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Chapter #23 Identifications Thomas Nast A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered

to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwor was based on political corruption. Horace Greely An American editor of a leading newspaper! a founder of the "epublican party! reformer and politician that helped support reform mo#ements and anti$sla#ery efforts through his newspaper. Roscoe Conkling A politician from %ew &or who ser#ed both as a member of the 'nited (tates House of "eps and the '.(. (enate that was the leader of the (talwart faction of the "epub party. James G. Blaine A '.(. "epresentati#e! (pea er of the 'nited (tates House of "eps! '.(. (enator from )aine and a two$time 'nited (tates (ecretary of state. *unded +ates college! founded the +laine Amendments. Samuel Tilden ,he -emocratic nominee for president in 1./0 who loses by a #ery narrow margin. Charles J. Guiteau )urdered 1arfield! an upset wor er who didn2t get a 3ob from the president. Crime raised concerns about patronage. Hard or Sound Money ,he metallic or specie dollar is nown as hard money. It was e4tremely important during the late 1.052s and early 1/52s especially during the 6anic of 1./3. It was in opposition with greenbac s. ,he issuing of the greenbac s was o#erdone and the #alue depreciated causing inflation. Gilded Age A name for the late 1.552s coined by )ar ,wain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and ostentatious lifestyles it

allowed the #ery rich. ,he great industrial success of the '.(. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time. Bloody-Shirt "epublican campaign tactic that blamed the -emocrats for the Ci#il 7ar8 it was used successfully in campaigns from 1.0. to 1./0 to eep -emocrats out of public office! especially the presidency T eed Ring ,he corrupt part of ,ammany Hall in %ew &or City! started by burly 9+oss: ,weed that (amuel ,ilden o#erthrew because of %ast2s depictions through cartoons in Harper2s 7ee ly. Credit Mo!ilier Scandal ,his scandal occurred in the 1./5s when a railroad construction company2s stoc holders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the 'nioin 6acific "ailroad for construction for their own personal use. (toc holders used bribes to a#oid con#iction. "hiskey Ring -uring the 1rant administration! a group of officials were importing whis ey and using their offices to a#oid paying the ta4es on it! cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars Resum#tion Act It pledged the withdrawal of greenbac s from circulation and the redemption of all paper money in gold. Crime o$ %&' through the coinage act of 1./3! the '( ended the minting of sil#er dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. ,his was attac ed by those who supported an inflationary monetary policy! particularly farmers. Bland-Allison Act 7as an 1./. act of congress re;uiring the '( treasury to buy a acertain amount of sil#er and put it into circulations as si#er dollars! #etoed by Hayes! o#erriden by congress.

Hal$-Breed was a republican political machine! headed by <ames +lane! who pushed republican ideals and were almost a separate group within the party. Com#romise o$ ()&& ended reconstruction! remo#ed military from the south! appointed democrat to cabinet! and funded railroad construction and le#ees on the )ississippi. Ci*il Ser*ice Re$orm 6ublic minded citi=ens organi=ed this group to reform ci#il ser#ice. +endleton Act 1..3 law that created a Ci#il (er#ice Commission and stated that federal employees could not be re;uired to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons ,Billion -ollar, Congress >1st congress held by harrison! responsible for passing the ?and "e#ision act of 1.91! which created the national forests. Chapter #23.1 1uided "eading @uestions The ,Bloody Shirt, .lects Grant /no 0 1lysses S. Grant2 3hio 4dea2 Re#udiation2 Horatio Seymour2 Bloody Shirt ( "as General Grant good #residential material5 "hy did he in5 1eneral 1rant was not good presidential material but he won because of his military accomplishments. "epubs wanted a war hero to continue military reconstruction in the (outh. The .ra o$ Good Stealings /no 0 Jim 6isk2 Jay Gould2 Black 6riday2 Boss T eed2 Gra$t2 Thomas Nast2 Samuel J. Tilden 7. ,The Man in the Moon...had to hold his nose hen #assing o*er America., .8#lain. -escribed the corrupt nature of scam ridden finance and bribery politics in the post war era. A Carni*al o$ Corru#tion /no 0 Credit Mo!ilier2 "hiskey Ring2 "illiam Belkna# '. -escri!e t o ma9or scandals that directly in*ol*ed the Grant administration.

<im *is and <ay 1ould tried to con#ince 1rant to stop ,reasury selling of gold to increase the prices of gold! but treasury did it anyway. +oss ,weed ruled %& and bribed se#eral go#ernment officials The :i!eral Re#u!lican Re*olt o$ ()&7 /no 0 :i!eral Re#u!licans2 Horace Greeley ;. "hy did :i!eral Re#u!licans nominate Horace Greeley $or the #residency in ()&75 "hy as he a less than ideal candidate5 ,hey were disgusted by military reconstruction under the 1rant administration8 he was not an ideal candidate because he had insulted the -emocratic 6arty. -e#ression and -emands $or 4n$lation /no 0 +anic o$ ()&'2 Green!acks2 Hard-money2 Crime o$ %&'2 Contraction2 So$tmoney2 Bland-Allison Act <. "hy did some #eo#le ant green!acks and sil*er dollars5 "hy did others o##ose these kinds o$ currency5 -ebtors supported greenbac sAsil#er because they would cause inflation and ma e debt easier to pay! and miners who had struc sil#er wanted sil#er. Creditors opposed them and supported other policies that would ma e the credits more profitable to them. +allid +olitics in the Gilded Age /no 0 Gilded Age2 Grand Army o$ the Re#u!lic2 Stal arts2 Roscoe Conkling2 Hal$Breeds2 James G. Blaine =. "hy as there such $ierce com#etition !et een -emocrats and Re#u!licans in the Gilded Age i$ the #arties agreed on most economic issues5 *ierce competition can be attributed to sectionalism old ci#il war ri#alry! and differences in moral opinion. The Hayes-Tilden Stando$$2 ()&= /no 0 Ruther$ord B. Hayes2 Samuel J. Tilden &. "hy ere the results o$ the ()&= election in dou!t5 In the election! ,ilden won the popular #ote! but was only 1 #ote shy of winning in the electoral college. ,he determining electoral #otes were sent to congress! in which a bargain was placed to stop reconstruction. The Com#romise o$ ()&& and the .nd o$ Reconstruction /no 0 Com#romise o$ ()&&2 .lectoral Count Act2 -a*id -a*is2 Ci*il Rights Cases >())'?2 ). Ho did the end o$ Reconstruction a$$ect A$rican-Americans5 Bnded racial e;uality. Allowed the passing of <im Crow laws! blac s were disenfranchised.

Chapter #20.1 ,he 1reat 7est +ig 6icture ,hemes (. Nati*e Americans out "est $aced t o o#tions0 agree to settle on a reser*ation or $ight the 1.S. Army as @hostiles.A Some chose reser*ations2 others to $ight2 !ut all ere cleared out. . Chapter #20.1 Identifications Sitting Bull (itting bull was one of the leaders of the (iou4 tribe. He was a medicine man. *orced into Canada after losing at the +attle of ?ittle +ig Horn. George A. Custer *ormer 1eneral during the Ci#il 7ar! he set out in 1./C with his se#enth ca#alry to return the plains indians to the (iou4 reser#ation. Chie$ Jose#h ?eader of %e= 6erce. *led with his tribe to Canada instead of reser#ations. Howe#er! '( troops came and fought and brought them bac down to reser#ations. Siou8 "ars ?asting from 1./0 to 1.//! were clashes between the (iou4 indians and white men. (purred by gold greedy miners rushing into (iou4 land who bro e their treaty with the Indians. Ghost -ance A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young bra#es to fight. It was crushed at the +attle of 7ounded Dnee. -a es Se*eralty Act ,ried to reform indian tribes and turn them into white citi=ens! which did little to no good. Battle o$ "ounded /nee 7hile camped outside of an indian reser#ation a gun was fired and the troops stormed the reser#ation illing Indian men women and children.

Chapter # 20.1 1uided "eading @uestions The Clash o$ Cultures on the +lain /no 0 4ndian Territory2 Siou82 Great Siou8 Reser*ation2 Tenth Ca*alry (. -escri!e the e$$ect o$ est ard e8#ansion on Nati*e Americans. ,he %ati#e Americans were ignored and pushed farther to the 7est also! resulting with them ha#ing less land. +efore e4pansion! nati#e Americans ne#er fought with each other. Receding Nati*e Americans /no 0 George Armstrong Custer2 BoBeman Trail2 Sitting Bull2 Battle o$ :ittle Big Horn2 Chie$ Jose#h2 Geronimo 7. Ho as the "est , on5, ,hrough #iolence and oppression! generals such as Custer dro#e out the %ati#e Americans into Canada and off their land. (ome were pushed onto Indian "eser#ations. 7ith bloody massacres and grisly illings! the whites effecti#ely con;uered the nati#e people. Bello ing Herds o$ Bison /no 0 Bu$$alo Bill Cody '. Ho ere the Bu$$alo reduced $rom (< million to less than a thousand5 +uffalo was reduced because of the massi#ed amount of hunting for their furs by masses from westward e4pansion. The .nd o$ the Trail /no 0 Helen Hunt Jackson2 Ghost -ance2 Battle o$ "ounded /nee2 -a es Act2 Carlisle 4ndian School2 4ndian ReorganiBation Act ;. "hat did the go*ernment do to try to assimilate Nati*e Americans5 ,o assimilate %ati#e Americans! the go#2t used the -awes (e#erality Act which granted %ati#e Americans citi=enship if they displayed Bnglish li e beha#ior after 2> years in the country. Mining0 6rom -ish#an to 3re Breaker /no 0 +ike%s +eak2 Comstock :ode2 Sil*er Senators <.. Ho did the disco*ery o$ #recious metals a$$ect the American "est5 ,he disco#ery of precious metals in the American 7est led to the increase in westerni=ed mo#ement and also spurred a more industriali=ed society in the west. 1aps between political parties had different #iews on the #alues of these precious metals. Makers o$ America0 The +lains 4ndians =. Ho as the cu(lture o$ the +lains 4ndians sha#ed !y hite #eo#le5 ,he culture of the 6lains Indians was influenced greatly by the schools established to follow the -awes (e#erality Act .

Bee$ BonanBas and the :ong -ri*e /no 0 :ong -ri*e2 "ild Bill Hickok &. "hy as cattle ranching so #ro$ita!le in the ()&C%s5 Cattle$ranching was so profitable in the 1./5Es because there was a #ery high demand for the leather and meat obtained from cattle. The 6armersD 6rontier /no 0 Homestead Act2 Great American -esert2 John "esley +o ell2 Jose#h 6. Glidden ). -id the Homestead Act li*e u# to its #ur#ose o$ gi*ing small $armers a descent li$e on the #lains5 ,he Homestead Act did not li#e up to its purpose! because also ten times as much land that actual small farmers obtained was ta en by greedy land$grabbing promoters. 7hile a considerable amount of farmers were able to ma e successful li#es with this cheap land! most of it was obtained through fraud by business$ minded people. The 6ar "est Comes o$ Age /no 0 Boomers2 Sooners2 ()EC2 6rederick Jackson Turner2 Fello stone E. "hat ere some milestones in the @closingA o$ the "est5 (ome milestones in the FclosingF of the 7est were that the population of the 'nited (tates had e4ponentially increased! and many nature$preser#ation steps were being ta en! such as the founding of &ellowstone in 1./2. The 6ading 6rontier /no 0 6rancis +arkman2 George Catlin2 6rederic Remington (C. "hat e$$ects has the $rontier had on the de*elo#ment o$ the 1nited States5 ,he frontier was accountable for the opening of many new opportunities for immigrants to be successful! #ast! new areas of land to be filled! and as such! a huge population increase. ,he frontier! because of its profitability! also promoted industriali=ation. Chapter #2CG 4ndustry Comes o$ Age G Big +icture Themes (. Be$ore the Ci*il "ar2 railroads had !ecome im#ortant. A$ter the ar2 railroads !oomed and ere critical to the nation. Railroads2 along ith steel2 ere to !e the skeleton on hich the nationDs economy ould !e !uilt. 7. A class o$ millionaires emerged $or the $irst time e*er. Tycoons like Carnegie and Rocke$eller made $ortunes. This ty#e o$ ealth as cham#ioned !y @Social -ar inismA here the strong in in !usiness. '. 1n$ortunately2 many o$ the mega-industries2 like railroads2 gre at the e8#ense o$ the @little manDsA interest. As !usinesses2 they ere out to make money2 and they did. But the orking man cried $oul.

;. To right these rongs2 the !eginnings o$ anti-trusts !egan >to !ust the mono#olies? and organiBed la!or got a 9um#start >although they ere still rather ine$$ecti*e?. Chapter #2CG 4denti$ications Go*ernment Su!sidies It is nown as a sub#ention! a term of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector. Transcontinental Railroad Completed in 1.09 at 6romontory! 'tah! it lin ed the eastern railroad system with California2s railroad system! re#olutioni=ing transportation in the west. Cornelius Hander!ilt Created a railroad empire worth millions by crushing competitors and ignoring protests from the public. Controlled C!>55 miles of trac and lin ed %&C to the 1reat ?a e "egion. Jay Gould Hften regarded as the must unethical of the "obber +arons! he was in#ol#ed with ,ammany Hall and +oss ,weed early in his career. 7ent on to gain control of western railroads! was a s illed businessman. 4nterstate Commerce Commission probited rebates and pools. "e;uired railroads to publish rates! forbade discriminatin against shippers! and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one o#er the same line. Hertical 4ntegration Absorption into a single firm of se#eral firms in#ol#ed in all aspects of a product2s manufacture from raw materials to distribution. HoriBontal 4ntegration A techni;ue used by "oc efeller as an act of 3oining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Trusts An agreement between two or more businesses not to e4ceed certain boundaries or regulations.

J.+. Morgan +usiness man who refinanced railroads during depression of 1.93 and built intersystem alliance by buying stoc in completing railroads. Sherman Anti-Trust Act *irst federal action against monopolies! it was signed into law by Harrison and was e4tensi#ely used by "oose#elt for trust$busting. Fello -og Contracts An agreement some companies forced wor ers to ta e that forbade them from 3oining a union. ,his was a method used to limit the power of unions! thus hampering their de#elopment. Blacklists A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disli ed by business. ,hey were refused 3obs and harassed by unions and businesses. Haymarket SIuare incident A dynamite bomb threw when Chicago police bro e forth to a protest of wor ers Chapter #2C 1uided "eading @uestions The 4ron Colt Becomes an 4ron Horse /no 0 :and grants (. "hat ere the ad*antages and disad*antages o$ go*ernment su!sidies $or the railroads5 ,he railroads would often sell the land and ma e money off the land that was paid for by citi=ens. ,hey also withheld land from other users until they figured out where their trac s would lay. A benefit was that railroad companies were able to e4pand further west. S#anning the Continent ith Rails /no 0 1nion +aci$ic2 Central +aci$ic2 +addies2 :eland Stan$ord 7. -escri!e ho the $irst transcontinental railroad as !uilt. ,he Central 6acific "ailroad Company started building in (acramento and continued east across the (ierra %e#ada! while a second company! the 'nion 6acific "ailroad! built westward from the )issouri "i#er! near the Idaho$ %ebras a border IHmahaJ. ,he two lines of trac met in the middle. Binding the Country ith Railroad Ties /no 0 The Great Northern2 James J. Hill '. .8#lain ho the railroads could hel# or hurt Americans.

Americans would be connected across the country! which would help tra#el time! the ability to connect with different types of people! and allow people to get produce and meats from different parts of the country Idue to the decreased tra#el timeJ. 6eople could also begin to mo#e west. ,rade with Asia increased. Howe#er! railroad construction was laced with scandal and corruption! which hurt Americans financially Railroad Consolidation and MechaniBation /no 0 Cornelius Hander!ilt2 +ullman Cars ;. "hat technological im#ro*ements hel#ed railroads5 )ore efficient and economical steel rails! standard gauge of trac Iwhich reduced need for numerous car changesJ! the 7estinghouse air bra e which increased safety! and other safety de#ices li e the telegraph. Re*olution !y Rail ays /no 0 Time Jones <. "hat e$$ects did the railroads ha*e on America as a hole5 "ailroads created a huge domestic mar et for raw materials and manufactured goods and spurred industriali=ation and urbani=ation8 stimulated mining and agriculture8 too farmers to land and goods to people8 started cities! created more millionaires! dro#e creation of time =ones. "rongdoing in Railroading /no 0 Jay Gould2 Stock "atering2 +ools =. "hat rongdoing ere railroads guilty o$5 (toc watering Iwhich enabled railroad stoc promoters to inflate their claims about a gi#en lineEs assets and profitability and sell stoc s and bonds in e4cess of the railroadEs actual #alueJ as well as other corruption such as bribery. Go*ernment Bridles the 4ron Horse /no 0 "a!ash2 4nterstate Commerce Commission &. "as the 4nterstate Commerce Act an im#ortant #iece o$ legislation5 &es! it prohibited rebates and pools and re;uired the railroads to publish their rates openly. )ost important! it set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to administer and enforce the new legislation. Miracles o$ MechaniBation /no 0 Mesa!i Range2 Ale8ander Graham Bell2 Thomas .dison ). "hat $actors made industrial e8#ansion #ossi!le5 Abundant li;uid capital! natural resources li e oil and coal! cheap labor in immigrant population! and easier transportation of raw materials and goods than s to railroads. The Trust Titan .merges /no 0 Andre Carnegie2 John -. Rocke$eller2 J.+. Morgan2 Hertical 4ntegration2 HoriBontal 4ntegration2 Trust2 4nterlocking -irectorate

E. Ho did !usinesses organiBe to try to ma8imiBe #ro$its5 'sed hori=ontal integration Iallying with competitors to monopoli=e a mar etJ! trusts Iconsolidations of formerly competing companiesE stoc s into a single enterprise large enough to dri#e out remaining competitorsJ! and interloc ing directorates Iplacing officers of a larger competitor on the #arious boards of directors of competitorsJ. The Su#remacy o$ Steel /no 0 Hea*y 4ndustry2 Ca#ital Goods2 Consumer Goods2 Bessemer +rocess (C. "hy as steel so im#ortant $or industrialiBation5 ,he metal ultimately held together the new ci#ili=ation! from s yscrapers to coal scuttles! while pro#iding it with food! shelter! and transportation. (teel ma ing! notably rails for railroads! typified the dominance of Fhea#y industry!F which concentrated on ma ing Fcapital goods!F as distinct from the production of Fconsumer goodsF such as clothes and shoes Carnegie and 3ther Sultans o$ Steel /no 0 Andre Carnegie2 J.+. Morgan ((. Brie$ly descri!e the careers o$ Andre Carnegie and J.+. Morgan. After accumulating some capital! Carnegie entered the steel business. +y 1955 he was producing one$fourth of the nationEs +essemer steel. )organ made a legendary reputation for himself by financing the reorgani=ation of railroads! insurance companies! and ban s Iban erEs ban erJ. Carnegie! loo ing to sell his business! bartered with )organ until they finally came to the agreement of C55 million dollars. )organ went on to buy other businesses and de#elop the first 1.C billion dollar business. Rocke$eller Gro s an American Beauty Rose /no 0 /erosene (7. Ho as John -. Rocke$eller a!le to !ecome so ealthy5 +y ruthlessly employing hori=ontal integration and trusts to near$monopoli=e the oil industry with his (tandard Hil Company of Hhio. The Gos#el o$ "ealth /no 0 Social -ar inism ('. Ho did the ealthy 9usti$y their ealth5 (ocial -arwinism and the 1ospel of 7ealth Ithe rich were meant to be rich! and had wor ed hard to achie#e it! so they deser#ed itJ. Go*ernment Tackles the Trust .*il /no 0 Sherman Anti-Trust Act (;. "hat t o methods ere tried !y those ho o##osed the trusts5 ?abor unions and stri es. The South in the Age o$ 4ndustry (<. Ho success$ul ere Southerners at industrialiBing5

,heir success was limited Ioften by %ortherner industrialistsJ but they found some success with the inno#ation of the machine made cigarette. The 4m#act o$ the Ne 4ndustrial Re*olution on America (=. -escri!e the #ositi*e and negati*e e$$ects o$ the industrial re*olution on orking Americans. ,he nation of farmers and independent producers was becoming a nation of wage earners. Industriali=ation ga#e women more independence. +rought corruption in economy and politics! widened class di#ides! connected nation more than e#er! increased urbani=ation Iand poor conditions in those urban areasJ. 4n 1nions There is Strength /no 0 Sca!s2 :ock-out2 Fello -dog Contract2 Black :ist2 Com#any To n (&. "hat conditions e8isted in America that led Jay Gould to say2 ,4 can hire one hal$ o$ the orking class to kill the other hal$,5 <ob security was so low! wor ers were so easily replaced! people were always searching for and trying to eep their 3obs to support themsel#es and their families so stri es were usually ineffecti#e and often detrimental to the stri ers. :a!or :im#s Along /no 0 National :a!or 1nion2 /nights o$ :a!or (). .8#lain the similarities and di$$erences !et een the National :a!or 1nion and the /nights o$ :a!or. ,he %ational ?abor 'nion ( illed included uns illed and farmers but e4cluded the Chinese8 they didnEt try #ery hard to aid women and blac s. ,he Dnights were created in 1.09 as a secret society and sought to include all wor ers! barred only Fnonproducers8F broad goals included economic and social reform! codes for safety and health8 they frowned upon industrial warfare and wanted an . hour wor day. 1nhorsing the /nights o$ :a!or /no 0 Haymarket SIuare (E. "hat $actors led to the decline o$ the /nights o$ :a!or5 ,hey became in#ol#ed in many failing )ay -ay stri es in 1..0. In Chicago they were accidentally in#ol#ed with anarchists when the Haymar et (;uare +omb occured in con3unction with a Dnights of ?abor stri e. Another fatal handicap of the Dnights was their inclusion of both s illed and uns illed wor ers. The A6 o$ : to the 6ore /no 0 American 6ederation o$ :a!or2 Samuel Gom#ers2 Closed Sho# 7C. Ho as the A6: di$$erent $rom #re*ious unions5 It became a union organi=ation of s illed wor ers! and of men who had a craft. 1ompers reali=ed that a successful union would not succeed if it became a political organi=ation.

Makers o$ America0 The /nights o$ :a!or /no 0 Mother Jones2 Terence +o derly 7(. "ere the /nights conser*ati*e or re*olutionary in their ideas5 Dnights had conser#ati#e ideas. ,he highly conser#ati#e leadership of the Dnights of ?abor issued a secret circular describing their position. Harying Hie #oints0 4ndustrialiBation0 Boon or Blight 77. To hat degree is it #ossi!le $or common #eo#le to im#ro*e their status in industrial America5 -uring this era of American history! the common people had little or no chance to impro#e their status in industrial America. Chapter #2>G America )o#es to the City K +ig 6icture ,hemes (. Cities gre !ecause $actories gre . The 4ndustrial Re*olution kicked into gear in America in the late ()CCs and $actories needed orkers2 so #eo#le $locked to the cities. 7. +ro!lems arose as cities !oomed. The #ro!lems included0 e8#loitation o$ immigrant la!orers2 #oorKunhealthy ork conditions2 o*er-cro dedness and sanitation #ro!lems2 corru#ton2 and @nati*ismA >anti-immigrant $eelings?. '. Booker T. "ashington L "...B. -uBois ere the to# !lack leaders. They disagreed on ho to hel# !lacksM"ashington encouraged !lacks to o!tain a #ractical skill at a trade school2 -uBois encouraged !lacks to study anything they ished2 e*en academic su!9ects. ;. The roles o$ omen !egan to change2 i$ only slightly. More omen orked2 though most ere still at home. The @ne omanA as idealiBed !y the althletic2 outgoing @Gi!son Girl.A Chapter #2> Identifications 6lorence /elley A woman who wor ed at the Hull House8 successfully lo##ied in 1.93 for an Illinois antisweatshop law that protected women wor ers and prohibited child labor. Mary Baker .ddy Author and founder of a popular new religion based on the principles of spiritual healing.

"illiam James Har#ard scholar who made original contributions to modern psychology and philosophy. Henry George Contro#ersial reformer whose boo 6rogress and 6o#erty ad#ocated sol#ing problems of economic ine;uality by a ta4 on land. Horatio Alger 6uritan %ew Bngland writer8 Interested in %& newsboys! wrote more than a hundred #olumes of 3u#enile fiction that sold o#er 155 million copies. Mark T ain )idwestern born writer and lecturer who created a new style of American literature based on social realism and humor. Nati*ism ,he mo#ement in America that fa#ored the white American and had little fa#or for immigrants coming from #arious parts of Burope such as Ireland and 1ermany. +hilanthro#y )eans 9lo#e of humanity: in the sense of caring! nourishing! de#eloping and enhancing what it is to be human. Social Gos#el the religious doctrines preached by those who belie#ed that the churches should directly address economic and social problems. Settlement House A neighborhood center in impo#erished areas8 prominent ones include Hull House and Henry (treet8 tended to ser#e immigrants. "omen%s Christian Tem#erance 1nion organi=ed in 1./C to push for the prohibition of alcohol and lead by *rances B 7illard.

.ighteenth Amendment 6rohibited the non medical sale of alcohol. ,his amendment is the midpoint of a growing dri#e towards women2s rights as well as showing the moral attitude of the era. The 1r!an 6rontier /no 0 :ouis Sulli*an2 "alking Cities2 -e#artment Stores2 Tenements (. "hat $actors led to the gro th o$ cities in the second hal$ o$ the ()CC%s5 Industrial 3obs drew people off their farms and into factory centers8 Hther AttractionsLglitter of city lights! electricity! indoor plumbing! telephones! engineering mar#els. ,he perfection of the s yscraper allowed more li#ing space on less land. The Ne 4mmigration 7. Ho ere the ne immigrants di$$erent $rom the old immigrants5 ,he %ew Immigrants came from southern and eastern Burope Iinstead of western BuropeJ8 they included Italians! (lo#a s! Croats! 1ree s! and 6oles8 many worshipped in orthodo4 churches or synagogues. ,hey were largely poor and illiterate! not used to democracy. Southern .uro#e 1#rooted '. "hy did the ne immigrants come to America in such large num!ers5 ,hey left their nati#e countries because Burope seemed to ha#e no room for them! because America seemed so promising! and because they sought religious freedom Makers o$ America0 The 4talians /no 0 Birds o$ +assage2 #adron ;. Ho did 4talian immigrants li*e their li*es in America5 ,hey clustered in tightly nit urban communities and wor ed as industrial laborers. Reactions to the Ne 4mmigration /no 0 +olitical Bosses2 Social Gos#el2 Jane Addams2 Hull House2 Settlement houses2 :illian "ald2 6lorence /elley <. Ho did #olitical !osses hel# immigrants5 ,hey traded 3obs and ser#ices for #otes. ,hey often found housing for immigrants! ga#e them food and clothing! and helped set up schools! par s! and hospitals in ethnic communities. Narro ing the "elcome Mat /no 0 Nati*ists2 Anglo-Sa8on2 American +rotecti*e Association2 Statue o$ :i!erty =. 4n ())=2 hat as ironic a!out the ords inscri!ed on the !ase o$ the Statue o$ :i!erty5

,heir welcoming ideal contradicted the recent federal laws which bloc ed the Chinese and undesirables Isuch as criminals and paupersJ from the nation. Churches Con$ront the 1r!an Challenge /no 0 - ight :yman Moody2 Cardinal Gi!!ons2 Sal*ation Army2 Mary Baker .ddy2 FMCA &. "hat role did religion #lay in hel#ing the ur!an #oor5 Christian socialism pric ed the consciences of the middle class for future reform! city programs li e &)CA helped needy. Catholic leaders employed growing influence to assist reform mo#ements. -ar in -isru#ts the Churches /no 0 Charles -ar in2 3rigin o$ the S#ecies2 6undamentalists2 Modernists2 Colonel Ro!ert G. 4ngersoll2 ). "hat e$$ect did the theory o$ e*olution ha*e on Christian churches5 Charles -arwins theory on e#olution created many rifts in the church. )odernist clergymen were thrown out of office and unbelief was promoted. The :ust $or :earning /no 0 Normal Schools2 /indergarten2 ChautauIua E "hat ad*ances took #lace in education in the years $ollo ing the Ci*il "ar5 public education continued its upward climb. the ideal of ta4$supported elementary schools! adopted on a nationwide basis before the ci#il war! was still gathering strength. Americans were accepting the truism that a free go#ernment cannot function sucessfully if the people are shac led by ignorance. Booker T. "ashington and .ducation $or Black +eo#le /no 0 Booker T. "ashington2 Tuskegee 4nstitute2 Accomodationist2 George "ashington Car*er2 "...B. -u Bois2 NAAC+ (C. .8#lain the di$$erences in !elie$ !et een Booker T. "ashington and "...B. -u Bois. 7ashingtonEs self$help approach to sol#ing the nationEs racial problems was labeled FaccommodationistF because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy! instead promoting practical education and economic independence. -u +ois demanded complete and immediate e;uality for blac s in society! economy! and life. The Hallo ed Halls o$ 4*y /no 0 Hassar2 Ho ard2 Morrill Act2 :and Grant Colleges2 Hatch Act ((. "hat $actors allo ed the num!er o$ college students to dramatically increase5 In the years after the Ci#il 7ar! college enrollment dramatically increased due to land grants that allowed the de#elopment of multipurpose institutions with programs characteristic of the leading twentieth$century uni#ersities Ielecti#e approachJ throughout the country. 6lus philanthropy The March o$ the Mind

/no 0 "illiam James (7. -escri!e some o$ the intellectual achie*ements o$ the late ()CCDs. Ad#ances in public health and increased philosophy and psychology I7illiam <amesJ. Blecti#e selection of courses in higher education. The A##eal o$ the +ress /no 0 Jose#h +ulitBer2 "illiam Randol#h Hearst2 Fello Journalism ('. Ho did the a!ility to #roduce ne s#a#ers ine8#ensi*ely change their content5 Cheaper newspapers meant appealing to the masses who could now afford them8 content became riddled with se4! scandal! rumor! and human$interest. A#ostles o$ Re$orm /no 0 .d in :. Godkin2 Henry George2 .d ard Bellamy (;. Ho did riters in the ()&C%s and ())C%s try to address the #ro!lems o$ their time5 In maga=ines! newspapers! and no#els! writers promoted social reform! ci#il$ ser#ice reform! honesty! and economic growth. +ost ar "riting /no 0 -ime no*els2 Horatio Alger2 "alt "hitman2 .mily -ickinson (<. -id the trends in riting a$ter the Ci*il "ar make it a good #eriod $or literature5 .8#lain. ,he literature post$Ci#il war had fantastic historical conte4t that made it real and effecti#e :iterary :andmarks /no 0 /ate Cho#in2 Mark T ain2 Bret Harte2 "illiam -ean Ho ells2 Ste#hen Crane2 Henry James2 Jack :ondon2 6rank Norris2 +aul :aurence -un!ar2 Charles ". Chestnut2 Theodore -reiser. (= "hat did many riters in the late ()CC%s ha*e in common5 7riters such as )ar ,wain! (tephen Crane! +ret Harte! 7illiam -ean! Howells and Chopin began relating their literary wor to some of the realism of an industrial society. The Ne Morality /no 0 Hictoria "oodhull2 Anthony Comstock (&. "hat e*idence demonstrated a !attle raging o*er se8ual morality5 ,he antics of the 7oodhull sisters and Anthony Comstoc e4posed to daylight the battle going on in late$nineteenth$century America o#er se4ual attitudes and the place of women 6amilies and "omen in the City /no 0 Charlotte +erkins Gilman2 .liBa!eth Cady Stanton2 Susan B. Anthony2 Carrie Cha#man Catt2 National "omen Su$$rage Association2 4da B. "ells (). "hat changes ere occurring in the omen%s rights mo*ement5 %ewest leader Carrie Chapman Catt stressed the desirability of gi#ing women the #ote if they were to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homema ers

and mothers in the increasingly public world of the city. 7omen had special responsibility for the health of the family and the education of children! the argument ran. +rohi!ition o$ Alcohol and Social +rogress /no 0 "omen%s Christian Tem#erance 1nion2 Carrie Nation2 Anti-Saloon :eague2 ()th Amendment2 Clara Barton (E. "hat social causes ere omen >and many men? in*ol*ed in the late ()CC%s5 7omenEs suffrage! temperanceAprohibition! animal protection. Artistic Trium#hs /no 0 James "histler2 John Singer Sargent2 Mary Cassatt2 George 4nness2 Thomas .akins2 "inslo Homer2 Augustus Saint-Gaudens2 Metro#olitan 3#era House2 Henry H. Richardson2 Colum!ian .8#osition 7C. "hy is this section titled ,artistic trium#hs5, ,his section highlights the artistic successes of many of the artists that emerged during the industrial era of American history. The Business o$ Amusement /no 0 Haude*ille2 +.T. Barnum2 Bu$$alo Bill Cody2 Annie 3akley2 James Naismith 7(. "hat $orms o$ recreation !ecame #o#ular $rom ()&C to (ECC5 +aseball! football! cro;uet! bo4ing! bicycling! bas etball! 7ild 7est shows! circuses! minstrel shows.

Chapter #23.2 6olitical 6aralysis in the 1ilded Age K +ig 6icture ,hemes (. The go*ernment did reach the !illion dollar le*el $or the $irst time. This as largely due to military #ension #lans. The #lans ere *ery #o#ular and re*ealed the goal o$ the legislatorsM#ass something that ill get me reelected. 7. +o#ulism started. This as a $armer and orker mo*ement that sought to clean u# the go*ernment2 !ring it !ack to the #eo#le2 and hel# the orking man out. Chapter #23.2 Identifications James A. Gar$ield 25th president of the '( and the second '( president to be assassinated. He held office from )arch to (eptember of 1..1. Chester A. Arthur 21st president! too office after the assassination of 1arfield. He was widely suspected of ha#ing conspired in 1arfield2s assassination. +efore entering politics! Arthur had been Collector of Customs for the 6ort of %ew &or but was fired by Hayes under suspicion of bribery and corruption. Charles J. Guiteau An American lawyer who assassinated '( 6resident <ames 1arfield on <uly2! was e4ecuted by hanging. Gro*er Cle*eland ,he 22nd and 2Cth 6resident of the '(! was nown as an honest independent 6resident opposed to corruption and the spoils system. Resum#tion Act ,he 1./> act of congress in which the go#2t was to withdraw greenbac s from circulations and begin in 1./9 to reddem all paper currency in gold. Crime o$ %&' Answered Bland-Allison Act Answered

Hal$-Breed Answered Mug um# reform minded "epublicans who could not stomach the 1..C nomination of <ames +laine were gi#en this nic name +endleton Act o$ ()'' Answered Thomas B. Reed A '( "ep from )aine! and (pea er of the House. 6owerful leader of the "epublican 6arty and during his tenure as spea er! he ser#ed with greater influence than any (pea er came before. ,Billion -ollar, Congress Answered +ension Act 6assed by Congress under HarrisonG Awarded stipends to all Ci#il 7ar #eterans who had fought for at least 95 days. Chapter #23.2 1uided "eading @uestions The Birth o$ Jim Cro in the +ost-Reconstruction South /no 0 Redeemers2 sharecro##ing2 tenant $arming2 Jim Cro la s2 Plessy v. Ferguson (. AnalyBe the data in the lynching chart on #age <('. ,he number of lynchings actually increased during the arri#al of more oppression and <im Crow laws. Class Con$licts and .thnic Clashes /no 0 Great Railroad Strike o$ ()&&2 -enis /earney2 Coolies2 Chinese .8clusion Act 7. "hat as the signi$icance o$ the Great Railroad Strike o$ ()&&5 Chicago was the capitol of crime and they shipped out the illegal #oo=e to all points through the rails and through truc ing the center of the '(.

Gar$ield and Arthur /no 0 James A. Gar$ield2 Charles J. Guiteau2 Chester A. Arthur2 +endleton Act o$ ())' '. "hat ne ty#e o$ corru#tion resulted $rom the +endleton Act5 It said that a federal wor er was under no obligation to 9contribute to any political fund! or to render any political ser#ice! and that he will not be remo#ed or otherwise pre3udiced for refusing to do so:. The Blaine-Cle*eland Mudslingers o$ ()); /no 0 James G. Blaine2 Tattooed man2 Mug um#s2 Gro*er Cle*eland2 Ma2 ma here%s my #a52 Rum2 Romanism and Re!ellion ;. .8#lain ho character #layed a #art in the #residential election o$ ());. ,he issue of personal character mar ed was paramount in the 1..C campaign. *ormer (pea er of the House <ames 1. +laine had been pre#ented from getting the "epublican presidential nomination during the pre#ious two lections because of the stigma of the F)ulligan lettersF. @3ld Gro*er, Takes 3*er <. Assess the $ollo ing statement0 ,As #resident2 Gro*er Cle*eland go*erned as his #re*ious record as go*ernor indicated he ould., 1ro#er Cle#eland had been a good! fair go#ernor! and the same was true of his presidency. (aid go#ernment should not support the people! people support the go#ernment...#etoed act for farmers Cle*eland Battles $or a :o er Tari$$ =. "hat ere the reasons !ehind Cle*eland%s stance in $a*or o$ lo er tari$$s5 Cle#eland supported lower tariffs because it meant lower prices for consumers and less protection for monopolies. The Billion -ollar Congress /no 0 Thomas Reed2 Ci*il "ar #ensions2 Mc/inley Tari$$ Act o$ ()EC &. .8#lain hy the tari$$ as detrimental to American $armers. ,he tariff raised the ga#e the bounty of 2 cents per pound to American sugar producers and raised agricultural tariffs. The -rum!eat o$ -iscontent /no 0 +o#ulists ). "hat as the most re*olutionary as#ect o$ the +o#ulist #lat$orm5 -e$end your ans er ith e*idence. ,he nomination of 7illiam <ennings +ryan on a free$sil#er platform was probably most re#olutionary in the populist platform. ! nationali=ation of railroads! income ta4! recall elections! referendums! reelection of senators Cle*eland and -e#ression /no 0 Gro*er Cle*eland2 -e#ression or ()E'2 "illiam Jennings Bryan2 Sherman Sil*er +urchase Act E. "hat could Cle*eland ha*e done to lessen the im#act o$ the $inancial turmoil5

His inter#ention in the 6ullman (tri e of 1.9C to eep the railroads mo#ing angered labor unions nationwide and angered the party in Illinois8 his support of the gold standard and opposition to *ree (il#er alienated the agrarian wing of the -emocratic 6arty. He could ha#e helped the labor union and not supported the gold standard. Cle*eland Breeds a Backlash /no 0 "ilson Gorman Tari$$ (C. 4s the characteriBation o$ the Gilded Age #residents as the @$orgetta!le #residentsA a $air one5 .8#lain. &es! because none of them did a #ery good 3ob of helping the country out of the post$"econstruction era.

Chapter #20.2 Agricultural "e#olution and 6opulism K +ig 6icture ,hemes (. Miners looking $or sil*er andKor gold $led to Colorado and Ne*ada seeking Iuick $ortune. A $e $ound it2 the *ast ma9ority didnDt. 7. Cattle !ecame king in Te8as as co !oys dro*e herds north to the /ansas railroads and rea#ed Iuick money. '. 6armers struggled out est due to se*eral #ro!lems0 eather2 insects2 high mortgage rates2 high railroad shi##ing rates2 and lo #rices $or their cro#s. ;. The $armersD struggles led to the +eo#leDs >or +o#ulist? +arty. This #arty sought @chea# moneyA >or sil*er money? in order to create in$lation and thus make it easier to #ay o$$ de!ts. Chapter #20G2 Identifications Jose#h 6. Glidden In#ented barbed wire! which contributed greatly to the fencing off of the 7est where there was a shortage of wood. James B. "ea*er ,he candidate of the 1reenbac ?abor 6arty in the 1..5 election. He was an old 1ranger! a fa#e of Ci#il 7ar #eterans. 3li*er H. /elly ?eader of the 1range that stimulated the minds of the farm fold by social! educational! and fraternal acti#ities. Mary .liBa!eth :ease Dnown as 9)ary &ellin: and 9the Dansas 6ythoness:! she made about 105 speeches that critici=ed wall street and the wealthy. Comstock :ode ?ode of gold and sil#er found in %e#ada! prompting a huge influ4 of miners in 1.>9. :ong -ri*e ,erm for the 3ourney cowboys would ma e to ta e their herds to railroad terminals or 9cow towns: where they could be to the Bast. Along the way! the cows gra=ed for free on go#ernment grass.

Homestead Act ,his law pro#ided that settlers could ac;uire 105 acres of land by li#ing on it and impro#ing it o#er > years and paying a small fee. +atrons o$ Hus!andry 7as a denomination of the 1range that was led by Hli#er Delley that focused on the indi#idual impro#ement of the whole lot of all farmers. Granger :a s ,erm for laws passed due to the influence of the 6atrons of Husbandry! they were often badly drawn and bitterly fought in high courts. 6armers% Alliance ,hese organi=ations cropped up e#erywhere in the late 1..52s incorporating %orth and (outh! white and blac . ,hey organi=ed cooperati#es and sought to better the lot of farmers. +o#ulists ,hese people! members of the 6eople2s party! emerged in the early 1.952s. ,hey were =ealous and attracted people from the *armer2s Alliances. Ignatius -onnelly of )innesota was a notable figure. Jaco! S. Co8ey ?ed >55 unemployed men! women! and children from HH to 7ashington to support a public wor s program of road building. "illiams Jennings Bryan An American lawyer! statesman! and politician who was a three time -emocratic 6arty nominee for 6resident of the 'nited (tates noted for his deep! commanding #oice. Bimetallism ,he usage of both sil#er and gold as currency8 "epublicans belie#ed in a money system based on the single gold standard! while the -emocrats belie#ed in this. 6ree Sil*er After the disco#ery of sil#er! se#eral desperate factions in American politics began to agitate for the feds to allow it to be minted freely. ,his would result in inflation. -e#ression o$ ()E' Considered e4treme depression8 profits dwindled! businesses went ban rupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence! led to the pullman stri e. Cross o$ Gold S#eech ,he Cross of 1old speech was deli#ered by 7illiam < +ryant at the -emocratic %ational Con#ention that ad#ocated bimetallism.

Chapter #20.2 1uided "eading @uestions The 6arm Becomes a 6actory /no 0 Montgomery "ard2 Com!ine (. .8#lain the statement2 ,The amaBing mechaniBation o$ agriculture in the #ost ar years as almost as striking as the mechaniBation o$ industry., Historians generally agree that the Ci#il 7ar was the first modern war! meaning the first in which technology and industrial strength played a significant role. -e$lation -ooms the -e!tor /no 0 -e$lation 7. "hat #ro!lems $aced $armers in the closing decades o$ the (Eth century5 ,he farmers of the 7est became attached to the one$crop economy $ wheat or corn $ and were in the same lot as the southern cotton farmers. ,he price of their product was determined in a unprotected world mar et by the world output. 1nha##y 6armers '. Ho did nature2 go*ernment2 and !usiness all harm $armers5 ,he good soil of the 7est was becoming poor! and floods added to the problem of erosion. +eginning in the summer of 1../! a series of droughts forced many people to abandon their farms and towns. The 6armers Take Their Stand /no 0 The Grange2 Coo#erati*es2 Green!ack-:a!or +arty2 James B. "ea*er ;. Ho did the Grange attem#t to hel# $armers5 ,he 1range helped farmers by getting them organi=ed in relation to their crops. ,hey helped the farmers figure out what they needed to grow and when they needed to grow certain things to get the best prices. +relude to +o#ulism /no 0 The 6armersD Alliance2 Mary .liBa!eth :ease <. "hat ste#s did the 6armersD Alliance !elie*e ould hel# $armers5 ,he *armers2 Alliance operated free mills and gins that small farmers could use. ,hey belie#ed in graduated income ta4es! sub treasure warehouses! and go#2t ownership of railroads. Co8eyDs Army and the +ullman Strike /no 0 Co8eyDs Army2 .ugene H. -e!s2 +ullman +alace Car Com#any =. "hy did +resident Cle*eland send in $ederal troo#s during the +ullman Strike5 American railway wor ers were boycotting the 6ullman cars! a federal 3udge ordered the boycott to cease! Bugene -ebs was the leader of the stri e! and 6ullman had a lot of political influence.

Golden Mc/inley and Sli*er Bryan /no 0 Mark Hannah2 "illiam Mc/inley2 "illiam Jennings Bryan2 Cross o$ Gold s#eech & "as "illiam Mc/inley a strong #residential candidate5 .8#lain. His party had spent 3 million dollars to get him elected! and 7illiam <ennings +ryant had so little money to get his name in front of the public. Class Con$lict0 +lo holders *ersus Bondholders /no 0 6ourth +arty System ). @The $ree-sil*er election o$ ()E= as #ro!a!ly the most signi$icant since :incolnDs *ictories in ()=C and ()=;.A .8#lain. ,he results demonstrated +ryant2s lac of appeal to the unmortgaged farmer and especially the eastern urban laborer8 heralded the ad#ent of a new era in American politics! a resounding #ictory for big business! big cities! and middle class #alues. Re#u!lican Stand#attism .nthroned /no 0 -ingley Tari$$ Bill E. -id Mc/inley #ossess the characteristics necessary to !e an e$$ecti*e #resident5 *or a period of time! )c inley seemed to be controlled by his political cronies! but later they saw him as the 6resident who had put America on the road to becoming a world power because of his foreign policies. Harying Hie #oints0 "as the "est Really @"onA5 /no 0 6rederick Jackson Turner (C. "hich criticism o$ the Turner Thesis seems most *alid5 .8#lain ,he idea that the American character was shaped only by the western wilderness was wrong. ,he culture of the '( was also defined in the eastern cities where many centers of acti#ites occurred.

Chapter #2/G Bmpire and B4pansion K +ig 6icture ,hemes (. The S#anish-American "ar sa the 1.S. gain Ha aii2 +uerto Rico2 Guantanomo Bay in Cu!a2 the +hili##ines2 and other smaller islands. 7. The +hili##ines #ro*ed to !e hard to handle since the 6ili#ino #eo#le didnDt ant the 1.S. there. They aged a guerilla ar and resented American control until it as turned !ack o*er to the +hili##ines a$ter ""44. '. The 1.S. managed to get an @3#en -oor +olicyA ith China. This o#ened the Asian giant to international trade. ;. Teddy Roose*elt !ecame a *igorous #resident ho o!tained and !uilt the +anama Canal. His @Big Stick +olicyA to ard :atin America increased AmericaDs in$luence2 !ut also increased animosity to ard the 1.S.

Chapter #2/G 4denti$ications "ichard Hlney +elligerent '.(. secretary of state who used the )onroe -octrine to pressure +ritain in the Mene=uelan boundary crisis. Al$red Thayer Mahan American na#al officer who wrote influential boo s emphasi=ing sea power and ad#ocating big na#y. Haleriano "eyler (panish go#ernor in charge of suppressing the Cuban re#olution! 1.90$1.9.8 his brutal Nreconcentration2 tactics earned him the nic name of the 9+utcher: in America2s yellow press.

de :ome :etter A (panish minister in 7ashington who wrote a pri#ate letter to a friend concerning )cDinley calling him useless and indecisi#e. ,he disco#ery of his letter strained (panish American relations! which helped initiate the (panish$American war. .milio Aguinaldo ?eader of the *ilipino independence mo#ement against (pain. He proclaimed independence of the 6hilippines! but his mo#ement was crushed and he was captured by the 'nited (tates Army. Jingoism e4treme! chau#inistic patriotism! often fa#oring an aggressi#e! warli e foreign policy. Teller Amendment Amendment to the declaration of war with (pain that stated 'nited (tates would grant Cubans their independence after the war. Rough Riders Colorful #olunteer regiment of the (panish American 7ar led by a militarily ine4perienced but politically influental colonel. Anti-4m#erialist :eague 1roup that battled against American coloni=ation of the 6hilippines! which included such influential cit=ens as )ar ,wain and Andrew Carnegie. 6oraker Act 'nited (tates federal law that established ci#ilian go#ernment on the island of 6uerto "ico! which had been newly ac;uired by the 'nited (tates as a result of the (panish American 7ar. 4nsular cases (upreme Court cases of 1951 that determined that the '.(. Constitution and bill of rights did not apply in colonial territories under the American flag. +latt Amendment American imposed restriction written into the constitution of Cuba that guaranteed American na#al bases on the island and declared that the 'nited (tates had the right to inter#ene in Cuba. S#heres o$ 4n$luence. Aeas in which countries ha#e some political and economic control but do not go#ern directly Ie4. Burope and '.s. in ChinaJ

+hili##ine 4nsurrection before the 6hilippines was anne4ed by the '.(. there e4isted tension between '.(. troops and *ilipinos. B#entually we entered into a war with the 6hilippines. 3#en -oor +olicy A policy that as ed powerful and influential countries to respect Chinese rights and promote fair trade with low tariffs. ,his policy was accepted by other countries and pre#ented any country from creating a monopoly on Chinese trade. Bo8er Re!ellion "ebellion in +ei3ing! China that started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the 9foreign de#ils:. ,he rebellion was ended by +ritish troops. Big Stick +olicy "oose#elt2s philosophy in international affairs! as first but bring along a big army to help con#ince them. ,hreaten to use force! act as international policemen. Roose*elt Corollary "oose#elt2s 195C e4tension of the )onroe -octrine! stating that the 'nited (tates has the right to protect its economic interests in (outh and Central America by using military force. +ortsmouth Con$erence ,he meeting between <apan! "ussia! and the '( that ended the "usso <apanese war. "oose#elt won the %obel 6eace 6ri=e for stopping the fighting between the two countries. GentlemenDs Agreement Agreement when <apan agreed to curb the number of wor ers coming to the '( and in e4change "oose#elt agreed to allow the wi#es of the <apanese men already li#ing in the '( to 3oin them. Root-Takahira Agreement <apan and '( agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other2s territories in the 6acific and to uphold the Hpen -oor policy in China.

Chapter #2/G Identifications America Turns 3ut ard /no 0 Josiah Strong2 Al$red Mahan2 Richard 3lney2 British Guiana2 Great Ra##rochement (. "hat $actors caused America to turn its attention to the orld !eyond her !orders5 In the final decades of the nineteenth century! America grew hungry for empire and e4pansion! and became incredibly aggressi#e in its foreign policy Aggressi#e e4pansionism became popular in America than s to the desire to tap o#erseas mar ets! the yellow press of <oseph 6ulit=er and 7illiam "andolph Hearst! the racist #iew that Anglo$(a4ons ought to dominate the Fbac wards peoplesF S#urning the Ha aiian +ear /no 0 Nueen :iliuokalani 7. "hy did +resident Cle*eland not ant to anne8 Ha aii5 1ro#er Cle#eland! an anti$imperialist! opposed anne4ation as an infringement upon a so#erign nation and tried to restore the @ueen I?iliuo alaniJ. Cu!ans Rise in Re*olt /no 0 General "eyler '. "hat as ha##ening in Cu!a that caused Americans to !e concerned5 ,han s to oppressi#e (panish rulers and a crippled economy Icaused by the American tariff of 1.9CEs barriers against Cuban sugar productionJ! Cuban rebels I nown as the insurrectosJ launched an effort to fight for independence in 1.9>! adopting the scorched$earth policy against cane fields! sugar mills! and passenger trains -e ey%s May -ay Hictory at Manila /no 0 Teddy Roose*elt2 George -e ey ;. "hy did Commodore -e ey ha*e such an easy *ictory o*er the S#anish $leet at the +hili##ines5 Hn )ay 1! 1.9.! -eweyEs s;uadron! consisting of si4 brand new warships! sailed into )anila harbor. ,he 15$ship (panish fleet was completely ta en by surprise. (e#eral of the (panish ships were so old and rotting that they could barely float. -eweyEs forces ;uic ly defeated the (panish fleet! without a single '( sailor dying. The Con$used 4n*asion o$ Cu!a /no 0 Rough Riders2 Teddy Roose*elt2 San Juan Hill <. -escri!e the $ighting in Cu!a. After initial panic! the (panish FarmadaF was easily bloc aded in (antiago Harbor! Cuba! by the American fleet! allowing American forces led by 1eneral 7illiam ". (hafter to in#ade with his force Iwhich included the "ough "iders! who were led by Colonel ?eonard 7ood and ,heodore "oose#eltJ of se#enteen thousand men in the middle of <une

America%s Course >Curse5? o$ .m#ire /no 0 Anti-4m#erialist :eague =. "hat ere the arguments $or and against the anne8ation o$ the +hili##ines5 ,he people that were for anne4ing the islands argued that there were business interests in thoughts of new mar ets and fields of in#estments! the 'nited (tates wanted to become an empire and so they wanted to e4pand more. '(A! especially! didnEt want to lose these islands to <apan or 1ermany. Makers o$ America0 The +uerto Ricans &. Ho has 1.S. citiBenshi# caused +uerto Ricans to !e di$$erent $rom other immigrants5 Instead of being a technical FalienF in country! they already ha#e citi=enship. -espite being new in the county and nowing nothing I3ust li e other immigrantsJ ! the donEt ha#e to go through the naturali=ation process. +er#le8ities in +uerto Rico and Cu!a /no 0 4nsular Cases2 General :eonard "ood2 "alter Reed2 +latt Amendment2 Guantanamo ). -escri!e American treatment o$ Cu!a a$ter the S#anish-American "ar. ,he American military go#ernment in Cuba! led by 1eneral ?eonard 7ood! made impro#ements in go#ernment! finance! education! agriculture! and public health8 7ood and Colonel 7illiam C. 1orgas both supported e4periments by -r. 7alter "eed which identified the stegomyia mos;uito as the carrier of yellow fe#er! and launched efforts to wipe the insects and the disease out in Ha#ana and other cities Ne HoriBons in T o Hemis#heres E. "hat ere the outcomes o$ the S#anish-American "ar5 6eace was arranged by the ,reaty of 6aris signed -ec. 15! 1.9. Iratified by the '.(. (enate! *eb. 0! 1.99J. ,he (panish Bmpire was practically dissol#ed. Cuba was freed! but under '.(. tutelage by terms of the 6latt Amendment Isee under 6latt! Hr#illeJ! with (pain assuming the Cuban debt. ,:ittle Bro n Brothers, in the +hili##ines /no 0 "illiam Ho ard Ta$t2 Bene*olent Assimilation (C. 4n hat ay do the +hili##ines sho the good and !ad sides o$ American im#erialism5 In 1.9.! in an effort to free Cuba from the oppression of its (panish coloni=ers! America captured the 6hilippines. ,his brought about ;uestions of what America should do with the 6hilippines. (oon! contro#ersy ensued both in the American political arena as well as among its citi=ens. Hinging the 3#en -oor in China /no 0 Bo8er Re!ellion ((. "as American in*ol*ement in China !ene$icial to China5

After being defeated by <apan in 1.9C$1.9>! a wea ened China was sub3ected to the establishment of spheres of influence of by Buropean powers! causing a concerned America Iparticularly Churches and merchantsJ to act8 (ecretary of (tate <ohn HayEs Hpen -oor note! sent to the 1reat 6owers in the summer of 1.99! proposed that each power announce that they would respect Chinese rights and fair competition within their spheres of influence. Makers o$ America0 The 6ili#inos (7. "ere 6ili#ino immigrants elcomed ith o#en arms in America5 .8#lain. (ome *ilipino immigrants were welcomed with open arms! especially those whose s ills were needed at the time! li e nurses! who are in short supply at times. Hthers did the same thing as the )e4icans and either came in illegally or came in on #isas. ,hose were ob#iously not welcomed. 4m#erialism or Bryanism in (ECC5 ('. "hat issues ere im#ortant in the (ECC election5 In the "epublican con#ention of 1955! )cDinley was renominated than s to his #ictorious war! increased prosperity! and protection of the gold standard! and ,heodore "oose#elt was nominated for #ice president in an effort by %ew &or party bosses to neutrali=e their hardheaded go#ernor TR0 Brandisher o$ the Big Stick /no 0 Big Stick2 Bully +ul#it (;. Gi*e e*idence to sho that Teddy Roose*elt as an uncon*entional #resident5 7on a nobel pri=e! fought in the 7hite House! and publicly defamed his opponents. Building the +anama Canal /no 0 Hay-+aunce$ote Treaty2 +hili##e Bunau-Harilla2 George "ashington Goethals2 "illiam C. Gorgas (<. "hy as the +anama route chosen $or the canal5 7ith the pre$e4isting la es! the route across 6anama re;uired the least amount of digging and dredging to create a passage between the Atlantic and 6acific Hceans. TR%s +er*ersion o$ Monroe%s -octrine /no 0 Roose*elt Corollary2 -ominican Re#u!lic2 Bad Neigh!or (=. .8#lain the similarities and di$$erences !et een the Monroe -octrine and the Roose*elt Corollary5 ,he reaction of se#eral Buropean powers to ?atin American debt defaults worried "oose#elt to the point where he declared the Fpre#enti#e inter#entionF doctrine Ithe "oose#elt Corollary to the )onroe -octrineJ which held that inter#ention by the 'nited (tates in ?atin American countries with financial malfeasance is 3ustified because it will eep the Buropeans out8 in 195>! as an e4ample! the 'nited (tates too o#er tariff collections in the -ominican "epublic Roose*elt on the "orld Stage /no 0 Russo-Ja#anese "ar2 +ortsmouth

(&. Ho did Teddy Roose*elt in the No!el +eace +riBe5 In 1950! "oose#elt was awarded the %obel 6eace 6ri=e for his wor with the "usso$ <apanese tal s as well as his mediation of %orth African -isputes at Algeciras! (pain8 Ja#anese :a!orers in Cali$ornia /no 0 GentlemenDs Agreement2 Great "hite 6leet (). Ho did a school !oard in Cali$ornia act in a ay that $irst hurt and then hel#ed American-Ja#anese relations5 after the 1950 earth;ua e! the (an *rancisco +oard of Bducation segregated schools! di#iding 7hite students from Chinese! Dorean! and <apanese students! infuriating the <apanese go#ernment and nearly causing a war Harying Hie #oints0 "hy did America Become a "orld +o er5 (E. "hat caused America%s $oray into im#erialism5 -e$end your o#inion. As historians say! race and gender are what propelled America into imperialism. In that time! masculinity was the powerful dominance o#er the world and the e4pansion westward pro#ided ample oppertunity to display that characteristic through cowboys and gold diggers.

Chapter #2.G +rogressi*ism and the Re#u!lican Roose*elt G Big +icture Themes (. The +rogressi*es gre out o$ the +o#ulist >or +eo#leDs? +arty and sought to correct in9ustices. 7. +rogressi*es and @muckrakerA riters attacked city corru#tion2 cor#orate greed2 #oor li*ing and orking conditions2 alcohol2 and omenDs right to *ote. .ach o$ these ills sa la s andKor Amendments #assed to attem#t to !etter the condition. '. Teddy Roose*elt made a name $or himsel$ as a @trust-!usterA. That is2 he !roke u# a $e high-#ro$ile com#anies that he said ere mono#olies >or trusts?. Busting trusts and thus creating com#etition as to !ene$it the a*erage #erson. ;. He also o!tained huge tracts o$ land2 usually out "est2 $or #arks and conser*ation. <. Roose*elt #icked Ta$t to $ollo him2 !ut Ta$t !egan to stray $rom Roose*eltDs ays and the t o s#lit. Chapter# 2.G 4denti$ications Jaco! Riis Barly muc ra er who e4posed social and political e#ils in the '( with his no#el 9How the Hther Half ?i#es: and e4posed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in %&C. 4da Tar!ell Ida ,arbell was a muc ra er who wrote in the maga=ine )cClure2s. As a younger woman! in 195C! ,arbell made her reputation by publishing the history of the (tandard Hil Company the 9mother of trusts:. Ro!ert M. :a6ollete 1o#. of 7is. )ost militant of progressi#e 1H6 leaders. Helped brea the power of the 7isconsin political machine and persuaded legislatures to le#y hea#ier ta4es on rr2s and other public utilities. Commissions created to regulate companies with a public interest and begine conser#ation mo#ement. Charles .*ans Hughes 1H6 go#ernor of %ew &or ! earlier gained fame in#estigatin gas and insurance companies and their ;uestionable practices. 1#ton Sinclair

)uc ra er who e4posed the lewd details of the behind the scene2s meat pac ing industry. 4nitiati*e the process of petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the 6opulist 6arty2s platform along with the referendum and the recall. Re$erendum 7hen citi=ens #ote on laws instead of the state or national go#ernments. Recall ,he people could possible remo#e an incompetent politician from office by ha#ing a second election. Muckrakers %ic name gi#en to young reporters of popular maga=ines. ,hese maga=ines often e4posed the dirty secrets of certain industries because the writers would often dig up the 9muc :.

.lkins Act 1a#e the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from gi#ing preferences to certain customers. He#!urn Act Allowed ICC to regulate shipping prices of railroads. Northern Securities Case ,he %orthern (ecurites Company was a holding company that was forced to dissol#e after they were challenged by "oose#elt! his first trust bust. Meat 4ns#ection Act (tated that the preparation of meat shipped o#er state lines would be sub3ect to federal inspection! a part of the 6rogressi#e reforms. +ure 6ood and -rug Act

-esigned to pre#ent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals! made to protect the consumer. Ne lands Act ?et the federal go#ernment collect money from the sale of lands in the west and use the money for irrigation pro3ects. -ollar di#lomacy ,aft2s use of money to achie#e peace in foreign countries. +ayne-Aldrich Act ?owered tariffs on unimportant things that no one bought. Ballinger-+inchot A$$air Hpened public lands in 7yoming )ontana and Alas a against "oose#elts conser#ation policies. 6inchot was thrown out for ;uestioning ,aft2s authority. Chapter #2.G 1uided "eading @uestions +rogressi*e Roots /no 0 +rogressi*es2 :aisseB-$aire2 Henry -emarest :loyd2 Jaco! Riis2 Theodore -reiser2 Jane Addams2 :illian "eld (. "hat ere the goals o$ the +rogressi*es5 +efore the first decade of the 25th century! the '( would be influenced by a 6rogressi#e mo#ement that fought against monopolies! corruption! inefficiency! and social in3ustice. Raking Muck ith the Muckrakers /no 0 McClure's2 :incoln Ste$$ens2 4da M. Tar!ell2 Thomas ". :a son2 -a*id G. +hilli#s2 Ray Stannard Baker2 John S#argo 7. "hat issues ere addressed !y the ma9or muckrakers5 (teffens unmas ed the corrupt alliance between big business and the go#ernment.. Ida ,arbell published papers e4posing the corruption of the (tandard Hil Company. 'pton (inclair e4posed the meat pac ing industry! 6hillips charged that senators did not represent the people! +a er said that blac s were still ensla#ed! and (pargo argued that child labor was wrong. +olitical +rogressi*ism /no 0 -irect +rimary .lections2 4nitiati*e2 Re$erendum2 Recall2 Australian Ballot2 Millionaires% Clu!2 Se*enteenth Amendment2 Su$$ragists '. -e$ine each o$ the ma9or #olitical re$orms that #rogressi*es desired.

,he progressi#es fa#ored the 9initiati#e: the 9referendum: the 9recall:. ,hey used a secret Australian ballot to counteract boss rule and ha#e direct election of '( senators. +rogressi*ism in the Cities and States /no 0 Ro!ert M. :a 6ollette2 The "isconsin 4dea2 Hiram ". Johnson2 Charles .*ans Hughes ;. "hat changes did #rogressi*es make at the city and state le*el5 6rogressi#es in 1al#eston used commissions to manage urban affairs or the city manager system. Hiram <ohnson regulated railroads and trusts in Hregon and California. +rogressi*e "omen /no 0 Triangle Shirt aist Com#any2 Muller v. Oregon, Lochner v. New Yor 2 "oman%s Christian Tem#erance 1nion2 6rances .. "illard2 ,"et, and ,-ry, <. Ho success$ul ere +rogressi*es in com!ating social ills5 ,hey were successful. 6rogressi#es made impro#ement in the fight against child labor. ,he landmar case of )uller #s. Hregon found attorney ?ous +randeis persuading the (C to accept the constitutionality of the laws that protected women wor ers. TR%s SIuare -eal $or :a!or /no 0 SIuare -eal2 -e#artment o$ Commerce and :a!or =. "hat ere the three C%s o$ the SIuare -eal5 Control corporations! consumer protection! and conser#ation of '(2s natural resources. TR Corrals the Cor#orations /no 0 .lkins Act2 He#!urn Act2 Trust!usting2 Northern Securities Com#any &. Assess the $ollo ing statement2 ,Teddy Roose*elt%s re#utation as a trust!uster is undeser*ed., He understood the political popularity of monopoly smashing! but he didn2t consider it a sound economic policy. He did not want to punish the trusts for their economic success! so he made his purpose symbolic. Caring $or the Consumer /no 0 !he "ungle2 Meat 4ns#ection Act ). "hat as the e$$ect o$ 1#ton Sinclair%s !ook2 !he "ungle5 It enlightened the American public to the disgustingly unsanitary food products in the big canning factories. .arth Control /no 0 6orest Reser*e Act2 Gi$$ord +inchot2 Ne lands Act2 Conser*ation2 Call o$ the "ild2 Boy Scouts2 Sierra Clu! E. "hat $actors led Americans to take an acti*e interest in conser*ation5 "oose#elt was con#inced by 6inchot to di#ed and preser#e the nation2s shirin ing forests by setting aside 12> million acres in federal reser#es.

The ,Roose*elt +anic, o$ (EC& (C. "hat ere the results o$ the Roose*elt +anic o$ (EC&5 ,he panic pa#ed the way for long o#erdue fiscal reforms! and Congress! in 195.! passed the Aldrich Mreeland act in response to being unable to increase the #olume of money in circulation. The Rough Rider Thunders 3ut /no 0 "illiam Ho ard Ta$t2 .ugene H. -e!s ((. "hat as the legacy o$ Teddy Roose*elt%s #residency5 He was to be nown as the president to tame capitalism gi#ing it a long adult life! with enthusiasm and perpetual youthfulness! that sought the middle road between indi#idualism and collecti#ism. Ta$t0 A Round +eg in a SIuare Hole (7. ,"illiam Ho ard Ta$t as less suited $or the #residency than he a##eared to !e., .8#lain 7illiam Howard ,aft was less suited for the presidency than he appeared to be because of his large si=e and his humorous side. 7hen the Congress would do something! he would sit passi#ely and not gi#e anything to do about it. The -ollar Goes A!road as a -i#lomat /no 0 -ollar -i#lomacy ('. "hat as dollar di#lomacy and ho as it #racticed5 -ollar -iplomacy was to get all the 7all (treet +an ers and ga#e all their e4tra money to the funding of foreign places in the 'nited (tates. 7illiam ,aft so the Chinese Bconomy had gotten different so he sent 6hilander Dno4 to buy some railroads and mo#e it to America. Ta$t the Trust!uster /no 0 Rule o$ Reason (;. "ho deser*es the nickname ,Trust!uster2, Roose*elt or Ta$t5 7illiam ,aft deser#es the nic name F,rustbusterF because he filed cases against ninety trusts while "oose#elt only filed CC cases although "ule of "eason created a large problem with trade. Ta$t S#lits the Re#u!lican +arty /no 0 +ayne-Aldrich Tari$$2 Richard Ballinger2 Gi$$ord +inchot2 Joe Cannon (<. "hy did the +rogressi*e ing o$ the Re#u!lican +arty turn against Ta$t5 6rogressi#e wing of the "epublican 6arty turned against ,aft because he had passed the 6ayne$Aldrich ,ariff would state that it would lower the tariff while ,aft said that it would not happen at all. The Ta$t-Roose*elt Ru#ture (=. Ho did the Re#u!lican +arty s#lit at the #arty%s (E(7 con*ention5

,he "epublican 6arty split at the partyEs 1912 con#ention because of the problem between "oose#elt and ?afollette. ,he %ational 6rogressi#e "epublican ?eague was created but "oose#elt wanted to eep the "epublican side and mo#e ?a *ollette away.

Chapter #29G "ilsonian +rogressi*ism A!road G Big +icture Themes (. "ilson on the #residency mainly !ecause Teddy Roose*elt ran as a third-#arty candidate and s#lit the Re#u!lican *ote ith Ta$t. 7. "ilson as an idealist and #rogressi*e ho sought to clean u# #ro!lems. He attacked the tari$$ as too high2 !anks as corru#t !y the rich2 and trusts as milking the #eo#le. '. "ilson hated ar and anted American $oreign #olicy to !e $air and 9ust to all. Conditions in :atin America2 ho e*er2 $orced this #eace$ul #resident to take military action. Nota!ly2 he ordered the 1S Army to chase +ancho Hilla in Me8ico. ;. 4n .uro#e2 ar had !egun. 4n the Atlantic ocean2 German su!s !egan to sink sinks carrying Americans2 nota!ly the :usitania. "ilson tried to kee# America out o$ the ar2 and did2 $or the time !eing. Chapter #29G 4denti$ications Bugene -ebs was a part of the (ocialist party that ran for the election of 1912 and recei#ed 1 million popular #otes against 7oodrow 7ilson! 7illiam Howard ,aft! and ,heodore "oose#elt. +ancho Hilla was a supporter of the poor and a re#olutionist that wanted to reform bac to agriculture and was a hero for doing so. He led a attac in %ew )e4ico in 1910 was the first %ew )e4ico attac in '(A. John J. +ershing He was a general of the 'nited (tates army that was in#ol#ed in 7orld 7ar I. He was then promoted by ,heodore "oose#elt to brigadier general in 1950 and led an attac against 6ancho Milla. Central +o ers was a group during 7orld 7ar I combing 1ermany! Austria$Hungary! and many other nations allied those were against the Allied *orces.

Allies ,he Allies was a group in 7orld 7ar I that combined 1reat +ritain! *rance! "ussia! and other nations that came together that were against the Central 6owers. :usitania ,his was a +ritish tra#eler ship that was destroyed by a 1erman '$+oat in 191>. 12. Americans died which caused America2s #iew in contradiction of the 1ermans! which caused more opposition against 1ermany Susse8 +ledge 7oodrow 7ilson assigned this pro#iso after 1ermany dropped more +ritish ships! which illed many American tra#elers. 1ermany promised not to sin tra#eler ships without caution after it was passed. 6ederal Reser*e Act ,his was a law passed in 1913 that fi4ed up a organi=ation of federal ban s and also let the go#ernment ha#e the power to control the limit of money being produced.

Ne Nationalism ,his was ,heodore "oose#eltEs progressi#e political course of action that preferred hefty go#ernment in#ol#ement in order to guarantee social impartiality. Ne 6reedom 7oodrow 7ilsonEs national policy that! helped antitrust amendment! tariff modification! and transformation in ban s and other places currency were controlled. 1nder ood Tari$$ ,his tariff was forced through by Congress on 7oodrow 7ilson that this 1913 tariff would lower the a#erage tariff burdens by 1>O and created an income toll later on. 6ederal Trade Commission ,his law appro#ed a commission that was appro#ed by the president in order to super#ise industries and companies in#ol#ed in interstate commerce li e the meatpac ers. ,he commissioners close down monopolies for good.

Clayton Antitrust Act ,his was a new antitrust act that was made to resol#e problems that the (herman Antitrust Act which was mostly created for the ?abor 'nions.

Chapter #29 4denti$ications The ,Bull Moose, Cam#aign o$ (E(7 /no 0 Bull Moose2 Ne Nationalism2 Ne 6reedom (. .8#lain the di$$erence !et een Roose*elt%s $orm o$ #rogressi*ism and "ilson%s. ,heodore "oose#elt wanted to correct and eliminated the discrimination of 7omen and their suffrage. He also wanted the fi4 minimum wage and created %ew %ationalism and %ew *reedom! which was that the go#ernment should control the trusts! and li ed the small companies better. "oodro "ilson0 A Minority +resident 7. ,The O(E(7P election results are $ascinating., .8#lain. %ow that the "epublican 6arty had separated! 7oodrow 7ilson won the election of 1912 by C3> Blectoral #otes. "oose#elt and ,aft were far below and did not obtain the popular #ote. (ocialist Bugene M. -ebs rac ed had a large amount of 955!555 popular #otes.6opular #otes of "oose#elt and ,aft were large than of 7oodrow 7ilson. "ilson0 The 4dealist in +olitics '. Ho did "ilson%s #ersonality and #ast a$$ect the ay he conducted himsel$ as #resident5 7ilson was the son of a minister and was recorded to be sometimes cold and unapproachable. His stern countenance and demeanor made it hard for the common people to relate with him as they did with "oose#elt. He was a great spea er! howe#er! and too ad#antage of this by appearing and addressing Congress personally. "ilson Tackles the Tari$$ /no 0 1nder ood Tari$$ ;. "hat ere the three #arts o$ the ,tri#le all o$ #ri*ilege5, ,he three parts of the 9triple wall of pri#ilege: were ban s! tariffs! and the trusts. Hne of the ,ariffs was the 'nderwood ,ariff that greatly lowers the cost of importing goods and raw materials but also created a slowly increasing income ta4 later on. "ilson Battles the Bankers /no 0 The 6ederal Reser*e Act <. Ho as the 6ederal Reser*e System di$$erent than the !anking system that e8isted in the 1.S. in (E('5

,he *ederal "eser#e (ystem was different from the ban ing system that e4isted in the '.(. in 1913. +ecause it had nationwide system! containing twel#e separate districts that had its own central ban that could create paper money. The +resident Tames the Trusts /no 0 6ederal Trade Commission Act2 Clayton Anti-Trust Act =. Ho did "ilson cur! the trusts5 *ederal ,rade Commission Act passed in 191C! which authori=ed a president$ appointed office to e4amine the doings of trusts and discontinued partial trade things li e unlawful adulteration and #andalism. "ilsonian +rogressi*ism at High Tide /no 0 The 6ederal 6arm :oan Act2 "arehouse Act2 :a 6ollette Seamen%s Act2 "orkingmen%s Com#ensation Act2 Adamson Act2 :ouis -. Brandeis &. -escri!e some o$ the #ositi*e and negati*e outcomes o$ "ilsonDs #rogressi*e legislation and actions. ,he *ederal *arm ?oan Act passed in 1910 that ga#e farmers credits with low rates of interest while the 7arehouse Act passed in 1910 that allowed loans to be placed on staple crops. ?a *ollette (eamenEs Act passed in 191> that needed the American sailors to be treated with more respect Ne -irections in 6oreign +olicy /no 0 Haiti ). Contrast "ilson%s ideas o$ $oreign #olicy ith those o$ Roose*elt and Ta$t. 7ilson2s ideas were much different than of "oose#elt and ,aft. He instead halted the dollar diplomacy and made the Congress stopped the 6anama Canal ,olls Act in 1912. He used the +ig (tic 6olicy Moralistic -i#lomacy in Me8ico /no 0 Hictoriano Huerta2 Henustiano CarranBa2 6rancisco >,+ancho,? Hilla2 ABC +o ers2 John J. >,Black Jack,? +ershing E. "hy did Me8ico gi*e such trou!le to the "ilson administration5 )e4ico has been abused by the '( in#estors primarily in oil and railroads. ,herefore! in 1913! the )e4icans led an attac led by 1eneral Mictoriano Huerta. ,he rebels were #ery brutal and caused many Americans to be frightened. Thunder Across the Sea /no 0 Central +o ers2 Allied +o ers (C. "hat caused .uro#e to #lunge into ""4 in (E(;5 In 191C a (erbian man illed Archdu e *ran= *erdinand and caused Austria to declare war to (erbia bac ed up by "ussia. 1ermany then declared war on "ussia and *rance! started in +elgium! and went into +ritain A +recarious Neutrality /no 0 /aiser "ilhelm 44 ((. "hat caused an o$$icially neutral America to turn against the Central +o ers5

It started with a submarine called the ?usitania and then a telegram called the Pimmerman ,elegram from 1ermany! which as ed )e4ico to side with 1ermany with a bribe. 7ilson then heard of this and sided with +ritain. America .arns Blood Money /no 0 Su!marine2 :usitania2 Ara!ic2 Susse8 (7. Ho did Germany%s use o$ su!marines lead to tense relations ith the 1.S.5 1ermany ept on launching submarines one on them called the ?usitania that carried many weapons and ammo but was illed by 1ermany as well as Arabic. ,he last ship that caused 1ermany to become angry was (usse4 that called the (usse4 6ledge where 1ermany was not supposed to destroy. "ilson "ins Reelection in (E(= /no 0 Charles .*ans Hughes2 ,He /e#t 1s 3ut o$ "ar, ('. "hat ere the keys to "ilson%s electoral *ictory in (E(=5 7ilsonEs electoral #ictory in 1910 was caused by the him trying to stay out of the war but was warned that Charles B#ans Hughes would e#entually let American go into war. FHe Dept 's Hut of 7arF was used to describe 7ilson because Hughes would cause them to go into war. Harying Hie #oints0 "ho "ere the +rogressi*es5 /no 0 Richard Ho$stadter2 Ne :e$t Historians (;. "hich ans er to the Iuestion a!o*e seems correct to you5 "hy5 ,he 6rogressi#es were those who wanted to fight against the #ices of the American 1o#ernment at that time! and those who did were "oose#elt and ,aft.

Chapter #35G The "ar to .nd "ar G Big +icture Themes (. +resident "ilson outlined the arDs o!9ecti*es ith his 6ourteen +oints. They set the goals o$ $ree seas2 sel$-determination a$ter the ar2 and esta!lishing a !ody to #re*ent $uture ars. 7. A military dra$t as instituted2 the $irst since the Ci*il "ar. '. "omen ent to ork more than theyDd e*er done and !lack soldiers into the military into segregated units. ere dra$ted

;. The Americans $ocussed their military e$$ort in #rotecting +aris $rom the Germans. <. At the Treaty o$ Hersailles2 "ilson agreed to allo .ngland and 6rance to #unish Germany $or the ar. 4n return2 they agreed to start "ilsonDs @:eague o$ Nations.A =. Ho e*er2 the 1S Senate re9ected the TreatyK:eague. They didnDt ish to turn o*er AmericaDs decision-making to a $oreign !ody like the :eague o$ Nations. Chapter #35 4denti$ications George Creel QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQ Bernard Baruch QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQ Henry Ca!ot :odge QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQ James M. Co8 QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ QQQQ

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"hat e*ents led "oodro "ilson to ask Congress to declare ar5

"ilsonian 4dealism .nthroned /no 0 Jeannette Rankin 7. Name "ilsonDs t in ar aims. Ho did these set America a#art $rom the other com!atants5 "ilsonDs 6ourteen +otent +oints /no 0 6ourteen +oints '. :ist se*eral o$ "ilsonDs 6ourteen +oints.

Creel Mani#ulates Minds /no 0 Committee on +u!lic 4n$ormation2 George Creel2 6our-minute Men2 The Hun2 3*er There ;. Ho ere Americans moti*ated to hel# in the ar e$$ort5

.n$orcing :oyalty and Sti$ling -issent /no 0 :i!erty Ca!!age2 .s#ionage Act2 Sedition Act2 .ugene H. -e!s2 "illiam -. Hay ood <. Ho as loyalty $orced during ""45

The NationDs 6actories Go to "ar /no 0 Bernard Baruch2 "ar 4ndustries Board =. "hy as it di$$icult to mo!iliBe industry $or the ar e$$ort5

"orkers in "artime /no 0 ,"ork or 6ight2, National "ar :a!or Board2 "o!!lies &. Ho did the ar a$$ect the la!or mo*ement5

Su$$ering 1ntil Su$$rage /no 0 NA"SA2 (Eth Amendment2 "omenDs Bureau ). Ho did the ar a$$ect omen5

6orging a "ar .conomy /no 0 6ood Administration2 Her!ert Hoo*er2 Meatless Tuesdays2 .ighteenth Amendment2 Heatless Mondays2 :i!erty Bonds E. -id go*ernment !ecome too intrusi*e in #eo#leDs li*es during the ar5 Gi*e e8am#les to su##ort your ans er.

Making +lo !oys into -ough!oys (C. "as the go*ernmentDs e$$ort to raise an army $air and e$$ecti*e5

6ighting in 6rance--Belatedly ((. Ho ere American troo#s used in Russia5

America Hel#s Hammer the Hun /no 0 Marshal 6och2 John J. +ershing2 Meuse-Argonne 3$$ensi*e2 Al*in Fork (7. -escri!e the e$$ect o$ the American troo#s on the $ighting.

The 6ourteen +oints -isarm Germany /no 0 Armistice ('. "hat role did America #lay in !ringing Germany to surrender5

"ilson Ste#s -o n $rom 3lym#us /no 0 Henry Ca!ot :odge (;. "hat #olitical mistakes hurt "ilson in the months $ollo ing the armistice5

The 4dealist Battles the 4m#erialists in +aris /no 0 Hittorio 3rlando2 -a*id :loyd George2 Georges Clemenceau2 :eague o$ Nations (<. Ho did "ilsonDs desire $or the :eague o$ Nations a$$ect his !argaining at the #eace con$erence5

Hammering 3ut the Treaty /no 0 "illiam Borah2 Hiram Johnson2 4rreconcila!les (=. "hat com#romises did "ilson make at the #eace con$erence5 The +eace Treaty That Bred a Ne "ar /no 0 Treaty o$ Hersailles (&. 6or hat reasons did "ilson com#romise his (; +oints5

The -omestic +arade o$ +re9udice (). "hy as the treaty criticiBed !ack in America5

"ilsonDs Tour and Colla#se >(E(E? (E. "hat as the #ur#ose and result o$ "ilsonDs tri# around the country hen he returned to America5

-e$eat Through -eadlock 7C. "hy as the treaty $inally re9ected5

The ,Solemn Re$erendum, o$ (E7C /no 0 "arren Harding2 James M. Co82 Normalcy

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The Betrayal o$ Great .8#ectations 77. Ho much should the 1.S. !e !lamed $or the $ailure o$ the Treaty o$ Hersailles5

Harying Hie #oints0 "oodro "ilson0 Realist or 4dealist5 /no 0 Realism2 4dealism2 "ilsonianism 7'. To hat e8tent as "ilson realistic hen he called $or a eIuality and 9ustice among nations5

orld o$ coo#eration2

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Trou!les A!road /no 0 "est Bank2 4srael and :e!anon2 @Te$lon #resident2A Sandinistas2 @contraA re!els <. SummariBe ReaganDs international #olicy in the Middle .ast and Central AmericaKCari!!ean2 identi$ying hich side the 1.S. su##orted and hich side it o##osed.

Round T o $or Reagan /no 0 Geraldine 6erraro2 Mikhail Gor!ache*2 glasnost2 ,erestroi a2 4N6 treaty =. "hat changes in the So*iet 1nion contri!uted to the end o$ the Cold "ar5

The 4ran-Contra 4m!roglio /no 0 4ran-contra a$$air &. -escri!e the $lo o$ money and arms in*ol*ed in the 4ran-contra scandal.

ReaganDs .conomic :egacy /no 0 @ReaganomicsA ). Ho as ReaganDs economic #olicy !oth a $ailure and a *ictory5

The Religious Right /no 0 Jerry 6al ell2 Moral Ma9ority2 @identity #oliticsA E. Ho did the tactics o$ the religious right #arallel those o$ the mo*ements o$ the Ne :e$t during the (E=Cs5

Conser*atism in the Courts /no 0 Sandra -ay 3DConnor2 a$$irmati*e action2 $oe v. -ade2 Planned Parenthood v. Casey (C. Ho did the Su#reme Court decisions in -e%ster and Casey curtail $oe v. -ade5

Re$erendum on Reaganism in (E)) /no 0 @Black Monday2A @Se*en - ar$sA ((. "hat $actors contri!uted to the ruin o$ sa*ings and loan institutions5

George H.". Bush and the .nd o$ the Cold "ar /no 0 George H. ". Bush2 Tiananmen SIuare2 Berlin "all2 C4S2 Fugosla*ia2 @ethnic cleansing2A Nelson Mandela (7. "hat ere the une8#ected conseIuences o$ the demise o$ the So*iet 1nion5

The +ersian Gul$ Crisis /no 0 Saddam Hussein2 @3#eration -esert StormA >@hundred-hour arA? ('. @The enemy o$ my enemy is my $riend.A Ho did this #hiloso#hy ha*e a negati*e outcome in AmericaDs in*ol*ement ith 4ran and 4raI5

Bush on the Home 6ront /no 0 Americans ith -isa!ilities Act2 Clarence Thomas2 Anita Hill2 @read my li#sWA (;. Ho did reaction to the Thomas con$irmation re$lect the changing #olitical attitudes o$ some omen5

Harying Hie #oints0 "here -id Modern Conser*atism Come 6rom5 /no 0 Charles and Mary Beard2 Huey :ong2 Charles Coughlin2 Sugrue and .dsall2 George "ill (<. 4denti$y three !road in$luences that contri!uted to modern Conser*atism and de$end the one you think as most in$luential.

Are you A+1SHo*er5 Ho does it $eel the $inish your second A+ resource !ook5 .8#lain