinsky moved with his family to the south of France. He returned to Paris in 1934, to live at the rue Faubourg-St. Honor. Stravinsky later remembered this as his last and unhappiest European address; his wife's tuberculosis infected his eldest daughter Ludmila, and Stravinsky himself. Ludmila died in 1938,

Igor Stravinsky Katerina in the following year. Stravinsky spent five months in hospital, during which time his mother also died. Although his marriage to Katerina endured for 33 years, Vera de Bosset (18881982), the true love of his life and later his partner until his death, became his second wife. When Stravinsky met Vera in Paris in February 1921, she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin; however, they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. From then until Katerina's death in 1939, Stravinsky led a double life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. He became a French citizen in 1934.[23] During his latter years in Paris, Stravinsky had developed professional relationships with key people in the United States; he was already working on the Symphony in C for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, and had agreed to lecture at Harvard during the academic year of 193940. When World War II broke out in September 1939, Stravinsky moved to the United States. Vera followed him early in the next year and they were married in Bedford, Massachusetts, on 9 March 1940.[24]

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America
Stravinsky settled down in the Los Angeles area (1260 North Wetherly Drive, West Hollywood)[25] where, in the end, he spent more time as a resident than any other city during his lifetime.[26] He became a naturalized citizen in 1946. Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America at the age of 58 was a very different prospect. For a time, he preserved a ring of emigr Russian friends and contacts, but eventually found that this did not sustain his intellectual and professional life. He was drawn to the growing cultural life of Los Angeles, especially during World War II, when so many writers, musicians, composers, and conductors settled in the area; these included Otto Klemperer, Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, George Balanchine and Arthur Rubinstein. He lived fairly near to Arnold Schoenberg, though he did not have a close relationship with him. Bernard Holland notes that he was especially fond of British writers who often visited him in Beverly Hills, "like W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Dylan Thomas (who shared the composer's taste for hard spirits) and, especially, Aldous Huxley, with whom Stravinsky spoke in French."[27] He settled into life in Los Angeles and sometimes conducted concerts with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the famous Hollywood Bowl as well as throughout the U.S. His plans to write an opera with W. H. Auden coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Craft lived with Stravinsky until the composer's death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor, and factotum for countless musical and social tasks. Stravinsky's unconventional major seventh chord in his arrangement of the Star-Spangled Banner led to an incident with the Boston police on January 15, 1944, but he was only warned that Massachusetts could impose a $100 fine any "rearrangement of the national anthem in whole or in part."[28] [29] [30] The incident soon established itself as a myth in which Stravinsky was supposedly arrested for playing the music.[31] Stravinsky was on the lot of Paramount Pictures when the musical score to the 1956 film The Court Jester (starring Danny Kaye) was being recorded. The red recording in progress light was illuminated to ensure no interruptions, Vic Schoen, the composer of the score, started to conduct a cue but noticed that the entire orchestra had turned to look at Stravinsky, who had just walked into the studio. Schoen said, The entire room was astonished to see this short little man with a big chest walk in and listen to our session. I later talked with him after we were done recording. We went and got a cup of coffee together. After listening to my music Stravinsky had told me You have broken all the rules. At the time I didnt understand his comment because I had been self-taught. It took me years to figure out what he had meant." In 1959, Stravinsky was awarded the Sonning Award, Denmark's highest musical honour. In 1962, he accepted an invitation to return to Leningrad (today known as Saint Petersburg) for a series of concerts.

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153 In 1969, he moved to New York where he lived his last years at the Essex House. Two years later, he died at the age of 88 in New York City and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Sergei Diaghilev. Stravinsky's professional life had encompassed most of the 20th century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard and posthumously received the Grammy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1987. Stravinsky was inducted into the National Museum of Dance C.V. Whitney Hall of Fame in 2004.

Personality
Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to explore and learn about art, literature, and life. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris Grave of Stravinsky in San Michele Island, Venice, Italy collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, but he also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon musagte, 1928). His taste in literature was wide, and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (Andr Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature, including Auden, T. S. Eliot and medieval English verse. At the end of his life, he set Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac. Patronage was never far away. In the early 1920s, Leopold Stokowski gave Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor".[32] The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and was paid for generously. Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London, Amsterdam and New York City all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. Although a notorious philanderer (who was rumoured to have affairs with high-profile partners such as Coco Chanel), Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and money to his sons and daughters.

Stravinsky was also a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church all throughout his life, remarking at one time, "Music praises God. Music is well or better able to praise him than the building of the church and all its decoration; it is the Church's greatest ornament."
[33]

Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.

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Stylistic periods
Stravinsky's career may be divided roughly into three stylistic periods.

Russian Period (circa 19081919)


The first period (excluding some early minor works) began with Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) and achieved prominence with the three ballets composed for Diaghilev. These three works have several characteristics in common: they are scored for an extremely large orchestra; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they are influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation. They also exhibit considerable stylistic development: from the L'Oiseau de feu (The Firebird), which emphasizes certain tendencies in Rimsky-Korsakov and features pandiatonicism conspicuously in the third movement, to the use of polytonality in Petrushka, and the intentionally brutal polyrhythms and dissonances of Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring). The first of the ballets, L'Oiseau de feu, is noted for its imaginative orchestration, evident at the outset from the introduction in 12/8 meter, which exploits the low register of the double bass. Petrushka, the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology, is also distinctively scored. In the third ballet, Le Sacre du printemps, the composer attempted to depict musically the brutality of pagan Russia, which inspired the violent motifs that recur throughout the work. If Stravinsky's stated intention was "to send them all to hell",[34] then he may have rated the 1913 premiere of Le sacre du printemps as a success: it is among the most famous classical music riots, and Stravinsky referred to it frequently as a "scandale" in his autobiography.[35] There were reports of fistfights among the audience, and the need for a police presence during the second act. The real extent of the tumult, however, is open to debate, and these reports may be apocryphal.[36] Other pieces from this period include: Le Rossignol (The Nightingale); Renard (1916); Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) (1918); and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923).

Neoclassical Period (circa 19201954)


The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style extended from roughly 1920, when he adopted a musical idiom similar to that of the Classical period, until 1954, when he turned to twelve-tone serialism. Pulcinella (1920) and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments are Stravinsky's first compositions to feature his re-examination of the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. For this "neo-classical" style Stravinsky abandoned the large orchestras demanded by the ballets, and turned instead largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works. Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon musagte (1928, for the Russian Ballet) and the Dumbarton Oaks Concerto (193738) continued this re-thinking of eighteenth-century musical styles. Works from this period include the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) exemplify not only Stravinsky's return to music of the Classical period, but also his exploration of themes from the ancient Classical world such as Greek mythology. Stravinsky completed his last neo-classical work, the opera The Rake's Progress, in 1951, to a libretto by W. H. Auden based on the etchings of Hogarth. It was almost ignored after it was staged by the Metropolitan Opera in 1953. It was presented by the Santa Fe Opera in its first season in 1957 with Stravinsky in attendance, and this marked the beginning of his long association with the company. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harks back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart. The opera was revived by the Metropolitan Opera in 1997.

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Serial Period (19541968)


Stravinsky began using serial compositional techniques, including dodecaphony, the twelve-tone technique originally devised by Arnold Schoenberg, in the early 1950s (after Schoenberg's death). Robert Craft encouraged this undertaking.[37] He first experimented with non-twelve-tone serial technique in small-scale vocal and chamber works such as the Cantata (1952), Septet (1953), and Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953), and his first composition to be fully based on these non-twelve-tone serial techniques is In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954). Agon (195457) is his first work to include a twelve-tone series, and Canticum Sacrum (1955) is his first piece to contain a movement entirely based on a tone row ("Surge, aquilo").[38] Stravinsky later expanded his use of dodecaphony in works including Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962), which are based on biblical texts. Agon, written from 1954 to 1957, is a ballet choreographed for twelve dancers. It is an important transitional composition between Stravinsky's neo-classical period and his serial style. Some numbers of Agon are reminiscent of the "white-note" tonality of his neo-classic period, while others (for example Bransle Gay) display his re-interpretation of serial methods.

Innovation and influence


The All Music Guide (AMG) claims that Stravinsky was "one of music's truly epochal innovators".[39] The most important aspect of Stravinsky's work aside from his technical innovations, including in rhythm and harmony, is the "changing face" of his compositional style while always "retaining a distinctive, essential identity".[39] He himself was inspired by different cultures, languages and literatures. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable.

Composition
Stravinsky's use of motivic development (the use of musical figures that are repeated in different guises throughout a composition or section of a composition) included additive motivic development. This is where notes are subtracted or added to a motif without regard to the consequent changes in meter. A similar technique may be found as early as the sixteenth century, for example in the music of Cipriano de Rore, Orlandus Lassus, Carlo Gesualdo, and Giovanni de Macque, music with which Stravinsky exhibited considerable familiarity.[40] The Rite of Spring is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati; for example, in the eighth note ostinato on strings accented by eight horns in the section Augurs of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). The work also contains passages where several ostinati clash against one another.

Rhythm
Stravinsky was noted for his distinctive use of rhythm, especially in The Rite of Spring.[41] According to Philip Glass: the idea of pushing the rhythms across the bar lines [...] led the way [...] the rhythmic structure of music became much more fluid and in a certain way spontaneous[42] Glass also praises Stravinsky's "primitive, offbeat rhythmic drive".[43] According to Andrew J. Browne, "Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art."[44] Stravinsky's rhythm and vitality greatly influenced composer Aaron Copland.[45]

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Neoclassicism
Stravinsky's first neo-classical works were the ballet Pulcinella of 1920, and the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds of 1923. Stravinsky may have been preceded in his use of neoclassical devices by composers such as Sergei Prokofiev and Erik Satie. By the late 1920s and 1930s, the use by composers of neoclassicism had become widespread.

Quotation
Stravinsky continued a long tradition, stretching back at least to the fifteenth century in the form of the quodlibet and parody mass, by composing pieces which elaborate on individual works by earlier composers. An early example of this is his Pulcinella of 1920, in which he used music which at the time was attributed to Giovanni Pergolesi as source material, at times quoting it directly and at other times reinventing it. He developed the technique further in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928, based on the musicmostly piano piecesof Tchaikovsky. Later examples of comparable musical transformations include Stravinsky's use of Schubert's Marche militaire No. 1 in Circus Polka (1942) and "Happy Birthday to You" in Greeting Prelude (1955).

Folk material
In Le Sacre du Printemps Stravinsky stripped folk themes to their most basic melodic outlines, and often contorted them beyond recognition with added notes, and other techniques including inversion and diminution.

Orchestra
Like many of the late romantic composers, Stravinsky often called for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. His first Stamp, 2007 breakthrough The Firebird proved him the equal of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and lit the "fuse under the instrumental make up of the 19th century orchestra". In The Firebird he took the orchestra apart and analyzed it.[46] The Rite of Spring on the other hand has been characterized by Aaron Copland as the foremost orchestral achievement in 20th century.[47] Stravinsky also wrote for unique combinations of instruments in smaller ensembles, chosen for their precise tone colours. For example, Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) is scored for clarinet, bassoon, cornet, trombone, violin, double bass and percussion, a strikingly unusual combination for 1918. Stravinsky occasionally exploited the extreme ranges of instruments, most famously at the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravinsky uses the extreme upper reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning.

Reception
Erik Satie wrote an article about Igor Stravinsky that was published in Vanity Fair (1922). Satie had met Stravinsky for the first time in 1910. Satie's attitude towards the Russian composer is marked by deference, as can be seen from the letters he wrote him in 1922, preparing for the Vanity Fair article. With a touch of irony, he concluded one of these letters "I admire you: are you not the Great Stravinsky? I am but little Erik Satie." In the published article, Satie argued that measuring the "greatness" of an artist by comparing him to other artists, as if speaking about some "truth", is illusory: every piece of music should be judged on its own merits, not by comparing it to the standards of other composers. That was exactly what Jean Cocteau had done, when commenting deprecatingly on Stravinsky in his 1918 book Le Coq et l'Arlequin.[48]

Igor Stravinsky According to the Musical Times in 1923: All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war.... What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind.[49] In 1935, American composer Marc Blitzstein compared Stravinsky to Jacopo Peri and C. P. E. Bach, conceding that "There is no denying the greatness of Stravinsky. It is just that he is not great enough".[50] Blitzstein's Marxist position is that Stravinsky's wish was to "divorce music from other streams of life," which is "symptomatic of an escape from reality", resulting in a "loss of stamina his new works show", naming specifically Apollo, the Capriccio, and Le Baiser de la fe.[51] Composer Constant Lambert described pieces such as Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) as containing "essentially cold-blooded abstraction".[52] Lambert continued, "melodic fragments in Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and he described the cadenza for solo drums as "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". He compared Stravinsky's choice of "the drabbest and least significant phrases" to Gertrude Stein's: "Everyday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever".[53] In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1949), Theodor Adorno called Stravinsky an acrobat and spoke of hebephrenic and psychotic traits in several of Stravinsky's works. Contrary to a common misconception, however, Adorno didn't think that the hebephrenic and psychotic imitations Stravinsky's music was supposed to contain were its main fault, as he clearly pointed out in a postscriptum added later to his "Philosophy": Adorno's criticism of Stravinsky is more concerned with the "transition to 'positivity'" Adorno found in Stravinsky's neoclassical works.[54] Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism,[55] but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting," playing off le temps espace (time-space) rather than le temps dure (time-duration) of Henri Bergson.[56] "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself."[57] His "rhythmic procedures closely resemble the schema of catatonic conditions. In certain schizophrenics, the process by which the motor apparatus becomes independent leads to infinite repetition of gestures or words, following the decay of the ego."[58] Stravinsky's reception in Russia and the USSR went back and forth. Performances of his music stopped from around 1933 until the early 1960s, at which point the official position became that one must appreciate Stravinsky.[59] According to Paul Griffiths, The Rake's Progress "gives justification in terms of human psychology, and of the realities of the world, for that obsessional need to repeat and return".[60] While Stravinsky's music has been criticized for its range of styles, scholars had "gradually begun to perceive unifying elements in Stravinsky's music" by the 1980s, including a "'seriousness' of 'tone' or of 'purpose'".[61] However, from the mid-1960s onward Stravinsky's influence is encountered in many musicians' work, including Steve Reich, Phillip Glass and others. He has been honored by the United States Postal Service with a 2 Great Americans series postage stamp.

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Recordings
Igor Stravinsky found recordings a practical and useful tool in preserving his own thoughts on the interpretation of his music. As a conductor of his own music, he recorded primarily for Columbia Records, beginning in 1928 with a performance of the original suite from The Firebird and concluding in 1967 with the 1945 suite from the same ballet. In the late 1940s, he made several recordings for RCA Victor at the Republic Studios in Los Angeles. Although most of his recordings were made with studio musicians, he also worked with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Cleveland Orchestra, the CBC Symphony Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Bavarian Broadcasting Symphony Orchestra. During his lifetime, Stravinsky appeared on several telecasts, including the 1962 world premiere of The Flood on CBS television; although Stravinsky appeared on the telecast, the actual performance was conducted by Robert Craft.[62] Numerous films and videos of the composer have been preserved.

References
Notes
[1] Page 2006; Thodore and Denise Stravinsky 2004, vii. [2] Anonymous 1940. [3] Cohen 2004, 30. [4] Glass 1998 (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ time100/ artists/ profile/ stravinsky. html). [5] Stravinsky 1936, 9192. [6] The names of uncredited collaborators are given in Walsh (2001). [7] Stravinsky and Craft 1959. [8] Stravinsky 1936, quoted in Dubal 2001, 564 [9] Walsh 2001. [10] Dubal, 564. [11] Glazunov, though, thought little of the young Stravinsky's composition skills, calling him unmusical (Dubal 2001, 564). [12] Dubal 2001, 565. [13] "Orthodox Church in Switzerland" (http:/ / switzerland. isyours. com/ e/ guide/ religion/ christianism/ orthodox. html). Switzerland.isyours.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [14] Alberto Martinez Perez <http://www.ampsoft.net/>. "Ragtime Ensemble presents The Soldiers Tale" (http:/ / www. ragtime-ensemble. com/ english/ Presentation. php). Ragtime-ensemble.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [15] "Concert artists guild" (http:/ / www. promusicajoplin. org/ pp/ uploads/ programs/ antares_prog_notes. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [16] "The composer, the antiquarian and the go-between" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3870/ is_/ ai_n19197294). Findarticles.com. 2009-06-02. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [17] "Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center" (http:/ / www. chambermusicsociety. org/ calendar/ 116/ apr-15-17). Chambermusicsociety.org. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [18] "L'Histoire du Soldat" (http:/ / myhome. sunyocc. edu/ ~bridger/ papers/ lhistpaper. htm). Myhome.sunyocc.edu. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [19] "A Musical Feast" (http:/ / www. amusicalfeast. com/ january_29__2008_notes. html). A Musical Feast. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [20] "naxos" (http:/ / www. naxosdirect. com/ title/ 8. 557505). Naxosdirect.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [21] "Kuko.com" (http:/ / www. kuke. com/ kuke/ library/ content/ 8. 557505/ ;jsessionid=869CAA040C41B1FD40B1FAEB1AE3F863. server1). Kuke.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [22] Lawson 1986, and Stravinsky and the Pianola, under External Links. [23] White 1979, p.77 [24] White 1979, p.93 [25] "June 3, 1957, The Daily Mirror, Stravinsky turns 75" (http:/ / latimesblogs. latimes. com/ thedailymirror/ 2007/ 06/ stravinsky_turn. html). Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2007-06-03. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [26] Bernard Holland (11 March 2001). "Stravinsky, a Rare Bird Amid the Palms; A Composer in California, At Ease if Not at Home". The New York Times. [27] Holland 2001 [28] "Stravinsky Liable to Fine" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=F20A1FFE3E59147B93C4A8178AD85F408485F9& ). New York Times. 1944-01-16. . Retrieved 2010-06-22. [29] "Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 249, 9" (http:/ / www. mass. gov/ legis/ laws/ mgl/ 264-9. htm). . [30] According to Michael Steinberg, Liner notes to Stravinsky in America, RCA 09026-68865-2, the police "removed the parts from Symphony Hall."Paul Thom (2007). The Musician as Interpreter (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=31d5lYCsKsUC& pg=PA50& lpg=PA50& dq=Musician+ as+ Interpreter). Penn State Press. ISBN9780271031989. . page 50

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[31] Stephen Walsh (2008). Stravinsky: The Second Exile: France and America, 1934-1971 (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=uzXtKwJQv1gC& lpg=PA152& dq=Stravinsky Arres "Star-Spangled Banner"& pg=PA152#v=onepage& q). University of California Press. ISBN9780520256156. ., page 152 [32] See "Stravinsky, Stokowski and Madame Incognito", pp.73-81, from Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life by Robert Craft [33] "Stravinsky's quotations" (http:/ / www. brainyquote. com/ quotes/ authors/ i/ igor_stravinsky. html). Brainyquote.com. 1971-04-06. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [34] Wenborn 1985, 17, alludes to this comment, without giving a specific source. [35] Stravinsky 1936 [36] See Eksteins 1989, 1016, for an overview of contradictory reportage of the event by participants and the press. [37] NPR show, under External links [38] Straus 2001, 4. [39] AMG (2008). "Igor Stravinsky" biography (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ cg/ amg. dll?p=amg& sql=41:8016~T1), AllMusic. [40] Stravinsky and Craft 1960, 11617. [41] "The Primitive Pulse of Stravinsky's 'Rite of Spring' : NPR Music" (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=9041627). Npr.org. . Retrieved 2010-03-09. [42] Simeone, Craft, and Glass [n.d.] (External links, below). [43] Time Magazine Profile, under External links [44] Browne 1930, 360 [45] BBC Radio 3 programme, "Discovering Music" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ radio3/ discoveringmusic/ ram/ cdm0408appalach. ram) near 33:30 [46] Hazlewood n.d. (External links, below). [47] Copland 1952, 37 [48] Volta 1989, first pages of chapter on contemporaries. [49] Musical Times, October 1923. [50] Blitzstein 1935, 330. [51] Blitzstein 1935, 34647. [52] Lambert 1936, 94. [53] Lambert 1936, 101105. [54] Adorno 2006, 167. [55] Adorno 1973, 2069. [56] Adorno 1973, 19193. [57] Adorno 1973, 195. [58] Adorno 1973, 178. [59] Review: "Searching for Stravinskii's Essence", p.282. Author(s): Simon Karlinsky. Source: Russian Review, Vol. 44, No. 3, (Jul., 1985), pp. 281287. Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review. [60] Paul Griffiths, Igor Stravinsky: The Rake's Progress [place and publisher unknown], 1982. ISBN 0521281997. Quoted in Pasler 1983, 608. [61] Review: "Stravinsky and His Craft: Trends in Stravinsky Criticism and Research", p.608. Author(s): Jann Pasler. Source: The Musical Times, Vol. 124, No. 1688, Russian Music, (Oct., 1983), pp. 605609. Published by: Musical Times Publications Ltd. [62] http:/ / www. boosey. com/ pages/ opera/ moreDetails. asp?musicID=7635

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Bibliography Adorno, Theodor. 1973. Philosophy of Modern Music. Translated by Anne G. Mitchell and Wesley V. Blomster. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-0138-4 Original German edition, as Philosophie der neuen Musik. Tbingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1949. Adorno, Theodor W. 2006. Philosophy of New Music, translated, edited, and with an introduction by Robert Hullot-Kentor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816636664. Anonymous. 1940. "Musical Count". Time Magazine (Monday, March 11). Berry, David Carson. 2006. "Stravinsky, Igor." Europe 1789 to 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire, editors-in-chief John Merriman and Jay Winter, 4:226163. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons. Berry, David Carson. 2008. " The Roles of Invariance and Analogy in the Linear Design of Stravinsky's (http:// dlc.lib.utk.edu/web/ojs/index.php/first/article/view/43) 'Musick to Heare.'" Gamut 1/1. Blitzstein, Marc. 1935. "The Phenomenon of Stravinsky". Musical Quarterly 21, no. 3 (July): 33047. Reprinted 1991, Musical Quarterly 75, no. 4 (Winter): 5169. Browne, Andrew J. 1930. "Aspects of Stravinsky's Work". Music & Letters 11, no. 4 (October): 36066. Online link (http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0027-4224(193010)11:4<360:AOSW>2.0.CO;2-B) accessed 2007-11-19 (subscription access)

Igor Stravinsky Cocteau, Jean. 1918. Le Coq et l'arlequin: notes de la musique. Paris: ditions de la Sirne. Reprinted 1979, with a preface by Georges Auric. Paris: Stock. ISBN 2234010810 English edition, as Cock and Harlequin: Notes Concerning Music, translated by Rollo H. Myers, London: Egoist Press, 1921. Cohen, Allen. 2004. Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-313-32135-3 Copland, Aaron. 1952. Music and Imagination. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Craft, Robert. 1993. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press. Craft, Robert. 1997. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship. Vanderbilt University Press. Dubal, David. 2001. The Essential Canon of Classical Music. New York: North Point Press. Eksteins, Modris. 1989. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Modern Era. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-49856-2 (Reprinted 1990, New York: Anchor Books ISBN 0-385-41202-9; reprinted 2000, Boston: Mariner Books ISBN 0-395-93758-2) Glass, Philip. 1998. Igor Stravinsky Time (Monday, 8 June). Greene, David Mason (1985). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Composers. New York: Doubleday. Holland , Bernard. 2001. "Stravinsky, a Rare Bird Amid the Palms: A Composer in California, at Ease if Not at Home", The New York Times (11 March). Lambert, Constant. 1936. Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Lawson, Rex. 1986. Stravinsky and the Pianola, in Confronting Stravinsky, ed. Pasler. Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05403-2. Lehrer, Jonah. 2007. Igor Stravinsky and the Source of Music, in his Proust Was a Neuroscientist. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0618620109. Page, Tim. 2006. "Classical Music: Great Composers, a Less-Than-Great Poser and an Operatic Impresario". Washington Post (Sunday, 30 July): BW13. Robinson, Lisa. 2004. "Opera Double Bill Offers Insight into Stravinsky's Evolution". The Juilliard Journal Online 19, no. 7 (April). (No longer accessible as of March 2008.) Siegmeister, Elie (ed.). 1943. The Music Lover's Handbook. New York:William Morrow and Company. Slonimsky, Nicolas. 1953. Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. New York: Coleman-Ross. Second edition, New York: Coleman-Ross, 1965, reprinted Washington Paperbacks WP-52, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969, reprinted again Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974 ISBN 0-295-78579-9, and New York: Norton, 2000 ISBN 039332009X (pbk). Straus, Joseph N. 2001. Stravinsky's Late Music. Cambridge Studies in Music Theory and Analysis 16. Cambridge, New York, Port Melbourne, Madrid, and Cape Town: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80220-2 (cloth) ISBN 0-521-60288-2 (pbk) Stravinsky, Igor. 1936. Chronicle of My Life. London: Gollancz. Reprinted as An Autobiography (19031934). London: Marion Boyars, 1990. ISBN 0-714-51082-3. Reprinted, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1998. ISBN 0-393-31856-7. Stravinsky, Igor. 1942. Potique musicale sous forme de six leons. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1959. Conversations with Igor Stravinsky. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. OCLC 896750 Reprinted Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. ISBN 0520040406 Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1962. Expositions and Developments. London: Faber & Faber Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1960. Memories and Commentaries. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. Reprinted 1981, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04402-9 Reprinted 2002, London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571212425 Stravinsky, Thodore, and Denise Stravinsky. 2004. Catherine and Igor Stravinsky: A Family Chronicle 19061940. New York: Schirmer Trade Books; London: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0825672902 Taruskin, Richard. 1996. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra. Two vols. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07099-2

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Igor Stravinsky Volta, Ornella. 1989. Satie Seen through His Letters. London: Boyars. ISBN 0-7145-2980-X. Wallace, Hellen. 2007. Boosey & Hawkes, The Publishing Story. London: Boosey & Hawkes. ISBN 978-0-85162-514-0. Walsh, Stephen. 2000. Stravinsky. A Creative Spring: Russia and France 18821934. London: Jonathan Cape. Walsh, Stephen. 2001. "Stravinsky, Igor." New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition. London: MacMillian. Wenborn, Neil. 1985. Stravinsky. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0711976511. White, Eric Walter (1979). Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN0520039831. Zappa, Frank, and Peter Occhiogrosso. 1989. The Real Frank Zappa Book. New York: Poseidon Press. ISBN 067163870X (reprinted twice in 1990, New York: Fireside Books, ISBN 0671705725 and New York: Picador Books ISBN 0330316257) Further reading Cross, Jonathan (1999). The Stravinsky Legacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN9780521563659. Joseph, Charles M. (2001). Stravinsky Inside Out. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN0300075375. Joseph, Charles M. (2002). Stravinsky and Balanchine, A Journey of Invention. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN0-300-08712-8. Kohl, Jerome (197980). "Exposition in Stravinsky's Orchestral Variations" (http://links.jstor.org/ sici?sici=0031-6016(197923/198022)18:1/2<391:EISOV>2.0.CO;2-5). Perspectives of New Music (Perspectives of New Music) 18 (1/2): 391405. doi:10.2307/832991. Retrieved 2007-11-19.(subscription access) Kundera, Milan; Asher, Linda (translator) (1995). Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN0060171456. Kuster, Andrew T. (2005). Stravinsky's Topology (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder D.M.A. Dissertation ed.). Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com. ISBN1411664582. Stravinsky, Igor (1947). Poetics of Music in the Form of Six Lessons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. OCLC155726113. Wallace, Helen (2007). Boosey & Hawkes, The Publishing Story. London: Boosey & Hawkes Music Ltd. ISBN9780851625140.

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External links
Igor Stravinsky @ Boosey & Hawkes (http://www.boosey.com/stravinsky) Glass, Philip. 1999. "Igor Stravinsky" (Time Magazine profile) (http://www.time.com/time/time100/artists/ profile/stravinsky.html) NY Times obituary by Donal Henahan, April 7, 1971 (http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract. html?res=F30F1EF93A5F127A93C5A9178FD85F458785F9) Hazlewood, Charles. [n.d.] Discovering Music The Firebird (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/ discoveringmusic/ram/cdm0351stravfir.ram) Stravinsky and the Pianola (http://www.pianola.org/history/history_stravinsky.cfm) Multimedia Web Site (http://www.keepingscore.org/sites/default/files/swf/stravinsky/full) Keeping Score: Revolutions in Music: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring Stravinsky A to Z (http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/classical/tchaikovsky/atoz/) van den Toorn, Pieter C. 1987. Stravinsky and the Rite of Spring (http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/ view?docId=ft967nb647&brand=eschol) An audio recording of Stravinsky rehearsing his Symphonies of Wind Instruments in Memory of Debussy in Los Angeles, 1947 (http://radiom.org/detail.php?omid=C.1964.11.16.c1)

Igor Stravinsky Stravinsky conducting the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra in 1961 (film) (http://audiovisual.archives.govt. nz/wiki/index.php/IGOR_STRAVINSKY) Stravinsky Podcast Series by Sony BMG Masterworks (http://podcasts.sonybmgmasterworks.com/category/ music-of-masterworks/stravinsky/) Free scores by Igor Stravinsky in the International Music Score Library Project (French) A biography (http://brahms.ircam.fr/composers/composer/3071/) of Igor Stravinsky, from IRCAM's website. Excerpts from sound archives (http://www.musiquecontemporaine.fr/en/search?disp=all&query=stravinski+ or+stravinsky&exp_inl=on&exp_aud=on&so=ta) of Stravinsky's works Jews and Geniuses (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/3999) On Stravinsky being a Jew or not, and about his antisemitism. See also another response (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/4044) and the original media review (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/article-preview?article_id=4134#fn2) by Robert Craft. Simeone, Lisa, with Robert Craft and Philip Glass. Milestones of the Millennium (NPR show) (http://www.npr. org/programs/specials/milestones/990416.motm.stravinsky.html) Recordings Piano works performed by Alberto Cobo: Three Movements from Petrushka (http://www.superopera.com/mp3/therecital/therecital.htm) Sonata in F-sharp minor (http://www.superopera.com/Stra/stra.htm) Sonata (1924) (http://www.superopera.com/mp3/pclassics/pclassics.htm) Tango (http://www.superopera.com/Stra_Tango/Stra_Tango.htm) Four Russian Peasant Songs ( , ru) by Cantilena. Roman Moiseyev, conductor: 1. On Saints' Days in Chigisakh ( ) 2. Ovsen ( ) 3. The Pike () 4. Master Portly ( )

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Four Russian Peasant Songs (http://www.koegorov.narod.ru/ Stravinsky_Four_Russian_Peasant_Songs_1917-54_Cantilena_Moiseyev.mp3) Three Pieces for Solo Clarinet, performed by Ted Gurch, clarinet: No. 1 (http://www.lunanova.org/podcasts/stravclar1.mp3) No. 2 (http://www.lunanova.org/podcasts/stravclar2.mp3) No. 3 (http://www.lunanova.org/podcasts/stravclar3.mp3) Les Noces performed on pianola by Rex Lawson The Virtuoso Pianolist (http://otherminds.org/shop/Rexcd.html)

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T ru Takemitsu

WARNING: Article could not be rendered - ouputting plain text. Potential causes of the problem are: (a) a bug in the pdf-writer software (b) problematic Mediawiki markup (c) table is too wide Tru TakemitsuTru Takemitsu ( Takemitsu Tru, October 8, 1930 February 20, 1996) was a Japanese composer and writer on aesthetics and music theory. Largely self-taught, Takemitsu possessed consummate skill in the subtle manipulation of instrumental and orchestral timbre. He drew from a wide range of influences, including jazz, popular music, avant-garde procedures and traditional Japanese music, in a harmonic idiom largely derived from the music of Claude Debussy and Olivier Messiaen.McKenzie, Don, "Review: [Untitled] Reviewed Work(s): To the Edge of Dream, for Guitar and Orchestra", Notes, 2nd Ser., vol. 46, no. 1. (Music Library Association, Sep., 1989), 230.Narazaki, Yoko (with Kanazawa Masakata). "Takemitsu, Toru", Grove Dictionary of Music and MusiciansGrove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 4 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).In 1958, he received international attention for his Requiem for strings (1957), which resulted in several commissions from across the world and settled his reputation as the leading Japanese composer of the 20th century."Takemitsu, Toru", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, Ed. Michael Kennedy (music critic)Michael Kennedy, (Oxford, 1996), Oxford Reference Online, Oxford University Press (accessed 16 March 2007) (subscription access). He was the recipient of numerous awards, commissions and honours; he composed over 100 film scoresBurt, Takemitsu's Works, "The Music of Toru Takemitsu", 277280.Wilson, Charles, "Review: Peter Burt, The Music of Toru Takemitsu", Music Analysis, 23/i (Oxford: 2004), 130. and about 130 concert works for ensembles of various sizes and combinations.Burton, Anthony, "Takemitsu, Tru", The Oxford Companion to Music, Ed. Alison Latham, (Oxford University Press, 2002), Oxford Reference Online, (accessed 2 April 2007) (subscription access). He also found time to write a detective novel and appeared frequently on Japanese television as a celebrity chef.Burt, Peter (PDF). The Music of Toru Takemitsu. (Cambridge University Press, 2001), 1. .In the foreword to a selection of Takemitsu's writings in English, conductor Seiji Ozawa writes: "I am very proud of my friend Tru Takemitsu. He is the first Japanese composer to write for a world audience and achieve international recognition."Takemitsu, Tru, "Foreword", Confronting Silence, (California, 1995), viiBiographyYouth Takemitsu was born in Tokyo on October 8, 1930; a month later his family moved to Dalian in the Chinese province then known as Manchuria. He returned to Japan to attend elementary school, but his education was cut short by military conscription in 1944. Takemitsu described his experience of military service at such a young age, under the Japanese Nationalist government, as "... extremely bitter".Takemitsu, Tru, "Contemporary Music in Japan", Perspectives of New Music, vol. 27, no. 2, (Summer 1989), 3. Takemitsu first became really conscious of Classical musicWestern classical music (which was banned in Japan during the war) during his term of military service, in the form of a popular French Song ("Parlez-moi d'amour (song)Parlez-moi d'amour") which he listened to with colleagues in secret, played on a gramophone with a makeshift needle fashioned from bamboo.Kanazawa, Masakata. "Japan, IX, 2(i): Music in the period of Westernization: Western music and Japan up to 1945", Grove Dictionary of Music and MusiciansGrove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 9 March 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).During the post-war U.S. occupation of Japan, Takemitsu worked for the U.S. Armed Forces, but was ill for a long period. Hospitalised and bed-ridden, he took the opportunity to listen to as much Western music as he could on the U.S. Armed Forces network. While deeply affected by these experiences of Western music, he simultaneously felt a need to distance himself from the traditional music of his native Japan. He explained much later, in a lecture at the New York International Festival of the Arts, that for him Japanese traditional music "always recalled the bitter memories of

Tru Takemitsu war".Despite his almost complete lack of musical training, and taking inspiration from what little Western music he had heard, Takemitsu began to compose in earnest at the age of 16: "... I began [writing] music attracted to music itself as one human being. Being in music I found my raison d'tre as a man. After the war, music was the only thing. Choosing to be in music clarified my identity."Quoted in Ohtake, Noriko, "Creative Sources for the Music of Toru Takemitsu", (Scolar, Cambridge, 1993), 3.Though he studied briefly with Yasuji Kiyose beginning in 1948, Takemitsu remained largely self-taught throughout his musical career.Early development and Jikken Kb In 1951 Takemitsu was a founding member of the anti-academic Jikken Kb ( "experimental workshop"): an artistic group established for multidisciplinary collaboration on mixed-media projects, who sought to avoid Japanese artistic tradition.Schlren, Christoph, "Review: Peter Burt, 'The Music of Toru Takemitsu' (Cambridge 2001)", Tempo no. 57, (Cambridge, 2003), 65. The performances and works undertaken by the group introduced several contemporary Western composers to Japanese audiences."Takemitsu, Toru", Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music, ed. Michael Kennedy (Oxford 2004), 722, ISBN 9780198608844. During this period he wrote Saegirarenai Kysoku I ("Uninterrupted Rest I", 1952: a piano work, without a regular rhythmic pulse or barlines); and by 1955 Takemitsu had begun to use electronic tape-recording techniques in such works as Relief Statique (1955) and Vocalism AI (1956) (as pioneered during this period by Pierre Schaeffer and Karlheinz Stockhausen; see Musique concrte). Takemitsu also studied in the early 1950s with the composer Fumio Hayasaka, perhaps best known for the scores he wrote to films by Kenji Mizoguchi and Akira Kurosawa, the latter of whom Takemitsu would collaborate with decades later.In the late 1950s chance brought Takemitsu international attention: his Requiem for string orchestra (1957 listen), written as an homage to Hayasaka, was heard by Igor Stravinsky in 1958 during his visit to Japan. (The NHK had organised opportunities for Stravinsky to listen to some of the latest Japanese music; when Takemitsu's work was put on by mistake, Stravinsky insisted on hearing it to the end.) At a press conference later, Stravinsky expressed his admiration for the work, praising its "sincerity" and "passionate" writing.Burt, 71. Stravinsky subsequently invited Takemitsu to lunch; and for Takemitsu this was an "unforgettable" experience.Takemitsu, Tru [with Tania Cronin and Hilary Tann], "Afterword", Perspectives of New Music, vol. 27 no. 2 (Summer 1989), 205207. After Stravinsky returned to the U.S., Takemitsu soon received a commission for a new work from the Koussevitsky Foundation which, he assumed, had come as a suggestion from Stravinsky to Aaron Copland. For this he composed Dorian Horizon, (1966), which was premired by the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Copland.Influence of Cage; interest in traditional Japanese music During his time with Jikken Kb, Takemitsu came into contact with the experimental work of John Cage; but when the composer Toshi Ichiyanagi returned from his studies in America in 1961, he gave the first Japanese performance of Cage's Concert for Piano and Orchestra. This left a "deep impression" on Takemitsu: he recalled the impact of hearing the work when writing an obituary for Cage, 31 years later.Burt, 92. This encouraged Takemitsu in his use of indeterminate procedures and graphic-score notation, for example in the graphic scores of Ring (1961), Corona for pianist(s) and CoronaII for string(s) (both 1962). In these works each performer is presented with cards printed with coloured circular patterns which are freely arranged by the performer to create "the score".Burt, 94.Although the immediate influence of Cage's procedures did not last in Takemitsu's musicCoral Island, for example for soprano and orchestra (1962) shows significant departures from indeterminate procedures partly as a result of Takemitsu's renewed interest in the music of Anton Weberncertain similarities between Cage's philosophies and Takemitsu's thought remained. For example, Cage's emphasis on timbres within individual sound-events, and his notion of silence "as plenum rather than vacuum", can be aligned with Takemitsu's interest in ma.See Burt, 96 and Takemitsu, "Afterword", 212. Furthermore, Cage's interest in Zen practice (through his contact with Zen Master Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki) seems to have resulted in a renewed interest in the East in general, and ultimately alerted Takemitsu to the potential for incorporating elements drawn from Japanese traditional music into his composition: I must express my deep and sincere gratitude to John Cage. The reason for this is that in my own life, in my own development, for a long period I struggled to avoid being "Japanese", to avoid "Japanese" qualities. It was largely through my contact with John Cage that I came to recognize the value of my own tradition.For Takemitsu, as he explained later in a lecture in 1988, one performance of Japanese traditional music stood out: One day I chanced to see a performance of the Bunraku puppet theater and was very

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Tru Takemitsu surprised by it. It was in the tone quality, the timbre, of the futazao shamisen, the wide-necked shamisen used in Bunraku, that I first recognized the splendor of traditional Japanese music. I was very moved by it and I wondered why my attention had never been captured before by this Japanese music.Thereafter, he resolved to study all types of traditional Japanese music, paying special attention to the differences between the two very different musical traditions; in a diligent attempt to "bring forth the sensibilities of Japanese music that had always been within [him]...". This was no easy task, since in the years following the war traditional music was largely overlooked and ignored: only one or two "masters" continued to keep their art alive, often meeting with public indifference. In conservatoria across the country, even students of traditional instruments were always required to learn the piano.Smaldone, Edward, "Japanese and Western Confluences in Large-Scale Pitch Organization of Tru Takemitsu's November Steps and Autumn", Perspectives of New Music, vol. 27 no.2 (Summer, 1989), 217.From the early 1960s, Takemitsu began to make use of Traditional Japanese musical instrumentstraditional Japanese instruments in his music, and even took up playing the biwaan instrument he used in his score for the film Harakiri (1962 film)Seppuku (1962). In 1967, Takemitsu received a commission from the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, to commemorate the orchestra's 125th anniversary, for which he wrote November Steps for biwa, shakuhachi, and orchestra. Initially, Takemitsu had great difficulty in uniting these instruments from such different musical cultures in one work. Eclipse for biwa and shakuhachi (1966) illustrates Takemitsu's attempts to find a viable notational system for these instruments, which in normal circumstances neither sound together nor are used in works notated in any system of StaveWestern staff notation.Burt, 112.The first performance of November Steps was given in 1967, under Seiji Ozawa. Despite the trials of writing such an ambitious work, Takemitsu maintained "that making the attempt was very worthwhile because what resulted somehow liberated music from a certain stagnation and brought to music something distinctly new and different". The work was distributed widely in the West when it was coupled as the fourth side of an LP release of Messiaen's Turangalla Symphony.Burt, 111.In 1972, Takemitsu, accompanied by Iannis Xenakis, Betsy Jolas, and others, heard Balinese gamelan music in Bali. The experience influenced the composer on a largely philosophical and theological level. For those accompanying Takemitsu on the expedition (most of whom were French musicians), who "... could not keep their composure as I did before this music: it was too foreign for them to be able to assess the resulting discrepancies with their logic", the experience was without precedent. For Takemitsu, however, by now quite familiar with his own native musical tradition, there was a relationship between "the sounds of the gamelan, the tone of the kapachi, the unique scales and rhythms by which they are formed, and Japanese traditional music which had shaped such a large part of my sensitivity".Takemitsu, Mirrors, 6970. In his solo piano work For Away (written for Roger Woodward in 1973), a single, complex line is distributed between the pianist's hands, which reflects the interlocking patterns between the metallophones of a gamelan orchestra.Burt, 1289.A year later, Takemitsu returned to the instrumental combination of shakuhachi, biwa, and orchestra, in the less well known work Autumn (1973). The significance of this work is revealed in its far greater integration of the traditional Japanese instruments into the orchestral discourse; whereas in November Steps, the two contrasting instrumental ensembles perform largely in alternation, with only a few moments of contact. Takemitsu expressed this change in attitude: But now my attitude is getting to be a little different, I think. Now my concern is mostly to find out what there is in common... Autumn was written after November Steps. I really wanted to do something which I hadn't done in November Steps, not to blend the instruments, but to integrate them.Takemitsu, "Afterword", 210.International status and the gradual shift in styleBy 1970, Takemitsu's reputation as a leading member of avant-garde community was well established, and during his involvement with Expo '70 in Osaka, he was at last able to meet more of his Western colleagues, including Karlheinz Stockhausen. Also, during a contemporary music festival in April 1970, produced by the Japanese composer himself ("Iron and Steel Pavilion"), Takemitsu met among the participants Lukas Foss, Peter Sculthorpe, and Vinko Globokar. Later that year, as part of a commission from Paul Sacher and the Zurich Collegium Musicum, Takemitsu incorporated into his Eucalyptus I parts for international performers: flautist Aurle Nicolet, oboist Heinz Holliger, and harpist Ursula Holliger.Burt, 13233.Critical examination of the complex instrumental works written during this period for the new generation of "contemporary soloists" reveals the level of his high-profile engagement with the Western avant-garde, in works

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Tru Takemitsu such as Voice for solo flute (1971), Waves for clarinet, horn, two trombones and bass drum (1976), Quatrain for clarinet, violin, cello, piano and orchestra (1977). Experiments and works that incorporated traditional Japanese musical ideas and language continued to appear in his output, and an increased interest in the traditional Japanese garden began to reflect itself in works such as In an Autumn Garden for gagaku orchestra (1973), and A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden for orchestra (1977).Burt, 133 and 160Throughout this apogee of avant-garde work, Takemitsu's musical style seems to have undergone a series of stylistic changes. Comparison of Green (for orchestra, 1967) and A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden (1977) quickly reveals the seeds of this change. The latter was composed according a pre-compositional scheme, in which pentatonic modes were superimposed over one central pentatonic scale (the so-called "black-key pentatonic") around a central sustained central pitch (F-sharp), and an approach that is highly indicative of the sort of "pantonal" and modal pitch material seen gradually emerging in his works throughout the 1970s.Burt, 170. The former, Green (or November Steps II) written 10 years earlier, is heavily influenced by Debussy,Takemitsu, "Notes on November Steps", Confronting Silence, 83Anderson, Julian, Liner Notes to Toru Takemitsu, Arc/Green, performed by London Sinfonietta/Oliver Knussen/Rolf Hind, SINF CD3-2006. and is, in spite of its very dissonant language (including momentary quarter-tone clusters), largely constructed through a complex web of modal forms. These modal forms are largely audible, particularly in the momentary repose toward the end of the work.Burt, 118124 Thus in these works, it is possible to see both a continuity of approach, and the emergence of a simpler harmonic language that was to characterise the work of his later period.His younger friend and colleague J Kond commented, "If his later works sound different from earlier pieces, it is due to his gradual refining of his basic style rather than any real alteration of it."Kond, J "Introduction: Tru Takemitsu as I remember him", Contemporary Music Review, Vol. 21, Iss. 4, (December 2002), 13.Later works: the sea of tonalityIn a Tokyo lecture given in 1984, Takemitsu identified a melodic Motif (music)motive in his Far Calls. Coming Far! (for violin and orchestra, 1980) that would recur throughout his later works: I wanted to plan a tonal "sea". Here the "sea" is E-flat [Es in German nomenclature]-E-A, a three-note ascending motive consisting of a half step and perfect fourth. [... In Far Calls] this is extended upward from A with two major thirds and one minor third... Using these patterns I set the "sea of tonality" from which many pantonal chords flow.Takemitsu, "Dream and Number", Confronting Silence, 112.Takemitsu's words here highlight his changing stylistic trends from the late 1970s into the 1980s, which have been described as "an increased use of diatonic material [...with] references to tertian harmony and jazz voicing", which do not, however, project a sense of "large-scale tonality".Koozin, Timothy, "Traversing distances: pitch organization, gesture and imagery in the late works of Tru Takemitsu", Contemporary Music Review, Volume 21, Issue 4 (Routledge, December 2002), 22. Many of the works from this period have titles that include a reference to water: Toward the Sea (1981), Rain Tree and Rain Coming (1982), riverrun and I Hear the Water Dreaming (1987). Takemitsu wrote in his notes for the score of Rain Coming that "... the complete collection [is] entitled "Waterscape" ... it was the composer's intention to create a series of works, which like their subject, pass through various metamorphoses, culminating in a sea of tonality."Preface to score of Rain Coming (1982), quoted in Burt, 176. Throughout these works, the S-E-A motive (discussed further below) features prominently, and points to an increased emphasis on the melodic element in Takemitsu's music that began during this later period.Pedal notes played an increasingly prominent role in Takemitsu's music during this period, as in A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden. In Dream/Window, (orchestra, 1985) a pedal D serves as anchor point, holding together statements of a striking four-note motivic gesture which recurs in various instrumental and rhythmic guises throughout. Very occasionally, fully fledged references to diatonic tonality can be found, often in harmonic allusions to early- and pre-20th century composersfor example, Folios for guitar (1974), which Musical quotationquotes from BachJ. S. Bach's St Matthew Passion (Bach)St Matthew Passion, and Family Tree for narrator and orchestra (1984), which invokes the musical language of Ravel and American popular song.By this time, Takemitsu's incorporation of traditional Japanese (and other Eastern) musical traditions with his Western style had become much more integrated. Takemitsu commented, "There is no doubt... the various countries and cultures of the world have begun a journey toward the geographic and historic unity of all peoples... The old and new exist within me with equal weight."Takemitsu,

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Tru Takemitsu "Mirror and Egg", Confronting Silence, 91 and 96.Toward the end of his life, Takemitsu had planned to complete an opera, a collaboration with the novelist Barry Gifford and the director Daniel Schmid, commissioned by the Opra National de Lyon in France. He was in the process of publishing a plan of its musical and dramatic structure with Kenzaburo Oe, but he was prevented from completing it by his death at 65.Allan Kozin, 'Toru Takemitsu, 65, Introspective Composer Whose Music Evokes East and West, Is Dead',The New York Times, (New York, February 21, 1996)Untranslated. Tru Takemitsu and Kenzaburo Oe, Opera wo tsukuru, Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1990. He died of pneumonia while undergoing treatment for bladder cancer on February 20, 1996. Legacy In a memorial issue of Contemporary Music Review, J Kond wrote, "Needless to say, Takemitsu is among the most important composers in Japanese music history. He was also the first Japanese composer fully recognized in the west, and remained the guiding light for the younger generations of Japanese composers."Composer Peter Lieberson shared the following in his program note to the Ocean that has no East and West, written in memory of Takemitsu: "I spent the most time with Toru in Tokyo when I was invited to be a guest composer at his Music Today Festival in 1987. Peter Serkin and composer Oliver Knussen were also there, as was cellist Fred Sherry. Though he was the senior of our group by many years, Toru stayed up with us every night and literally drank us under the table. I was confirmed in my impression of Toru as a person who lived his life like a traditional Zen poet." Schirmer Website Composer ProfileMusic Composers whom Takemitsu cited as influential in his early work include Claude Debussy, Anton Webern, Edgard Varse, Arnold Schoenberg, and Olivier Messiaen.Koozin, Timothy, "Octatonicism in Recent Solo Piano Works of Tru Takemitsu", Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 29, No. 1. (Winter, 1991), 124. (Messiaen was introduced to him by fellow composer Toshi Ichiyanagi, and remained a lifelong influence). Although Takemitsu was reluctant at first to develop an interest in Traditional Japanese Musictraditional Japanese music after his wartime experiences of nationalism, Takemitsu showed an early interest in "... the Japanese Garden in color spacing and form...". The formal garden of the kaiyu-shiki interested him in particular.Anderson, iHe expressed his unusual stance toward compositional theory early on, his lack of respect for the "trite rules of music, rules that are... stifled by formulas and calculations"; for Takemitsu it was of far greater importance that "sounds have the freedom to breathe.... Just as one cannot plan his life, neither can he plan music".Takemitsu, "Nature and Music", Confronting Silence, 5.Takemitsu's sensitivity to instrumental and orchestral timbre can be heard throughout his work, and is often made apparent by the unusual instrumental combinations he specified. This is evident in works such as November Steps, that combine traditional Japanese instruments, shakuhachi and biwa, with a conventional Western orchestra. It may also be discerned in his works for ensembles that make no use of traditional instruments, for example Quotation of Dream (1991), Archipelago S., for 21 players (1993), and ArcI & II (196366/1976). In these works, the more conventional orchestral forces are divided into unconventional "groups". Even where these instrumental combinations were determined by the particular ensemble commissioning the work, "Takemitsu's genius for instrumentation (and genius it was, in my view) ...", in the words of Oliver Knussen, "... creates the illusion that the instrumental restrictions are self-imposed".Knussen, Oliver, Liner notes to Takmitsu: Quotation of Dream, performed by Paul Crossley/Peter Serkin/London Sinfonietta/Oliver Knussen, Deutsche Grammophon: Echo 20/21 453 495-2.Influence of traditional Japanese musicExample 1. Bar 10 of Masque I, Continu, for two flutes (1959). An early example of Takemitsu's incorporation of traditional Japanese music in his writing, shown in the unusually notated quarter-tone pitch bend above. Takemitsu summed up his initial aversion to Japanese (and all non-Western) traditional musical forms in his own words: "There may be folk music with strength and beauty, but I cannot be completely honest in this kind of music. I want a more active relationship to the present. (Folk music in a 'contemporary style' is nothing but a deception)".Takemitsu, "Nature and Music", Confronting Silence, 4. His dislike for the music traditions of his own country in particular were intensified by his experiences of the war, during which Japanese music became associated with militaristic and nationalistic cultural ideals.Burt, 22.Nevertheless, Takemitsu incorporated some idiomatic elements of Japanese music in his very earliest works, perhaps unconsciously. One unpublished set of pieces, Kakehi ("Conduit"), written at the age of 17, incorporates the ry, ritsu and insen scales throughout. When Takemitsu discovered that these "nationalist" elements had somehow found their way into his music, he was so alarmed that he later destroyed the works.Burt, 24. Further examples can be seen for example in the

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Tru Takemitsu quarter-tone glissandi of Masques I (for two flutes, 1959), which mirror the characteristic pitch bends of the shakuhachi, and for which he devised his own unique notation: a held note is tied to an enharmonic spelling of the same pitch class, with a portamento direction across the tie.Burt, 62.Example 2. Opening bars of LitanyIn Memory of Michael Vyner, i Adagio, for solo piano (1950/1989). Another early example of Takemitsu's incorporation of traditional Japanese music in his writing, shown here in the use of the Japanese in scale in the upper melodic line of the right hand part. ( Listen) Other Japanese characteristics, including the further use of traditional pentatonic scales, continued to crop up elsewhere in his early works. In the opening bars of Litany, for Michael Vyner (first movement), a reconstruction from memory by Takemitsu of Lento in Due Movimenti (1950; the original score was lost), pentatonicism is clearly visible in the upper voice, which opens the work on an unaccompanied anacrusis.Burt, 31 and 272. The pitches of the opening melody combine to form the constituent notes of the ascending form of the Japanese in scale.When, from the early 1960s, Takemitsu began to "consciously apprehend" the sounds of traditional Japanese music, he found that his creative process, "the logic of my compositional thought[,] was torn apart", and nevertheless, "hogaku [traditional Japanese music...] seized my heart and refuses to release it".Takemitsu, Tru, "One Sound", Contemporary Music Review vol. 8, part 2,, trans. Hugh de Ferranti, (Harwood, 1994), 34. In particular, Takemitsu perceived that, for example, the sound of a single stroke of the biwa or single pitch breathed through the shakuhachi, could "so transport our reason because they are of extreme complexity... already complete in themselves". This fascination with the sounds produced in traditional Japanese music brought Takemitsu to his idea of ma (usually translated as the space between two objects),Day, Andrea, "Ma", Buildings & Cities in Japanese History, Columbia University Website, accessed 31 May 2007 which ultimately informed his understanding of the intense quality of traditional Japanese music as a whole: Just one sound can be complete in itself, for its complexity lies in the formulation of ma, an unquantifiable metaphysical space (duration) of dynamically tensed absence of sound. For example, in the performance of n, the ma of sound and silence does not have an organic relation for the purpose of artistic expression. Rather, these two elements contrast sharply with one another in an immaterial balance.Takemitsu, "One Sound", 4.In 1970, Takemitsu received a commission from the National Theatre of Japan to write a work for the gagaku ensemble of the Imperial Household; this was fulfilled in 1973, when he completed Shuteiga ("In an Autumn Garden", although he later incorporated the work, as the fourth movement, into his 50 minute long "In an Autumn GardenComplete Version").Burt, 160161. As well as being "... the furthest removed from the West of any work he had written",Poirer, Alain, Tru Takemitsu, (Paris, 1996), 6768. While it introduces certain Western musical ideas to the Japanese court ensemble, the work represents the deepest of Takemitsu's investigations into Japanese musical tradition, the lasting effects of which are clearly reflected in his works for conventional Western ensemble formats that followed.Burt, 166174.Example 3. Standard chords produced by the Sh (instrument)sh, mouth organ of the traditional Japanese court ensemble, gagaku. In Garden Rain (1974, for brass ensemble), the limited and pitch-specific harmonic vocabulary of the Japanese mouth organ, the Sh (instrument)sh (see ex. 3), and its specific timbres, are clearly emulated in Takemitsu's writing for brass instruments; even similarities of performance practice can be seen, (the players are often required to hold notes to the limit of their breath capacity).Burt, 167 and Nuss, Steven, "Looking Forward, looking back: Influences of the Gagaku Tradition in the Music of Toru Takemitsu", Music of Japan Today: Tradition and Innovation, (lecture transcribed by E. Michael Richards, 1992) . In A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden, the characteristic timbres of the sh and its chords (several of which are simultaneous soundings of traditional Japanese pentatonic scales) are emulated in the opening held chords of the wind instruments (the first chord is in fact an exact transposition of the sh's chord, J (i); see ex. 3); meanwhile a solo oboe is assigned a melodic line that is similarly reminiscent of the lines played by the hichiriki in gagaku ensembles.Burt, 173174.Influence of MessiaenExample 4. Comparison of ex.94 from Olivier MessiaenOlivier Messiaen's Technique de mon language musical and one of the principal motives from Takemitsu's Quatrain (1975).).Burt, 155156. The influence of Olivier Messiaen on Takemitsu was already apparent in some of Takemitsu's earliest published works. By the time he composed Lento in Due Movimenti, (1950), Takemitsu had already come into possession of a copy of Messiaen's 8 Prludes (through Toshi Ichiyanagi), and the influence of Messiaen is clearly visible in the work, in the use of modes, the suspension of

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Tru Takemitsu regular metre, and sensitivity to timbre.Burt, 31. Throughout his career Takemitsu often made use of modes from which he derived his musical material, both melodic and harmonic among which Messiaen's modes of limited transposition to appear with some frequency.See for example Burt, 34. In particular, the use of the octatonic, (modeII, or the 8-28 collection), and modeVI (8-25) is particularly common. However, Takemitsu pointed out that he had used the octatonic collection in his music before ever coming across it in Messiaen's music.Koozin, "Octatonicism in the Recent Piano Works of Tru Takemitsu", 125.In 1977, Takemitsu met Messiaen in New York, and during "what was to be a one-hour 'lesson' [but which] lasted three hours... Messiaen played his Quartet for the End of Time for Takemitsu at the piano",Koozin, "Octatonicism in the Recent Solo Piano Works of Tru Takmitsu", 125. which, Takemitsu recalled, was like listening to an orchestral performance.Takemitsu, Tru, "The Passing of Nono, Feldman and Messiaen", Confronting SilenceSelected Writings, trans./ed. Yoshiko Kakudo and Glen Glasgow, (Berkley, 1995), 139141. Takemitsu responded to this with his homage to the French composer, Quatrain, for which he asked Messiaen's permission to use the same instrumental combination for the main quartet, cello, violin, clarinet and piano (which is accompanied by orchestra).Burt, 154 and Koozin, "Octatonicism in the Recent Solo Piano Works of Tru Takemitsu", 125. As well as the obvious similarity of instrumentation, Takemitsu employs several melodic figures that appear to "mimic" certain musical examples given by Messiaen in his Technique de mon langage musical, (see ex. 4).On hearing of Messiaen's death in 1992, Takemitsu was interviewed by telephone, and still in shock, "blurted out, 'His death leaves a crisis in contemporary music!'" Then later, in an obituary written for the French composer in the same year, Takemitsu further expressed his sense of loss at Messiaen's death: "Truly, he was my spiritual mentor... Among the many things I learned from his music, the concept and experience of color and the form of time will be unforgettable." The composition Rain Tree Sketch II, which was to be Takemitsu's final piano piece, was also written that year and subtitled "In Memoriam Olivier Messiaen".Influence of DebussyTakemitsu frequently expressed his indebtedness to Claude Debussy, referring to the French composer as his "great mentor".Takemitsu, Confronting Silence, 3638. As Arnold Whitall puts it: Given the enthusiasm for the exotic and the Orient in these [Debussy and Messiaen] and other French composers, it is understandable that Takemitsu should have been attracted to the expressive and formal qualities of music in which flexibility of rhythm and richness of harmony count for so much.Whitall, Arnold, Liner notes to Takemitsu: Garden Rain, performed by Philip Jones Brass Ensemble, Deutsch Grammophon: Echo 20/21 Series 00289 477 5382.For Takemitsu, Debussy's "greatest contribution was his unique orchestration which emphasizes colour, light and shadow... the orchestration of Debussy has many musical focuses." He was fully aware of Debussy's own interest in Japanese art, (the cover of the first edition of La Mer (Debussy)La Mer, for example, was famously adorned by Hokusai's The Great Wave off Kanagawa).Durand Cie Edition 1905: see Lesure, Franois. "Debussy, Claude, 6: Debussy and currents of ideas", Grove Dictionary of Music and MusiciansGrove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 14 June 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access). For Takemitsu, this interest in Japanese culture, combined with his unique personality, and perhaps most importantly, his lineage as a composer of the French musical tradition running from Rameau and Jean-Baptiste LullyLully through Berlioz in which colour is given special attention, gave Debussy his unique style and sense of orchestration.Takemitsu, Tru, "Dream and Number", Confronting Silence, 110.During the composition of Green (November Steps II, for orchestra, 1967: "steeped in the sound-color world of the orchestral music of Claude Debussy")Frank, Andrew, "Review: Orchestral and Instrumental Music: Tru Takemitsu: Green", Notes, 2nd ser., vol. 33, no. 4 (June 1977), 934. Takemitsu said he had taken the scores of Debussy's Prlude l'aprs-midi d'un faunePrlude l'Aprs-midi d'un Faune and Jeux to the mountain villa where both this work and November Steps I were composed. For Oliver Knussen, "the final appearance of the main theme irresistibly prompts the thought that Takemitsu may, quite unconsciously, have been attempting a latterday Japanese Aprs-midi d'un Faune".Quoted in Anderson, i. Details of orchestration in Green, such as the prominent use of antique cymbals, and tremolandi harmonies in the strings, clearly point to the influence of Takemitsu's compositional mentor, and of these works in particular.Burt, 118.In Quotation of Dream (1991), direct Musical quotationquotations from Debussy's La Mer and Takemitsu's earlier works relating to the sea are incorporated into the musical flow ("stylistic jolts were not intended"), depicting the landscape outside the Japanese

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Tru Takemitsu garden of his own music.Knussen, 56.MotivesSeveral recurring musical motives can be heard in Takemitsu's works. In particular the pitch motive E-E-A can be heard in many of his later works, whose titles refer to water in some form (Toward the Sea, 1981; Rain Tree Sketch, 1982; I Hear the Water Dreaming, 1987). Example 5. Various examples of Takemitsu's S-E-A motive, derived from the German spelling of the notes E, E, A ("Es-E-A"). When spelt in German (Es-E-A), the motive can be seen as a musical "transliteration" of the word "sea". Takemitsu used this motive (usually transposed) to indicate the presence of water in his "musical landscapes", even in works whose titles do not directly refer to water, such as A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden (1977; see ex. 5).Burt, 176216.Musique ConcrteDuring Takemitsu's years as a member of the Jikken Kb, he experimented with compositions of musique concrte (and a very limited amount of electronic music, the most notable example being Stanza II for harp and tape written later in 1972).Burt, 43. In Water Music (1960 listen), Takemitsu's source material consisted entirely of sounds produced by droplets of water. His manipulation of these sounds, through the use of highly percussive envelopes, often results in a resemblance to traditional Japanese instruments, such as the tsuzumi and n ensembles.See Burt, 45.Aleatory techniquesOne aspect of John Cage's compositional procedure that Takemitsu continued to use throughout his career, was the use of aleatoryindeterminacy, in which performers are given a degree of choice in what to perform. As mentioned previously, this was particularly used in works such as November Steps, in which musicians playing traditional Japanese instruments were able to play in an orchestral setting with a certain degree of improvisational freedom. However, he also employed a technique that is sometimes called "aleatory counterpoint"Lutosawski, Witold, 5: Stylistic maturity, 196079. "Rae, Charles Bodman", Grove Dictionary of Music and MusiciansGrove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 13 October 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access). in his well-known orchestral work A Flock Descends Into the Pentagonal Garden (1977, at [J] in the score listen),Takemitsu, Tru, A Flock Descends Into the Pentagonal Garden, (Editions Salabert, 1977), 20. and in the score of Arc II: i Textures (1964) for piano and orchestra, in which sections of the orchestra are divided into groups, and required to repeat short passages of music at will. In these passages the overall sequence of events is, however, controlled by the conductor, who is instructed about the approximate durations for each section, and who indicates to the orchestra when to move from one section to next. The technique is commonly found in the work of Witold Lutosawski, who pioneered it in his Jeux vnitiens.Film musicTakemitsu's contribution to film music was considerable; in under 40 years he composed music for over 100 films, Richie, Donald, "Notes on the Film Music of Takemitsu Tru", Contemporary Music Review, vol. 21, iss. 4, 516 (London, 2002), 5. some of which were written for purely financial reasons (such as those written for Noboru Nakamura). However, as the composer attained financial independence, he grew more selective, often reading whole scripts before agreeing to compose the music, and later surveying the action on set, "breathing the atmosphere" whilst conceiving his musical ideas.Richie, 5. One notable consideration in Takemitsu's composition for film was his careful use of silence (also important in many of his concert works), which often immediately intensifies the events on screen, and prevents any monotony through a continuous musical accompaniment. For the first battle scene of Akira Kurosawa's Ran (film)Ran, Takemitsu provided an extended passage of intense elegiac quality that halts at the sound of a single gun shot, leaving the audience with the pure "sounds of battle: cries screams and neighing horses".Richie, 7.Takemitsu attached the greatest importance to the director's conception of the film; in an interview with Max Tessier, he explained that, "everything depends on the film itself... I try to concentrate as much as possible on the subject, so that I can express what the director feels himself. I try to extend his feelings with my music."Tessier, Max, "Takemitsu: Interview". Cinejap, (Paris, 1978), 1.Awards Takemitsu won awards for composition, both in Japan and abroad, including the Prix Italia for his orchestral work Tableau noir in 1958, the Otaka Prize in 1976 and 1981, the Los Angeles Film Critics Award in 1987 (for the film score Ran) and the Grawemeyer Award in 1994 (for Fantasma/Cantos). In Japan, he received the Japan Academy Prize (film)Film Awards of the Japanese Academy for outstanding achievement in music, for soundtracks to the following films: 1979 Ai no borei (film)Ai no borei () 1986 Ran (film)Ran () 1990 Rikyu (film)Rikyu () 1996 Sharaku (film)Sharaku ()He was also invited to attend numerous international festivals throughout his career, and presented lectures and talks at academic institutions across the world. He was made an honorary member of the Akademie der Knste of the DDR in 1979, and the American Institute of Arts and

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Tru Takemitsu Letters in 1985. He was admitted to the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 1985, and the Acadmie des Beaux-Arts in 1986. He is the recipient of the 22nd Suntory Music Award (1990).Takemitsu was posthumously awarded the fourth Glenn Gould Prize in Autumn, 1996. Notable compositionsOrchestral Works Requiem for String Orchestra (1957)Music of Tree (1961)The Dorian Horizon (1966)Green (1967)Winter (1971)A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden (1977)A Way A Lone II for string orchestra (version of A Way a Lone for string quartet)Rain Coming for chamber orchestra (1982)Dream/Window (1985)Twill by TwilightIn Memory of Morton Feldman (1988)Tree Line for chamber orchestra (1988)Visions (1990)I MystreII Les yeux closHow slow the Wind (1991)Archipelago S. for 21 players (1993)Works for soloists and orchestra Arc Part I for piano and orchestra (19631966/1976)I Pile (1963)II Solitude (1966)III Your love and the crossing (1963)Arc Part II for piano and orchestra (19641966/1976)I Textures (1964)II Reflection (1966)III Coda... Shall begin from the end (1966)November Steps for biwa, shakuhachi and orchestra (1967)Asterism for piano and orchestra (1967)Eucalyptus I for flute, oboe, harp and string orchestra (1970)Autumn for biwa, shakuhachi and orchestra (1973)Quatrain for clarinet, violin, cello, piano and orchestra (1975)Far calls. Coming, far! for violin and orchestra (1980)Toward the Sea II for alto flute, harp and string orchestra (version of Toward the Sea for alto flute and guitar (1981))To the Edge of Dream for guitar and orchestra (1983)Orion and Pleiades for cello and orchestra (1984)riverrun for piano and orchestra (1984)I Hear the Water Dreaming for flute and orchestra (1987)NostalghiaIn Memory of Andrei Tarkovsky for violin and string orchestra (1987)A String Around Autumn for viola and orchestra (1989)From Me Flows What You Call Time for five percussionists and orchestra (1990)Fantasma/Cantos for clarinet and orchestra (1991), winner of the Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition.Quotation of Dream for two pianos and orchestra (1991)Electronic and Tape Music Static Relief, magnetic tape (1955)Vocalism AI, magnetic tape (1956)Water Music (1960)Kaidan (1964)Chamber works Le Son Calligraph IIII for four violins, two violas and two cellos (19581960)Ring for flute, terz guitar and lute (1961)Corona II for string(s) graphic work in collaboration with Khei Sugiura (1962)Arc for Strings graphic work (1963)Valeria for violin, cello, guitar, electric organ and two piccolos (1965)Eucalyptus II for flute, oboe and harp (1971)In an Autumn Garden for gagaku orchestra (1973/1979)Garden Rain for brass ensemble (1974)Waves for clarinet, horn, two trombones and bass drum (1976)Quatrain II for clarinet, violin, cello and piano (1977)A Way a Lone for string quartet (1981)Rocking Mirror Daybreak for Violin Duo (1983)Signals from Heaventwo antiphonal fanfares for two brass groups (1987)I Day SignalII Night SignalAnd then I knew 'twas Wind for flute, viola and harp (1992)Piano works Romance (1949)Lento in Due Movimenti (1950, unpublished/original lostrewritten as Litany, 1989)Piano Distance (1961)Corona for pianist(s) graphic score (in collaboration with Khei Sugiura, 1962)Crossing graphic score (in collaboration with Khei Sugiura, 1962)For Away (1973)Les yeux clos (1979)Rain Tree Sketch (1982)LitanyIn Memory of Michael Vyner recomposition of Lento in Due Movimenti (1950/1989)Rain Tree Sketch IIIn Memoriam Olivier Messiaen (1992)Film scores Pitfall (1962 film)Pitfall (Otoshiana), dir. Hiroshi Teshigahara (1962)Harakiri (1962 film)Harakiri, dir. Masaki Kobayashi (1962)Woman in the Dunes, dir. Hiroshi Teshigahara (1964)Kwaidan (film)Kaidan, dir. Masaki Kobayashi (1964)Assassination (film)Assassination, dir. Masahiro Shinoda (1964)The Face of Another (film)The Face of Another, dir. Hiroshi Teshigahara (1966)Samurai Rebellion, dir. Masaki Kobayashi (1967)Double Suicide, dir. Masahiro Shinoda (1969)Dodesukaden, dir. Akira Kurosawa (1970)Empire of Passion, dir. Nagisa Oshima (1978)Ran (film)Ran, dir. Akira Kurosawa (1985)Black Rain (Japanese film)Black Rain, dir. Shohei Imamura (1989)Rising Sun (film)Rising Sun, dir. Philip Kaufman (1993)Other instrumental Masque, for two flutes (1959, 1960)Eclipse, for biwa and shakuhachi (1966)Voice, (1971)Folios for guitar (1974)All in Twilight for guitar (1988)ItinerantIn Memory of Isamu Noguchi, (1989)In the Woods for guitar (1995)Air (1995, last published work)Listening Toru Takemitsu at the Avant Garde ProjectToru Takemitsu : Air, John McMurtery, flute Toru Takemitsu : Voice, John McMurtery, flute Further readingGeneral reference Burt, Peter (2001). The Music of Toru Takemitsu. Cambridge University Press. ISBN0521782201.Ohtake, Noriko (1993). Creative sources for the Music of Toru Takemitsu. Scolar Press. ISBN0859679543.Takemitsu, Toru (1995). Confronting Silence. Fallen Leaf Press. ISBN0914913360.Kreidy, Ziad (2009). TAKEMITSU l'coute de l'inaudible. L'Harmattan. ISBN978-2-296-07763-8. Takemitsu, Tru, with Cronin, Tania and Tann, Hilary,

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Tru Takemitsu "Afterword", Perspectives of New Music, vol. 27, no. 2 (Summer, 1989), 205214, accessible at JSTOR, (subscription access) Takemitsu, Tru, (trans. Adachi, Sumi with Reynolds, Roger), "Mirrors", Perspectives of New Music, vol. 30 no. 1 (Winter, 1992), 3680 accessible at JSTOR, (subscription access) Takemitsu, Tru, (trans. Hugh de Ferranti) "One Sound", Contemporary Music Review, vol. 8, part 2, (Harwood, 1994), 34, accessible at informaworld (subscription access) Takemitsu, Tru, "Contemporary Music in Japan", Perspectives of New Music, vol. 27 no. 2 (Summer, 1989), 198204 accessible at JSTOR, (subscription access) Other references Koozin, Timothy, "Traversing distances: pitch organization, gesture and imagery in the late works of Tru Takemitsu", Contemporary Music Review, vol. 21, no.4, (Taylor & Francis, 2002), 1734 accessible at informaworld (subscription access) Nuss, Steven, "Hearing 'Japanese', hearing Takemitsu", Contemporary Music Review, vol. 21, no.4, (Taylor & Francis, 2002), 3571 accessible at informaworld (subscription access) External links Toru Takemitsu: Complete Works Schott Music Biography Complete Takemitsu Edition (Japanese) Slate article focusing on his film music Interview with Toru Takemitsu(French) A biography of Tru Takemitsu, from IRCAM's website. Excerpts from sound archives of Takemitsu's works.

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Edgard Varse
Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varse, whose name was also spelled Edgar Varse[1] (December 22, 1883 November 6, 1965), was an innovative French-born composer who spent the greater part of his career in the United States. Varse's music features an emphasis on timbre and rhythm. He was the inventor of the term "organized sound", a phrase meaning that certain timbres and rhythms can be grouped together, sublimating into a whole new definition of music. Although his complete surviving works only last about three hours, he has been recognised as an influence by several major composers of the late 20th century. His use of new instruments and electronic resources led to his being known as the "Father of Electronic Music" while Henry Miller described him as "The stratospheric Colossus of Sound".

Biography
Edgard Varse.

Early life
Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varse was born in Paris, but after only a few weeks was sent to be raised by his great-uncle's family in the small town of Villars in Burgundy. There he developed an intense attachment to his maternal grandfather, Claude Cortot. Through his mother's family he was related to the pianist Alfred Cortot. His affection for his grandfather outshone anything he would ever feel for his own parents. In fact, from his earliest years Varse's relationship with his father Henri was extremely antagonistic, developing into what could fairly be called a firm and life-long hatred. Reclaimed by his parents in the late 1880s, in 1893 young Edgard was forced to relocate with them to Turin, Italy (his father was of Italian descent). It was here that he had his first real musical lessons, with

Edgard Varse the long-time director of Turin's conservatory, Giovanni Bolzoni. In 1895 he wrote his first opera, Martin Pas, which is now lost.[2] Never comfortable with Italy, and given his oppressive home-life, a physical altercation with his father forced the situation and Varse left home for Paris in 1903. From 1904 he was a student at the Schola Cantorum (founded by pupils of Csar Franck), where his teachers included Albert Roussel; afterwards he went to study composition with Charles-Marie Widor at the Paris Conservatoire. From this period he composed a number of ambitious orchestral works, but these were only performed by Varse in piano transcriptions, such as his Rhapsodie romane of about 1905, inspired by the Romanesque architecture of the cathedral of St. Philibert in Tournus. He moved to Berlin in 1907 and in the same year married the actress Suzanne Bing. They had one child, a daughter. They divorced in 1913. During these years, Varse became acquainted with Erik Satie, Richard Strauss, Claude Debussy and Ferruccio Busoni, the last two being particular influences on him at the time. He also gained the friendship and support of Romain Rolland and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, whose dipus und die Sphinx he began setting as an opera that was never completed. The first performance of his symphonic poem Bourgogne in Berlin in 1910, the only one of his early orchestral works to be properly performed, caused a scandal. After being invalided out of the French Army during World War I, he moved to the United States in December 1915.

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Early years in the United States


Varse contributed a poem to the Dadaist magazine 391 after an evening of drinking with Francis Picabia on the Brooklyn Bridge.[3] The same magazine claimed that he was orchestrating a "Cold Faucet Dance".[4] Later that year he met Louise McCutcheon (then Norton), who edited another Dadaist magazine, Rogue, with her then-husband.[5] She was to become Louise Varse and a celebrated translator of French poetry whose versions of the work of Arthur Rimbaud for James Laughlin's New Directions imprint were particularly influential. In 1917 Varse made his debut in America conducting the Grande messe des morts by Berlioz. He spent the first few years in the United States, where he was a Romany Marie's caf regular[6] in Greenwich Village, meeting important contributors to American music, promoting his vision of new electronic art music instruments, conducting orchestras, and founding the New Symphony Orchestra, which was short-lived. It was also about this time that Varse began work on his first composition in the United States, Amriques, which was finished in 1921 but would remain unperformed until 1926, when it was premiered by the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski (who had already performed Hyperprism in 1924 and would premiere Arcana in 1927). Virtually all the works he had written in Europe were either lost or destroyed in a Berlin warehouse fire, so in the U.S. he was starting again from scratch. The only surviving work from his early period appears to be the song Un grand sommeil noir, a setting of Verlaine. (He still retained Bourgogne, but destroyed the score in a fit of depression many years later.) It was at the completion of this work that Varse, along with Carlos Salzedo, founded the International Composers' Guild, dedicated to the performances of new compositions of both American and European composers. The ICG's manifesto in July 1921 included the statement that "The present day composers refuse to die. They have realised the necessity of banding together and fighting for the right of each individual to secure a fair and free presentation of his work".[7] In 1922, Varse visited Berlin where he founded a similar German organisation with Busoni. Varse composed many of his pieces for orchestral instruments and voices for performance under the auspices of the ICG during its six year existence. Specifically, during the first half of the 1920s, he composed Offrandes, Hyperprism, Octandre, and Intgrales. He took American citizenship in October 1927.[8]

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Life in Paris
In 1928, Varse returned to Paris to alter one of the parts in Amriques to include the recently constructed ondes Martenot. Around 1930, he composed his most famous non-electronic piece entitled Ionisation, the first to feature solely percussion instruments. Although it was composed with pre-existing instruments, Ionisation was an exploration of new sounds and methods to create them. In 1933, while Varse was still in Paris, he wrote to the Guggenheim Foundation and Bell Laboratories in an attempt to receive a grant to develop an electronic music studio. His next composition, Ecuatorial, completed in 1934, contained parts for fingerboard theremin cellos, and Varse, anticipating the successful receipt of one of his grants, eagerly returned to the United States to finally realize his electronic music.

Back in the United States


Varse wrote his Ecuatorial for two fingerboard Theremins, bass singer, winds and percussion in the early 1930s. It was premiered on April 15 1934, under the baton of Nicolas Slonimsky. Then Varse left New York City, where he had lived since 1915, and moved to Santa Fe, San Francisco and Los Angeles. In 1936 he wrote Density 21.5. By the time Varse returned in late 1938, Leon Theremin had returned to Russia. This devastated Varse, who had hoped to work with Theremin on a refinement of his instrument. Varse had also promoted the theremin in his Western travels, and demonstrated one at a lecture at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque on November 12 1936. The University of New Mexico has an RCA theremin, which may be the same instrument. He was approached by music producer Jack Skurnick resulting in EMS Recordings #401. The record was the first release of Integrales, Density 21.5, Ionization and Octandre and featured Rene le Roy, flute, the Juilliard Percussion Orchestra and the New York Wind Ensemble conducted by Frederic Waldman. When, in the late 1950s, Varse was approached by a publisher about making Ecuatorial available, there were very few thereminslet alone fingerboard thereminsto be found, so he rewrote/relabelled the part for ondes Martenot.[9] This new version was premiered in 1961. (Ecuatorial has been performed again with fingerboard theremins in Buffalo, NY in 2002 and at the Holland Festival, Amsterdam, in 2009.)

Unfinished projects
From the late 1920s to the end of the 1930s Varse's principal creative energies went into two ambitious projects which were never realized, and much of whose material was destroyed, though some elements from them seem to have gone into smaller works. One was a large-scale stage work called by different names at different times, but principally The One-All-Alone or Astronomer (LAstronome). This was originally to be based on North American Indian legends; later it became a futuristic drama of world catastrophe and instantaneous communication with the star Sirius. This second form, on which Varse worked in Paris in 19281932, had a libretto by Alejo Carpentier, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes and Robert Desnos. According to Carpentier, a substantial amount of this work was written but Varse abandoned it in favour of a new treatment in which he hoped to collaborate with Antonin Artaud. Artaud's libretto Il ny a plus de firmament was written for Varse's project and sent to him after he had returned to the U.S. but by this time Varse had turned to a second huge project. This second project was to be a choral symphony entitled Espace. In its original conception the text for the chorus was to be written by Andr Malraux. Later Varse settled on a multi-lingual text of hieratic phrases to be sung by choirs situated in Paris, Moscow, Peking and New York, synchronized to create a global radiophonic event. Varse sought input on the text from Henry Miller, who suggests in The Air-Conditioned Nightmare that this grandiose conceptionalso ultimately unrealizedeventually metamorphosed into Dserts. With both these huge projects Varse felt ultimately frustrated by the lack of electronic instruments to realize his aural visions. Nevertheless he used some of the material from Espace in his short tude pour espace, virtually the only work that had appeared from his pen for over ten years when it was premiered in 1947. According to Chou Wen-Chung, Varse made various contradictory revisions to tude pour espace which made it impossible to perform again, but the 2009

Edgard Varse Holland Festival, which offered a 'complete works' of Varse over the weekend of 12-14 June 2009, persuaded Chou to make a new performing version (using similar brass and woodwind forces to Dserts and making use of spatialized sound projection). This was premiered at the Gashouder concert hall, Westergasfabriek, Amsterdam by Asko/Schnberg Ensemble and Cappella Amsterdam on Sunday 14 June, conducted by Peter Etvs.

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International recognition
By the early 1950s, Varse was in dialogue with a new generation of composers, such as Pierre Boulez and Luigi Dallapiccola.[10] When he returned to France to finalize the tape sections of Dserts, Pierre Schaeffer helped arrange for suitable facilities. The first performance of the combined orchestral and tape sound composition came as part of an ORTF broadcast concert, between pieces by Mozart and Tchaikovsky and received a hostile reaction. Le Corbusier was commissioned by Philips to present a pavilion at the 1958 World Fair and insisted (against the sponsors' resistance) on working with Varse, who developed his Pome lectronique for the venue, where it was heard by an estimated two million people. Using 400 speakers separated throughout the interior, Varse created a sound and space installation geared towards experiencing sound as it moves through space. Received with mixed reviews, this piece challenged audience expectations and traditional means of composing, breathing life into electronic synthesis and presentation. In 1962 he was asked to join the Royal Swedish Academy of Music, and in 1963 he received the premier Koussevitzky International Recording Award.

Musical influences
In his formative years, Varse was greatly impressed by Medieval and Renaissance Music (in his career he founded and conducted several choirs devoted to this repertoire) and the music of Alexander Scriabin, Erik Satie, Claude Debussy, Hector Berlioz and Richard Strauss. There are also clear influences or reminiscences of Stravinsky's early works, specifically Petrushka and The Rite of Spring, on Arcana.[11] He claimed to have been inspired by the writings on music of Jzef Maria Hoene-Wroski, and especially the Polish savant's statement that the object of music is "the corporealization of the intelligence that is in sound".[12] He was also impressed by the ideas of Busoni, who christened him L'illustro futuro.

Students and influence


According to George Perle [13] "his partitioning of the octave in the first ten bars, places Varse along with Scriabin and the Schoenberg circle, among the revolutionary composers whose work initiates the beginning of a new mainstream tradition in the music of our century."

Students
Varse's best known student is the Chinese-born composer Chou Wen-chung (b. 1923), who met Varse in 1949 and assisted him in his later years. He became the executor of Varse's estate following the composer's death, and edited and completed a number of Varse's works. He is professor emeritus of composition at Columbia University. Other pupils were Colin McPhee, Lucia Dlugoszewski, James Tenney, and Andr Jolivet.

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Influence in classical music


Composers who have claimed, or can be demonstrated to have been influenced by Varse, include Harrison Birtwistle, Pierre Boulez, John Cage, Morton Feldman, Roberto Gerhard, Olivier Messiaen, Luigi Nono, Krzysztof Penderecki, Alfred Schnittke, William Grant Still, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Iannis Xenakis. On July 19 and 20, 2010, Lincoln Center in New York City dedicated two evenings to a nearly complete retrospective of his music, involving leading contemporary musicians directed by Steven Schick in the music for ensembles and the New York Philharmonic directed by Alan Gilbert in the orchestral works.

Influence in popular music


Varse's emphasis on timbre, rhythm, and new technologies was an inspiration to a whole generation of musicians who came of age during the 1960s and 1970s. One of Varse's biggest fans was the American guitarist and composer Frank Zappa, who, upon hearing a copy of The Complete Works of Edgard Varse, Vol. 1, which included Intgrales, Density 21.5, Ionisation, and Octandre, became obsessed with the composer's music.[14] On his 15th birthday, December 21, 1955, Zappa's mother, Rosemarie, allowed him a call to Varse as a present. At the time Varse was in Brussels, Belgium, so Zappa spoke to Varse's wife Louise instead. Eventually Zappa and Varse spoke on the phone, and they discussed the possibility of meeting each other, although this meeting never took place. Zappa also received a letter from Varse. Varse's spirit of experimentation and redefining the bounds of what was possible in music lived on in Zappa's long and prolific career[15] . Zappa's final project was The Rage and the Fury, a recording of the works of Varse. Another admirer was the rock/jazz group Chicago, whose Pianist/keyboardist Robert Lamm credited Varse as a strong influence in his songwriting. In tribute, one of Lamm's songs was called "A Hit By Varse".

Tributes
The record label Varse Sarabande Records is named after him.

Ide fixe
Some of Edgard Varse's works, particularly Arcana[16] make use of the 'ide fixe', a fixed theme, repeated certain times in a work. The 'ide fixe' was most famously used by Hector Berlioz in his Symphonie fantastique; it is generally not transposed, differentiating it from the leitmotiv, used by Richard Wagner.

Works
Un grand sommeil noir, song to a text by Paul Verlaine for voice and piano (1906) Amriques for large orchestra (19181921; revised 1927) Offrandes for soprano and chamber orchestra (poems by Vicente Huidobro and Jos Juan Tablada)(1921) Hyperprism for wind and percussion(19221923) Octandre for seven wind instruments and double bass (1923) Intgrales for wind and percussion (19241925) Arcana for large orchestra (19251927) Ionisation for 13 percussion players (19291931) Ecuatorial for bass voice (or unison male chorus), brass, organ, percussion and theremins (revised for ondes-martenot) (text by Francisco Ximnez) (19321934) Density 21.5 for solo flute (1936) Tuning Up for orchestra (sketched 1946; completed by Chou Wen-Chung, 1998) tude pour espace for soprano solo, chorus, 2 pianos and percussion (1947; orchestrated and arranged by Chou Wen-chung for wind instruments and percussion for spatialized live performance, 2009) (texts by Kenneth

Edgard Varse Patchen, Jos Juan Tablada and St. John of the Cross) Dance for Burgess for chamber ensemble (1949) Dserts for wind, percussion and electronic tape (19501954) La procession de verges for electronic tape (soundtrack for Around and About Joan Mir, directed by Thomas Bouchard) (1955) Pome lectronique for electronic tape (19571958) Nocturnal for soprano, male chorus and orchestra, text adapted from The House of Incest by Anas Nin (1961)

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References
Bernard, Jonathan W. (1987). The Music of Edgard Varse. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN0300035152. Ouellette, Fernand (1973). Edgard Varse. Calder and Boyars. ISBN074502081. Clayson, Alan Edgard Varese (2002). Sanctuary.ISBN 9781860743986 Entretiens avec Edgar Varse par Georges Charbonnier (1954-55), 2CD INA coll. Mmoire Vive (2007)

External links
Edgard Varse [17] at Allmusic BBC.co.uk: Music Profiles: Edgard Varse [18] Varse:Composer, Sound Sculptor, Visionary [19] edited by Felix Meyer and Heidy Zimmermann (Boydell Press in association with the Sacher Foundation [20] 2006). This large format and profusely illustrated book of essays on the composer was published to coincide with an exhibition at the Museum Tinguely in Basel. Thereminvox.com [21] Interview [22] with musicologist Olivia Mattis about Edgard Varse's Ecuatorial and the Theremin Cello Edgard Varse links [23] A Letter [24] to Leon Theremin by Edgard Varse OHM- The Early Gurus of Electronic Music: Varese [25] SoNHoRS : Edgard Varse [26] [27] (French) A biography of Edgard Varse, from IRCAM's website. Excerpts from sound archives [28] of Varse's works

References
[1] After he arrived in the USA he commonly used the form 'Edgar' for his first name but reverted to 'Edgard', not entirely consistently, from the 1940s. Malcolm MacDonald, Varse, Astronomer in Sound (London, 2003), ISBN 1-871082-79-x p. xi. [2] Opera Glass (http:/ / opera. stanford. edu/ composers/ V. html) [3] Ouellette, Fernand (1973). Edgard Varse. Calder and Boyars. p.50. ISBN074502081. [4] Ouellette, p71 [5] Ouellette, p51 [6] Robert Schulman. Romany Marie: The Queen of Greenwich Village (pp. 64-65). Louisville: Butler Books, 2006. ISBN 1-88453-274-8. [7] Ouellette, p66 [8] Ouellette, p95 [9] Griffiths, Paul (1979). A Guide to Electronic Music. Thames & Hudson. p.10. ISBN0500272034. [10] Ouellette, p166 [11] MacDonald, pp. 200-205. [12] MacDonald, pp.52-53. [13] Perle, George (1990). The Listening Composer, p.12. ISBN 0520069919. [14] Zappa, Frank (1971-06-02). "Edgard Varese: The Idol of My Youth" (http:/ / www. a42. com/ node/ 536). . Retrieved 2009-03-01. [15] Russo, Greg. Cosmik Debris: The Collected History and Improvisations of Frank Zappa. New York: Antique Trader Publications, Crossfire Publications, Chris Sansom, 1998, pp. 9-11 [16] Downes, Edward, sleevenotes to CBS Masterworks 76520

Ralph Vaughan Williams

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Ralph Vaughan Williams


Ralph Vaughan Williams

Born Died Spouse Parents

12 October 1872 26 August 1958 (aged85) Adeline Fisher Ursula Wood The Revd Arthur Vaughan Williams Margaret Susan ne Wedgwood

Ralph Vaughan Williams OM (pronounced /ref vn wlimz/)[1] (12 October 1872 26 August 1958) was an English composer of symphonies, chamber music, opera, choral music, and film scores. He was also a collector of English folk music and song which influenced his editorial approach to the English Hymnal, beginning in 1904, containing many folk song arrangements set as hymn tunes, in addition to several original compositions.

Life
Early years
Ralph Vaughan Williams was born on 12 October 1872 in Down Ampney, Gloucestershire, where his father, the Revd Arthur Vaughan Williams (the surname Vaughan Williams is an unhyphenated double-barrelled name), was vicar. Following his father's death in 1875 he was taken by his mother, Margaret Susan ne Wedgwood (18431937), the great-granddaughter of the potter Josiah Wedgwood, to live with her family at Leith Hill Place, a Wedgwood family home in the North Downs. He was also related to the Darwins, Charles Darwin being a great-uncle. Though born into the privileged intellectual upper middle class, Vaughan Williams never took it for granted and worked all his life for the democratic and egalitarian ideals in which he believed.[2]

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As a student he had studied piano, "which I never could play, and the violin, which was my musical salvation." After Charterhouse School he attended the Royal College of Music (RCM) under Charles Villiers Stanford. He read history and music at Trinity College, Cambridge,[3] where his friends and contemporaries included the philosophers G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell. He then returned to the RCM and studied The Darwin-Wedgwood-Galton family tree, showing Vaughan Williams's relationships to composition with Hubert Parry, who became a friend. One of his Charles Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood fellow pupils at the RCM was Leopold Stokowski and during 1896 they both studied organ under Sir Walter Parratt. Stokowski later went on to perform six of Vaughan Williams's symphonies for American audiences, making the first recording of the Sixth Symphony in 1949 with the New York Philharmonic, and giving the U.S. premiere of the Ninth Symphony in Carnegie Hall in 1958. Another friendship made at the RCM, crucial to Vaughan Williams's development as a composer, was with fellow-student Gustav Holst whom he first met in 1895. From that time onwards they spent several 'field days' reading through and offering constructive criticism on each other's works in progress.[4] Vaughan Williams's composition developed slowly and it was not until he was 30 that the song "Linden Lea" became his first publication. He mixed composition with conducting, lecturing and editing other music, notably that of Henry Purcell and the English Hymnal. He had further lessons with Max Bruch in Berlin in 1897 and later took a big step forward in his orchestral style when he studied in Paris with Maurice Ravel. In 1904, Vaughan Williams discovered English folk songs, which were fast becoming extinct owing to the oral tradition through which they existed being undermined by the increase of literacy and printed music in rural areas. He travelled the countryside, transcribing and preserving many himself. Later he incorporated some songs and melodies into his own music, being fascinated by the beauty of the music and its anonymous history in the working lives of ordinary people. His efforts did much to raise appreciation of traditional English folk song and melody. Later in his life he served as president of the English Folk Dance and Song Society (EFDSS), which, in recognition of his early and important work in this field, named its Vaughan Williams Memorial Library after him. During this time he strengthened his links to prominent writers on folk music, including the Reverend George B. Chambers. In 1905, Vaughan Williams conducted the first concert of the newly founded Leith Hill Music Festival at Dorking which he was to conduct until 1953, when he passed the baton to his successor, William Cole.[5] In 1909, he composed incidental music for the Cambridge Greek Play, a stage production at Cambridge University of Aristophanes' The Wasps. The next year, he had his first big public successes conducting the premieres of the Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (at the Three Choirs Festival in Gloucester Cathedral) and his choral symphony A Sea Symphony (Symphony No. 1). He enjoyed a still greater success with A London Symphony (Symphony No. 2) in 1914, conducted by Geoffrey Toye.

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Two World Wars


Vaughan Williams was 41 when World War I began. Though he could have avoided war service entirely, or tried for a commission, he chose to enlist as a private in the Royal Army Medical Corps. After a gruelling time as a stretcher bearer in France and Salonika,[6] he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Artillery on 24 December 1917.[7] On one occasion, though too ill to stand, he continued to direct his battery while lying on the ground.[8] Prolonged exposure to gunfire began a process of hearing loss which eventually caused severe deafness in old age.[2] In 1918, he was appointed Director of Music, First Army, and this helped him adjust back into musical life. After the war, he adopted for a while a somewhat mystical style in A Pastoral Symphony (Symphony No. 3), which draws on his experiences as an ambulance volunteer in that war; and Flos Campi, a work for solo viola, small orchestra, and wordless chorus. From 1924 a A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. new phase in his music began, characterized by lively cross-rhythms and clashing harmonies. Key works from this period are Toccata marziale, the ballet Old King Cole, the Piano Concerto, the oratorio Sancta Civitas (his favourite of his choral works) and the ballet Job: A Masque for Dancing, which is drawn not from the Bible but from William Blake's Illustrations of the Book of Job. He also composed a Te Deum in G for the enthronement of Cosmo Gordon Lang as Archbishop of Canterbury. This period in his music culminated in the Symphony No. 4 in F minor, first played by the BBC Symphony Orchestra in 1935. This symphony contrasts dramatically with the "pastoral" orchestral works with which he is associated; indeed, its almost unrelieved tension, drama, and dissonance have startled listeners since it was premiered. Acknowledging that the Fourth Symphony was different, the composer said, "I don't know if I like it, but it's what I mean." Two years later, Vaughan Williams made a historic recording of the work with the same orchestra for HMV (His Master's Voice), his only commercial recording. During this period, he lectured in America and England, and conducted The Bach Choir. He was President of the City of Bath Bach Choir between 1946 and 1959. He was appointed to the Order of Merit in the King's Birthday Honours of 1935,[9] having previously declined a knighthood.[2] Vaughan Williams was an intimate life long friend of the famous British pianist Harriet Cohen. His letters to her reveal a flirtatious relationship, regularly reminding her of the thousands of kisses that she owed him. Before Cohen's first American tour in 1931 he wrote "I fear the Americans will love you so much that they won't let you come back."[10] He was a regular visitor to her home and often attended parties there. Cohen premiered Vaughan Williams's "Hymn Tune Prelude" in 1930, which he dedicated to her. She later introduced the piece throughout Europe during her concert tours. In 1933 she premiered his Piano Concerto in C major, a work which was once again dedicated to her. Cohen was given the exclusive right to play the piece for a period of time. Cohen played and promoted Vaughan Williams's work throughout Europe, the USSR, and the United States. His music now entered a mature lyrical phase, as in the Five Tudor Portraits; the Serenade to Music (a setting of a scene from act five of The Merchant of Venice, for orchestra and sixteen vocal soloists and composed as a tribute to the conductor Sir Henry Wood); and the Symphony No. 5 in D, which he conducted at the Proms in 1943. As he was now 70, many people considered it a swan song, but he renewed himself again and entered yet another period of exploratory harmony and instrumentation. His very successful Symphony No. 6 of 1946 received a hundred performances in the first year. It surprised both admirers and critics, many of whom suggested that this symphony (especially its last movement) was a grim vision of the aftermath of an atomic war: typically, Vaughan Williams

Ralph Vaughan Williams himself refused to recognise any programme behind this work.

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Late harvest
Before his death in 1958, he completed three more symphonies. His Seventh, Sinfonia antartica, which was based on his 1948 film score for Scott of the Antarctic, exhibits his renewed interest in instrumentation and sonority. The Eighth Symphony, first performed in 1956, was followed by the much weightier Symphony No. 9 in E minor of 195657. This last symphony was initially given a lukewarm reception after its first performance in May 1958, just three months before his death. But this dark and enigmatic work is now considered by many[11] to be a fitting conclusion to his sequence of symphonic works. He also completed a range of instrumental and choral works, including a Tuba Concerto, An Oxford Elegy on texts of Matthew Arnold, and the Christmas cantata Hodie. He also wrote an arrangement of The Old One Hundredth Psalm Tune for the Coronation Service of Queen Elizabeth II. At his death he left an unfinished Cello Concerto, an opera Thomas the Rhymer and music for a Christmas play, The First Nowell, which was completed by his amanuensis Roy Douglas (b. 1907). Despite his substantial involvement in church music, and the religious subject-matter of many of his works, he was described by his second wife as "an atheist ... [who] later drifted into a cheerful agnosticism."[12] It is noteworthy that in his opera The Pilgrim's Progress he changed the name of the hero from John Bunyan's Christian to Pilgrim. He also set Bunyan's hymn Who would true valour see to music using the traditional Sussex melody "Monk's Gate". For many church-goers, his most familiar composition may be the hymn tune Sine nomine written for the hymn "For All the Saints" by William Walsham How. The tune he composed for the mediaeval hymn "Come Down, O Love Divine" (Discendi, Amor santo by Bianco of Siena, ca.1434) is entitled "Down Ampney" in honour of his birthplace. He also worked as a tutor for Birkbeck College.[13] In the 1950s, the composer supervised recordings of all but his Ninth Symphony by Sir Adrian Boult and the London Philharmonic Orchestra for Decca.[14] At the end of the sessions for the mysterious Sixth Symphony, Vaughan Williams gave a short speech, thanking Boult and the orchestra for their performance, "most heartily," and Decca later included this on the LP.[15] He was to supervise the first recording of the Ninth Symphony (for Everest Records) with Boult; his death on 26 August 1958 the night before the recording sessions were to begin provoked Boult to announce to the musicians that their performance would be a memorial to the composer.[16] These recordings, including the speeches by the composer and Boult, have all been reissued by Decca on CD. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Vaughan Williams is a central figure in British music because of his long career as teacher, lecturer and friend to so many younger composers and conductors. His writings on music remain thought-provoking, particularly his oft-repeated call for all persons to make their own music, however simple, as long as it is truly their own.

Marriages
He was married twice. His first marriage was to Adeline Fisher (daughter of the historian Herbert William Fisher) in 1896. Adeline was related to Ruth Fisher de Ropp, who was the mother of Robert S de Ropp. Robert's father, a semi-destitute European nobleman, was unable to pay for his son's post-secondary education. Consequently, Ralph and Adeline Vaughan Williams paid for Roberts education at the Royal College of Science, in South Kensington, where he eventually specialized in biology and earned a PhD. De Ropp went on to be a successful research scientist and well-known author of books on human potentials.[17] Adeline Fisher Vaughan Williams died in 1951 after many years of suffering from crippling arthritis. In 1953 he married the poet Ursula Wood (19112007). At this time they moved from Dorking, Surrey, back to London and occupied a house at 10 Hanover Terrace, Regents Park. She had met Vaughan Williams in 1938 and they had begun an affair while still married to their respective spouses. After her first husband's death, Wood

Ralph Vaughan Williams continued her relationship with Vaughan Williams, apparently with the tacit approval of Adeline.[18] Ursula became Ralph's literary advisor and personal assistant, writing the libretto to his choral work The Sons of Light, and contributing to that of The Pilgrim's Progress and Hodie.[19] There were no children by either marriage.

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Style
Vaughan Williams's music has often been said to be characteristically English, in the same way as that of Gustav Holst, Frederick Delius, George Butterworth, and Sir William Walton.[20] In Albion: The Origins of the English Imagination, Peter Ackroyd writes, "If that Englishness in music can be encapsulated in words at all, those words would probably be: ostensibly familiar and commonplace, yet deep and mystical as well as lyrical, melodic, melancholic, and nostalgic yet timeless." Ackroyd quotes music critic John Alexander Fuller Maitland, whose distinctions included editing the second edition of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians in the years just before 1911, as having observed that in Vaughan Williams's style "one is never quite sure whether one is listening to something very old or very new." His style expresses a deep regard for and fascination with folk tunes, the variations upon which can convey the listener from the down-to-earth (which he always tried to remain in his daily life) to the ethereal. Simultaneously the music shows patriotism toward England in the subtlest form, engendered by a feeling for ancient landscapes and a person's small yet not entirely insignificant place within them.[2] His earlier works sometimes show the influence of Maurice Ravel, his teacher for three months in Paris in 1908. Ravel described Vaughan Williams as "the only one of my pupils who does not write my music."[20]

Works
See also: Compositions by Ralph Vaughan Williams.

Operas
Hugh the Drover or Love in the Stocks (191020). Romantic ballad opera. Libretto: Harold Child Sir John in Love (192428), from which comes an arrangement by Ralph Greaves of Fantasia on "Greensleeves" The Poisoned Kiss (192729; revisions 193637 and 195657). Libretto: Evelyn Sharp (later amended by Ralph and Ursula Vaughan Williams) Riders to the Sea (192532), from the play by John Millington Synge The Pilgrim's Progress (190951), based on John Bunyan's allegory The Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains (1921). Libretto: Ralph Vaughan Williams (from John Bunyan) (Later incorporated, save for the final section, into The Pilgrim's Progress)

Incidental music
The Wasps (1909; to Aristophanes's play The Wasps; best known as an orchestral suite) The Death of Tintagiles (1913; to Maurice Maeterlinck's 1894 play) [21]

Ballets
Old King Cole (1923) On Christmas Night (1926) Job: A Masque for Dancing (1930) The Running Set (1933) The Bridal Day (193839)

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Orchestral
Symphonies A Sea Symphony (Symphony No. 1), a choral symphony on texts by Whitman (19031909) A London Symphony (Symphony No. 2) (1913) A Pastoral Symphony (Symphony No. 3) (1921) Symphony No. 4 in F minor (193134) Symphony No. 5 in D (193843) Symphony No. 6 in E minor (194447, rev. 1950) Sinfonia antartica (Symphony No. 7) (194952) (partly based on his music for the film Scott of the Antarctic) Symphony No. 8 in D minor (195355) Symphony No. 9 in E minor (195657) In the Fen Country, for orchestra (1904) Norfolk Rhapsody No. 1 (1906, rev. 1914) The Wasps, an Aristophanic suite (1909; see Incidental music above) Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1910, rev. 1913 and 1919) Fantasia on "Greensleeves" (1934)[22] Five Variants of Dives and Lazarus (1939)

Concerto Grosso, for three parts of strings requiring different levels of technical skill (1950)

Concerti
Piano Piano Concerto in C (192631) Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra (c. 1946; a reworking of Piano Concerto in C) Violin The Lark Ascending for violin and orchestra (1914) Concerto Accademico for violin and orchestra (192425) Viola Flos Campi for viola, wordless chorus and small orchestra (1925) Suite for Viola and Small Orchestra (1934) Romance for viola and piano (1925-1934 circa) Oboe Concerto in A minor, for oboe and strings (1944) Fantasia (quasi variazione) on the Old 104th Psalm Tune for piano, chorus, and orchestra (1949) Romance in D-flat for harmonica and orchestra (1951) (written for Larry Adler) Tuba Concerto in F minor (1954)

Choral
Toward the Unknown Region, song for chorus and orchestra, setting of Walt Whitman (1906) Five Mystical Songs for baritone, chorus and orchestra, settings of George Herbert (1911) Fantasia on Christmas Carols for baritone, chorus, and orchestra (1912; arranged also for reduced orchestra of organ, strings, percussion) Mass in G Minor for unaccompanied choir (1922) Sancta Civitas (The Holy City) oratorio, text mainly from the Book of Revelation (192325) Te Deum in G (1928) Benedicite for soprano, chorus, and orchestra (1929) In Windsor Forest, adapted from the opera Sir John in Love (1929) Three Choral Hymns (1929)

Ralph Vaughan Williams Magnificat for contralto, women's chorus, and orchestra (1932) Five Tudor Portraits for contralto, baritone, chorus, and orchestra (1935) Dona nobis pacem, text by Walt Whitman and other sources (1936) Festival Te Deum for chorus and orchestra or organ (1937) Serenade to Music for sixteen solo voices and orchestra, a setting of Shakespeare, dedicated to Sir Henry Joseph Wood on the occasion of his Jubilee (1938) "Six Choral Songs To Be Sung In Time Of War" (1940) A Song of Thanksgiving (originally Thanksgiving for Victory) for narrator, soprano solo, children's chorus, mixed chorus, and orchestra (1944) An Oxford Elegy for narrator, mixed chorus and small orchestra (1949) Three Shakespeare Songs for SATB unaccompanied, composed for The British Federation of Music Festivals National Competitive Festival (1951) Oh Taste and See, a motet setting of Psalm 34:8. The original SATB version was composed for the Coronation of HM Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Abbey in June 1953. (1953) Hodie, a Christmas oratorio (1954) Folk songs of the Four Seasons A Cantata for Women's Voices with Orchestra or pianoforte accompaniment (1950).

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Epithalamion for baritone solo, chorus, flute, piano, and strings (1957) A Choral Flourish for unaccompanied SATB chorus, composed for a large choral event in the Royal Albert Hall at the invitation of (and dedicated to) Alan Kirby (c. 1952)

Arrangements of Christian Hymns


Vaughan Williams was the musical editor[23] of the English Hymnal of 1906, and the co-editor with Martin Shaw of Songs of Praise of 1925 and the Oxford Book of Carols of 1928, all in collaboration with Percy Dearmer. A Hymn of Glory Let Us Sing [24] All Creatures of Our God and King [24] Alleluia, Sing to Jesus [24] Amid the Thronging Worshippers [24] At the Name of Jesus [24] "Come Down, O Love Divine" [24] original hymnody by Bianco of Siena (1434)"Discendi, Amor santo"and entitled "Down Ampney" in honour of Vaughan Williams's birthplace Come, Let Us with Our Lord Arise [24] an Easter anthem Come Thou Long Expected Jesus [24] a carol for the season of Advent For All the Saints harmonized from "Sine Nomine" God Be With You Till We Meet Again[24] I Love You Lord, My Strength, My Rock[24] I Sing the Mighty Power of God[24] Jesus, Lord, Redeemer[24] "Let All Mortal Flesh Keep Silence", text of the Cherubic hymn of Liturgy of St James, harmonized to the French folk tune Picardy (1906) Make Room Within My Heart, O God[24] My God, My God, O Why Have You Forsaken Me? a lament for Good Friday services during Passiontide O Come to Me, the Master Said[24]

"O Little Town of Bethlehem" a popular Christmas Carol penned by the American Phillips Brooks adapted to the English tune "Forest Green" O Sing a Song of Bethlehem[24] On Christmas Night All Christians Sing[24]

Ralph Vaughan Williams When the Church of Jesus[24]

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Vocal
"Linden Lea", song (1901) The House of Life, six sonnets by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, set to music (1904) Songs of Travel (1904) "The Sky Above The Roof" (1908) On Wenlock Edge, song cycle for tenor, piano and string quartet (1909) Along the Field, for tenor and violin Three Poems by Walt Whitman for baritone and piano (1920) Four Poems by Fredegond Shove: for baritone and piano (1922) Four Hymns (1914) Merciless Beauty for tenor, two violins, and cello Four Last Songs to poems of Ursula Vaughan Williams Ten Blake songs, song cycle for high voice and oboe (1957)

Chamber and Instrumental


Piano Quintet in C minor for violin, viola, cello, double bass and piano (1903) String Quartet No. 1 in G minor (1908) Phantasy Quintet for 2 violins, 2 violas and cello (1912) Six Studies in English Folk Song, for violoncello and piano (1926) String Quartet No. 2 in A minor ("For Jean, on her birthday," 194244) Sonata in A minor for violin and piano (1952) Romance for Viola and Piano (undated)

Organ
Three Preludes on Welsh Hymn Tunes (Bryn Calfaria, Rhosymedre, Hyfrydol) (1920) Prelude and Fugue in C minor (1921) A Wedding Tune for Ann (1943) The Old One Hundredth Psalm Tune, harmonization and arrangement (1953) Two Organ Preludes (The White Rock, St. David's Day) (1956)

Film, radio, and TV scores


49th Parallel, 1940, his first, talked into it by Muir Mathieson to assuage his guilt at being able to do nothing for the war effort Coastal Command, 1942 BBC adaptation of The Pilgrim's Progress, 1942 The People's Land, 1943 The Story of a Flemish Farm, 1943 Stricken Peninsula, 1945 The Loves of Joanna Godden, 1946 Scott of the Antarctic, 1948, partially reused for his Sinfonia antartica (Symphony No. 7) The England of Elizabeth, 1957

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Band
English Folk Song Suite for military band (1923) Sea Songs (1923) Toccata Marziale for military band (1924) Overture: Henry V for brass band (1933/34) Flourish for Wind Band (1939) Prelude on Three Welsh Hymn Tunes arranged from the organ piece for brass band (1955) and published by Salvationist Publishing and Supplies Variations for brass band (1957)

Recordings
Vaughan Williams enjoys an extensive recorded legacy. Early recordings of individual symphonies made by Henry Wood (London), John Barbirolli (Fifth), Adrian Boult and Leopold Stokowski (both in the Sixth), and the composer's own recording of the Fourth, preceded several complete cycles. Stokowski's 1943 NBC Symphony broadcast of the Fourth Symphony has also been issued on CD, as has his 1964 Proms performance of the 8th with the BBC Symphony Orchestra. Sir Eugene Goossens recorded the 1920 edition of A London Symphony with the Cincinnati Orchestra for RCA Victor in 1941, the only recording of that version of the score ever made. Boult taped the first cycle (Symphonies 1 - 8) for Decca in the early 1950s, completing it with No. 9 for the Everest label in 1958; he re-recorded all nine for EMI between 1967 and 1972. Other cycles have followed from Andr Previn, Bernard Haitink, Bryden Thomson, Vernon Handley, Leonard Slatkin and Richard Hickox. Several other foreign conductors have also recorded individual Vaughan Williams symphonies: Dimitri Mitropoulos and Leonard Bernstein both recorded the Fourth Symphony with the New York Philharmonic, the same orchestra with which Leopold Stokowski had made the first recording of the Sixth Symphony in 1949. This work was also recorded by Maurice Abravanel and the Utah Symphony in 1966. Paavo Berglund also recorded the Fourth and Sixth Symphonies and, among other CD releases, the Portuguese premiere of the Ninth Symphony, with Pedro de Freitas Branco conducting the National Symphony Orchestra of Portugal, has also been issued. Similarly, the US premiere of the Ninth Symphony, given by Leopold Stokowski in Carnegie Hall in 1958 'In Memoriam Vaughan Williams' has also been released on CD by Cala Records. A first official release of the Symphony No. 5 conducted by the composer in 1952 was recently issued in the U.K. by Somm Recordings. David Willcocks recorded much of the choral output for EMI in the 1960s and 1970s. Award-winning performances of the string quartets have followed on Naxos, which along with the Hyperion and Chandos labels have recorded much neglected material, including works for brass band and the rarely performed operas. EMI Classics has issued a budget 30-CD set (34+ hours) with virtually all of Vaughan Williams's works, including alternative settings.

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References
Vaughan Williams on Music, Ralph Vaughan Williams & David Manning. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-19-518239-2 Heirs & Rebels, Ralph Vaughan Williams & Gustav Holst; ed. Ursula Vaughan Williams & Imogen Holst. London, Oxford University Press, 1959. Vaughan Williams, Simon Heffer. Northeastern; First American edition (March 1, 2001). ISBN 978-1-55553-472-1.

External links
Free scores by Ralph Vaughan Williams in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Free scores by Ralph Vaughan Williams in the International Music Score Library Project 1956 audio interview with Vaughan Williams [25] on his editing of the English Hymnal (from the BBC) The Ralph Vaughan Williams Society [26] Vaughan Williams Phantasy Quintet [27] Soundbites and discussion of work Ralph Vaughan Williams [28] at the Internet Movie Database Ralph Vaughan Williams [29] at the British Film Institute's Screenonline

Heffer, Simon (5 December 2007). "Ralph Vaughan Williams: Uneasy listening" [30]. The Daily Telegraph. "A stunning new film about composer Ralph Vaughan Williams challenges the myths that obscure his legacy and exposes the darkness that permeates his work." (on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the composer's death) Works by or about Ralph Vaughan Williams [31] in libraries (WorldCat catalog) "Famous names in the First World WarRalph Vaughan Williams" [32] from The National Archives, includes extracts from his army service record, and his 1901 Census return. Archival material relating to Ralph Vaughan Williams [33] listed at the UK National Register of Archives Ralph Vaughan Williams [34] at Find a Grave

References
[1] Vaughan Williams, Ursula. (1964) R.V.W. A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams, Oxford University Press. The preface, Notes on Names, says "Ralph's name was pronounced Rayf, any other pronunciation used to infuriate him." [2] Frogley, Alain (September 2004 online edition May 2006). "Williams, Ralph Vaughan (18721958)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb. com/ view/ article/ 36636) (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36636. . Retrieved 16 January 2008. [3] Vaughan-Williams, Ralph (http:/ / venn. lib. cam. ac. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=VHN892R& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50) in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 19221958. [4] Heirs and Rebels by Ralph Vaughan Williams & Gustav Holst; Preface, pix [5] "Leith Hill Music Festival website" (http:/ / www. lhmf. co. uk/ About. aspx). . Retrieved 14 April 2008. [6] "Ralph Vaughan Williams" (http:/ / www. nationalarchives. gov. uk/ documentsonline/ medals-vaughanwilliams. asp). Famous names in the First World War. The National Archives. . Retrieved 3 February 2010. [7] London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30455, pp. 253254 (http:/ / www. london-gazette. co. uk/ issues/ 30455/ supplements/ 253), 1 January 1918. Retrieved 3 February 2010. [8] Vaughan Williams, Ursula, RVW A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams, Oxford University Press 1964 p. 130 [9] London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34166, p. 3596 (http:/ / www. london-gazette. co. uk/ issues/ 34166/ supplements/ 3596), 31 May 1935. Retrieved 16 January 2008. [10] Fry, Helen (2008). Music and Men, the Life and Loves of Harriet Cohen. The History Press. [11] Journal of the Vaughan Williams Society, No. 39, June 2007 [12] Hugh Ottaway/Alain Frogley, "Ralph Vaughan-Williams" (http:/ / www. grovemusic. com/ shared/ views/ article. html?section=music. 42507#music. 42507): Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (subscription required). Retrieved 16 January 2008 [13] Birkbeck, University of London Continuing Education Courses 2002 Entry. Birkbeck External Relations Department. 2002. p.5. [14] The Gramophone [15] Decca Records/Eclipse reissue [16] Everest Records' release of the 1958 recording.

Ralph Vaughan Williams


[17] De Ropp, Robert S. 1995/2002 Warrior's Way: a Twentieth Century Odyssey. Nevada City, CA: Gateways [18] John Bridcut (20 May 2008). "Sonata for three" (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ news/ article-1020534/ Sonata-How-composer-Vaughan-Williams-shared-bedroom-mistress-40-years-junior--wife. html). Daily Mail. . Retrieved 19 July 2008. [19] "Ursula Vaughan Williams (obituary)" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ comment/ obituaries/ article2732710. ece). The Times. 25 October 2007. . Retrieved 24 October 2007. [20] (http:/ / www. positive-feedback. com/ Issue29/ williams. htm) Roger S. Gordon, Ralph Vaughan Williams' Film Music, review, Positive Feedback on Line Issue 29, accessed May 12, 2008 [21] The Death of Tintagiles (http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ the-death-of-tintagiles-incidental-music) [22] see "YouTube videoclip" under External Links [23] see "1956 audio interview" under External Links [24] Center for Church Music songs and hymns entry for Ralph Williams (http:/ / songsandhymns. org/ people/ detail/ ralph-williams)

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John Williams

189

John Williams
John Williams

Williams at the Boston Symphony Hall after he conducted the Boston Pops, May 2006 Background information Birth name Born Origin Occupations Years active Website John Towner Williams February 8, 1932 Flushing, Queens, New York, United States composer, pianist, conductor 1952present johnwilliamscomposer.com
[1]

John Towner Williams (born February 8, 1932) is a prolific American composer, conductor, and pianist. In a career spanning six decades, he has composed many of the most recognizable film scores in the history of motion pictures, including those for Jaws, the Star Wars Saga, Superman, the Indiana Jones films, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Hook, Jurassic Park, Schindler's List, Home Alone, and three Harry Potter films. He has composed the music for all but two of director Steven Spielberg's feature films. Other notable works by Williams include theme music for four Olympic Games, the NBC Nightly News, the rededication of the Statue of Liberty, the DreamWorks Pictures production logo, and the television series Lost in Space. Williams has also composed numerous classical concerti, and he served as the principal conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra from 1980 to 1993; he is now the orchestra's conductor laureate. Williams has won five Academy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, seven BAFTA Awards, and 21 Grammy Awards.[1] With 45 Academy Award nominations, Williams is, together with composer Alfred Newman, the second most nominated person, after Walt Disney.[2] Williams was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl Hall of Fame in 2000, and was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004.

Early life and family


John Williams was born on February 8, 1932, in Flushing (Queens), New York, the son of Esther and John Williams, Sr. His father was a jazz drummer who played with the Raymond Scott Quintet.[3] In 1948, Williams moved to Los Angeles with his family. Williams attended North Hollywood High School and graduated in 1950. He later attended the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), and studied privately with composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco.[4] In 1952, Williams was drafted into the U.S. Air Force, where he conducted and arranged music for the Air Force Band as part of his assignments.

John Williams After his Air Force service ended in 1955, Williams moved to New York City and entered the Juilliard School, where he studied piano with Rosina Lhvinne.[4] During this time, Williams worked as a jazz pianist in New York's many clubs and eventually studios, most notably for composer Henry Mancini. His fellow session musicians included Rolly Bundock on bass, Jack Sperling on drums, and Bob Bain on guitarthe same lineup featured on the Mr. Lucky television series. Williams was known as "Little Johnny Love" Williams during the early 1960s, and he served as music arranger and bandleader for a series of popular music albums with the singer Frankie Laine. Williams was married to actress Barbara Ruick from 1956 until her death on March 3, 1974. The Williamses had three children: Jennifer (born 1956), Mark (born 1958), and Joseph (born 1960). Williams' younger son is one of the various lead singers the band "Toto" has had over the decades. John Williams married his second wife, Samantha Winslow, on July 21, 1980. John Williams is an honorary member of Kappa Kappa Psi, the national fraternity for college band members.

190

Film and television scoring


While skilled in a variety of twentieth-century compositional idioms, Williams's most familiar style may be described as a form of neoromanticism,[5] inspired by the same large-scale orchestral music of the late 19th centuryespecially the compositions of Richard Wagner and its concept of leitmotifthat inspired his film music predecessors.[6] After his studies at Juilliard, Williams returned to Los Angeles, where he began working as an orchestrator at film studios. Among other composers, Williams worked with Franz Waxman, Bernard Herrmann, and Alfred Newman, and also with his fellow orchestrators Conrad Salinger and Bob Franklyn.[7] Williams was also a studio pianist, performing on film scores by composers such as Jerry Goldsmith, Elmer Bernstein, and Henry Mancini. Williams recorded with Henry Mancini on the film scores of Peter Gunn (1959), Days of Wine and Roses (1962), and Charade (1963). (Williams actually played the John Williams at the Avery Fisher Hall well-recognized opening riff to Mancini's Peter Gunn theme).[8] [9] Williams (often credited as "Johnny Williams") also composed the theme music for various TV programs in the late 1950s: The pilot episode of Gilligan's Island,[10] the Kraft Suspense Theatre, Lost in Space (196568), The Time Tunnel (196667), and Land of the Giants (the last three created by the prolific TV producer, Irwin Allen). Williams's first major film composition was for the B movie Daddy-O in 1958, and his first screen credit came two years later in Because They're Young. He soon gained notice in Hollywood for his versatility in composing jazz, piano, and symphonic music. Williams received his first nomination for an Academy Award for his film score for Valley of the Dolls (1967), and then was nominated again for his score for Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1969). Williams broke through to win his first Academy Award for his adapted score for the film Fiddler on the Roof (1971). By the early 1970s, Williams had also gained prominence as a composer for nowfilm producer Irwin Allen's disaster films, composing the scores for The Poseidon Adventure (1972), Earthquake (1974), and The Towering Inferno (1974) (the last two films sharing musical cues). In 1974, Williams was approached by director Steven Spielberg to compose the music for his feature directorial debut, The Sugarland Express. The young director had been impressed with Williams's score for the movie The Reivers (1969), and Spielberg was convinced that Williams could compose the musical sound that he desired for any of his films. They teamed up again a year later for Spielberg's second film, Jaws. Widely considered to be a classic

John Williams suspense film, its film score's ominous two-note motif has become synonymous with sharks and approaching danger. The score for Jaws earned Williams his second Academy Award, his first one for an original composition. Shortly thereafter, Williams and Spielberg began a long collaboration for their next feature film together, Close Encounters of the Third Kind (CE3K, 1977). In an unusual step for a Hollywood film, Spielberg and Williams developed their script and musical concepts simultaneously, as in the film these entwine very closely together. During their two-year-long collaboration, they crafted its distinctive five-note figure that functions both in the background music and as the communications signal of the film's extraterrestrials. Williams also used a system of musical hand signals in CE3K that were based on hand signs created by John Curwen and refined by Zoltan Kodaly. During the same period, Spielberg recommended Williams to his friend and fellow director George Lucas, who needed a composer to score his ambitious space epic, Star Wars (1977). Williams delivered a grand symphonic score in the fashion of Richard Strauss and Golden Age Hollywood composers Erich Wolfgang Korngold and Max Steiner. Its main theme"Luke's Theme"is among the most widely recognized in motion picture history, and the "Force Theme" and "Princess Leia's Theme" are well-known examples of leitmotif. Both the film and its soundtrack were immensely successfulit remains the highest grossing non-popular music recording of all-timeand Williams won another Academy Award for Best Original Score. In 1980, Williams returned to score The Empire Strikes Back, where he introduced "The Imperial March" as the theme for Darth Vader and the Galactic Empire. The original Star Wars trilogy concluded with the 1983 film Return of the Jedi, for which Williams's score provided most notably the "Emperor's Theme," "Parade of the Ewoks," and "Luke and Leia." Both scores earned Williams Academy Award nominations. Williams worked with director Richard Donner to score the 1978 film Superman. The score's heroic and romantic themes, particularly the main march, the Superman fanfare and the love theme, known as "Can You Read My Mind," would appear in the four sequel films. For the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, created and directed by Lucas and Spielberg, Williams wrote a rousing main theme known as "The Raiders March" to accompany the film's hero, Indiana Jones. He also composed separate themes to represent the Ark of the Covenant, the character Marion, and the Nazi villains of the story. Additional themes John Williams conducting the music score to were featured in his scores to the sequel films Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark in the Avery Fisher Hall. Temple of Doom (1984), Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008). Williams composed an emotional and sensitive score to Spielberg's 1982 fantasy film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. The music conveys the film's benign, childlike sense of innocence, particularly with a spirited theme for the freedom of flight, and a soft string-based, harp-featured theme for the friendship between characters E.T. and Elliott. The film's final chase and farewell sequence marks a rare instance in film history in which the on-screen action was re-edited to conform to the composer's musical interpretation. Williams was awarded a fourth Academy Award for this score. The 1985 film The Color Purple is the only theatrical feature directed by Steven Spielberg for which John Williams did not serve as composer. The film's producer, Quincy Jones, wanted to personally arrange and compose the music for the project. Williams also did not score Twilight Zone: The Movie, but Spielberg had directed only one of the four segments in that film; the lead director and producer of the film, John Landis, selected Jerry Goldsmith as composer. The Williams-Spielberg collaboration resumed with the director's 1987 film Empire of the Sun, and has continued to the present, spanning genres from science fiction thrillers (1993's Jurassic Park), to somber tragedies (1993's Schindler's List, 2005's Munich), to Eastern-tinged melodramas (2005's Memoirs of a Geisha, directed by Rob Marshall). Spielberg has said, "I call it an honorable privilege to regard John Williams as a friend."[11] In 1999, George Lucas launched the first of a series of prequels to the original Star Wars trilogy. Williams was asked to score all three films, starting with The Phantom Menace. Along with themes from the previous movies, Williams

191

John Williams created new themes to be used as leitmotifs in Attack of the Clones (2002) and Revenge of the Sith (2005). Most notable of these was "Duel of the Fates," an aggressive choral movement utilizing harsh Sanskrit lyrics that broadened the style of music used in the Star Wars films. Also of note was "Anakin's Theme," which begins as an innocent childlike melody and morphs insidiously into a quote of the sinister "Imperial March" of the prior trilogy. For Episode II, Williams composed "Across the Stars," a love theme for Padm Amidala and Anakin Skywalker (mirroring the love theme composed for the second film of the previous trilogy, The Empire Strikes Back). The final installment combined many of the themes created for the series' previous movies, including "The Emperor's Theme," "The Imperial March," "Across the Stars," "Duel of the Fates," "The Force Theme," "Rebel Fanfare," "Luke's Theme," and "Princess Leia's Theme," as well as new themes for General Grievous and the film's climax, entitled "Battle of the Heroes." Few composers have scored an entire series of this magnitude: The combined scores of all six Star Wars films add up to music that takes a full orchestra more than 14 hours to perform in its entirety. In the new millennium, Williams was asked to score the film adaptation of the widely successful book series, Harry Potter. He went on to score the first three installments of the franchise. As with his Superman theme, the most important theme from Williams's scores for the film adaptations of J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, dubbed "Hedwig's Theme," has been used in the fourth, fifth, and sixth movies in the series (Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, and Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince), scored by Patrick Doyle and Nicholas Hooper twice, respectively. Like the main themes from Star Wars, Jaws, Superman, and Indiana Jones, fans have come to identify the Harry Potter films with Williams's original compositions. In 2006, Superman Returns was completed under the direction of Bryan Singer, best known for directing the first two movies in the X-Men series. Although Singer did not request Williams to compose a score for the intentionally Donner-esque film, he employed the skills of X2 composer John Ottman to incorporate Williams's original Superman theme, as well as those for Lois Lane and Smallville. Don Davis performed a similar role for Jurassic Park III, recommended to the producers by Williams himself. (Film scores by Ottman and to a lesser extent Davis are often compared to those of Williams, as both use similar styles of composition.) In 2009, Harry Potter producer David Heyman stated that, dependent on his schedule, Williams may return to compose the score for the two-part finale of the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows[12] . Subsequently, Alexandre Desplat was signed to compose the score for the first part of the film,[13] but Williams' return to compose the score for the second part remained a possibility.[14] It was later confirmed in September 2010 by Warner Bros. Brazil, that Williams was indeed chosen to score the soundtrack to Part II. [15] Aside from Deathly Hallows: Part II, Williams will score The Adventures of Tintin: Secret of the Unicorn, the first film in the upcoming Tintin trilogy based on the comics by Herg. This film continues his long-time collaboration with director Steven Spielberg, and he will work with producer Peter Jackson for the first time.[16] [17] [18] [19] [20] Williams is also scheduled to score Spielberg's upcoming films War Horse (2011)[21] and Interstellar (2012).[22]

192

John Williams

193

Conducting and performing


From 1980 to 1993, Williams succeeded Arthur Fiedler as Principal Conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra. Williams never met Fiedler in person but spoke with him by telephone. His arrival as the new leader of the Pops in the spring of 1980 allowed him to devote part of the Pops' first PBS broadcast of the season to presenting his new compositions for The Empire Strikes Back, in addition to conducting many Fiedler audience favorites. Williams almost ended his tenure with the Pops in 1984.[23] Considered a customary practice of opinion, some players hissed while sight-reading a new Williams composition in rehearsal; Williams abruptly left the session and turned in his resignation. He initially cited mounting conflicts with his film composing schedule, but later admitted a perceived lack of discipline in and respect from the Pops' ranks, culminating in this latest instance. After entreaties by the management and personal apologies from the musicians, Williams Williams signing an autograph after a concert withdrew his resignation and continued as principal conductor for nine more years.[24] In 1995 he was succeeded by Keith Lockhart, the former associate conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and Cincinnati Pops Orchestra. Williams is now the Laureate Conductor of the Pops, thus maintaining his affiliation with its parent, the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO). Williams leads the Pops on several occasions each year, particularly during their Holiday Pops season and typically for a week of concerts in May. He conducts an annual Film Night at both Boston Symphony Hall and Tanglewood, where he frequently enlists the Tanglewood Festival Chorus, official chorus of the BSO. Williams has written many concert pieces, including a symphony; a Concerto for Horn written for Dale Clevenger, principal hornist of the Chicago Symphony; a Concerto for Clarinet written for Michele Zukovsky (Principal Clarinetist of the Los Angeles Philharmonic) in 1991;[25] a sinfonietta for wind ensemble; a cello concerto premiered by Yo-Yo Ma and the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood in 1994; concertos for the flute and violin recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra; and a trumpet concerto, which was premiered by the Cleveland Orchestra and their principal trumpet Michael Sachs in September 1996. His bassoon concerto, "The Five Sacred Trees," which was premiered by the New York Philharmonic and principal bassoon player Judith LeClair in 1995, was recorded for Sony Classical by Williams with LeClair and the London Symphony Orchestra. He is also an accomplished pianist, as can be heard in various scores in which he provides solos, as well as a handful of European classical music recordings. Williams was the subject of an hour-long documentary for the BBC in 1980, and was featured in a story for ABC's newsmagazine 20/20 in 1983.[26]

John Williams

194 In 1985, Williams composed the NBC News theme "The Mission" (which he performs at concerts to signal the final encore), the "Liberty Fanfare" for the rededication of the Statue of Liberty, "We're Lookin' Good!" for the Special Olympics in celebration of the 1987 International Summer Games, and themes for the 1984, 1988, 1996, and 2002 Olympic games. His most recent concert work, "Seven for Luck," for soprano and orchestra, is a seven-piece song cycle based on the texts of former U.S. Poet Laureate Rita Dove. "Seven for Luck" was given its world premiere by the Boston Symphony under Williams with soprano Cynthia Haymon.

Stanley Donen (left) and John Williams at Avery Fisher Hall

Williams makes annual appearances with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the Hollywood Bowl, and took part as conductor and composer in the orchestra's opening gala concerts for the Walt Disney Concert Hall in 2003. In April 2005, Williams and the Boston Pops performed "The Force Theme" from Star Wars at opening day in Fenway Park as the Boston Red Sox, having won their first World Series championship since 1918, received their championship rings. For Game 1 of the 2007 World Series, Williams conducted a brass-and-drum ensemble through a new dissonant arrangement of the "Star Spangled Banner."[26] In April 2004, February 2006, and September 2007, he conducted the New York Philharmonic at Avery Fisher Hall in New York City. The initial program was intended to be a one-time special event, and featured Williams's medley of Oscar-winning film scores first performed at the previous year's Academy Awards. Its unprecedented popularity led to two concerts in 2006: fundraising gala events featuring personal recollections by film directors Martin Scorsese and Steven Spielberg. Continuing demand fueled three more concerts in 2007, which all sold out. These featured a tribute to the musicals of film director Stanley Donen, and had the distinction of serving as the opening event of the New York Philharmonic season.[27]

Notable compositions
Film scores
The following list consists of select films for which John Williams wrote the score and/or songs. 1950s Daddy-O (1958) 1960s Because They're Young (1960) I Passed for White (1960) The Secret Ways (1961) Bachelor Flat (1962) Diamond Head (1963) Gidget Goes to Rome (1963) The Killers (1964) None But the Brave (1965) The Rare Breed (1966) John Goldfarb, Please Come Home! (1965) Valley of the Dolls (1967) Oscar nomination (songs written by Andr and Dory Previn)

A Guide for the Married Man (1967) Fitzwilly (1967)

John Williams How to Steal a Million (1968) Heidi (1968) The Reivers (1969) Oscar nomination Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1969) Oscar nomination

195

1970s Storia di una donna (1970) His only score written for a foreign movie Jane Eyre (1970) Fiddler on the Roof (1971) Oscar winner (score adaptation) Images (1972) Oscar nomination The Poseidon Adventure (1972) Oscar nomination The Cowboys (1972) Cinderella Liberty (1973) Oscar nomination The Long Goodbye (1973), also title song. The Paper Chase (1973) Tom Sawyer (1973) Oscar nomination shared with Robert B. Sherman and Richard M. Sherman The Towering Inferno (1974) Oscar nomination Earthquake (1974) The Sugarland Express (1974) Jaws (1975) Golden Globe, BAFTA and Oscar winner The Eiger Sanction (1975) Family Plot (1976) Midway (1976) The Missouri Breaks (1976) Black Sunday (1977) Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977) Oscar, Golden Globe & BAFTA winner Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977) Oscar nomination Jaws 2 (1978) The Fury (1978) Superman (1978) Oscar nomination and double Grammy nominations 1941 (1979) Dracula (1979)

1980s Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) Oscar and double Grammy nominations, BAFTA winner Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) Oscar and double Grammy nominations Heartbeeps (1981) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) Golden Globe, Oscar, and BAFTA winner (soundtrack) Yes, Giorgio (1982) Song only - "If We Were In Love" Oscar and Golden Globe nomination Monsignor (1982) Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (1983) Oscar nomination Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) Oscar nomination The River (1984) Oscar nomination SpaceCamp (1986) Empire of the Sun (1987) Oscar nomination, BAFTA winner Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987) Adapted and conducted by Alexander Courage

The Witches of Eastwick (1987) Oscar nomination The Accidental Tourist (1988) Oscar nomination

John Williams Born on the Fourth of July (1989) Oscar nomination Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) Oscar nomination Always (1989) 1990s Stanley & Iris (1990) Presumed Innocent (1990) Home Alone (1990) double Oscar nominations Hook (1991) Grammy and Oscar nominations JFK (1991) Oscar nomination Home Alone 2: Lost in New York (1992) Far and Away (1992) Jurassic Park (1993) Schindler's List (1993) Oscar, Grammy, and BAFTA winner Nixon (1995) Oscar nomination Sabrina (1995) double Oscar nominations Sleepers (1996) Oscar nomination Rosewood (1997) The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) Seven Years in Tibet (1997) Amistad (1997) Grammy and Oscar nominations Stepmom (1998) Saving Private Ryan (1998) Golden Globe, Grammy, and Oscar nominations Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999) Grammy nomination Angela's Ashes (1999) Grammy and Oscar nomination

196

2000s The Patriot (2000) Oscar nomination A.I.: Artificial Intelligence (2001) Grammy and Oscar nominations Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (2001) Oscar nomination and double Grammy nominations Catch Me if You Can (2002) Oscar nomination Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) Minority Report (2002) Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002) Grammy nomination/Adapted and conducted by William Ross Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (2004) Grammy and Oscar nominations (soundtrack) The Terminal (2004) Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005) double Grammy nominations War of the Worlds (2005) Grammy nomination Memoirs of a Geisha (2005) Oscar Nomination, Grammy, Golden Globe, and BAFTA winner Munich (2005) Oscar nomination, Grammy for Best Instrumental Composition; Grammy award for Best Instrumental Composition and Grammy nomination for Best Score Soundtrack Album Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008) At the 51st Grammy Awards, John Williams won an award for the Mutt Williams theme 2010s War Horse (2011) The Adventures of Tintin: Secret of the Unicorn (2011)

John Williams

197

The Olympics
Williams has composed music for four Olympic Games: "Olympic Fanfare and Theme" 1984 Summer Olympics, Los Angeles Written specifically for the opening ceremonies. In a 1996 re-release, the opening trumpet fanfare was replaced with "Bugler's Dream," a previous Olympic Theme written by Leo Arnaud. This recording has been used as the theme for NBC's Olympic coverage ever since. "The Olympic Spirit" 1988 Summer Olympics, Seoul Commissioned by NBC Sports for their television coverage "Summon the Heroes" 1996 Summer Olympics, Atlanta, Georgia Written in commemoration of the Centennial of the Modern Olympic Games. Premiering on July 19, 1996, the piece features heavy use of the brass and wind sections and is approximately six minutes in length. Principal Boston Pops trumpeter Timothy Morrison played the opening solo on the album recording. It has been arranged for various types of ensembles, including wind ensembles. This theme is now used prevalently by NBC for intros and outros to commercial breaks of the Olympics. "Call of the Champions" 2002 Winter Olympics, Salt Lake City, Utah

Television themes
For NBC (United States): NBC News - "The Mission" NBC Nightly News The Today Show Meet the Press NBC Sunday Night Football[28] Amazing Stories Checkmate (TV series) Land of the Giants Lost in Space The Time Tunnel For Seven Network (Australia):

Seven News Sunrise and Weekend Sunrise Formerly used "The Mission," Now it uses MGMT's "Electric Feel" Theme for Great Performances

Concerti
"Concerto for Flute and Orchestra" (1969), premiered in 1981 by the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra under Leonard Slatkin "Concerto No. 1 for Violin and Orchestra" (1976 rev. 1998), premiered in 1981 by the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra under Slatkin "Concerto for Tuba and Orchestra" (1985), premiered by the tubist Chester Schmitz of the Boston Pops for their 100th anniversary "Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra" (1991), recorded by Michele Zukovsky for whom it was written[29] "Concerto for Bassoon and Orchestra (The Five Sacred Trees)" (1993), recorded by Judith LeClaire with the London Symphony Orchestra "Concerto for Cello and Orchestra" (1994) "Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra" (1996)

John Williams "Elegy for Cello and Piano" (1997), later arranged for Cello and Orchestra (2002). Based on a theme from Seven Years in Tibet "TreeSong, Concerto No. 2 for Violin and Orchestra" (2000) "Heartwood: Lyric Sketches for Cello and Orchestra" (2002) "Concerto for Horn and Orchestra" (2003). Premiered with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in November 2003 "Duo Concertante for Violin and Viola" (2007). Premiered at Tanglewood in August 2007 "Concerto for Viola and Orchestra" (2009) "Concerto for Harp and Orchestra: On Willows and Birches" (2009)

198

Celebration pieces and other concert works


"Prelude and Fugue for Orchestra" (1965). Available for download in MP3 at the United States Marine Band website [31]. "Symphony #1" (1966), premiered by Houston Symphony under Andr Previn in 1968. Williams reworked the piece in 1988 (performed by San Francisco Symphony during a visit as guest conductor in early 1990s) Thomas and The King (musical, 1975), premiered in London. Recorded in 1981 by the Original Cast [32]. "Jubilee 350 Fanfare" (1980), premiered by the Boston Pops conducted by Williams. Piece celebrating the 350th anniversary of the City of Boston "Liberty Fanfare" (1986), premiered on July 4, 1986 by the Boston Pops Esplanade Orchestra. Piece composed for the Centennial of the Statue of Liberty "A Hymn to New England" (1987) "Fanfare for Michael Dukakis" (1988). Composed for Michael Dukakis' presidential campaign and premiered at the 1988 Democratic National Convention "For New York" (Variations on theme by Leonard Bernstein) (1988). Composed for Leonard Bernstein's 70th birthday celebrations "Celebrate Discovery" (1990). Composed for the 500th anniversary celebration of the arrival of Columbus in America "Sound the Bells!" (1993) "Song for World Peace" (1994) "Variations on Happy Birthday" (1995) "American Journey" (1999). Portions premiered as accompaniment to a film by Steven Spielberg as part of the Millennium Celebration in Washington D.C. December 31, 1999 "Three Pieces for Solo Cello" (2001) "Soundings" (2003), composed for the Walt Disney Concert Hall "Star Spangled Banner" (2007), special arrangement for game 1 of the 2007 World Series played by the Boston Pops Orchestra "A Timeless Call" (2008). Score to the Steven Spielberg war veteran tribute film shown on day 3 of the 2008 Democratic National Convention "Air and Simple Gifts," performed by Itzhak Perlman on violin, Yo-Yo Ma on cello, Gabriela Montero on piano, and Anthony McGill on clarinet. Composed for the Barack Obama 2009 presidential inauguration chamber music piece for the La Jolla Music Societys SummerFest in California

John Williams

199

Awards
John Williams has won five Academy Awards and four Golden Globe Awards. He has been nominated for 21 Golden Globes and 59 Grammys. With 45 Oscar nominations, Williams currently holds the record for the most Oscar nominations for a living person,[30] [31] and is the second most nominated person in the history of the Academy Awards, tied with late fellow film composer Alfred Newman and behind only Walt Disney's 59. Forty of Williams' Oscar nominations are for Best Original Music Score and five are for Best Original Song. He won four Oscars for Best Original Score and one for Best Adapted Score (Fiddler on the Roof). Williams has received three Emmy Awards and five nominations, seven BAFTAs, twenty-one Grammy Awards, and has been inducted into the American Classical Music Hall of Fame and the Hollywood Bowl Hall of Fame. In 2004 he received a Kennedy Center Honor. He won a Classical Brit award in 2005 for his soundtrack work of the previous year. Notably, Williams has won the Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Composition for his scores for Star Wars, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, The Empire Strikes Back, E.T. The Extraterrestrial, Angela'a Ashes (1999), Munich (2005), and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. The competition includes not only composers of film scores, but also composers of instrumental music of any genre, including composers of legitimate classical fare such as symphonies and chamber music. Williams's richly thematic and highly popular 1977 score to the first Star Wars film was selected in 2005 by the American Film Institute as the greatest American movie score of all time. His scores for Jaws and E.T. also appeared on the list, at #6 and #14, respectively.[32] In 2003, the International Olympic Committee accorded Mr. Williams its highest individual honor, the Olympic Order. In 2010 Williams received the National Medal of Arts in the White House in Washington for his achievements in symphonic music for motion pictures, and "as a pre-eminent composer and conductor [whose] scores have defined and inspired modern movie-going for decades."

Grammy awards
The Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States.
Year Nominated work Award Result

1962

Checkmate

Best Soundtrack Album or Recording or Score from Motion Picture or Television Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Best Pop Instrumental Performance Best Instrumental Composition Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Best Instrumental Composition Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Best Instrumental Composition Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Best Instrumental Composition Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture

Nominated

1975 1977

Jaws Star Wars "Main Title" from Star Wars Star Wars

Won Won Won Won Won Won Won Won Won Won Won

1978

"Theme" from Close Encounters of the Third Kind Close Encounters of the Third Kind

1979

"Main Title Theme from Superman" Superman

1980

Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back

1981

Raiders of the Lost Ark

John Williams

200
Best Instrumental Composition Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture Best Arrangement on an Instrumental Recording Best Instrumental Composition Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television Instrumental Composition for a Motion Picture or Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Won Won Won Won Nominated

1982

"Flying" (Theme from E.T.) E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial "Flying" (Theme from E.T.)

1984

Olympic Fanfare and Theme Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi

1988

The Witches of Eastwick

Nominated

1989

Empire of the Sun

Nominated

1990

Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade

Nominated

1992

"Somewhere in My Memory" (with Leslie Bricusse) from Home Alone Schindler's List Hook

Nominated

1993

Won Nominated

1994

Jurassic Park

Nominated

1997

"Moonlight" (with Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman) from Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Sabrina Television Seven Years in Tibet Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television Best Instrumental Composition Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media

Nominated

1998

Nominated

The Lost World: Jurassic Park

Nominated

1999

Saving Private Ryan

Won Nominated

Amistad

2000

"Theme" from Angela's Ashes Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace

Won Nominated

2002

Artificial Intelligence: A.I.

Nominated

2003

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone

Nominated

2004

Catch Me If You Can

Nominated

Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets

Nominated

2005

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

Nominated

2006

Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith

Nominated

John Williams

201
Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Best Instrumental Composition Best Instrumental Composition

2007

Memoirs of a Geisha

Won Nominated

Munich

"A Prayer For Peace" (Theme from Munich) 2009 "The Adventures of Mutt" from Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull

Won Won Nominated

Best Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media

Golden Globe Awards


Year Nominated work Award Result

1973

The Poseidon Adventure

Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score

Nominated

1974

Cinderella Liberty

Nominated

Tom Sawyer (with Richard M. Sherman and Robert B. Sherman)

Nominated

1975

Earthquake

Nominated

Jaws

Won

1977

Star Wars

Won Nominated

1978

Close Encounters of the Third Kind

1979

Superman

Nominated

1981

Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back

Nominated

1982

E.T.

Won

1983

"If We Were In Love" (with Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman) from Yes, Giorgio Best Original Song Nominated

1985

The River

Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score

Nominated

1988

Empire of the Sun

Nominated

1989

The Accidental Tourist

Nominated

1990

Born on the Fourth of July

Nominated

1994

Schindler's List

Nominated

John Williams

202
"Moonlight" (with Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman) from Sabrina Best Original Song Nominated

1996

1998

Seven Years in Tibet

Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score Best Original Score

Nominated

1999

Saving Private Ryan

Nominated

2000

Angela's Ashes

Nominated

2002

Artificial Intelligence: AI

Nominated

2005

Memoirs of a Geisha

Won

Emmy Awards
Year Nominated work Award Result

1962

Alcoa Premiere

Outstanding Achievement in Original Music Composed for Television Nominated

1963

Alcoa Premiere

Outstanding Achievement in Composing Original Music

Nominated

1968 1971 2002

Heidi Jane Eyre The 74th Academy Awards Great Performances

Outstanding Achievement in Musical Composition Outstanding Achievement in Musical Composition Outstanding Music Direction

Won Won Nominated

2009

Outstanding Original Main Title Theme Music

Won

Academy Awards
Year Nominated work Award Result

1967

Valley of the Dolls

Score Adaptation

Nominated

1969

Goodbye, Mr Chips

Score Adaptation

Nominated

The Reivers

Original Score

Nominated

1971 1972

Fiddler on the Roof Images

Best Music, Scoring Adaptation and Original Song Score Original Score

Won Nominated

The Poseidon Adventure

Original Score

Nominated

John Williams

203
Cinderella Liberty Original Dramatic Score Nominated

1973

"Nice to Be Around" (from Cinderella Liberty)

Original Song

Nominated

Tom Sawyer

Score Adaptation

Nominated

1974

The Towering Inferno

Original Score

Nominated

1975 1977

Jaws Star Wars Close Encounters of the Third Kind

Best Music, Original Score Best Music, Original Score Original Score

Won Won Nominated

1978

Superman

Original Score

Nominated

1980

The Empire Strikes Back

Original Score

Nominated

1981

Raiders of the Lost Ark

Original Score

Nominated

1982

E.T. - The Extra-Terrestrial "If We Were in Love" (from Yes, Giorgio)

Best Music, Original Score Original Song

Won Nominated

1983

Return of the Jedi

Original Score

Nominated

1984

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom

Original Score

Nominated

The River

Original Score

Nominated

1987

Empire of the Sun

Original Score

Nominated

The Witches of Eastwick

Original Score

Nominated

1988

The Accidental Tourist

Original Score

Nominated

1989

Born on the Fourth of July

Original Score

Nominated

Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade

Original Score

Nominated

1990

Home Alone

Original Score

Nominated

"Somewhere in My Memory" (from Home Alone) Original Song

Nominated

1991

JFK

Original Score

Nominated

"When You're Alone" (from Hook)

Original Song

Nominated

1993

Schindler's List

Best Music, Original Score

Won

John Williams

204
Nixon Original Dramatic Score Nominated

1995

Sabrina

Original Musical or Comedy Score

Nominated

"Moonlight" (from Sabrina)

Original Song

Nominated

1996

Sleepers

Original Dramatic Score

Nominated

1997

Amistad

Original Dramatic Score

Nominated

1998

Saving Private Ryan

Original Dramatic Score

Nominated

1999

Angela's Ashes

Original Score

Nominated

2000

The Patriot

Original Score

Nominated

2001

A.I. Artificial Intelligence

Original Score

Nominated

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone

Original Score

Nominated

2002

Catch Me If You Can

Original Score

Nominated

2004

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

Original Score

Nominated

2005

Memoirs of a Geisha

Original Score

Nominated

Munich

Original Score

Nominated

See also
Star Wars music Superman music Harry Potter music

Further reading
Peter Moormann: Spielberg-Variationen. Die Filmmusik von John Williams, Baden-Baden (Germany): Nomos 2010. ISBN=978-3-8329-5355-3

John Williams

205

External links
John Williams [36] at the Internet Movie Database John Williams Fan Network [37] Music by John Williams [38] The John Towner Touch (1957) [39] (First solo album) The John Williams Web Pages [40] John Williams Official Site [1] Hollywood Bowl's Hall of Fame [41] John Williams Music Network [42] John Williams discography [43] at MusicBrainz John Williams [44] at Soundtrackguide.net John Williams [45] on SoundtrackNet John Williams Discography [46] at SoundtrackCollector.com The John Williams Collection [47] John Williams Sheet Music and Scores [48] Timelines John Williams [49] (Article Part 1 of 6) Timelines John Williams [50] (Article Part 2 of 6) Timelines John Williams [51] (Article Part 3 of 6) Timelines John Williams [52] (Article Part 4 of 6) Timelines John Williams [53] (Article Part 5 of 6) Timelines John Williams [54] (Article Part 6 of 6) Critical review of Williams's career by Anthony Tommasini [55] at New York Times (2005) John Williams Fan Site [56] (Chinese language)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] John Williams' Awards (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0002354/ awards) at www.IMDb.com. Retrieved July 9, 2007. Official Academy Awards Database (http:/ / www. oscars. org/ awardsdatabase/ index. html) at www.oscars.org (accessed Sep. 29, 2007) John Williams Biography (1932-) (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 83/ John-Williams. html) Sony Classical Williams Biography (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071012155709/ http:/ / sonyclassical. com/ artists/ williams_composer/ adbio. html) at www.sonybmgmasterworks.com. Retrieved 2007-09-29. [5] "Romanticism" (https:/ / www. wsu. edu/ ~brians/ hum_303/ romanticism. html). . Retrieved Aug. 25, 2006. [6] "Star Wars and Wagner's Ring" (http:/ / www. trell. org/ wagner/ starwars. html). . Retrieved August 15, 2010. [7] Films & Filming, vol.24, 1977, p.32 [8] Tribute to John Williams, ca. 1991. [9] John Williams Biography (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ film/ 83/ John-Williams. html) at FilmReference.com. [10] Marooned credits (unaired pilot, October 16, 1962) [11] Spielberg, Steven (1993). Jurassic Park Audio CD (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack CD) - Back Cover. Back Cover - "...and I consider it a privilege to call John my Friend.". MCA. [12] "David Heyman on Possible Return of John Williams to Score Deathly Hallows Films" (http:/ / www. the-leaky-cauldron. org/ 2009/ 7/ 14/ david-heyman-on-possible-return-of-john-williams-to-score-deathly-hallows-films) at www.the-leaky-cauldron.org. Retrieved July 14, 2009. [13] "Alexandre Desplat to compose Deathly Hallows: Part I" (http:/ / filmonic. com/ alexandre-desplat-to-compose-deathly-hallows-part-1-2010) from Filmonic.com, 19 Jan 2010. [14] "Williams may be back for final Potter film" (http:/ / www. jwfan. com/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=856& Itemid=1) from lecture at Berkshire Museum, 22 Aug 2007. [15] William for DH Part 2 (http:/ / www. the-leaky-cauldron. org/ 2010/ 9/ 14/ john-williams-will-compose-score-for-deathly-hallows-part-2) [16] Mikael Carlsson (February 19, 2009). "John Williams: The Adventures of Tintin" (http:/ / upcomingfilmscores. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 02/ john-williams-adventures-of-tintin. html). Upcoming Film Scores. . Retrieved February 22, 2009. [17] Liam (February 20, 2009). "John Williams to score Tintin" (http:/ / filmonic. com/ john-williams-score-tintin). Filmonic. . Retrieved February 22, 2009. [18] Alex Billington (February 20, 2009). "John Williams Scoring Spielberg's Adventures of Tintin" (http:/ / www. firstshowing. net/ 2009/ 02/ 20/ john-williams-scoring-spielbergs-adventures-of-tintin/ ). FirstShowing.net. . Retrieved February 22, 2009.

John Williams
[19] "John Williams to Score "Tintin"" (http:/ / www. worstpreviews. com/ headline. php?id=12166). WorstPreviews. February 20, 2009. . Retrieved February 22, 2009. [20] "John Williams and Steven Spielberg Reteam for Tintin" (http:/ / www. newsinfilm. com/ 2009/ 02/ 21/ john-williams-and-steven-spielberg-reteam-for-tintin/ ). NewsinFilm. February 21, 2009. . Retrieved February 22, 2009. [21] War Horse (2011): Full cast and crew (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1568911/ fullcredits) [22] Interstellar (2012): Full cast and crew (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0816692/ fullcredits) [23] ""Boston Pops Conductor Resigns Abruptly"" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ search/ restricted/ article?res=F10E11FE3B5F0C778DDDAF0894DC484D81). New York Times. June 14, 1984. . Retrieved Sep. 17, 2007. [24] ""At 100, the Boston Still Packs Them In"" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ search/ restricted/ article?res=F20F10F93D5F0C728CDDAC0894DD484D81). New York Times. May 1, 1985. . Retrieved Sep. 17, 2007. [25] ""Concerto for Clarinet"" (http:/ / www. mytempo. com/ williams. htm). MyTempo.com. 1991. . Retrieved Sep. 17, 2007. [26] "John Williams: Videos" (http:/ / jwfan. com/ index. php?Itemid=50& id=791& option=com_content& task=view) from the John Williams Fan Network, 2 June 2007. [27] ""John Williams"" (http:/ / nyphil. org/ attend/ broadcasts/ index. cfm?page=broadcastDetail& broadcastKey=149). New York Philharmonic. . Retrieved Jan. 6, 2008. [28] John Eggerton, "Are You Ready For Some Gridiron Violins?" (http:/ / www. broadcastingcable. com/ article/ 100918-Are_You_Ready_For_Some_Gridiron_Violins_. php) in Broadcasting & Cable, August 30, 2006. [29] Clarinet Concerto recording (http:/ / www. mytempo. com/ ) [30] "Williams, John biography" (http:/ / www. 8notes. com/ biographies/ john_williams. asp). . Retrieved May 6, 2007. [31] "John Williams Film Music Box Biography Discography News" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927011739/ http:/ / www. filmmusicbox. com/ boutique_us/ page_actus_page. cfm?code_lg=lg_us& num_actus=3). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. filmmusicbox. com/ boutique_us/ page_actus_page. cfm?code_lg=lg_us& num_actus=3) on 2007-09-27. . Retrieved May 6, 2006. [32] AFI 100 Years of Film Scores (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071022042809/ http:/ / www. afi. com/ tvevents/ 100years/ scores. aspx)

206

Peter Westergaard
Peter Talbot Westergaard (born 1931) is an American composer and music theorist. He is Professor Emeritus of music at Princeton University.

Biography
Westergaard was born in 1931 in Champaign, Illinois. He pursued undergraduate studies at Harvard University, graduating in 1953, and in 1956 obtained an M.F.A. degree from Princeton University. He studied with Roger Sessions, Walter Piston, Darius Milhaud, Edward Cone, Milton Babbitt and Wolfgang Fortner (Pratt 2001) in Freiburg/Germany. He taught at Columbia University, Amherst College, and Princeton University before retiring in 2001. Westergaard continues to be active as a composer, mainly of opera and chamber music.

Composer and theorist


Amongst former pupils of Babbitt, Westergaard stands out for his contributions to serial theory, as well as for his compositions, which are characterized by a delight in symmetry and mirror relationships, together with a concern for the systematic and integrated use of all the parameters of music, producing multileveled, clear, beautiful, and audible patterns (Griffiths 1981, 16061).

Music
Operas
Charivari (1953) Mr. and Mrs. Discobbolos (1966) The Tempest (1994)

Peter Westergaard Chicken-Little (1997) Moby Dick: Scenes from an Imaginary Opera (2004) Alice in Wonderland (2006)

207

Vocal music
Cantata I: "The Plot Against the Giant" (text: W. Stevens), for female voices, clarinet, harp, and cello (1956) Cantata II: "A Refusal to Mourn the Death, by Fire, of a Child in London" (text: Dylan Thomas), for bass and ten instruments (1958) Cantata III: "Leda and the Swan" (text: William Butler Yeats), for mezzo soprano, clarinet, viola, vibraphone, and marimba (1961) Cantata IV: "Spring and Fall: To a Young Child" (text: Gerard Manley Hopkins), for soprano and five instruments (1964) There Was a Little Man for soprano and violin (1979) Ariel Music (text: William Shakespeare, from The Tempest), for soprano and ten instruments (1987) Ode (text: Ben Jonson), for soprano, flute, clarinet, harp, violin, and viola (1989) anyone lived in a pretty how town (text: E. E. Cummings), for SATB choir (1997) Cantata V: "'Byzantium' and 'Sailing to Byzantium'" (text: William Butler Yeats), for baritone and percussion quartet (1997) There Was a Lady Loved a Sow (text: traditional) (1997) Cantata VI: "To the Dark Lady" (text: William Shakespeare), for soprano, mezzo soprano, tenor, baritone, and percussion duo (1999)

Instrumental music
String Quartet, 1957; Five Movements, for small orchestra (1958) Quartet, for clarinet, vibraphone, violin, and cello (1960) Trio, for flute, cello, and piano (1962) Variations for Six Players, for flute, clarinet, piano, percussion, violin, and cello (1963) Divertimento on Discobbolic Fragments, for flute and piano (1967) Noises, Sounds, and Sweet Airs, for ensemble (1968) Tuckets and Sennets, for band (1969) Moto perpetuo, for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, and horn (1976) Two Fanfares, for brass (1988) Ringing Changes, for orchestra (1996) All Fours, for percussion quartet (1997)

Writings
An Introduction to Tonal Theory. New York: W.W. Norton, 1975.

Sources
Griffiths, Paul. 1981. Modern Music: The Avant Garde since 1945. New York: George Braziller. ISBN 0-8076-1018-6 Pratt, Michael J. 2001. "Westergaard, Peter (Talbot)". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, eited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.

Peter Westergaard

208

External links
A biograhical article [1] New York Times review of Alice in Wonderland [2] Article on The Tempest from Princeton Weekly Bulletin [3] http://symphonyspace.org/event/2346

Anton Webern
Anton Webern (3 December 1883 15 September 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. He was a member of the Second Viennese School. As a student and significant follower of Arnold Schoenberg, he became one of the best-known exponents of the twelve-tone technique; in addition, his innovations regarding schematic organization of pitch, rhythm and dynamics were formative in the musical technique later known as total serialism.

Biography
Webern was born in Vienna, Austria, as Anton Friedrich Wilhelm von Webern. He was the only surviving son of Carl von Webern, a civil servant, and Amelie (ne Geer) who was a competent pianist and accomplished singer - the only obvious Anton Webern in Stettin, October 1912 source of the future composer's talent.[1] He never used his middle names and dropped the von in 1918 as directed by the Austrian government's reforms after World War I. After spending much of his youth in Graz and Klagenfurt, Webern attended Vienna University from 1902. There he studied musicology with Guido Adler, writing his thesis on the Choralis Constantinus of Heinrich Isaac. This interest in early music would greatly influence his compositional technique in later years by employing palindromic form on both the micro- and macro-scale and the economical use of musical materials. He studied composition under Arnold Schoenberg, writing his Passacaglia, Op. 1 as his graduation piece in 1908. He met Alban Berg, who was also a pupil of Schoenberg's, and these two relationships would be the most important in his life in shaping his own musical direction. After graduating, he took a series of conducting posts at theatres in Ischl, Teplitz, Danzig, Stettin, and Prague before moving back to Vienna. There he helped run Schoenberg's Society for Private Musical Performances from 1918 through 1922 and conducted the "Vienna Workers Symphony Orchestra" from 1922 to 1934. Webern's music was denounced as "cultural Bolshevism" and "degenerate art" by the Nazi Party in Germany, even before they seized power in Austria in 1938.[2] Although Webern had sharply attacked Nazi cultural policies in private lectures given in 1933, their intended publication did not take place at that time, which proved fortunate since this later "would have exposed Webern to serious consequences."[3] During the war, however, his patriotic fervor led him to endorse the regime in a series of letters to Joseph Hueber, where he described Hitler on 2 May 1940 as "this unique man" who created "the new state" of Germany.[4] As a result of official disapproval, he found it harder (though at no stage impossible) to earn a living, and had to take on work as an editor and proofreader for his publishers, Universal Edition.

Anton Webern It was thanks to the Swiss philanthropist Werner Reinhart that Webern was able to attend the festive premiere of his Variations for Orchestra, Op. 30 in Winterthur, Switzerland in 1943. Reinhart invested all the financial and diplomatic means at his disposal to enable Webern to travel to Switzerland. In return for this support, Webern dedicated the work to him.[5] He left Vienna near the end of the war, and moved to Mittersill in Salzburg, believing he would be safer there. On 15 September 1945, during the Allied occupation of Austria, he was shot dead by an American Army soldier following the arrest of his son-in-law for black market activities, when, despite the curfew in effect, he stepped outside the house to enjoy a cigar so as not to disturb his sleeping grandchildren. The soldier responsible, army cook Pfc. Raymond Norwood Bell, was overcome by remorse and died of alcoholism in 1955.[6] Webern was survived by his wife, Wilhelmine Mrtl, and their three daughters. His only son, Peter, died on 14 February 1945 of wounds suffered in a strafing attack on a military train two days earlier.[7]

209

Webern's music
Doomed to a total failure in a deaf world of ignorance and indifference he inexorably kept on cutting out his diamonds, his dazzling diamonds, the mines of which he had such a perfect knowledge.[8] Webern was not a prolific composer; just thirty-one of his compositions were published in his lifetime, and when Pierre Boulez oversaw a project to record all of his compositions, including those without opus numbers, the results fit on just six CDs.[9] However, his influence on later composers, and particularly on the post-war avant garde, was immense. His mature works, using Arnold Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique, have a textural clarity and emotional coolness which greatly influenced composers such as Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. Like almost every composer who had a career of any length, Webern's music changed over time. However, it is typified by very spartan textures, in which every note can be clearly heard; carefully chosen timbres, often resulting in very detailed instructions to the performers and use of extended instrumental techniques (flutter tonguing, col legno, and so on); wide-ranging melodic lines, often with leaps greater than an octave; and brevity: the Six Bagatelles for string quartet (1913), for instance, last about three minutes in total. Webern's earliest works are in a late Romantic style. They were neither published nor performed in his lifetime, though they are sometimes performed today. They include the orchestral tone poem Im Sommerwind (1904) and the Langsamer Satz (1905) for string quartet. Webern's first piece after completing his studies with Schoenberg was the Passacaglia for orchestra (1908). Harmonically speaking, it is a step forward into a more advanced language, and the orchestration is somewhat more distinctive than his earlier orchestral work. However, it bears little relation to the fully mature works he is best known for today. One element that is typical is the form itself: the passacaglia is a form which dates back to the 17th century, and a distinguishing feature of Webern's later work was to be the use of traditional compositional techniques (especially canons) and forms (the Symphony, the Concerto, the String Trio and String Quartet, and the piano and orchestral Variations) in a modern harmonic and melodic language. For a number of years, Webern wrote pieces which were freely atonal, much in the style of Schoenberg's early atonal works. With the Drei Geistliche Volkslieder (1925) he used Schoenberg's twelve tone technique for the first time, and all his subsequent works used this technique. The String Trio (1927) was both the first purely instrumental work using the twelve tone technique (the other pieces were songs) and the first cast in a traditional musical form. Webern's tone rows are often arranged to take advantage of internal symmetries; for example, a twelve-tone row may be divisible into four groups of three pitches which are variations, such as inversions and retrogrades, of each other, thus creating invariance. This gives Webern's work considerable motivic unity, although this is often obscured by the fragmentation of the melodic lines. This fragmentation occurs through octave displacement (using intervals greater than an octave) and by moving the line rapidly from instrument to instrument (sometimes, and somewhat erroneously, called Klangfarbenmelodie).

Anton Webern Webern's last pieces seem to indicate another development in style. The two late Cantatas, for example, use larger ensembles than earlier pieces, last longer (No. 1 around nine minutes; No. 2 around sixteen), and are texturally somewhat denser.

210

Recordings by Webern
Webern conducts "Berg - Violin Concerto" ASIN:B000003XHN Webern conducts his arrangement of Schubert's German Dances ASIN:B000002707

List of works
Works with opus numbers
The works with opus numbers are the ones that Webern saw fit to have published in his own lifetime, plus a few late works published after his death. They constitute the main body of his work, although several pieces of juvenilia and a few mature pieces that do not have opus numbers are occasionally performed today. Op. 1, Passacaglia for orchestra (1908) Op. 2, Entflieht auf leichten Khnen for a-cappella choir, on a poem by Stefan George (1908) Op. 3, Fnf Lieder (Five Songs) for voice and piano, on Der Siebente Ring by Stefan George (190708) Op. 4, Fnf Lieder for voice and piano, poems by Stefan George (190809) Op. 5, Five Movements for string quartet (1909); version for string orchestra (1929) Op. 6, Six Pieces for large orchestra (190910, revised 1928) Op. 7, Four Pieces for violin and piano (1910) Op. 8, Zwei Lieder (Two Songs) for voice and 8 instruments, on poems by Rainer Maria Rilke (1910) Op. 9, Six Bagatelles for string quartet (1913) Op. 10, Five Pieces for orchestra (191113) Op. 11, Three Little Pieces for cello and piano (1914) Op. 12, Vier Lieder (Four Songs) for voice and piano (191517) Op. 13, Vier Lieder for voice and orchestra (191418) Op. 14, Sechs Lieder (Six Songs) for voice, clarinet, bass clarinet, violin and cello on poems by Georg Trakl (191721) Op. 15, Five Sacred Songs for voice and small ensemble (191722) Op. 16, Five Canons for high soprano, clarinet and bass clarinet (192324) Op. 17, Three Traditional Rhymes for voice, violin (doubling viola), clarinet and bass clarinet(1924) Op. 18, Drei Lieder (Three Songs) for voice, E-flat clarinet and guitar (1925) Op. 19, Zwei Lieder, for mixed choir, celesta, guitar, violin, clarinet and bass clarinet, on poems by Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1926) Op. 20, String Trio (1927) Op. 21, Symphony (1928) Op. 22, Quartet for violin, clarinet, tenor saxophone and piano (1930) Op. 23, Drei Lieder for voice and piano, on Hildegard Jone's Viae inviae (1934) Op. 24, Concerto for 9 instruments (1934) Op. 25, Drei Lieder for voice and piano, on poems by Hildegard Jone (193435) Op. 26, Das Augenlicht for mixed choir and orchestra, on a poem by Hildegard Jone (1935) Op. 27, Variations for piano (1936) Op. 28, String Quartet (193738)

Op. 29, Cantata No. 1 for soprano, mixed choir and orchestra, on a poem by Hildegard Jone (193839) Op. 30, Variations for orchestra (1940)

Anton Webern Op. 31, Cantata No. 2 for soprano, bass, choir and orchestra, on a poem by Hildegard Jone (194143)

211

Works without opus numbers


Two Pieces for cello and piano (1899) Three Poems for voice and piano (18991902) Eight Early Songs for voice and piano (190103) Three Songs after Ferdinand Avenarius (190304) Im Sommerwind, idyl for large orchestra after a poem by Bruno Wille (1904) Langsamer Satz (Slow Movement) for string quartet (1905) String Quartet (1905) Piece for piano (1906) Rondo for piano (1906) Rondo for string quartet (1906) Five Songs after Richar Dehmel (190608) Piano Quintet (1907) Four Songs after Stefan George (190809) Five Pieces for orchestra (1913) - related to op. 10, first pub. 1971, edited by Friedrich Cerha Three Songs for voice and orchestra (191314) Cello Sonata (1914) Arrangement of Johann Strauss II's Schatzwalzer for string quartet, harmonium, and piano (1921) Piece for children for piano (1924) Piece for piano, in the tempo of a minuet (1925) Piece for string trio (1925) Deutsche Tnze (German Dances) by Schubert (1824), orchestrated by Webern (1931)

See also
List of Austrians in music List of Austrians

Bibliography
Bailey, Kathryn. 1991. The Twelve-Note Music of Anton Webern: Old Forms in a New Language. Music in the Twentieth Century 2. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521390885 (cloth) ISBN 0521547962 (pbk. ed., 2006) Bailey, Kathryn (ed.). 1996. Webern Studies. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521475260 Bailey, Kathryn. 1998. The Life of Webern Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052157336X (cloth) ISBN 0521575664 (pbk) Ewen, David. 1971. "Anton Webern (18831945)," in Composers of Tomorrow's Music, 6677. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. ISBN 0-396-06286-5 Forte, Allen. 1998. The Atonal Music of Anton Webern New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300073526 Galliari, Alain. 2007. "Anton von Webern". Paris: Fayard. ISBN 9782213634579 Hayes, Malcolm. 1995. Anton von Webern. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 0714831573 Mead, Andrew. 1993. "Webern, Tradition, and 'Composing with Twelve Tones'", Music Theory Spectrum 15:173204. Moldenhauer, Hans. 1961. The Death of Anton Webern: A Drama in Documents New York: Philosophical Library. OCLC 512111 [10]

Anton Webern Moldenhauer, Hans. 1966. Anton von Webern Perspectives. Edited by Demar Irvine, with an introductory interview with Igor Stravinsky. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Moldenhauer, Hans, and Rosaleen Moldenhauer. 1978. Anton von Webern: A Chronicle of His Life and Work. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-47237-3 London: Gollancz. ISBN 0575024364 Noller, Joachim. 1990. "Bedeutungsstrukturen: zu Anton Weberns 'alpinen' Programmen." Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik151, no. 9 (September): 1218. Perle, George. 1991. Serial Composition and Atonality: an Introduction to the Music of Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. Sixth ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Stravinsky, Igor. 1959. "[Foreword]". Die Reihe 2 (2nd revised English edition): vii. Webern, Anton. 1963. The Path to the New Music. Edited by Willi Reich. [Translated by Leo Black.] Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania: Theodore Presser Co., in Association with Universal Edition. Reprinted London: Universal Edition, 1975. (Translation of Wege zur neuen Musik. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1960.) Wildgans, Friedrich. 1966. Anton Webern. Translated by Edith Temple Roberts and Humphrey Searle. Introduction and notes by Humphrey Searle. New York: October House.

212

Further reading
Tsang, Lee (2002). "The Atonal Music of Anton Webern (1998) by Allen Forte". Music Analysis, 21/iii (October), 417427.

Software
WebernUhrWerk [11] - generative music generator by Karlheinz Essl, based on Anton Webern's last twelve-tone row, commemorating his sudden death on 15 September 1945. - Free download for Mac OS X and Windows XP.

External links
Anton Webern [12] biography and works on the UE website (publisher) The Complete Works of Anton v. Webern [13] compiled by Bill Hammel Das Synthese-Denken bei Anton Webern [14] dissertation by Karlheinz Essl with English abstract (1988) www.antonwebern.com [15] opus list, short biography, music and photo download Leonid Hoffman: Dr. Anton Webern [16] Free scores by Anton Webern in the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Anton Webern in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) [17] (French) A biography of Anton Webern, from IRCAM's website. Excerpts from sound archives [18] of Webern's works. Webern's orchestration of Bach's Ricercar a 6 [19] - listening

Anton Webern

213

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Hayes 1995, p.18 Moldenhauer and Moldenhauer 1978, 47375, 478, 491, 49899 Webern 1963, 7, 1920 Moldenhauer and Moldenhauer 1978, 527 Music of the Viennese School (http:/ / www. 222sound. com/ english/ description/ 1425e. htm) Moldenhauer 1961, 102 Moldenhauer and Moldenhauer 1979, 600601. Stravinsky 1959, vii. Complete Webern Edition (http:/ / www. deutschegrammophon. com/ boulez2000/ boulez-cds/ 03_webern/ 03_webern_main. html), Deutsche Grammophon. 6CD set 457 637-2.

Kurt Weill
Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900[1] April 3, 1950[1] ) was a German composer, active from the 1920s, and in his later years in the United States. He was a leading composer for the stage who was most well known for his fruitful collaborations with Bertolt Brecht. With Brecht, he developed productions such as his most well known work The Threepenny Opera, a Marxist critique of capitalism, which included the ballad "Mack the Knife". Weill was a socialist[2] who held the ideal of writing music that served a socially useful purpose.[3] He also wrote a number of works for the concert hall, as well as several Judaism themed pieces.

Personal life
Kurt Julian Weill was born on March 2, 1900,[4] the third of four children to Albert Weill (18671950) and Emma Weill ne Ackermann (18721955). He grew up in a religious Jewish family in the "Sandvorstadt", the Jewish quarter in Dessau, Germany, where his Kurt Weill. father was a cantor.[1] At the age of twelve, Kurt Weill started taking piano lessons and made his first attempts at writing music; his earliest preserved composition was written in 1913 and is titled Mi Addir. Jewish Wedding Song.[5] In 1915, Weill started taking private lessons with Albert Bing, Kapellmeister at the "Herzogliches Hoftheater zu Dessau", who taught him piano, composition, music theory, and conducting. Weill performed publicly on piano for the first time in 1915, both as an accompanist and soloist. The following years he composed numerous Lieder to the lyrics of poets such as Eichendorff, Arno Holz, and Anna Ritter, as well as a cycle of five songs titled Ofrahs Lieder to a German translation of a text by Yehuda Halevi.[6] Weill graduated with an Abitur from the Oberrealschule of Dessau in 1918, and enrolled at the Berliner Hochschule fr Musik at the age of

Kurt Weill 18, where he studied composition with Engelbert Humperdinck,[1] conducting with Rudolf Krasselt, and counterpoint with Friedrich E. Koch, and also attended philosophy lectures by Max Dessoir and Ernst Cassirer. The same year, he wrote his first string quartet (in B minor).[7]

214

Kurt Weill.

Early work and compositions


Weill's family experienced financial hardship in the aftermath of World War I, and in July 1919, Weill abandoned his studies and returned to Dessau, where he was employed as a rptiteur at the Friedrich-Theater under the direction of the new Kapellmeister, Hans Knappertsbusch. During this time, he composed an orchestral suite in E-flat major, a symphonic poem of Rilke's The Lay of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke as well as Schilflieder, a cycle of five songs to poems by Nikolaus Lenau. In December 1919, through the help of Humperdinck, Weill was appointed as Kapellmeister at the newly founded Stadttheater in Ldenscheid, where he directed opera, operetta, and singspiel for five months, and also composed a cello sonata and Ninon of Lenclos, a now lost one-act operatic adaptation of a play by Ernst Hardt. From May to September 1920, Weill spent a couple of months in Leipzig, where his father had become the new director of a Jewish orphanage. Before he returned to Berlin, in September 1920, he composed Sulamith, a choral fantasy for soprano, female choir, and orchestra.

Studies with Busoni


Back in Berlin, Weill had an interview with Ferruccio Busoni in December 1920. After examining some of Weill's compositions, Busoni accepted him as one of five master students in composition at the Preuische Akademie der Knste in Berlin.[8] From January 1921 to December 1923, Weill studied music composition with him and also counterpoint with Philipp Jarnach in Berlin. During his first year he composed his first symphony, Sinfonie in einem Satz, as well as the lieder Die Bekehrte (Goethe) and two Rilkelieder for voice and piano. In order to support his family in Leipzig, he also worked as a pianist in a Bierkeller tavern. In spring of 1922, Weill joined the November Group's music faction. That year he composed a psalm, a divertimento for orchestra, and Sinfonia Sacra: Fantasia, Passacaglia, and Hymnus for Orchestra. On November 18, 1922, his children's pantomime Die Zaubernacht (The Magic Night) premiered at the Theater am Kurfrstendamm; it was the first public performance of any of Weill's works in the field of musical theatre.[9] Out of financial need, Weill taught music theory and composition to private students from 1923 to 1925. Among his students were Claudio Arrau, Maurice Abravanel, Henry (then known as Heinz) Jolles[10] , and Nikos Skalkottas. Arrau, Abravenel, and Jolles, at least, would remain members of Weill's circle of friends thereafter,[11] and Jolles's sole surviving composition predating the rise of the Nazi regime in 1933 is a fragment of a work for four pianos he

Kurt Weill and Weill wrote jointly.[10] Weill's compositions during his last year of studies included Quodlibet, an orchestral suite version of Die Zaubernacht, Frauentanz, seven medieval poems for soprano, flute, viola, clarinet, French horn, and bassoon, and Recordare for choir and children's choir to words from the Book of Lamentations. Further premieres that year included a performance of his Divertimento for Orchestra by the Berlin Philharmonic under the direction of Heinz Unger on April 10, 1923, and the Hindemith-Amar Quartet's rendering of Weill's String Quartet op. 8, on June 24, 1923. In December 1923, Weill finished his studies with Busoni.[12]

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Success in the 1920s and early-1930s


In 1922 he joined the Novembergruppe, a group of leftist Berlin artists that included Hanns Eisler and Stefan Wolpe.[13] In February 1924 the conductor Fritz Busch introduced him to the dramatist Georg Kaiser, with whom Weill would have a long-lasting creative partnership resulting in several one-act operas. At Kaiser's house in Grnheide, Weill also first met the actress and future wife Lotte Lenya in summer 1924.[14] The couple got married twice: In 1926 and again in 1937 (following their divorce in 1933). Lenya took great care to support Weill's work, and after his death she took it upon herself to increase awareness of his music, forming the Kurt Weill Foundation. From November 1924 to May 1929, Weill wrote hundreds of reviews for the influential and comprehensive radio program guide Der deutsche Rundfunk. Hans Siebert von Heister had already worked with Weill in the November Group, and offered Weill the job shortly after becoming editor-in-chief.[15] Although he had some success with his first mature non-stage works (such as the String Quartet, Op. 8 or the Concerto for Violin and Wind Orchestra, Op. 12), which were influenced by Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky, Weill tended more and more to vocal music and musical theatre. His musical theatre work and his songs were extremely popular with the wider public in Germany at the end of the 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s. Weill's music was admired by composers such as Alban Berg, Alexander von Zemlinsky, Darius Milhaud and Stravinsky, but it was also criticised by others: by Schoenberg, who later revised his opinion, and by Anton Webern. His best-known work is The Threepenny Opera (1928), a reworking of John Gay's The Beggar's Opera written in collaboration with Bertolt Brecht. Engel directed the original production of The Threepenny Opera in 1928. It contains Weill's most famous song, "Mack the Knife" ("Die Moritat von Mackie Messer"). The stage success was filmed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst in two language versions: Die 3-Groschen-Oper and L'opra de quat' sous. Weill and Brecht tried to stop the film adaptation through a well publicised lawsuit that Weill won and Brecht lost. Weill's working association with Brecht, although successful, came to an end over politics in 1930. Although Weill associated with socialism[16] after Brecht tried to push the play even further into a left wing direction, Weill commented, according to his wife Lenya, that he was unable to "set the communist party manifesto to music."[17]

Paris, London and New York


Weill fled Nazi Germany in March 1933.[18] A prominent and popular Jewish composer, Weill was officially denounced for his socialist views and populist sympathies,[19] and became a target of the Nazi authorities, who criticized and even interfered with performances of his later stage works, such as Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny, 1930), Die Brgschaft (1932), and Der Silbersee (1933). With no option but to leave Germany, he went first to Paris, where he worked once more with Brecht (after a project with Jean Cocteau failed) the ballet The Seven Deadly Sins. On April 13, 1933 his musical The Threepenny Opera was given its premiere on Broadway, but closed after 13 performances to mixed reviews.[4] In 1934 he completed his Symphony No.2, his last purely orchestral work, conducted in Amsterdam and New York by Bruno Walter, and also the music for Jacques Deval's play, Marie Galante.[18] A production of his operetta Der Kuhhandel (A Kingdom for a Cow) took him to London in 1935, and later that year he went to the United States in connection with The Eternal Road,[1] a "Biblical Drama" by Franz Werfel that had

Kurt Weill been commissioned by members of New York's Jewish community and was premiered in 1937 at the Manhattan Opera House, running for 153 performances. Weill and his wife rented a house during the summer near Pine Brook Country Club in Nichols, Connecticut, the summer home of the Group Theatre, while working on Johnny Johnson (musical). Some of the other artists who summered there were; Elia Kazan, Harry Morgan, John Garfield, Lee J. Cobb, Will Geer, Clifford Odets, Howard Da Silva and Irwin Shaw [20] [21] [22] Weill and his wife, the actress and singer Lotte Lenya, settled in New York City on 10 September 1935, living first at the St. Moritz Hotel before moving on to an apartment at 231 East 62nd Street between Third and Second Avenues.[4] Weill believed that most of his work had been destroyed, and he seldom (and reluctantly) spoke or wrote German again, with the exception of, for example, letters to his parents who had escaped to Israel. Rather than continue to write in the same style that had characterized his European compositions, Weill made a study of American popular and stage music, and his American output, though held by some to be inferior, nonetheless contains individual songs and entire shows that not only became highly respected and admired, but have been seen as seminal works in the development of the American musical. Unique among Broadway composers of the time, Weill insisted on writing his own orchestrations (with some very few exceptions, such as the dance music in Street Scene).[23] He worked with writers such as Maxwell Anderson and Ira Gershwin, and even wrote a film score for Fritz Lang (You and Me, 1938). Weill himself strove to find a new way of creating an American opera that would be both commercially and artistically successful. The most interesting attempt in this direction is Street Scene, based on a play by Elmer Rice, with lyrics by Langston Hughes. For his work on Street Scene Weill was awarded the inaugural Tony Award for Best Original Score.[24] In the 1940s Weill lived in Downstate New York near the New Jersey border and made frequent trips both to New York City and to Hollywood for his work for theatre and film. Weill was active in political movements encouraging American entry into World War II, and after America joined the war in 1941, Weill enthusiastically collaborated in numerous artistic projects supporting the war effort both abroad and on the home front. He and Maxwell Anderson also joined the volunteer civil service by working as air raid wardens on High Tor Mountain between their homes in New City, New York and Haverstraw, New York in Rockland County. Weill became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1943.[1] Weill had ideals of writing music that served a socially useful purpose. During his time in the US, he also wrote a folk opera, Down in then Valley, that was performed in schools and community centres throughout the United States, and a number of songs in support of the American war effort, including the satirical "Schickelgruber" (with lyrics by Howard Dietz), "Buddy on the Nightshift" (with Oscar Hammerstein) and - with Brecht again as in his earlier carrer the "Ballad of the Nazi Soldier's Wife" ("Und was bekam des Soldaten Weib?"). Intended for broadcast to Germany, the song chronicled the progress of the Nazi war machine through the gifts sent to the proud wife at home by her man at the front: furs from Oslo, a silk dress from Paris etc, until finally, from Russia, she receives her widow's veil.[25] Apart from "Mack the Knife" and "Pirate Jenny" from the Threepenny Opera, his most famous songs include "Alabama Song" (from Mahagonny), "Surabaya Johnny" (from Happy End), "Speak Low" (from One Touch of Venus), "Lost in the Stars" (from the musical of that name), "My Ship" (from Lady in the Dark), and "September Song" (from Knickerbocker Holiday).

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Death
Weill suffered a heart attack shortly after his 50th birthday and died on April 3, 1950 in New York City.[18] He was buried in Mount Repose Cemetery in Haverstraw, New York. The text and music on his gravestone[26] come from the song "A Bird of Passage" from Lost in the Stars, itself adapted from a quotation from the Venerable Bede:[27] This is the life of men on earth: Out of darkness we come at birth Into a lamplit room, and then Go forward into dark again. (lyric: Maxwell Anderson) An excerpt from Maxwell Anderson eulogy for Weill read: "I wish, of course, that he had been lucky enough to have had a little more time for his work. I could wish the times in which he lived had been less troubled. But these things were as they were and Kurt managed to make thousands of beautiful things during the short and troubled time he had"[28]

Influence
Sixty years after his death, Weill's music continues to be performed both in popular and classical contexts. In Weill's lifetime, his work was most associated with the voice of his wife, Lotte Lenya, but shortly after his death "Mack the Knife" was established by Louis Armstrong and Bobby Darin as a jazz standard. His music has since been recorded by many performers, ranging from The Doors, Judy Collins, Lou Reed, Todd Rundgren, John Zorn, Dagmar Krause, and PJ Harvey to New York's Metropolitan Opera and the Vienna Radio Symphony German stamp commemorating Weill. Orchestra. Singers as varied as Teresa Stratas, Ute Lemper, Gisela May, Anne Sofie von Otter, Max Raabe, Dee Dee Bridgewater, and Marianne Faithfull have recorded entire albums of his music. Amanda Palmer, singer/pianist of the 'Brechtian Punk Cabaret' duo The Dresden Dolls, has Kurt Weill's name on the front of her keyboard (a pun with the name of the instrument maker Kurzweil) as a tribute to the composer. In 1991, seminal Swiss Industrial music band The Young Gods released their album of Kurt Weill songs, The Young Gods Play Kurt Weill. In 2008, Weill's songs were performed by Canadian musicians (including Sarah Slean and Mary Margaret O'Hara) in a tribute concert as part of the first annual Canwest Cabaret Festival in Toronto. In 2009 Duke Special released an EP, entitled Huckleberry Finn, of five songs from an unfinished musical by Kurt Weill based on the novel by Mark Twain.

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Compositions
Stage works
See List of works for the stage by Weill

Concert works
Cantatas 1920 : Sulamith, choral fantasy for soprano, female chorus and orchestra (lost) 1927 : Der neue Orpheus, cantata for soprano, solo violin and orchestra, op.16 (text: Yvan Goll) 1927 : Der Tod im Wald, cantata for bass and band (originally belonged to Das Berliner Requiem) 1928 : Das Berliner Requiem, cantata for tenor, baritone, male chorus (or three male voices) and wind orchestra (text: Bertolt Brecht) 1929 : Der Lindberghflug, cantata for tenor, baritone and bass soloists, chorus and orchestra (text: Bertolt Brecht, first version with music by Paul Hindemith and Weill, second version, also 1929, with music exclusively by Weill) 1940 : The Ballad of Magna Carta, cantata for tenor and bass soloists, chorus and orchestra (text: Maxwell Anderson) Chamber music 1918 : String Quartet in B minor (without opus number) 1923 : String Quartet op. 8 19191921 : Sonata for Cello and Piano Piano music 1917 : Intermezzo 1937 : Albumblatt for Erika (transcription of the pastorale from Der Weg der Verheissung) Orchestral works 1919 : Suite for orchestra 1919 : Die Weise von Liebe and Tod, symphonic poem for orchestra after Rainer Maria Rilke (lost) 1921 : Symphony No.1 in one movement for orchestra 1922 : Divertimento for orchestra, op.5 (unfinished, reconstructed by David Drew) 1922 : Sinfonia Sacra, Fantasia, Passacaglia and Hymnus for orchestra, op. 6 (unfinished) 1923 : Quodlibet, suite for orchestra from the pantomime Zaubernacht, op. 9 1925 : Concerto for violin and wind orchestra, op. 12 1927 : Bastille Musik, suite for wind orchestra (arranged by David Drew, 1975) from the stage music to Gustav III, by August Strindberg 1928 : Kleine Dreigroschenmusik, suite from Die Dreigroschenoper for wind orchestra, piano and percussion, (premiere conducted by Otto Klemperer) 1934 : Suite panamenne for chamber orchestra, (from Marie Galante) 1934 : Symphony No. 2 in three movements for orchestra, (premiere by Royal Concertgebouw orchestra under Bruno Walter) 1947 : Hatikvah, arrangement of the Israeli National Anthem for orchestra

Kurt Weill Lieder, Lieder cycles, songs and chansons 1919 : Die stille Stadt, for voice and piano, text: Richard Dehmel 1923 : Frauentanz op.10, Lieder cycle for soprano, flute, viola, clarinet, horn and bassoon (after medieval poems) 1923 : Stundenbuch, Lieder cycle for baritone and orchestra, text: Rainer Maria Rilke 1925 : Klopslied, for high voice, two piccolos and bassoon ('Ick sitze da un' esse Klops'/Berliner Lied) 1927 : Vom Tod im Wald (Death in the Forest), Op. 23, ballad for bass solo and ten wind instruments, text: Bertolt Brecht 1928 : Berlin im Licht-Song, slow-fox, text: Kurt Weill; composed for the exhibition Berlin im Licht, first performance in Wittenbergplatz (with orchestra) on 13 October, and on 16 October in the Kroll Opera (with voice and piano) 1928 : Die Muschel von Margate: Petroleum Song, slow-fox, text: Felix Gasbarra for the play by Leo Lania, Konjunktur 1928 : Zu Potsdam unter den Eichen (In Potsdam under the Oak Trees), song for voice and piano, alternatively male chorus a cappella, text: Bertolt Brecht 1928 : Das Lied von den braunen Inseln, text: Lion Feuchtwanger, from the play by same author, Petroleum Inseln 1933 : Der Abschiedsbrief, text: Erich Kstner, intended for Marlene Dietrich

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1933 : La complainte de Fantmas, text: Robert Desnos; for a broadcast of Fantmas in November 1933 (the music was lost, and later reconstructed by Jacques Loussier for Catherine Sauvage) 1933 : Es regnet, text: Jean Cocteau (direct into German) 1934 : Je ne t'aime pas, text: Maurice Magre for the soprano Lys Gauty 1934 : J'attends un navire, text: Jacques Deval, from Marie Galante ; as an independent song for Lys Gauty; used for the Hymne der Resistance during the Second World War 1934 : Youkali (originally the Tango habanera, instrumental movement in Marie Galante), Text: Roger Fernay 1934 : Complainte de la Seine, text: Maurice Magre 1939 : Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, song for voice and piano, text: Robert Frost (unfinished) 1942 : Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory, patriotic song arrangements for narrator, male chorus, and orchestra, of the Battle Hymn of the Republic (text: Julia Ward Howe), The Star-Spangled Banner (text: Francis Scott Key), America (text: Samuel Francis Smith) and Beat! Beat! Drums! (text: Walt Whitman) 1942-44 : Propaganda Songs, for voice and piano; written for the Lunch Hours Follies performed for the workers of a shipbuilding workshop in New York, then broadcast: 1942 : Buddy on the Nightshift, text: Oscar Hammerstein 1942 : Schickelgruber, text: Howard Dietz 1942 : Und was bekam des Soldaten Weib? (And what was sent to the soldier's wife?), ballad for voice and piano, text: Bertolt Brecht 1942-47 : Three Walt Whitman Songs, later Four Walt Whitman Songs for voice and piano (or orchestra), text: Walt Whitman 1944 : Wie lange noch?, text: Walter Mehring; premiere: Lotte Lenya

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Film music
1938 : You and Me 1945 : Where Do We Go From Here? text: Ira Gershwin

Select discography
Orchestral, chamber, choral and other works Berliner Requiem / Violin Concerto op.12 / Vom Tod im Walde. Ensemble Musique Oblique/ Philippe Herreweghe (Harmonia Mundi, 1997) Kleine Dreigroschenmusik / Mahagonny Songspiel / Happy End / Berliner Requiem / Violin Concerto op.12. /Ballade vom Tod im Walde op.23 /Pantomime I (from Der Protagonist op.14) London Sinfonietta, David Atherton, Nona Liddell (violin), Meriel Dickinson (mezzo-soprano), Mary Thomas (mezzo-soprano), Philip Langridge (tenor), Ian Partridge (tenor), Benjamin Luxon (baritone), Michael Rippon (bass), (Deutsche Grammophon 4594422, 1999) Kurt Weill Paris, Marie Galante and other works. Loes Luca, Ensemble Dreigroschen, directed by Giorgio Bernasconi, assai, 2000 Melodie Kurta Weill'a i co ponadto Kazik Staszewski (SP Records, 2001) Complete String Quartets. Leipziger Streichquartett (MDG 307 1071-2) Symphonies 1 & 2. BBC Symphony Orchestra, Gary Bertini (EMI, 1968) Song collections Lotte Lenya sings Kurt Weill's The Seven Deadly Sins & Berlin Theatre Songs (Sony 1997) Speak Low - Songs by Kurt Weill - Anne Sofie von Otter, conducted by John Eliot Gardiner (Deutsche Grammophon 1995) Youkali: Art Songs by Satie, Poulenc and Weill. Patricia O'Callaghan (Marquis, 2003) The Unknown Kurt Weill (Nonesuch LP D-79019, 1981) - Teresa Stratas, soprano, Richard Woitach, piano. Track list: "Nanna's Lied" (1939), "Complainte de la Seine" (1934), "Klops-Lied" (1925), "Berlin im Licht-song" (1928), "Und was Bekam des Soldaten Weib?" (1943), "Die Muschel von Margate: Petroleum Song" (1928), "Wie Lange Noch?" (1944), "Youkali: Tango Habanera" (1935?), "Der Abschiedsbrief" (1933?), "Es Regnet" (1933), "Buddy on the Nightshift" (1942), "Schickelgruber" (1942), "Je ne t'aime pas" (1934), "Das Lied von den Braunen Inseln" (1928) Tributes Lost in the Stars: The Music of Kurt Weill - Produced by Hal Wilner, with performances by various pop (Tom Waits, Lou Reed, Sting, Marianne Faithfull) and jazz (Carla Bley, Charlie Haden, John Zorn) artists. (A&M Records, 1987) September Songs: The Music of Kurt Weill (performed by Elvis Costello, PJ Harvey, Nick Cave, and author William S. Burroughs, among others) (Sony Music, 1997) Gianluigi Trovesi/Gianni Coscia: Round About Weill (ECM, 2005) The Young Gods Play Kurt Weill (Pias, April 1991), Studio recording of the songs performed live in 1989. Ben Bagley's Kurt Weill Revisited and Kurt Weill Revisited, Vol. 2 on the Painted Smiles label boasts rare titles of his, sung by all-star casts, including Chita Rivera, Ann Miller, Estelle Parsons, John Reardon, Tammy Grimes, Nell Carter, Arthur Siegel, and Jo Sullivan, among others.

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See also
Paul Hindemith A Kurt Weill Cabaret LoveMusik Bertolt Brecht

Bibliography
David Drew. Kurt Weill: A Handbook (Berkeley, Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1987). ISBN 0-520-05839-9. Kim H. Kowalke. A New Orpheus: Essays on Kurt Weill (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1986). ISBN 0-300-03514-4. Ronald Sanders. The Days Grow Short: The Life and Music of Kurt Weill (New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980). ISBN 0-03-019411-3. Donald Spoto. Lenya A Life (Little, Brown and Company 1989) Lys Symonette & Kim H. Kowalke (ed. & trans.) Speak Low (When You Speak Love): The Letters of Kurt Weill and Lotte Lenya (University of California Press 1996) (German) David Drew (Editor), ber Kurt Weill (Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp, 1975) Excellent collection of texts, including an introduction by David Drew and including texts by Theodor W. Adorno (German) Jrgen Schebera, Kurt Weill (Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 2000)

External links
Kurt Weill Foundation, including a detailed list of works [29] Schott Music [30] The OREL Foundation- Kurt Weill's biography and links to bibliography, discography and media. [31] Kurt Weill [32] at the Internet Broadway Database Kurt Weill [33] at the Internet Movie Database Program note to Kurt Weill's Symphony No. 2 [34] from the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra Yale University's Gilmore Music Library has an important collection of Kurt Weill's Papers and Music, especially from his years in America [35]

References
[1] "Kurt Weill Dead; Composer, Was 50" (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=FA0D1EFD385F177A93C6A9178FD85F448585F9) (PDF, fee required). The New York Times (The New York Times Co.): p.28. 4 April 1950. . Retrieved 2008-04-01. [2] http:/ / www. alanbushtrust. org. uk/ articles/ article_dhall. asp?room=Articles [3] http:/ / www. cjschuler. net/ weill. htm [4] Jackson, Kenneth T. (1995). The Encyclopedia of New York City. New York, NY: The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press. pp.1252. ISBN0-300-05536-6. [5] Stephen Hinton, Jrgen Schebera (editors). Musik und musikalisches Theater - Gesammelte Schriften, 2000: Schott Musik International, Mainz - ISBN 3-7957-0423-5, p 540 [6] Hinton & Schebera, pp 540541 [7] Hinton & Schebera, pp 541 [8] Hinton & Schebera, pp 541542 [9] Hinton & Schebera, p 542 [10] Musica Reanimata of Berlin, Henry Jolles (http:/ / 74. 125. 93. 104/ translate_c?hl=en& sl=de& u=http:/ / www. musica-reanimata. de/ komponisten. html& prev=/ search?q=%22Henry+ Jolles%22& hl=en& usg=ALkJrhi1UGoK2br8M78KPijOJROixgds_w) accessed September 28, 2008 [11] Kurt Weill Foundation for Music Newsletter, Volume 15 no. 1, Spring 1997 (http:/ / www. kwf. org/ kwf/ images/ newsletter/ kwn151-1. pdf) accessed September 29, 2008

Kurt Weill
[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] Hinton & Schebera, pp 542543 http:/ / holocaustmusic. ort. org/ politics-and-propaganda/ third-reich/ weill-kurt/ Hinton & Schebera, p 543 Hinton & Schebera, pp 208209 http:/ / www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/ USAweill. htm http:/ / www. ata-divisions. org/ LD/ newsletter/ 2009/ 2009Source_july3. pdf Mercado, Mario R. Kurt Weill: A Guide To His Works, The Kurt Weill Foundation for Music, 1989. http:/ / www. lawrencebudmen. com/ articles_weill. htmlpopulist influences Pinewood Lake website retrieved on 2010-09-10 (http:/ / www. pinewoodlake. org/ ) Images of America, Trumbull Historical Society, 1997, p. 123 Real Life Drama: The Group Theatre and America, 1931-1940, p. 264 "The Boys That Make the Noise", Music section, Time (magazine), 5 July 1943. Tony Award for Best Original Score (http:/ / www. broadwayworld. com/ tonyawardscategoryinfo. cfm?catname=Score) http:/ / www. cjschuler. net/ weill. htm Kurt Weill (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=1086) at Find a Grave Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (History of the English Church and People) Book 2, Ch. 13 http:/ / www. cjschuler. net/ weill. htm

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Iannis Xenakis
Iannis Xenakis (Greek: ) (May 29, 1922 February 4, 2001) was an ethnic Greek, naturalized French composer, music theorist, and architect-engineer. He is commonly recognized as one of the most important post-war avant-garde composers.[1] [2] Xenakis pioneered the use of mathematical models such as applications of set theory, varied use of stochastic processes, game theory, etc., in music, and was also an important influence on the development of electronic music. Among his most important works are Metastaseis Iannis Xenakis in his studio in Paris, c. 1970 (photograph by Michle (19534) for orchestra, which introduced Daniel). independent parts for every musician of the orchestra; percussion works such as Psappha (1975) and Pl-ades (1979); compositions that introduced spatialization by dispersing musicians among the audience, such as Terretektorh (1966); electronic works created using Xenakis's UPIC system; and the massive multimedia performances Xenakis called polytopes. Among the numerous theoretical writings he authored, the book Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition (1971) is regarded as one of his most important. As an architect, Xenakis is primarily known for his early work under Le Corbusier: the Sainte Marie de La Tourette, on which the two architects collaborated, and the Philips Pavilion at Expo 58, which Xenakis designed alone.

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Life
19221947: Early years in Greece
Xenakis was born in Brila, Romania. He was the eldest son of Klearchos Xenakis, a Greek businessman from Euboea, and Fotini Pavlou from Lemnos. His parents were both interested in music, and it was Fotini who introduced the young Xenakis to music. Her early death, when the boy was only five years old, was a traumatic experience that, in his own words, "deeply scarred" the future composer.[3] He was subsequently educated by a series of governesses, and The National Technical University of Athens, where Xenakis studied architecture and engineering then, in 1932, sent to a boarding school on the Aegean island of Spetsai, Greece. He sang at the school's boys' choir, where the repertoire included works by Palestrina, and Mozart's Requiem, which Xenakis memorized in its entirety.[4] It was also at the Spetsai school that Xenakis studied notation and solfge, and became enamored with Greek traditional and sacred music.[4] In 1938, after graduating from the Spetsai school, Xenakis moved to Athens to prepare for entrance exams at the National Technical University of Athens. Although he intended to study architecture and engineering, he also took lessons in harmony and counterpoint with Aristotelis Koundouroff.[5] In 1940 he successfully passed the exams, but his studies were cut short by the Greco-Italian War, which began with the Italian invasion on 28 October 1940. Although Greece eventually won the war, it was not long before the German army joined the Italians in the Battle of Greece, in April 1941. This led to the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II, which lasted until late 1944, when the Soviet Army began its drive across Romania, forcing the Axis forces to slowly withdraw. Xenakis joined the communist National Liberation Front early during the war, participating in mass protests and demonstrations, and later becoming part of armed resistancethis last step was a painful experience Xenakis refused to discuss until much later in life.[6] [7] After the Axis forces left, Churchill ordered that British forces step in to help restore the monarchy; they were opposed by the Democratic Army of Greece, and the country plunged into a civil war. In December 1944, during the period of Churchill's martial law,[8] Xenakis (who was by then a member of the communist students' company of the left-wing Lord Byron faction of ELAS) became involved in street fighting against British tanks. He was gravely wounded when a shell hit his face; that Xenakis survived the injury has been described as a miracle.[9] He survived seriously scarred, and lost his left eye.[10] The Technical University worked intermittently during these years. Despite this, and Xenakis's other activities, he was able to graduate in 1946, with a degree in civil engineering. Xenakis was then conscripted into the national armed forces. Around 1947 the new government began hunting down former resistance members and sending them to concentration camps. Xenakis, fearing for his life, deserted and went into hiding. With the help of his father and others he fled Greece through Italy. On 11 November 1947 he arrived to Paris. In a late interview, Xenakis admitted to feeling tremendous guilt at leaving his country, and that guilt was one of the sources of his later devotion to music: For years I was tormented by guilt at having left the country for which I'd fought. I left my friendssome were in prison, others were dead, some managed to escape. I felt I was in debt to them and that I had to repay that debt. And I felt I had a mission. I had to do something important to regain the right to live. It wasn't just a question of musicit was something much more significant.[11]

Iannis Xenakis In the meantime, in Greece he was sentenced (in absentia) to death by the right-wing administration. The sentence was commuted to ten years' imprisonment in 1951, and only lifted some 23 years later, after the fall of The Regime of the Colonels in 1974.[12]

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19471959: Architecture and music


Although he was an illegal immigrant in Paris, Xenakis was able to get a job at Le Corbusier's architectural studio. He worked as engineering assistant at first, but quickly rose to performing more important tasks, and eventually to collaborating with Le Corbusier on major projects. These included a kindergarten on the roof of an apartment block in Nantes (Rez), parts of government buildings in Chandigarh, India, the "undulatory glass surfaces" of Sainte Marie de La Tourette, a Dominican priory in a valley near Lyon, and the Philips Pavilion at Expo 58the latter project was completed by Xenakis alone, from a basic sketch by Le Corbusier.[13] The experience Xenakis gained played a major role in his music: important early compositions such as Metastaseis B (19534, also known as Metastasis) were based directly on architectural concepts. At the same time, while working for Le Corbusier, Xenakis was studying harmony and counterpoint, and composing. He worked long and hard, frequently far into the night,[14] and sought guidance from a number of teachers, most of whom, however, ultimately rejected him. Such was the case with Nadia Boulanger, who was the first person Xenakis approached about lessons. He then tried studying with Arthur Honegger, whose reaction to Xenakis's music was unenthusiastic. As Xenakis recounted in a 1987 interview, Honegger dismissed a piece which included parallel fifths and octaves as "not music". Xenakis, who was by that time well acquainted with music of Debussy, Bla Bartk, and Stravinsky, all of whom used such devices and much more experimental ones, was furious and left to study with Darius Milhaud, but these lessons also proved fruitless.[15] Then, Annette Dieudonn, a close friend of Boulanger's, recommended that Xenakis try studying with Olivier Messiaen.[16] Xenakis approached Messiaen for advice: should he once again start studying harmony and counterpoint? Unlike Honegger and Milhaud, Messiaen immediately recognized Xenakis's talent: I understood straight away that he was not someone like the others. [...] He is of superior intelligence. [...] I did something horrible which I should do with no other student, for I think one should study harmony and counterpoint. But this was a man so much out of the ordinary that I said... No, you are almost thirty, you have the good fortune of being Greek, of being an architect and having studied special mathematics. Take advantage of these things. Do them in your music.[17] Xenakis attended Messiaen's classes regularly in 195153. Messiaen and his students studied music from a wide range of genres and styles, with particular attention to rhythm.[18] Xenakis's compositions from 194952 were mostly inspired by Greek folk melodies, as well as Bartk, Ravel, and others; after studying with Messiaen, he discovered serialism and gained a deep understanding of contemporary music (Messiaen's other pupils at the time included, for example, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Jean Barraqu). Messiaen's modal serialism was an influence on Xenakis's first large-scale work, Anastenaria (195354): a triptych for choir and orchestra based on an ancient Dionysian ritual. The third part of the triptych, Metastaseis, is generally regarded as the composer's first mature piece; it was detached from the triptych to mark the beginning of the "official" Xenakis oeuvre.[13] In 1953 Xenakis married Franoise Xenakis (ne Gargoul), journalist and writer, whom he met in 1950.[19] Their daughter Mkhi, later a painter and sculptor, was born in 1956. In late 1954, with Messiaen's support, Xenakis was accepted into the Groupe de Recherches de Musique Concrte,[20] an organization established by Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry, dedicated to studying and producing electronic music of the musique concrte variety. Shortly after that Xenakis met conductor Hermann Scherchen, who was immediately impressed by the score of Metastaseis and offered his support. Although Scherchen did not premiere that particular work, he did give performances of later pieces by Xenakis, and the relationship between the conductor and the composer was of vital importance for the latter.[21]

Iannis Xenakis By late 1950s Xenakis slowly started gaining recognition in artistic circles. In 1957 he received his first composition award, from the European Cultural Foundation, and in 1958 the first official commission came through, from Service de Recherche of Radio-France.[22] In the same year he produced a musique concrte piece, Concret PH, for the Philips Pavilion, and in 1960 Xenakis was well-known enough to receive a commission from UNESCO, for a soundtrack for a documentary film by Enrico Fulchignoni.[23]

225

Later life
After leaving Le Corbusier's studio in 1959, Xenakis was able to support himself by composition and teaching, and quickly became recognized as one of the most important European composers of his time. He became especially known for his musical research in the field of computer-assisted composition, for which he founded the Equipe de Mathmatique et Automatique Musicales (EMAMu) in 1966 (known as CEMAMu: Centre dEtudes de Mathmatique et Automatique Musicales, since 1972). He taught at Indiana University in 196772 (and established a studio similar to EMAMu there), and worked as visiting professor at the Sorbonne in 197389.[13] Xenakis frequently gave lectures (for instance, from 1975 to 1978 he was Professor of Music at Gresham College, London, giving free public lectures[24] ), taught composition (notable students include Pascal Dusapin, Henning Lohner), and his works were performed at numerous festivals worldwide, including, for instance, the Shiraz Arts Festival in Iran. In addition to composing and teaching, Xenakis also authored a number of articles and essays on music. Of these, Musiques formelles (1963) became particularly known. A collection of texts on applications of stochastic processes, game theory and computer programming in music, it was later revised, expanded and translated into English as Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition (1971) during Xenakis's tenure at Indiana University. Xenakis completed his last work, O-mega for percussion soloist and chamber orchestra, in 1997. His health had been getting progressively worse over the years, and by 1997 he was no longer able to work. After several years of serious illness, in early February 2001 the composer lapsed into a coma. He died in his Paris home several days later, on February 4, aged 78. He was survived by his wife and his daughter.[25]

Works
See also: List of compositions by Iannis Xenakis Xenakis pioneered electronic, computer music, the application of mathematics, statistics, and physics to music and music theory, and the integration of sound and architecture. He used techniques related to probability theory, stochastic processes, statistics, statistical mechanics, group theory, game theory, set theory, and other branches of mathematics and physics in his compositions. He integrated music with architecture, designing music for pre-existing spaces, and designing spaces to be integrated with specific music compositions and performances. He integrated both with political commentary. He viewed compositions as reification and formal structures of abstract ideas, not as ends, to be later incorporated into families of compositions, "a form of composition which is not the object in itself, but an idea in itself, that is to say, the beginnings of a family of compositions." Specific examples of mathematics, statistics, and physics applied to music composition are the use of the statistical mechanics of gases in Pithoprakta, statistical distribution of points on a plane in Diamorphoses, minimal constraints in Achorripsis, the normal distribution in ST/10 and Atres, Markov chains in Analogiques, game theory in Duel and Stratgie, group theory in Nomos Alpha (for Siegfried Palm), set theory in Herma and Eonta, and Brownian motion in N'Shima. At the Shirah Arts Festival in Persepolis, he designed Polytope as a composition specific to the historic site.[26] The following year he was commissioned by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (the Shah of Iran), to compose Nuits, which Xenakis dedicated to political prisoners in protest at the Shahs atrocities.[26] By 1979, he had devised a computer system called UPIC, which could translate graphical images into musical results, wrote Andrew Hugill in 2008.[27] "Xenakis had originally trained as an architect, so some of his drawings, which he called 'arborescences', resembled both organic forms and architectural structures." These drawings' various curves and lines that could be interpreted by UPIC as real time instructions for the sound synthesis process. The

Iannis Xenakis drawing is, thus, rendered into a composition. Mycenae-Alpha was the first of these pieces he created using UPIC as it was being perfected. In 1982 Xenakis developed his Music Timbre and Cadence Scale which is used quantifying musical styles in modern music. In conversation, Iannis Xenakis frequently distanced himself from being seen in too strict terms; like many other composers for whom method and structure were the easiest aspects of music to discuss verbally, he sees the role of such things as relative. One way to envisage this approach is that the method constitutes a thematic germ, a starting-point, and from there the usual musico-aesthetics, personal obsessions and practical considerations play their role in finishing and shaping the piece. Indeed, from the 1970s onwards Xenakis's use of method became deeply assimilated into his general musical thinking and he reports in interviews from that time that the strict application of statistical processes was no longer necessary to produce the results he was looking for. Xenakis appeared easily bored in interviews when people attempted to take an overly simplistic view of him as 'complex'. The various clichs surrounding him appeared to greatly annoy him in interviews and he would frequently make recourse to the wider aesthetics of music in general and the other arts in order to contextualise his contributions to music-making. In a sense his early statements about "looking at music statistically" were a response to what he saw as the mistake of placing too much emphasis on the likely benefits of rigorously applying methodology. It is also important to note, however, that this does not constitute any true dichotomy between Xenakis and his peers: the application of single-minded rigour to composition in postwar music was relative and momentary, and as with his own work, the poetic and aesthetic significance of the gesture as a modern equivalent to program music, as well as the vital role played by musicality and music-editing/shaping, has been widely undervalued in favour of simplistic characterisations of such music as purely intellectual. Composers who have acknowledged being influenced by Xenakis include Julio Estrada, Krzysztof Penderecki and Toru Takemitsu.

226

References
Amagali, Rosemary Tristano. 1975. "Texture as an Organizational Factor in Selected Works of Iannis Xenakis". M.M. Thesis, Indiana University. Baltensperger, Andr. 1995. Iannis Xenakis und die Stochastische Musik Komposition im Spannungsfeld von Architektur und Mathematik. Zrich. Paul Haupt. Bardot, Jean-Marc. 1999. "Cendres de Xenakis ou l'mergence de la vocalit dans la pense xenakienne." Undergraduate thesis (equivalent). Saint-Etienne: Universit Jean Monnet. Biasi, Salvatore di. 1994. Musica e matematica negli anni 5060: Iannis Xenakis. Bologne. Universit degli Studi di Bologna. Clark, Philip: "The Wire Primers: A Guide To Modern Music" Xenakis, pages 191-198; Verso, 2009; ISBN 978 1 84467 427 5 Harley, James. 2004. Xenakis: his life in music. London: Taylor & Francis Books. ISBN 0-415-97145-4 Hoffmann, Peter. "Iannis Xenakis", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 23 December 2006), grovemusic.com [28] (subscription access). Mche, Franois-Bernard. 2002. Portrait(s) de Iannis Xenakis Seuil. ISBN 2-7177-2178-9 Matossian, Nouritza. 1986. Xenakis. London: Kahn and Averill. ISBN 1-871082-17-X Paland, Ralph / von Blumrder, Christoph (Ed.). 2009. Iannis Xenakis: Das elektroakustische Werk. Internationales Symposion. Tagungsbericht 2006. (Signale aus Kln. Beitrge zur Musik der Zeit, Volume 14) Wien. Der Apfel. ISBN 978-3-85450-414-6 Varga, Blint Andrs. 1996. Conversations with Iannis Xenakis. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-17959-2 Xenakis, Iannis. 2001. Formalized Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition (Harmonologia Series No.6). Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press. ISBN 1-57647-079-2

Iannis Xenakis

227

External links
Iannis Xenakis [29] from the Institute of Research on Music and Acoustics, Athens (Greece) in Greek Iannis-Xenakis.org [30] by the Friends of Xenakis Centre for Composition of Music Iannis Xenakis [31] Medieval.org: Modern Music: Xenakis [32] Edward Childs, PhD. "Achorripsis: A Sonification of Probability Distributions" [33] (5-page PDF) Luque, Sergio. 2006. Stochastic Synthesis: Origins and Extensions. Masters Thesis, Institute of Sonology [34] soundaxis.ca [35] Works catalogue [36] 70-page PDF from Xenakis's publisher ditions Durand-Salabert-Eschig [37] Iannis Xenakis @ Boosey & Hawkes Publisher [38] Iannis Xenakis: the aesthetics of his early works [39] by Markos Zografos Iannis Xenakis Bibliography and Discography [40] compiled by James Harley for Leonardo/ISAST Two articles documenting recent Xenakis recordings and books about Xenakis: Part 1 [41] and Part 2 [42] [43] (French) A biography of Iannis Xenakis, from IRCAM's website.

Excerpts from sound archives [44] of Xenakis's works. Listen to an excerpt from Xenakis's Pleiades at Acousmata music blog [45] AGP99 [46], Polla Ta Dhina, ST/10-1-080262, and Cendrees by Iannis Xenakis in FLAC format Interview with Xenakis [47] by Bruce Duffie, March 25, 1997

References
[1] Hoffmann, Grove: "[Xenakis] belongs to the pioneering generation of composers who revolutionized 20th-century music after World War II." [2] MSN Encarta encyclopedia, Iannis Xenakis ( ) (May 29, 1922 February 4, 2001) was a Greek composer and one of the most important modernist composers of the 20th century (http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ encyclopedia_761567526/ yannis_xenakis. html). Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kwrAuqkD) 2009-10-31. [3] Matossian 1986, 13. [4] Varga 1996, 14. [5] Matossian 1986, 1417. [6] Matossian 1986, 1827. [7] Varga 1996, 1419. [8] Gilbert, Martin. 1966. Winston Churchill, 56. Oxford University Press. [9] Harley 2004, 2. [10] Barthel-Calvet A., "Chronologie", in Portrait(s) de Iannis Xenakis, pp.2582 [11] Varga 1996, 47. [12] Harley 2004, 92. [13] Hoffmann, Grove. [14] Matossian 1986, 37. [15] Xenakis, Brown, Rahn 1987, 20. [16] Harley 2004, 4. [17] Matossian 1986, 48. [18] For a study of Messiaen's teaching methods, see: Boivin, Jean (1995). La Classe de Messiaen. Paris: Christian Bourgois. [19] Xenakis, Franoise, and Waldburg-Wolfegg, Andreas; Sarah Green, and Maro Elliott. "Mme Xenakis in Conversation" (http:/ / www. iceorg. org/ xenakis/ mme-xenakis-in-conversation/ ). International Contemporary Ensemble. . Retrieved 20 September 2009. [20] Harley 2004, 12. [21] Matossian 1986, 7779. [22] Harley 2004, 23. [23] Harley 2004, 19. [24] Cole, Jonathan. "Music and Architecture: Confronting the Boundaries between Space and Sound" (http:/ / www. gresham. ac. uk/ event. asp?EventId=609& PageId=108). Gresham College. . Retrieved 21 September 2009. [25] Griffiths, Paul (5 February 2001). "Iannis Xenakis, Composer Who Built Music on Mathematics, Is Dead at 78" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2001/ 02/ 05/ arts/ iannis-xenakis-composer-who-built-music-on-mathematics-is-dead-at-78. html). The New York Times: p.7, section B. . Retrieved 13 September 2009. [26] Leonardo Vol. 40, No. 1 [27] Hugill, Andrew. The Digital Musician, New York: Routledge, 2008, pp. 95, 182.

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich

228

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich


Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (born April 30, 1939, in Miami, Florida) is an American composer, the first female composer to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music. Her early works are marked by atonal exploration, but by the late 1980s she had matured to a post-modernist, neo-romantic style. She has been called "one of Americas most frequently played and genuinely popular living composers."[1]

Biography
Zwilich began her studies as a violinist, earning a B.M. from Florida State University in 1960. She moved to New York to play with the American Symphony Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski. She later enrolled at Juilliard, eventually (in 1975) becoming the first woman to earn the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts in composition.[1] Her teachers included John Boda, Elliott Carter, and Roger Sessions. She first came to prominence when Pierre Boulez programmed her Symposium for Orchestra with the Juilliard Symphony Orchestra in 1975.[2] Some of her work during this period was written for her husband, violinist Joseph Zwilich. He died in 1979, after which point Taaffe Zwilich refocused her compositional efforts on "communicating more directly with performers and listeners," softening her somewhat harsh, jagged style.[1] Her Three Movements for Orchestra (Symphony No. 1) was premiered by the American Symphony Orchestra in 1982, and it won the 1983 Pulitzer Prize, after which point her popularity and income from commissions ensured that she could devote herself to composing full-time.[1] From 1995-99 she was the first occupant of the Composer's Chair at Carnegie Hall; while there, she created the "Making Music" concert series, which focuses on performances and lectures by living composers, a series which is still in existence.[3] She has received a number of other honors, including the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Chamber Music Prize, the Arturo Toscanini Music Critics Award, the Ernst von Dohnnyi Citation, an Academy Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, a Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship, and four Grammy nominations. She was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in 1999 she was designated Musical Americas Composer of the Year. She is currently a professor at Florida State University, and has served for many years on the Advisory Panel of the BMI Foundation, Inc. In 2009 she became the Chair of the BMI Student Composer Awards following Milton Babbitt and William Schuman. To date she has received five honorary doctorates.[4]

Musical career
Zwilich's compositional style is marked by an obsession with "the idea of generating an entire work large-scale structure, melodic and harmonic language, and developmental processes from its initial motives."[1] In addition to large scale orchestral works like Symbolon (1988), Symphony no.2 (Cello Symphony) (1985), and Symphony no.3 (1992), all of which were commissioned by the New York Philharmonic, she has written a number of notable, smaller-scale concertos for relatively uncommon instruments. These include works for trombone (1988), bass trombone (1989), flute (1989), oboe (1990), bassoon (1992), horn (1993) and trumpet (1994). She has also written a small number of choral works and song cycles. Some other major works include: Concerto Grosso 1985 (in commemoration of the 300th anniversary of George Frideric Handel's birth) Three Movements for Orchestra (Symphony No. 1) Pulitzer Prize for Music, 1983 Celebration for Orchestra (1984) Symphony No. 4 "The Gardens" for Chorus, Children's Chorus and Orchestra (commissioned by Michigan State University) Peanuts Gallery (1997)

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich Symphony No. 5 (Concerto for Orchestra) (commissioned by The Juilliard School (Premiere October 27, 2008, Carnegie Hall, The Juilliard Orchestra, James Conlon, conductor) Episodes for Soprano Saxophone and Piano (2007)"

229

External links
ENCOUNTERS: Ellen Taaffe Zwilich [5] by George Sturm Ellen Zwilich in allmusic [6]

References
[1] Schwartz, K. Robert. "Ellen Taaffe Zwilich." Grove Music Online. Ed. L. Macy. Accessed 20 December 2006. www.grovemusic.com. [2] "Ellen Taaffe Zwilich." Theodore Presser Online. Accessed 20 December 2006. Available here (http:/ / www. presser. com/ Composers/ info. cfm?Name=ELLENTAAFFEZWILICH) [3] Making Music brochure. Carnegie Hall website. Accessed 20 December 2006. Available here (http:/ / www. carnegiehall. org/ article/ box_office/ series/ brochure/ ser_420. html) [4] "Ellen Taaffe Zwilich." Theodore Presser Online. Accessed 20 December 2006. Available here (http:/ / www. presser. com/ Composers/ info. cfm?Name=ELLENTAAFFEZWILICH)

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Sergei Rachmaninoff LOC 33968 Cropped.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sergei_Rachmaninoff_LOC_33968_Cropped.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Etincelles Image:Rach10.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rach10.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton, J.M.Domingo, 3 anonymous edits File:Sergei Rachmaninoff, 1892.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sergei_Rachmaninoff,_1892.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Moscow Conservatory Image:Rachmaninoff and Skalon sisters crop.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmaninoff_and_Skalon_sisters_crop.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton File:Sergei Rachmaninoff, California.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sergei_Rachmaninoff,_California.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton, 1 anonymous edits Image:HorowitzBain.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HorowitzBain.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Etincelles Image:Grave of Sergei Rachmaninoff.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Grave_of_Sergei_Rachmaninoff.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Anthony22 at en.wikipedia Image:Piano Concerto 3 Cadenza.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Piano_Concerto_3_Cadenza.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton (This user) File:Sergei Rachmaninoff LOC 31755.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sergei_Rachmaninoff_LOC_31755.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Etincelles File:Rachmaninoff hall.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmaninoff_hall.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Alton Image:Rachmaninov.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmaninov.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton, Avatar, EugeneZelenko, Kiwa, (Searobin), 1 anonymous edits File:Rachmaninoff - Steinway grand piano.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmaninoff_-_Steinway_grand_piano.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unnamed photographer for Bain News Service. Image:Rachmaninoff.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rachmaninoff.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Infrogmation Image:Maurice Ravel 1912.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maurice_Ravel_1912.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Kilom691, Kokin, Micheletb Image:Ciboure maison natale de Maurice Ravel.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ciboure_maison_natale_de_Maurice_Ravel.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Nguyenld, 1 anonymous edits Image:Paris Theatre du Conservatoire.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Paris_Theatre_du_Conservatoire.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Photo: Andreas Praefcke Image:Ravel Pierre Petit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ravel_Pierre_Petit.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:fr:Pierre PetitPierre Petit (1831 - 1909) Image:Montfort-l'Amaury Maison Ravel.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Montfort-l'Amaury_Maison_Ravel.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: User:Henrysalome Image:Ravel au piano.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ravel_au_piano.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Infrogmation, Juiced lemon, Kokin, Teebeutel, Tom dl Image:Reger Max Postcard-1910.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Reger_Max_Postcard-1910.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: unknown Photograf Image:WelteMaxReger1913.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WelteMaxReger1913.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Gerhard51 Image:Max reger.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Max_reger.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: RJHall, 1 anonymous edits File:Steve Reich2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Steve_Reich2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: User:LPLT Image:Respighis.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Respighis.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Stevouk Image:Joaquin Rodrigo en Rosario.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Joaquin_Rodrigo_en_Rosario.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Mrexcel Image:Luigi Russolo ca. 1916.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Luigi_Russolo_ca._1916.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Lukius, Sparkit Image:Intonarumori-veduta.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intonarumori-veduta.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Clusternote, Pelodia, Shoulder-synth, Talmoryair, 2 anonymous edits File:Erik Satie - BNF1.jpeg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Erik_Satie_-_BNF1.jpeg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unattributed Image:MaisonSatie.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MaisonSatie.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Coyau, Francis Schonken, Man vyi, Muu-karhu, Olivier2 File:Satie autoportret Projet Buste 1913.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Satie_autoportret_Projet_Buste_1913.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Erik Satie (autoportret) & Yuri Khanon (claire) Image:L430xH465 jpg Schaeffer big-2eb70.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:L430xH465_jpg_Schaeffer_big-2eb70.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:Semitransgenic File:Loudspeaker.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, The Evil IP address, 5 anonymous edits Image:Psconcer.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Psconcer.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Semitransgenic (talk). Original uploader was Semitransgenic at en.wikipedia File:Jean-Michel Arnold 20.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jean-Michel_Arnold_20.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Jean-Michel Arnold Image:Steam Locomotive.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Steam_Locomotive.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Ericd at en.wikipedia Later version(s) were uploaded by MarkSweep, Arpingstone at en.wikipedia. Image:Scheafer.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scheafer.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Eli n, Genisock2, TheFarix File:Flag of Canada.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:E Pluribus Anthony, User:Mzajac Image:Arnold Schoenberg la 1948.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Arnold_Schoenberg_la_1948.jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Florence Homolka Image:Zentralfriedhof Vienna - Schoenberg.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zentralfriedhof_Vienna_-_Schoenberg.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Maksim, Micione Image:Schoenberg op11 no1 excerpt.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schoenberg_op11_no1_excerpt.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Rainwarrior, RobertG, Ysangkok, 3 anonymous edits File:Skrjabin Alexander.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Skrjabin_Alexander.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Patstuart, Zac allan, Image:Etude 8 12.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Etude_8_12.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Alton (This user) Image:Scriabin-Circle.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Scriabin-Circle.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User:MegaMatic Image:'Klaviatura' drawn by Ivan v. 3.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'Klaviatura'_drawn_by_Ivan_v._3.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Ivan E-One is only one, User:Tsaitgaist File:Dmitri1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dmitri1.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Office of War Information, as stated here Same pic, just other color, but you can see by SHostakovich pose and his face that these 2 are same. File:Shostakovichbirthplaque.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shostakovichbirthplaque.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: w:en:User:SmerusSmerus File:Dmitrij Dmitrijevi ostakovi ( ).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dmitrij_Dmitrijevi_ostakovi_(_ _).jpg License: unknown Contributors: Davepape, Edgar Allan Poe, Rosier-HR, 1 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Shostakovichtimecover.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shostakovichtimecover.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Closedmouth, Drilnoth, Henry Flower, Renata3, 2 anonymous edits File:Russov-PM7port42b.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Russov-PM7port42b.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: . . File:Chostakoviz 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chostakoviz_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User: File:Russia-2000-stamp-Dmitri Shostakovich.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Russia-2000-stamp-Dmitri_Shostakovich.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Butko, Editor at Large, Michael Romanov, Zimin.V.G. File:ShostakovichwithIvan Sollertinsky.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ShostakovichwithIvan_Sollertinsky.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Dr. Blofeld, Monkeybait File:Dschmotif.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dschmotif.png License: unknown Contributors: User Henry Flower on en.wikipedia File:MIMGP0000.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MIMGP0000.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Akunin, AxelBoldt, S1, Verica Atrebatum, 1 anonymous edits File:HeroOfSocialistLabour.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HeroOfSocialistLabour.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Boothferry, Ilich, Mariluna, Massimop, 1 anonymous edits File:Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Order_of_Lenin_ribbon_bar.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Zscout370 File:Order october revolution rib.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Order_october_revolution_rib.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Ilich, Mariluna, Zscout370 File:Orderredbannerlabor rib.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orderredbannerlabor_rib.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Didivan, Ilich, Mariluna, Wesha, Zscout370 File:Order friendship of peoples rib.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Order_friendship_of_peoples_rib.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Mariluna, Wesha, Zscout370 Image:Jean sibelius.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jean_sibelius.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: -Majestic-, AndreasPraefcke, Martin H., Polarlys, White Cat, Image:Siblius 1889-90.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Siblius_1889-90.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: BiffTheUnderstudy, 1 anonymous edits Image:Jean Sibelius 1939.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jean_Sibelius_1939.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was -Majestic- at en.wikipedia Image:Sibelius grave.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sibelius_grave.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Htm Image:Jean Sibelius statue.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jean_Sibelius_statue.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Titoni Thomas Image:Sibelius_portrait.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sibelius_portrait.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Flcelloguy File:Stockhausen 1994 WDR.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stockhausen_1994_WDR.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Kathinka Pasveer File:St. im Garten Mai 2005 RGB.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:St._im_Garten_Mai_2005_RGB.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Kathinka Pasveer File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F004566-0002, Darmstadt, Internationaler Kurs fr neue Musik.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_B_145_Bild-F004566-0002,_Darmstadt,_Internationaler_Kurs_fr_neue_Musik.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unterberg, Rolf File:Grave Stockhausen.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Grave_Stockhausen.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Amanda stoica File:Stockhausen March 2004 excerpt.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stockhausen_March_2004_excerpt.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Kathinka Pasveer File:Strauss3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Strauss3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Smedley Hirkum at en.wikipedia File:Richard Strauss 20OCT1886.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Richard_Strauss_20OCT1886.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown File:Richard Strauss (1).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Richard_Strauss_(1).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Sba2 at en.wikipedia File:Richard Strauss (b).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Richard_Strauss_(b).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Sba2 at en.wikipedia File:Schmutzer-Richard Strauss.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schmutzer-Richard_Strauss.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Image:Igor Stravinsky LOC 32392u.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Igor_Stravinsky_LOC_32392u.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: George Grantham Bain Collection Image:Stravinsky Igor Postcard-1910.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stravinsky_Igor_Postcard-1910.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Photograf Image:Igor Stravinsky Essays.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Igor_Stravinsky_Essays.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Photographer: Robert Regassi. Publisher: J. & W. Chester, publisher, no author listed Image:stravinskygrave.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stravinskygrave.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Common Good, Edgar Allan Poe, Infrogmation Image:Stravinsky picasso.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stravinsky_picasso.png License: unknown Contributors: Awops, Henry Flower, Lupin, Mathematiks, Mechamind90, Orionist, Quadell, Shyam, Thuresson File:Stamp of Ukraine s822.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stamp_of_Ukraine_s822.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Post of Ukraine/ Image:TakemitsuToru.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TakemitsuToru.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Guy Vivien Image:Takemitsu pitch bend.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Takemitsu_pitch_bend.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Matt.kaner Image:Loudspeaker.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, The Evil IP address, 5 anonymous edits Image:Takemitsu litany diagram.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Takemitsu_litany_diagram.png License: unknown Contributors: Matt.kaner Image:Standard chords of sho.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Standard_chords_of_sho.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Matt.kaner Image:Messaien-takemitsu quatrain compared.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Messaien-takemitsu_quatrain_compared.png License: unknown Contributors: Matt.kaner Image:Takemitsu-SEA motive.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Takemitsu-SEA_motive.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Image:Edgard Varese.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edgard_Varese.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Ceoil at en.wikipedia File:Ralph_Vaughan_Williams.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ralph_Vaughan_Williams.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Andrew Lowe Watson Image:Darwin-Wedgwood-Galton family tree.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Darwin-Wedgwood-Galton_family_tree.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Dcoetzee, Dewet, Perhelion, Richard001 Image:Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ralph_Vaughan_Williams_in_Dorking.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Immanuel Giel Image:Johnwilliams2006.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Johnwilliams2006.JPG License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Nationalparks, user of that wikipedia. File:John Williams tux.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Williams_tux.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Original uploader was TashTish at en.wikipedia File:John Williams scoring Raiders.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Williams_scoring_Raiders.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was TashTish at en.wikipedia File:Williamsautograph.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Williamsautograph.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Electron, Hannibal, Serenade, Texcarson, The Dark Master

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:John Williams & Stanley Donan.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Williams_&_Stanley_Donan.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Original uploader was TashTish at en.wikipedia Image:Anton Webern in Stettin, October 1912.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anton_Webern_in_Stettin,_October_1912.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Common Good, Electron, Infrogmation, Meladina, Rs newhouse, TwoWings, 1 anonymous edits File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0119, Kurt Weill.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-2005-0119,_Kurt_Weill.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andrez1, Anetode, Kragenfaultier, Mattes, YMS File:Kurt-Weill.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kurt-Weill.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Trachemys, 1 anonymous edits File:Stamp Germany 2000 MiNr2100 Kurt Weill.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Stamp_Germany_2000_MiNr2100_Kurt_Weill.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Fritz Haase, Sibylle Haase fr das Bundesministerium der Finanzen und die Deutsche Post AG File:XenakisMDaniel.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:XenakisMDaniel.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: The Friends of Xenakis (permission link) Original uploader was Pete at cs.wikipedia Image:NTUA - Patision Complex.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NTUA_-_Patision_Complex.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown

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License

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License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/