Chapter 13

Educational Psychology

Exploring Motivation
What is Motivation?!

Motivation: processes that energise, direct and sustain behaviour

Exploring Motivation
Perspectives on Motivation! Behavioural Perspective
• •

rewards and punishments Incentives: positive or negative stimuli or events that can motivate a student’s behaviour.

Exploring Motivation Perspectives on Motivation! Humanistic Perspective • Humanistic perspective: view that stresses students’ capacity for personal growth. Safety. Love. freedom to choose their destiny and positive qualities Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Physiological. Esteem and Self-Actualisation Self-Actualisation: the highest and most elusive of Maslow’s needs (possible only after the lower needs have been met) • • .

and to process information efficiently • • people do things because they are internally motivated to interact effectively with the environment . to master their world. their beliefs that they can effectively control their environment Competence motivation: people are motivated to deal effectively with their environment.Exploring Motivation Perspectives on Motivation! Cognitive Perspective • • focuses on ideas as students’ internal motivation to achieve their attributions.

Exploring Motivation Perspectives on Motivation! Social Perspective • Need for Affiliation/Relatedness: motive to be securely connected with other people • establishing. and restoring warm. maintaining. close personal relationships • students in schools with caring and supportive interpersonal relationships have more positive academic attitudes and values and are more satisfied with school .

students show a lower level of independent motivation and lower persistence on achievement tasks students are more motivated to learn when they are given choices praise also enhance students’ intrinsic motivation • • • • .Achievement Processes Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation! • Extrinsic Motivation: doing something to obtain something else (influenced by external incentives) Intrinsic Motivation: internal motivation to do something for its own sake When goals are framed extrinsically.

Achievement Processes Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation! Self-determination and Personal choice • Students want to believe that they are doing something because of their own will (Richard Ryan and Edward Deci (2009) teachers should create circumstances for students to engage in self-determination as autonomy-supportive teachers students’ internal motivation and intrinsic interest in school tasks increase when students have some choice and some opportunities to take personal responsibility for their learning • • .

“flow” flow occurs when people develop a sense of mastery and are absorbed in a state of concentration while they engage in challenges that are neither too difficult nor easy • .Achievement Processes Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation! Optimal Experiences and Flow • Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: optimal experiences are feelings of deep enjoyment and happiness.

recall of main ideas and responses to more difficult comprehension questions rather than to surface learning ‘Authentic tasks’ approximate the real world or real life that can spark students’ interest and curiosity integrating technology into the classroom can increase students’ motivation to learn and engage in learning • • .Achievement Processes Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation! Interest • • individual interest vs situational interest (generated by task activity) interest is linked to measures of deep learning.

Achievement Processes Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation! Cognitive Engagement and Self-Responsibility • creating learning environments that encourage students to become cognitively engaged and take responsibility for their learning goal: get students to become motivated to expend the effort to persist and master ideas rather than doing just enough work to make a passing grade • .

Achievement Processes Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation! Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation • classroom rewards: (1) incentive to engage in tasks (goal is to control the students’ behaviour. (2) convey information about mastery Point system: the points provide information about their capabilities (rewards that convey information about students’ mastery can increase intrinsic motivation by increasing their sense of competence) verbal rewards can enhance their intrinsic motivation • • .

Achievement Processes Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation! Developmental Shifts in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation • students’ intrinsic motivation decreases as they move up the level • • • • why? school grading practices reinforce external motivation orientation students compare themselves more with others ‘person-environment fit’: lack of fit between middle/junior school environment needs of young adolescents produces increasingly negative self-evaluations and attitudes toward school • but if students who were intrinsically motivated. they did better academically than those who were extrinsically motivated .

the extent to which the individual can control the cause • • .Achievement Processes Attribution! • Attribution Theory: individuals are motivated to discover the underlying causes of their own performance and behaviour. the extent to which the cause remains the same or changes. whether the cause is internal or external to the actor. (2) stability. ‘Attributions’ are perceived causes of outcomes Bernard Winer: (1) locus. (3) controllability.

Achievement Processes Attribution! • Helping students who have internal attribution-stableuncontrollable: • concentrate on the task at hand rather than worrying about failing cope with failures by retracing their steps to discover their mistake attribute their failures to lack of effort rather than lack of ability • • .

skill development and self-efficacy take a backseat to winning • • . Winning isn’t everything Children with performance orientation focus on winning rather than achievement outcome. They feel challenged and excited by difficult tasks. think carefully and remember strategies that worked for them. (2) helpless orientation (attribute their difficulty to lack of ability) Children with mastery orientation instruct themselves to pay attention.Achievement Processes Mastery Motivation and Mindset! Mastery Motivation • Valanne Henderson and Carol Dweck: children display (1) mastery motivation are task-oriented (focus on ability and learning strategy rather than outcome). believe that success results from winning.

similar to mastery motivation • • .Achievement Processes Mastery Motivation and Mindset! Mindset • importance of children developing a mindset: cognitive view individuals develop for themselves (1) ‘fixed mindset’ believe that their qualities can’t change and improve through effort. similar to helpless orientation (2) ‘growth mindset’ believe that their qualities can change and improve through their effort.

Achievement Processes Self-Efficacy! • Self-efficacy: can master a situation and produce positive outcomes Dale Schunk: self-efficacy influences a student’s choice of activities. Students with low self-efficacy avoid many learning tasks (esp. Students with high self-efficacy will eagerly approach challenging learning tasks • . challenging ones).

Achievement Processes Goal Setting. Planning and Self-monitoring! Long-term and Short-term goals • When students set goals and plans. their commitments should be in bite-size chunks .

Achievement Processes Goal Setting. Planning and Self-monitoring! Challenging Goals • challenging goal is a commitment to selfimprovement strong interest and involvement in activities is sparked by challenges • .

Planning and Self-monitoring! Personal Goals • develop personal goals about desired and undesired future circumstances can be a key aspect of students’ motivation for coping and dealing with life’s challenges and opportunities • .Achievement Processes Goal Setting.

Planning and Self-monitoring! Developmental Changes and Goal-setting • teachers and students reported that performance-focused goals were more common and task-focused goals less common in middle school than in elementary teachers who created a mastery goal structure for their classroom had students who were more intrinsically motivated and had a higher academic self-concept performance-oriented goal structure classroom students were less intrinsically motivated and had lower academic self-concept • • .Achievement Processes Goal Setting.

Planning and Self-monitoring! Planning and Self-Monitoring • important to encourage them to plan how they willr each their goals .Achievement Processes Goal Setting.

Achievement Processes Expectations! Students’ Expectations • • beliefs about how well they will do on upcoming tasks (1) how good they are at particular activity (2) how good they are in comparison to other individuals (2) how good they are in relation to their performance in other activities how hard students work also depends on the value they place on the goal culture’s achievement orientation also plays a role in influencing students’ expectations • • .

ask higher-level questions. more effective in managing students’ behaviour than teachers with average and low expectations teachers often have more positive expectations for high ability students and will influence their behaviour • .Achievement Processes Expectations! Teachers’ Expectations • teacher with high expectations tend to spend more time providing a framework for students’ learning.

) • • • • thus students will only get short term goals .Achievement Processes Values and Purpose! • Values are beliefs and attitudes about the way we think things should be they involve what is important to individuals Purpose is the intention to accomplish something meaningful to oneself and contribute something to the world beyond the self often we communicate the importance of goals such as studying hard and getting good grades but rarely what these goals may lead to (purpose for studying hard etc.

Children’s social concerns influence their lives at school. Those who display socially competent behaviour are more likely to excel academically than those who do not • .Motivation Relationships. and Sociocultural Contexts Social Motives! • Social motives: needs and desires that are learned through experiences with the social world.

and Sociocultural Contexts Child-Rearing Practices! • Parents show know the child enough to provide the right amount of challenge and support Should provide a positive emotional climate to motivate them to internalise their parents’ values and goals modeling motivated achievement behaviour • • .Motivation Relationships.

Motivation Relationships. and Sociocultural Contexts Provision of Specific Experiences at Home! • children’s skills and work habits when they enter kindergarten are among the best predictors of academic motivation and performance in both elementary and secondary school students’ achievement is linked to academic resources at home • .

Motivation Relationships. and Sociocultural Contexts Peers! • students who are more accepted by their peers and who have good social skills often do better in school and have positive academic achievement motivation .

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