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LIBRARY

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

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LIBRARY

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

APOLLONIUS OF PERGA
TREATISE ON CONIC SECTIONS.

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APOLLONIUS OF PEEGA TEEATISE ON CONIC SECTIONS EDITED IN MODERN NOTATION WITH INTRODUCTIONS INCLUDING AN ESSAY ON THE EARLIER HISTORY OF THE SUBJECT RV T. ^\€$ . CAMBRIDGE. HEATH. > Proclub. oh . . L.•('.A. M. ' . SOMETIME FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE.

F./\b1 txfartl PRINTED BY J. AND C. CLAY. . AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

D. D. .MANIBUS EDMUNDI HALLEY D.

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so far form and method are concerned. practically nil. a this Yet book." to say nothing of such brilliant investigations as those in which. for. whereas in this country at Elements of Euclid are still. of the " The general neglect great geometer. his Conies. the author arrives at what amounts to the complete determination of the evolute of any conic. the influence of Apollonius upon modern text-books on conic sections as is. Apollonius nothing more than a name and book unknown. Nor is it hard to find probable reasons for the prevailing first place. TT -*- is not too much to say that. the accepted basis of elementary geometry." as he was called by his contemporaries is all on account of this very work. contains. to the great majority of is mathematicians at the present time. hardly be considered sui-prising if In the could the average mathematician were apt to show a certain faintheartedness when confronted with seven Books in Greek or Latin which contain 387 . the contrast which it the more remarkable from affords to the fate of his predecessor least the Euclid . both as regards their contents and their order. it absence of knowledge on the subject. by purely geometrical means. in the words of Chasles. written some twenty-one " centuries ago. for all practical purposes.'" UNIVERSITT^ PREFACE. the most interesting properties of the conies.

These latter are often sufficiently unwieldy: but the inconvenience is gi-eatly intensified in Apollonius. the enunciations of propositions which. i. with the exception that separate paragraphs mark the formal divisions. were by Apollonius invariably given in vords like the enunciations of Euclid. but in almost every fresh proposition a different letter is wonder then of even employed to denote the same point: what there are the most serious obstacles in the way remembering the results of certain propositions? if Nevertheless these propositions. can now be stated in a few lines. of definite letters to denote particular points on the various conic sections. but the only attempt which has been The foregoing remarks . and must therefore necessarily be borne in mind. propositions in all. On the contrary. refer to the editions where Apollonius can be read in the Greek or in a Latin translation. the propo- sitions are. are being constantly used. and doubtless the apparently portentous bulk of the treatise has deterred many from attempting to Again. Further. as compared with the more elementary notions relating circle. priation. where the greater complexity of the conceptions entering into the investigation of comes. an additional difficulty. the form of the propositions is because the reader finds in them none of the ordinary aids towards the comprehension of somewhat complicated geometrical work.PREFACE. There is no uniformity of notation. to those of Halley and Heiberg. in modern text-books. printed continuously. are of the very essence of Apollonius' system. necessitates in many instances an enunciation extending over a space equal to (say) half a page of this book. there are no breaks for the purpose of enabling the eye to take in readily the successive steps in the demonstration and so facilitating the comprehension of the argument as a whole. such as the conventional appro- make its acquaintance.e. by the aid of a notation once agreed upon. though unfamiliar to mathematicians of the present day. Hence it is often a matter of considerable labour even to the line and to grasp the enunciation of a proposition.

while in some places adhering even more original text. ho\vever. so that the definite scheme followed by the author may be seen as a whole. (2) it should be complete. in Wi^rds. at the than Balsam to the same time be so entirely remodelled by the aid of accepted modern notation as to . but was not in other respects difiicult. ix made in to give a complete view of the substance of ApoUouius is a form more accessible to the modern reader open to much the same objections. In setting myself this task. be thoroughly readable it by any competent mathematician and this want is the object of the present work to supply. 1861) is a work deserving great praise both for its accuracy and the usefulness of the all occasional explanatory notes. An edition is therefore still wanted which closely shall. and for Books V — vii it is still tht• . beyond praise alike in respect of its design and execution. and the notation is not sufficiently modernised to service to make the book of any more real the ordinary reader than the original editions. but perhaps most of of figures to the for an admirable set . (3) it should exhibit under different headings the successive divisions of the subject. Balsam (Berlin. With this object I first wrote out a perfectly literal This was a it translation of the whole of the extant seven Books. Halley's is a monumental work. owing to the excellence of the standard editions. This reproduction of the Conies in German by H. it Accordingly I considered should first to be the first essential that I make myself thoroughly familiar with the whole work at hand. leaving out nothing of any significance or importance. Of these editions. there are few breaks in the continuity of the printing. number of 400 at the end of the book still the enunciations of the propositions are. I made up satisfactory my mind that any certain reproduction of it the Conies must fulfil essential conditions: (1) should be Apollonius and nothing but Apollonius. and nothing should be altered either in the substance or in the order of his thought. laborious task.PREFACE.

some slight for iv-arrangements of order kindred propositions the purpose of bringing together in cases where their separation vas rather a matter of accident than indicative of design. part the For Books i — iv I used for the most new Greek text of Heiberg. with diagrams. and I have ac- cordingly coiisidrn-d worth while to make this part of the . When the re-editing of the Conies was finished. a schohir all who has earned the undying gratitude of who are interested in the history of Greek mathematics by successively bringing out a critical text (with Litin translatiun) of Archimedes. The first of these purposes required that I should give a sketch of the history of conic sections up to the time of Apollonius it .is illustrating fully the form in and language of the propositions they stiind the original Greek text. it seemed necessary for completeness to prefix an Introduction for the purposes (1) of showing the relation of Apollonius to his predecessoi's in the same more field both as regards matter and method. result The has been (without leaving out anything essential or important) to diminish the bulk of the work by considerably more than one-half and to reduce to a corresponding extent the number of separate propositions. than was possible in the few notes (2) of exj>laining fully inserted in square brackets in the body of the book the mathe- matical significance of certain portions of the Conies and the probable connexion between this and other smaller treatises of Apollonius about which we have information. the condensation of some pro- the combination of two or more into one. and of all the writings of Apollonius still extant in Greek. The only drawback to Heiberg's Apollonius is the figures. which are it poor and not seldom even misleading.only complete edition. real diHiculty began with Jis constructive work of re-writing the book. involving it did the substitution of a unifonn notation. and so on. so that I found a great advantage to have Halley's edition. of Euclid's Elements. (8) of describing and . before its admirably executed I me even while engaged on Books the — IV. The new and j)ositions.

7<.PREFACE. the period covered. of Pappus and the important Commentary on (ed. 84. than any that has yet appeared in English. 108. Book is it (p. 1884). is The quotation on the in page from a vigorous and inspiring passage i. the works of Archimedes. but also not less interesting than the rest of the book. in the case Archimedes I have collected practically the propositions in conies to be found in his numerous works with the substance .g. Die Lehre von den Kegelschnitten im AlteHnm (German edition. Galeni V. itself I have also made constant use of Heiberg's Euklid (Leipzig. but The less story is also told elsewhere Pergameni ed. the Greek of Euclid's Elements. that e^ei and I . which to a large extent covers the same ground. 3-8 title Marquardt. ed. Copenhagen. for his One merit claimed by foirly Proclus it work I think at least contains ' 7payaetBeipap ^. of xi Thus all e. than in Vitruvius. Avith iirl point (cf c. I have been constantly indebted to an admirable work by H. Leipzig. consisting of a mathematical analysis rather than a reproduction of Apollonius. Claudii p. § 8. distinctions of cases. I may claim for my own. 1882). G. and the which formed the stock-in-trade of the ordinary Greek commentator. 188G). Friedlein) in which he describing the scientific purpose of his work and contrasting vith the useless investigations of paltry lemmas. The frontispiece to this volume is a reproduction of a quaint picture and attached legend which appeared at the beginning of Halley's edition. though a great portion of of course his work. Zeuthen. treatise is here replaced by the re-edited Litterargeschichtliche Studien ilber original the Eucl. For the purposes of the and the chapters on the mathematical significance of certain portions of the Conies and of the other smaller treatises of Apollonius. Leipzig. I. by Proclus 1873). earlier history of conies. of the proofs where given as a whole will be and I hope that the historical sketch for found not only more exhaustive. ] Book I. like. Introduction as far as possible complete. Friedlein. Proclus' Commentary on Eucl.

Birmingham. S. . HEATH. the succeeding phrase. for his kindness in reading over most of the proof sheets and constant interest which he has taken in the progress for the of the work. T. 1896. MarcJi. wish . Heath. €\( l)r should be found possible to apply to \ to L•\st\y. judgnieuL of competent it critics.Ml should indeed be proud it if. in the PREFACE. express my thanks to my brother. L. Principal of Mason College. H.

Heiberg.) . (Leipzig. Vorlesungen iiber Geschichte der Mathematik. (Leipzig. (Leipzig. H. (Leipzig. 1882.) Heiberg. 1879. (Berlin.) .T. 1880-1. 1710. seiisis Apollonii Pergaei Conicorum libri octo et et Sereni Antis- de sectione cylindri coni lihn duo. Eutocii. Cantor. Deutsche (Copenhagen. Heiberg. Friedlein. Apollonii Pergaei de Sectione Rationis libri duo.) L. G. Euclidis elementa.LIST OF PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES. L. (Leipzig. HuLTSCH. L.) collectionis (Berlin.) Edmund Hallet. versi. den Kegelsehnitten im Altertum. 1861. ex (Oxford. Heiberg. Die Lehre von Ausgabe. 1886. 1880. 1870. Heiberg. 1883-8.) L.) G. J. Edmund Halley.) antiquis.) . Pappi Alexandrini 1876-8.) J. 1706. Des Apollonius von Perga sieben BUcher iiber Kegelschnitte iiebst deni durch Halley wieder hergestellten ctchten £ucke deutsch bearbeitet. (Leipzig. A. Litterargeschichtlicke Studien iiber Enklid. L. Archimedis opera (Copenhagen. 1873. (Oxford. C. Prodi Diadochi in primum Eticlidis eJementorum librum commentarii. Bretschneider. Apollonii Pergaei quae Graece exstant cum commentariis (Leipzig. Arahico J.) M. Zeuthen.) F. Quaestiones Archimedeae. 1891-3. Die Geometric und die Geometer vor Euklides. Balsam. omnia cum commentariis quae svpersunt. J.

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conceptions and language Ixsxvii § 1.. The PAGE I... Xxxxvii xc\ni xcviii ci ci ci cii § 2. means vii. § 5. . Chapter III. General characteristics Adherence to Euclidean form.. (iraphic representation of areas by cxi cxiii (4) § 2.methods of Apollonius Geometrical algebra (2) (3) The theory of proportions The a])plication of areas of auxiliary lines . Transformation of coordinates Method of finding two mean proportionals Method of constructing normals passing through a given point .. INTRODUCTION. § 1 . C/^lifOrnia^-- CONTENTS.. oxv cxviii L^ cxxv c. PART Chapter T. INTRODUCTION TO THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS... Special use of auxiliary jioints in Book The use of coordinates § 3... § 3. . Chapter Chapter The author and Ionics his own account of the Ixyiii II.xxvii Chapter IV.. Planimetric character of the treatise Definite order and aim Chapter III. § 4. discovery of Conic Sections : Mexvii NAECHMUS Chapter U. The (1) .. Aristaeus and Eucmp xxxi jij Archimedes PART II. THE EARLIER HISTORY' OF CONIC SECTIONS AMONG THE GREEKS. I. The construction ok tangents a conic by means ok isxx .

CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES. HARMONIC PROPERTIES OF POLES AND POLAES FOCAL PROPERTIES OF CENTRAL CONICS 102 109 INTERCEPTS MADE ON TWO TANGENTS BY A THIRD . ASYMPTOTES TANGENTS. THE CONE THE DIAMETEK AND TANGENTS PROPOSITIONS LEADING TO THE REFERENCE OF A CONIC ITS 1 CONJUGATE 15 22 TO ANY NEW DIAMETER AND THE TANGENT AT EXTREMITY ITS 31 CONSTRUCTION OF CONICS FROM CERTAIN DATA . 113 THE LOCUS WITH RESPECT TO THREE LINES INTERSECTING CONICS ETC. 64 84 EXTENSIONS OF PROPOSITIONS 17—19 RECTANGLES CHORDS UNDER SEGMENTS OF INTERSECTING 95 . CXXXviu I iiAiTKR VI. Notes on the terminology of Greek geometry clvii THE CONICS OF APOLLONIUS. PAGE I V. 119 126 NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA PROPOSITIONS LEADING IMMEDIATELY TO THE DETERMINATION OF THE EVOLVTE I39 168 ISQ 187 CONSTRUCTION OF NORMALS OTHER PROPOSITIONS RESPECTING MAXIMA AND MINIMA EQUAT< AND SIMILAR CONICS PROBLEMS VALUES OF CERTAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE LENGTHS OF CONJUGATE DIAMETERS I97 209 221 . The constriction of I'OiNTs a conic through five cli Appendix.xvi rONTENTS. 42 53 . THREE-LINE AND FOUR-LINE LOCUS .

INTEODUCTION. with whom the present subject begins. The tradition concerning its origin given in a letter from Eratosthenes of Gyrene to King Ptolemy Euergetes quoted by Eutocius in his commentary on the second Book find of Archimedes' treatise is On the Sp^re and Cylinder* . The reference here * is ni. "There is a story that one of the old tragedians represented Minos as wishing to erect a tomb for Glaucus and as saying. yet of its fair form Fail not. Eurip.) suggests that the verses are from the 7$ ' 7* ' iv . There is perhaps no question that occupies. 3 vols. C. ' H. when he heard that it was a hundred feet every way. THE DISCOVERY OF CONIC SECTIONS: MENAECHMUS. " Eratosthenes to King Ptolemy greeting. THE EARLIER HISTORY OF CONIC SECTIONS AMONG THE GREEKS. ^ . 102. PART I. be double . 1880-1). but haste to double every sidef. t Valckenaer (Diatribe de fragm. and the following a translation of the letter as far as the point where we mention of Menaechmus. Too small thy plan Let it to bound a royal tomb. CHAPTER I. comparatively. In quotations from Archimedes or the commentaries of Eutocius on his works the references are throughout to Heiberg's edition (Archimedis oprra omnia cum commeiitariis Eutocii. a larger space in the history of Greek geometry than the problem of is the Doubling of the Cube. p. Leipzig.

" which I no doubt means " + his difliculty. characteristic of them find for all that they indeetl gave demonstrations. And they sent to and liegged the geomettM-s who were with Plato in the Academy them the required solution. fell in accordance with an oracle. be strange Eratosthenes had added words merely for the puqjOKe of correetinji them again Leipzig. Menaechmus and that with difficulty. Mii'^x/ii/oi't . however. HISTORY OF CONICS." Home verses at the end of the letter. • TO is translated by Heiberg " haesitatio eius. the area solid becomes four times as great. but tlmt the words after Eratosthenes' own. it is better to regard as neuter. say. double one of the alturs into the same difficulty. adding that they are no doubt from an earlier poet than Euripides. into another difliculty no less than the former. perhaps Aeschylus. p. when the sides are doubled. It is. iind that the verses from the trapedy are simply y' tXeioi • if : ' ) \^. But he was cleurly as great." This last phrase of Eratosthenes appears Poli/iilus of Euripides. but holds that they do not belong to the lOlyidus. \( (or ^) are It would. remained in the same form. ItWJ. While then for a long time everyone was at a loss.XVUl THE . and . 871) gives the three verses as above. in commending Eratosthenes' own solution. Afterwards. Archytas of Tarentum is said to have discovered them by means of half-cylinders. . And while they set themselves energetically to work and sought to find two means between two given straight lines. they to some Delians attempting. wliat in error for. however. suggest that there need be no resort to Archytas' except to a small extent unwieldy contrivances of cylinders or to " cutting the cone in the triiuls of Menaechmus t. and the content eight times Geometei-s also continued to investigate the question in miglit double a given solid wliile it manner one . and Nauck (Tragicuruvi Graecorum Frnijmenta." think as referring to the problem of doubling the cube. of the cul>e And a problem of this kind was called the doubling for they starttnl from a culie and sought to double it. and Eudoxus by means of the so-called curved lines. but were unable to make the actual construction or to reach the point of practical application. if between two straight lines of which the greater is double of the less it were discovered how to find two mean proportionals in continueil proportion. Hippocrates of (Miios was the first to ohser\e that. the cube would be doubled and thus he turned the dilKculty in the original problem* .

on End. but the phraseolofiy is One it figure has been substituted for the two given by Eutociue. the discovery of Hippocrates amounted to the discovery of the fact that from the relation !^=i=f X y b it (1) follows that if C-Y a? (1) are . Let AO. in the work of Bietschneider. a curious circumstance that in Eutocius' second figure the straight line 62 . p. Produce BO to and AO . with the sole addition of the portion of the rectangular hyperbola used in the It is first solution. and the solutions of Menaechmus described by Eutocius amount to the determination of a point as the intersection of the curves represented in a rectangular system of Cartesian coordinates by any two of the be straight lines placed so as to form a right angle «. wliere. t Commentary on Archimedex (ed. and.MENAECHMUS. b respectively §. a - 2b.r. in. (2). * BO and of length Comm. so as to make serve for both solutions. in a passage of Proclus*. J. at 0. Die Geometrie nnd die Geometer vor Kuklides. and secondly by the intersection of two parabolas Assuming that a. and (2) that lie used them as a means of solving the problem of the doubling of the cube. he says that the conic sections were discovered by Menaechmus. p. Thus the evidence so far shows (1) that Menaechmus (a pupil of Eudoxus and a conteniporary of Phito) was the discoverer of the conic sections. = 2x\ xy = ab The equations equivalent to the three equations y- x^ = ay. xix by way of confirmatory evidence. Heiberg. to y. We learn fui-ther from Eutociust that IMenaechmus gave two solutions of the problem of the two oi-iginal mean proportionals.. X It must be borne in mind that the words parabola and hyperbola could not have been used by Menaechmus. = bx. obtaining the two means by the intersection of a certain parabola and a certain rectangular hyperbola. y the two required mean proportionals.- ^ . 177. The figure is identical with that attached to the second solution. 92—98). p. to which Hippocrates had reduced the first problem. § will be seen later on . The passage is quoted. Friedlein). Ill (ed. again. quoting Geniinus. b are the two given unequal straight lines and . witli the context. as that of Eutocius himself. equations (2).

XX THE EAHI. * . to ah. with is vertex and axis Ox. such that parameter equal to BO or h. i. Oy as asymptotes such that the rectangle under the distances of any point on the curve from Ox. BO. The firsi solution now consists in its drawing a parabola. Oy respecbe If tively is equal to the rectangle under 0.e. and a hyperhola with Ox.IEH HISTOUY OF COXICS.

. the two forms of the equations would be made the subject of the most minute and searching investigation. the paralwla and the rectangular hyperbola in the aspect of loci any points of which respectively fulfil the conditions expressed by the equations in (2). known that the locus represented by y^ = . and x^. as before. If an explanation is needed of the circumstance that Menaech- . . would be capable of and differing representation as a locus or a continuous curve. the discovery of the convertibility of the cube-problem into finding that of resulting two mean proportionals. Avould be to discover its form.. while the fourth side can move freely parallel to itself. It is moreover natural to suppose that. where y is is the perpendicular from any point on a fixed straight segments into which the line circle . wjvs a it would be natural to assume that the equation y' = bx. The point where the two parabohis intersect given by ar .= .. MENAECHMUS. are the divided by the perpendicular. and the extremities of the lines are found by means of a rectangular frame. The only difficulty and it was here that the cone was introduced. line of given length. as will be seen presently. from the other only in the fact that a constant is substituted for one of the variable magnitudes. of IVlenaochmus and it is more than probable that the discovery efforts was due to to determine loci possessing these characteristic pioperties rather than to any idea of a systematic investigation of the sections of a cone as such. . .. The form (1) expressing the equality of three ratios led naturally to the solution attributed to Plato. three sides of which are fixed. in which the four lines representing the successive terms of the continued prol^ortion are placed mutually at right angles and in cyclic order round a fixed point.= !f X y b in these We have therefore. x. axis Oy and parameter is equal to a. a X y . form (2) of the equations led to the attempt of loci The investigation of the Menaechmus to It was determine the corresponding thereto. vertex is 0. = ay wlience. two solutions. the conic originally produced from the right circular cone is indeed the special method difficult to explain on any other after assumption. the very special sections were This supposition is confirmed by way in which.

and revolves alwut an axis throuRh . in other words. for tlie purpose of producing a plane locus. two mean proportionals section of th. jus is shown by the itself mean proportionals by Archytas of This solution. We find that and rira).XXll THE EAULIKU HISTORY OF CONICS. The solution of Archytas like the others. perhaps more remarkable than any other. <and to a cone in piirticulfir. . whose diameter is the same as that of the circular base of the cylinder and whose plane is perpendicular to that of the circle. nntl is so instructive that I cannot forbear to quote by Eutocius (p. A »i Bcmicircle is drawn with diameter AC AUC.»8— 102) Suppose that AC. as the penultimate step. to revolve al)out the apex of the cone as a fixed point so that the diameter of the apex of the semicircle nujve. and (c).C.). liavc h. in two Tarentum (born about 430 B. AB are the strai^'ht hncs between wl)ich two 18 mean and proportionals are to be found. the proof. .s always in the plane of the circle.e are found in one and the • same plane (triangular) is. solution of the problem of the determines a certain point as the intersection of three surfaces of revtdution. the surface consisting of half a uplit ring whose centre (he cone and whose inner diameter in the course of the solution («) the intersection of the surfaces (2) (3) is said to be a certain curve (h) double curvature. a circular section of the right cone ( is is indefinitely small.1 but in a plane perpendicular to that perpendicular to the plane of ABC. (1) a right cone. AD placed as a chord in the circle. being in fact a curve of is used in cone*. (2) a right cylinder circle ft|)ex whose base is a on the axis of the cone ivs diameter and passing through the of the cone. we find it in the fact that solid geometry had alreivdy reached a high state of development.-ul mus should recourse to any solid figure. given it. is AC then made the diameter of a circle. (3) the surface formed by causing a semicircle.

MENAECHMUS.
Thus the introduction
Concerning
ties

of cones

by Menaechnius should not

in itself

be a matter for surprise.
JNIenaeclinius' actual

method
cone

of deducing the proper-

of

the conic sections from
;

the

we have no
his probable

definite

information

but we may form some idea of
is

procedure

surface described by the

ABC as base: this will cut the APC in a certain curve. Lastly let CD, the tanjicnt to the circle ABC at the point C, meet Alt produced in I); and suppose the triangle ACD to revolve about AC as axis.
A
half-cylinder (right)

now

erected with

moving semicircle

will and the point ABC and having ita diameter BE at right angles to AC. The surface of the cone will meet in some the curve described on the cylinder. Let APC be the conesponding point position of the revolving semicircle, and let meet the circle ABC in M. Drawing PM perpendicular to the plane of ABC, we see that it must meet the circumference of the circle ABC because is on the cylinder which stands on ABC as base. Let AP meet the circumference of the semicircle BQE in Q, and let meet its diameter BE in N. Join PC, QM, QN.
will generate the surface of a right circular cone,

This

describe a semicircle

BQE

perpendicular to the plane of

AC

AC

Then, since both semicircles are pei^pendicular to the plane ABC, so
line of intersection

is their

QN is perpendicular to BE. Hence QN-=BN NE = AN NM. Therefore the angle AQM is a right angle. But the angle CPA is also right therefore MQ is parallel to CP.
QN.
Therefore
.
. :

It follows,

by similar triangles, that

C'A
That
is,

AP = AP AC AP^AP
:

:

:

:

AM^AM AM=AM
if

:

AQ.

:

AB,

and AB, AM, AP,
.1

AC

are in continued proportion.

In the language of analytical geometry,

AC

is

the axis of x, a line through

perpendicular to
parallel to

AC

in the plane of
z,

ABC
is

the axis of y, and a line through

A

PM

the axis of

then

determined as the intersection of the

surfaces
x-

+ U- + '''=^i^'
.c--fi/-'

(1).

= rtx

(2), (3),

where

+ y- + z'^=ajx'- + yAC = a, AB = b.
.x-

From

the

first

two equations

and from

this equation

and
a

(3)

we have

^ Jx^+y^+z" ^
V^+I/-

y/x-'+y'
l^

Jx'^ + y-^ + z'

or

AC:AP=AP:AM=AM:AB.

xxiv
if

.
in

HISTUUY

(»F

COMCS.
manner
in

we bear

mind

(1) wljat

we

are told of the

which the

earlier writers

kinds of

rii,dit

on conies produced the three curves from particular circular cones, and (2) the course followed by Apol-

lonius (and Archimedes) in dealing with sections of

any

circular cone,

whether right or oblique. Eutocius, in his comnientaiy on the Conies of Apollonius, quotes
with approval a statement of Geminus to the effect that the ancients defined a cone as the surface described by the revolution of a rightangled triangle about one of the sides containing the right angle, and
that they

knew no

otlier cones

than right cones.

Of these they

dis-

tinguishinl three kinds according as the vertical angle of the cone

was

less

than, equal

to,

or greater than, a right angle.

Further

they prcKluced only one of the three sections from each kind of cone, always cutting it by a plane perpendicular to one of the generating
lines,

and calling the respective curves by names corresponding to
thus the "section of a right-angled

the particular kind of cone;

was their name for a parabola, the " section of an acute-angled cone" for an ellipse, and the "section of an obtuse-angled cone" for The sections are so described by Archimedes. a hyperbola.
cone
"

Now

clearly the parabola is the one of the three sections for the

pnKluction of which the use of a right-angled cone and a section at
right angles to a generator gave the readiest means.
If iV

be a

point on the diameter JiC of any circular section in such a cone, and
if

7'

be a straight line drawn in the plane of the section and perpen-

dicular to JiC, meeting the circumference of the circle (and therefore
the surface of the cone) in
J',

I'y'-^BN.NC.

Draw
generator

AM
OB
in

in the plane of the axial triangle

OBC

meeting the

at right angles in

.1,

and draw

meeting
in

OC

D;

let

DEF,
in
/'.

perpendicular to

AD parallel to BC AD or Bt\ meet BC
and therefore

and

AN produced
AD
is

Then
is

bisected by the axis of the cone,
it.

AF

likewise bisected by

Draw CG

perpendicular to

BC

meeting

A

F

produced in G.

Now

the angles

A

iV,

BCG

are right

;

therefore B, A, C,

G

are

(oncyclic,

and

B.V.NC ^AN.NG.
But

AN=CD = FG-

MENAECHMUS.
tlierefore, if
.1

F meets

the axis of the cone in X,

Hence

NG = AF^-2AL. PN' = BN.NC
^2AL.AN,
fixed,

and,

if

A

is

'2AL

is

constant.

./

XXVI

THE EARLIER HISTORY OF CONICS.

proljiil.le

Mcnapclinius was aware of these general propositions. It is more that he obtained the equation referred to the asymptotes
ref«'rred to tlie axes;

from the equation

and

in the particular case
this is not difficult.

which he uses (that of the rectangular hyperbola)

Thus,

if /• Ite

a point on the curve and J'K,
(77',

PK'

be perpendicular

to the iusyniptotes

CH'

of a rectangular

hyperbola,

and

if

li'l'XIi' 1m' j>erjK'ndicular to

the bisecUir of the angle Vjetween the
rect.

ii.syniptotes,

.

PK' = the
= the

CKPK'
CKPE,

quadrilatei-al

since

aCEK'=

APJiA'.

Hence

PK

.

FK' ^ A RON -

PEN

= h{CN^-PN')

Nslicrc

.'•,

//

an• the coonlinates of

/'

referied to the axes of the

liyjKTbola.

We

obtuse-anglt'd cone,

have then U> sljow iiow MeiKWJchnius could obtain from an by a section perpendicular to a generator, the

H'ctangular hyperlntla
a:'

-

y* ^ (const.)

=4

,

say,

or

y« _ avr.„
./•,,

when•

r, are the distances of the foot of the ordinate
yl'

y from the

jMiints yl,

respectively,

and

A' -a.

MENAKCHMrS.
Take an obtuse-angled
circular section of
it.

through
A' and

A draw
in

AN

cone, and let BC be the diameter of any Let A be any point on the generator OB, and -Ai right angles to OH meeting CO produced in

BC

N.
line

Let y be the length of the straight
surface of the cone.

drawn from

perpen-

dicular to the plane of the axial triangle

OBC

and meeting the

Then y

will be

determined by the equation

f^BN.NC.

Let

AD

be drawn, as before, parallel to

BC

and meeting

OC

in

D, and let OL,

DF,

CG

be drawn perpendicular to

BC

meeting

AX
G

produced in Z, F,
are coney clic

G

respectively.

Then, since the angles
;

BAG, BGG

are right, the points

/>,

A, C,

.•.

y-

But

= BN.NC = AN.NG. NG AF= CN AD, by
: :

similar triangles,

^A'N
Hence

:

AA'.

AN.
2AL

AA

AF '^,.'

- AA'••^'-'
and the locus of the extrenuty of y fur different positions
of tlie

circular section, or (in other words) the section of the cone

by a

plane through ^xV perpendicular to the plane of the axial triangle,
satisfies the desired

condition pro cidcl thai

-.

.,

^^•

;

XXVMl
This

THE EAHLIKH HISToUV oF CONICS.
i-elation,

together with the fact that the angle

AOL

is

equal

to half the

supplement of the angle A'OA, enables us to determine
tlie

the i)osition of

apex
is

(f,

and therefore the

vertical angle, of the

desired cone which

to contain the rectangular hyperbola.

determined, and draw the circle circumscribing meet LO produced in some point K, and OA' will l»e its diameter. Thus the angle A'KO is right .•. _ = complement of .ALK= ^AOL = ^ LOO - _ A'OK, A' are equal, and whence it follows that the segments AK, A'

For suppose
;

AOA'

this will

therefore A'

lies

on the

line })isecting

A A' at right angles.
on the semicircle

Hut, since the angle

^'-

is

right, A' also lies

with A'L as diameti^r.
A' is therefore detcniiincd

by drawing that semicircle and then
right

drawing a
semicircle.

line

bisecting A A' at
A'

angles

and meeting the
is

Thus,

being found and

A' Z» joined,

determined.

The foregoing construction

for a recttmgular hyperbola can be

•«lii.illy

well applied to the case of the hyperbola generally or of
2.1

an

fllipse '

;

only the value of the const;int
''

-

AA

-,-

will

be ditlerent

from

unity.
Ut

In every case '2AL
or the pai-ameter

is

equal to the parameter of the ordinates

AA\

is

equal to twice the distance between the
tSs

vertex of the section and the axis of the cone,

^'

-

(as

Archimedes

called

the principal parameter of the

parabola).

in

The jissumption that Menaeclinius discovered all three sections the manner alx)ve set forth agrees with the reference of
that the

ICratosthenes to
proliJible

cylinder.

Menaechmean triads," though it is not imwas known earlier as a section of a right Thus a passage of Euclid's Phdenomena says, "if a cone
tlie

"

ellip.se

or cylinder be cut by a plane not parallel to the base, the resulting
section

a section of an acute-angled cone which is similar to a showing that Euclid distinguished the two ways of producing an ellipse. Heiberg {Littfrargeschichtliche Studien iiher

%"
It

is

h'liklid, p.

88) thinks

it

probable that

^

was the name by which

Alenaechnms called the curve*.
is

a question whether Menaeclimus used mechanical contrivOvpeov for the cllipBe occur.s several times in Proclus
;

The cxpreHeion

imd particularly in a passage in which ueminus is quoted (p. Ill) and it would seem as though this name for the curve was more common in Geminus' time than the name• "ellipse." [liretschucidcr, p. 170.]

MEXAECHMUS.
ances for effecting the coHstruction of his curves.
Tlie idea that he

did so rests (1) upon the passage in the letter of Eratosthenes* to

the effect that

all

who had

solved the problem of the

two mean

pro-

portionals had written theoretically but had not been able to effect

the actual consti-uction and reduce the theory to practice except, to

a certain extent, Menaechmus and that only with dithculty, (2) upon two well known passages in Plutarch. One of these latter states
that Plato blamed Eudoxus, Archytas and

Menaechmus

for trying

to reduce the doubling of the cube to instrumental

and mechanical constructions (as though such methods of finding two mean proportionals were not legitimate), arguing that the good of geometry was thus lost and destroyed, as it was brought back again to the world of sense instead of soaring upwards and laying hold of those eternal and incorporeal images amid which God is and thus is ever Godt; the other passage {Vita MarceUi 14, § 5) states that, in consequence of this attitude of Plato, mechanics was completely diA-orced from geometry and, after being neglected by philosophers for a long time, became merely a part of the science of war. I do not think it follows from tliese passages that Menaechmus and Archytas made machines for effecting their constructions; such a supposition would in fact seem to be inconsistent Avith the direct statement of Eratosthenes that, with the partial exception of Menaechmus, the three geometers referred to gave theoretical solutions only. The words of Eratosthenes imply that Archytas did not use any mechanical contrivance, and, as regards Menaechmus, they rather suggest such
a method as the finding of a large number of points on the curve J.
It seems likely therefore that Plato's criticism referred, not to the

of the sentence in question
Xeipovpyrjaai
ets

. ;' » (% (-'
is
:

*

See the passage from Eratosthenes, translated above,
Si

j).

xviii.

The Greek

{

+

';

ets

opyafiKas

KaraaKevas

,
[scr.

]

vapfiKOi

^

•).

(Quaest. conviv. viii. 2.

(( € ' , ^ . ,
rovs

[scr.

'» ']
alairtp

OTepfoO

^' » ^6 debs del

ۥ^>,

^/-

(6

1.)

where

partly suggested by Eutocius' commentary on Apollonius t. 20, 21, remarked that it was often necessary for want of instruments to describe a conic by a continuous series of points. This passage is quoted by Dr Taylor, Ancient and Modern Geometry of Con/r-s-, p. xxxiii.

This
it

is

is

XXX

THE EARLIEK HISTORY OF CONICS.
the introduction
of

use of machines, but simply to
consiilerntioHM in ejvch
<jf

mechanical

the three solutions of Archytas, Eudoxus,

and Menaechmus.

Much
solution
is

hivs

been written on

the

difHculty

of

reconciling the

censure on Archytas and the rest with the fact that a mechanical
attril)ute<l
is

by Eutocius to Plato himself.
io

The most

proljable explanation

suppose that Eutocius was mistaken in
;

giving the solution as Plato's
it is it

indeed, h.ul the solution been Plato's,

scarcely possible that Eratosthenes should not have mentioned

along with the others, seeing that he mentions Plato as having
tiie

been consulted by

Delians on the duplication problem.

Zeuthen

luus

suggested that Plato's objection
to the fact that he

may have

referred,

was not satisfied to regard a curve as completely defined by a fundamental plane property such as we express by the equation, but must needs give it a geoin the case of

Menaechmus,

metrical definition

iis

a curve arrived at by cutting a cone, in oi-der to

make
it

its f»»rm

renli.sable
u.se

by the
in

senses,

though

this presentation of
its

was not m:ule
;

of

the subsequent investigaticms of
is

pioperties

but this explanation

not so comprehensible

if

applied

to the objection to Archytas^ solution,

where the

cui-ve in

which the
is

revolving .semicircle and the fixed half-cylinder intei-sect
of double curvature

a curve

and not a plane curve

easily represented by

an

equation.

and in fact neither ApoUonius himself nor any one else could have added in the of ' least to of conies only what was written by Euclid with the help of those properties which had heen proved up to Euclid's time. . called one of the conic sections the section an acute-angled cone. both of which are lost. The passage of Piippus is in some places obscure and some sentences are put in ' brackets by Hultsch. Aristaeus. and it will be convenient to deal with these together. another the section of a right-angled cone and the third the section of an obtuse-angled cone. who wrote the still extant iive books of nolid loci connected with the conies.. though exact. its "The four books of Euclid's conies were completed by ApoUonius. See Pappus (ed. We come next to the treatises which Aristaeus the elder' and Euclid are said to have written. and without anticipating him or wishing to construct anew the same system (such was his scrupulous fairness and his exemplary kindline.. without claiming completeness for his demonstrations. Hultsch). ARISTAEUS AND EUCLID.CHAPTER II. ApoUonius says in his third book that the locus with respect to three or four lines' had not been completely investigated by Euclid.ss towards all who could advance mathematical science to however small an extent). Now Euclid — regard- ing Aristaeus as deserving credit for the discoveries he had already made in conies. pp. but the following represents substantially effect*. 672— 67.. who is our authority upon the contents of the works. yet no braggart like the other —wrote so much about the locus as was possible by means of the conies of Aristaeus. ApoUonius is himself evidence for this fact when he says that tiie theory of that locus could not be completed without the propositions which he had been obliged to vork out for himself. in view of the manner in which the two names are associated in the description of Pappus. being moreover in no vise con- tentious and. who added four more and produced eight books of couics.

then the point will lie on a solid locus given in position. four straight lines given in position. ApoUonius. has been enabled to add lacking portion of the theory of the locus through having become familiar iK'forehand with what haxl already been written about it by Euclid and having spent a long time with the pupils of Euclid in Alexandria. or ( ) which sections. if straight lines be drawn to meet. to which training he owed his scientific habit of mind. as matters stand. (2) line divided by the foot of the the locus of a point whose the circle which distances from two fixed points are in a given ratio (a locus investigat«*d by ApoUonius in tlu! >'/€). after giving as examples of is the plane locus the circle which the locus of points the perpendiculars proportionals between from which on a finite straight line th(. which he one and the same point straight lines be drawn to meet the three straight lines at given angles. is It necessary at this point to say a word about the solid locus Proclus defines a locus line or a surface involving one and the same property" <.{ and the all () as " a position of a and proceeds to say loci The former. the latter solid from some section of a conic cylindrical helix Similarly (I) Eutocius." lie on a conic section given in (? ). and the ratio of the rectangle under two of the lines so drawn to the rectangle under the remaining two be given. that is on one of the three conic sections. is arrived at If three straight lines be given in position and from in this way. line-loci ). that loci are divided into and are lines. proceeds to say that the fact that the so-called solid loci have derived their name from . are again divided by Proclus into plane loci and solid loci ( '' figure. and if the ratio of the rectangle contained by two of the straight lines so drawn to the square of the remaining one be given. at given angles. Now this locus with respect to three and four lines. but. he does not by any means deserve it. too. and like €(). then in the same way the point will ])Osition. though he left the most part of tlir liis conies incomplete.XXxii THE EAULIEK HISTORY OF COXICS. are is is mean the segments into which pcrjM-ndicular. And. two tv classes. like the straight line. the the former being simply generated in a plane. Had lie done so he would certainly have deserved censure. siirface-loci ( ). seeing that neither is ApoUonius called to account.' the theory of ' is so proud of having added to (though he should rather acknowledge his obligations to the original author of it).

p. call Pappus makes a loci. 4. d% C . a locus which is a surface Thus linear loci are those which have a more complicated and unnatural origin than straight lines.s. while lines. nor any of the said three in is For example. . This book on solid loci preceded that of Euclid on conies 2. ellipses. (^ -^. Aristaeus used the names "section of a right-angled. circles and conies. and obtuse-angled cone. Pappus' meaning must therefore be that. p. Apollonius. fui-ther division of those line-loci which are not i)lane which Proclus and Eutocius solid loci says. C. or is traced upon. as for instaiice the sections of the cone and several others*. it was a treatise on conies regarded as loci. by the one name loci and linear ( ). in . Vol. p. the curve described on the cylinder proportionals Archytas' solution of the problem of the two a locus arises out (tottos a linear locus (being in fact a curve of double curvature). and such )." It is now possible to draw certain conclusions from the passage Pappus above reproduced.ARISTAEUS EUCLID. and vas. The work of Aristaeus on solid loci vas concerned with those loci which are parabolas. Euclid could scarcely have refrained.e. more important. parabolas or ellipses or hyperbolas.loci such as are not straight conic sections t. (€€ loci plane may ) of. ( . conies as Apollonius did. he be generally described as those which are are lines straight lines or circles. from an attempt to improve upon the earlier treatise. X Pappus. ras + Pappus. Though both treatises dealt with the same subject-matter. lineai. nor circles." by which up to the time of Apollonius the three conic sections were known. of solid into Thu. while Euclid wrote on the general theory of of . albeit and Euclid. acute- angled. solid loci as those which are sections of cones. " being generated from more irregular surfaces and intricate movements. : yap yivtaiv tiTi-K(ir\(y ^ *. he yet confined himself to those properties which were necessary for the analysis of the solid 3. 1. as Pappus says he did.}:. or hyperbolas in other words. 184. i.. the object and the point of view were different had they been the same. 62. mean of the class loci. loci of Aristaeus. i. at least in point of originality. 270 ' € ii. wxiii they arise from the cutting of solid figures. The three-line imperfectly. discussed in the treatise of Aristaeus * and four-line locus must have been.e.

ApoUonius probably mentions Euclid rather than Aristaeus as having failed to complete it Avas Euclid's treatise the same lines as his own . who devotes some bril- Pappus' time. On the other hand. a. and. in the sense of .g. though the Solid Loci of Aristaeus was in treatise still of extant it is doubtful whether Euclid's work >vas so. same locus. conjectures that the imperfection of the investigations of Aristaeus and Euclid arose from the absence of any conception of the hyperbola with two branches as forming one curve (which was the discovery of ApoUonius. dealing syntlieticiilly with was unable to work out the theory completely because he only used the conies of Aristaeus and did not jxdd fresh discoveries of his own. The scope must have been generally the same as that of the first three Books of ApoUonius. as may be inferred even from the fulness with which he treats of the doubleThus the proposition that the rectangles under the hyperbola). that the three-line or four-line locus was reduced by Aristaeus' analysis to this particular property. So far therefore as the theorem was not proved for the double-hyperbola before nius. The subject of the three-line and four-line locns will be discussed but it may be in some detail in connexion with ApoUonius convenient to mention here that Zeuthen.systematic and complete in the later treatise. tlie HISTORY OF TONICS. had Euclid been in possession of the proof of the theorem in its most general form. though the development of the subject was more . This we infer from ApoUonius' own preface as well as from the statement of Pappus quoted above. . A more important source of infi>nnalioii. then. AVith regard to the contents of the Conies of Euclid following indications. segments of ratio intei-secting chords in fixed directions are in a constant is independent of the position of the point of intersection proved by ApoUonius for the double-hyperbola as well as for the single branch and for the ellipse and parabola. 1. and. as Euclid was time than Aristaeus. The Conies of Euclid was superseded by the ApoUonius. •_'.ssuming e. it would in any case which was on somewhat later in be natural for ApoUonius to regard Euclid as the representative of the older and defective have the investigations which he himself brought to completion. 5. completing the synthesis of the locus the theory for the reason that Euclid would have had the means (which we are told that he had not) of also.xxxiv TMK . liant chapters to it. it ApoUo- was incomplete.

PN' -. giving luore details. BC" : AC".." the parabola In the same proposition we find the following property of If p„ be the parameter of the ordinates to the axis. ( 1 ) If be a diameter of a segment of a parabola and QVq ix chord parallel to the tangent at P. Q'V'q' be two chords in V. and if QD be drawn perpendicular to PV. : and QQ' be any chord not perpendicular to the axis such that the diameter PV bisects it in V.. the rectangles " parallel to the tangents contained by the segments (of the chords) will have to one another the same ratio as the squares of the (parallel) tangents. (2) (3) QV = Vq. QVq. PN-=p. hyperbola. (c) The third proposition of the treatise On Conoids and : Spheroids begins by enunciating the following theorem lines If straight drawn from the same point touch any conic section whatever. {(f) XXW works of Archimedes. is And this proved in (d) the elements of conies . of conies" (i. N'A'.AN. who to propositions in conies as well known and not is at liand in the Thus fundamental property of the : Tlie PX' AN.ARTSTAEUS A\D EUCLID. supposing to be such a length that QV-. and that of the parabola. and if there be also other straight lines drawn in the conic section and cutting one another. frequently refers requiring proof. -- = P'N" : AN' N'A' . the squares of the ordinates to (which are parallel to QQ') are equal to the rectangles applied to a straight line equal to and c'l of . A' = P'N" : AN' . and must therefore presumably have been contained in Euclid's work.QD'^p:p. then (says Archimedes). tliat of tlie ' ellipse.. : : PV PV'^QV '^And these propositions are Q'V". are assumed. proved in the elements in Euclid and Aristaeus). parallel to the tangent at and bisected V. in T.e. If the tangent at If Q meet VP produced PV= PT. (b) At the beginning of the treatise on the area of a parabolic segment the following theorems are simply cited.AN.

or a to. . unity.XXXvi EAHLIEll HISTORY OF CONICS. though it is reasonable to suppose that the treatise dealt with such loci as the surfaces of cones. the proposition that the locus of a point is whose distance from a given point section. SX be the perpendicular from aS" on the fixed dicular to Let be any point on the locus and PN perpene SX. Pappus gives two lemmas to the Surface-loci. possible that Euclid had in mind any other than a right cone . ? gives a complete proof of. and perhaps other surfaces of the second degree. width equal to the respective intercepts on thi» towards P. or we know nothing. the statement would not have been true without a qualification excluding the circular sections subcontrary to the base of tlie cone. so that SP '^ is to XX NX•' in the given ratio. had the cone been oblique." In otlier words. are the parameters corresponding respectively to the axis and the diameter bisecting QQ'. hyperbola according as the given ratio is less than. a parabola. P'. one of which (the This lemma states. and second) is of the highest importance*. seqq. equal or greater The proof unity is in the case where the given ratio let is different from shortly as follows. so that ~ Now let be a point on the line SX such ' that ~ • XK' Pappus (ed. spheres and But cylinders. xxviii) from the Phaenomena. . Hultsch) p. but he was aware that an ellipse could be obtained by cutting a cone in any manner by a plane not parallel to the base (assuming the section to lie wholly between the apex of the cone and its base).p. and line. This is expressly stated in the passage But it is scarcely (p. liii. Of the contents of Euclid's Surface-loci. for. line is a conic and an ellipse. = QV*:QD\ is (For a figure and a proof of this property the reader to the chapter on referred Archimedes p. and also quoted above by cutting a cylinder.S' J^t be the fixed point.) Euclid still used the old names for the three conic sections. in a given ratio is to its distcmce from a fixed than. Let be this ratio. "For has been proved in tJie conies. eVi^avcta. if /)„.

XK' The position of the points N. coincides falls when If we suppose A to be the point on which with '.SK XK "*'' SA-SN' 'hich is AN' therefore known '"^^ 1 . K. K' changes with the position of I'.NK^ ~ SN' XK . ^ either of the latter expressions equal to SX . ' NK = NK\ we shall PN' have• + SN' NX' PN' NK' ~ NX' .ARISTAEUS then. if ) EUCLID. and therefore SX SK TTTr SA SN r. i > ' are both is known and equal. „-T^ are both known and Hence equal. A" be another point so taken that . we have SA _ _SN AX'^" NK' KAN SK' A K'S It follows that -^ .

—^-. 284) a method which " some " had used and which involves the construction of a hyperbola whose eccentricity is 2. discussing the various methods of trisecting an angle or circular (p. It may therefore well be that it was taken from some known work*.has a known value. not impossibly that of Aristaeus on solid loci. .' . since yj-. Then RSP equal to twice the angle SRP. - « . And. the ratio . is He gives Suppose it is a segment of a circle which has to be divided into three equal ))arts. when K' shall coincides with '. and the proof need not be given We lemma can scarcely avoid the conclusion that Euclid must have used this pnjposition in the treatise on snrface-loci to which Pappus' refers. from above. case where e = is easy. Suppose the angle it done. and that the necessity it. by multiplication.XXXVin In THE like iniiiiner. tind that the n-. A' will in the latter will lie and on the same side of case on opposite sides of X.ST be one-third of the arc SPR. while in the former case lie X on A A' and in the latter 1 will lie on A A' produced. . for the lemma arose out of the must therefore have been assumed by him as evident or quoted as well known. = e'. This is the property of a central conic. and is in the same way we XK' A . SP. and is let . . That Euclid should have been acquainted with the property of It fact that Euclid did not prove conies referred to the focus and directrix cannot but excite surprise It is interesting to note in this connexion another passage in Pappus where he arc. Join RP. . for in the former case the points A. „ is known and equal to ' Hence.. EAULli:i{ if HISTORY OF CONICS. A' be the point on which iV falls ' . and the conic will be an ellipse or a hyperbola according as is less or greater than 1 . The here..tio we liave ^.

A'.ARISTAEUS ) KICLID.+ SN^ given.NX. that Now. and X is given. PN+ SN- 's stated in the same form in both cases.•. . and this supposition is supported by a remarkable coincidence between Apollonius' method of determining the foci of a central conic and the theorem contained in Pappus' 31st lemma to Euclid's Porisnis. RS SP=RE EP = RX XN RS -. all he does not profess to give him.RX^SP -. Also But whence or RX=XS. R' respectively and the semicircle in Y. Further let YS be in R.= iNX-. Then the angle ERS is equal to the angle ESR. is and PX is perpendicular to SX. while the ratio of NX- to PN.^77.ST = 2. up to the time of Apollonius.S' . so that PN perpen- dicular to RS.e.S'. all XXXIX in Aimllonius. and the ratio „». attention.SA' = AR. subject for a treatise on solid loci than for a work on conies We is must not assume that the received focal properties had not. PN. ." to the This is obviously a particular case of the lemma (. SP". RE = ES. i. J?. the properties of cpnics The planation may be that. It is to be proved that AS. A' are given. S are concyclic. much The contrary indeed more probable. as follows : Let ' be the diameter of a semi- and from A'. Let SE bisect the angle RSP. = 2i?A'. not the actual determination of them.A'R'. seeing that this property does not appear at the focus of a parabola is and ex- not even mentioned by him. focal property may therefore have been held to be a The more suitable proper.VA'. lies on a hyperbola. meeting A'A produced in S. A let two straight lines be drawn at right angles Let any straight line HH' meet the two perpendiculai-s to A'A.. since R'. SA AR = A'R' Y. as we gather from the preface of Apollonius. is This theorem circle. . . the angle A'SR' is equal to the angle A'YR' in the same segment.+ SN"-=iNX": " Since then the two points . drawn perpendicular to RR'. : : A'S.•. : : : .•. and his third known to Book is intended to give the means for the svTitliesis of solid loci. meeting RP in and draw EX.

A'R' and RR' iii. any other tangent [Prop. AR. This fact goes far to support the view of Zeuthen as to by-product in the investigation of conic sections the origin and aim of Euclid's Porisms. iSA : hence. . the to the conic. since A' A . in.•.BC*. at each of the points ". except that the the (. by similar triangles.••.SA is is also constant and -S' a fixed point. . A'R' is constant. if is the rectangle AR . similar to that in the latter does not bring in Thus Apollonius' procedure is exactly lemma to Euclid's Porisiiis. -A'YR' = ^AYS. Similarly. namely. AS. AS . 69]. It follows of course from this that.THE EARLIER HISTORY OF CONICS.A'R'. . 66]. It will be observed that in Apollonius. S' on the axis or the axis produced such that AS He then proves that . R' YS are both right angles. Ho has already . ^A'SE'=^ A'S = -ARS. the angle AJiiS is equal to the angle AYS. in this complete circle the axis used. But. that tliey were jiartly a sort of })artly and a means devised for the furtiier development of the subject. 45 [Prop. and he now takes two points S. and proceeds to deduce other focal properties.V. A'R• or : AR. 42 that case AR A' R' .SA' = AR. SA' = AS' S'A' = JiC\ RR' subtends a right angle . proved. are tangents at the extremities of is A A' of a conic.

and that Apollonius. xii. 168. The proposition quoted is Eucl. which ha'e by some been assumed to refer to a treatise by Archi- medes himself. The name appears in the passage referred to as 'RpaKXeios. No survey of the history of conic sections could be complete without a tolerably exhaustive account of everything bearing on the subject which can be found in the extant works of Archimedes. p. down to the the contempt malice with which small minds would probably seek to avenge tiiemsolvos for in which they would be held by an intellectual giant like . having found that tiiey had not been published by Archimedes. 2i. ii. Apollonius Heiberg) Vol. the first to "invent" (p. The idea that he did so rests substantial basis than the references to mention of the name of the author) in the passages quoted above. (( puts it. Heracleides' statement that Archimedes was not easy to explain. theorems in conies is Bretschneider 156) as well as the charge of plagiarism levelled at Apollonius.. '2. Oh lite Sphere luid Cylinder. medes. upon no more (without any There is no trustworthy evidence that Archimedes wrote a separate work on conies. appropriated them J * t (ed. i. CHAPTER III. the biographer of Archifirst commentary on Apollonius. is A so may be drawn from a passage in Eutocius' Heracleidest. But the assumption by the is easily seen to be unsafe when the references are compared with a similar reference in another passage* of \vhere words " iv rfj the Elements is Euclid are undoubtedly meant. p. ARCHIMEDES. Similarly the words " this proved in the elements of conies proof that this simply mean that it is found in positive the text-books on the elementary principles of conies. is there quoted as saying that Archimedes was the to invent theorems in conies.

and passing through one The problem evidently aniounts to determining the Apollonius. where it is is . if he had thought that Archimedes referred to an earlier work of his own. " for on the one hand Archimedes appears in many passages to have referred to the elements of conies as an older treatise ( ). iirst. Hcibcrg holds also that Heracloides did not intend to ascribe the actual invention of conies to Archimedes. But. (2) it of the ellipse (1) perpendicular to the its plane of the not perpendicular to plane. an ellipse]. " If a has no business there.shown that it is possible to find a cone of is wliich a given ellipse a section and whose apex on a straight drawn from the centre ellipse. The way in which is this proposition proved in the case where the plane of section at right angles to the plane of symmetry can be inferred from propositions 7 and 8 of the same line treatise. "section of a right-angled cone" there is employed by Aristaeus. at the very l)eginning of the treatise following : On Conoids and Spheroids all we find the cone be cut by a plane meeting the sides of the cone. thinks that this into is unfair to Hera- who was probably misled many of the propositions of making the charge of plagiarism by finding Apollonius already quoted by Archimedes as known. natural to look.e. but only meant that the olementary theory of conic sections as formulated by Apollonius was due to Archimedes otherwise Eutocius" contradiction would have taken a different form and he would not . the . secondly. far but rather some expression In searching for the various propositions in conies to be found in Archimedes. ou the other hantl. the refei-ence as being to earlier expositions of : theory of conies by other geometers otherwise.e. he would not have used the word like 8(8." the elementary i. the section will be either a circle or a section of an acute- angled cone" [i. and Eutocius subjoins the remark that the allegation is in his opinion not true. and no doubt that in the three places where the word it /^ was appears in the Mss. but lying in of the axes a plane at right angles to of the ellipse.xlii THE HISTORY OF CONICS. Heiberg. We observe. cleides. have omitted to point to the well-known fact that Menaechmus was dieooverer of the conic sectioue. for indica- tions to show how tiie jiroducing Archimedes was aware of the possibility of three conic sections from cones other than right cones to a generator and by plane sections other than those perpendicular of the cone. it is profess to be giving his own and on the other hand Apollonius does not Thus Eutocius regarded discoveries. that he always uses the old names «tc. in the first instance.

Draw meet PN in perpendicular to BB'.CO(where CA is half the major axis And this is possible. of the ellipse). : proposition are assumed as known. ellipse is a section of this We have then to prove that the given if cone. respectively each parallel to BB' .] Now conceive a circle with BD as diameter draAvn in a plane perpendicular to that of the paper. [Both the construction and this last CB' CO-.EO^^CA^. OB' produced E. that lies on the surface to of the cone.EO'>BC. BE. OB'. let in the in Produce OB.ED-. Also draw FG. (1) :liii £ the cone. . D respectively. and this is wliat Archiniedcs proceeds Conceive an ellipse with />'/>' as its minor axis : and and lying in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the paper tiie suppose line CO drawn perpendicular to the plane of the ellipse. is any point on the ellipse. or. meeting the circumference of the circle in Q. since . and same plane with them draw BED meeting OC. AKCIIIMKDK: circular sections to do. OC.. let Join OX. and in such a direction that be the apex of the required cone. BE ED . and produce it BD M. and MQ be drawn in the plane of the thi-ough circle on BD as diameter and perpendicular to BD. and describe a cone passing through this circle and having for its apex.

EG) = {CA"-:CO-). (JM' : Now //.•. xliv THE EARLIER HISTORY OF CONICS.{CO"-:BC . - .]f . Now OA. MD : . Produce OA' to D so that OA OD. QAP : PiV- = ^ HM.loin are unequal. . and (h-aw FG through C parallel to it. : . is on the circumference of the a generator of the cone.BC. : whence. and let the plane of the paper be that containing -LI' and 0(\ Ijet so that the plane of the ellipse is perpendicular to that phme.EG = {BE ED (' FE = .. circle on BD as diameter lies OQ and therefore on the Thus the cone passes through (2) all points of the given ellipse. since PN. : . . BE.ED:FE. is QM are parallel. .CB' ^'•. OPQ is a straight line. OA' . BB' l)e the other axis of the ellipse. AD.. But Q therefore cone.CB') = CA-. MK BN NB' OM' 0N\ : . . Let OC not be perpendicular to AA' one of the axes of the given ellipse.

xlv tin• AD perpendiculai• to plan»• «. Then QM' HM.NA. Through and draw HK parallel to A' A. axis such that if or axis (b). and we have only it to on the surface of the cone so described. : . an ellipse on AD as d he the other d'. whether right or oblique. ' meet Let that be any point on the given lies ellipse. It is therefore to be inferred that Archimedes was equally aware of the fact that the parabola and the hyperbola could be found otherwise than by the The continued use of the old names of the curves is of old method. : . and in either (it). : . and the construction follows that in the preceding case (1).•. which are made by planes perpendicular to the plane of symmetry.CA = PN^:A'N. MA) {DM. and produce Lastly. draw MQ perpendicular to the plane of the paper (and therefore perpen- dicular to both AD) meeting the ellipse or circle about AD (and therefore the surface of the cone) in Q. Conceive a plane tluOUjih paper. : . MA HM MK) = {d' (FC CG A'C CA) = (CB' FC.. to AD M.CG A'C. Draw PX in perpendicular to A A'. if not. is Q being on the surface of the on the surface of the cone.f tlie it describe if CB. Join ON. NA QM' PN^ = HM MK = 03P 0N\ : : . .ARCHIMEDES. : : .CG. essentially the is of course same as the proof for the ellipse. This is when the curve an because the line from to the middle point of AD is perpen- dicular to the plane of the ellipse. : . . but not follows that also necessarily perpendicular to a generating line of the cone. it OPQ is a straight line.An'=CJr-:FC.Ft' CG. and.CG). Take a cone with apex ellipse just ellipse. CA) = CB':A'C. and passing through the possible even circle or is drawn.{FC. MK={QM' DM. no importance in this connexion because the ellipse was still called the "section of an acute-angled cone" after it was discovered that . a circle with diameter A/J. The proof that the three conies can be produced by means of sections of any circular cone. : Hence cone.

H HISTORY OF CONICS.sections of conical surfaces and the proofs given in his later investi- gations of the elliptic sections of the various surfaces of revolution. (2) " If an obtuse-angled conoid [a hyperboloid of revolution] be cut by a plane through the axis or parallel to the axis or through the apex of the cone enveloping will ])e a section of an obtuse-angled cone () : the conoid. on the proposition that. And its diameter [axis] will be the section of the plane which axis perpen- and of that which dravn through the dicular to the cutting plane. as further evidence. not similar. pnjducwl by means of a plane cutting all the generating any cone. whatever its vertical angle.section will by a plane through the axis or parallel to the : be a section of an acute-angled cone if through the axis. Heiberg concludes that Archimedes only obtained the parabola in the old way it could lines of because he describes the parameter as double of the line betAveen the vertex of the paralx)la and the axis of the cone. Zeuthen points we have the following propositions enunciated by Archimedes vithout pioof {On Conoids (1) and Spheroids. the . (3) any one of the spheroidal figures be cut axis. the section will be a section of a right-angled cone the same as that compre- hending the figure cuts the figure ( common is ). the actual section which comprehends the figure if paralle%o the axis. the if parallel to the axis." Archiniodes adds that the proofs of all these propositions are : ob\ious.: xlvi THE ])e KARLIF. the section will be the figure And the diameter [axis] of common section of the plane which cuts the and of that drawn through the axis at right angles to the " If cutting plane. it is therefore tolerably certain that they were based on the same essential principles as his earlier proofs relating to the . similar to it. the fact that manner. 11) [a paraboloid of revolution] be "If a right-angled conoid cut by a plane through the axis or parallel to the axis. These depend. which correct in the case of the right-angled cone . is only no more an objection to the continued use of the term as a well-known description of the parameter than it is an objection to the continued use by Archimedes of the term "section of an acute-angled but this is cone" that the ellipse had been found to be obtainable in a different out. as will be seen. if two chords . same as that comprehending the similar to it and if through the apex of the cone enveloping the conoid. the section : if [the cutting plane figure: passes] through the axis.

are diawn and if FG. drawn point. the section f»f the hyperboloid. . the ratio MG . in if straight lines Fd. is in fixed directions meet . and the EC to be its intersection with the plane of section which is Let Q be any point on perpendicular to the plane of the paper. given by Avay of example. and is not perpendicular to the axis.MK FM . the ratio of the rect- angles under the segments independent of the position of the This corresponds exactly to the use. of the proposition (13) of the treatise On Conouh and Spheroids which proves re- that the section of an obtuse-angled conoid [a hyperboloid of volution] by any plane which meets all the generators of the enveloping cone. of the former where the conic reduces to two straight is Tlie following a reproduction. any point M. line Suppose the plane of the paper to be this latter piano. in the above proofs with regard to the cone. of the proposition that. and draw QM perpendicular to liC. : HM constant the latter property being in fact the particular case lines. in fixed directions intersect in is !i point. is an ellipse whose major axis is the part intercepted within the hyperboloid of the line of intersection of the cutting plane and the plane through the axis perpendicular to it.ARCHIMKDES. IIK between two lines forming an angle.

whence a fortiori Therefore and therefore OT<OP. so that we may probably assume that Archimedes was aware of this it property of the liyperbola.xlviii THE EARLIEI? HISTORY OF CONK'S. is Now to let PT be let it that tangent to the hyperbola Avhich parallel in 0. not easy to see how could be readily proved except by that. It is certain that the corresponding general proposition for the PV \ was familiar to him . Lt't ^^-^' the hyperlxtlic section of the hyperboloid made by the phine of the paper and AD its axis. (h-aw J'JDF at right angles to A J) meeting the hyperbola Then the point on it. [p. the second the latter assumption is also interesting. is OA <0P. because a property of hyperholas that AT<AN. (rt) it will be seen. while the tangent QT meets the diameter in 2\ then TP' = PV : P' V. Archimedes. the section through BC. is the axis. and that in a hyperbola AN>AT. MC = OA' which is : OP'. or at least of the particular case of where the diameter paralxila. It is also at once evident that all parallel elliptic sections are similar. BC\ and and the tangent at A Draw /'' Then perpendicular to AD. if means of the general property PP' be a diameter of a hyperbola and from any point Q on the curve the ordinate QV rP : be drawn to the diameter. here assumes two propositions equal to the constant ratio that the ratio of the rectangles under the segments of is intersecting chords in fixed directions of the squares (0) on the parallel tangents to the conic. section of the hyperljoloid by the plane through EF a perpendicular to AD is a circle. The first of these two propositions has already been referred to as liaving been known before Archimedes' time It is xxxv] . lies in its plane. : . QM . . Through J/ in this plane in E. for he makes frequent use ..f it. F. on an ellipse Q lies whose major axis BC. QM- : BM MC = EM MF . . constant for all positions of it is Q on Also OA < OP. and (? is Therefore QM' = meet the axis EM in MF.

" The two diameters (axes) of an ellipse are called conjugate {<. (2) in the hyperboloid. but are simply ( ).ARCHIMEDES. d . In a spheroid the the straight line ' diameter ' has a special signification.). it may be useful to note some peculiarities in his nomenclature as compared with that of Apollonius.' The term axis is only used with reference revolution. (3) in the spheroid. The asymptotes lilies of a hyperbola are in section Archimedes the straight (at nearest to the * of the obtuse-angled conp Spheroids. drawn through the centre. The term diameter. infer tlie major axis « is ellipse ' ' from the fact that the figiire ' diameter ' of a hyperbola its is identified with the axis of the described by revolution about the diameter. only applied to what was afterwards called the axis. p. 282. as it meets {) * the surface in the vertex (). Thus we are told that "those spheroidal figures are called similar whose axes have the same ratio to the diameters*. (1) in the paraboloid. by the diameter is only understood that part of it which is within the (. joining the vertex of the segment and the apex of the enveloping cone. and . joining the vertices of the two segments into Avhich the figure is divided. is * the line adjacent to the In the parabola diameters other than to the axis are called the lines parallel the diameter but in a segment of a parabola that one which bisects the base of the segment is In the ellipse called the diameter of the segment diameters otlier than the axes have no special name. when used with In an reference to the complete conic as distinguished from a segment. Tiiis 8(. dravn through the vertex of the segment parallel to the axis of revolution. Sta/xcrpo? and the minor axis a. is For the hyperbola.single-branch) hj^erbola. As a preliminary to collecting and arranging in order the otlici• properties of conies either assumed or proved by Archimedes. meaning (defined as the middle dravn through the centre point of the axis) at right angles to the axis. For the complete figure it is the axis ' lines to the solids of . of revolution for tlie a segment cut oflf by a plane it is the portion intercepted within segment of the line. ' the distance between the vertex and the apex of the enveloping cone [the centre of the revolving hyperbola] axis ' (d 7€' ). while the axis of the hyperboloid does not extend outside it. C. On Conoidn mid H. the vertex of any segment being the point of contact of the tangent plane parallel to the base.

are sim'ilar ( ovv o/ixotci 3. ? ).AN' A'N' = BB'. j<p.— THE EARLIER HISTORY OF CONICS. When the asymptotes of a hyperbola revolve with the curve round the axis they generate the cone enveloping or comprehenditig the liyperboloid. 1 eieHaL centre of a liyperbola nearest lines is meet (to Archimedes never speaks of the use of as it .:AA" or CB' CA' : . The proposition that all parabolas are similar was evidently familiar to Archimedes. ^ of )7. 1. I. The proposition about the rectangles under the segments of xxxv and xlviii). General. 1. relations : AiV. . It will be convenient first The following enumeration* to divide gives the principal properties of conies mentioned or proved in Archimedes. though have of course not considered myself excused in any instiincf fron> referring to the original. 41 fur Mathematik xtnd Physik {Hintorisch-Iiterarische Abthcihnig) This article ie a complete guide to the relevant passages in I Arcliimedes. which does not appear earlier than in Apollonius. The criteria of similarity in the case of central conies and of segments of conies are practically the same as tliose given by Apollonius.). a 'diameter' (axis) are perpendicular to II. and is in fact involved in his statement that intersecting chords has been already mentioned (p. ( To/i. : ' of a hyperbola indeed the implies the conception of the two branches of a hyperbola forming one curve.a5 £5 (. A'N= FN'. 2. all paraboloids of revolution €vti). They fall naturally under four heads. Similar conies." contained in the ZeilHchri/l IfiHO. them into classes. taking those propositions which are earlier writers. while what the jwint we call the Archimedes centre in which the /.' for * /?). TuE The Ellipse. Tangents at the extremities of it. : * A word acknowledgement is due here to Heiberg for tlie valuable summary of " Die Kenntnisse des Arcliimedes iiber die Kegelschuitte. or either quoted as having been proved by assumed as known.

). The The straight line drawn from the centre all to the point of contact of a tangent bisects 5. The Hyperbola. tangents passes through the centre and. are constantly used as expressing the fundamental property and the criterion 2. 3. QV: : Q'V" = PV. no doubt. arrived at by producing procedure AC and measuring CA' along it used for finding the lengths /*'. he had no conception of diameters or radii of a hyperbola not meeting the curve. 6.. only used in order to avoid mention of the cone of through A A'. is tlie 'vertex'].rV^Q'V" . the an ellipse.' major axis as diameter. -. the following. PN to the axis of the ellipse be produced to meet the then pN 4. and in the This term for AA'. QV also occurs. the sections will be either circles or ellipses equal and similar III. PP' line adjacent to the axis [in (12 . other of a segment of which PP' was. equal to CA and the san>e the other extremity of the diameter are then in each case double of the one case of the whole surface. by a plane meeting all the generators. A' : AN' A'N\ .P'V:PV'. as fundamental properties. : PN^ P'N" = AN.P'r. the parallels through those points to the chord of contact of the original parallel tangents will touch the ellipse. a cylinder be cut by tAvo parallel planes each meeting all to one another. 1. : P^== (const. We find. chords parallel to the tangent. straight line joining the points of contact of parallel . A' is . by which it is established that a curve The more general proposition is an ellipse. the generators. from which we may infer that : . if a line be drawn through the centre parallel to either tangent and meeting the ellipse in two points. but Archimedes does not give any expression for the constant ratios PN' AN. If Che the point of concourse is : of the asymptotes. If a cone be cut is section either a circle or if Also.FV. A' and QV^ PV P'V.ARCHIMEDES. and If a circle be described on the an ordinate circle in p.

then If PX. and from another point lines are similarly two other straight 3. If a line between the asymptotes meets a hyperbola and it will is bisected at the point of concourse. 1.Pr j)„ (the principal parameter) is called by Archimedes the parameter -ertex). A line the point of contact of any tangent bisects tangent. 5.PV' ]' We find also the forms '^2^•^ QV'=2y. P2\ the tangent at P. AN>AT. the rectangles contained by each pair will be equal*. and respectively. meet the axis in N. The Parabola. to the axis [of the cone] tSs The term 'parameter' is constant in the last of the four equations just given. touch the hyperbola f. later in the order of things. * and is also described as the do7ible of the line extending [from the vertex] ^. for it is obvious that A A' appeared first as the distance along the principal diameter of the hyperbola intercepted between the vertex and the point where half of the double cone. On the Sphere and Cylinder. through the point of concourse of the asymptotes and all chords parallel to the the principal ordinate from P. Parallel chords are bisected by one line parallel to tlie axis • This proposition aud in his note t Tliis its converse appear in a fragment given by Eutocius on the 4th proposition of Book ii. 4. not applied by Archimedes to p.and of width equal to 2. as the introduction of this cone might have complicated matters (seeing that the enveloping cone also appears). IV.Hi THE EARLIER HISTORY OV CONICS. any directions to meet the asymptotes. which the hyperbola is a section. PN' :P'N'*=:AN :AN' \ and QV':Q'V" = PV. the is simply described as the line to which the rectangle equal to QV. of the ordinates (parallel to the tangent at the 5 /. F is applied. . . drawn parallel respectively to the former. is also used in the fragment quoted by Eutocius. it and the notion meets the surface of the opposite of the asymptotes came in If from a point on a hyperbola two straight lines are drawn 2.

= p. = QV'-:QD\ xxxv. then FH perpendicular to the tangent at P.) is obvious that this at an// jjoint is equivalent to the proposition that the subnormal parameter.iji<d . If QD be drawn perpendicular to the diameter be the parameter PV bisecting the chord Q VQ'. tangent at that A in E.= PT' =^ : OP = }. tangents can be drawn to a parabola («) from a point on it. xxxvi). and \i of the ordinates parallel to is QQ' while . const(tnt (uul equal to half the priii<. and KF be the measured along the axis away from the vertex and equal to half the parameter. from ApoUonius' proposili PV meet the 49 [Prop. is ii. p.. 5. 3. Thus Q' : PN-. -22]. AN Pa. '. If the tangent at Q meet the diameter . and PT. by similar : triangles. It is (See the next figure. AN V in = P 'Pa-] t. tion I. while KII is dravn perpendicular to diameter through any point P.AN. the proposition in question proves OP and .•. It is [This proposition has already been mentioned above easily derived (p.PE = p: 2P1\ =^. we have principal this proposition : If be a point on the axis. 6. y^„ the principal parameter. In the treatise On floatimj bodies tQv ( ). A intersect in 0. () parallel to a given chord. .ARCHIMEDES. aiul a line parallel tu the axis bisects chords parallel to the tangent at the point where the said line cuts the parabola.PT . By the aid of the preceding. PV=PT. QD. p:p. and QV he an ordinate to the diameter.

parallel to the tangent at P.{AK .) {On floating [There is nothing to show where or by vhom the proposition was demon- strated. that QQ' is perpendicuhir to the axis. : PlI ^^^MK : A. If QAQ' be a segment of a paraljola such while QV<]. Now PV_ PV.AK ." G.AN) -AK) . 7. is jwsittve or zero. then (J/ being the middle point of QQ') PV II. bodies. have to prove that PV .MK ^ . Let Qq meet AM in _ ~ 0. and if li be any other point on the curve the ordinate from which RlIK meets PV in // and the axis in /. but the proof can be supplied as follows We . A AK PV . "/o7• this is proved. PH ~ - .MK {A PH.: liv THE EARLIER HISTORY oF CONICS. meets the diameter through in .

tiie we observe middle points of the bases of the three . the property enunciated above. V^. and each of the three segments in B^. V^ be : R/J = BO : OQ^. 1 of the next if group) and demonstrates that. then ^ [This proposition is bq^-q^q: it is given in this place because bodies. . BQ. their if BQ . the common base in 0.^ lying along the same straight and EO tangent at he dravn parallel to the axis of any of the segments meeting the to one of them in E. ments have one extremity bases paraljolic seg- () of their bases common and line. BQ. Quadrature of a jiarabola which the reader could work out for The latter proposition is given below (No. AllCHlMKDKS.. B^.. R^.] If any three similar and similarly situated 8. Iv b(i which is a complete square. it il. BB be the tangent at to the segment BB^(J^ ER^ To deduce from this first that.. But it may well be that was too well known to need proof. assumed without proof {On floating it is assumed. not because 10). but as being an easy deduction from another proposition proved in the himself. if V ^. and therefore cannot negative 'TV MK\ whence the proposition follows.

7'. TJ\ = PJ^ (where . 7?^^.. ]\P^ BE in meet BE in = \).. 7. and BRJi. V. : J\.Q.. : BQ^ BQ„.-similarly R& ^BOJQ^^ ^^ BQ^. : and />/i' is therefore a tangent to all Next. be placed as dt-scribed in the preceding proposition...-bq: Similarly . since BE if is the tangent at segment BR^Q^. since the segments are /n\ It follows that : B]\ Ji]\ . BQ_. be any f .BQ^ it From the last two results follows that R^r BQ. then. three segments. : : From the tirst two relations we derive I' EO \BQ^ BqJ ^BO. />. = ^. bq. EO = BO ER^ EO = BO : : : : (?(?.BO ER^ ^0 = 7iO ER. P^. 7^3 : PJ\ : 1\V.''and ^ ^. 1\.I\V. F^ segments and the simihar. meets Therelforo. If two similar parabolic segments with bases if BQ . meet the respective segments in ^.'QM' 9.. V^... are in one straight line. Ivi THE EARLIER (parallel) IIIS'IORV OF CONICS.... .Q. diameters through F. since ER^ Similarly and Rfi . P^. to the But.

•.^ : ER. re. : ER^ . we obtain BO. : Bli^. Using the last figure.nn^ /?.^...ER^^BQ^ is .^A. and therefore 0.Q ^Q. being equal to l. BQ. a sti'aight line of a given length and in a direction parallel to the diameters of either parabola. A7i. ' whence which is /?(9.. and A'AA^ . and assume the problem solved.AllC'llIMKDES. BQ. common Tlien. can be found. Tiierefore B0\ or OE'. A'. [Let the given length be I. between two parabolic segments. J> cutting the segments in then BQ^ : BQ. BQ. we have BO ER^ BQ^~ EO' BO '""^ ER bcCeo• Subtracting. similar and similarly situated as in the last case. the ratio And BO OE : is given. in E. the diameter through determines A A. ^ RR. EB^ and .si»ectively. .. Lastly. = BR^ BR^. With the exception 1 V . . EO BQ. is But. BR.] BQ^ : : Archimedes assumes the solution of the problem of placing..] either It remains to describe the investigations in which it is expressed or implied that they represent new developments of the of theory of conies due to Archimedes himself. and the meet the tangent at Ijase in 0. we have in like manner : ER Hence 10. ^^^"^^S known. BQ. straight line tlirough IvU A'.EO^BO: ER -.. as in the last proposition. a point within the segment BR(J. 0^ - / . the diameter through A.. : EO = BO : BQ^. the [Let the diameter through other segment in A. since A.

so that : . and for the demonstration of this fact the following lemma is assumed f that the excess by which the greater of (two) unequal areas exceeds the less can. : The Greek of this passage is . each of the no less than those proved . his discoveries mostly have reference to the parabola and. he proceeds " And after thfit they endeavoured to square the area of the bounded by the section vhole cone* and a straight it line. ^ an might perhaps mean a section cutting and the straight line might be an axis or ' ' ' But Heiberg objects tlie to the suggestion to read tSj /tot in view of addition of expression always signifies on the ground that the former the whole of an ellipse. never a segment of it ii'^iiay. right through a diameter. 1 (see p. Ixiii). and further that every pyramid is one third part of the prism having the same base with the pyramid and equal altitude also. on that subject (which was called by but ircpi interesting. The .Iviii THE HISTOKV OF COXICS. : the expression in the text is ras and ' it is not easy to give a natural and intelligible meaning section of i. that every : cone one third part of the cylinder having the same base as the cone and equal altitude they proved by assuming a certain is lemma similar to that aforesaid.}: There seems to be some corruption here to it. and that assuming lemmas not easily conceded. x. it is here shown that every segment bounded by a straight line and a section of a right-angled cone is four-thirds of the triangle which has the same base and an equal altitude with the segment. t Tiie lemma is used in tlie and not in the geometrical proof. it.e. was recognised by most people that the problem was not solved. by being added to itself. in particular. certain propositions relating to the areas of ellipses. the whole cone ellipse. not is ) : to the treatise ۥ6<. Ixi. p. in the result. The earlier geometers have also used this lemma for it is by the use of this same lemma that they have shown that circles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of their diameters. The preface Archimedes. aforesaid theorems has been accepted * And. 1411). ^.segment bounded by a straight line and a section of a right-angled For cone. . After alluding to the attempts of the earlier geometers to square the circle and a segment of a circle. be made to exceed any given finite area. But I am not aware that any one of my predecessors has attempted to square the . of which problem I have now discovered the solution. to the determination of the area of any parabolic segment. 16 of the treatise) which depends on Eucl. mechanical proof only (Prop. spheres are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their diameters. ^ (Qtuiestioties Archiviedeae.

^ demonstrated by geometry. then (1) QV. * According to Archimedes' definition the height (%) of the segment is " the greatest perpendicular from the curve upon the base. first three propositions are simple ones merely stated without Avhich are given below. 1/ Qq be the base of any segment of a parabola. first as investigated and next also as ^ . viz. has the same test as the propositions referred I have written out the proof of by means of meclianics Prefixed are. and the tangent at Q in E. As it therefore my work now it pulilishi'd to. any other point R on the curve meet Qq in QP in F." and the vertex "the point (on the curve) from which the greatest perpendicular it ^ is €€•4>' . the elementary propositions in conies which are of service in the proof " es The proof. were apparently not . 1." The vertex therefore P. . is more germane. and if the diameter through the vertex* of the segment. ^ ^).AUCHIMKDKS. ( Here is avev must be wrong and that the Passive would seem that should have been used. t These results are used in the mcchanicnl investigation of the area of The mechanical proof is here omitted both because it is more lengthy and because for the present purpose the geometrical proof given a parabolic segment.Oq (2) = FP:POf. and send to you. no doubt accounts for what might at first seem strange. they do not appear in the Conies of Apollonius.VO = OF:FR. The remainder. QO •. considered as forming part of the elementary theory of conies this fact. also. ( and 0. the extremity of the diameter bisecting Qq. without satisfied tlie lix lemma. () below drawn. together Avith the circumstance that they and appear only as that subsidiary to the determination of the areas of parabolic segments.

since : qO = OF • OR. PQ PK=PQ' :PF\ In other words..OV = FR. 7i' II' we draw the onliuate to I'V. Gl) that the results (1) and (2) above can be put in the forms and RO. RO = y. Now therefore. ' = (p. by parallels. QV VO^OF : FR. QO . To piOve (2).Oq^ER: RO.OQ^ER. Qq:qO^OE: or It is clear that the equation (1) of axes of coordinates OR. Qq (as axis of .qO RO. above is equivalent to a change from the tangent and diameter to the chord (as the axis of y). J'V : DV^QV : : JiW. Ix THE To prove (1). have at once from _ «_ _ X—a OF OF . PF. : : + PF tlierefore.•.qO (1) (2) . we obtain from the relation just proved QV Also. PQ. : PK are = = in continued proportion '. TP = PV. EF=^ OF. meeting QP in K. EAIILIKR HIsniHV OF CONICS. ' a ^' " whence Zcutlieu points out •2-~ j/y y — x).'. PQ PF-^ PF PF + PQ QF:KF. by jjaralleLs.y OF y ~ (2fi . . Accordingly. if QV=a. say) and the diameter through Q For... PV d' nd . doubling the antecedents in the proportion.-e if QO = (1) X.

make less them. then PV = ^RM. Therefore the tangent at R is parallel to . if we continually take away an area greater than the half. say). PQq is The triangle greater than half the segment PQq. respect to the lines Qq." the distances of the movable point Thus the first represents the equality of the rectangles formed. It follows that a j^olygon can he inscribed Jess in the segment such that the remaining segments are together area. x. PV :PW=QV' -. be the RM QV RW ordinate to For PV from R. parallelogram q. from ' taken in fixed directions from the fixed lines Qq. two and two. If QD QT ami Gq. With the same V. assntyiptions as in No. PV=^RM. It is therefore Cor. and either of Ixi these equations represents a particular case of the parabola as a "locus with respect to four lines. the triangle PQq is equal to eight times the triangle RPQ. than any assignable For. clearly. 2 aboi'e. : RW. and the diameters through Q. by continually diminishing the remainders. and 3.•. PV=iPW. together than any given area (Eucl. PV. the tangent at P. For the triangle the PQq is equal to half contained by Qq. at some time. and 2. he a dianiPter bisectiny in J/. PQ and Gq (where Gq is the diameter while the second represents the same property with through q) . we can 4.ARCHIMEDES. (the diameter through Q). greater than half the segment. 1). it RM bisects Q Now and therefore bisects PQ (in Y.RW = ^RW' .

j PQq = i(APQR + A Pqr) therefore. Given the seft'ies. Therefore is A +B+C+ J) + equal to the area of a certain inscribed polygon. and therefore less than the area of the segment. triangles similarly in- manner we can prove that the scribed in the remaining segments are together equal to the area C. C. B.just described.. C.+z+\z=yA. and so on. D. will be less PQq. if be tlie last of the then A + B + C + ... then snm of all the areas than the area of the parabolic segment PQq. A.. B.. C. A . since A PQq :^ 8 A PQR = 8 Pqr... series A. D. each of which is four if the largest. For. 1/ there tJie be a sei'ies times the next in order. since PQq = A.THE EARLIER HISTORY OF CONICS. B. if liW produced moot the curve again in r. and of areas A. Also. 6. D. A PQR In like + APqr = B. 8 Prq. 1^ PQq = 5.. is equal to the triatigle A. similarly.

.

and the next pairs of that the lines joining the two angles of the figwe so inscribed to the vertex which are nearest angles in order. liave But tiie intention does not appear to been carried out. ^ X by an area it less than X. means of the above-mentioned properties of parabolic segments and the last words indicate an intention to collect the propositions in systematic order with proofs. since Now. 4 it. The second proposition of plaries thr equilibrium for the construction of a {) = A' =^ .\i). 2.. 2 above (p. ) to Atul (1) it is plain of the segment. proves them by means of Apollonius' Conies. exceeds l)y A ^ -C - . if again triangles be inscribed in the remaining segments having the same bases as those segments and equal altitude. and enunciates certain in the following passage : theorems connected with a segment bounded by a straight line and a section of a light-angled cone a triangle be inscribed having the same base as the segment and equal altitude. (3) and that they will cut the diameter in the proportiojis of (he successive odd numbers.Ixiv THE EARLIER HISTORY OF COXICS. 4 above.+X is greater tlian the segment : which is impossible. PQq. let the figure so produced to be manner {the in the segment. l.. polygon in a parabolic segment after the and 5 above. follows that yl+j5 + is C+. and the segment an area greater than X. but the . since the segment follows that neither greater nor less than it the segment 8. and if in the remaining segments triangles be be said inscribed in the recognised continually inscribed in the same manner. Tims. that the said lines tvill be bisected by diameter of the segment. (2) be jxirallel to the base of the segment. by No... /i". the the number one having reference [the length adjacent And places (ev ] vertex these properties ^). . or at least Ave know of no lost work of Eutocius Archimedes in whicli they could have been included. of the second Book of the treatise On gives a special term manner indicated " If in in Nos. as he does not appear to have seen the lirst two are easily derived work on the area of a parabolic segment from No. have to be proved in their proper These propositions were no doubt established ])y Archimedes by ." of the segment.

are : all parallel PI'. and bisected by /'K. = 9• -(/' 1:3:5:7 QQ' be a chord of a ^>«•((? bisected in V by the diameter and if PV is of constant length.<?. . figure If QiQjQoQ^PQ^Qofl/ly <?.^.. The since third may be proved as folloAvs...^ : . PV^ : PV.^ : -^. : VV. then the areas of tL• triangle PQQ' and of the segvtent PQQ' are both constant tvhatever be the direction of QQ' V. II..J\. whence it follows tliat PF. ARCHIMEDES. . . » a- Qj/.. : V. = 1 4 : 9 : 16 . : Ixv we lia%e.. C. . .....

to place between them a straight line given in length and verging towards a given point.] [On Conoids and Spheroids. 5. Prop. liii) Also.] not within the scope of the present Avork to give an account conic sections. so that bisected perpendicularly by the axis at the point If where if A. towards a point if. The areas of their axes . 4 of the book ellipse On Conoids and Spheroids. Its meaning best gathered from Pappus' explanation." "A semicircle and a straight Hne at right angles to the base being given in . the purpose of solving equations of a degree higher than the second or in the problems * known as vcuacts*. is also constant under the same The area of any to the ellipse is to that of a circle whose diameter is to the equal niajm' axis of the ellipse as the minor axis rmtjor (or the diameter of the circle). BN. circle is proved in Prop. commonly is inclinatio in Latin. The area of an is d. AABB' PQQ' is = APQQ'. since : AN = PV. and No. Also the area of the segment PQQ' therefore the area of the segment conditions.y^PV. Ixiii]. [On Conoids ami Spheroids. we have (by p. It is 6 and Cor. Ixvi If THE EARLIER HISTORY OF BAB' be CONICS. 3 on (JD be drawn perpendicular to PV. for and others.AN=QD. wJwse axes are h is to that of a whose diameter as ah to d^.•. QV BN-=p . 12. Prop. p. says it C70) : " A line is said to verge [vtvuv) being produced. reaches the point.PV. is is equal to ^.] a. 10." As particular cases of the general form of the problem he gives the following ' ' Two lines being given in position. :pa\ Hence and Therefore the triangle is BN=QD. [This 11.g. /\PQQ' 7. BB' is the particular segment whose vertex is A. The former application He The word (p. [No. vtvci^.: . ellipses are to one another as the rectangles one another as the under and hence similar ellipses are to squares of corresponding axes. of constant area provided that FV of given length. by Archimedes of the applications of e. is difficult to translate satisfactorily.

" or as we might say. Die Lehre von den Kec/elschnitten im Alterhim. (hi thr is whore the problem to cut a given sphere (by a plane) so that the segments may bear to one another a given ratio. involved in Prop. 8 and 9. Though Archimedes and does not give the solution. to place between and verging towards a corner of the position. just as the Latin iuclhiatio (and for that matter the Greek term itself) does not explicitly express the other requirement that the intercepted portion of the line shall be of given length. Props.ssumes the following problem to be eftected If be any chord of a circle a any point on the circumference. e. full A account of these applications of conic sections by the be found in the 11th and 12th chapters of Zeuthen's (Greeks work. 4 of Book IT. in : which Archimedes a. * Cf. veOais by " Einschiebung." Thus a line has to be laid across two given lines or curves so that it passes through a given point and the portion intercepted between the Unes or curves is equal to a given length. we may infei• that he obtained it by means of conic sections*. Pappus.ARCIIIMEDKS. or the two lines a straight line given in length semicircle. . 298—302.g. Zeuthen translates the word "interpolation" . to draw through in D and the circle again in straight line OBP meeting and such that DP is equal to a given length. but this fails to express the condition that the required line must pass through a given point. The book On Spirals contains propositions which assume the solution of certain i'£vVct9. pp. two semicircles with their bases in a straight line. is IxvU Sp/it're aiifl Ci/Rii'ler.

to whom he dedicated the first three of the eight Books of the Conies. and that he went when quite young to Alexandria. four in the original Greek. • works of ApoUonius wliich are still extant in Greek. Leipzig. See ApoUonius Heibein) Vol. to which Halley added a conjectural restoration of the eighth Book. the fragments TJie first four of the other the commentaries lOiitocius. According to the testimony of Geminus." Seven Books only out of the eight have survived.PART . wliich contains. he was greatly held in honour by his contemporaries. information about ApoUonius. is from the sixth liook of Geminus' ii. that he flourished under Ptolemy Philopator. in Pamphylia.C. I. p. L. that he was born at Perga. 1891 and 1893). .). J. where he studied under the successors of Euclid. quoted by Eutocius. and the remaining three in a Latin translation from the Arabic. in admiration of his n)arvellous treatise on conies. INTRODUCTION TO THE CONICS OF APOLLONIUS. the first four Books being given in Greek with a Latin translation. They vere edited by Halley in 1710. We possess only the most meagre viz. . and the commentaries of The quotation (ed. and lemmas of Pai)pus. called him the "great geometer*. CHAPTER THE AUTHOR AND HIS ACCOUNT OF THE COXICS. to We also hear of a visit Pergamum. and three in an Arabic translation. Books have recently appeared in a new edition by Heiberg (Teubner. who. in addition to the Greek text and a Latin translation. in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes (247-222 B. where he made the acquaintance of Eudemus. 170.

and that. intention of returning to them I noAv take the opportunity of publishing each portion from time to time. But. as it is gradually corrected. Uebersetzung des Thabit ibn Corrah wbich however goes no further than the middle of the 7tb Book v.THE AUTHOR AND HIS OWN ACCOUNT OF THE iulditional light Coy/cs. Conies reference should be 1. a thorough revision all (as he was on the Wherefore it point of but putting doAvn that occurred to me. and ends ou p. do not be surprised if you find them in a different shape. telling my Avithout sailing). I observed that you Avere eager . " Apollonius to Eudemus. When t(j you in Pergamum. 32 in the middle of a . after Avorking it out in eight books. I Avas with I too am tolerably well. LudAvig Nix published a German translation in 1889*. since the monumental edition of Halley. General preface. greeting. The following is a literal translation of the dedicatory letters in which Apollonius introduces the various Books of his Conies to Eudemus and Attalus respectively. become acquainted with the first my Avork in conies therefore I send you book which I have corrected. in other respects as you Avish. * This appeared in a dissertation entitled Das 188'J). someAvhat too hurriedly. I daresay you have not forgotten you that I undertook the investigation of this subject at the request of Naucrates the geometer at the time Avhen he came to Alexandria and stayed with me. . of which L. I communicated them to him at once.sentence with thu words " gleich dem Quadrat von " The fragment is nevertheless valuable in that it gives a new translation of the important preface to Book v. except as first few propositions of Book V. " If you are in good health and circumstances are it is Avell . Avith the later. Ixix has been thrown on the Arabic text of Books V. and editions of the made to the Prolegomena to the second volume of Heiberg's edition. since has chanced that some other persons also Avho have been Avith me have got the first and second books before they Avere corrected. part of which proposition of ! Halley appears to have misundorstood. For fuller details relating to the MSS. M... to regards the preface and the VII. Book I. fiinfte Buck der Conica de» Apollonius von I'erga in der arabischcn (Leipzig. and the remaining books have finished them to I Avill forward Avhen I my satisfection.

the remark that a certain problem " stated tiius absolutely requires a but. irJiich are equal to three {licen straight lines. Now of the eight books the . . to conntruct a triangle: for in this case lines it is of course a necessary condition that any the two of the straight taken together must be greater p. for a real tion immediately following the solution of the equation . Many that. as . 214].' says : who propounds a problem. it does not require a . e. it is a necessai-y condition that b -- Again. ] . may be pardoned and man who seeks a solution in held free from to determine at is the question of the possible and the impossible.r((( - . but. " But he 178]. as in the cases just quoted." [Comm. number of possible points of intersection of That Book deals with the two conies it follows that. frequently involves. first four form an elemeutary introduction ( three sections and the opposite branches [of the hyperbola] avTLKei out more fully and generally than in the writings of other authors . not only a necessary condition. when . it is [' the business of the and. if the solution be possible. mean by diameters The third book the many remarkable theorems loci useful for the synthesis solid and determinations of limits." ( -\ . but says when it it and how and in how many ways it is possible to make the required construction." Instances of the common enough.Ixx " INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. the blame for same time . the determination of the number of solutions. one word the meaning of most and here.g. ) will the first contains the modes of producing the and their fundamental properties worked the second treats of the properties of the diameters and axes of the sections as well as the asymptotes and other things of general imi)ortance and necessary for determining limits of possibility (77/309 rov<i ^. the by their intersections of solutions with given conies the feet of normals to the to light at the number to comes same time as the conditions necessary admit of a solution. closely connected therewith.v} = b-. instances will be found in Apollonius' work it but it is to be observed he uses the term.)*. even though he requires what some reason impossible of realisation. This can be readily understood when the use of the iv. if certain conditions here existing are added. when and how and are how many ways Cf. On the Sphere and Cylinder [p. is word in tlie preface to Book considered. From three stniinht lines. on Apoll. '27. Euclid vi. it possible. in the fifth Book hyperbolas are used for determining latter. In like manner Pappus is for [p. . like that which occurs in the twenty-second proposition of Euclid's Elements. we find in Archimedes. which gives the criterion for the possibility of a real solution of the proposithere expresses the fact that. 30]. and what learn I and axes you contains of will from this book. than remaining one. in explaining the distinction between a 'theorem' and a 'problem. * It is not possible to express in In explanation of [] perhaps be best to quote Eutocius who speaks of " that which does not admit that the proposition is general.

.ion " a section of a cone or (3) the circumference of a circle. has baen translated " more advanced. may we should hardly have - where the or a circumference of a circle." See. ^." Thus to combine the reading of our text and that of Pai)pus would give a satisfactory sense as follows "in how many points a section of a cone : . given below.). but only a chance for it and that not successfully: was not possible that the synthesis could have been completed without discoveries. Hultsch pertinent. € . { rest [of the books] are : more by Avay of surplusage fully (eVt one of them deals somewhat minima and maxima. (7€€) "The TrXeov) with limits sections of cones.f THE AUTHOR AND HIS OWN ACCOUNT OF THE prettiest of these theorems are new. of The contents Book iv." ." but extensions of the subject beyond translates "ad abundautiorem . Ixxi the locus with respect to portion of it when I had discovered had not worked out the synthesis of three and four lines. in addition. is and the last with determinate Heiberg's ( Halley had read Heiberg thinks Halley's longer interpolation unnecessary. * The reading here translated < rat's but I cannot help thinking that Halley gives the truer reading. as well as opposite branches. .scientiam mere essentials. for the following reasons. p. intersect opposite branches. show that the sense is not really complete without the mention of the number of intersections of a double-branch hyperbola with another double-branch hyperbola as well as with any of the single-branch couics describing what was and it is scarcely conceivable that AiJoUonius. and. (1) ." and Heiberg less precisely the •'ulterius progrediuntur. the note [resiiectively] on the corresponding literally it passage in the preface to Book + implies iv. my additional The fourth book shows in how many ways the of a sections of cones circle : meet one another and the circumference it contains other matters in ad<Jition. thera. none of which has been discussed by earlier writers. one with equal and similar ^. one with theorems involving determination of conic problems. in less new (2) in his work. the plural If Heiberg's reading is right after the disjunctive expres-. " a section of words are a cone with the circumference of a circle and opposite branches with opposite branches. Hultsch." in There is positive evidence for Pappus' quotation from this preface [ed. concerning the number of points in which a section of a cone or the circumference of a circle meets [the opposite branches of a hyperbola] *. 676]. should have mentioned only the complicated question. I observed that Euclid t'OXICS.

without the added words. grec-ting. Preface to Book II." visit the neighbourhood of Pergamum. Take care of your health. Preface to Book IV. it and because. greeting. I to Eudemus of Pergannim the books first three books of my conies collected in eight but. it is well. I too am moderately have sent my son Apollonius to you with the second conies. it " When all the books arc published to will of course cis be open to those who read them Farewell. 2. I good health. of sections of a cone with the double-branch hyperbola. to the text as above translated the words ^ is Heiberg thinks the addition unnecessary as in the above." judge them they individually please. as essentially distinct questions. " Some time . whom I introduced you in Ephesus. to specify separately. ago. It contains a discussion of the question. to my it collected to if Peruse it carefully and comin those who are worthy to take part such And Philonides the geometer. expounded and sent " Apollonius to Attains.Ixxii ixriiODUCTiox apollonius. " Apoliouius to Eudenius. I have resolved to send the remaining books to you because of your earnest desire to possess my Avorks. 3. in "If you are well. and further how many points at most a section of a cone and the circumference of a circle meet the opposite branches [of a hyperbola] * • Here again Halley adds ^. one another and the circumference of a on the sup- position. as he has passed away. in it is how many meet in points at most possible for the sections of cones to circle. communicate the book to him. Accordingly I now send you the fourth book. of circles with the double-branch hyperbola. I similar passage in the right both for first ijreface cannot but think that Halley the reasons given in the note on the earlier passage. factorily the distinction seems to me impossible to explain satisin the between the three separate questions referred to next sentence. (3) But Heiberg "s (2) and . book of municate studies. that they do not coincide throughout. should at any time Farewell. (1) (2) Heiberg thinks that these refer to the intersections of conic sections with one another or with a circle.

that several he mentions a I { TO (1) altogether inconsistent with the scientific circle. capable of demonstration but I have not found else. it so de- monstrated either by himself or by any one (question and the others akin to it I The third have not found so much as to. connexion with his attack upon Conon. besides these questions. which cause Nicoteles of Cyrene with some reason The second matter has merely been mentioned in by Nicoteles. needed many and various novel theorems. We should then have the following three distinct cases. Avithout using them at to arrive at results reall lating to such determinations. on account not have it of his controversy with Conon. the him drawing a serious distinction between (2) and (3) or think it certain. e. that any use made : of the discoveries of Conon for determinations for. should surely be something essentially distinct from. for fell foul of him. without however showing proper mastery of the proofs. rj method of Apollonius. not a particular case of. And all the matters alluded Avhich I have not found proved hitherto. . therefore. and cases e.f). The investigation of these theorems is of great service both for the synthesis of problems and the determinations of limits of possibility <. while the rest are contained in the present one. may where the curves toiicli naturally be taken as referring to those at one or two points. yet they at events afford a more ready means of observing some (3) is things. (2) the intersections of a single-branch conic or a circle with the double- branch hyperbola. and it is impossible. can be { re On the other hand Nicoteles. as one .AUTHOR AND HIS oWN ACCorXT OF THK few (Ut. (3) the intersections of two double-branch hyperbolas . 8<. and the adoption of Halley's reading would make the passage intelligible.vjrs.g. of limits in which opinion he is mistaken. think. others of a similar Now the first-named ({iiestion Conon expounded to Thrasydaeus. noticed by any one. I intersection . all.). to imagine treating the omission of Nicoteles to mention (3) as a matter worth noting. most of which I have already expounded in the first three books. that is the case of the of two double-branch hyperbolas with one another. not a character. intersections of single-branch conies with one another or with a circle. When it is always as a mere appendage to the other carves is i\\(i\j/ii his nsual phrase). even if it is possible. Ixxiii and.

The propositions in which I discuss the shortest lines I have separated into classes. 4.Ixxiv INTRODUCTION TO Al'Ol." closelj' In the trauslution of this preface have followed pretty [p. . note]. while . The prefaces to Books vi. irrespective of the fact that the subject is one of those which seem worthy * of study for their own I sake. M. greeting. convc'rsel}^ tangents. that our predecessors and contemporaries have only superficially touched upon the investigation of the shortest and have only proved what straight lines touch the sections and. of determinations of limits ( \€ from such sake of the laid Be 8io- Moreover. solutions are possible or that they are so many in number. as they do with reference to the original (transverse) diameter. because I considered that those who cultivate this science needed them for obtaining a knowledge of the analysis and determination of problems as well as for their synthesis. and are translated from Halley. I have proved these properties in the book (without however making any use. I have also connected the investigation of the greatest lines above of them with the investigation mentioned. In this " " Apollonius to Attalus. You must know lines. Farewell. Ixix. of the doctrine of the shortest lines) inasmuch as I wished to place them in close connexion Avith that part of the subject in which I treated of the production of the three conic sections. in the same the as demonstrations in way for we accept many other things mathematics for this and no other reason. they are worthy of acceptance themselves. and dealt with each individual case by careful demonstration .LONlUS. in order to show at the same time that in each of the three sections numberless properties and necessary results appear. apart for usefulness. fifth book I have down propositions relating to maximum and minimum straight lines. the Geiiiiiiu translation of L. first what properties they have in virtue of which they are For my part. in the proofs. the theorems in question are further useful for the analyses )." Preface to Book V*. and again that no solution is possible and such previous knowledge secures a satisfactory basis for investigations. Nix above referred to vii. L.

greeting. ('OXICS. besides some other matters In particular. to be described similar to a given cone and so as to contain a given And fully these matters in truth I have treated before somewhat more and clearly than those who wrote our time on these subjects. will find in this " book how. " I send you the sixth book of the conies. Ixxv Preface to Book VI."' provided that that the results. and especially in the determination of the conditions of their possibility. which is by way of an appendix. ApoUonius to Attains. In it are contained very many new propositions concerning diameters of sections and the figures described upon " them and all these have their use in many kinds of problems. care to send you as speedily as possible.).). and how a right cone conic section. Farewell.THE AUTjfoR AND HIS OWN ACCOUNT oF THE 5. and which I will take . leading to the determination of the evolute of any conic. are such as are now generally obtained by the aid of the . in a given right cone. similar and dissimilar." The of his first point to be noted in the above account by ApoUonius is tlie own work explicit distinction it. which he draws between the two main divisions of wliich fall within the range of CIS (as we may say) more we are careful not to undei-stand tlie relative terms "elementary" and "advanced" in the sense which we should attach to them in speaking of a modern mathematical work. 6. greeting. you left out by those who have preceded me. Farewell. Thus it would be wrong to regard the investigations of the fifth Book as more advanced than the earliei. " I send to you with this letter the seventh book on conic sections.(^." Preface to Book VII. ApoUonius to Attalus. a section is is to be cut equal to a given section. which embraces propositions about conic sections and segments of conies et{ual and unequal.Books on the ground the mere essentials . • The first four Books contain matters an elementary introduction while the second four are extensions beyond ( "advanced. Several examples of these occur in the determinate conic problems solved and demonstrated by me in the eighth book.

. differential calculus for the investigation of the limiting conditions for the possibility of drawing a certain number is of normals to a difference given conic from a given point essentially similar in character to many other found in other writers. with a view to securing greater generality and establishing a more thoroughly definitive. the distinction between what may be called a text-book or com- \.— VII. In the latter case the advance would be more gradual. so to speak to find in the first four and therefore we should expect would be possible than where new ground was being broken. system. in fact. between the two divisions of the work The is distinction.. scientific.g. Tlius the first four Books were limited to essential principles.same as that of earlier treatises. treatment properties of of small we except the somewhat lengthy proportion of new matter (such as the in the hyperbola with two branches regarded as one conic). exceptionally large The real distinction demands on a geometer's acuteness and between the first four Books and the theory of conic sections as of fifth consists rather in the fact that the former contain a connected and scientific exposition of the general the indispensable basis for further extensions certain special directions. though it would naturally be the object of Apollonius to introduce such improvements of method as the state of knowledge at the time suggested. while in the case of the parabola the investigation is not very difficult. precautions would have to be taken with a view to securing the absolute impregof Apollonius greater conciseness in a treatise Books nability of each successive position. of for the most part existing material Avould be to . We a find this if contrast in the two divisions of Apollonius' Conies. therefore. matter would be for the most part the . The only is that. the corresponding propositions for the hyperbola and ellipse make grasp. by suc- cessive authors. and therefore more One effect of the repeated working-up. produce crystallisation. in the kindred theory of It would follow that the subjectsolid loci developed by Aristaeus. and one result Avould naturally be a certain diffuseness and an apparently excessive attention to minute detail. tiie first four Books are concisely put together comparison with Books v. the subject in and the same is true of an instance of such the sixth and seventh Books.IxXVi INTRODUCTION• TO APOLLOXIUS. is Book what were considered the and their scope was that prescribed by tradition for treatises intended to form an accepted groundwork for such special applications as were found e. vhile the fifth specialisation . .

a cone (presumably right) or a cylinder be cut by a plane not parallel to the base. Eutocius. and sections of cones other than right cones. could have discovered it otherwise than by a method which would either circles or "sections of equally show that hyperbolic and parabolic sections could be pro- duced in the same general manner as elliptic sections." and Archimedes meet all states expressly that all sections of a cone whicli the generators (and here the cone may be oblique) are an acute-angled cone. more and general than that contained is This statement quite consistent with that of ('^) sections in every case perpendicular to a genei'ator. " Apollonius supposed the cone to be either right or scalene. as has already been pointed out. in the fourth Book about inter- secting is for the rest he only claims that the treatment in the earlier works on Pappus that in his first four Books Apollonius incorporated and completed the four Books of Euclid on the same subject. which Archimedes singles out for mention because he makes special use of them. had the same properties as the curves produced in the old way. whether right or scalene. according first to Eutocius." Again he says. For the third first four Books be seen tliat Apollonius does not of theorems in chiim originality except as regards a number the Book and the investigations conies full . Apollonius was the discoverer of the fact that other sections than those perpendicular to a generator. But. " But afterwards Apollonius of Perga investigated the general proposition that in every cone. After quoting Geminus' account of the old method of producing the three conies from right cones Avith difierent vertical angles by means of plane conies. or whoever discovered this proposition. at the beginning of his commentary claims more for Apollonius than he claims for himself. he says (still purporting to quote Geminus). plane [of section] meets all the sections are found. Nor (2) can any different conclusion be drawn from the continued use of the old names of the curves even after the more general method of producing them was known. according as the tlie cone in difierent ways." And it cannot be supposed that Archimedes. there is nothing .THE AUTIIOli AND UTS OWN ACCOUNT OE THE OOXICK and a it Avill Ixxvii special pendium of conic sections series of monographs on portions of the subject. however." can only be inferred that. the resulting section is a "section of an acute-angled cone. and made the sections different by giving different inclinations to the It plane. we find (1) that if Euclid had already declared in the Phaenometia that.

Hence we must is conclude that the statement of Eutocius (which general. giving up a traditiijiiul definition associated with certain standard propositions. and to the axes that the must assume that it was by means more general property of the equation referred QV was proved. though. in that it in any case too might lead to the supposition that every hyperlx)la could be produced as a section of any cone) rests on a misapprehension. itc. deterniinatif)ns of constiints. A'N^.g. or because the iilane of the section passes made in the {'(\\) . so that he might easily lose sight of the extent of the knowledge possessed by earlier writers*. we find having used sections other than those which are perpendicular to the plane of synunetry . A'N'. is and to adhere to the definitions after it tlie proved that the curves represented by general equation of the second degree are none other than the identical curves of the definitions. I'lUpse and hyperbola. e. as we . is inclined to a generator) together exceed angles. apollonius. of the cone beyond the apex and meets the half of the double cone beyond the apex and he gives similar explanations of the other two names. it is not thought strange. he only derives directly from the cone i. hesitation might well be felt in unnatural in this because. conies probably meant the treatise of Apollo- nius only.P'V = (const) Apollonius on the other hand starts at once with exact basis of to have been some contusion in Eutocius' mind about the names panihohi. * : PV. though perhaps a natural one considering that to him. ((\\ two right different angles in the figure with equal reason. in the generality of his treatment of the subject from the very beginning.e. in a modern text-book of analytical geometry. Apollonius makes this clear enough by connecting them immediately with the method of application of areax. of the possibility of producing the three conies Though Archimedes vas aware by means of sections no sign of his of an oblique or scalene cone.shall see. At the same time it seems clear that. to define conic sections by means of simple properties and equations. and so vary the names.P'N'°- : AN' . the fundamental property referred to an axis. . in other words. living so much later. and secondly.Ixxviii iNTRonrt iroN first. But on this intei-pretation the nomenclature would have no significance for in each case we could choose . ' the relation : AN. old way. Apollonius was making an entirely new departure. Thus Eutocius speaks of the hyperbola tlic There seems also as being so called because a certain pair of angles (the vertical angle of an obtuse-angled right cone and the right angle at which the section.

and which suggested the discovery or may have been known whom may i.e. whereas his own order of exposition necessitated an early introduction of the tangent properties. stood easily under- remembered that the ordinary properties of normals are expressed with reference to the axes. 1] that the fundamental is sentative. I tliiiik. THE AUTHOR AX]> HIS OWN ACfOUNT OF THF COXIf'S. ellipse and hyperbola but it remains a question whether the exact form in which their new names. take Archimedes as the repre11 [Prop. Hence he had to adopt a different order from that of earlier works and to postpone the investigation of normals for separate and later it is when treatment. that minimum straight lines (i. which however Then. and the axes do not appear at ticular cases of the until they appear as par- new (and arbitrary) diametei•.-) ( and more general vorking-out eVi irXiov of is. hyperbola that y is the ordinate drawn from any point to the original diameter of the conic. represented a new to earlier writers of fundamental properties were stated by him. Book V. the abscissa mejvsured from one . ApoUonius seems there to imply normals) had only been discussed by previous Avriters in connexion with the properties of tangents.. he proceeds to show directly that reference to the to the same property which was proved true with diameter is equally true with all reference any other indica- diameter. where the axes of coordinates are any diameter (as the axis of x) and the tangent at its extremity (as Let it be assumed in like manner for the ellipse and the axis of y). for the purpose of eftecting the transition from the original diameter of reference to any other diameter. to be found in the preface to as newly translated from the Arabic. and ApoUonius was not in a position to use the axes until they could be brought in as particular cases of the new and ai'bitrary diameter of reference. All authorities agree in attributing to ApoUonius the designation of the three conies by the names jjarabola. scientific fashion. It will be seen from ApoUonius property proved from the cone for the parabola the Cartesian equation that expressed by y^-px. and proves directly from the cone that the conic has the latter general property with reference to a particular diameter arising out of his construction. in truly original is not in general one of the principal diameters. Another tion of the originality of this fuller the principal properties (. Ixxix the most general section of an oblique cone. independently of any questions about This is normals.

secondly. frst. no such line is anywhere mentioned in connexion with the ellipse or is hyperbola. it a perpendicular be erected to the diameter at that extremity of is from which measured and of length ]). a. for all three contains another term. a. X it . (/. Thus the parabola to y^ is is the curve in which the rectangle which is equal it. is tlie abscissa measured from the is Apollonius' procedure then to take a certain to the say) determined in a certain to prove. the parameter or latus rectum corresponding to the original diameter. and the characteristics expressed by the respective equations suggested the three names. that y* : manner with reference and x.. applied to and neither it. while other extremity. b referred to the axes and ani the major and minor semi-axes respectively. In Archimedes.j situated to that contained l)y and d . while the parameter duly appears with reference to the parabola. that. and " applied " to the perpendicular of length but falling short (or exceeding) by a rectangle similar and similarly . or 7/''=. it. on the other hand. falls short of it nor overlaps is tlie ellipse t(j ]> and hyperbola are those short of in which the rectangle it. and.' being fui-ther noted that. and line y* is less or greater is of being equal to The curves alike.x. . where d if is the length of the original diameter.r. but the fundamental property of the two latter curves -JL• given in the form =-2^ . while Archimedes' equation expressed the equality of two propor- . then y- is equal to a rectangle of breadth p. in other words. extremity of the diameter. ellipse.. either of is the equal ratios is equal to —^ in the case where the etjuation a.' IXXX rXTRODUCTION TO APOLLOXIUS. applied but falls or overlaps respectively.•+^.' Thus for the ellipse or hypei'lx)la (2).=p : (I (1). an equation it is obtained Avhich differs from that of the parabola in that than px instead called. in the b* . of Thus Apollonius' equation expressed the equality two areas. length cone..

equivalent to the equation ax + x and. C. p.g. if the consequent in the ratio were assumed to be the diameter d. and a certain constant multiple of x^. yet the practical use of that method stood in the same close relation to the formula of Archimedes as it did to that of ApoUonius. the equation (const. 25. x. Although Archimedes does not. it might be expressed either as the ratio of one area to another or as the ratio of one straight line to another. in one place {On Conoids ^=^. ' ^ 420) where all Archimedes uses the property that points on a hyperbola. connect his description of conies Avith the technical expressions used in the well-knoAvn method of application of areas. in other words. the antecedent would be the parameter (2) p. which / .) = (say) X. speaking of it as an ^). On this question Zeuthen makes the following observations.) represents y as a mean pro- portional between H. he actually expresses the denominator of the ratio in the area applied to a line equal to a but exceeding hy a square figure ciSct ( by ax + (3) x^. where the axes and a represents the major or transverse axis. (3). COXICS. is £C. as the area denoted The equation —— = (const. in which latter case. Ixxxi and the question is whether Archimedes and it. whether tlie special use of the parameter or L•tus rectum for the purpose of graphically constructing a rectangle having y- for one side and equal in area to was new in ApoUonius or not. his predecessors were acquainted with the equation of the central conic in the form in which ApoUonius gives in other words. e.x^ — has the same value for form in Avhich it appears in (3). (1) The equation of the conic in the form had the advantage that the constant could be expressed in any shape which might be useful in a particular case. as a rule. = and Spheroids.THE AUTHOR AND HIS OWN ACCOUNT OF THE tio7is . of reference are the axes of the conic Thus.

cannot but think that the argument just stated leaves out of step in the account the important fact that. Zeuthen is most inclined think that it is Archimedes who is showing individual peculiis arities rather predecessors : than Apollonius. the own fundamental equation. who kept closer to his Alexandrine a view which (he thinks) is supported by the circumstance that the system of applying areas as found in Euclid Book I II. as a matter of fact. as will be seen. all who never and uses uses the constant at for the ellipse only ellipse. where Archimedes chooses to use projwrtions in investigations for vhich Apollonius prefers the areas which to method of application of more akin to our algebra. can easily be expressed as the ordinate Y. represent Archimedes' equation in the form ^ = X. corresponding to the the extremity from which abscissa x. is Whether this particular line appeared as an auxiliary line in the figures used by the predecessors of ApoUonius (of which there is no sign). when the hyperbola is in question.. a. ' ^ and to speak of this as having the advantage that the constant may l)e expressed differently for different purposes.). to the property according to the Alexandrine method. Thus. The differences between the two modes of presenting the fundamental properties are so slight that we as in reality the typical representative of the may regard Apollonius of conies Greek theory and had as giving indications in his proofs of the train of thought led liis which predecessors no less than himself to the formulation of the various pjOpositions. it in the case where the axes of reference are the axes of the in the single and then only form -= .Xi (const.. (i e. immaterial. be regarded as Archimedean form can hardly a personal variant from the normal statement of Further. of a point on a certain straight line passing through the other extremity of the diameter measured). Ixxxii last INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. the Archimedean form of the equation actually appears as an intermediate proof which Apollonius gives of his Therefore. or the is well-known constructions were somewhat differently (4) made. implies rather more than we actually find in Archimedes. is decidedly older than the Euclidean doctrine of pro- portions.

THE AUTH(1R AND HIS OWN ACCOUNT OF THE COXICS. for the purpose of arriving at an expression for y* corresponding to those obtained by means of the principle of application of areas. Again. he retraces and proves it again as a deduction from a procedure which suggests a somewhat forced those definitions adherence to the latter at the cost of some repetition. Therefore. it is to be noted that. 13 [Props. Ixxxiii Now the equation ax — or _/_ = !' x^ a- ' y = ~ . does not give an easy means of exhibiting the area y* as a simple rectangle applied to a straight line but falling short by another rectangle of equal breadth. which however does not appear in Archimedes. X . 2. Euclidean theory of proportions for surprise if ." { ). unless we take some line equal to - and erect it perpendicularly to the abscissa at that extremity of it Avhich is on the curve. : 8]. and in that of a right-angled cone There is evidently some confusion neither deficient nor exceeding. ] : but the facts are more difiicult to explain indeed there would be no cause geometer as Apollonius intentionally harked back and sought to connect his new system of conies with so orthodox a the most ancient traditional methods. in explaining the Apollonius. The idea that the form of the equation as given by Apollonius was new is not inconsistent with the fact that the principle of of areas was older than the on any other assumption. the essential thing was the determination of the parameter stant in the particular form and the expression of the con- ^ . property by a new one . (p. of the fundamental property ellipse. 3] establishing the basis of his definitions of the hyperbola and his steps in i. though Apollonius actually sup- plies the proof of the Archimedean form i. in the course of the propositions 12. This slight awkwardness is easily accounted for if it is assumed that Apollonius was deliberately supplanting an old form of the fundamental 21 [Prop. It is curious that Pappus. new definitions of 674) " For a certain rectangle applied to a an acute-angled cone becomes deficient in the section of an obtuse-angled /2 .X a a 4 . says certain line in the section of by a square cone exceeding by a square.

IXXXIV

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.
no question
is

here, because in the definitions of Apollonius there is

of exceeding or falling-short hy a square,

but the rectangle which

equal to y* exceeds or

falls

short by a rectangle similar and similarly

situated to that contained

The

description

"deficient,

by the diameter and the latus rectum. or exceeding, by a square" recalls
.

Archimedes' description of the rectangle
equation of the liyperbola as

would appear that Pappus somehow confused tlie two forms which the two writers give the fundamental property.
It will be observed that the " oppo.sites,"

€€
.r,

appearing in the
;

ciSet

so that it
in

by which are meant

the opposite branches of a hyperbola, are specially mentioned as
distinct

from the three sections (the words used by Apollonius

being

).
4],

They are
it is

first intro-

duced
curve.

in the proposition

I.

14 [Prop.

but

in

i.

16 [Prop. 6]

that they are for the
It
is

first

time regarded as together forming one

true that the preface to

writers had already noticed the
bola,

Book IV. shows that other two opposite branches of a hyperfor

but there can be no doubt that the complete investigation
properties

of

their

was reserved

Apollonius.
(1)

This

view

is

supported by the following evidence.
preface promise something

The

Avords of the first

new and more
Avell

perfect with reference to

the double-branch

hyperbola as

as the three single-branch

curves

and a comparison between the works of Apollonius and Archimedes (who does not mention the two branches of a hyperbola) would lead us to expect that the greater generality claimed by
;

Apollonius for his treatment of the subject would show

itself,

if

anywhere, in the discussion of the complete hyperbola.
too,

about the

"new and remarkable theorems"

in

The words, the third Book

point unmistakeably to the extension to the case of the complete

hyperbola of such properties as that of the rectangles under the

segments of intersecting chords.

(2)

That the treatment

of the
is

two

branches as one curve was somewhat new in Apollonius

attested

by the fact

that, notwithstanding the completeness with

establishes the correspondence between their properties

which he and those of

the single branch, he yet continues throughout to speak of them as two independent curves and to prove each proposition vith regard to them separately and subsequently to the demonstration of it for
the single curves, the result being a certain diflTuseness which might

have been avoided

if

the

first

propositions had been so combined as

THE AUTHOR AND HIS OWN ACCOUNT OF THE
to prove each property at one

<'(>\/cs.

Ixxxv

and

tlie

same time
if

for both double-

branch and single-branch conies, and

the further developments

had then taken as their basis the generalised property. As it is, the difluseness marking the separate treatment of the double
hyperbola contrasts strongly with the remarkable ingenuity shown

by ApoUonius
property
three

in compressing into

one proposition the proof of a
This facility in treating the
as

common

to all three conies.
is

curves together

to

be explained by the fact that,

successive discoveries in conies were

handed down by
;

tradition,

the general notion of a conic had been gradually evolved
if

whereas,

ApoUonius had to add new matter with reference to the double hyperbola, it would naturally take the form of propositions supplementary to those affecting the three single-branch curves.
It

may

be noted in this connexion that the proposition

I.

38
{d')

[Prop. 15]

makes use

for the first

time of the secondary diameter

of a hyperbola regarded as a line of definite length determined

by

the relation

d^
d'

_P

" d'
the parameter of the

where d

is

the transverse diameter and
it.

ordinates to

The actual

definition of the secondary diameter in

this sense occurs earlier in tlie
I.

Book, namely between

i.

16 and

17.

The

idea

may

be assumed to have been new, as also the

determination of the conjugate hyperbola with two branches as the
complete hyperbola which has a pair of conjugate diameters

common

with the original hyperbola,

the difference that the secondary
is

diameter of the original hyperbola
conjugate hyperbola and vice versa.

the transverse diameter of the

The reference
special

to

Book
and

II. in the preface

does not

call for

any

remark except as regards the meaning given by ApoUonius
axis.

to the terms diameter

The
(p.

Avords of the preface suggest

that the terms were used in a

new

sense,

and

this supposition agrees

with the observation made above
only the axes are diameters.

xlix) that Avith

Archimedes

The
loci,"

preface speaks of the

"many

remarkable theorems" con-

tained in

Book

III.

as being useful for

"the synthesis

of solid

and goes on to refer more particularly to the "locus with It is strange that in the Book respect to three and four lines." itself we do not find any theorem stating in terms that a particular
geometrical locus
is

a conic

section,

though of course we find

Ixxxvi
theoi'ems

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.
stating conversely

that

all

points

certain property.

The explanation

of this is probably to be

on a conic have a found

in the fact that the determination of a locus, even

when

it

was a

conic section, was not regarded as belonging to a synthetic treatise

and the ground for this may have been that the subject was extensive enough to require a separate book. This conjecture is supported by the analogy of the treatises of Euclid and Aristieus on conies and solid loci respectively, where, so far as we
on
conies,

of such loci

can judge, a very definite line of demarcation appears to have been

drawn between the determination

of the loci themselves

and the

theorems in conies Avhich were useful for that end.

There can be no doubt that the brilliant investigations in Book
V. with reference to normals regarded as maximuvi and
altogether, new.

minimum
if

straight lines from certain points to the curve were mostly,

not

It will be seen that they lead directly to the

determination of the Cartesian equation to the evolute of any conic.

Book VI.

is

about similar conies for the most part, and Book VII.

contains an elaborate series of propositions about the magnitude of
various functions of the lengths of conjugate diameters, including

the determination of their

maximum and minimum

values.

A

comparison of the contents of Book VII. with the remarks about
lost

Book VII. and VIII. in the preface to the former suggests that the Book VIII. contained a number of problems having for their
functions
of

object the finding of conjugate diameters in a given conic such that
certain
their

lengths

have

given

values.

These

problems would be solved by means of the results of Book VII.,

and

it is

probable that Halley's restoration of Book VIII. represents
is

the nearest conjecture as to their contents which

possible in the

present state of our knowledge.

CHAPTER

II.

GENERAL CnARACTERISTICS.
§
1.

Adherence to Euclidean form, conceptions and
of geometrical proposition with whicli Euclid's

language.

The accepted form
familiar,

Elements more than any other book

has

made mathematicians

and the regular division

of each proposition into its com-

ponent parts or stages, cannot be better described than in the words of Proclus. He says*: "Every problem and every theorem which
is

complete with

all its

parts perfect purports to contain in itself
:

of the following elements

definition^

conclusion
is

{..).
is

(),

enunciation

construction

{^),
setting-out

(),

all

setting-out

proof

(),
what
is

{<;),

Now

of these the enunciation states
is

given and what

that which

sought, the perfect emmciation

consisting of both these parts.
given, by
itself,

The

marks

off"

what

and adapts
is

it

beforehand for use in the investigation.

The
the

definition states separately
is

and makes

clear

thing

which

sought.

The

construction adds

datum

for the purpose of finding

what

is

what the particular what is wanting to The j^iOof sought.
from
ac-

draws the required inference by reasoning

scientifically

knowledged

facts.

The

conclusion reverts again to the enunciation,

These are all the parts of problems and theorems, but the most essential and those which are
confirming what has been demonstrated.

found in

all

are enunciation, proof, conclusion.

For

it is
tliis

equally

necessary to

know beforehand

Avhat

is

sought, and that

should

be demonstrated by means of the intermediate steps and the demonstrated fact should be inferred ; it is impossible to dispense
• Proclus (ed. Friedlein), p. 203.

t The word definition

what

by means of a concrete figure, of what the enunciation states in general terms as the property to be proved or the problem to be solved.
follows,
really

^

is

used for want of a better.

As

will

appear from

means a

closer description,

Ixxxviii

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.
The remaining parts are often Thus

with any of these three things.

brought
there
is

in,

but are often

left

out as serving no purpose.

neither settitig-out nor definition in the problem of conis no any addition

structing an isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base

double of the remaining angle, and in most theorems there
construction because the setting-otit suffices without
for

demonstrating the required property from the data.
say that the setting-oui
is is

When
is,

then

do
there
ciation

is

wanting?
;

The answer
for,

when

nothing

(jiven in

the eyiunciation

though the enunis

in general divided into

what

is

given and what
it

sought,

this is not

always the case, but sometimes

states only

what

is

sought,

what must be knoAvn or found, as in the case of the problem just mentioned. That problem does not, in fact, state beforehand with vhat datum Ave are to construct the isosceles
i.e.

triangle having each of the equal angles double of the remaining
one, but

(simply)

that

we

are

to find such a triangle.... When,

then,
is

the enunciation

contains both

(Avhat

is

given and what
setting-out, but,

sought), in that case
is

find both definition

and
so

whenever the datum
is

wanting, they too are wanting.

For not only
the definition

the setii7ig-out concerned with the

datum but

is

also, as, in

the absence of the datum, the definition will be identical

with the enunciation.

In

fact,

what could you say
it is

in defining the

object of the aforesaid problem except that
isosceles triangle of

required to find an
is

the kind referred to?
If

But that
is

what the
is

entmciation stated.

then the enunciation does not include, on the
sought, there

one hand, what

is

given and, on the other, what

no

setting-out in virtue of there being

no datum, and the

definition

is left

out in order to avoid a mere repetition of the enunciation."

The constituent parts of an Euclidean proposition be readily identified by means of the above description without further details. It will be observed that the word /Aos has here a different .signification from that described in the note to p. Ixx above. Here it means a closer definition or description of the object aimed at, by means of the concrete lines or figures set out in the instead
of the general terms used in the enunciation
rivet the attention better, as indicated
TLva
6

The other technical use

^ .
of the

(';

purpose is to by Proclus in a later passage,
;

and

its

word

to signify the limitations to

which the possible solutions of a problem are subject is also described by Proclus, who speaks of determining " whether what is

GENERAL CHAHACTEUISTICS.
sought
is

impossible or possible, and

how many ways*"; and
same form
nius
it
is

the

in Euclid as in

Archimedes and Apollonius.

/
cviii).
is

Ixxxix
practicable and in

far

it is

in this sense appears in the

In ApoUo-

sometimes inserted in the body of a problem as in the instance ii. 50 [Prop. 50] given below in another case it forms the
;

subject of

a separate preliminary theorem,

li.

52 [Prop.
ii.

51], the

result being quoted in the succeeding proposition

the same

way

as the Stopta/xo's in
vi,

Eucl.

vi.

53 [Prop. 52] in 27 is quoted in the

enunciation of

28

(see p.

Lastly, the orthodox division of a problem into analysis
synthesis appears regularly in Apollonius as in Archimedes.

speaks of the preliminary analysis as a way of investigating the

more recondite problems happens that in this respect Apollonius
than Euclid, who, in the Elements,
plicity of the

(

is

often even more formal
all

)

and

Proclus

;

thus

it

generally able to leave out

the preliminary analysis in consequence of the comparative sim-

problems solved, though the Data exhibit the method
illustrate the foregoing remarks, it is only necessaxy

as clearly as possible.

In order to
to reproduce a

theorem and a problem in the exact form in which

they appear in Apollonius, and accordingly the following propositions are given in full as typical specimens, the translation

on the
letters

right-hand side following the Greek exactly, except that the

are changed in order to facilitate comparison vit^l the same propositions
figures.

as

reproduced in this work and with the corresponding

III.

54 [Prop. 75
Trepi-

Avith the first figure].
If

, (, ( , €( (' / (' ,
)/

((
8e

-

two straight hncs touching a
or the circum-

section of a cune

ference of a circle meet, and through

Tois

Koi

the points of contact parallels be

npos TO avTo
fxjOi'iai.

drawn

to

the tangents, and from

the points of contact straight lines

TO

be drawn through the same point of
the curve cutting the parallels, the
rectangle contained

vov

( 8(.(
e';(et

by the

inter-

tK Te

ccpts bejirs to the square on the
line joining the points

ov

((

\

of contivct
[1] of that

the ratio

compounded

which the square of

tlie

inner SOg-

* Proclus, p. 202.

xc
TO fVTos

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.

, €( ((( ((' (•.

npos
Tas

8(,

ment

of the line joining the point

of concourse of the tangents

and

the point of bisection of the line
joining the points of contact bears
to the square of the remaining seg-

ttJs

ment, and

[2]

of that which the

rectangle contained by the tangents

bears to the

fourth
line

part

of

the the

(
,
;

, ' , . ', , (
\

, \,
,
yap

( -(( ({ /
,

\ 8 (( \ (€(
,

\ \ (( ,
(-

square

on

the

joining

points of contact.

Let QPQ' be a section of a cone

\

eVt

,

(\

,

and QT, Q'T tangents, and let QQ' be joined and bisected at V, and let TPV be joined, and let there be drawn, from Q, Qr parallel to Q'T and, from Q', Q'r' parallel to QT, and let any point R be taken on the curve, and let QR, (^R be joined
or the circumference of a circle

and produced to

/,

r.

I

say that

e;^e(

the rectangle contained by Qr, Q'r'

.
(
toG
)

has to the square on Q(/ the ratio compounded of that which the

, ( ' (((
AV
8,

(\

'
) )

\

\

,,
, ,
*

MB AM

( ,,
MB
KG

. ,
^

VP has to the square on and that which the rectangle under QTQ'*h!ifi to the fourth part of the square on QQ', i.e. the rectangle under Q VQ'. For let there be dra\vn, from R, KRWR'K', and, from P, LPL' parallel to QQ' it is then clear
square on

PT

;

that

LL'
is

is

a tangent.
VQ',

Now,

since
also

QV

equal to

LP

is

OS

'

MB,

,\
S\.
bi

equal to

PL' and to WK' and R]V to WR' and KR to R'K'. Since therefore LP, LQ are tanand

KW
is

MB,

gents,
to

KRK'

drawn

parallel
is

, ,
TO

.,
), ,
"the
rect.

LP,

as the square on

QL

to

LP, that is, the rectangle under LPL', so is the square on QK to the rectangle under R'KR, that is, the reotiingle under K'RK.
the square on

,

And, as the rectangle under L'Q',
under QTQ'," means the rectangle QT. TQ', and

similarly in other cases.

. (( , / ,
TO Se

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS.

LQ

is

to the square

on LQ, so

is

the

((

rectangle under K'<j',

KQ

to the
aerjuo
is
i.s

,
,

npos

of c^fi

, .

", ,
8f

,

square on
i\s

KQ

;

therefore

c.v

the rectiingle under L'(J\ LQ to the rectangle under LTL, so
the rectangle under
rectangle

, , ,

K'Q\ under K'RK.

KQ to the
But the
has to
ratio

rectangle under K'Q',

KQ

the rectiingle under

K'RK the

, (('( AM , ^, ? ( ) ,, AM \) ?

/
f\fi.

compounded of that of Q'K' to A'7?, that is, oirQ to QQ', and of that of

'

QK to

A7i, that

is,

of

r' •'

to Q'Q,

, AM

/
.

. ', . •, ,
be

which is the same as the ratio which the rectangle under r'Q', rQ has to the square on Q'Q; hence, as the rectangle mider L'Q', LQ is to the rectangle under L'PL, so is the rectangle under r'Q', rQ to the square on Q'Q. But the rectangle under Q'L', LQ has to the rectangle under L'PL (if the rectangle under

L'TL

be taken as a me;xn) the ratio
of that Avhich the rect-

compounded

(

BE

:

angle under Q'L',
rectangle under

QL

has to the

L'TL and the rectangle imder L'TL to the rectangle imder L'PL; hence the rectangle
under
r'Q',

Q'Q the

ratio

rQ has to the square on compounded of that

of the rectangle under Q'L',

QL

to

the rectangle under L'TI^ and of
the rectangle under
rectangle under L'PL.
rectangle under L'Q',

L'TL

to the

But, as the

QL

is to

the the

rectangle

under IJTL,

so

is

square on

VP to

the .square on PT,

and, as the rectangle under
to the rectangle

L'TL
.so is

is

under

7*,

the

rectangle under

Q'TQ

to the rect-

angle under (/ VQ; therefore the rectangle under
r'<^,

rQ has to the .square

on Q(^ the ratio compounded of that of the square on PV \x> the square

on

PT

Q'TQ

to the rectangle

and of the rectangle under under Q' VQ.

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. 50 [Prop. then the . for be greater than the angle will Therefore the s^'uthcsis that given acute angle should bo greater than . and suppose it done. Let the section be a hyperbola. section [given] in position given.. \ 8• ^ CNT to the square on is given. \ ((( be section of a cone . there- And . for it is the same as doOe'iaa that of the transverse to the erect. and at the given point at a given angle C a certain straight line has been therefore drawn PC fore is [given] in position. 8 €8 . the angle at C is given. ^'• 8€. / ^'/. ( ( \ 6 draw a tangent to a given which shall make with the axis towards the same parts with the section an angle equal to a given acute angle. (( 8(( \• . and let the centre the section be taken and let joined and C of be . II. * # * . the tangent . . (( ( ( ( ( has been drawn is therefore PT pro- [given] in position. PT duced Let it meet it asymptote. 50 (Problem)]. meet will in L it then the angle be necessary the ( (( LT^^ LCT. €. \ And the ratio of the square PN to each given. " \« . • yap (. therefore the ratio of the rectangle contained by . Therefore also the ratio of the rectangle under CNT to . •^ . (So far as relating to the hyperbola. ) 8€ tivai . ( 8( • 8 8( \ ' eV the square on NT is given. Let the asymptote section LC of the bo drawn will . CN to NT angle at And the given . TNP for is of the angles PTJV. PC P^V be perpendicular 8(• fOTi '. and let FT be the tangent. Thus with in posi- the straight line tion CN [given] PC .) 8<)(! iVi ((. therefore also . is is Also the . the square on NT is given is is so that the ratio of also given. (.

F are right.(< ( . and let Z) A' ( ((( \ . • (\ to J. .siiuare on FD. I)F be drawn from it upon EF..\ KF to the . CA is to AZ. ( . 8( ] ( (\ ) bodflaa GENERAL CHARAiTERISTICS. as to FIT.t A.square on CA to . since the angle ZCA is equal to the angle ffEF. the square on A a greater ratio e\fi than the square on EF has to the square on FD. ( .\ €. as the square on C. Then.' . ^ • ^ \ ' .square on And if we make.. and lar a perpendicu- ( . so the .. that area than the square on be joined. greater ratio than EF has Hence also the . so some other area to the square on will be greater FD. ( Trpof \ \oyov (( \ \ \oyov ^ (8 . Let it be the rectangle under KFE. \ taken on DE. and also the angles a. . so to is EF But EF has it hiis FIT a .LI' isthe axis and CZim asymptote. And. \oyov . iVel . EF. xcm the half of that contained by the 8 . . .i is to the square on AZ. \( • since the square on KF is greater 8 than the rectangle under KFE. greater ratio than to FD therefore also CA has to to AZ a FD. . ] . .square on CA has to \.. « trrt - asymptotes. ( . . ) . and let the angle ACZ) the FEII be equal to the angle ACZ. that the square on CA to the square on AZ. as the square on CA to the square on AZ. . \. ?(( . therefore also the transverse has to the erect a greater ratio than the square on has to the square on FD. . • " • (( . FD. so is the transverse to the erect . ( . as the . and the given acute angle (being greater than the angle angle FED. the luis to the square on square on FD a greater ratio than the rectangle under KFE has to the square on KF is.\ . and let any point let D be (\ 8( . then we make. Then. If EF €.\ ' . and let AZhe drawn from A at right angles .synthesis of the prob- proceed as follows : let the given hyperl>ola he that of which . Thus lem will the .l'.

. DF to FE. "draw a perpendicular. . was as But is also. as the square on KF to under KFE. F are right is therefore the angle at equal to the angle DEF. u. nothing could be more elegant than the regular of the perfect imperative passive in constructions. in may not be out of place to remark upon some peculiar advantages of the Greek Its richness grammatical forms is. as . and the 7*iV perpendicular . Let the angle ACT be to made equal therefore the angle DKF. ( . Avhere we should have to say " let a perpendicular be drawn " or. it In connexion with the propositions just quoted. FE. as the transverse is to the erect. on Therefore. [the ratio] will be to a . CN to the square on NP. so both the rectangle on NP and the rectangle under KFE to the square on FD. the square is . so the square on KF to is the square on FD. \\\' . ' ? ) . from this point of view. . KM . . irpos another . so is the square on DF to the rectangle under CNT to the square KFE. and the straight line joining C to the point taken will triangles similar." the Greek expression is . make the and for this rciX-son the angle angle ZCA is greater than the DKF. apa eoTt Kcu fWi apa. of extreme import- ance.i. TO HMK. and from be drawn touching the section. And the angles at N'. so to the rectangle fore. as the square on CN is is to the rectangle under CXT.. .se For instance. area than the square on AZ. PN so is to so DF to FK therefore ex aequo. . thus. thereft)re ex aequo. more peremptorily. let CP it will cut the section. so is is KF NC. And conversely.smaller are.. under Also. ». ( \• . as the square on PN is to the rectangle under CNT. . therefore triangle PCN a. INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. language as a vehicle for geometrical investigations.s is is similar to 7 DKF. Let it cut at P. 8e • • . . . NT.\ * jJ \. to There- CN to is NT.

is line . . 1. it Neatest of . 4. feminine and neuter forms of the definite article makes the expressions for straight it lines. all is with which the is done." possible to abbreviate Again. III.. ToO KfVTpov tvpuv. tj . the existence of the separate masculine. I. . or is the aiujle and squares by Tims .e. II. and the analysis of a problem begins. ( ( ( pev fVi (vdeui •( ((." The same form HK ? ? be so taken that is to as to KE. 26. . " suppose used very effectively along with the usual expression for a propor- KE. 77 (). . in. understood contained by or ( -).) AB and and the meaning the angle or is is AB (^). e. iVf/j- (. Eucl. 45. ' .g. which can . ( . ntpi- iv (Kkti^ft . the rectangle contained tJie by AB." and similarly the word it XCV it //are the meaning " let . in all other cases. ( . 10. of the language of scarcely less concise than the The tradition closeness with which Apollonius followed the is Euclidean further illustrated by the exact similarity of language between the enunciations of Apollonius' propositions about the conic and the corresponding propositions in Euclid's third Book about circles. rectangles leaving the particular substantive to be understood. GENERAL CIIAUACTERISTICS.been e. AB that square on AB. /. II. is the word (i.. ' drawn. tJie €€. the former Avord expressing in or "suppose itself drawn" like. angles. ' ( (. is The result is much Greek geometry most modern notation. . hardly be translated in English by anything shorter than " Let tion.^. The following are some obvious examples. " (. « . Ap. Eucl.g. Eucl. . 7repi0epiiaf fVi evuela ( (. fVi 2. EM. •€•.

he speaks of " a hyperbola or circumference of a circle." not of a circle simply. . line be I. ^ ( ((( ( ). of the orthodoxy of Apollonius is found in the when enunciating propositions as holding good of a circle ellipse or the as well as a conic.XCVl Eucl. and of the rest those which are nearer to the least will be less than those more re- mote instance of Apollonius' adherence to the conceptions of first Euclid's Elements. HI. those propositions of the Book of the Conies be mentioned which in first introduce the notion of a tangent. between the tangent and the : Compare the following enunciations Eucl. INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. In this he follows the practice of Euclid based upon his definition of a circle as "a . . 7. 8 (' (." We have also in Apollonius as well as in Euclid fall the proof that no straight line can curve. \ . the said straight line will fall without This the conic . equal to if Tivts. (Translated from Halley. of an ellipse V. els tvuda (- Another instance fact that. and the conclusion is drawn that it is a tangent. if in a conic a straight drawn through the extremity of the diameter parallel to the ordinates to that diameter. 32. 8 e»ri If a point be taken ( (yyiov / on the axis whose distance from is '' Se (. the least of all the straight lines drawn 8e from the given point will be that which is equal to half the latus rectum. 16. the vertex of the section half the latus rectum.(. . 17 we have the proposition that. (' (' ( (. 8( ( " \. As an may Thus € ae\ . III. the greatest the remaining part of the axis.) ( \. 8 . ( ( ( ((( (( /.( an ( . 4 and 6. and from the point any straight lines what- ever be drawn to the section. argument recalls the Euclidean definition of a tangent to a circle as " any straight line which meets the circle and being produced does not cut the circle.

Menaechmus and his contemporaries would defini- perhaps hardly have ventured. where the problem of " finding" a parabola. this fact 38 a sort guarantee that they Avere genuine curves . y^ . § 2. 25. then made the basis of the further development of the proceeds without further reference to the cone. . plane figure bounded by one line. Euclid iv. and. an abstract definition as the loci of Hence finding was understood as being synonymous with localising it in a cone.g." that the word circle alone circle. like the Greek geometers whose works have come origin of the three conies is dovn to us. and we actually meet with this idea in Apollonius i. There is Solid Loci of Aristaeus no reason to suppose that the method adopted in the was diflferent. and a hyperbola satisfying certain a particular conic — conditions takes the form of finding a cone of Avhich the required curves are sections. and there was no longer any hesitation in proceeding with the further investigation of their properties in a plane. uses the stereon\etric as sections of the cone only so far as a single necessary in order to deduce fundamental plane property for each curve. an ellipse. xxi). as distinct from points satisfying certain conditions. 24. whereas. When however they were found by of cutting a cone in a particular manner.GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 52 58 [Props. in is XCVll It is only very exceptionally used to denote the circumference of the i. except indeed when. •.bx. without reference to their origin in the cone. As pointed out above (p.C. ^''^^^^""• V5 . 27]. it is considered necessary to prove that a cone can be found Avhich will contain any given conic. We know from Pappus that ])y Aristaeus called the conies their original names .ay. it is probable that the discovery of the conic sections was the outcome of the attempt of Menaechmus to solve the problem of the two mean proportionals by constructing the plane loci represented by the equations ar . e. to regard the loci represented by the three equations as being to be producible really curves. the Greek geometers in general seem to have con- nected the conic sections with the cone only because of their relation to other it was in their view necessary to give the curves a geometrical definition expressive known geometrical figures. all Apollonius. Planimetric character of the treatise. in like manner. if (as H.___>. xy = ah. is This plane property theory.lll U {UKIVERSITT. by way of rounding-ofl' the subject. 16 and Apollonius 37. without such a geometrical tion.

where Apollonius speaks of having put as it occurred to him . he would hardly have failed to discover a more general method of producing the curves than that implied by We may also assume that the other predecessors their old names. but for the time being they are simply links in a chain of proof loading to the conclusion that the parabolas. the planimetric (1) method . or to find the area of the by projection from the circular sections been used. for the investigation begins with the properties of the itself. e.. true that they of after- contain plane properties which are constantly made use wards . ellipses and hyperbolas which Apollonius obtains by any possible section of any . (2) there are practically no traces of the deduction of the plane properties of a conic from other stereometric investigations. way without any definite plan having taken shape in the This idea may have been partly due to the words down everything is used at the beginning of the preface. but it is clear that the reference to the imperfect copies of the Books Avhich had been communicated to various persons before they took their Again. Book to the connexion of and returns at the end of the particular conies with the cone. equally with him. closely. even in the few instances where it would ellipse have been easy. conjugate diameters. first Book might seem strange.g. conies derived from the cone then it passes to the properties of conjugate diameters. and so tend to produce the same impression .XCviii INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. the asymptote-properties of the hyperbola. for among time his the properties of conies which were well-known before there are many. which is But. vhich could not have been evolved in any natural way from the consideration of the cone. it is the Book is examined more apparent that from the beginning to the end a definite at. . Some Avriters hap-hazard regarded the Conies as wanting in system and containing merely a bundle of propositions thrown together in a author's mind. Thus it would have been easy to regard an as a section of a right cylinder and then to prove the property of ellipse. to a superficial observer the order adopted in the final form. § 3. title might be thought to imply) he had used in his book the methods of solid geometry. object is aimed and only such propositions are given as are It is necessary for the attainment of that object. but this method does not appear to have Definite order liave and aim. etc. tangents. if immediately dropped again. the of Apollonius used.

Next. and the chords parallel to it tween (1) at the the tangent (in other words. the ordinates to the new diameter) have to one another the same relation as that subsisting between the original diameter. the tangent at its extremity. the tangent at its extremity. and can be produced by mean. he reduces the case where the ordinates are not perpen* The definiteness of the design up to this point is attested by a formal recapitulation introduced by Apollonius himself at the end of i." 9^ . going back to the method followed in his original derivation of the curA'es from the cone.GENERAL CHARACTKRISTIC'S. synonymous with determining cone. or. when a diameter. the proposition that the curves represented by his original definitions can be represented by equations of the same form with reference to reciangulm• axes. secondly. we are introduced to the conjugate diameter and the reciprocal relation be- and the original diameter. xcix kind of circular cone are identical with those which are produced from sections of cones of revolution. Then follow properties of tangents extremity of the original diameter and (2) at any other point of the curve which is not on the diameter. its ellipse. it as a section of a right circular : This Apollonius does in two steps he first assumes that the ordinates are at right angles to the diameter and solves the problem for this particular case. 51 and concluding with the statemt-nt that " all the properties which have been shown to be true with regard to the sections will equally result by reference to the original diameters when the other diameters are taken. as axes of coordinates. we have the property of the conic which is the equivalent of the Cartesian equation referred to the particular diameter which emerges from the process of cutting the cone. He proceeds to propose tlie problem "to find" a parabola. regarded as axes. The order of procedure (leaving out unnecessary details) is as 118. the angle of inclination of and the corresponding parameter are given. in other words. and not using any of . when the curve is given by its equation referred to given "Finding" the curve is. Apollonius is now in a position to pass to the proof of the to it. First. or hyperbola. ordinates.s of sections of right cones. and the tangent at its extremity. the results obtained in the intervening plane investigations then. After these come a series of propositions leading up to the conclusion that any new diameter. as stated above. and the ordinates and hence that the equation of the conic when referred to new diameter and the tangent at its extremity is of the same form as the equation referred to the original diameter and tangent*.

that there cannot be obtained from oblique cones any other curves than can be derived from right cones. constitute a complete section of arranged and elaborated Avith a definite throughout. followed directly after those propositions. therefore. all The contents the treatise of the first Book.C INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. generally. that the solution of the problems as given is not possible without the the solution help of the intermediate propositions. and that Apollonius does in fact succeed in proving. it is not the object of an abstract of the work. . however. so far from being a intention fortuitous collection of propositions. Thus what is proved here Book. the problems would more naturally have It is clear. concurrently with of the problems. an intelligible plan this introduction to give as. not the mere converse been all of the first propositions of the If that had that intended. hoAvever. proving by is his procedure that it is always possible to draw a diameter which at right angles is to the chords bisected by it. tlie diaiiieter dicular to to tlie former case. and that conies have axes. . In like manner it will be seen that the other Books follow. the remaining Books shall speak for themselves.

if Any he remembers Avhat In he gradually learns as he proceeds in his reading of the Conies. however. a modern mathematician. it necessary to supply the omission by a The principal machinery used by Apollonius as well as by geometers comes under the head of what has been not inappropriately called a geometrical Algebra. In several such instances Pappus and Eutocius think lemma. to thoroughly appreciate the use. and it will be tlie earlier convenient to exhibit the part which this plays in the Conies under the following important subdivisions. its This theory in most complete form. THE METHODS OF APOLLONIUS. may be stated generally tliat they follow steadily the accepted principles of geometrical investigation which found their definitive expression in the Elements of Euclid. it is necessary to bear in mind that some of the methods employed by the Greek geometers were much more extensively used than they are in modern geometry. without special study. as expounded in the fifth and sixth Books of Euclid. (1) The theory of proportions. lies at the very root of tiie systeiu of . As a preliminary to the consideration in detail of the methods it era[)loyed in the Conies. whole course of his thought. understand every argument of which Apollonius makes order.CHAPTER III. Hence it frequently happens that Apollonius omits an intermediate step such as a practised mathematician would now omit in a piece of algebraical work which was not intended for the mere beginner. one who has mastered the Elements can. and were consequently handled by Apollonius and to his contemporary readers witli much greater deftness and facility than would be possible. § 1.

" The solution of this clearly gives the means of addimj together or subtracting any triangles.. it is Thus obvious that supplies a ready method of effecting the operations of multiplication and division. so that We have th \aj of the a^ V a„ Thus the continued use summation (2) method of proportions enables (cf. sum of the geometrical series The application of areas. the only further qualification to be borne in that. was used much earlier still. 44) for the statement that "these propositions are the discoveries of the Pythagorean muse. it is due to Eudoxus of Cnidus (408 no doubt that the method of application of areas. suppose. ApoUoiiius it is and a very short consideration it suffices to show how far capable of being used as a substitute for algebraical operations. the second Book of Euclid (with an extension vhich is found in vi. Avhere we find the very terms afterwards applied by Apollonius to the three conic sections on the ground of the corresponding distinction between their respective fundamental properties as presented by him. and provided.). parallelograms. have the authority of the pupils of Eudemus (quoted by Proclus on presents — there is Euclid I.Cll INTKonUCTIOX TO APOl. and their falling short" \ (17 tc eX\enj/i<. ix. so far as the solution of quadratic equations is concerned. 27 — 29) su^jplies means for solving the problems of modern algebra so long as they do not involve expressions above the second degree. that we have a cti.. The problem in Euclid i. 44 is " to apply to a given straight line a parallelogram which shall be equal to a given triangle and have one of its angles equal to a given rectilineal angle. for example. a» . 35). or other figures which can be decomposed into triangles. Again. . since negative magnitudes are not used in mind is Greek geometry. the application of areas. series in geometrical progression consisting of the terms a^. AVhether the theory of proportions in the form in Avhich Euclid 355 B. to which AVe allusion has already been made. their exceeding. .LONIUS.. . an the expression to be given for the in Eucl.) or not.C. Next. that negative and imaginary solutions are excluded .

of the Elements makes it possible multiply two factors with any number of linear terms in each It is readily seen that . making as centre first case {a) to we produce the side bisect of the rectangle to in F. '). whence.BE^FB '. and BG or is found. namely. (a) the iinding of a square whose area [ii. In the E.!. draw a meeting CB produced in G. taking away the common FB". 6. the aid of the a]rplication-i\\QorQn\. A is divided cijually at C A /J. which ])roblem is the equivalent of extract- ing the square root. vith BE equal BC . and. of a mixed quadratic equation. Then Also FG'^FB'+BG\ FG' = FE'^AB. Dli + CD' . . ClU often necessary to solve a problem in two parts.THK MKTlloDS OF it is < )!.Cn-. wliich can be derived from 5. (6) In the second case and unequally at Z>. Book ii. the most important of all. or of the solution of a pure quadratic equation. with dillerent figures.J Now suppose All -a.( )XIUS. BG. however. (I)) the geometrical solution ii. and the compression of the result into a single product follows by That theorem itself supplies a method of dividing the product of any two linear factors by a third. II. [Eucl. to where one solution by algebra would cover both cases. UB-x.= AB. The remaining operations for Avhich the second Book affords the means are. then circle F and radius FE. This corresponds to the equation X* =( if •(1).BE. we have. is equal to that of a given rectangle 14].

x° -b' (a) to in the language of geometry.e. Tlien ax — a* = the area of the rect. Thus. " To a given straight line to construct the rectangle AJf. (-^ if gnomon is given (= say). and if a is given AB). = the gnomon CMF.^' i. A h^. the problem of solving the equation ax — is.CIV INTRODUCTION TO AJ'OLLONIUS. {b') and A . apply a rectangle which shall be equal to a given square by a square.

in which he gives the * It will be observed that. in the case given above in the text.e. as equivalent to the simultaneous and product x + y = a.THE METHODS OF APOLLONIUS. by a . It necessary condition corresponding to b-^l-\ . Euclid was aware that x = AD satisfies the equation as The reason why he omitted to specify the former solution is no well as x — BD. they : . side containing the terms in a. and that tlu• geometrical solution derived from Euclid does not differ from our practice of soh'ing a quadratic by completing the square on the ic*. tinction is perfectly obvious. but for the ellipse deficient. . " a rectangle equal to one fourth part of the 'tiguTe' [i. be the result of interpolations (see Heiberg's edition. we have only to compare his way Let an ellipse." x^i^ax = b'^ From Euclid's point of view the equations next referred to in the text have of course only one solution. 27. although the separate treat- ment. while in this case there are real solutions.He says. stating the inferred from the proposition vi. x)j = b\ really only These symmetrical equations have one solution.' and To show how closely Apollonius keeps of describing the foci of a hyperbola or to this method and to the old terminology connected therewith. shall each of them be given. 161). doubt that the rectangle so found would simply be an equal rectangle but on BD as base instead of AD. and therefore there is no real object in distinguishing two solutions. of the two cases where the base of the is applied parallelogram greater and less than half the given line appears to p. for. equal to CB-] be applied opposite to the axis at either end. in the text translated by Simson. This form of the problem was known to Euclid.r and ij. i. two geometrically must not however be understood from The contrary may be this that he was unaware that there are two solutions. as appears from Prop. for the hyperbola or the brandies exceeding. as the two apparent solutions are simply the result of interchanging the values of . It is CV possibility of a clear that it is a necessary condition of ( tlic eal solution that Ir must not be greater than ?: ) .e. n. This is easily understood when we regard tlie equation as a («) statement of the problem of finding two quantities whose sum equations (//-) are given. Euclid gives only one. 86 of the Data (as translated by Simson) " If two straight lines contain a parallelogram given in magnitude. square " and the case of the ellijjse corresponds exactly to the solution of the equation just given. . the dis- and we must therefore assume that. Vol. in a given angle if both of them together be given.

BD = x. meeting A joins Now AD.cvi INTKODUCrioN To ATOI-LOXIUS.Dn + CB'^CD\ A C/ L "' G F Let us suppose that. equal to equal to circle CO.DB = B0\ «a. and describes with centre C and radius CO a produced in D. AB . Thus ve know . Thus BD.a. if AD. the solution of the equation -— 1/ is equivalent to finding a gnomon equal in area to 6* and having as line one of the sides containing the inner right angle a straight equal to the given length CB or - . Then and.DB = ax + x\ ax + this is equal to b" (a given area). Again. DB + CB--^ CD- = C0' = CB' + whence or B0\ A1). is found. To do this Simson draws BO at right angles to vl^ and 0. a square the sum of two given squares. 6. AD. if A is bisected at C and produced to JJ. + . or x. ha\e.* — 6*. in Euclid's figure.j and />'. from the proposition in Euclid ii. and we have to find. This solution corresponds exactly to Apollonius' determination of the foci of the hyperhola. . by the Pythagorean proposition.

t• - — ax = AM = the gntnnon we have its CMF.X. and are most frequently made use of by the ancient geometers in the solution of other problems and therefore are very ignorantly left out by Tacquet . is necessary. are the most general and useful of all in the elements. or x) by the same construction as in the case innnediately preceding. if AB^a. then and wo suppose the problem solved." . " who pretend that they are scarce of any use. and Dechales in their editions of the Elements. and has prefixed to by a parallelogram) the necessary corresponding to condition /09 27] the obvious referred to above in connection with the equation ax — -= h'. notwithstanding this observation of Sinisun's. 28. to find the gnomon. the first case of (the deficiency possibility [vi.* * It is propositions strange that. 29 has in ii. and the area Cli' (0 by w hich the trnomon diflers from CJ)'. 29 are omitted from Todhunter's Euchd. 27.THK MKIHODS The equation can be dealt If witli in • AI'OLI. 6 supplied the means of solving them. the three vi. 6" CVil x' — ax = a similar manner. to the in vi. various once restored to the I would suggest that all three propositions should be at text-books of Euclid with a note explaining their mathematical significance. l)ecause is equal to AD the same as the preceding except that here instead of BD. which contains : a note to this effect 29 and the first " We have omitted in the sixtli Book I'ropositious 27. Of the problems problems. and Lardner. but he has put the propositions in the form of an actual solution of the general quadratic. and one solution can be derived frou) the other. 5. as they appear now to be never required and have been condemned as useless by modern commentators see Austin. Hence Euclid has no need to treat this case separately. Walker. solution which Euchd gives of Proposition 30. 28. though he In vi. . 28. and. 1• area ('). 28. 29 Simson rightly says " These two first of which the 27th prop.OML'S. . So far Euclid has not put his propositions in the form of an it is actual solution of the quadratic equations referred to. Thus we can find D (and therefore AD. however he has not only made the problem more general by substituting for the sqttare by Avhich the required rectangle is to exceed or fall short a paraUelograni similar and similarly situated to a given parallelogram. so that AD .

is greatest." Corresponding propositions are found among the Data of Euclid. VI. deficient by a parallelogi-am given in species. * The translation follows the text of Heiberg's edition of Euclid (Teubner. 27. of these propositions are as follows* : The enunciations VI. ^' If a parallelogram equal to a given states space be applied to a given straight line. It is 8-4 propositions. . the same fact in the case of an excess. 1883-8).CVlll INTRODUCTION TO AI'OLLONIUS. Thus Prop. worth while to give shortly Euclid's proof of one of these and vi. " Of all the parallelograms ajrplied to the same straight applied line and deficient hij jmrallelogravis similar is described is and similarly situated to that which upon the half of the line. 29. the sides of the defect are given. " To a given straight line to apply a parallelog7-am equal to a given rectiliiieal figure and exceeding by a parallelogra7n similar to a given one. 83 states that. 28. that tchich is to the half and " similar to its defect." and Prop. 28 is accordingly selected. To a given straight line to apply a parallelogram equal and deficient by a jmralMogram similar to a given jiarallelogram : But the given rectilineal figure must not he greater than tlie parallelogram applied to half of the given line and to a given rectilineal figure similar to tloe defect. VI.

(Iffcct CIX C the given area. Bisect similar AB at JE. Let AJi be the given parallelogram to which the stniiglit line. the problem solved if the latter. b c so that ax — b c C . TB = m . LK of the parallelogram LKNM to one another if m is a certain constant. and GF.THE METHODS OF APOLLONIUS. Proposition 28 in like manner solves tln^ ('(juation ax + b . Therefore LKNM is similar and similarly situated to EF. . XO = KM. = — in . KN. by the follows that AG must be either equal is to C or greater than it If the former. which equal to the gnomon. and by construction. are homologous sides respectively. the parallelogram EF is greater than C. Then GPB must be the diagonal of the parallelogram GB [vi. [by vi. and complete the parallelogram XGOP. Complete the figure. and on describe a parallelogram OEBF it. Then. GE. gnomon EliO. is Hence equal to C. LM.. 18]. Now construct a parallelogram LKNM equal to the excess of EF if and similarly situated to D [vi. and we have (along EF = C + KM. the equal to C. D . over C and similar GE>LK. D the is of th(> roquired parallelogram to be similar. GF) equal respectively to Make GX (along GE) and GO LK^ LM. = m. 25]. while. 27]. then have. and that : c is the ratio of . and similarly situated to [vi. we ax.X' c = C m . Suppose now that the sides AB -a. and GF>LM. LK. the parallelogram TS.-. 26]. is is Therefore the difference. SP = x.

draw a in is figure showii. and from the book that Apollonius is nothing if not orthodox in his adherence to the traditional method of application of areas. though they are not immediately obvious.»). And. that parallelogram . e.." It itself. ^.g. instead of particular any parallelogram whose similar sides are in a certain ratio. these principles From the extensive use that. and thence. Avhich is made of we may conclude where equations between^ to be found in the fact areas are stated by Apollonius without proof. we may safely infer. at right angles to d. Subject to these to the phraseology of the Conies is similar that of " Euclid : the square of the ordinate said to be equal to a rectangle (i. we compare these equations witli those by which Apollonius viz. and in his manipulation of equations between areas such as are exemplified in the second Book of Euclid. and Pappus' amounts practically to the proniore likely that Apollonius cedure of modern algebra.ex If INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. (5 ) "applied to figure "a certain straight line "having as its width the abscissa. whereas it is contemporaries would. many cases one rectangle equal to the by simple inspection. is taken whose is sides are />. after the manner of yeonietrical algebia. be seen from what has been said.e. and so on. with regard to the manner of establishing the results assumed by Apollonius. conclude sum of two others. expresses the fundamental property of a central conic. with Zeuthen. the explanation is that his readers as well as himself Avere so imbued with the methods of geometrical algebra that they were naturally expected to be \ work out any necessary intermediate step for themselves. kind of result most frequently assumed by Apollonius is some able to relation between the products of pairs of segments of a straight line divided by points on it into a method and his of proving such a relation number of parts. that .g the various rectangles and squares. d. Further. that it was the practice to prove them directly by using the procedtire of the second Book of the Elements rather than by such combinations and transformations of the results obtained in that Book as we find in The the lemmas of Pappus to the propositions of Apollonius. and " falling short (or exceeding) by a similar and similarly situated to that contained by the diameter and the parameter. it is seen that the only difference is that takes the place of a and. Apollonius draws differences.

CXI in. CE EB + I}Z-^ = DE EA + CA . The Greek geometers were fruitful in devices for the compression sum or difference of the ai-eas of any rectilineal figures into a single area and in fact the Elements of Euclid furnish the means The Conies of Apollonius of effecting such compression generally. in On the other it. A + CA. and A' along EB' lemma equal to EB' perpendicular and equal A.AB + BZ-. 949).EA+AZ-^=EZ^. for their elegance. contain some instances of similar procedure which deserve mention of the . C.. p. whence (and CE.LOXirS. this if In Apollonius 2G [Prop.EB = AB. AVhile the procedure for this purpose is. 61] is more likely to represent Apollonius' method of proof than to Pappus' 6th lemma Book (3) III. This appears at once to if we set oft' EB. hand Pappus' method is simply to draw a line with points on Thus in tliis case [Lemma 4 to Book ni. (ed. An instance it is will make that.A B. .AD + BZ\ . . and if we complete the is parallelograms as in the figure*. then EC. 29 [Prop. . first. and if AB = CD. 947] he proceeds as follows.EB = DE .EB + BZ-^ = EZ\ p.THE METHODS OF AI'Ol. first bisecting BC CE. . clear. AZ-^ = CA. Graphic representation of areas by means of aux- iliary lines. D he points on a line in the order named. in Z. Similarly Eutocius' to ill. There is. and while It follows that DE. the representation of the area of the square on the ordinate y in the form of a rectangle whose base is the abscissa * x. CA = BD). B. 60] assumed E. and to proceed semi-algebraically. BD + ED. Hultsch.

y"^ Y. _ Vli and if VB drawn parallel PL meets P'L in R we have (using the figures of Props. closely connected with the traditional application of areas. by similar triangles. 81]. its special neatness is due to the use of a certain auxiliary line. for is therefore effected. he draws PL perpendicular to PP' and 2. The Cartesian equation of a central conic referred to any diameter of length d and the tangent at its extremity is (if (/' be the length of the conjugate diameter) . if PV = x. and CM joined. AM is and ^ (where p„ is is the parameter corresponding to the axis Tf the urdinate A A'). is used in the form of an area standing on as base in the particular case whei-e drawn perpendicular to ' y is an ordinate to the of length equal to axis. to find a simple construction fur }' where ^ Apollonius' device is d" _d" such that to take a length _ (d~'d'' (so that is the parameter of the ordinates to the diameter of length d). . p_VB so that d~ P'V~d + x' VP ^]) + - X = and the construction Again. another auxiliary line a. 1-3 [Prop. 3). and of the origin of coordinates. in for expressing v. d" -d" .CXll INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. 7W meets CM in »/ //. If PP' be the diameter taken as the axis of x. and the problem is to express the right hand side of the equation in the form of a single rectangle xY. and joins P'L. it is then proved that 2 (quadrilateral MA Xll). length p. to Then. form. in other words.

: The proposition that : PP" DD" = MH' Mil appears in vii. then proved at once that NG . and similarly that NV = 2 P'G' Hence. 6. 86] to give. The bearing of the proposition may be exhibited as follows.Nil. with particular reference those functions. c. and is a variable point on the same axis determined in a certain manner with reference to the position of the point P. 86 before.THE METHODS OF APOLLONirs. H. effected so that difference of the have in the figures a graphic representation of the between the areas of the two squares fixed auxiliary lines by means two CM. N'GH'. along the axis away from the nearer vertex so that PN : In the figures of Prop. The seventh Book investigates the values of certain quadratic functions of the lengths of any two conjugate diameters PP'. to the maximum and minimum : values of The whole procedure of Apollonius depends upon the reduction of the ratio CP' CJ)'^ to a ratio between straight lines MH' and Mil. v. Cxiii 10 [Prop. NG :CN^p^'. let PN produced meet CM joined and produced It is if in //. If is the ordinate of P. //' are fixed points on the transverse axis of the hyperbola or on either axis of the ellipse. and it is proved that -PG' = 2A HKH'. forming the second auxiliary line. with If the axes of the help of the notation of analytical geometry.AA'[^ CB' CA']. as GH is now necessary. 9. (4) Special use of auxiliary points in Book VII. Apollonius then proceeds in a second auxiliary line. by the aid of the expression for y^ above. h . DD' in central conies of different excentricities. where P' is any other point on the curve than P'. the areas PG' and P'G' are exhibited in the figures. by means of an extremely elegant construction for an area equal to the difference between the squai-e on a normal PG and the square on P'G. and the remainder of the Book is a sufticient proof of the effectiveness of this formula as the geometrical substitute for algebraical operations. GH. and therefore that NG'- = 2 NGH. 127]. The method measure XG is as foUoAvs. 7 [Prop. where //.

axis whose coordinates are and a variable point whose coordinates are {x . 0).INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.. we obtain CP'-CD' Apollonius' procedure is to take a certain fixed point // on the (A.'>•. such that the numerator and denominator of . in the case of the hyperhoL•. h are the lengths of the axes. 0).. 2ah fraction is itself whence the equal to j . we have. y are the coordinates of P.ci>' ^<"^-^-) -{(!)" CP*-GD* where . coordinates are the principal axes of the conic. and we have h _a'-b' (i)> and "'=4.» 2 (2). e. . cp. Eliminating y by means of the equation ( -(!)} of the curve. the last expression are respectively equal to 2ax'.g. From (1) we derive at once whence AH : A'll =¥ : or ^p^iAA'. and if a.

;

THE METHODS OF APOLLOMUS.
Thus, to find
J7,
is

CXV
:

we have

only to divide

'

in the ratio p„

AA'.
AA',

This

is

what

£1' is similarly

done in vii. 2, 3 [Prop. 124]. found by dividing A'A in the same

ratio

2\i

'.

and

clearly

AH = A'H',
(2),

A'H=AH'.
f

Again, from

we have
,

a\

a'

In other vords,
or

A A' \A'M=CT:

CN A'M:AM=CN:TN
draw

(3).

If now, as in the figures of Prop. 127,

AQ
is

parallel to

the tangent at

meeting the curve again in Q,

AQ

bisected
is

by

CP;
to

and, since

AA'

is

bisected at C,

it

follows that

A'Q

parallel

CP. Hence,

if

QM'

be the ordinate of

Q,

the triangles A'QM',

CPN

are similar, as also are the triangles
.•.

AQM',

TPN
coincides with

A'M':AM'=CN:TN.
(3),
it

Thus, on comparison with

appears that

M'

;

or, in

other words, the determination of

Q by

the construction

described gives the position of Af.

Since
that

now

//,

//',

are found, and

x',

h vere so determined

CP' + CD'

x'

GP'-CD'~
it

A'

follows that

CP""
:

:

CD'' =

x'

+ h:x'-h,
:

or

PP" DO" = MH' MH.
that case

The construction is similar for the ellipse except that in ^^' is divided externally at H, H' in the ratio described.
§ 2.

The use

of coordinates.

of the most characteristic features of the Greek treatment of conic sections. The use of coordinates is not peculiar to Apollonius, but it will have been observed that the same point of view appears also in the earlier Avorks on the subject. Thus Menaechmus used the characteristic property of the paraljola which

We

have here one

we now express by the equation

y'

—px

referred to rectangular axes.
is

He

used also the property of the rectangular hyperbola which
tlie

expressed in our notation by

equation xy =

c*,

where the axes

of

coordinates are the asymptotes.

2

CXVl

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.
of equation for the parabola,

Archimedes too used the same form
while his

mode

of

representing the fundamental property of a

central conic

~— = (const.)
can easily be put into the form of the Cartesian equation.

So Apollonius, in deriving the three conies from any cone cut in
the most general manner, seeks to find the relation between the
coordinates of any point on the curve referred
to the original
(in

diameter and the tangent at
oblique),

its

extremity as axes
this relation,

general

and proceeds

to deduce

from

when

found, the

other properties of the curves.

His method does not essentially differ from that of modern analytical geometry except that in Apollonius
geometrical operations take the place of algebraical calculations.

We
in the

have seen that the graphic representation of the area of yform of a rectangle on
to PP',

as base, Avhere

(;r,

y)

is

any point on

a central conic, was effected by means of an auxiliary fixed line

P'Z

whose equation referred

PL

as rectangular axes

is

That an equation
because

of this

form between the coordinates

x,

repre-

sents a straight line

we must assume Apollonius

to have been aware,

of his separate

Book work on plane loci the following proposition " If straight lines be drawn from a point meeting at given angles two straight lines given in position, and if the former lines are in a given ratio, or if the sum of one of them and of such a line as bears
find in Pappus' account of the contents of the first
:

we

a given ratio to the second

is

given, then the point will lie on a

given straight line"; in other words, the equation
x-\-ay

=h
are positive.
is

represents a straight line, where

a, b

The

altitude of the rectangle
is

whose base

and whose area

is

equal to y^

thus determined by a procedure like that of analytical
is

geometry except that
auxiliary line

found by a geometrical construction

instead of being calculated algebraically from the equation of the

THE METHODS OF APOLLOXIUS.
If it should

CXvii

seem curious that the

.auxilitary line is

determined with

reference to an independent (rectangular) pair of coordinate axes
diflferent
it

from the oblique axes to which the conic

is itself

referred,

has only to be borne in mind that, in order to show the area y' as
it

a rectangle,

was necessary that the angle between

and

}'

should

be right.

But, as soon as the line P'L was once drawn, the object

vas gained, and the subsidiary axes of coordinates vere forthwith dropped, so that there was no danger of confusion in the further
development of the theory.

Another neat example of the use of an auxiliary line regarded from the point of view of coordinate geometry occurs in i. 32 [Prop. 11], where it is proved that, if a straight line be drawn from
the end of a diameter parallel to
its

ordinates (in other Avords, a

tangent), no straight line can fall between the parallel and
curve.

the

Apollonius

first

supposes that such a line can be drawn

from
ordinate

passing through K, a point outside the curve, and the

KQV

is

drawn.
their

Then,

if y',

y be the ordinates of

A',

Q

respectively,

and

common

abscissa, referred to the diameter

and tangent as
23, 24)

axes,

we have

for the central conic (figures on pp.

?/''>?/*

or xY,

where

represents the ordinate of the point on the auxiliary line
referred to corresponding to the abscissa

PL before
Let
along
y'^

(with

PP PL
,

as independent rectangular axes).

be equal to

xY\

so that Y'

>

7,

and

let Y'

be measured
Y').
is

(so that, in

the figures referred

to,

VR -

Y,

and YS =

Then the

locus of the extremity of

for different \'alues of

the straight line P'L, and the locus of the extremity of Y' for
different points

on
Y',

PK

is

the straight line
is

Pti.

It follows, since

the lines P'L,
R')
Q',

PS intersect,

that there

one point (their intersection

where
Q',

F=

and therefore

that, for the corresponding points
line

on the conic and the supposed

PK

respectively,

that

are coincident, and accordingly

PK

curve between

cannot lie and A". Hence and the curve in the manner supposed. Here then we have two auxiliary lines used,

y = y so must meet the between the tangent
,

viz.

Y^P+'^x,
d
and

= mx,

CXVIU

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.

where

m

is

some constant
determined
;

;

and the point

of intersection of

PK and

the conic

is

b}'

the point of intersection of the two
is

auxiliary lines

only here again the latter point

found by a

geometrical construction and not by an algebraical calculation.

In seeking in the various propositions of Apollonius for the
equivalent of the Cartesian equation of a conic referred to other

axes different from those originally taken,

it is

necessary to bear in
original equation

mind what has already been
which forms the basis of the

illustrated

by the

respecti\'^e definitions, viz. that,

where

the equivalents of Cartesian equations occur, they appear in the
guise of simple equations between areas.

The book contains

several

such equations between areas which can either be directly expressed
as, or split
x^,

xy, y^, X,

up into parts Avhich are seen to be, constant multiples of and y, where x, y are the coordinates of any point on
;

the curve referi'ed to different coordinate axes
fore the equivalent of so

and we have

there-

many

different Cartesian equations.

Further, the essential difference between the Greek

and the

modern method is that the Greeks did not making the fixed lines of the figure as few as
form as
possible.

direct their efibrts to
possible,

but rather to

expressing their equations between areas in as short and simple a

Accordingly they did not hesitate to use a number

of auxiliary fixed lines, provided only that

by that means the areas
.

corresponding to the various terms in

cc^,

xy,

. .

forming the Cartesian

equation could be brought together and combined into a smaller

number

of terms.
is

Instances have already been given in which such

compression

efiected

by means

of one or

auxiliary lines.

In

the case, then, where

auxiliary fixed lines are used in addition

and it appears that the properties between areas) can be equally well expressed relatively to the two auxiliary lines and to the two original axes of reference, we have clearly Avhat amounts to a
to the original axes of coordinates, of the conic (in the

form

of equations

transformation of coordinates.
§ 3.

Transformation of coordinates.
case
is

A simple
ellipse,
first

found as early as

i.

15 [Prop.

5],

where, for the

the axes of reference are changed from the original diameter
its

and the tangent at
sufficient

extremity to the diameter conjugate to the
This transformation
first,

and the corresponding tangent.

may

with

accuracy be said to be effected,

by a simple transference

of the origin of coordinates

from the extremity of the original diameter

THE METHODS OF

Al'OLLONIUS.

Cxix

to the centre of the ellipse, and, secondly,

by moving the origin a

second time from the centre to

We find in fact,
of

as

i), the end of the conjugate diameter. an intermediate step in the proof, the statement

the property that {d being the original diameter and d'

its

conjugate in the figure of Prop. 5)

(0
where
x,

the rectangle

RT.TE

diameter and
for diameter

y are the coordinates of the point Q vith reference to the its conjugate as axes and the centre as origin and
;

ultimately the equation

is

expressed in the old form, only with d'

and

for the corresponding parameter,
p'
d'

where

_d
'

The equation
as axes
is

of the hyperbola as well as of the ellipse referred

to the centre as origin

and the original diameter and

its

conjugate
I.

at once seen to be included as a particular case in
if

41

[Prop. 16], which proposition proves generally that,
pai-allelograms be described on

CP,
it

angular parallelogram be described on
other side of the parallelogram on

CV QV

two similar respectively, and an equisuch that

QV

is

to the

compounded of the ratio of CP to the other side of the parallelogram on CP and of the ratio;? d, then the parallelogram on QV is equal to the diiierence between the parallelograms on CP, CV. Suppose now that the parallelograms on CP, CV are squares, and therefore that the
in the ratio
:

parallelogram on

(^

is

a rectangle

;

it

follows that
,

fdy
=

d

S.y

(1).

Apollonius

is

now

in a position to undertake the transformation

to a different pair of axes consisting of

the tangent at

its

extremity.
as

any diameter whatever and The method which he adopts is to
fixed

use the
line.

new diameter

what has been termed an auxiliary

It will be best to keep to the case of the ellipse throughout, in

order to avoid ambiguities of sign.

Suppose that the new diameter
l.

CQ meets

the tangent at

in E, as in the figure of

47 [Prop. 21];

CXX
then,
to
if

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.
from any point
it is

R

on the curve

tiie

ordinate
if it

7? IF is

draAvn

PP\

parallel to the tangent

PE,

and,

meets

CQ

in

F, the triangles
is

CPE,

CWF
CW,
-we

are similar,

and one angle
of

in

each

that between the old and the
Also, as the triangles

new diameters. CPE, C WF are the halves

two similar
i.

parallelograms on CP,

can use the relation proved in

41

[Prop. 16] for parallelograms, provided that

we take a

triangle on

RW

as base such that

R WP

is

one angle, and the side

WU lying

along

WP is

determined by the relation

RW
WU~
Apollonius
satisfies this

'
CP

d'

condition by draAving i2i7 parallel to QT,
is

the tangent at Q.

The proof

as follows.
i.

From

the property of the tangent,

37 [Prop. 14],

QV'

;

THE METHODS OF APOLLONIUS.
72 TF is to

CXXl

Cr. It then follows that the two triangles 7? 11', CFW same relation to the original axes, and to the diameter have to the new axes, consisting QQ', as the triangles RFM, of QQ' and the tangent at Q, and to the diameter PP', respectively.
have
tlie

CUM

Also the triangle
that the triangle

CPE has the same CQT has to the new.

relation to the old axes

above holds between three triangles
reference to CQ, the tangent at

Therefore, in order to prove that a like relation to that in (2) similarly determined with

Q and

the diameter

',

it

has to

be shown that

CQTThe first step CQT, as to which
is to

CUM^ AEMF.
CPE,
i.

prove the equality of the triangles

see note on

50 [Prop. 23] and

in.

1

[Prop. 53].

We

have then, from

(2) above,

or the quadrilateral

acqt-acfw^apuw, QTWF=ARUW,

therefore, subtracting the quadrilateral

MUWF from each side,

CQT- A CUM= A RMF,
it was required to prove. Thus a relation between areas has been found in exactly the same form as that in (2), but with QQ' as the diameter of reference in place of PP. Hence, by reversing the process, we can determine the parameter q corresponding to the diameter QQ', and so obtain the equation of the conic with reference to the new axes in the same form as the equation (1) above (p. cxix) referred to PP' and its have only to move the origin conjugate and, when this is done,

the property which

;

from

C

to

^

in order to effect the complete transformation to the

new axes

of coordinates consisting of

QQ' and the tangent at Q,

and to obtain the equation

Now

the original parameter

is

determined with reference to

the length {d) of

PF by the

relation

so that

^^' - ^^ ^- ^^ = d~ GV.VT~CP' PT~ PT' OP ^PE
-pj,


d

'

CXXIl

INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.
-alue for q should accordingly

and the corresponding
the equation

be given by

which Apollonius proves to be the case in

i.

50 [Prop. 23].
essentially the

No
;

mention of the parabola has been made in the above, because
transformation
is

the proof of the corresponding

same but a method

it

may be

noted here that Archimedes was familiar with

of effecting the

same transformation
(p.
liii)

for the parabola.

This has been already alluded to
the proposition of Apollonius.

as easily deducible from

There
of
all,

areas.

is another result, and that perhaps the most interesting which can be derived from the foregoing equations between We have seen that

7?/=
so that
i.e.

,RF

aCFJV,
aCPjE,

AEUW+ aCFW=
CFRU^ ACPE.
if

the quadrilateral

Now,

PP', QQ' are fixed diameters, and

R

a variable point on
in fixed

the curve,

we

observe that

RU,

are

drawn always

directions (parallel to the tangents at Q,

respectively), Avhile the

area of the triangle

CPE is

constant.

It follows therefore that, if PP, QQ' are two fixed diameters

and

if from

any point
the area

R

on

the curve ordinates be

dravm

to

PF, QQ'

meeting QQ',

PP in F, U respectively,
of the quadrilateral

then

Conversely, if in a quadrilateral

CFRU is constant. CFRU the ttvo sides CU, CF lie
the fixed lines,

along fixed straight

lines, ivhile the

two other sides are

moveable jjoint

R

in given directions

ami meeting

drawn from a and

if the quadrilateral has a constant area, then the locus of the j)oint
is

R

an

ellipse or

a hyperbola.

Apollonius does not specifically give this converse proposition,

nor in fact any proposition stating that this or that locus

is

a conic.

But, as he says in his preface that his work contains " remarkable

theorems which are useful for the synthesis of solid
conclude that

loci,"

we must

among them was
of stating it

the proposition which in effect states

that the area of the quadrilateral

CFRU

is

constant,

and that the

converse

way

was perfectly well known

to him.

and. Again. or FJR'F'^JU'UR. 55]. 18 that the proposition that the area of the equation GFRU is constant is the equivalent of saying that to of a central conic referred ax' any two diameters as axes is +7/ + / = . It is also interesting to observe that this equation the equiva- lent of the intermediate step in the transformation from one diameter and tangent to another diameter and tangent as axes referred to a . is where a. k. For obtaining the equation we may use the formula CFRU^ CF'R'U'. . which are proved in 3 [Prop. where the lengths of the tangents are h. JiU as fixed coordinate axes and expressing the constancy of the area of the quadrilateral CF'R'U' for any point R' with reference to RF^ RU as axes. iii. in the particular case of the parabola. 54] that HFQ = quadrilateral IITUR. [Prop. R'J." and from this we obtain the well-known equation to a conic with reference to two tangents as axes. Similarly an equation can be found corresponding to the property in III.THE METHODS OF APOLLONIUS. viz. A are constants. in. in other Avords. e. y. 54. 56 [Prop.g. 75] lead at once to the "locus \nth respect to three lines. F'lRF^ lUU'R'. Apollonius passes from the equation referred to one pair of 2)<^i'>' conjugate diameters conjugate diameters cu7've referred to to hij the equation second of the more general equation of axes consisting of one of each pair of conjugates. The coordinates of R' would in this case be R'l. viz. or the other relations derived immediately from it. ©'HD' . means of the Other forms of the equation of the conic can be obtained. The axes of reference may then be any axes meeting in a point on the curve. by regarding RF. CXXlll It will be seen from the note to Prop.

latter equation can also be derived directly The from in. qP as qp = x^. . which proves that three tangents to a parabola forming a triangle are divided in the same proportion. Thus. rq =?/. if X. by the proposition. 41 [Prop. the figure of Prop. (cf. we have. 65].CXXIV INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. axes. if and y be the coordinates of Q with reference to qR. 65).

. is On II. 105. on the authority of loannes Philoponus* (who quotes one Parmenio) that ApoUonius solved the problem thus. in the construction for attributed to ApoUonius. The passage quoted iu Heiberg's Apolhnitts. remembered that Menaechinus' solution of the problem of the two mean proportionals was eifected by finding the points of intersection between any two of the curves It will be . OB. Vol. Let the two given unequal straight lines be placed at right angles. It lie is clear that the points of intersection of the first circle two curves on the x^ + y' — bx — ay = 0." Now DC=FE. post. CXXV Method of finding two mean proportionals. the circle again in F. and therefore that the two mean proportionals can be determined by means of the intersection of this circle with any one of the three curves. xy = ah.r* = ay. and through C draw DCFE in (meeting OA and OB E) so that DC ^ FE. p. two mean proportionals which is and we must therefore assume that he had discovered that the points of inter- two parabolas lay on the circle. as 0. ''And this is assumed as a postulate unjn'oved. OB. * and therefore DF= CE. § 4. the Anal. in D. section of the We have it as diameter describe the semicircle Complete the parallelogram and draw the diagonal OC On OC OBC. produce OA.THE METHODS OF APOLT-OXIUS. y^ =^bx. Now. we find this very circle used.

Vol. . and with 3i as centre a circle has to be described cutting OA. And this is the actual procedure of the Arabian scholiast in expounding this solution.EF OE. The mechanical Eutociust. 56. can be done by moving a the distances i-^der about C as it a fixed point until crosses * . OD:OE=CB:BE = OA:BE Also. . the writer says. circle And.e. OD:OE = BE:AD But. OD. 7G— 78.DA=FD. AD are the two required in the above proportionals. (3).EB. in. of D. and this. Hence it is sufficiently clear that Apollonius' solution circle to. p. the middle point of OC. are equal." Pappus Avhich says that it by means of the we may conclude that the point F in the above figure was determined by draAving a rectangular hyperbola with OA. from (1). (2) and (3) that OA:BE = BE:AD = AD. pp..\\ elvai 11(•.•.OB'. OJ):OE = OA: AC = It follows : mean is (2). ycip Pappus 6o\oyo0nes CTepebv opyaviKuii t AicLiniedes. hence BE. is taken. by similar triangles. OB such that the line DE passes through C produced in points D. since the on OC as diameter passes through A.DC = = . (1). The important step If the assumed step of drawing DE through C so that DC = FE. by similar triangles. (the points in which OA OB) from in. CXXVl INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. CE. Avas obtained by means of the intersection of the on OC as diameter with the rectangular hyperbola referred intersection of the curves o:^ i. by the + y^ — bx — ay xy " 1 solution attributed to Apollonius is given by In this solution M. OB as asymptotes and passing through C. we compare with this the passage in ApoH'onius "has also contrived the resolution of sections of the cone*.

The Suppose analytical equivalent of Apollonius' procedure to be the fixed point is as follows. i. the required points. or the axis of a parabola. Let FN Then. we take as axes of coordinates the axes of the central conic. * Archimedes. is noticed in Eutocius' description of the solution of the problem by Philo Byzantinus. when Apollonius uses the problem of the two mean proportionals in the Conies. 103]. FE is (? (- it «^€) trial with a pair of compasses whether MD. of The propositions on the 51. for vhich reference should be to v. and FGO normals. DC be made equal to FE as in the former case. be the ordinate of F. it may be stated generally that Apollonius' method of finding the feet of the various normals passing through a given point is by the construction of a certain rectangular hyperbola vhich determines. clear that this solution if is essentially the same as the because. through which the to be one of those normals are to pass. is almost the same as Heron's (given just before and with the niechanical solution of Apollonius). iii. Vol. 70. attributed solution identical Philo's Tcpov). 102.THE METHODS OF APOLLONIUS. by its intersections with the conic. made Without entering into details. for the parabola. It is CXXvii other. This latter solution the same by loannes Philoponus to Apollonius except that Philo obtains the required position for DE by mov-ing the ruler Eutocius adds that this about C until DC. by possible to watch the equality of the lines DC. ME are equal*. from J/ perpendicular to This coincidence as that is DE nmst bisect and therefore MD = ME. with the coordinates of the corresponding centre of curvature. it is for the purpose of connecting the coordinates of a point on a central conic ( § 5. meeting the major or transverse axis of a central conic.e. with much greater ease than to make It may be mentioned here that. and. p. subject are v. Method of constructing normals passing through a given point. 58-63 [Props. . more con'enient in practice dividing the ruler into equal and conis. 52 [Prop. the corresponding point on the evolute. the line it. FE become equal. but that method because tinuous parts. and OM the perpendicular from if on the axis. 99]. in G.

so far as applied to being unorthodox. the axis and the tangent at the vertex.=o (1). He is speaking (p..y. and generally when it is solved yeVovs).. (1) for the parabola.). the problem in the in the Book of the Conies of Apollonius in the case of the parabola. as Pappus criticises this procedure. and the solid vcwts with reference to a circle assumed book about the spiral by Archimedes first for it is possible without the use of anything solid to discover the theorem pro- pounded by the latter.. NG —X- — y. respectiA'ely. we have y ^ £c.?'- through 0. between the three classes of "plane" (tTriVcSa). y^ be the coordinates of P.-^j (2) for the ellipse or hyperbola. so that its character as a " solid locus " was not considered to affect the order of the problem. and y).-f)y-y. On it is this assumption the criticism has no doubt some force. xy {l+^)-x. .y±-. for " (. as. because a clear advantage to be able to effect the construction by means of the line and circle only. 270) of the distinction and of a foreign kind (e^ fifth example.' CXXVlll INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS.. circle. . of ^ b' The intersections these feet rectangular of hyperbolas with the respective conies give the the various normals passing the .x = 0.. Pa y -"' -. geometers Avhen the solution of a plane problem means of by means Such procedure seems a serious error on the part of is discovered by conies or higher curves. («.—'. if (x." The allusion must clearly be to the use of the intersections of a rectangular hyperbola with the parabola when tions the same points could be obtained by of the latter with a certain itself regarded the parabola means of the intersecPresumably Pappus as being completely drawn and given. "solid" the still more complicated " linear" problems and says. Now bola. xy {^. NG Therefore. (€€)..

substituting p^^x for if. "solid locus" may have may regarded the presence of one (the given parabola) in his figure as determinative of the class of problem. C. --(x. may have been or (2) he explanations of this are possible. and haA'e considered that to solve it with the help of effect of a circle only would not.-'|). by adding the equation of the parabola. have the making it a " plane " problem. either (1) he unwilling to sacrifice to a pedantic orthodoxy the all convenience of using one uniform method for three conies alike. and we have and. H. .^-f =0. in the circumstances..THE METHODS OF APOLLONIUS. but that he purposely refrained from doing Two so.• by Multiply (1) — . we have But there is nothing in the operations leading to this result which could not have been expressed in the geometrical language which the Greeks used. We must therefore assume that Apollonius could have reduced the problem of the normals to a parabola in the same way. The circle in this case CXXIX l)y can of course be obtained c<jmbining the equation of the rectangular hyperbola (1) above with that of the parabola y' — . Moreover we have seen that in Ajiollonius' solution of the problem of the two mean proportionals the same reduction of the intersections between two conies to the intersections of a conic and a circle is found. whence.

meet one anotL•r. the diameter conjugate tangent to to that joining the jwints of contact. and after it instead of being separated from 68]. tlie foci been the result of mere accident. 42 [Prop. Thus. if this were the case. 67. being equal to the square on half the parallel dia42. 44 [Props. each of which totiches a j)arabola.CHAPTER IV. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CONIC BY MEANS OF TANGKNTS. 67] Apollonius gives three theorems which may be enunciated as follows : 41. have also a strong positive reason for supposing that the arrangement was due to set purpose rather than to chance. meter. totes i. it by iii. extremities of If in a central conic parallel tangents he drawn at the a fixed diameter. If three straight lines. if two tangents to a parabola are given. we should have expected that the propositions about the foci would follow directly central conic. but. the rectangle under the intercepts on the parallel tangents is constant. 43. and if hoth tangents be met hy any variable tangent.e. they will he cut in the same proportion. There liave tive propositions. 66. an obvious family likeness between these three consecuand their arrangement in this manner can hardly It is true that in. 43. G5. In Book III. Any a hyperbola cuts off lengths from the asymp- whose product is is constant. first of the three propositions gives a general method of drawing . 66] is used almost directly afterwards for determining it of a might be supposed that it had its place in the book for this reason only. namely the fact that all three propositions can be used for describing a conic by We means the of tangents. 41-43 [Props.

. those cases. if points of contact P. : we must have Pr qj) = Pq : qR (a constant ratio).. cutting off from two fixed lines lengths. we possess in a translation by Halley from the Arabic under the title De sectione rationis the other. How Book <. we have two tangents qP. In fact. : or that Pr is. we have to draw a straight line rp cutting off i •> . such that they contain a rectangle of constant area).. One of these.^. p. qli and the to draw through any the point (in r.. ' (two Books On cutting off a space. 67] reduces to two important cases of the general problem discussed in the second treatise. : Pq^qp :qR. now lost. R are given. a straight J} line which will intersect given tangents respectively) in such a /*?• : way that rq = qp pP. cxxxl <. instead of the points of contact. it becomes important to inquire whether Apollonius possessed tlie of means drawing any number of tangents satisfying the given conditions in each case.'ive tlie while the second and tlnrd simplest cases of the construction of an ellipse and a hyperbjla by the same means. measured from fixed points on the lines respectively.. r^ and the fixed tangent qR in . In the case of the parabola. As therefore the three propositions taken together contain the essentials for the construction of all three conies by this method. 43 [Props. of a proportion). we have to draw a line such that the intercept on one tangent measured from the point of contact is to the intercept on the other tangent measured from the intersection of the tangents in a given first ratio. while the construction of any number of tangents to the ellipse and hyperbola in accordance with the conditions of III. namely.CONSTRUCTION OF A CONIC BY MEANS OF TAXCFN'TS. any number of other tangents . Now the very problem just mentioned of drawing any number of tangents to a parabola reduces precisely to that which is discussed with great fulness in the former of the two treatises. I. 66. which means was <. again. in vhich the fixed tangents employed are chosen in a special manner. . 42. two other tjingents are given meeting the fixed tangent qP in r. to do this is shown in the greatest detail in the If. That Apollonius was in a position to solve this problem is proved by the contents of two of his smaller " (two Books On cuttiwj treatises.

B'N' in points J/"..g. Then clearly B'N' BN is a given ratio. qR = parts measured from i. The general problem discussed a point lines portions. is. ^ given ratio. B'N' parallel to from the point B' in which OB. : p^p„ (a fixed ratio) and this problem is solved in the second Book off" <.e.?•. r. We have now to draw a straight line ON' cutting MAB'. MA intersect. .. suppose. and therefore the ratio B'N' AM is given.a. measured from two fixed points A. Draw OC parallel to N' B' meeting MA produced in C.. Now suppose a point D found on AM such that . N' such that : : B'N' =.. OKM drawn so that AM BN : is a given ratio. in the accompanying figure. . which are in a is to be e. in that treatise to draw from a straight line which shall cut from two given straight given proportion. CXXXU INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. along the tangents qP. This problem is solved in the first Book. respectively which are in a given proportion. Tlie reduction is made by joining OB and drawing the treatise this general case . and the solution is substantially as follows. i\r : such tliat J) ?*. In the second Book of is reduced to a more special one in which the fixed point occupies a position B' on the first line so that one of the intercepts is measured from the intersection of the two lines. B. jO..

CONSTRUCTION OF A CONIC BY MEANS OF TANCENTS. we have AM . supposing that the ratio ' cxxxill is niado to . Then.

and therefore is less D also.B'A. measured from B'.2B'M = B'A + B'C-2 JB'A . as above. as value of solutions. Thus is determined. CB'.CXXXIV intercept B'N' lines. or greater than the particular OC _ thus determined. therefore. saying that we obtain a solution in a special manner in the case where is middle point of CD. According. Apollonius „. we have of by [x. B'C _ C}1 whence. . by parallels. since B'M WIr'M~A'"WA' and therefore B' M"" = B'C. Apollonius finds no solution or two At the end we find also the following further determination of the limiting value of . In order to find the corresponding limiting value of seeks the corresponding position of D. B'M _ B'A ~ B^ B'M = -^. We have . and if Ave denote the coordinates and the length B'A by li. so that the given rectangle GM.(B'D + B'C) = B'A + B'C . if we refer the various points to a system of coordinates with B'A. Thus. y) ^J) If h + x-2>Jhx' to we suppose Apollonius is have used these results for the the parabola.MD .AD has its maximum value. the intersection of the two fixed the or Apollonius begins by stating the limiting case. B'C. is INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. We have AD = B'A+ B'C . B'N' as axes. B'C CM B'M MD=AD=MA^ MD — CM. is on the parabola. while iV'OM is tangent at for. he cannot have failed to observe that the limiting case described that in which .

the given rectangle.AM^OC . as we are told that the propositions in this severally to those in the cases in question were included. 7/Ni '• II. -4 J/ AD DM CM= B'M^ BC' . we put for the proportion between the lengths of obtain. k^ which is y h + x-2s/hx' easily be reduced to the the equation of the parabola referred to the fixed tangents as coordinate axes. () line . and for the ellipse the straight lines are parallel. SO that B'A. using the same figure (in the position we should take the point D represented by in the figure) such that OC AD =^ . We have then to draw the ON'M so that B'N' . Then. In the case of the ellipse and hyperbola the problem is to draw through a given point a straight line cutting two straight lines in such a way that the intei'cepts upon them measured from fixed points contain a rectangle of constant area. AD B'N' UcT-AJr But. k be those lengths. Therefore .. B'N' _ B'AI ~0C ~ CM' rx. The reduction is case where one of the points from which the intercepts are measured the intersection of the two fixed lines as in effected in the same manner the case of proportional section described above. was discussed in the treatise entitled and. . work corresponded particular we know that the We can also form an idea to the particular how is the general problem was solved. respectively in tlie proportion.AD. according to Pappus. while for the hyperbola they meet in a point and the intercepts on each are measured from the point of their intersection. if the two fixed tangents. since B'N'. CXXXV same N'M if are divided at J/.CONSTRUCTION OF A CONIC BY MEANS OF TANGENTS. These are particular cases of the general problem which. (p. Further. we /i . OC are parallel. and which can sym- metrical form ©'^(*. cxxxii).

tangent MN cuts AB. measured from given points on the lines which contain a rectangle of given area.FD = EM. CD. Q respectively. and the rectangle before. B'C. suppose conic and E. BCD to be a parallelogram described about a F to be the points of contact of of Apollonius. The complete treatment with their III. CD in M. respectively. the envelope of straight line is a conic section touching the two fixed straight Thus. CB in P. EA. if a straight line cuts off from tivo fixed straight lines intercepts. It not a very great step from what we find in Apollonius to the general theorem that. iV and AD. If a fifth we have. the first lines. . as problem reduced to an application of a rectangle in of the particular cases of the problem. which is given.FN. Hence. /. is could present no difficulty to Apollonius.CXXXVi INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. by the proposition Therefore . MD = AD . the B'M is . the well-known manner.

. DC are given as well as the points A. and hence we can obtain the equation of the conic referred to the diameter EF and first conjugate as axes of coordinates. CN. thus we can ordinate to EF drawn through the point its of contact of AD. Lemma XXV. of the Book Newton's Principia and the succeeding investigations. as well as the tangent AD . we can deternune the conic. cxxxvil the lines AD. and therefore also the point where Ali touches the We EF and the direction of the chords find the bisected by it. of Cf. C and the area of the rectangle have then the diameter AP .ENTS. point F. if 15Y MEANS OF TAN(.CONSTRUCTION OF A CONIC Conversely.

76]. that in fact the complete theory of Avithout the " could not be established new and I'emarkable theorems " discovered by himself of his Conies. xxxi. where the two tangents are parallel is o])tained from iii. 74j. THE THREE-LINE AND FOUR-LINE LOCUS. the ratio of the rectangle contained by the first ttoo lines so square on the third line is constant. in. 74-76] what amounts to a complete demonstration of the theoretical converse of the three-line locus. the proposition that. in fact. 75. as have subject Avhich up to his time had not received full treatment. But we have. Tlie three-line locus need not detain us long. The so-called ( first it. confirm the same inference. but only some part of and that not it successfully. though not Apollonius. He says adding that he found that Euclid had not worked out the synthesis of the locus. . and it is therefore necessary to examine the propositions iu that Book for indications of the way in which he went to work. specially mentioned in the preface of Apollonius as a - is. and the remarks Pappus on the subject (quoted above. viz. xxxii). friendly to p. seen. and the remaining three propositions. is We must further assume that the key to Apollonius' solution in to be found the third Book.CHAPTER V. 53 [Prop. because it is really a particular case of the four-line locus. iiL 54-56 [Props. give the proof where the tangents to the drawn The proof of this for the case are not parallel. in 53-56 [Props. if from any point of a to conic there he drawn three straight lines to the in fixed directions meet respectively two fixed tangents conic and their chord of contact. and contained in the third book indicate clearly that The words used of Apollonius did himself possess a complete solution of the problem of the four-line locus.

direction cutting 77^ = If ^. In these circumstances we have to seek for indications of the probable course followed by Greek geometers in their investigation in of the four-line locus . 54-56 [Props. tvith reference to inscribed quadrilateral. was considered to be of preponderant im- that the theoretical converse was regarded as a mere appendage to it. and it could hardly have been unknown Aristaeus. any is It will be seen from the note following Props.THE THREE-LINE AND FOUR-LINE LOCUS. that converse must presumably have appeared as an intermediate step in the inestigation of the locus. Tn like manner. namely. For. we have to bear mind that the problem must have been capable of partial solution before the time of Apollonius. 75. is a particular case of the property of a conic with reference to an inscribed quadrilateral having t\vo of that case. Also the property of the three-line locus its sides parallel. in the fornj of the converse proposition stating that every conic section has. is. if CXXxix find the theorem of the at all. and.Ir . (^""^'•)• we measure JiK along Er equal to //•. which lead to the property of the three-line locus. and that it could be completely solved by means of the propositions in his third Book. 75. the locus of A' is a chord . the properties of the four-line locus. we have Rl. 76]. and rather than one on conies. from the nature of the case. We observe. in the first place. such as Euclitl and who had studied the subject thoroughly. even to earlier geometers. . any proposition more directly leading tion to the former. in which the two parallel sides are coincident proposition relating to and it will be seen that the the rectangles under the segments of in- tersecting chords can equally well be used for proving generally that a conic is a four-line locus with reference to any inscribed quadrilateral which has two sides parallel. are proved by means of the proposition that the ratio of the rectangles under the segments of any intersecting chords drawn in fixed directions is constant. that the question which would be appropriate to a work on solid portance. if A is a fixed chord of a conic and Jir a cliord in a given in /. in doing so. we should expect to four-line locus appearing. But. that iii. 76 that this theorem easily obtained from that of the three-line locus as presented by Apollonius in those propositions but there is nowhere in the Book . The explanathe aspect of loci may be that the constriiction of the locus.

Then. If ve have. of cour. since —= A BCD may be any inscribed quadrilateral with two is sides parallel. y. for.). meeting the diameter which bisects chords parallel to it is DC lines the same point in which met by . the proposition proved generally for the particular kind of quadrilateral. JJ respectively parallel to Jir. C on drawn through A. are not yet supposed to know that the a conic. Rr lie in and the points D. The transition was in fact.se. on the other hand. u from the sides of such a trapezium we can first manipulate the be measured in the as to allow the distances to directions indicated in the figure. if x.Ir We must then try to find a conic where is a given constant.RK ~ ' we shall have R I . point vhose distances x. and RI. but we must take care to determine condition locus is it in such a manner as to show synthetically at the same time that the points of the conic so found do really satisfy the given . we have (const. to find the geometrical locus of a z. are connected by the above constants so R relation. as shown by Zeuthen. u be the distances of shall R from the sides of the quadrilateral ABCD. ^ yu And. z. or a trapezium. It seems clear. in . whose points R satisfy the given relation. y.Cxl LNTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. that the defective state of knowledge which prevented the predecessors of Apollonius from completing the determination of the four-line locus had reference rather to this first step of finding the locus in the particular case of a trapezium than to the transition from the case of a trapezium to that of a quadrilateral of any form.

cf)nipetence of of Euclid. Also (2) the proposition in. 59. These extensions to complete hyperbola may. itself. not passing of . as already mentioned be regarded as due to Apollonius. 23 [Prop.s are to one another in the ratio of the squares on the parallel (1) what was wanted to complete the theory \vas extension to the case where the tangents are tangents tangents. scribed trapezium for any single-branch conic and will be seen that the converse. or where a tangent can be drawn parallel to one of them only. the four-line His ac- locus a complete hyperbola in the modern sense. Ixxxiv seqq. His predecesinit sors could perfectly well have proved the proposition of the . proposition that the rectangles under the segments of intersecting chord. To pro\e that such a single branch of a hyperbola. as will presently be seen but the ditiiculty in the way the earlier step was apparently due to the fact that the conception of the two branches of a hyperbola as a to in sinjj. should pass. was necessary to know of the connexion of one branch with the other.] proves that. probably considered only one branch it and the question which branch it would be would depend on some further condition determining it as one of the two branches. (1) that Now we find Apollonius proves the propo-sition for the case where the tangents touch opposite branches in in. Assuming. could be the four-line and also to determine the locus corresponding to the value of it leading to such a hyperbola. 19 [Prop.g. 59. as well as of the various steps in the converse procedure for determining the locus. through locus. which it was required to prove to be the four-line locus. (2) the expression of the constant between the rectangles referred to in tliose cases where no tangent can be drawn parallel to either of the chords. the construction of the locus. Case iv. then. .THE TIIREE-LIXE AND FOrU-LINE LOCUS. and the corresponding extensions of all the propositions used in the proof of the property of the inscribed quadrilateral. that the property of the four-line locus was established with respect to an inscribed trapezium by means of the particular case present no difficulty to them.le curve had not preilecessors is occurred cordingly. would in the The difficulty would come in where the conic was a hyperbola with two branches. the case of the (p. the constant niiglit have been determined by means of a given point through which the conic or single-branch hyperbola.). ratio the op- to posite branches of a hyperbola. any one the case before \vhere Apollonius. Cxli possible by means which won» within the . all four corners of the quadrilateral.]. Case i. e.

the constant ratio of the rectangles equal to the ratio of . Avhere a certain figure is determined by means of a . and proves that. may have been to employ an auxiliary figure for the purpose of constructing a conic similar to that required to be found. I. Suppose that the conic has tangents in both given directions is (which always the case i. the constant ratio then tQ^:tq'. while no tangent can be drawn parallel to the other. Hi Ir of segments of different and the direction of the diameter P]) bisecting chords in one of the given directions. the double-branch hyperbola excluded).cxlii INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. and 21 [Prop. or rather of finding the form of certain rectilineal figures connected Avith such a similar This procedure is exemplified in Apollonius. if tQ. and if same chord. We know the ratio and. meets the diameter bisecting the chord to which tq is it is not parallel in half the chord through is t parallel to the t. if if the conic is a conic in the old sense of is the term. the squares of the parallel tangents to the conjtigate hyperbola III. ii. Let the points of the auxiliary figure be denoted by accented letters corresponding to those in the figure on p. 140) that the method adopted for determining the complete conic described about a given trapezium ABCD.e. 50-53 conic. the tangent.] deals with the case where a tangent can be drawn parallel to one of the chords. if we choose any straight line for 0' l'\ we know (1) the position . Zeuthen suggests which is the locus with respect to the four sides of the trapezium corresponding to a given value of the constant ratio . previous construction of another figure of the same form and the suggestion that the same procedure was employed in this case has the advantage that it can be successfully applied to each of the separate cases in Avhich Apollonius gives the different expressions for the constant ratio between the rectangles under the segments of intersecting chords in fixed directions. [Props. We () two have the following data for determining the form of the conic similar to the required conic circumscribing of the ratio ABCD : the value lines in -rj-jn between the products directions. 50-52]. (p. is where there no tangent to the hyperbola parallel to either of the is chords. cxl. Case ii. 59.

(1) (2) a diameter with the direction of chords bisected by it. . A meet in t. conic in the auxiliary tigure is determined. and ve can therefore determine the conjugate hyperbola in the manner just described . the other extremity {})') of the diameter. Suppose that the conic has no tangent in either direction. (4) a point Q' with the tangent at that point. is found. in the direction of In this bi. »' on the curve.THE THREE-LINE AND FOUR-LINE of a diameter. (3) two points q. if the tangent Pt parallel to AD and the diameter as tq. P\ (3) the direction of the chords bisected by the diameter. the required auxiliary hyperbola III.secting case. but not . Then the intersection of the tangent at Q' with the diameter and the foot of the ordinate to it from Q' determine. with P\ three points out of four which are harmonically related. Apollonius has expressed the constant the ratio between the squares of the tangent tP and of of the chord through t the half parallel to AB. In this case we know the ratio between the tangents to the hyperbola conjugate to the required auxiliary hyperbola. Suppose that the conic has a tangent in the direction of AD. one extremity P' of that diameter. we have. determined. by is means of the conjugate. towards doterniiniiig the auxiliary similar conic. then. We have then tq tif If we now choose t'P' aibitrarily. Hence the II. (2) its extremity LlOCUS. so that the remaining one.

t'T'.C'T' = \. Let the tangent at P. we have the diameter (2) the points P'.a". x^ the distances of the feet of the ordinates from P'. the tangent at P'. where C is the centre. parallel to AB. the ordinates from which to it the diameter meet (3) in t'. and a' .cxli INTRODUCTION TO Al'OLLONIUS. ''^''6 If y^i Vi .-Tj. q on the curve. . AD vat. . the length of the diameter. and . a•/ their distances from the other (unkiiown) extremity of the diameter. and let tq parallel to AD meet the conic in q we then have t'q t'F' If we choose (1) either t'q or t'P' arbitrarily. two known points on the straight line on which must IV. *^e ordinates of q^ s with respect to the diameter. but not AD. we have is determined.r/. meet the diameter bisecting BC. Suppose that the conic has a tangent in in the direction of tlie direction of AB. The point its it can thus be found by means of the ratio between distances from lie. t'P' is Since the tangent at C't' P'. T' respectively.

its well as the ratio (jj between the length of the diameter and conjugate. to describe a conic it lies through two given points line. the middle point of Pq. The e. There are. 42. Hence we can find the centre C by joining '. in fact. is Suppose that. to 0\ the point of intersection of the tangents.] Therefore. a straight line drawn through parallel to the known direction of the diameter. inasmuch as we find in Apollonius propositions which lead dii-ectly to the determination of the absolute values of a and b when the ratio j-(= -. since Y'O' must be a diameter and therefore meets t'T' in C The Thus the auxiliary conic can be readily determined.g. iis A and such that one diameter of along a given straight is while the direction of the chords bisected by the diameter given. H. THE THREE-LINE AND FOUR-LINE LOCUS. so that the centre is given. by symmetry.-. .. ) is given. in all four cases. The problem to be solved is. and we can effect the transition by means of the ratio between CA and CA'. hovever.^ _ * • a' Thus it is seen that. cxlv [Prop. C. the propositions of Apollo- nius supply means is for determining an auxiliary figure similar to that which sought. tr ~ _ a* ~ . . indications that the auxiliary figures would not in practice be used beyond the point at which the ratio of the diameter (a) bisecting is the parallel sides of the trapezium to its conjugate () determined. transition to the latter can then be made in various Avays the auxiliary figure gives at once the direction of the diameter bisecting AB. T'q is the tangent at q. in the accompanying figure. relation between the diameter a and the diameter h' conjugate to it is given by tig* .

If these cut the chord AD in K. the end of the diameter. Then we must have OB. 27 [Prop. = .KD=lh\ curve is . BE and parallel and therefore the position of E. we find the centre by means of the chord BE or by using the auxiliary similar figure. So far the determination of the four-line locus has only been considered in the particular case Avhere two opposite sides of the inscribed quadrilateral are parallel. of the first of the four a parabola. if the letters have the same significations as in the figure for the ellipse. 61 (1)] we know that OB' + OE' + whence a' is at ^.OD'b" bisecting OE can be found. the determination of the auxiliary similar figure after the cases detailed above would manner show that P'. to ylZ> or The line BC will determine the centre. {0' + OD') = a\ once found. 29 [Props. Also let OB meet the curve (which ve will suppose to be an ellipse) again in E. By III. The curve can then be determined by the simple use of the ordinary equation of the parabola. or If the required AK. 60 and 61 determined by the ratio then . The asymptotes are then (2)]). The construction in the case of the hyperbola is also facilitated by means of the asymptote properties. As Apollonius' third which can well be used for effecting the transition. possible It remains to consider the means by which the determination of the locus with reference to a quadrilateral of any form whatever might have been reduced to the problem of finding the locus with reference to a trapezium. a proposition given by Apollonius which determines the value of a* directly. AVe have now.cxlvi INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. and meeting DA produced in 0.OE whence a? OA. In this case. Z. is at the middle point of the intercept between the intersection of the diameter with the tangent at Q' and with the ordinate from Q' i-espectively. Similar propositions are given for the hyperbola (see 28. Book contains no propositions it must be \ . ill. for the case of the ellipse. 24-26.

EC of the CE. Let * be a point on the required locus. and suppose the lines from which the intercepts are cut off to be drawn respectively parallel to the sides A. obtained from the other by turning two adjacent sides about the points (Thus QT. \> ). and if one of the straight lines so dra^vn cuts off from a straight line given in position a certain length measured from a given point on it. Poi'isms of tion (given itself cxlvii was not affected by Apollonius' the key in the completion of the theory of the locus. He notes first tliat Archimedes' proposi- on is p. it is necessary to . but that the key must be Zeuthen (Chapter 8) finds Euclid*. lix. (- .) This suggests the inquiry whether the same means >vliich are used also to effect the in transition in this very special case cannot case be employed the more general now under consi- deration. A quadrilateral. while at infinity PF is on the parabola in which they meet the two is turned about Q and takes the position turned about its intersection with tlie parabola PQ and takes the position of the diameter through Q. As the Porisms of Euclid are themselves lost.THE THREE-LINE AXD FOUR-LINE LOCUS. resort to the account vhicll the only one of Pappus gives of their contents and the Porisms which is there preserved in its original : form is as follows t tivo If from given points there be drmvn straight Hues which intersect one another on a straight line given in position. of which one other sides. Ix above) respecting the parabola exhibits the curve as a four-line locus with respect to two quadrilaterals. Suppose that we A and C. . being two opposite the quadrilateral A BCD to which the locus is referred. J J/ meet is That the Porisim of Euclid were a very important contribution to geometry them in Pappus (p. then the other straight line also tvill cut off a portion line hearing from another straight a given ratio [to the is former intercept^ The same proposition fixed points are true also when a four-line locus is substituted for the first-mentioned given straight line and the two take as the two fixed points the points corners of any two fixed points on the locus. and let AD. G48) as a collection most inRenionsly adapted for the solution of the more weighty problems indicated by the description of (is t Pappus. p. concluded that the transition looked for elsewhere.

BC respectively be equal to ^^— Li hd . AD . DA will be equal to ^ -fttt?. now be determined by means of the position of a point locus. remains constant while follows that that locus is is derived from the other moves along the required locus. AE D 31 • Therefore the fact that the ratio of the rectangles under the distances of from each pair of opposite sides of the quadrilateral A BCD is constant may be expressed by the equation . in order to extend the proposition about an inscribed .cxlviii INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. M' respectively. CE and of CF. while CD. CE in D'. AE respectively.. Thus. the /i is a new constant independent of the position of M. D"3r where If -mf^^AE = CE ''^ say . CM meet in D". CD . (1). and the ratio of the distances of J/ from AB. since the last ratio in (2). it also a four-line locus with reference to the four sides of the quadrilateral ABCF. And. parallel to be measured parallel to BC. and its Then the ratio of the distances of from CD. M" respectively. which two. distances of For the purpose from of determining the geometrical locus. let the distances from BC.. we have F of D"M" where F\ _ D"F" _ F"M " ^*'^' D'M' " D'F' " F'M' F" are the intersections of AF.

conversely. u= = Since (— PM PQ-MQ from (2). Then. from the Therefore. let it be denoted by w. from BC.) . ) we derive from the figure "" '=-cjr'y^ to take a point and we have then G on AE such ' that D'E _D"G AE ~ CE (The point G is thus seen to be a point on the locus. z. parallel BC) are denoted by x. A as axes. or. to any quadrilateral like the four-line locus with reference to a trapezium. respectively. MQ) is the distance of A measured parallel to A. The actual determination be effected by expressing to it of the locus in the general form can in the Suppose that the distances of more particular form.. CD (reckoned of respectively. It follows that the four-line locus with reference is. trapezium to a quadrilateral of any lateral to a similar locus forra. from AB. a conic section. y are the coordinates of the point meets Avith reference to BC. and x. is a constant. A D locus is (reckoned parallel to A) are u Then the determined by an equation of the form xz = \. from (1). where If /*.yii (1). to cxlix reduce the determination of a four-line locus with reference to any quadri- with reference to a trapezium. it was only or necessary to consider the case in which one of the lines coincides with AD AF AF. z —\ . and the distances y. THE THREE-LINE AND FOUR-LINE LOCUS. y . Q are the points in which the ordinate (y) of A D. figure.

and the locus trapezium is expressed as a four-line locus with reference to the ABCG. cl INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. which however is not an essential difference. .. but only means that. the Greeks would be compelled to treat each separately. is the distance of the point from the line CG measured parallel to BC. be observed that the four-line locus Lastly. D'E ^-^ae'-^^ CE '^ D"G ' CE'J GM" ~ GE -y where «. Thus the exact determination to a trapezium is of the four-line locus with reference the problem corresponding to that of tracing a conic from the general equation of the second degree wanting only the constant term. which may be written in the form X (ax + fiy + d) = -y {yy + e). The method here given contains nothing which would be beyond the means at the disposal of the Greek geometers except the mere notation and the single use of the negati\^e sign in (.yy' 4- dx + e7j = 0.3iQ). it should with reference to a trapezium corresponds to the equation ax' + / . locus is The equation representing the into the equation xz^ accordingly transformed = . whereas by the use of the negative sign we can combine several cases into one. 2/w. Heuce D"M" .

Since Apollonius was in possession of a complete solution of the problem of constructing the four-line locus referred to the sides of a quadrilateral of any form. is. according to the author's own words. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CONIC THROUGH FIVE POINTS.CHAPTER VI. given the referred. the ellipse. the parabola. it is This the may first when remembered that. . latter is easily explained The omission of the by the fact that. the ratio and given a () between the i-ectangles contained by the distances of any point on the locus from each pair of opposite sides of the quadrilateral measured in any fixed directions is also given. the problem of describing a circle about a triangle. in a form sufficiently concise to be included in a treatise embracing the whole subject of conies. in a Greek geometer would regard the problem as being in reality three problems and involving a separate construction for each of the three He would conies. and the liyperbola. of the conic through the five points is reduced to the construction of the four-line locus where the constant Hence the construction ratio is given. he only professed to give the theorems which were But. as in Euclid we find it necessary for the solution. no doubt regarding the actual construction as outside the scope of his treatise. of the construction of a conic through five points however. that it was not found possible to present the general problem be easily understood place. not found in the work of Apollonius any more than the The problem actual determination of the four-line locus. would have been natural to give in a treatise on conies the construction of a The explanation of the omission may be conic through five points. it is clear that he had in fact solved the For. problem of constructing a conic through fifth five points. is quadrilateral to vhich the four-line locus point.

it problem not solved along with the Further. These methods depend (1) on the harmonic polar property and (2) on the relation between the rectangles under the segments of intersecting chords drawn in fixed directions. five for the dii-ect construction of a conic points independently of the theory of the four-line of Book IV. and the construction of a parabola through four points would be a completely ellipse or a construction of the four-line locus. that of finding the dimensions of a cylinder of which only a broken fragment is given such that no portion of the circumference of either of its bases is left whole. note interesting to how far what we actually in ApoUonius can be employed through locus. Hultsch). it might have been considered necessary to provide expressing the conditions against its ^ find degeneration into a it circle. a /xos would have been regarded as necessary expressing the conditions for securing that the live points should not be distributed over both branches of the hyperbola. p. . The latter proposition has the additional advantage that it alloAvs us to choose more freely the particular points to be determined and by this method can find conjugate diameters and thence the axes. not given as an independent problem in conic sections. on the number of points in vhich two conies may intersect are instructive in this connexion. hyperbola. vhen five points are given. discover then for that the construction was not always possible a parabola. were an ellipse. This is the method employed by Pappus in determining an ellipse passing through five points respecting vhich it is known beforehand that an ellipse can It is to be noted that Pappus' solution be drawn through them* The methods . Thus it would follow that the complete treatment of the problem by the methods then in use must have involved a discussion of considerable length which Avould have been disproportionate in such a work as that It is of ApoUonius. if the curve were an find a would be necessary to must be satisfied by the particular If it points in order that the conic might be the one or the other. but it is an intermediate step in another problem. of determining a sixth and by repeating the process over and over again we may obtain as many separate points on the curve as we please. . 107G seqq. at all events until the to iind time of ApoUonius. Further.clii INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. the solution is nmde to depend on what is to be is * Pappus (ed. The former property gives a method. Again. since four points are sufficient to determine a diflerent parabola.

B.OD AO. we can reduce the problem to the construction of a conic through A. AB. E. EF in G. F. CO.UK (1).BG. /). E. U respectively. C. O'F. by the proposition relating to intersecting chords. and let it meet AB.llD : FH . have therefore to construct an ellipse tli rough J. the line joining V and W is a diameter. where EF is parallel to AB.GA -RlI. )V he the middle points of EF respectively. whence O'F where We EF is if known. : EC . F. . E.THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CONIC TUllOUGH I'lVK I'oINTS. B. rliii found in ApoUonius. if EF and be drawn through parallel to AB. and no claim is advanced that it contains anything more than any capable geometer could readily deduce for himself from the materials available in the Conies. D. And. OB = : CO' O'D . V. For. is />'. Pappus' construction is substantially as follows. and therefore F is detoriiiined. Suppose BB to be the chord through JJ parallel to the diameter. and are sucli If the "iven that no two of the lines connecting the different pairs are parallel.CD -. />. Then R is determined by means of the relation RG. we have. parallel to AB. and if CD meet AB in EF in 0'. points are A.

PQ'^QV. And. IIL. . : or PQ. by the same procedure as before. Q' are thus known. let I) J}. PQ -. ve obtain HE : RII. l^y similar triangles.Q'W. RF meeting /'//. Pappus' method of determining P. IID = FW WE . of the unknown points and the determination of the other by an equation of the second degree. iV W . P' remain to be found.. L Then RG GD BG GA = {RH . = RH. by the property x\lso of the ellipse. Thus . From this by means of (/3). we draw £D. VP. Therefore. It follows W. . from (1). P' by means of the given WP amounts to an elimination of one A'alues of P' V VP and .WQ' and V. : P'W WP. : : UK). and similarly we can find the value of P'V. FW . the diameter in M.QV^Q'W-. : IIL) {DII . V. while P. Q' on the diameter such that (a). In order to detenuine R.HL. so that PQ .IID II. VP= WV.PQ'. Take two points Q. . respectively. we have FU. And the intersection of AL.WP= VW. and siinihuly /''. Q. W WM . whence IIL is found. VQ P'W. and therefore L is determined. respectively.VW^PQ: we obtain. can be found. cliv INTRODUCTION TO APOLLOXIUS. : : FH HE RH . from (a) that FV VW=QV: : VP.PV=Q'W WP. WM. RA be joined meeting EF in A". In order to find the extremities of the diameter (PP'). ().HE^KII. DH determines R. : . by similar Hence P' W WP = . FV. whence FW -.HIJ = F W WE triangles.

C. another point D on a straight line. we possess about the separate treatise referred in the seventh This is contained Book of Pappus. B. number of It clear that the question lemmas to the was very exhaustively discussed. and Avhich can be employed for the same purpose when once it is known that tlie The auxiliary construction four-line locus is a conic. C. B. by five points with any straight this construction is and there is no reason to doubt that could have been effected by Apollonius.€ whole separate treatise of Apollonius TOfxrj•. like the Books above mentioned.BP.THE CONSTUKCTION OF It is CONIC TIllloUlMl FIVE I'OINTS. C. if it was intended for application usual application of areas. is now an easy matter because the problem can at once be put into the form of a quadratic equation. civ tremities of the diameter noteworthy that Pappus' method of determining the exPP' (which is the principal oVyect of his construction) can be applied to the direct construction of the points of intersection of a conic determined line whatever. where A. are given. and in fact at much greater length than had the investigation not been intended as a means of solving other important problems. and the Greeks also would have no difficulty in reducing it to the But. who is gives a short account of the contents of the Avork* as well as a different propositions in it. Hence it is important to examine all the evidence which to. On deter inhtate section : ( The problem is as follows Given four points A.CP^X. meant to be used for solving problems in conic by means of the equation To determine sections. DP straight line The determination of the points of intersection of the given and a four-line locus can be immediately transformetl into this problem. has a given value. A.DP. AP. . D being in fact the points of intei-section of the given straight line with the four lines to which the locus has reference. 042 — 644. The conclusion is and therefore irresistible that. referred to formed the suljject of a 8. to det(irmine on the same straight line so that the ratio AP. B.BP.CP-. pp. that On determinate section also was would have been likely <. D. But there a simpler expedient which we know from other sources that Apollonius was acquainted with. • Pappus.).

and so forth : so that we should expect subject to occupy considerable space. we may draw other conclusions. or a conic five points on it.clvi INTRODUCTION TO APOLLONIUS. (2) the rectangle contained by one abscissa and another : separate line of given length independent of the position of the required point. D : by means of the relation t AB BG . first • This appears in the several different cases. 732). e. Apollonius used the relation* BP :DP = AB. (3) the rectangle contained by two abscissae. also learn that We the lemmas too (1) maxima and minima wei-e investigated. but also the determination of the limits of possibility and the number of possible solutions for ditierent positions of the given pairs of points A. lemma (p.BG: AD DC . vho further makes clear that. .DC = BE' DE\ . C and the B. Assuming then that the section results of the work On determinate were used for finding the points of intersection of a straight line with a conic section represented as a four-line locus. where one is infinitely distant. And it this agrees with we find in Pappus. the special cases and the A'arious would lead to the same number of properties of the conies There is therefore nothing violent in the under consideration. what though we do not meet with any express mention of series of point-pairs deter- mined by the equation for different values of . for the cases where the points in either pair coincide. .DP. =1. C and B. and therefore has to be determined by the equation AP. (2) that Apollonius probably obtained a double point of the involution determined by the point-pairs A.g. complete discussion of it would naturally include.AD. supposition that Apollonius had already set up many landmarks in determined by the field explored eighteen centuries later by Desargues. in the case Avhere From that. yet the treatise contained what amounts to a complete theoi-y of Involution. not only the finding of a solution. 704) and is proved by Pappus for t Cf.CF = BP. 4U (p. Pappus' prop. the in further investigations. Thus Pappus says that the separate cases were dealt with in which the given ratio was that of either (1) the square of one abscissa measured from the required point or (2) the rectangle contained by two such abscissae to any one of the following (1) the square of one abscissa. D.

8. . NOTES ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF C4REEK GEOMETRY. . The propositions from the Conies of Apollonius which are given at length in Chapter II. with the same variation of ca.APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. with special reference to those which are found in Apollonius. above will have served to convey some idea of the phraseology of the following notes is to supplement Greek geometers and the object of the what may be learnt from those . () ." Any tlie is the j^oint (so) arising yci'o'/xcvov (so) taken a point not tv ivithin the section any point within the surface ^5 €7€9 . ' €.) ' rj . ?. A line is a straight line €( . are found frequently in Aristotle. The same phrases. in one point only in two and so on. "the point (is put the A*. .'ie after txl. a to ' commonly used by the on which earlier geometers letter) was A. . Points and lines. It will be convenient to group them under different fuller expression point point cvTos points finite * . . ^1. or €€ is straight line eWeia a curved line A similar expression was {. particularly in the logical trefttises and the Physics. headings. (. . ( . propositions by setting out in detail the principal technical terms and expressions. is A point the point A to A or A simply . a point of division ])oint extremity iripas. The following centre are names for particular points : apex or vertex of bisection alone.\B the gtniinht line {on which are the letters) AB.

«. . .(pis of concourse joining H. from passes through .. a. cVi . in general be at right angles but only ivhen. evOeLa its . //. the line is joining their cut into equal €/'/£ cktos or the lengths intercepted on aV often elegantly denoted by an adjective thus the extremity of the from axis. Iws ov line .. ?A ) is e. . angles Tt/Aveiv.. a'ul obtuse at right angles to (with dative) or at right angles to (with ace).. conic the straight line ivhich is is as a curve) Of lines in relation to other lines . the points ]. civiii APPENDIX TO IXTRODrCTIOX. ivill it bi/ \.g. the line A (drawn) from to cut at right ^ . . . r.. . or < it we ctti find the terms parallel (with ace). Of a line meeting another line are used . is ? . an acute angle o^tia . on is ofton used of a curve. Angles.. a circle or a is that extremity of sec/ment (of a line as Avell a peiyendicular to line jyroduced is eV cv^cta? ^.^€. tvill tiot ' . or tlie the jjoint ctti to the straight line The line bisected in . '? ( is €. to point of meeting . a straight For a line passing through particular points ing expressions used with Sta and the genitive. 77 <. drawn to the extremity of the intercept.?. bisecting one another middle jioints and unequal parts «is €. of contact. angle . . ^ ' Ave r^^ii^ (with ace). 2. likewise . . .. An right is . eis 8e Straight lines cut off ov intercejyted are the part cut off ivithout (the curve) cut off an eqrial length the [conic) section totvards the asyynptotes at A point on a line it : agreeing with from the line /. until meets . . but thus alone . eV extremity. at ^. . have the follow- (with ace). . rrj the curve. the straight lines drawn so as to meet at the middle point of the section.

A its circximference a segment of a circle /7/ or less. than a semicircle circle of a containing an angle equal ttj '. (extend under) as in at -. angle vertically opposite angle is ." . also used triangles (e. ... a semicircle a segment a segment greater. f/tf the same expression )... Vei'ticalliJ opposite (angles) to the cone. being a side. which the homologous sides 3. A rectilineal fig^ire circle is (Euclid). or with and ace. eVtTreSov. <. is €€<. of /cci/xcrut . . of the . or angle is a square with ur without To describe a Thus the figure upon a given line (as base) tlie is <« has been described upon . € . . .NOTES ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF OREKK . . radius is . a parallelogram is a rectangle Diagonal figure is /€. in of a double and two halves which are called vertically opposite surfaces The For exterior angle of the triangle is the angle we find the full expression or "the angle contained by the lines more usually ?•(3 (together) or equal to a right angle ai viro €. \ (A which is not in . A phne is of a a figure or diagram circle) . . ZW the square . '.g. Planes and plane figures. . . <: or frequently . but The angles The adjacent angle. Of . a figure in the sense €V ^. to tlie quadrilaterals. '^. tlie or €1809. . . or the sjipplement of an angle.. and among the figures of this kind are triangle quadrilateral a five-sidedfigure etc.' . • €€. ' the angles stibtend. same ])lane icith the point 05 oJk The line of intersection of two planes is is their /. To subtend (an angle) is either Avith a simple accusative.

'. . the figures is on . : such expressions as the following " the ratio which " (as one might say) " the inner segment has to the remaining segment j)ote7itially.7/ to . on. / sum In of With reference to squares the most important point to notice is StVa/iiai. ^. for af. ^is in Apollonius (straight . areas. is used of describing a semicircle.) two meaning that the square of the radius like manner. lines) the squares on tvhich are equal 7rcpic. to the rectangle the square . . it means producing an area contained by contained by rectangle Zs. thus in Diophantus it is used throughout as the technical term for the square of the in it is unknown language an algebraical equation. when literally that the line is (if squared) capable of equal to another.g. and .e. breadth ZE is TO . kci/xcvos T17V and so is in Euclid L• and similarly Apollonius speaks ck construct a triangle from {equal to) EA. circle. ZE ?. line) a rectangle equal taov the use of the word SiW/Ats and the various parts of the verb expresses a square (literally a potver) . ? oV /7/ . MN on it the square will be equal to the rectangle applied to the .(o/x. The triangle formed by three straight is /xcvov Equiangular sitiiated triangles / . of the square of the inner segment to that of tlie other. /? is ." meaning the ratio 8€.( on is The to rectangle contained by or {) the imll contain (with sqtiare another straight . is is But with the genitive or a segment of a on a given straight inl . . cVt ^75 Similarly quadrilaterals standing on the diameters as bases are A . and . . <. e. In geometrical in used most commonly in the dative singular. TO cffi?/. . line. rectangle applied its a given straight line (with ace). i.€vov / is used of a straight line.€' £€. (). Archimedes speaks of the radius of a circle as being (Similarly to the is eq^ial etc. is to the straight line so taken in addition (to the figure) To construct a triangle out of three straight lines €5^€ of its being possible ^.?. on it is equal to the rectangle is the square on MN equal 7. similarly . similar because of the similarity of the KEO .clx is APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. and lines to the straight line ttco straight lines similar . .

'? 8(<. 4.. € (in the plural) bisecting diameter is conic is simply Chords are simply 6. which are also called or (<. or .scd and the that can be with any part of the verb .) €<. too ev ttj one pair of opposites. (with or without the definite iv ttj }. is conjttgate diameters the other {erect) . ^ it ) 8€. Apollonius uses the also at evavTiov €<. conjugate opposites. is is The word used advantage of this H.e. is the four branches of two conjugate hyperbolas any two adjoining branches are In the middle of a proposition. for a diametei' of ttvo jmirs of opposite branches. however. in the Generally.. is by its motion about the circumference of the fixed jyoint through which the / . . where we should generally use the word curve to denote the conic. that a cone in a certain manner) 8€. € is the surface of the that ichich consists of tzvo surfaces lying vertically opposite to one another 8vo the circular base <. the apex the straiyht line generating the surface ^. the expression used of conjugate hyperbolas. and we even find the expression here means opposite branches. cone is ?. C.. section subcontrary to the base is . The A radi us of a central article). the adverb <. and which the transverse . is 5. first arising out of the cutting of <. Apollonius generally uses sectimi. is Diameter {secondary). 6<. sometimes . u. clxi Cones and sections of cones. /?. ^^ ^. or ^ of or Sorrcpa The original diameter (i.NOTES ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF GREEK GEOMETRY. so that conjugate (Cf. A a circle is a right cone •. an oblique or scalene cone is the surface of a cone (. Ordinates.<. last means only one branch expression branches of a hyperbola meaning. Of (. Diameters and chords of conies. 8vo the and hyperbola (which denoting the opposite has the same of a hyperbola). ellipse. aans A circular In addition to the names parabola. ?. ordinate-wise. double cone is straight line always passes €£6 ^. 8(.

the transverse diameter is called the ei-ect and the parameter is the side (8). the the ( portions) cut off by which last expression see of the transverse paragraph 9 is the parameter of the ordinates. full The phrase are applied the rectangles which in each conic are equal to the . abscissa of The diameter towards the vertex. towards the extremities side of the figure (as to following). which i. and the latter when it is drawn uptvards from a point on a diameter. 9. or . or (perhaps) to which the said squares are related (by comparison). Abscissa. Parallel to an ordinate is - in one word. with reference to the rectangle. ct8os the figure contained by (the diameter) and (the parameter) . also used of the tangent /? 7. or by them. an ordinate is rfj ) the (portion) cut off by from Similarly or we find the expressions . // diameter is /'? then sometimes called or ordinate is alone or similarly and and sometimes alone.8 -. Parameter.Cbdi APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. We find the following different expressions. or the €<. AB cT8o5 the figtire applied diameter) AB . 8. the other word being understood. is ' which the straight line to squares on the ordinates. . and. it €- An has been drawn ordinate-wise. is transverse side () ( ) of the figure tyj therefore equal to the square on the conjugate diameter.e. The "figure" figiire of a central conic. which . are used alone for is an ordinate or is > -. at the extremity of a diameter. Thus inl means suppose an ordinate drawn to the diameter. the ordinate. to the figure to (the on (the diameter) . is The (to cTSos) the technical term for a rectangle Its area supposed to be described on the transverse diameter as base and with altitude equal to the parameter or latus rectum. This verb is signifying to draw. either is or former being used when the ordinate drawn doion to the diameter from a point on the curve.

Though the wider meaning and was used of any lines which do not meet. Thus Proclus*.% the point eVi- . in p. is diameter drawn through the point of coiitact ctSos the figure on (of [the is) parallel tangents). 664. Tangents touch is etc. Ii/ing on a lav locus. aV d/rawKi) from (two straight lines of which) one touches. .NOTES ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF H. CD-. Point of contact is chord of contact The point of intersection of two tangents is . quoting from which are adds that of in one which are distance. eV commonly used of touching. Cf. 2. -^. He End. one-fourth of the square of the conjugate diameter « chord joining the points of contact two DD\ i. Asjnuptotes. onefourth of the figure is. found in Apollonius " from and (outside if {there he the other cuts (the curve). technical term used by Apollonius for the asympit is to be observed that the Greek word has a whatever direction they are produced. avTov 11. Geminus. e. 10. ' touching the section in one point. being of course the tangent at (The simple verb a rule means to meet.e. p. : The following eav it elliptical expressions are be the tangent (draivn) the curve) . in . or is not generally used in this sense but as Pappus.e. in (i. 28. . distinguishes between (a) plane and (b) those which are not. 7€ on a straight ^ The word /^' ^ iwnj/aveiv is also is / let is used of points line given in position .g. Similarly to is the figure formed and TO ^ rrj diameter which ? € €) ? on the the fillEEK tt7S OEOMETUY. totes is innj/avovaa toucliing any one of the sections at random. . a tangent . . ayo/ACVTj clxiU •. tvill lie p. one another while others continually diminish the straiglit as a hyperbola apj)roaches the * line and the Comment. one plane " some are always at the same distance from parallel). i. To lines most conniiouly touching curves or of curves touching each other. if it lies on a plane locus given in position). (. with reference to TO a diameter PP'. -^/ whether used of straight . . 177. 664.

is by hypothesis equal.^ lyyiov ( . used (given) in positio7i. find and the curve is 12. e. and find similarly we /^ the expression /aiS? '/ /. alone. The space between the asymptotes n7S .. Data and hypotheses. The original enunciation of /. as in ' - in such expressions as (given) in 2)Ositio7i. A more remarkable - ellipse is that . who says rg . the el<. The same use of (ii. would have been done. conchoid the straight line. the line is circle. ij an axis. For is on one of the asymptotes containing the section. they meet by hypothesis. either alone. then . (•^ /'. or Avith substantives or adjectives following. of commonly found to 2)Ci')'cdlel an angle made with Of hypotheses used. loliat is required to be proved is sometimes denoted is and the requirement which loas required ^ '." general sense is in its found even in Apollonius. or even ^ we frequently ^' ^' and .Clxiv APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. given in positio7i (of straight lines). or will without AE. as in /^ AB . Theorems and problems. "36] is interesting: eyyioV € fts asymptotes if produced to infinity. in a problem to '^'. ii. distance less than and come within a is any given distance. ajyjyroach nearer to one another ? . One of the angles formed by the asymptotes the angle containing (or including) the hyperbola. given given in position /'. 14) (the the lines which do not 14 [Prop.g. with the same by hypothesis a suppositions. is contrary to the hypothesis. In a theorem by TO Thus is . In accordance with the Avell-knovvn (ireek idiom means which 13. ^' of the ^' ttj AB. is Given hoOiU or in magnitude be. asymptotes proper) are nearer than any of meet the section. that To draiv . and the other parts \ same verb are let all the other suppositions be the same. ctti ^ tJie lines .. ^ ^/? and the section.

^. in constructions the following are the produce to cut off /. '^. a7igle) be made equal (a line. for in the same manner as yap draiviny the tangent AB. ( ).. to join iirtCevy• or supply to construct to to describe compounds. ^'.£ li. shall prove we have a somewhat this touches. tic it. These are nearly always expressed by the use of the perfect imperative passive (with which may be classified such perfect imperatives as from '^. problem regularly begins with the words - Constructions.g. . to . . . /or. . When when a . ' ( let ypatvo<. we /? .. . / say that. most and other compounds. I say true . and the imperative where active forms rare . that the property stated in the enunciation triU be is Set/cTcov. after epou/xev violent anacoluthon. having drawn the taiigent . »'. let it be The synthesis of a hrj €^7. / 7. it it is to proved SeiKT€ov. circle etc. distance 071 right angles to the supposed pia 7ie let . ^ its : from in The instances if tve ApoUonius . to erect divide Staipetv. the angle vhile in ^ to take to bisect rrj make (one ' ' avrrj line before. '.NOTES ON 171 TERMINOLOGY OF ORKEK is the manner required ayayitv of a problem has been arrived at. the tangent In the is generally introduced by Apollonius by the words on and in one case ApoUonius abbreviates the re-statement by saying simply otl what : be is said or setting out of a theorem the re-stateiiiont of (. e.. clxv the solution required tangent has it is required to prove as well as Euclid . and to .'.) be set let a segme7it he cut off from ivith the saj7ie constructioti. having joined AB nJvai. required to renuiins to he proved / % dra^v hiov dyayav. idv in a certain ratio to another). apply plane be Typical expressions are the follo\ving let angle circle described icith ^ let AB erected (? out. from of transitive verbs appear in constructions are . . been drawn.' but we find the following. be constructed eqna^ to the as centre at a. . ' . Of the words used : common to dratv .' . . ^./ and to it.

on Pi® as base similar . differs For multiplications and divisions the geometrical equivalents are the methods of proportions and the application of areas but of numerical multiples or fractions of magnitudes the following are . BO is (with gen. . . .. e. let 15. . AEB equivalent to AE EB . .g. differ from e. (a exceeds by . the adjective being applied to the remainder in the latter the dative.. ' 2. the square on A2. is with gen. .. or Of adding or subtracting a common magnitude is let the Aoitto's Kotvo's is used : common [magnitude) be added. ' (literally) /rom the points Similarly. Subtraction woi'd for being added is etc.). or taken away.. 8 ^. be broken short off against the curve. its is the jyoiiit . : The usual and has .. .clxvi APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION.g. or ofTZ. to . To exceed is or the excess is often is is .. to differ by expressed by certain triangle) differs to from by the triangle ' (the area) by which the square on from. curious A . detailed enumeration of the various perfect imperatives .g.. in a propo- sition of the straight lines /icvos ApoUonius quoted by Eutocius from the drawn from the given jwints to meet on the circum- ference of the circle are at ZoBkvTiMv ctti ' in to it the . Operations (Addition. No is necessary elegance.) is also used for plus. . case. . or . . e. . + ZE^ is A curious expi'ession meaning thus Kotvov t/ie sum of ^. of two straight lines drawn from the foci of a central conic to one and the same point on the curve. thus 8 for or is bisected Of a magnitude having another added is used in the same way as participle of rj KP having something subtracted. . but -^-^ for suppose : it done deserves mention for Let it he conceived is thus let cone be conceived whose apex meaning literally to break off and word is generally used of two straight lines meeting and forming an angle. Thus means KP minus or phis BO is equal to added. . (.

as the ^ is whole the (parallelogram) AZ. or The following on the ordinary form of a proportion A2 is to the rectangle € cv ' 2. to . € oV to the TO ? is . . or made than has to rot• A stippose the ratio of HB.. AB . Proportions. TO « <. oV to . irpo% 8€. ?.NOTES ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF GREEK GKOMETUY. under B2. . ^.. enunciation of Euclid 19 : eav y ? . . whole the is to a whole so is (a part) taken awaij to (a part) taken be to the r&mainder also will remainder as e.? To be Similarly in Apollonius . typical instances : clxvii the half of AB. »' or the <</ a mean dvaXoyov.). dents are ^. tvill be cut in the same ratio Tpcis the three jrroportionals The of . . ? • £^€. ? the lohole to the since then. A ov «is . ? /7/ €€ to . ? same as the 7^7? greater (or less) ratio the ratio of the square of the inner segment square of the renipAning segment. remainder is also to is the rectangle . ratio of ? ? TO I'he ratio ? to . 7€ A to is 6 sides about the right angles (are) jyroportional irepl . is Ratio ?. proportional between .? is to the we have « ? ?.? whole the square on (the part) taken AE ?. to (the part) taken remainder as whole the ratio compounded of from ((. ) i. € ? ?. of the figure.e. 5? that which forms the If as away.. compounded of (or . the fourth part fou7• times the rectangle AE . ? yovevv €v all the antecedents (taken together) to all the consequents (taken together) .? : as the square aVo A2 In a proportion the antece- the leading terms. ? . sides ( 6 cornpounded (<f the ratios) of tlie vy(€yo<. . ? IG.g. the ratio )? . ?? . . the consequents as one of the antecedents ? ? €€. AEA. whole. so away away the (parallelogram) to whole.. . has to 7? (or A . eVei .? is to is cj? one of the consequents so are very neat and characteristic sentence v. under . 2 so is .

as usual. = ^1 C D : : a : d= A : D. 2 2 is and that of A2 to 2B. (sc.g. . eivat so that segments adjoining the vertex are correcTvai teryns -) There remain the technical terms for transforming such a proportion as a :b =c These correspond with the definitions at the v. : in the sense of separation signifies addition. EZ AH ttj common ratio. . is applied generally translated ex aequali inference e. Book ^ : : means Similarly divisio7i or subtraction in the of a ratio same way as (the translation of which as divide^ido or is ^ d. is moreover used not only of being to but also of being eqnal a ratio compounded latter ratios two others. etc. reversely (usually invertendo). ('. by which the ratio a becomes a + b b. literally. the : ) d. Thus is used of the inference that a + b :b = c + d: d. distantia). Thus alternately (usually called permutando or alternando) means transforming the proportion into a c-b d. exen Avhen none of the terms in the two fii'st are the same as either term of the ratio. expressions above explained." or " if we compound." the ratios. Another way is to use € of describing the ratio compounded of two others (with gen. ./'/. ?2 ratio of k'% to / 2 <.. subtracted). dividing out by this contained by taking . the ratio Thus 1-175 A2 compounded of the Similarly ratio of KOLvov Taking AH ) : the rectangle So that sponding the corresponding terms are continuous . .^ ratio. is as a middle term as a common altitude € /. . The corresponding Greek term to componendo is Avhich means no doubt. a==d c. b b is composition of a ratio. means let the common be divided out (and not.b : b =c—d : conversion of a ratio and conver- tendo correspond respectively to the ratio a la-b and to the inference that a St . : to a that All : b c : from the proportions d etc. tlie tlie : a—b=c : c — d. to APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. " to one who has compounded. : : : beginning of Eucl.) which here implies multiplication and not addition.clxviii €K a compounded of . dirimsndo misleading) means really separating in the sense : of subtracting thus a .

. . iv rrj €Vi0avcta the surface.. . Much more much sooner does 18. some other word. .. hyjyerbola The properties ivhich have already been .( A corollary it is it is.. . •.8•(.!(^77€. ^ .. and in conjunction with starting point of inference. . 8l . similarly used in taking that is or by . that in the H.. wherefore for or TOts . . this reason . / proved at It is at once clear . for the same (facts) have been t/ieir doubles of the triangles by the ^ ^ {])ropei-ty proved true of when the original diameters are taken (as axes of reference) 8€.^ so . Inferences. is »'. clxix are constantly used in Apollonius as find the variant 8ia 8e In one place we Are in recijrrocal pi-ojiortion is . is that is often introduced the by £. to prove this is 18 absurd and impossible.. . «Vei oty \ .g.. C. A therefore AB generally used in a somewhat weaker sense. then. what oTt. .. . in order to mark the an ai'gument rather than to express a formal that can usually translate it by then. CTTi proved in the case of the jmrallelograms which are By the similarity by parallels ? parabola.. the same results as before will follorv tvill the same proofs apply Conversely by the converse of the theorem its - by what zvas j^'oved and converse elp By w/tat was cttI 8(.€. e.SO 8 is some- up an argument. 17. The usual equivalent is therefore is for therefore .in Euclid. . it Which which is teas rpquired to do. .g. so since. before rijs '^. (. then. sections Conclusions. e. . . it NOTES ON THE TERMINOLOGY OF GREEK GEOMETRY. proved in the case of the hyperbola 8ia. clear that.. Cf. € of t/ie the) section. way this it is clear for same reason in the same as above or before will be similarly it shown €. is a straight iidda apa iariv . from same the time. on ovv line . ? it cut the section. on /cpo'v.

. .clxx €. and used and passing inside. to ])arts as the concavity of the if it touc/oes with its its concave will touch on concave side Having ^. hut . The concave parts of a line cutting a branch of a hyperbola concavity (convexity) toioards the same parts ( ) «. in the third figure in all the possible cases Direction. hrl . find an .. APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. ^ . -. both directions totvards the section ' ) . not having its towards the same curve €7ri side iav . concavity. thus in the same hi number of diameters ' way . Unlimited or infinite nitely ^€^. original supposition is so also tvill he € similarly inferred . . Infinity. . « * or (^^^ 20. same parts as the iv c<mv There is also the expression meaning literally in the succeeding . . its .^ £ . towards the direction of the point E. « A7id again the absurdity Distinctions of cases. convexity. for the hyperbola only etc. Infinite. In . 19. ( is convexity turned the opposite loay 21.. the convexities . infinite also used in a numerical sense we shall (. 2)arts of tJie section. inl the same side of the centre as AB.. . \ -^ Tliese properties are general. increase without limit or indefi- .

THE CONICS OF AP0LL0NIU8. .

.

the a triangle. two sides being straight lines the intersection of the cutting plane resulting section is lying on the surface of the cone and the third side being is the straight line which and the plane of the base. plane parallel to H. and let be the centre of the that . and the axis defined as the straight line drawn circle from the fixed point or the apex to the centre of the forming the base. or two similar cones lying in opposite directions and meeting in the fixed point. Suppose now that the cone is cut by any the plane of the base BC. 3ITY. which is the apex of each cone. If a cone be cut by a plane passing through the apex. The cone base. so is the is BC. and passing always through a fixed point. the moving straight line will trace out the surface of a double cone. The circle about which the straight line moves is is called the base of the cone lying between the said circle and the fixed point. If a straight line indefinite in length. is Let there be a cone Avhose apex circle A and whose base circle. c. as DE. so as to pass successively through every point of that circumference. and let I .4 the axis of the cone. be made of a circle Avhich is to move round the circumference not in the same plane with the point.' i UKI Vrr. TFTHF THE CONE. so described in the particular case In this latter is a scalene or oblique cone except where the axis is perpendicular to the ca.se the cone is a right cone.

the ABG is such that the angle Then the section of the cone by the plane subcontrary section ( ABG AHK such that AHK but is lies in the contrary sense. arc to the original propositions of ApoUonius. that section a circle. here and throughout the book. Hence all sections of the cone ivhich [I. Therefore op surface constant for points on the section of the is by the plane DE. Join Ap BC in P.e. remains constant for all positions And. and produce it to meet the circumference of the Join OP. lines cuts the two parallel planes BG. equal to the angle ABG. ). . BPG being a circle. OP. axis let the cone be cut by a plane passing through the to the plane of the base and perpendicular BG. OP of ^j on the curve DpE. are parallel to the circular base are circles. since the plane passing through the straight lines 0. HK is called a * The references in this form. In other words. and is the ratio all Ao: A is also constant. . op are parallel. the axis meet the plane the intersection of the plane DE in DE and o.] * Next. op respectively.THE roxirs OF APOLLONIUS.•. op: OP = Ao:AO. Then. DE in the straight OP. Conceive another plane of drawn at light angles to the plane and cutting off from it the triangle similar to the triangle i. 4. and triangle let the section be the triangle ABG. Let be any point on circle the surface of the cone. op.

] sections subcontrary to the first series. FL each perpendicular to the plane of ABC. and let be drawn from any point a parallel to Further. any point on the intersection of the plane Therefore the section made by the plane HK HK is a circle. ME= PM\ is is But. Let with the circle 3 surfiice. BG respecM. EKM are similar. Then PM. PM and is parallel to the base BG of the cone. to meet 1—2 .•. EKM are equal. as also are the vertical angles at M. let Suppose a cone to be cut by any plane through the axis section ABG. making the triangular of the circular base. 5.MK = DM. so that BG is a diameter Let be any point on the circumference HK be perpendicular to the diameter BG. HM MD = EM MK. one series being parallel to the base. of the base. let Q on the surface of the cone but not lying in the plane of the axial triangle. the angle ABG which is equal to the angle . the section DPE is a DM. since the angle DE AD parallel to BG. HM. Thus circle.THE CONE.ME = PM\ : And is with the surface. be any point on the intersection of the plane II and F any point on the circumference of the BG. : equal to by hypothesis Therefore in the triangles iri)if. the straight line Draw through it BE parallel to BG. HDM. FL are parallel. AQha joined and produced. L. they-e Thus of the are two senes of circular sections of an oblique cone. and follows that the plane through DME. Therefore the triangles Hence . and the other consisting [I. EKM the angles HDM. if necessary. the triangle tively in Draw PM. meeting the straight lines HK.

C] passing Again. FLF' be FLF' . and FL = LF'. the axial . or QQ' is bisected by the plane of the axial triangle. the curve of section. the chord follows Join AL. produced to meet the other side surface meet. since AF' lies on the cone.•. and let perpendicuhir to BG. AF'. DME and let be DPE. if in Q'. DE. [I. QV= VQ'. Let the points of intersection be V. Then QV:VQ' = FL: LF'. and through Now Q Then of the let Q be any point on draw a straight line parallel to this parallel will. let the cone be cut by another plane not base in through the apex but intersecting the plane of the perpendicular to BC. the base of any axial line a straight triangle. Q' respectively. the point the axial triangle. plane Therefore the parallel through Q will meet both the the of surface the of side other the and of the axial triangle cone. The plane of the section will then cut the AG plane of the axial triangle in the straight line the middle point of PiU joining to DE. the resulting section of the surface of the cone o( lying on either of the sides AB. . Then the straight line it through Q parallel to HK is also parallel to therefore that the parallel through Q will meet both is in the plane of the axial triangle AF'. And AL and AL ABC.4 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. and be bisected by. the circumference of the base in F.

the section made by the said plane extends to infinity• . 7. the angle betAveen the diameter so found and the parallel chords which it bisects will in general not be a right angle. dicular to if PJ/ be the diameter of a section made by a plane cutting the circular base in the straight line DME perpen- BC. for all sections. is Now a straight line bisecting each of a series of parallel called a chords of a section of a cone diameter.] it is If the cone be a right cone will. the intersection of the cutting plane and the plane of the axial triangle will be a diameter of the resulting section of the found cone. if a cone he cut by a plane which intersects the circuku' base in a straight line })erpendicular to the base of any axial triangle. Hence. But it lies also in the plane of the section DPE\ it will therefore meet. clear that the diameter so be at right angles to the chords which If the cone be oblique. Therefore parallel PM bisects any chord of the section which is to DE. triangle. and be bisected by. Again. but will be a right angle in the particular case only where the plane of the axial triangle ABC is at right angles to the plane of the base. [I. i. it bisects. PM.THE CONE. if parallel to AC. or makes with PB an angle less than the angle AC and therefore meets CA produced beyond the apex of the cone. and if PJ/ be in such a direction that it does not be either meet AC though produced to infinity.e.

HK. if it THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. i. and QV" = HV. a straight line perpendicular to BC. 9.] If on the other hand meets AC.] and on in like manner to the circular section through any point PM produced. is In that case the section be a But.] For in let the plane of the section meet the plane of the base DME. And D. is taken more distant to is parallel AC.Q. QQ' produced and draw through V on BC. [It is also clear that = BM. and in the case where the meets CA produced beyond the apex of the cone. diameter both becomes greater as For. circle if it plane is parallel to the base or subcontrary. the plane parallel to that through DE. and therefore to any distance from P.MC. from P. we take any point parallel HK all to is through base. BC.E. 8. a diameter of the . indefinitely HV increases Thus QV increases as the section extends to infinity. the section neither parallel to the base nor subcontrary. in the case where V . [I. to the PM Therefore the section are HQKQ' is a circle. VK : and HV VK . not be a circle. the section does not will extend to if its infinity. [I.e. VK increase together as V moves aAvay from P.6 For. DPE extends to the circle HQK.Q' on the surface of the cone and are also on the cutting Therefore the section plane. VK remains constant while PM HV. and QQ' parallel to DE.

VE and that ABC is the axial triangle . as usual.: THE CONE. .VK = PV. QV= Therefore PP' is the diameter of the supposed circle. VKP' are similar.VP'. . VK. viz. . that the plane of section cuts the circular base in a straight line D. remains to investigate the character of the sections mentioned on the preceding page. QV = HV. Take any \unn\. 7 Take the axial triangle through BC meeting the are plane of section in the straight line PP'. QV' = PV. Let HQKQ' be the circular section through Q(^' parallel to the base. circle. P\ line. points in the plane of the axial triangle and in the plane of section.HV.PHV = ^KP'V. so that HV: VP = P'V: VK.•. Therefore PP' is a straight If possible. is subcontrary which contradicts the hypothesis. from the circles. Then if Qi^' meets the axial V. ZKP'V = ZABC..•. let the section PP' be a VQ'.VP'. PQP' is not a circle. and /. Suppose. (b) those Avhich are finite but are not circles. (a) those which extend It to infinity.•. all Then P. Then. and the section PP' . the triangles VPH. circular base. Q on it and draw QQ' triangle in parallel to DME.

] First let the diameter of the section he parallel one of to be the sides of the axial triangle as to the AC. if a straight line to draiun p)erpendicidar PM in the plane : : of such a length that that PL PA = BC'^ of the section) be taken A . which are drawn parallel to BE. or a straight line drawn PAi . [I.AC. Then. it is to be proved QV' = PL. since QF H. Then.QV is said to be an ordinate.PV. to the diameter (' '). Then. it follows that the plane through Q. is also parallel to DE. as QQ'. PM is a diameter of the section bisecting chords of the section.8 Avhose base bisects THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. 11. parallel to the base of the cone and therefore . and QV be any ordinate PL (supposed diameter PM. PV to let Proposition 1. BG is that diameter of the base of the cone which DME all at right angles at the point ^f. ordinate-'wise and the length cut olf from the diameter by any ordinate Q V will be called the abscissa of Q V. if the plane of the section and the plane of the axial triangle intersect in the straight line PM. is If QQ so bisected in V. Let HK be is draAvn through V parallel to BC.

PA = PL PA = PL.•. will for This parameter. produces a circular section whose diameter at right angles to is 9 UK. Now. FG AF\ : where AF is a straight line through be A parallel to drawn parallel to it is to PL be and meeting BG in F. let HK be drawn through V parallel to BG. QV'' = PL.VK = QV\ by parallels.THE CONE.•.PV. QV .PV . [I. by and . () or The fixed straight line PL is called the latus or the parameter of the ordinates - Karar^opLevaL €'^<.VR.PA. .). Hence the called a Parabola. HV. so QV' = HV. VK.PV. As that before. It follows that the square on any ordinate is diameter PM equal to a rectangle applied to the fixed straight line PL drawn at right angles to () (' PM. HV. 12.] to Next angles that to : let not the be parallel AC but let it meet CA produced beyond in apex of tJie cone in P'.•. : Hence . if VR and P'L be joined and produced to meet VR proved that QV' = PV. PL PF = BF in R. corresponding to the diameter the future be denoted by the symbol .PA=BG':BA.AG.PV:PV. Proposition 2. .VK.PV. Thus QV' = p. QV'^cPV. Also QV is HK. Draw PL at Hght the plane of the section and of such a length . to the fixed PM with rectum altitude equal to the corresponding abscissa section is PV. Tlien. similar triangles and HV:PV=BC:AC VK:PA=BC:BA.

VR.VK :PV.AF\ . HV. . = VE:P'V = PV.PP' Hence QV :PV .VR:PV. Apollonius describes the rectangle PR as applied to the latus rectum but exceeding by a figure similar and similarly situated to that contained by I'l^ and PL. i.P'V=PL .P'V= BF.10 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. QV' = PV. which is simply the Cartesian equation of the hyperbola referred to oblique axes its coneiatiug of a diameter and the tangent at extremity.•.F('. y-=px + ^. by similar triangles. Then. exceeding the rectangle VL by the rectangle LR. equal to a Hence the * Hyperbola.P'V. if QV=y. Py=x. Thus.x-. VK :P'V=FC:AF. PL=p. is It follows that the square on the ordinate is rectangle whose height lies it equal to the abscissa and Avhose base along the fixed straight line section called a PL but overlaps by a length equal is to the difference between VR () and PL*. .•.e. HV:PV=BF:AF. and PP':^d.

(') { The parameter PL will in future be denoted by jj.] Proposition 3. y . It follows from the proportion QV':PV. ). ( /.e. and draw PL at right angles to PM in the plane of the section and of such a length that PL PP' = BF. 13. and PP' is oallcil the transverse -rrXayia TrXayia). calling the latter the latus rectum (i. 11 PL is called the latus rectum or the parameter of the ordinates as before. or applied to. The fuller expression transverse diameter is also used. rrj on. /69) ifkevpa). [Coil. [I.VE.P'Visa constant or QF•^ varies as ratio.P'F. Apullunius speaks of the diameter and the corresponding parameter together.FC AF\ to PL meeting P'L in R. : : Join It P'L and draw VR parallel luill he proved that QV"' = PV. and. QV iPV. PF. even more commonly. the erect side.P'V=PL:PP' that. ( /. and the former the transverse side { irXayia TrXeupa). the diameter of the figure i.THE CONE. draw A F parallel to PM nieetiiuj BG produced in F. of the rectangle contained by PL. PP' as drawn.] If meets AC in P' and BG in M. for any fixed diameter PP'.e.

] * Apollonius describes the rectangle PR VL as applied to the latiu rectum but to that falling short by a figure similar and similarly situated contained by PP" and PL. QV=y. VK:P'V = FG:AF. QV^:PV. y-=px Thus ApoUouius' enunciation simply expresses the Cartesian equation to a diameter and the tangent at its extremity as (oblique) axes. = VR:P'V = PV. PV=x.P'V is or QV varies SisPV.PV=BF:AF. Then. : . VK.e. or the paraand PP' itself is the addition in the transverse or (with or without of last diameter side of the figure. Thus the aquarc on the ordinate is equal to a rectangle whose height is equal to the abscissa and Avhose base lies along the fixed straight line PL but falls short of it (iWeiTrei) by a length equal to the difference between VR and PL*. referred . Hence HV. similar triangles. Draw HK through V parallel to BC. as before.PV' = PL:PP' that. QV' = PV. PL=p. QV' = HV. HV. Now. as explained the proposition). and PP' = d. for any fixed diameter PP'. VR.PV. As meter called before.PV. It follows from the proportion QV':PV. by .P'V.FC :AF\ QV PV P'V= PL PP' : . PL will henceforth be denoted by p. rectum.12 THE COXICS OF APOLLOXIUS. PL is called the latus of the ordinates to the diameter PP'. The section is therefore called an Ellipse. falling short of the rectangle by the rectangle lAi.P'V = BF.VK:PV. If i. [Cor.VE. a constant ratio.•.•.

of the cone. the sections of the two parts of the cone will both be hyperbolas which will have the same diameter and equal later-a recta coiTesponding thereto. intersecting the base BC and the plane B'C in D'E\ Then ' in the straight line DE must be parallel to DE. and will cut D'E' at right angles. and let a plane pass through BC and the apex A is cutting the circle of that circle parallel to B'C in B'C. U. 18 Proposition 4.] If a plane cuts both parts of a double cone and does not pass through the apex. Let BChe the circle about which the straight line generating the cone revolves. .THE CONE. and let B'C be any parallel section cutting Let a plane cut both halves the opposite half of the cone. which to will therefore be a diameter and BC. since DE' DE. [I. And such sections are called OPPOSITE BRANCHES. Let BC be that diameter of the base which bisects DE B'C at right angles.

PP' = BF.^* Let ^. FC :AF=F'C' :AF'. also a And It C'A produced beyond the anex A fh! ^ ^ ^' '^" ''^'^"" hyperbola.ddle points of DE. . of he lia the two hyperbolas have the same diameter MPP'M. the straight Hr^ join. P'. by similar triangles.FC.^. ^ ' Draw perpendiculars PL.F'C':AF'\ now ifP. We have.ng the n. •BF.AF' = B'F' F'C pi pp' ^ p. and M' p\n the^lane bisected at right angles by the base of DPE' i. . remains to prove that PL = P'L'. -. p. : AF'\ . Hence BF:AF=B'F':AF'. the diameter of the section DPE Sl^aT/plh'ofa/^'" Also since i)'^' is ^^^-^ ^^^ ^^-' ^^^ -'^" when he axial triangle triangle meets AB'C.4i?^' THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.FG:AF\ P'L':P'P=B'F'. D'E' and meeting C^ respectively in P. P'L to MM' section and of such length that in the plane of the PZ Since .p .PL^P^L'. iiA be drawn through A parallel to MM'.

[I. if the diameter bisect all chords parallel to a the second diameter will bisect all chords the first. second diameter. Q draw \ QQ let parallel to PP' meeting BB' in and the ellipse in Q' and QV be the ordinate drawn from Q to PP'. . (1) BOB' will he a third Let QF be any ordinate to PP' and through .] C. the middle point of the diameter PP' of (oi a double ordinate BCD' he draiun to PP'. Proposition 5. If through ellipse. BCD' will bisect all chords parallel to PP'. PP'.THE DIAMETER AND ITS CONJUGATE. 15. parallel to In other words. and will tJierefore he a diameter the ordinates to which are parallel to PP'. to Also the parameter of the ordinates proportional to BB'.

= CP•' . I .TE: RT\ D'v .PV=P'V. PC =CP'.TE PP' PP' = PP' PA. or . we have [Prop.(PR) = (PA) But Now and . PV: PV''-PV=P'V' P'V.TE. (2) that Draw i^A" at DB' PP' = PP' : right angles to : DD' and of such a length vi' DK. CE.'.vr = RT = CV'=Qv\ CP..vD = RT.VR = PV'. VR.. Also draw Ti?. .D'v. i ^^ . (PA) . Then. from (A) above Dv. PS = SL (P^) = and CE=EH. : : . PV:VV' = FV':VV'. GP=CP'. By subtraction.vD = RT. since .•.. if PL 3] is the parameter of the ordinates.•.vr = RT. Hence PV PV'=V'R': VR = P'V P'V.•...vD:Dv. vr D'v .PV.V'R. the parallelogram Also (>Sri/). r. . (A).•. : : : : : : : .Q F•' . by hypothesis. TE RT\ DD' P7i^ = D'v vr = D'v . V'R' PL I to meet P'L. 16 THE comes OF APOLLONIUS.GE:GP' = RT..' .V'R'. QV is parallel to Q'V and QQ' . TE. . and QV = QV.DD' :DK = DD":PP"' = CD' GP' = PG.vD vD. Also CV = CV\ By subtraction. QV' = PV. Q'V'^PV'. But . because to PP'. and draAvn parallel to if is joined and VR. : . (PP) = ( VS) + (8R) = (SU) + (RH).GO'-QV' = RT. «o that QQ' is bisected by BD'. and Qv = vQ'.Ov' = P'y vD. .P'V. Join D'A and draw parallel to DK to meet D'A^ in Then. Xi^if and ES parallel to PP'..

the middle point of PP'. parameters of the ordinates in each bmnch so that [Prop. . are called conjugate diameters. and meeting the two branches of the hyperbola in Q. We have = PG. DD' is a third PF. DD' and the corresponding parameters are reciprocal. Q'V be ordinates to PF. the given diameter. the line so draimi ivill be a diameter conjugate to the former If one. c. 16. a straight line V. DD'. Q' respectively. [I. Cor. any straight line be drawn parallel to PP'. DD'. and if from C.THE DIAMETER AND Thus as Qv. such Therefore the parameter of the ordiuates to proportional to DD'. and let PL.\PL. in be the Let QV. be drawn parallel to the ordinates to PF meeting QQ' we have to prove that QQ' is bisected in v.. Def. relations Thus the of PP'. ITS CONJUGATE. FL . : and PL is a third proportional to PP'. 00"" or PP' : DD' = DD' PL.GE = hPP'.PL. each of which bisects chords parallel to the other.DD" = PP'. 17 DK is the parameter of the ordinates to DD'. 4] 2 H.] of the diameter of a hyperbola with two branches a line be drawn parallel to the ordinates to that the jjoiiit If from middle diametei-. all Diameters such as PF. Proposition 6.

'. PV V'R = PR RL' = RP PL = P'V VR. . Then we have QV'^PV.R.VR = PV. centre.] In a parabola vanes as This is the square on an ordinate to the diamete?' the abscissa.•. and let PL. P'L be joined and produced to meet V'R.•. Q'V" and . PV + PV PV = RV + RV RV. Also PV. of a length equal to mean proportional between the diameter and the parameter.P'V=PL:PP'. is called the secondary diameter Proposition 7. CF=CF'. .•. The middle point is PF' = P'F' P'F. from the proof of Prop. 20. whence. Qv = Q'v. hyperbola the of the diameter of an ellipse or called the centre. V'R parallel to PL. PV . 18 THE CONICS OF ArOLLONIUS.] : : PR. But .RV'. and the straight line dmwn parallel to the ordinates of the diameter.. or PF=P'F'. P'L'. :RV. and V'R :VR = PV:P'V'. [I.PV=P'V:P'V'. : : VV .. Def. 2. R'. as above. 1.PV = P'L' or PF PV= P'V'. Hence Gv is a diameter conjugate to PR.P'V=V'R' . : QV=Q'V. and bisected at the {8evTepa ). we have.PV=VV':RV'.VR. VR respectively in PL = FL'. . at once evident from Prop. PL = P'L': PV. VR = P'V V'R. from above : : : : .V'R. RV. QV:PV. by addition. .RV=PV. [More shortly. CP = CR. and or PV '. qV" = PV' .. Draw VR.

] which forms the basis of the definition of the conic. [I.] In a hi/perhohi. -21. 2—2 .PV= PV. QV'xPV. V'R'.THE DIAMKTFU AND ITS CONMIYIATE.VR. qV^PV. starting from the property QV^ = PV .P'V. [This property is at once evident from the proportion QV':PV.PV.VR : PV. as Let QV.P'V = VR :P'V=PL:PP'. QV . Q'V be two oi-dinates to the diameter PP'. 19 Proposition 8. .P'V=PL:PP' obtained in the course of Props.•. if QV be ani/ nrdindte diameter PP'. 2 and 3 . an to the ellipse. or <i circle. but ApoUonius gives a separate proof.VR follows. Then QV' = PV.

P'V'. . and QV. : it follows that PV= P'V .•. QV KV" = PV. along PP' on the other side of the centre equal to Let V'K be the ordinate to is PP' through V. and QV^ or : PV .PV'. other also. 29.P'V:PV'. if produced.20 Similarly .] If a straight line through the centre of a hi/perbola with it two branches meet one branch. . 8] QV=KV'. parallel.•.FV = PL : : PP'. QV':Q'V"' = PV. Proposition 9. Since CF= CV.P'V = PT. THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Draw the ordinate QV to PP'. will. and CP = GP'.P'V:FV'. Therefore QGK is if a straight Hence QG. QT* PV'. But . constant ratio. PV. Let meet one branch in Q. We shall prove that QGK a straight line. and off CQ set GV CV. [Prop. [I. will cut the opposite branch. while GV = GV.P'V. PV.P'V is QV'ocPV. produced.•. meet the Let PP' be the given diameter and C the centre. KV are line.

and the lower GP' : GV = GP" and : GV'\ But . GV = GV'. P'V: P'V.•. CV'=GV''. GP' = GP".. And QV. [I. to the diameter PP'. PV = QV : Q'V' = (77^ .•. Draw the ordinates QV.] In a hyperbola or an is bisected at the centre. are parallel . 21 Proposition lO. : CV'±PV. any chord through the centre Let PP' be the diameter and G the centre and let QQ' be any chord through the centre. Then PV. THE DIAMETER AND ITS CONJUGATE.•. .P'V•. . Q'V GQ=CQ:.•. : GV'\ by similar triangles. Q'V . 30. CV' = CV"±P'V\PV' ellipse GV (where the upper sign applies to the to the hyperbola).

if not. let PK fall and the parabola. But meet PM and will falls be KP produced without the conic . (1) fall Let the conic be a parabola.1/. 17. Then KP.TANGENTS. and no othei' straight can fall hetiueen is and the conic. Therefore the straight line PK must fall without the conic and will therefore touch it. If possible.PV:PV' >PL:PV. where PM is the given diameter. 32. therefore it Avill not be bisected at P. being drawn from a point the ordinates to bisected by it. let without the conic.] If a straight line he draxmi through the extremity of the diameter of any conic parallel to the ordinates to that diameter. meeting the curve in . Let V be taken on PK such that KV:PV' = PL. and draw ordinates. and let V'Q'M be drawn Q' and in . meeting the curve in Q. and let PF be parallel to the ordinates to the diameter PV. It first proved that the straight line drawn in will fall it fall the manner described For. Proposition 11. parallel to QV. the line straight line will it touch the conic. within as PK. on the conic parallel to will PM. It remains to be proved that no straight line can between the straight line drawn as described and the conic. between PF KV parallel to the Then KV':PV''>QV' : PV >PL. [I. it.PV'.

Therefore no straight line can curve. and. if pussible. and draw PK KV parallel VR to per- . meeting the curve in Q. Draw the ordinates.rV': PV" = q'V"\PV'\ and KV PV = MV" • : PV'\ by parallels. and therefore does not between fall fall Thus outside it PK : cuts the curve in which contrary to the hyi^othesis. PF and the Let the curve be a hyperbola or an ellipse or a Let let PF be fall parallel to the ordinates to PP'.PV = PL. MV = Q'V. (2) cifxle. between PF And the curve. Therefore MV" = Q'V'\ is and Q'.PV'^FL-. Then KV'.TANfiKNlS.

by the . MV' = is Q'V'. VR' :PV' = iyV":PV". V is a mean proportional between V. VR'. Join PS and let it meet P'R in R'. Join P'L and let it (produced if necessary) meet VR in R. or i. meeting the curve in Q' and V PK in i¥. and through meeting QV. VS:PV=KV':PV\ Hence. KV' = PV. by parallels. Now . Thus outside it PK : cuts the curve in and therefore does not fall which contrary to the hypothesis.•. VR.24 pendicular to THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.•. Then QV = PV. Q'.VS. draw VQ'ili parallel to Take a point S on VR produced such that KV' = PV.V'R' = Q' V. so that VS:KV=KV:PV.e. MV" = PV'. Draw R'V parallel to PZ in V. . PV. fall Hence no straight line can between PF and the curve.VS. VR. PF so that KV > PV. property of the conic.

PV>TV'". where V is the foot of the the curve ordinate from Q to the diameter FV. . 33.TV\ : : : .PV'>TV'\ But. * Though the proofs of this pioposition and tlie uext follow //. and.] be taken on the diameter of a parabola outside If a point and such that TF = PV. We have to prove that the straight fall line TQ TQ produced does not within the curve on either side of Q.-.PV=TV\ . The figures in both propositions have accordingly been drawn in accordance with the facts instead of representing the incorrect assumption which leads to the iibsurdity in each liise. Then Q'F'^QF^ >KV'^: QV\ by hypothesis. parallel within the curve*. and is therefore a tangent. For.PV <TV'\ (which is absurd. the point of contact.'. Therefore TQ does not at any point fall within the curve.TV\ . a point on TQ or TQ produced. the line TQ or will touch the parabola.PV . 2 Proposition 12.^TP. it is proved that KV" >Q'V'.TANGENTS. 35.PV VTP PV > TV" TV\ TP = PV. A' lies outside the curve hecause. ^TP. form the method of reductio ad absurdtim. since by hypothesis TF' is not bisected in P. > TV'". : Hence 4>TP . it is easily seen that they give in fact the direct demonstration that. if KQ'V' be parallel to QV. if A' is any point on the tangent other than Q. if possible. and through draw Q'KV to an ordinate and meeting the diameter in V and the curve in q. [. let fall K. since ^TP.

Also no straight line TQ and the curve. or a circle. = PV. of reductio [ApoUonius gives a separate proof of ad absurdum. Conversely. and if a be taken on the diameter but outside the curve such that TP : TP' = PV : VP'. this. an ellipse. We have to prove that no point on TQ or TQ produced falls within the curve.2 can fall bettveen THE COyias OF APOLLUNIUS. 34.] In point diameter and a hyperbola.outside the curve in the point T. 36. then the straight line TQ will touch the cm^e. . if the tangent at Q meet the diameter jif'oduced .] using the method Proposition 13. [I. if PP' be the QV an ordinate to it from a point Q.

.PV : ". and QV is the ordinate 'TP:'TP' Also no other straight [This again reductio is = PV: VP'. Therefore PN = NM.•. VQ in /. 0. meet P'Q respectively.'. separately proved by Apollonius by a simple ad absurdum. hypothesis. . Conversely. parallels to TQ meeting V'Q. Q. if the tangent at a point Q meet the diameter PP' from outside the section in the point T. producing them if necessary. parallels. Join P'Q. does not cut the curve. in Also let the parallel through M.: or It follows that . . TANGENTS. '. PV : ' P'V .•. and draw through P' parallel to . V'Q. by P'H : PV= TP' TP PN = P'Q QM : : = P'H:NM. > OP : : 'PQ' > > . . > . Hence or .. which is contrary to the hypothesis.PV:P'V'.PV'>TV':TV". the curve*. and therefore it Thus TQ touches it.] * See the note on tlie previous propo^iition.>. let a point 27 fall on TQ or T(^ produced within an ordinate meeting the curve in Q'..QV':Q'V">TV':TV" >QV':KV'\ Q'V < KV. line can fall between TQ and the curve. : Now. draw Q'KV and H. by . . If possible. .•.OP : 'fQ'\ by similar triangles P'V or . P'V.1/. : :>:.

TP TP + TP' TP ~ : ' = PV : . : . therefore for all three curves CV. for the hyperbola. and the tangent at Q meet PP' in T. Proposition 14. if QV be an ordinate the diameter PP'. 2CP:26T=26T:2CP.CT=CP\ .•. 37.] to In a hyperbola. 2CT:2GP = 2CP:2GV. : [Prop.CT = CP\ QF-• : CV. VT = p PP' : [or CD' : CP^].28 THE COyiCS OF APOLLONIUS. or a circle. and for the ellipse or circle. [I. pI V C (1) Since QT is the tangent at Q. 13] TP' = PV + P'V PV ~ P'V- thus. 39. an ellipse. then (1) (2) CV.

QV PF. [I. QV But : CV. : : PV:PT=CV:CP. .VT=PV.] If Qv be the ordinate to the diameter conjugate to PP'. CV. U] But and . 8] QV (7F.•. [Pn. Cor. (2) 29 Since Avhence or . tD tD' = vD' vD for the hyperbola. and QT. PV:VT=^CV:P'V. Using the figures drawn for the preceding proposition. then (!) (2) (3) Cv.•. CT.Ct=CD\ Qv' :Cv.vt = PP' :p [or CP' CD']. Proposition 15. PV PV+PT = CV CV+ CP. : CV. 14] And (2) CV.CT =CP'. Cv.TANGENTS. [Prop. : : CP. iiieet that conjugate diameter in t. VT is equal to the ratio It follows at once that QV : : : : : : : compounded of the ratios : PP' (or CD' : CP') and C7 : QF.p. Fr = ^j PP' (or CD» CP').Ct : : CV. [Prop. : : or and But . 38. 40. the tangent at Q. : : (or.) : PF).•. QV:VT=Ct:CT. VT = CD' : CP'.•. QV:CV=Cv:CV. VT=CD' CP' QV CV = Cv Qv.Ct = CD\ : As before. we QV : CV. : : : and have (1) tD : tD' = vD vD' for : the ellipse and circle. : VT= Cv. QV .P'V. Hence Cv Ct CV. CV CP = (T CT. CT = CD' CP'. CV~ GP:CV=CP~CT: PV CV = PT CP. P'F= /) PP' (or CD' CP*). .

for iZ) = vD' : the ellipse and is : c?Vcie.QV'. tD iD' It follows : tD' : = vD' : vD vD for the hypevholu. : (3) and .S OF AIOLLONIUS. :Qv. . vt = CP' = PP' : '' .-.30 THE COyJC.CD': .VT=Cv.). from (2) that Qv : Gv equal to the ratio compounded of the ratios PP' : (or GP^ CZ)'^) and i/i : Qv. Cv .\Ct:CD=CD' :Cv.vt:Qv'. Hence Again.•. and QV: VT = vt Qv' : .CV.Cv = CD' = CD. Ct. Gt + GD Gt~GD=GD' + Gv GD'~Gv. : : Thus and Cor.

•. and tneir .QO = QV PV PV. : Thus or QV. if equiatir/alar parallelograms (VK).•*» are sucK tMt |^= ^^ . .] In a hyperbola. (PM) be described on QV. : . Suppose to be so taken on KQ produced : . %. an ellipse. (QV QO) . GP respectivehj.PROPOSITIONS LEADING TO THE REFERENCE OF A CONIC TO ANY NEW DIA:\IETER AND THE TANGENT AT ITS EXTREMITY.P'V (1). QV: QV .QK CP CM CP CM = CP' . § [. atid if ated (PM). : . {VN)±{VK) = {PM).{QO:QK) = (CP CM) (QV QO) : : : : . {VN) to be the parallelogram on then CV similar and similarly sit % . 41.QO:QV.{QV: QO).. But and QO:QK=CP:CM QO:QK=QV. the lower sign applying to the hyjjerbola. . [I.. Proposition 16.QO = PV. that so that QV:QO = p:PP'. Also QV: QK = {CP CM) (p PP') = (CP CiM). : : (2). or a circle.

QV=QK : : CD' QK GP^'CM' 3r CP.GM{^l'-l . We and have QF» GV ~ GP' = GD' GP\ QV_G^CP ^r.QK = GP. is The proposition more shortly proved by a method more akin to algebra as follows. Therefore. : Avhere the upper sign applies to the ellipse and circle and the lower to the hyperbola. ( VN) = {PM) + { VK).r.P'V=(PM) (VK) (3).qV. since PM.{VK) = {VN)-{PM). ivom i\).CM or GV'~GP CD' GP\ QV.32 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. {VN)±{VK) = {PM).•. . r. . .GM' : CD' ^''^''CP.P'V QV. CP' : GP CM ^QV.QK = PV. : VK are : equiangular. V. and hence so that or {VN) {PM) = {PM) + {VK) {PM).QK. {VN)±{VK) = {PM)..QO'. P'V GF" = {PM) + ( FZ) {PM). : : [The above proof is reproduced as given by ApoUonius in order to show his method of dealing with a somewhat complicated problem by purely geometrical means.] . : Hence GP' + GP' PV.

QTV RUW={EV) (EW). he ordinates through P. : ZA and . 43. Since QT is . Proposition 18.] to In a parabola. [I. parallel to RW the diameter RU parallel to it U respectively. [I. TRANSITION TO NEW DIAMETER. QTV = (EV). TV=2PV.. and if he the ordinate from any point R and RU he parallel to QT . V.•. also RW RW respectively. a tangent. and meet the diameter in T. if the tangent at Q and the ordinate from Q meet the diameter in T. . QV':RW' = PV:PW'. an ellipse. the tangent at Q. then R UW = the parallelogram {EW). C.•. 33 Proposition 17. 42. [Prop. H. and QT. from (1) RUW={EW). or a circle. then A CFW~ A CPE= A RUW. if QV. 44.•. 12] AQTV={EV) Also .] In a hypei'hola. : (1). and if through Q a in the diameter he in drawn meeting RW produced F and the tangent at E. if and the parallel to it through meet CQ in F.

14 and Cor. the exact significance of this [It is interesting to observe proposition.RY. this: The proposition amounts to If GP. .THE .•? OF APOLLONIUS. : Thus.. QV VT = (p by PP') {CV -. VT = p PP' : . (CP PE). RX. GWF have It the property proved in is that proposition. RY. We whence have : QV parallels. ARYFcc RY\ A R YF = ax. . BU are in fixed directions. since ARYF+CJ CXRY+ RX U = {const. 16. the parallelograms which are the doubles RUW. Suppose now that CP. CFW ~ CPE =ARUW. [or CD' : OP']. by Prop. CQ If are taken as axes of coordinates {CP being the axis of a•).•. RW:WU={p: PP') of the triangles . the proposition asserts that (subject to the proper convention as to sign) But. which is the foundation of Apollonius' method of transformation of coordinates. [Prop. CPE. we draw RX parallel to CQ to meet GP and RY parallel to CP to meet CQ. the area of the quadrilateral GFRU constant for positions of R on the conic. or or CJCXRY^ RX. therefore.). CJCXRY=xy. : CV.QV). GQ are fixed semidiameters and is R a variable all point. RF. follows that the same true of the triangles themselves. ARXlJcc RX\ or ARXU= yy-.

li. PP'. 3i y are the coordinates of ax^ + / [I. 45.] If to it the tangent at Q and the straight line through t. which is the Cartesian equation referred to the centre as origin axes. and R parallel Qv. meet the secondary diameter in respectively. NEW DIAMETER.] and any two diameters as Proposition 19. + /= A.TRANSITION TO Heuce. meeting the secondary diameter w . if x. . if also Rw meet CQ inf then = Ruw - CQt. Rw he parallel to the diameter in V.

. Qvt are the halves of equiangular parallelograms on Cv (or QV) and Qv (or CV) respectively: also CPK is and the triangle on CP similar to Qvt. 17] ARUW=njEW. the triangle Cfw the triangle is similar to the triangle CQv. and the triangles QvC.RM=MR'. for the ordinate RW.ACPK= A CQt A CQv = Again.A CPK. 46. F'.. 16]. respectively. A Qvt . the figure R away the common part R'W'WFM. :. in F. Therefore.36 THE COXrCS OF APOLLONIUS. Proposition 20.bisects all cho7'ds parallel to the tangent at the point. Take RMF= A And R'F' is R'MF'.A CQt. clearly CQv ^ A Qvt. Let RR' be any chord to the tangent at parallel let it Q and meet the diameter PF in U. AR'UW' = CJEW\ W'R' = Therefore. and the straight lines drawn ordinate-wise through R. AC/iu= A Ruw ~ A CPK = A Ruw - CQt. by subtraction. and Rwu to the triangle Qvt. [I. Therefore [by Prop. Let QM drawn parallel to PF meet RR' in 31. parallel to RF. R'. We and have then [Prop.] In a parabola parallel to the the straight line draimi through any point diameter. and we have W P' W. I .

or circle. the line tlie joining any centre bisects the chords parallel to tangent at the point .37 Proposition 21. 48.TRANSITION TO A NEW DIAMETER. an point to the ellipse.] In a hyperbola. [I. . 47.

cT=cv'. ARUW = quadrilateral EPWF. part. from the as CQT.ACFW = AR'UW.•. AR'U W = quadrilateral W'F'.• FR. and the proposition follows immediately*. the triangle Therefore the quadrilaterals taking away the common CFRU. and Q We the point where QG RR' produced meets the said opposite provided branch.Cr = CP'^. Thus (1). AGPE-ACFW = ARUW. iiu the figure is drawn for the hyperbola. is RR' a chord in the opposite branch of a hyperbola. CT=CT'. :.CT= CP^ [Prop.38 THE comes of apollonius. . * Eutocius supplies the proof of the parallelism of the two tangents as follows. Taking away the common part R' WFM. the figure F'W'WF= the figure R'W'WR. GUM. FR' are parallel. ACRE . .•. V i7y = Cy'[Prop. CV'. And. •. or. or ARUW-\- AGFW = AR'UW + ACF'W. by subtraction. ACF'W . CQ'T'.AR'UW. follows that QT. it Hence. RM=MR'. by subtraction. we obtain W AFRM = AF'R'M. and. . as before. have therefore to prove that the tangent at Q is parallel to the tangent at Q. and . GV=GV'. cv. . GQ will bisect RR' is parallel to the tangent at Q'. 14]. (2) as the figure is drawn for the ellipse. we have and. We and have CV. AFRM=AF'R'M. .•. (3) if RM = MR'. GF'R'U are equal. and 10]. Q'T are parallel.ACFW = ARUW .

POT are equal. : . . . RM' = . QE = PV=TP. triangles EOQ. the tangents at P.•. Therefore. by hypothesis. 20 draw the ordinate Q V. [I. [I. to each the figure the quadrilateral Subtract the QTWF= nj{EW) = quadrilateral MUWF. from (1). and let RR U he any chord parallel to .] If in a hyperhola. . the extremity of the ainginal diameter. QM. Then we have. QOPWF.•. 49. Also Therefore the 0Q:QE = p':2TQ. 50. In the figure of Prop. 30 Proposition 22. 17] Add . and the tangent at if also a length : meet the line joining Q to the QL (= p) : he taken such that OQ QE = QL 2TQ . it is to he proved that RM' = p'. . and the parallel through Q to the diameter in . Proposition 23. RUW. or a circle. [Prop.QM. the tangent at Q meeting PT in and EQ produced in then. if he taken such that UQ:QE=p':2QT. and hence RM MF = 2QM : : . meet the tangent at any point Q in 0. QT (1). But or RM MF =OQ:QE = p': 2\ RM' RM MF = p' QM 2QM QT. CJQU= ARMF. an centre in . ellipse. Q meet in 0.] Let the tangent to a parabola at F.TRANSITION' To A NEW DIAMETER.

since Also CQ = CQ\ RM:MF=QH:QT (A). though not until Prop. no doubt for tlie purpose of securing greater stringency. and let W be an ordinate to PP'. 44] where II coincides with Q but this would be contrary to the usual practice of Greek geometers who. QH = HL. ARUW=QTWF. A MUG. If then the alternative proof is genuine. . . •we have and. erected perpendicular to and to Q' is on QC if further Q'L be joined {wJiere QC produced and CQ= CQ'). 81 [V.'. 18 which. Now /\RUW = /\GFW-AGPE = l^CFW~liCQT'') . . we have an explanation of the assumption here. though we have Apollonius proves separately the case where for tlie sake of brevity only mentioned it as a limiting case. QL to meet Q'L in (where to is the point of concourse of CQ and RR. and MK he drawn parallel .•. 18 [I. 2]. meeting CQ Then. we ARMF=QTUM. we should be tempted to suppose that Apollonius quoted the property as an obvious limiting case of Prop. MK in N.in the figures as drawn (2) for the ellipse (1) for the hyperbola.•. coincides with B. subtracting 3IUWF. to he a chord parallel the tangent at Q): then it is proved that RM' = QM. 1] that this equality But Eutocius gives another proof of Prop. 53 [III.40 THE COSICS OV Al'ULLONlUS. appears in some copies. where general theorem and its limiting cases. . preferred to give separate proofs of tlie limiting cases. . 0Q:QE = QL:2QT = QH:QT. actually proved. In the figures of Prop. . RM.MF=QM{QT+MU) (B). and which begins by proving these two triangles to be equal by exactly the same method as is used in our text of the later proof. 43.•. If not. subtracting CQT= quadrilateral /e UCF.MK. though the parallelism of the respective proofs suggests that they were not unaware of the connexion between the Compare Prop. ARUW = ACQT-AGFW. 21 draw ing CHN parallel ii! to QL. and circle. it is * It will be observed that Apollonius here assumes the equality of the two triangles is CPE. have ARMF=QTUM. meet- QL in and in F. CQT. he says.

MK. 41 Now QT : .•. QT + MU= QH QT = RM MF [from (A)] : : : : . .•.MF. and P'E' to PE. [by QM{QH + MN) QM{QT+MU) = RM' RM.•.. RM* = QM(QH + MN) (B)] = QM. whence the proposition It results all follows. opposite branch of the hyperbola.QH + ^fN : MU= CQ:GM=QH: MN. from the propositions just proved that in a parabola straight lines drawn parallel to the original diameter are all diameters. straight lines drawn through the centre are diameters also that the conies can each be referred indiiferently to any diameter and the tangent at its extremity as axes. TRANSITION TO A NEW DIAMKTKR.•.] O'Q' : Q'E' =OQ:QE=p' 2QT=p' : 2Q'r. 21. : [Prop. and in the hyperbola and ellipse . Note. to The same is true for the The tangent at Q' is parallel . . QT.

to find a parabola in the plane such that the first straight line is a diameter. 4 and let : S be a mean : between AG and (Thus pa or AC = S' AG^. the second straight line is the corresponding parameter. Let AB be the given straight line terminating at A. pa the given length. so that the given straight line is to be the axis. and about A as diameter. and another straight line of a certain length. [I. in a plane perpendicular to that of the triangle AUG.CONSTRUCTION OF CONICS FROM CERTAIN DATA. it and AC>lpa. let the given angle be a right angle.) having two sides equal AG and the third equal to Let AUG be an isosceles Complete the triangle in a plane perpendicular to the given plane and such that parallelogram AO = AG.] Given a straight line in a fixed plane and terminating in a fi^ed point. describe a circle. Proposition 24. 2AG > S. so that is possible to describe to an isosceles triangle S. First.) 52. AGOE. Avhence AC'^ > -- . (Problem. and let a cone be drawn with as . and the ordinates are inclined to the diameter at a given angle. 53. Produce proportional A to C so that AC pa- > —^ . DC = S.

43 Then the cone is a right Produce OE = AG = OA. apex and the said cone because circle as base.. let be the length of the parameter. bola. let the given angle not be right. as in the first case. OA to H. cutting will hitcrscct the original plane in AB at right angles in N. 22] the diameter PM. 1] Secondly. And PM parallel to AN.AL = PN\ AN and parameter AL describe a parain TN meeting . [Prop. since AE= 00== S. by hypothesis. This will pass through will since PN^ = LA AN.OE. PM the a dia- meter of the parabola bisecting chords parallel to tangent PT. dicular to Draw TiV parallel PM. OE. pa:AO = AE':AO' = AE':AO.OP:PE=FP:PT. and MP be produced to to F so that PF = ^p.AO = AC. . and PN perpen- TN. Let the line which is to be the diameter be let PM. which are therefore inclined to the diameter at the given angle. .. PAP' is a parabola in which . and and let the cone be cut by a plane through will HK parallel to the base of the cone. Also is PT be a tangent to Therefore it since is AT = AN. of the ordinates to AB. are similar OEP . perpendicular to FP Now with axis A and draw LAE through A PT in and let NA. FT Make the angle FPT bisect equal to the given angle and draw perpendicidar to TP. Now . This plane and draw parallel to AE. = p:-2PT. K. Hence AE = AE: AO. produce a circular section. a line PP'.-.„ is the parameter Pa•. Again the triangles FTP.: PROBLEMS. Therefore is the parameter of tht parabola corresponding to [Prop.

if BC CF = A A' pa.. 59. : : use the point F for our construction. AA DC CF AA' Pa. Draw Let DO meet in E. Proposition 25.] Giveti a straight line AA' in a plane. DO. 55. and also another straight line of a certain length. Pa be the given straight lines.) 54. to DO meeting A'O produced A A' . if not. given angle be a ngJit angle. let the a given angle. 44 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Then. [I. suppose DC:GG = AA':pa Draw GO parallel to (GG being less than GF). we should ' 1sr '. and let a circle be drawn through A. AE parallel in B. Join AA'. to find a hyperbola in the plane such that the first straight line equal to the is a diameter of it and the second to the corresponding parameter. Let AA'. AG. if G be the middle point of A A' and DF the diameter perpendicular to '. (Problem. meeting the circle in 0. while the ordinates it diameter make with First. but. A' in a plane pei-pendicular to the given plane and such that. A'O.

Let PP'. Draw a circle plane through HK will perpendicular to the plane of the AOD. [Prop. PP' This plane and the resulting section plane in Avill be parallel to the base of the cone. it On CP that. OPT is the given angle.PROBLEMS. but was aiTived at by a method simihir to that adopted for . MK.BA :B0\ A'B BO = BA:BO = : . for apex and for base the and whose plane is perpendicular Let a cone be described with circle whose diameter AE AOD. A'B. Then. let the given angle not be a right angle. to to that of the circle The cone will therefore be right. and C to the middle point of PP'. 45 Then Z0EA = ZAOD= . be the given straight be such a point on lines.•. ^^ '''''^'^' '"'''"^^"'• : . be a circle cutting the original at right angles to A'A produced. AnD=zOAE: OA = OE.. because A meets HO produced beyond 0. if describe a semicircle. .MK. Produce OE. and draw parallel to AE. the parameter of the hyperbola PAP' cor- responding to the diameter AA'. NH':CH. Let GO meet HK in M. : BO'=OIiP HM. since OA = OE. OA //. And AA':pa = DC:CG = DB:BO = But .0:0' OM MH] OM : = A'B. : : Hence Therefore pa. is AA' pa= OM' : HM . * This conetruction we may infer that it is assumed by Apollonius without any explanation . . . the curve PAP' is a hyperbola.•. 2] Secondly. and let NH drawn parallel to PT meet CP produced in H.HP=p:PP'*. .

HP = NH N'H. the centre of the semicircle. N'. and divide it at 7 so that a. first describe a hyperbola as in the part of the proposition. and draw Produce AC to A' so that EOAM -£^. and let GR y : produce FR RS' = RS.NK. In fact the solution given by Eutocius represents sufficiently closely Apollonius' probable procedure.S' meet the circumference Suppose RF so that FS SR — y8. join A'K. and AM as the corresponding parameter. Join PiY and produce ' so that = ^. Nm HNN' N'H. : : Thus we have to draw at a given inclination to : PC and so that N'H:NH = PP' Take any straight line o/3 p. Then RF drawn parallel to meets CP produced in F. and join to N'N and produce it it meet CF in H. Bisect 07 in .HN=CH. then :. GR at right angles to in PT which in the given direction.46 Join THE CONICS OF APOLLONIUS. Jlf respectively. and R. NO meeting PT in T. If HN produced be supposed to meet the curve again in ". Then Nil is the straight line which was required to find..HP.y = PP':p. a similar case in Prop. . CH. Then is draAV from G. CN. : . through because PN^ = AN . through A parallel to PN meeting CP. The proof is obvious. Join GS. . 52. and take it A to on CN such that CA^=CT. AC = CA'. GS'. With AA' This will pass as axis. to S" so that PT will be Divide FR at the tangent at R. A'K in 0. meeting the semicircle in N.

and 2CP 2PT = GH : NH . [I. [Prop. to describe two hyperbolas each with two branches such that the straight lines are conjugate diameter's of both hyperbolas. Also 47 because PT CP be the tangent at will CT. by construction.NH. DD' be the two straight at lines bisecting each other .CN=CA\ Therefore be a diameter of the hyperbola bisecting chords parallel to the given angle. Let PP'. = : ^GH. Proposition 26. PROBLEMS.HP. PT and therefore inclined to the diameter at Again we have : 2CP = NH' : : CH HP.] Criven straight lines bisecting one another at any angle. = OP therefore is : ..HP.. HP by similar triangles the parameter corresponding to the diameter PP'. (Problem. . 23] The opposite branch of the hyperbola with vertex A' can be described in the same way.) 60.\• = •'•.

describe a double hyperbola such that the ordinates in it to DD' are parallel to PP'. Then PP'. describe a double with diameter PP' and parameter PL and such that .) 56. the ordinates in it to PP' are parallel to DD'. PP' and DD' meter. corresponding parameter. so constructed are called is conjugate hyperbolas. . the Given a diameter of an corresponding parameter. hyperbola draw PL perpendicular to PP" and of such a length PL = DD"' then. draw DM . let the angle of inclination be a right angle.] ellipse.48 THE OOXTCS f)F APOLLONIUS. that From PP' . DD' = PP'^ DM perpendicular to DD' of such a length that and. as in Prop. Then DD'. are conjugate diameters of the hyperbola Again. its and the angle : of inclination between the diameter and ellipse. ordi- nates to find the First. is are conjugate diameters to this hyperbola. with DD' as diameter. 57. [I. and let the diameter be greater than its parameter. (Problem. 25. 58. DD' so constructed. the transverse. while PP' is the secondary dia- The two hyperbolas the first. and DM as the . and that last dra\vn the hyperbola conjugate to Proposition 27.

'= '. 49 straight line of length AL. AA'. M. Draw A E. produced in T. E. he the diameter and it. circle on AA' Take meeting AD on A A' A in equal to AL. OF in K. F. In a plane at right angles to the plane containing the diameter and parameter describe a segment of a as base. A'E to meet at Draw DF parallel to A'E circumference in 0. OH=OK. TO A = and OEA + OAE = AA'O + = OE. . . ^ OA'E - HK is parallel to whence and OH = OKH. and Join OFN EO respectively. HKMN parallel parallel to A A' meeting the and produce it to meet A'A on OA produced draw Through any point to OE meeting OA'. C. Pa perpendicular to the parameter.Let ' PROBLEMS. the middle point of the segment.

Now and that or Pa is '. if [Prop. . And AA' = AD : : AA' = AF: = TO AE TE '. a cone be described. AL. and as base the This cone circle draAvn with diameter HK and in a plane perpendicular to that of let the triangle OHK.NK:NO\ . Consider the section of this cone by the plane containing AA'.TA' = HN. = T0': TA = HN NO. This will be an Pn ellipse. such that AA" = BB'.BM: and draw AL. still the angle of inclination of the ordinates be less a right angle. TO. be a right cone because OH = OK.50 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. but the given diameter than the para- meter. : :' : triangles. by similar TO' TA. the parameter of the ordinates to AA'. parallel to BB'.NK:NO\ j)a:AA' = HN. let them be BB'. BM respectively. perpendicular to BB' and bisected at C.TO.TA = TO NO. 3] Secondly. Let C be the middle point '. . such that BM thus : BB' = AA' AL : A A' > AL. through it draw^^'. With as vertex.

Now with ' it. the 4—2 .CB'. as diameter ellipse in 51 and AL as the corresponding parameter describe an perpendicular to which the ordinates to ' are as above. This will be the ellipse required. This construction like that in Prop. PllOHLEMS. let the given angle not be a right angle but equal to the angle CPT. on the semicircle which has CP for its drawn parallel to PT satisfies the NH : NH' CH.HP * = PL 25 is : PP'*. Thirdly. (2) BM : BB' = AC' : BC = AC':BC. is the middle point of the given diameter ing to PP'. so that BM is the parameter corresponding to BB'. where G .CA'. \vithont explanation. for (1) it passes through B. such that relation Take a point N. B' because AL AA' = BB' BM = BB" AA" : : : = BC":AC. assumed If NH be supposed to meet the other semicircle on CP as diameter in N'. PP' and let PL be the parameter coiTCspond- diameter.

it to so that AN'.CN = CA\ it to meet PT in T. (and 0. . (2) PT will We be the tangent at ]3 : •.• a similar reason.• For and GA' = GA.•.• GT GN=GA\ . tiie and construction can be effected by the method shown in the note to Prop. first A A' AM describe This will ellipse part of this proposition. 25 mutatis mutandis. will pass through P' PN' = AN.HP. Therefore is the parameter corresponding to PP'.2 Join that THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. (3) have 2CP = NH^ : and 2GP 2PT = : . CN and Draw produce GT. be the ellipse For (1) it will pass it through •. GP' = GP •. and parameter PT in an and A' produced axis Then with as in the required. . GH HN = GH. = NH:HP : = OP PE. . 23] problem here reduces that to drawing NHN' in a given direction (parallel to PT) so N'H:NH = PP':p. therefore parallel to NK) meeting GP produced M.NK. such and produce AG to A' so that AG = CA'.NK = PN\ CA in Join AM in through A perpendicular to E. Join PiV and produce -4'ir. 2PT = NW NH HP : : . [Prop. ex aequali : GH HP.HP :NH. Take on CT.

: Now p. PP'=p. let (1) CL meet the hyperbola in Q. CL' produced will not meet the curve in defined as asymptotes. PP' : PP"' = PL' CP•' = QV':GV\ . Draw the ordinate QV. If possible. Conjugate hyperbolas have their asymptotes common. such that PU = PL" = ip and are accordingly (2) (3) . the The opposite branches have same asymptotes. 21. PL'.ASYMPTOTES.] the corre(1) If PP' he a diameter of a hyperbola and sponding parameter. and if on the tangent at there he set off on each side equal lengths PL. [IL 1. 15. PP' [= GB'l any finite point then CL. 17. which will accordingly be parallel to LU. Proposition 28.

are the asymptotes of the hyperbola in which PP' a transverse diameter and DD' its conjugate.P'V=CV\ i. GL. PV.e. any finite and the same In other words. are asymptotes. the conjugate hyperbola. D. L'M' is GD. PL = P'M.. GL does not meet the hyperbola in true for CL'. Then [Prop. CV . Now MM'. i. Similarly DL = DM' = D'L' = D'M= GP. is which is absurd. P'M' measured on it folloAvs in like such that P'M' = P'M" = CD\ is manner that GM. So also is L'GM'. GL' are asymptotes. (2) If the tangent at P' (on the opposite branch) be taken. . Also Therefore PL = PL' = P'M = P'M' = LM. L'M' are is the asymptotes of the hyperbola in which DD' a transverse diameter and Therefore conjugate.54 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. DD' be conjugate diameters of tAvo conjugate hyperbolas.. P.e. pass through the centre. p:PP' = QV':PV.P'V. (3) Let PP'. it and P'M. Draw the tangents it.CP' = C]^. and the diagonals of LM. and PGP' a Therefore LGM is a straight line. 26] the tangents form a parallelogram. U. at P. GM' LL' are parallel. Therefore point. PP' its and LM. and therefore the opposite branches have the same asymptotes. 11 and Prop. conjugate hyperbolas have their asymptotes common. L'M'. straight line. But .

PL'.•. : Again and thus RQ. let CK be an asymptote.GP' = [Prop.QR'. where V is the point of intersection of and GP. QR > PL. Proposition 29. since Therefore PKRL .] No straight line through G luithin the angle between the asymptotes can itself he an asymptote. . P PP' = QV'. PK = LR.QR'>PL.P'V = QV':GV'-GP': RV GV' = QV':GV'-GP' --^RV'-QV: GP'. LL' are parallel. H] whence which is RV'. draw BKQR parallel to LL'. 28] [Prop. or GV' = PU GP'=p:PP'. iiF= R'V. the tangent at P. Draw from the straight line through PK parallel to GL and meeting GK in K. 2. PL' . Therefore GK cannot be an asymptote. and Then. RV"- AhoRQ>PL'. (1). and RR.PV.QV':GP\ PL'=RV'-QV'=RQ. is a parallelogram. PL = KR. by (1) above.ASYMPTOTES. RR And. If possible. since PL = PL'. impossible. [II.

GL' be the asymptotes. Produce PG the point. 25] .) [11. 28 (1) above. L' on the asymptotes. and let GL be made equal to twice GK. it will meet the asymptotes in two points L. and Pr = ip. if the tangent at in does not meet the asymptotes the points L. to find and Let GL. Proposition 31.//.] For. PK' each equal to CD. is [This proposition the converse of Prop.. 3. [11. K' must be identical with the points L.PP'. at P. 4. diameter that the describe a hyperbola such parallel to PP' and parameter ordinatcs to PP' arc [Prop. Take a length LL'^ such with that =p. take on the tangent lengths PK. and /. GK' which is are asymptotes impossible. 56 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Join LP and produce PK it to L'.PP'[=GD']. Proposition 30.] Given the asymptotes and a point the curve.] If a straight line touch a hyperbola . L' described. Therefore the points K. (Problem. L' LL' luill he bisected at P. Draw to P' so that GP=GP'. Then GK. on a hyperbola. parallel to GL' meeting GL in K.

will and (1) QR. (1).Qr = lp. also Then to LL'. it asymptotes (in L'). [II.PP'[=CD'l Tako V the middle point of Qq. and join CV meeting the curve in P. 10. the asymptotes in two points as R. Therefore Qq parallel to meets the asymptotes.] If Qq be any chord. 57 Proposition 32. meet r. since Qq is parallel it and LP = PL'. [Prop. Then CF is a diameter and the tangent at is parallel to Qq. qr (2) RQ. it will. follows that RV th( . 8. 11] Also the tangent at the meets L.ASYMPTOTES. if produced both ^vays.

is therefore a double ordinate to CP. . meeting the asymptotes in L.58 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.Qr:KQ. Proposition 33. •. Draw the tangent at and let Qq the chord Qq parallel to LL' meet the asymptote. Then we have : CP' = (PL : CP) (PL' . . 11. Q are on opposite branches.•.QK' = CP\ [Prop. But Pr==RQ. follows that KQ = ''^'. and QQ' meet the K.(Qr:Q]r) = RQ.QK' = CP\ QK=Q'K'.s in R.KQ. then KQ. K'.QK'. 16. L'. : CP) = (RQ:KQ).Q'K=CP\ . .Qr. . 32] Similarly (2) K'Q'. .] asi/7)ip- If totes in Q. [II. whence it KQ QK' = CP' = K'Q' Q'K KQ {KQ + KK') = K'QXK'Q' + KK'). r. and if CF (1) (2) be the seniidianieter parallel to QQ'.

[IT.•. : [Prop. then HQ QK = hq. Qr = qk : QK QK.qr. . We But and have . 59 Proposition 34. qk.] If angle. Q. Let Qq meet the asymptotes in R.Qr : = Rq . .ASYMFrOTES. 12.•. q he straight lines QH. or HQ hq = qk HQ QK = hq : : . : RQ Rq = HQ qr . liQ . . . qk {also parallel any two points on a hyperbola. and parallel to meet one asymptote at any to one another) meet the other asymptote at any angle. qk. 82] RQ Rq = qr : Qr. qh be drawn and QK. r. : hq.

. QK.• hq > EF. QK each parallel to one asymptote and meeting the other let a point . Therefore Again. RM. [Prop. QK.QK=CE. possible. qk respectively parallel to QH. 34] impossible.QK=CE. if possible. and draAv QH. it will meet the hyperbola in one point only. R'M' Then which is ER RM = ER' . For.EF. qh. let EF meet it in R' as well as R. :. Proposition 35. Then only.hq. EF does not meet the hyperbola in a second . and qk > CE. •. Join OF and produce it to meet the curve in q and draw .EF: is by hypothesis. and let EF be drawn parallel to the other. EF will not meet the hyperbola in any other point. Let . if EF will meet the hyperbola in one point. EF. 13. Therefore point R'.60 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.• ER' > ER. Take Q. Then and hq. as R. R'M' : [Prop. and let be drawn parallel to QK. [II. F be taken on EF such that HQ.£^ be a point on one asymptote.qk=GE. EF produced shall meet the curve in one point For. 34] HQ.qk = HQ. which impossible. •. let it not meet the curve. any point on the curve.] //' in the space between the asymptotes and the hyperbola a straight line be drawn parallel to one of the asymptotes.

and will come within a distance than any assignable length. Then and r'q' . and draw II^f asymptote Cr. MK be drawn parallel to Qq to meet Cr in K. 35] in a point M. And. q'r' < qr. approach continually nearer. Draw two in li. Join Cq and produce to meet Q'q' in F. parallel chords Qq.ASYMPTOTES. r meeting the asyntiptotes it and R'. = rH. as they pass on to infinity. qr becomes smaller and smaller. 61 Proposition 36. Take now on rq a length parallel to the rH less than S. Q'q' ?•'. . whence MK < S. . if HM will then meet the curve [Prop.•. q'R = rq qK. as successive chords are taken more and more distant from the centre. . 14] The asymptotes and less the hyperbola. q'R > qR . and hence. Let S be the given length. [II.

62 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. will therefore This tangent will then meet the asymptotes [Prop. 19. 33] whence. 30]. . (1) Let a tangent be drawn to either branch of the conju- gate hyperbola at a point D. DQ = !>(/. by addition.] Any tangent to the conjugate hyperbola luill meet both branches of the original hyperbola and be bisected at the point of contact. (2) Let the tangent meet the asymptotes in L. Proposition 37. [II. Also [Prop. LQ = MQ' . 30] DL = DM. Q. and meet both branches of the original hyperbola. Then [Prop. and the original hj^perbola in Q.

QQ' = QQ'. . ' = (RQ + RQ')Qr + RQ'. then Q'Q. Then we have [Props.Qq'=2GD\ Let CD be the parallel semi-diamctcr. 33] RQ.Qr=CD\ RQ'.'. Qr + RQ' . 63 Proposition 38.ASYMPTOTES. [11. . 28. 32.qr=CD'. r and the conjugate hyperbola in q.Qq. 2CD' = RQ .] If totes in a cJiord Qq in one branch of a hyperbola meet the asympQ'.{Qr + RQ') -=QQ'(Qr + rq') = QQ'. R.

DD' meet DD' in U. Proposition 39.TANGENTS. let the tangent at Q meet PP'. Let FP'. then (1) the tangent at will he parallel to CQ. [II. in let the tangent at D meet EU. 20. GE will he conjugate diameters. and we have (1) DD' PP' :p=p' :DD'. and QF be the ordinate from Q to PP'. and CE he drawn from the centre parallel to the tangent at Q to meet the conjugate hyperhola in E. p' be the parameters corresponding to PP'. let DD' be the conjugate diameters of reference. PP' = DD'\ p' . in the two hyperbolas. [. and (2) CQ. and respectively.p. t to DD' . CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES. Let p. CE in 0.] If Q he any point on a hyperbola. DD' = PP''] . and EW the ordinate from T. Let the tangent at respectively.

•. Hence. Now and Ce Ct:QV=Gf:CD\ .p = : CV. 26] ') where 2S is the parameter corresponding to EE'.EU (A).CQ. 60 and PP' . . c.•. are conjugate diameters.QV=tT:TQ=AtCT: ACQT.QT. diameter Also or EE' [Prop. AGQT= ACEU zCQT=zCEU. S.QV= GD\ Ct (since QV = Cv). Therefore the triangles are similar. Take a straight line S of such length that HE:EO = EU so that *S' : S.VT. EE' . Therefore. CV:QV = EW: WU.QT=CE. OD' = CV.= EW GW WU. EW. VT:QV=EW. it And similarly may be proved rectangle contained by Therefore QQ'. and ^QCV= ZUEW. by similar triangles. by subtraction. since Therefore. H.•.QV".•. [Prop. by division.CE=CQ\ 2S.EE' = QQ'\ that EE'^ is equal to the QQ' and the corresponding parameter. QCE = CEU (2) Hence EU is parallel to CQ.EU=CQ' : -.GW. is equal to half the parameter of the ordinates to the of the conjugate hyperbola. EW CW WU.VT: QV\ . S. It follows that And . W are equal. 23] Ct. 28]. 14] But. CQ. CDH = AtCT ACEU :GD'= A tCT : : [as in Prop. : . EWU the angles at V. And in the triangles CVQ. CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES.CE CE. by (A). : . But S:EU=OE:EH = CQ .TANGENTS. [Prop. OFare parallel. : QT. But VCE = CEW.

. = Cq. 6] 29. and Hence PP'.since RH is parallel to QQ'. Let the diameter PP' produced meet Qq because CQ' in V.] the Jf Q. then Cv is the 'secondary" diameter corresponding to to the transverse diameter draiun parallel QQ'. Proposition 40. PP' are parallel Qq. [II. H. it to meet the hyperbola parallel to QQ'. to Therefore the ordinates to therefore to Cv. and QV=Q'V.] he drawn to a conic. TQ' EQ VE be a diameter. Join meetiug the curve in R. Now QV=Cv=Vq. parallel to Cv. then TV is a diameter. 87. // two tangents TQ. Proposition 41. . meeting TQ' in E. 88. For. and Q'v = Qv. Q' cij-e any points on opposite branches. Cv are conjugate diameters. [Prop. in q. 80. let Then. EQ' respectively in K. Join Q'C and produce Qq. and draw the chord RR' parallel to QQ' meeting EV.66 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Join and draw the diameter PP' Then we have CQ' Therefore Qq is = Cq. and middle point of the chord QC/. and V he the middle point of the chord of contact QQ'. [II. RK = KH. if not.

and a chord RR' be drawn through t parallel to QQ'. then the lines joining R. CONJLTOATE DIAMETERS AND AXES.] Proposition 42. the diameter of the conic draiun through T.] If tQ. and it may be proved manner that no other diameter except TV.TANGENTS. since RR' is a chord parallel to QQ' bisected by the diameter EV. R'. Also. Therefore in EY is not a diameter. RK = KR'. the middle point of QQ'. contact QQ'. : Therefore KR' = KH which is impossible. the luill bisect the chord of separately proved by Apollonius by means of an easy rediictio ad absiirdum. [II. R' to v. 40. like straight line through F is a point of intersection of the tangents. tQ' be tangents to opposite branches of a hyperbola. [This is Conversely. will be tangents at R. .

R' intersect in v. or in conjugate hyperbolas. PP' [= CD']. or a circle. P'p' re- spectively parallel to Qq. since the tangent Qt meets the secondary diameter in t. t is [Prop. through the centre intersect. Rr. Cv . Proposition 43. each be bisected in 0. and draw the diameters Pj>. 42. Rr shall not bisect one another. 15] reciprocal. if two chords not passing each other. But. in 0.] In a bisect conic. to PP'. two chords not passing through the centre.e.68 THE CONICS OF APOLLONIUS. Then let Qq. a = Ip . . Join vt. Therefore the relation between and and the tangents &t R. vt is then the diameter conjugate to the transverse diameter drawn parallel to QQ'. [II. they do not meet Let Qq. For. Rr. 4]. 26. Join CO. if possible. i.

inasmuch as it is it bisects PD. Proposition 44. Therefore Qq.TANGENTS. Fp are conjugate diameters. the axis of a parabola. and these will meet in. to let PD be any diameter. since Qq is bisected in it. the centre. and so determine. CO. CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXKS.] To find a diameter of a conic. and the centre of a central Draw two parallel chords and join (1) The joining line will then be a diameter. the Therefore tangents at P. (2) their middle points. J. since PP' is not a diameter.) 4G. is can be proved that the tangent at P' CO. Then let thr(jugh parallel to PD. 47. 44.) 45.iVis a diameter. P' are parallel : which is impossible. Proposition 45. Rr do not bisect one another. AN V^ PD will be the For. is is a diameter Therefore the tangent at Similarly parallel to it parallel to GO.xis. being parallel to and. (iU parallel to and Pp Then. [II. Draw any two diameters . and the axes of a central (1) In the case of the parabola. (Problem. Draw any chord QQ' perpendicular be its middle point. . QQ' at right angles. And there is only one axis because there only one diameter which bisects QQ'.] To find ic. is the a. (Problem. and drawn axis. conic. [II.

P'. Join CN. .] axes. Then ON. and produce P'L to meet the curve again in R. Through P' draw P'L perpendicular to CL. common chords not passing through the centre. and 31 be their middle points respectively. PQ be two let iV. let there be another axis GL. CM. In the Ccose of a central conic.70 (2) conic. Q. 48. CM will both be axes because they are both diameters bisecting chords at right angles. Proposition 46. THE COSICS OF APOLLONIUS. Let PP'. CM. take any point on the and with centre C and radius CP describe a circle cutting the conic in P. Q'. Join CP. No central conic has more than two If possible. They are also conjugate because each bisects chords parallel to the other. [II.

since 71 CL is an axis. . P.TANGENTS. . HB' = RK' BK. : . CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES.KB'.•. RK are ordinates to BB'. + CH'=CB\ CK' . Then. since HP' . Therefore the assumption is absurd. and the difference between the antecedents has been proved equal to the difference between the consequents. .PH' = BH. R are points on a circle with diameter BB' : which is absurd. RK'=.BK. KB'. In the ellipse draw axis RK.HB'.•.'. PP'.KB'. it is therefore also CP =CP' = Now PP' in the case of the ht/perhola clear that the circle cannot meet the same branch of the hyperbola in any other points than P. .BK PH. KB'.HB' .KR' = HH HB' . PH perpendicular to the (minor) which is parallel to it Then. Hence CL is not an axis. PL = LR\ CR. since was proved that CP = CR. CP' = CR\ or CH' + HP' = CK' + KR \ (1).\CK'-CH' = HP'-KR' Now and BK.BK . from (1). P'. : PH' BH.CH' = BH HB' . Hence But. and .KB' + CK' = CB \ BH. .

the diameter ecpial Let the given point be any external point 0. (1) to a parabola through any point on or Let the point be on the curve. Then draw through V the straight line VP to the tangent at parallel [drawn as in (1)] meeting the curve in P. (Problem. being parallel BV. Join OP. 12] particular where with is A. [II. since In the AT=AN. PT is case the tangent at P.) 49. to [Prop. because is the tangent at B. the vertex. and produce Joiu A to AT = AN. and OB = BV. PT Then. Draw OBV meeting the curve at B. Proposition 47. 12] [This construction obviously gives the two tangents through 0.] To draw a tangent outside the curve. the perpendicular to the axis through (2) A the tangent.72 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. OP is the tangent requii'cd. an ordinate to PV. and make BV to OB.] . DraAv so that per- peudicular to the axis. coincides [Prop.

since QF is parallel to the tangent at P. P. Let the point be Q ou the curve.] . Draw take QN A A' is perpendicular to the axis a point A A' -. to a hyperbola through any point on There are here four cases. [II. (Problem. Case I. Join TQ.] meeting the curve in Q. Then TQ the tangent at Q. 73 Proposition 48.TANGENTS. and moreover P'V:PV=OP' Therefore : OP. Then. [Prop. as in Case I. CO and produce it both ways to meet the hyperbola Take a point V on CP produced such that in P'V:PV=OP': OP. [drawn and through V draw VQ parallel to the tangent at Join OQ. [Prop. 13] OQ is the tangent at Q. produced. [This construction obviously gives the two tangents through 0. 13] In the particular case where Q coincides with is or A' the perpendicular to the axis at that point the tangent. QV \s an ordinate to the diameter P'P. Let the point be any point within the angle contained by the asymptotes.] To draiu a tangent or outside the curve.) 49. Case Join II. and : on such that A'T AT = A'N A AN. P'. CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES.

and let V be middle point. the curve in Join OR. within one of the exterior Join CO. CO H. Case Bisect III. since . Then PP' the diameter conjugate produced a point draAv through w such that w li. and line wR pai-allel to PP' meeting . by parallels. 15] at R. OR the tangent [Prop. Let the point made by the asymptotes. lie Therefore [Props. 28.S. OP PL = OH HC. Then. . : : whence OP = PL. . its Take any chord Qq parallel to CO.74 THE COMCS OF Al'OLLUNlU. at Let the point (J be on one of the asymptotes. and through draw HP parallel to the other asymptote meeting the curve in P. 30] angles Case IV. OL touches the hyperbola at P. Join OP and produce it to meet the other asymptote Then. Rw is parallel to is CP and Ciu conjugate to while CO Cw = CD^. Now take on OC CO Cw = ^p PP' [= C'Z)*]. in L. the straight to CO. it. is Draw through V the diameter PP'.

CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES. To draw a tangent to a given to a given acute angle. to prove that . mutatis mutandis. (Problem. of the h^'perbola just given. to an ellipse through any point on or curve. Draw DF perpendicular to EF. and let DEF be the given acute angle.] angle equal I. When the point is external to the ellipse. and the angle Now angle in P.TANGENTS. 13. [II.) 49. the two tangents through the point. A to so wc have that AN = AT. as before. and II. (1) where the point is on the and (2) where it is outside the curve and the con. depending as before on Prop. Proposition 50. PT is a tangent. the axis of the parabola. conic making with the auis an Let the conic be a parabola.] To draw a tangent outside the curve. (Problem. the construction gives. let AN be NAP ecjual to make the Draw DHF. bisect EF at H. and join DH. Let AP meet the curve Produce perpendicular to AN. and Then = .) 50. with Cases I. structions correspond. There are here two cases. and join PT. 75 Proposition 49. [II.

asympt(jte in Z. zDHF = zFAN. Let or half the angle between the asymptotes. for the hyperbola. DEF let be the given be so taken angle and DF be at right angles to EF. it is Then. . a necessary condition of the possibility of the solution that the given angle DEF must be gi'cater than the angle botAveen the axis and an asymptote. EF FD = TiY NF.76 Since THE cogues OF APOLLONIUS.•. or 2HF.•. A he the tangent at A meeting an . UF:FD = AN:NP. Let the conic be a central conic. If or half that between the asymptotes.zFTN = zDEF.FD = 2AN:NF. : : . II. on DF that HEF=zACZ.

FE FD\ and from this point constructions are similar for both the central conies. if KF':FD^>CA':AZ\ DK be joined. In the case of the ellipse so that has to be taken on : EF produced the CB' = KF . the angle if angle angle ACZ. PN perpendicular to the axis. the angle AGP being made equal to the angle DKF in each case. \Vc have then 77 CA^ : AZ' (or CA' : CfB') : = EF' FH\ : . Draw now tangent PT. CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES.TANGENTS.CA': CB' > EF' FJ)\ Take a point on FE produced such that CA':CB' = KF.. Hence.FE: FD\ Thus Therefore. and draw the Then . CP must meet CA: the hyperbola in some point P. the angle ! DKF is less than the be made equal to the DKF.

CP and bisects tangent at Secondly. and join EH. MF = GN NT. suppose that is = '. 14] CN^NT. PN' -. and draw through the chord HK at right angles to EF. . Let FDE be a segment in a circle containing an angle FDF equal to the angle ABA'. parallel to PC not parallel to A'. : ID' = GA' : : GB\ since OD 01 > LH LM. draAving perpendicular to the axis. HF. From draw (JL perpendicular to HK.•. DFI. Then. and FP Now . and we have in that case. [Prop. . ZPCN^ ' : PN BAG.'. The triangles BAG : are then similar. Therefore the is . NT. PN' ON. by parallels.LONIUS. let THE rox/rs OF APOT. 0.78 First.CN'^BC' :AC\ : whence PK' CN' .•. :Df<LH: J . and let DG be the diameter of the so that : circle bisecting FE at Divide FE in EiM : right angles in /. 01) 01 = LM. the centre of the circle.PC be parallel to BA'.

and R lies : . : .NT:PN\ : : . CN :EM = PN:RM. parallel to the axis. 79 DG:DI<HK -. RF. it whence follows that CPT is is less than is EHF. .•.HM. Proposition 52.•.] To draw a tangent iDitli to any given conic making a given angle the diameter through the point of contact. and ZCPT= ^ERF. : J/i?^). Now and (since Ci\r : GN NT EM MF = PN^ RM\ CN' ^il/^ = 6'^V NT ^il/ MF . CPN. In the case of the jmrahola the given angle must be is an acute angle.) [II. on KH MR > MH. since any diameter the problem reduces itself to Prop. GI . (Problem.MF: MH\ ON NT PN' = EM. In like manner the triangles Therefore the triangles CPT. whence But GI -. produced.TANOENTS. MF MR\ . PTN.MH:MH' Let <EM. Join ER. ERF are similar. : : . and. whether CP parallel to A' or CPT not greater than the ABA'. and. RFM are similar. doublinp^ the antecedents. : : where R is some point on It follows that HK or HK produced. 51. 50 (1) above.IDkEM: MH. CN. or ^5^'. Therefore the triangles ERM are similar. iVT = EM . not. 53. NT FN' < KM MH : : <KM. the Therefore. CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES.ID = FP TD^ = "" GB' = GN. I.

nor greater than the angle ABA'. the angle for CPT it acute the Jiyperhula. In the case of a central conic. Suppose angle to be the given angle. and take first is the particuequal to the lar case for the ellipse in which the angle ABA'.')!. 51. the ellipse any obtuse angle less than suppose the problem solved. as . In this case we have simply. . Next suppose and for to be any acute angle for the hyperbola.80 II. proved in Prop. THE COXIOS OF APOLLONIUS. to draw CP parallel to A' (or AB) and to draw through a parallel to the chord A (or A'B). the angle (^PT being e(|ual to ABA': and . and for the ellipse must be must not be less than a right angle. as in Prop.

CONJUGATE DIAMETERS AND AXES. CP must meet the curve. t) . H. to the ratio GN . DEM. : PN' = = \ EOF. PTN are respectively similar to DEM. the ratio EM . MF DM' = CA' CB' = GA' AZ\ EM' DM' > GA' AZ\ : : : .•. Thus the angle DEM would be equal to the angle The construction would then be as follows so that the angle Draw CP PCN is equal to the angle in T. : CA' : GB' = EM. MF DM\ : PGN. SI Imagine a segment of a circle taken containiug an angle if (EOF) equal to the angle . that the angle DEM If is is less than half the angle between the asymptotes. PCN.NT PN\ we should have CPT = and ON NT . C. a point D if : on the circumference of the segment could be found such that. we have EM. We to finding the point have now shown that the construction reduces itself D on the segment of the circle. and the triangles . DFM*. Also and draAv the tangent at meeting the axis A'. are similar. if It only remains to be proved for the hyperbola that. but they are easily proved. Then.e. ^ per- pendicular to the axis and meets an asymptote in Z.•.e. are similar. • These conclusions are taken for granted by ApoUonius.DM'^CA'-. whence it follows and therefore also zCPT= zEDF = ze. and it would follow that triangles PCN. the perpendicular on the base DM be DM^ is EF. EDF*. : : and the angle DEM is less than the angle ZCA. DEM that the tiiangles PTN. : EM MF .GB'. DEM. DFM the triangles GPT.: TANGENTS.MF-.MF : equal to the ratio CA"" : CB\ i. the angle necessarily PCN be made equal to the angle i. ' let be pei-pendicular to the axis Then GN NT PN' = . such that EM.

Note. Thus KM. =^ : : Therefore. which is less is less than ^ ABA' . /3 a/3 . In the particular case of the hyperbola where for is CA'= CE^. we have EM. KD DM = «7 : : 7yS : . so that KM DM = : ^. ApoUonius proves incidentally that. . . in the second falls figure applying to the case of the ellipse.e. RD DM OH HI = 8y ^. one straight line such that : yS7 = CA' CB\ : ^ being measured towards for for the hyperbola and away from the ellipse and let be bisected in . to EF\ and Draw 01 from 0. . Let DK be the chord through at right angles to EF and meeting it in M. I occupying positions corresponding to the relative positions of .•. the centre of the circle. doubling the two antecedents. perpendicular such that on 01 or 01 produced take a point OH: HI = (the points 0. By: /3. ). or i. the rectangular hyperbola. relative to one another H.MF DM' = : : Therefore the required point D :^ = CA' CB\ : is found. FLI than ABC.: 82 This THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Draw Then OR bisecting : DK at right angles. is eflfected as follows in : Take lengths . between / and the middle point (Z) of the segment as follows FLI = lz CRT. MF = DM\ DM the tangent to the circle at D. Draw HD parallel to EF to meet the segment in D.MD DM' = EM.

It follows that : y> : fL. so that :^>:. 83 whence CA' : OB" > FP f/ : fiJ >L'l :IL. be such a point that 8 . I is less than IL.TANGENTS. if 7 : 7^ > OL : LI. : so that «7 : 7^ > L'L IL. CONJUOATE DIAMETERS AND AXES. halving the antecedents. and. 6—2 .^ = : IH. Hence.

so that [Prop. Q being any two points on a conic. [III. 12] TV=2PV. and the tangent at Q and the diameter through in T. 13. If be the conjugate hyperbola. be the ordinate from (1) Let QV Q to the diameter through P. before. .thm (2) AOPT = AOQE. 17—19.EXTENSIONS OF PROPOSITIONS Proposition 53. 1. and if the tangents intersect at 0. CJ and EV = AQTV. Then for the parabola we have TP = PV.] P. 4. have the same significance CPE = CQT. if the tangent at (1) and the diameter through Q meet in E. then any point on a hyperbola and Q any point on and if T.

AOQE = AOPT. For the central conic we have GV.EXTENSIONS OF PROPOSITIONS 17 Subtracting the — 19. .•.CT=CP\ or .'. AGQT = AGPE. or AOPT = AOQE. CV :GT=GV':CF'] ACQV:ACQT = ACQV:AGPE. (2) In the conjur/ate hyperbolas draw GD parallel to the UNIV. OTGE and each Hence the sums or differences of the area triangle are equal. . 85 common area OPVQ.

Then CP. and draw PE meeting CP in V.86 tangent at to THE CO^V/OS OF AFULLUNIUS. GP. [III. . CD are conjugate diameters of both hyperbolas.CE=CQ. PCE. QCT are supplementary ACQT = ACPE. And the angles .] // we keep the notation of the last proposition. 15] CV. 6. and if R he . meet the conjugate hyperbola in D.•.Cr. Proposition 54. and QF is drawn ordinate-wise to CP. QV also parallel to Therefore [Prop.CT=CP\ or CP:CT=CV:CP = CQ:CE. 2.

Then. Proposition 55. .. then the quadnlaterals F'IRF. 9. [III. RU. 10. adding (or subtracting) the area HM. adding or subtracting IH.54] quadrilateral H'TU'R'.] in the margin. We have in figs. [N. as also the quadrilaterals FJR'F'. 7. whence. further. corre- sponding H. F'IRF = IUU'R' (1).•. let RU be and drawn parallel let QT to meet the diameter through tangent at in U. AH'F'Q = . R') the quadrilaterals take a form like that which case F'IRF must meaning the diflfereuce between the triangles F'MI. etc. as in Props. lUU'R' are equal. F. Let meet the diameter through Q in M. . 87 to the conic.•. [Prop. HQF= quadrilateral HTUR. RU the diameters through Q. etc. 3 HFQ = quadrilateral HTUR. 3. a parallel throu(/h R in meet QT and H.EXTENSIONS OF PROPOSITIONS 17 any other point on to the — 10. W respectively. JU'UR.] //' we keep to the same notation as in the last proposition and I take two points R'. . 22. Ave have RMF= quadrilateral QTUM . R'W intersect in and R'U'. and if. F.B. RW in It will J. 23. RMF. R be seen that in some cases (according to the positions of R. F'. R on the curve luith points H' . Then A HQF = quadrilateral HTUR. 2. in be taken as I. 1. F'H'HF=H'TU'R'~HTUR = IUU'R' + (IH).

88 THE CONIL'S OF APOLLONIUS. FJR'F'=JU'UR. In Hws. adding {IJ) to bulh. 4. 5. II. Fig. G we have [Prop.s. 1. and. . IS. 53] so that GQT = quadrilateral CU'R'F'.

.EXTENSIONS OF PROPOSITIONS 17—19. (>. in fig. 6.HTUR F'H'HF={R'H)-{RU'). as before. Fig. and. Thus e. F'H'HF = H'TU'R' - AHTW+ ARUW. F'lRF^IUU'R . . F'lRF^IUU'R'. Similarly HFQ = HTUR.g. In fig. AH'F'Q" . 5. we have AH'F'Q = quadrilateral H'TU'R'. Fig.•. AHFQ = H'TU'R.(1). and. adding the quadrilateral CF'H'T. subtracting each from {IH). 4. and we deduce.

then the quadrilaterals (EP'). F'IRF = H'TU'R' + H'TUI = IUU'R' Then. subtracting (//) from each side in fig. adding (///) to each side. F'R'M' and between the triangles JU'W. . III. 8. [III. . and sub- FJR'F' (the quadrilaterals in triangles =JU'UR 6 being the differences (2). P'. T'. 53] and have a common vertical angle.•. between the FJM'.90 THE COXICS UF AFOLLONIUS.RUW same respectively). 5. Since the triangles CQT. PJRU = PJFE. we obtain 4. The same in the case properties are proved in exactly the manner where P. the quadrilaterals take the same form as in 6 above. E' and the two meeting tangent at PP' in T. CQ. (1). (TQ') are equal. QQ' be two diameters and the tangents at P.CE. the former two meeting QQ' in E. fig. and if the parallel through P' Q meets the tangent at tangent at in luhile the parallel through Q' to the meets the tangent at Q in K'. Q' be latter to the PP'. CQ CE = GP '. Q are on opposite branches.] //' Q. {T'K'). as also the quadri- laterals (E'K). tracting each side from (IJ) in figs. In the particular case of this proposition where R' the results reduce to coincides with EIRF=APUI. : GT. drawn. CPE are equal [Prop. and fig. Proposition 56. 6.CT=CP. and. Cor.

) (I) nates are to be drawn. 91 whence QQ' i. 12. let Let Gv be the secondary diameter to which the ordiLet the tangent at Q meet it in t. we {E'K) = {T'K') (2). and.•. are drawn to a secondary diameter. and the same proportion . R. And the consequents are equal .•. 11. . true for the squares : AQQ'K' : AQEO = APP'K . and the ordinate parallel to Qt. [III. Then [Prop.ACfw= ACQt (A) .s : EQ = PP' : TP. Also let Ri. (EP') = (TQ') Adding the equal have triangles CP'E'.] (Application to the case where the ordinates through R. EXTENSIONS OF PROPOSITIONS 17 — 19. AQQ'K' = APP'K. we obtain (1). Proposition 57. subtracting the equal triangles CQT. 19] ARm. CPE. Rw meet Qt meet Cv in a. 14. in h and CQ in /'. CQ'T' respectively. -r>. the points used in the last two propositions..

proof. subtracting. R'lu meet in i and Riu.an\siteYa\ htuR. w' &c. and h'. Therefore. Gfw.•. Ah'Qf = }itiifR'.] a property of which ApoUonius gives a separate . from above. . Also let Ru. subtracting the (iiuidnlateral GiuhQ. ARuw ~A}tQf= Ahtiu AhQf= C[na.92 THE VOXJCS OF APOLLONIUS. fiRf=mu'R' If we add {i}) to each. . R'u m j. by adding the area Ruw. corresponding to be another ordinate. (2) Let R'lu' h. = iuii'R — (hi) (1). f'h'hf and. and CwRM to each of the triangles we deduce from (A) above. points &c. adding (hi). . Then. we have (2). is fjR'f=ju'uR [This is obviously the case where on the conjugate hyperbola. ACuM'- ARfM= ACQt. and AhQf = htuR. and.

Then D'D" is the diameter conjugate to GQ. those formu- still ARMF^ ACMU= and ACQT. we have [Prop. and let QT be drawn and from D' draw DG . 15. CD' = CC^. F'IRF=IUU'R'. the lated in Propositions 55. PE to meet CQ in G.EXTENSIONS OF PROPOSITIONS 17 — 19. 93 Proposition 58. Let sponding be the parameter in the conjugate hyperbola correto the transverse diameter D'D". Q are on the oHginal hijperhola and R on the conjugate hyperbola. 23] Oq:QE = p:2QT = ^^:QT: .] In the case where P. . [III. viz. and . 57 same properties as hold. so that I CQ = CD". and let be the in the parameter corresponding to the transverse diameter QQ' original hyperbola. parallel to parallel to Let D'D" be the diameter of the conjugate hyperbola R U.

AD'CG= AOQT Again. we have.(R3I: GMU. Hence or DV.QT.CQ:CQ. have the property of Prop. :2) MF) (2). (1).RMM'J = MUU'M'. CM. D'CG.•.ACMU= AD'CG= ACQT (3). . . (4) F'IRF=IUU'R' .MU=CQ.QT = CD":GQ.QE) = (p Therefore the triangles tively : D'D") . the last sides of the first two of which are similar while the two are connected by the relation (2).CG=CQ. or RJFF = RUU'J. R'JFF . RMF. And.. ARMF. by subtraction. adding (IJ).(/. 16. being respec- half of equiangular parallelograms on CM (or Rv).{OQ. = (p'. RM (or Cv). D'C:CG = ^:QT = ^.QT. If R' be another point on the conjugate hyperbola. CD'.QT = (CQ: !).94 THE COXTCS OF APOLLONIUS.D'D").

Again and R'J Jr = R'M" ~ JM" R'M" JM" = AR'F'M' : : : m But R'M" ~ JM" R'M" = FJR'F' : A R'F'M'. . then OP': OQ' = RJ.dernal point. R'J. AOPT AJFM'. We and . OQ be two tangents to R'r two chords parallel to any conic and Rr.Jr : OP' = JU'UR: . 22. 23. R'M" :0Q'= A R'F'M' A OQE . 17. 20. 19. .Jr:R'J. •.•. I.Jr: (a) Let the construction and figures be the same as in Prop. RJ. 55.•.RECTANGLES UNDER SEGMENTS OF INTERSECTING CHORDS. them respectively and intersecting in an internal or e. Proposition 59.•. 18. But RW'~JW':RW' = JU'rR: ARUW. If OP. [III. have then RJ. (1).] Case J. 21.Jr = RW'^JW\ RW':JW'=ARUW: AJU'W. . R 0P'= AR UW OPT W : : .Jr': OQ' = FJR'F: AOQE (2). 16.

and Rr. respectively to the tangents at Q.ir:tQ'=fiRf: AQtL Similarly. 55. 57. we have Ri. ir : MfR. and OPT = Thus OQE.• . we had taken the chords OQ and intersecting in R'r^'. . Ri. an internal or external point. ir' : R'w" = iuu'R' : . Rr^ parallel respec- /. by Prop. Comparing (1) and (2). QC. JU'UR = FJR'F. then . Jr If R'J. we have by Prop. which may be any internal or external point be assumed (as a particular case) to be the centre. R'r' be tiuo chords parallel and intersecting at i. we should have established in the same manner that Or-:OQ' = R'I. P. 53. or J.:RI. tQ' : tq" = Ri ir : R'i . Jr' 0Q\ : or (b) OP' OQ' = RJ.: R'u'w' : R'i . qq' (both produced) meet in L. the conjugate hyperbola and the tangent at Q meet GP if further qq' be draivn through parallel to the tangent at P. . If be a point on in t .] Case t II. Using the figure of Prop.h\. we have the proposition that the rectangles under the segments of intersecting chords in fixed directions are as the squares of the parallel semi-diameters. Ri if . tively to OP. (1). where qK is parallel to Qt and meets Ct produced in K.Ir. R'i . Hence the proposition [Cor.96 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. ir' tq' = iuu'R' AtqK : (2). MR' = fiRf : Hence Therefore. : BJ. Jr : : OP' = R'J.ir and Mi^ : = Mi''-MR\ : MR' = AMfi AMfR. is completely demonstrated. If /. ir'. Jr'.

•. If RW.ir:tQ' tQ':tq^ or = Ri. 57] [Prop. 8] PP' = RW CW . and tqK = . OQ he tangents to a hyperhola R'r' he two chords of the conjugate hyperhola parallel OQ.R'I.ir':tq\ Ri. CLt + ACQt= A QtL. R'r' he cJwrds tangent at parallel respectively to the and the diameter PP' intersecting in I.Ir' = p:PP'. : we have OQ' : OQE = RiW RMF = MP: AMIF' = RI.Ir'.Ir:R'I. = Ii'i. then OQ':OP' = RI. c. and meeting in I.Ir.Ir: F'lRF. [Prop. But. 58. Case and III.ir:R'i.ir'. 97 we have [Prop. H. to CW and Rr. 7 .Ir. Using the figure of Prop. comparing (1) and (2). OP. then RI. If OP.Ir'. 19] f'iRf= iuu'R.CP' : = R'W":CW"~CP' = RW'-'R'W"':CW' = RI.R'I.Ir: ARMF.AMIF' ^ Ri. If PP' he a diameter and Rr. Case IV. R'W : are ordinates to PF.RECTANGLES UNDER SEGMENTS OF INTERSECTING CHORDS.

98 and. PL':CP = 0k':0k.RO. OF': A()PT=R'r. W in K. K'. whence.Ir'. in the THE COXirs OF APOLLONIUS. as before. 0/.0r+^^. meeting the asymptotes in L. : .R'I.R'I. respectively. DD'.Ir':IUU'R'.Ir': AR'U'W - AIUW = R'I.•. so that PL = PL'.Iv=OP'. LP CP = K'O : OK. then R0. L'..Or R'O. by Props. R'r' he chords of conjugate hi/perbolas meeting in and parallel respectively to conjugate diameters PP'.Ir.] If Rr. or Oqt: OP' = RI. CV CP' = K'O Ok' KO . 26. ()Q':RI.Ir'. R'r meet the asymptotes CP in w. and CD. k'.PL'=CD\ LJ' PL' : GP' = CD^ CP\ : : : Now . [III. same way. k . Proposition 60. the tangent at P. LP.Or' „1 Let Rr. 24.•. Draw LPL'. 25.0r' = 2CP' RO. Then and . 53 and 58. .

: : ..Ok + CP' W" W" . : . .CW") = CD' CP\ : so that whence RO Or' . .Or' RO.Or ^p2 or + RO Or ^^. ..R'0. —CD^-^-CP^-^-^ 7—2 .K' W" Ow^ .CD' CF' : (Rtu' . CD' CP' = K'O Ok' + C'D' : KO . The proof is similar in all these cases. : RO.Or= CD' CP'. + '+ CP' Or' Or' RK Kr + GP' .] We : have therefore . that represented in the accompanying figure.CD' CW" = CD' CP" : : Cid" : Riu'' . Ok' + K'R R'k' : = = R W" RO . Or' = 2 CP\ RO. and it will be sufficient to take case (1). ' [The following proof serves for all the cases : we have RW and .R .Kiu' + CP' = K' -0W"-\. RECTANGLES SEGMENTS OF INTERSECTING CHORDS. ± RO Or' 2CP' ± RO Or = CD' CP' .RO . fip2 RO ..Kw' - Riv' . (8) where is in the angle LCk or its opposite.Or + ^. W" : : Riv' .Or „. (2) where is on one of the asymptotes. Ok + CP' = K'O :KO..RO Or . lies within one of the branches of the conjugate (5) where hyperbola.CP' = CD" CP' : R'W" + Cid" . (since Kr = Rk). (4) where is within one of the branches of the original hyperbola. 09 [From this point Apollonius distinguishes five cases: (1) where is in the angle LCL'.CD' CP' ±RO. : 2CP' . Or = RO whence .

RO^+Or' or RO'+Oj''\ ^^. then (1) for the ellipse RO' + Or' +^^3 {RV + + Or") = 4CP^ -4. the hyperbolas and for RO' + Or' : R'O' + Or" = CP' CD\ : Also.100 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS Proposition 61.WP'.RW' Div'. k'. w'D' . 27. (2) if R'r' in the hyperbolas meet the asymptotes in K'. then K'O' + Ok" + ^GD' RO' + : Or' = CD' CP\ : (1) We have for both curves CP':CD' = PW. 29. WP' ± R'w" CD' + R : W + Dw' . [III.w'B' = R'w": = CP' + W . 28. DD'. ^p. and parallel respectively to two R'r he drawn meeting in conjugate diameters FP'.] If in ai} ellipse or in conjugate hyj^erholas two chords Rr.

Or" .Ok" = -IR'K' {R'K' + K'O + = 2R'K'. for the hyperbolas. 101 the for (taking the for the . —^pi We R'O' R'O' = 2CP' -(CW" + CW) Cw" + Cw^ = ^CP' .{RO' + Or') {RV + Or"). Now and + Or" = K'O' + Ok" + 2CD'. RO'+Or'_^ R'O' + Or" =4 : : jjjji {B).K'O' = R'K" + 2R'K' K'O. . in the hyperbolas. upper sign the hyperbolas and lower ellipse) CP' : CD' = CP' CD' = ± CW" + W. CP' : CD' whence (2) .w'D'. : CP or CW" + GW^ : + Cw" = UR0' + 0r'):^{RO' + 0r").kO..•.Ok" = r'k" + 2r'k' k'O . WP Cw' : CD' + Cw' ± Dw'. while.R'k' = 2CD'. by addition. = R'K" + 2R'K'.. Therefore. _ K'O' . by means of (A) above.. RO' + Or' RV + Or" = CP' CD' : : (A). . . R'O' + Or" = K'O' + Ok" + 2CD\ + Ok" + 2CD' RO' + : Ok') whence K'O' Or' = CD' : CP'. for the ellipse. R'O^ + Or'-^ . have to prove that. whence. — INTERSECTING CHORDS.

VR' = R'N*. 82.HARMONIC PROPEllTIES (JF POLES AND POLARS.•. . an asymptote meets the curve in R' and the parallel through to tlie chord of contact in N. if of Qq. which theretbrc parallel to Qq. then I.e. [III. and if meeting the curve in. namely (<i) the caHc where the transversal is is parallel to an asymptote. : CP' • It will be observed from this proposition and the next that Apollonius begins with two particular cases of the general property in Prop. Then. the chord of contact IB parallel to an asymptote. V he the middle TM he drawn parallel to an asymptote R and Qq in M. R'W CP. i. since the triangles CPL. RW 'TWR : are similar. 31. :}(). Proposition 62. WP'. Let is CV meet to the curve in P. WP'. :v. = CD' CP' = RW':PW. Also draAv the ordinates RW. and draw the tangent PL. 64. (l>) the case where where one of the tangents an aHymptute. point T(j being taiKjents to a Injperhula.] TQ. : TW = PL' .i U. luhile VN parallel to TR = RM. or a tangent at infinity. TW'' = PW.

GP intersect in K. and the ordinates from R.•^ : GP\ But by similar GW'[=Rw''] = Rw' ii W' + CT^ = : triangles. Next let Q.GT. adding GP' GP' . as before. W'R'\ 6^ = CF. : and Hence. q be on opposite branches.•. GP' : PU = WV .CT=GP'.•. WF' + GP'=GV. . : W'R" : so that And W'V: W'R"' = PW' WP' PW'.CT=CP'. WP' WR' : . .GD' = Gw' + GV. as before. : PU = KW WK\ GD' = : PW . Let TM. (1 ). or whence and It follows TW= by parallels that WV. TR = RM Again . KW' = PW. since the triangles GPL. KWR are similar.•. whence. R'.Cr+lF^ TW = WV. 103 CV.CT+TW\ CW' = CV. Therefore Tw' = RW' .HARMONK! PROPERTIES OF POLKS AND POLARS.CT+TW\ CT(CW+TW) = CV.WP'. . KW' + GP\ R W' + PZ^ 2^i<.•. and II. NR' = R'V (2).W'P'= W'V\ GV. Then. Also . and let P'P be the diameter parallel to Qq. Draw the tangent PL. PW. CT.

Also draw RE CL\ and let LM parallel to CL. is and. W'P' + CP": R' W" + CD" = CW":Ow''^-CV. or \ = wV\ (1). is The particular case in which one of the tangents infinity. as before. . or PD . LP = PL'. RL.•. separately proved Let LPL' be the tangent at P. in L. III. line the tangent to a hyperbola at P. 35. or a tangent at as follows. W'P' R' W" = PW'. [Prop. = w'F.•. Now . NR' = R'V. Draw PD. : PU = R'w'^ :w'V'\ w'V = Cw" + cv.104 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.] // PL. meet the asymptote and if PO be parallel to that asymptote. 34] But ER = LC = 2CD = 2FP: PD = 2LR. whence Tw — Cw = CV. then Ur LQ = QV : : OQ.cr. by parallels. an asymptote. Q' and any straight and PO in U. .•.CF = FL'. Proposition 63. LQOQ' be drawn meeting the hyperbola in Q. And FP. LR = RM.PD = ER. (2). LM parallel to meet the curve in R and the straight line Pi^ drawn through parallel to CL in M. . [III. 36. : TR = RM Again rP' : = W . FP = CD = DL. Also GP" . Tw' wliciicc.•.GT.

{MG) {EW) = {MC) ± (HD) : Therefore : (EW) ± (DW) (1). and is (2) on opposite branches. . Q' to both figures. 34] Therefore. Q' are (1) on the same branch. subtracting CX from both.•. Hence. from (1). drawing parallels through L. since (EW) = (CQ). PQ and produce it both ways to meet the asymptotes to R.HARMONIC PROPERTIES OF POLES AND POLARS. (CQ) = {CP) = {E \V). Q. 105 Wc have. (MG):(CQ) = (MH):(HQ). [Prop. asymptotes as in the LQ = Q'L' and : whence. CD. : : [Apollonius gives separate proofs of the above for the two cases in which Q. of which the following one. : : Hence since {HD) : (>) = (i/C) : {CQ) [Prop.DL = FL: LD = Q'L LQ = MD DQ. Draw PV parallel CR' meeting QQ' in V. . (EU) = (HQ). DL = IQ' = CF CD = FL. omitted for the sake Eutocius gives two simpler proofs. {BX) = {XH). by similar triangles. 34] = {MC):{EW). Now =^{MH):{EU) {DG) = (HE). but the second proof of brevity. or LQ' LQ = Q'O OQ. and. is Join in R. P. adding (XU) to each.

QQ' OQ = LL' QL QO:OQ=LQ':LQ. 106 TUE CVXKJS OF Al'OLLOMUS. . Then LV=VL'.': . this straight line is also divided harmonically i. 2QV 2VL' = OQ QL. . [III. the middle and the parallel through to Qq [or the polar of the point F]. = (//. But N( QV= VL' VQ'.•. in the figures drawn below (1) (2) RT:TR' = RI:IR'. = OQ QL.] he (1) If TQ. Tq drawn through he tangents to a conic and any straight line the straight line is (2) meeting the conic and the chord of contact. Proposition 64. 39.e. to meet the conic drawn through V. QV: = QP. 37. 40.•. /. 38. divided harmonically // any straight line he point of Qq. RO:OR' = RV: VR'..-\ : : : : .PR' = PQ:QR : .

= Rr:TR= AR'U']V' TW" TW ATH'W: ATHW] ~ ATH'W: ARUW : : : ATHW . = H'TU'R' HTUR = RT IR\ from above. . and draw RU. H'R'F'W. : : (2) We have in this case (it is unnecessary to give more than two figures) RV: VR" = RU':R'U" = ARUW: AR'U'W.IIAUMUNIC I'ROFERTIES OF POLES AND I'OLAllS. 107 Let TF be the diameter bisecting Qq in V. RT TR' = RI IR'. U'. 55] TR' = R' U" R U' = AR'U'W: ARUW. (1) We have then R'r:IR' = H'Q':HQ' Also RT : = AH'F'Q: AHFQ = H'TU'R' HTUR.•. [Props. : TR' = . 54. : : and at the same time RT . Draw as usual IIRFW. R'U' parallel to QT meeting TF in U. EF ordinate-wise to the diameter TF.•.

that is. MV: VR" = HQ':QH" = AHFQ AH'F'Q = HTUR H'TU'R. RO : OR' = RV : VR'. RV: VR" = HTUR + ARUW H'TU'R' ± AR'U'W = ATHW: ATH'W : : : = TW':TW'* = RO':OR". .108 Also THE CUSICS OF AIOLLOXIUS.•. .

and join qV.] If the ti&n. [III.INTERCEPTS MADE ON TWO TANGENTS BY A THIRD. Draw the ordinates to from P. triangle pqr. Proposition 65. which therefore parallel to pQr. RW. are meeting Pq in and qR it in T. R. tangents to a 'parabola at three points P. PU. . Then QW is also a diameter. all three tangents are divided in the R form a same propor- or Pr : rq = rQ Qp = qp : : pR Let V be the middle point of PR. which is therefore a diameter. Draw T'TQW parallel to it through Q. viz. Q. 41.

the proposition is obvious. by the properties of tangents. : Therefore. . since PU=2rQ. Pr:rq = and (1). and the ratios will If not. whence qp : pR = PO OR : (3). Pr = Then (1) rT. doubling the consequents. It follows from (1).PT=EP:Pq=l: rP PE = TP Pq : : = OP PV. we have. qR:Rp = PR: RO. (3) OR FR Rq=pR:RT'. : Avhence. and. TQ = QU.110 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. whence. Now. drawing EBF the tangent at the point where qV meets the curve. and. be ratios of equality. qB = BV. 2.Qp = PU:RW. qF=FR. FR Rp^qR: RT = VR RO. alternately. RW = 2pQ . rP. by parallels. if ^F passes all through Q. and (2) PO:OR rQ'. alternately. rP :Pq=OP: PR. Qp = PO: (2). Tp=pR. T'Q=QW. doubling the antecedents. (2) and : (3) that Pr rq = vQ Qp = : qp : pR.

by parallels. whence Hence. then and any Pr.P'r' other tangent meet them in a diameter PP' of a r.•. the ordinates QV. in the case of an ellipse or circle. 42. Qv to the conjugate diameters PP' t and let the tangent at Q meet the diameters in T. : .Gt = GD\ . GT:P'T = PT: VT. CD. r'P' will all be equal. since in that case rP.P'r'^Gv. [III. CD pass through Q.] If the tangents at the eairemities of central conic he drawn. respectively. Pr.INTERCEPTS MADE ON TWO TANGENTS BY A THIRD.GV=CP\ CT:CP = CP: CV = CT-CP:CP -^GV = PT:PV: CT: GP' = PT :PV. = Pr:Gv. Ill Proposition 66. r = GD\ Draw and DD' . If not. If now. respectively. we have for all three curves so that CT.•. the proposition is evident. Gt P'r' = Pr QV : .

62). OL LL' = OM' M'M. Draw PD. CL = 2CD = 2PF. [Prop.•.CM'. . We so that . LM' L'M arc parallel. l. LC\ CM' = MC: CL'\ . = 2CF=2PD. . . 67] LC. M'.M'.] If to the tangents at P. Proposition 67. a tangent to a Jii/perbola. LM'. [III. . meet the asymptotes in L. [III. L' M. : : halving the consequents. 44. L'.PF. It follows that or.CL' = ^DP. or the rectangle the asymptotes (as in the third LC CU is constant. LPL'. the chord of contact. the triangle LCL has a constant area. L'M are each parallel PQ.•. CL' .•. J'Q aru parallfl. Let the tangents meet at 0.•.] If . have then [Prop. LG. which is constant for all positions of P. 34] Proposition 68.CL' = MC. PF parcallel to figure of Prop. 43. OL: LP=OM':M'Q. Q to a hi/perhola meet the asymptotes then respectively in L. LP = PL'.112 THE COyiCS OF APOLLONIUS.

which as follows iirl 8e ^ } . S' are denoted " The meaning of this method by which they iirl e'iBei € €€ . AS' . the conic. •" appear from the description of the is are arrived at. C.AA' or is CB"^. and in the case of the hyperbola within each branch.FOCAL PROPERTIES OF CENTRAL CONICS. The foci are lent of that not spoken of by Apollonius under any equivaname. : iav angle] equal to one-fourth part of the figure. but they are determined as the two points on the axis of a central conic (lying in the case of the ellipse between the vertices. The shortened <.e. and in the case of the ellipse falling short. fiill the points arising out of the application." two points. of <€ 60' " if expression by which S. which are accordingly / 77}<^ This determines ." \p„.S'A' figure are each equal to "one-fourth part of the i. in the case of the hyperbola and opposite branches exceeding." there be applied along the axis in each direction [a rect- . or on the axis produced) such that the rectangles AS.SA'. . by a square figure.

A'r' . and the drawn the rectangles AF. . That is. Proposition 69.A'r' =^Cn' = AS . then (1) (2) r'rS'. :AS=SA' : A'r'. 45. we is are to suppose a rectangle applied to the equal to CB^ but which exceeds or falls short of the rectangle of equal altitude described on the ivhole axis by a square. the angles rr'S.] If Ar. 114 of THE COXJCS OF APOLLONIUS. meet the tangent at any point in respectively. A'r'S' are equal.SA'. r' central conic. (1) Since [Prop. by rA definition. 46. the tangents at the extremities of the axis of a r. S. S' . as also are the angles ArS.axis as base which . [III. 7' subtends a right angle at each focus. while S'F or focus SF is equal to S'A' or SA respectively. 60] rA. Thus in the figures ^'/'are respectively to be equal to AA' The in the ellipse. of a parabola is not used or mentioned by Apollonius. CB\ the base AS' falling short base A'S exceeding A'A in the hyperbola.

And (2) similarly the angle rSV . is a right angle. A' arc right For . and zArS= zA'Sr'. Suppose that OR is the perpendicular from to the tangent We shall show that S'r'A'. . If.•. 115 Hence the triangles rAS. must coincide with P. then OP loill at P. so that the angle rS?-' is a right angle. rS'r' are right angles.•. Or'R = and the angles the triangles Or'R. A'Sr' are together equal to a right angle. 8—2 . the angles iSA. S'r'A' are similar. he perpendicular to the tangent at P. in the S'r'A'. S' . In like manner = Proposition 70. SAY are similar. triangles. by similar AiS. r'rS' same segment. at R. be the intersection of rS'.] same ficjures. the circle on as diameter passes through S.. rr'S = = rS'S. in the 47. r'S.*. [III. FOCAL PROPERTIES OF CENTRAL CONICS. rr' Since rSr'.

[Props.•. Pr. It follows that OP is perpendicular to the tangent at P. make equal angles with the tangent In the above figures. because the triangles . = r'P Rr = r'P : Pr. Proposition 71. SY be drawn perpendicular will be tangent at any point P. or the locus of (2) a circle on the aris A A' as diameter.. = Sr I'O. P. 116 Thereioie THE coyics ov apollonius. and the angles SOr. 50. since the angles rSO. by = Ar rR. The line to drawn through C parallel meet the tangent ivill to either of the focal distances of be equal in length to CA. as S. 48. being the same or opposite angles. Proposition 72. . the angle is AYA' a right angle. [III. S are concyclic SPr = SOr. from either focus. or CA'. r'R Rr = A'r' Ar = A'T TA : : : : (1). ArS. RrO are similar. [III. 49. . [Prop. S'Or' are equal.] (1) to the If. Therefore SPr = S'Pr'.•. A'r' : r'R = S'r' : : r'O similar triangles.] The focal distances of at that point. OPr are right r. by parallels. from (1). Again. 69. : and therefore R coincides with P. 13] if PN be drawn perpendicular to the axis. in the same segment. S'Pr' In like manner = S'Or'. 70] the points 0. we have A'T r'R -TA^A'N : : A Hence.

FOCAL PROPERTIES OF CENTRAL CONICS. since Again S'KP = SP F. adding the angle SYA'. And similarly for GY.SA' = AS\S'A'. A' being concyclic . 1^'YA'. since rSi^' is right = S. r'. have then the angles rAS. And . and join . = CS'.•. by parallels. S'K are parallel. (2) Draw GZ parallel to draw S'K also parallel to SP meeting the tangent in Z. meeting the tangent in K. . Il7 Draw Let the tions. PZ=ZK.•. . S are concyclic. rYS are right A. or is S'Z is coincides with F'. iSiF perpendicular to the tangent. at right angles to the tangent. SP. Therefore. Similarly for F'. Y. r.". Y. and therefore CS AS = S'A'. and SP. on the circle having A A' for diameter.. 71] S'P = S'K. in the same segment.•. VA'. having A A' for diameter GT = CA. A Therefore lies A' = SYr' =a right angle. [Prop. rest of the construction be as in the foregoing proposi- We (1) . Now whence AS. and ZAYS=ZArS = 7''8A'. . = ^S'PK. or subtracting each angle from it. . PZ = ZK.. or CA'. . But F' on the circle .

Then. [Prop. of the is focal distances of any point equal to the a. [III. CY' meet in SP. as in the last proposition.xis if A'. Proposition 73.118 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. 51. . S'K are M. 52. SP = 2GM. have.] In an ellipse the sum. Let S'P.•. S'P = S'K=2MY': SP + S'P = 2(CM + MT) = 2GY' = AA'. 72] . We parallel. and in a hyperbola the difference. CY'. S'K = ST. since SG = GS'.

R. and Q any other and if PQ.THE LOCUS WITH RESPECT TO THREE LINES Proposition 74. then PR.P'R = DD'\ .] &c. [Ill 53. he a diameter of a central conic. If PP' point on in it. P'Q respectively meet the tangents at P'. R.

beinij tiuo tangents tu a conic. . PR = . Draw the ordinate : QF to . Q'R meet and : Qr where is . i = (QV:PV).-)6. the point of contact of a tangent parallel .P'R PP'\ . [Prop. QR in . by similar triangles .34. [III.P'V PP') . Now PP' = Q V -. PP' = DD'\ Proposition 75. . : PF = PR . R any other if Qr.] TQ. TQ' point on it. then : {TQ TQ' QV\ to QQ'. Q'r' : QQ"' = (PV' ) Q'r'.PV. and if Qr.(QV:P'V) = Hence Therefore (PR PR : (PR : PP').120 THE ayxics of apollonius. in r TQ. Q'r' he draimi parallel respectively to TQ'. and )•' .

TQ' in K. PL' = QK . Q'K' : RK . 121 Draw through tively . . TQ in L. RK' = (Q'K':K'R). Qr. LL KK\ RK also.{Q'r' -. Q'K' : QK\ Therefore.CTQ. : = {QL Q'L' LT. TL) {LT TL' LP PL) = {PV':Pr).Q'r':QQ''. .(QK:KR) = {Qr:QQ'). PL' = QL• LP' : = QK':RK.RK'. Now QU : LP. But [Prop. : LP : PL' .KR' = QK':RK. Q'L' : QL' = QK . Q'r' : QQ" = QL .QQ') = Qr . ea: aequali. : Q'L' LP . Q'L' . . 59] QL QL . K' respecL'. bisects meet TQ. Then. also let the tangent at since PV bisects QQ'.TQ':QV').THE LOCUS WITH RESPECT TO THREE LINES ETC. . R the ordinate the curve again in R and moi-ting it (parallel to QQf) meeting TQ. .

RL-. L'Q' = (L'R L'Q') (RL LQ) = {QQ':Qr). :. t.RL:LQ\ tQ tQ' = LQ' LQ L'Q'.LQ. r have the same meaning as before. while R. the chord of contact are fixed while the position of varies. Proposition 76.tQ':tq\ the last two propositions give the For. . since the two tangents and [It is easy to sec that property of the three-line locus. by Now But tQ' : tq'. Llll.LR:LQ' = L'R. and Then QQ'. expressed thus.tQ'=R'L.Q'r':QQ"=tQ. tQ' in L. and if tq is half the chord through parallel to QQ'. Q'r = (const.). then Qr. : .tQ':tq\ let Let RM be the chord parallel to QQ' drawn through R. [Prop. tv. .x] If the tangents are tangents to opposite branches t and meet in r. RR'. L'.(QQ':Q'r') = QQ":Qr : . the result R alone may be Qr . : Thus Qr. LL' are all bisected it meet tQ. tq' : tQ tQ' .122 THE t'OXKM <JF APOLLONIUS. = L'R . 59] Therefore. ex aequali.Q'r':QQ"=tQ.

) Draw Rq^. respectively in the figure of Prop.. q^.= Q." : Qii.. T^Q^ and meeting Q^Q^ in q^.' Q. Q/y/ = (const.q.^ panillel respectively to T. and we have Q^r Qy = (const.q:.. . jTjQj respectively. constant.Q. Rq. Rq. Q/ : % .r . the chord of contact measured in a fixed direction (parallel to 0T^)\ and R from the tangents measured in a fixed direction (parallel If the distances arc measured in any to the chord of contact). QjQ'j' are equal to the distances of jTjQj. Also QiQ^ constant. Then. Q. = (const..THE LOCUS WITH RESPECT TO THREE LIXES ETC. 75..' = Q.•. 123 Now suppose Q. in the accompanying first figure substi- tuted for Q. : . . T^Q.Q. Q. Qj^.q.).). Q. .r:Rq. and Q{i' Q^/"' is It follows that -flv. V\ by similar triangles Rq^ Rq^ jRy/ .^. Q..Q. T. = ClQ. Also let Rv^ be drawn parallel to the diameter CT.:Q. But Rv^ is the distance of R from Q. %/ is : Rv^' = . : : . . and meeting QJ^^ in v.Q. as proved. . Hence But Rq^ . Qy:Rq.--Q.^. Q'. . by similar triangles.q.

Rq^ drawn parallel to the tangents at Q^. all their sides are in fixed directions. where k is some constant. But the SIS Q^qsi ^^.qrQs9:'Q.c. ^ ^. Rq^ be . other fixed directions. Q^ to meet and Rq^. are given in species. Hence R drawn from drawn bears lines are is it such a point that. is other words. Q„ If QiQjQgQ^ be meet at an inscribed quadrilateral.yiCS OF Al'OLLOXlUS. Rv^. at Q^.q: = K-R<[ constants. Rq^' QxQi)' ^i^d drawn to meet Q. they will be similarly related. and so on. as presented by Apollonius. to if three straight lines be meet three fixed straight lines at given angles. triangles Qtq^qt'.Qj in I'j. Hence we derive Rv^'-Rv: 'Q. Q^ at jT^ and so on. q^ (in the same way as Rq^ . are Qsqs'Q. respectively. k„ k.q. Then we have Q^^U Qs^s = ^'2 • ^V 1 ^vhere k^. meeting Q. the tangents at Q^. The four-line locus can be easily deduced from the three- line locus. k^. etc.Rv..124 THE CO. Q^ respectively and meeting Q^Q^ in q^. . let similar pairs of lines Rq^. Rq•^ were drawn parallel to the tangents at Q. and the tangents . Hence all the ratios ^'''. suppose Bq^. are constant. and the constant value of the ratio will alone be changed. a conic a "three-line locus" where the three any two tangents and the chord of contact. in the following manner.Q^ and Q^Q.q/Q. Also suppose Rv^ drawn parallel to the diameter GT^. the rectangle contained by tw^o of the straight lines so In constant ratio to the square on the third.

DraAv any two straight lines through conic in two points as Q.] The beginning of Book IV. and produce to it both ways meet the conic in P. reductio The method it of proof adopted is ad absurdum. Rv^. P' are the points of contact of the two tangents from T. It a method of drawing two tangents may..THE LOCUS WITH RESPECT TO THREE LINES ETC. in which he the converse of Propositions 62. be observed that one of them [IV.) to meet the sides of the inscribed quadrilateral QiQ^Q^Q. P'.i- Hence the conic has the respect to the sides property of the four-line locus with of any inscribed quadrilateral. 28 in number. directions But Bv^. Then P. : Join 00'. 9] gives to a conic from an external point. . however. 0' so that and RR' TQ:TQ' = QO: 0Q\ TR: TR' = RO' O'R'. Rv^. 63. 12. and 64 above for a great variety of different cases. etc. Q' and each cutting the R. of Apollonius' work contains proves the a series of propositions. Ri\ are straight lines drawn in fixed (parallel to CT. in Divide QQ' in R'. and has therefore been thought unnecessary to reproduce the propositions.

which impossible. 24. the other rv is = vq' . 78.INTERSECTING CONICS. into five groups. Draw line rqv(j' parallel to QQ'. that part of one common to both. rv = qv. 79 and 80. the There follow a large number of propositions with regard to number of points in which two conies can meet or touch all each other. [IV. Proposition 77.] No of them If two conies can intersect in snch a is way is not. . The term " conic " must terms be understdod as including a circle. diameter PV. and let them diverge at Q. each the five groups The and " hyperbola " in the various enunciations do not (except when otherwise stated) include the double-branch hyperbola but only the single branch. while indications are particular case under " conic " given all the proofs is by which established. while the rest q'Q'PQ of a conic be common Take Q' any other point on the conmion portion and Bisect QQ' in 1^ and draw the join QQ'. possible. let a portion to two. and in . but to give require too these propositions in detail would much space. three of They have accordingly been divided which can be combined in a general of enunciation and are accordingly given as Props.•. Then the will through parallel to QQ' touch both curves and we shall have in one of them qv = vq'.

If possible.] in ADBEC be two such conies meeting three points. opposite directions will not meet in more than two points. [IV. and draw the chords of contact A B. INTERSECTING CONICS.] of intersection will cut both The chord joining the two points the lines forming one of the angles the double hyperbola. If a conic meet one branch of a hyperbola in two and the concavities of the conic and the branch are in the same direction.] . proposition therefore follows from (1) above. made by the asymptotes fall of It will not therefore within the opposite angle between the asymptotes and so cannot meet the opposite branch. 30.. Then AB. 127 Group I. it will not 3. must have its concavity in the opposite direction to that of the branch which meets in two points. meet the other branch in more points than two. the part of the conic produced beyond the chord of contact will not meet the opposite branch of the 2. points. BC. Therefore neither can the part of the conic said chord. 37. BC contain an angle towards the same parts as the concavity of ABC. for otherwise it could not meet the opposite branch in a third point [by the last proposition]. first branch. [IV. 1 Two conies having their concavities in ABC. let [IV. contrary to Therefore the concavity of the two curves is in the same direction : vhich is the hypothesis. Propositions depending on the more elementary considerations affecting conies. if The true The same is the conic touches the 4. being a one-branch curve. 35. hyperbola. 36. And for the same reason they contain an angle towards the same parts as the concavity of ADBEC. [IV. its A conic touching one branch of a hyperbola with concave side will not meet the opposite branch. more remote than the If a conic meet one branch of a hyperbola.] The it conic.

we use . another hyperbola. Therefore neither the opposite branches themselves meet. being separated by the chord refen-ed 6. (»<• if in two [IV. the opposite branch of the first hyperbola [IV. Both the conic and the branch which it touches must be on Avill the same side of the common tangent and therefore be separated by the tangent from the opposite branch. Whence If one branch of a hyperbola meet one branch of concavity in another hyperbola with in the opposite direction two points.] will not meet the opposite branch of the second. 5. Then. The chord joining the two points therefore therefore fall of concourse It will fall across one asymptotal angle in each hyperbola. E.128 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. let the second in branch of the former meet branch of the latter D. the proposition follows. to. 41. the opposite branch of the former will not meet cither branch of the second For. will not across the opposite of asymptotal the opposite angle and will not meet \vill either branches. 42. If one branch of a hyperbola meet both branches of points.] possible. joining DE.

If one branch of a hyperbola meet one branch of another hyperbola with concavity in the same direction.1. DE will crosses one asymptotal angle of each hyperbola. 45. [IV.INTERSECTING CONICS. the 129 For it same argument as in the last proposition. if the two branches DE touch. 7. and therefore meet either of the branches opposite to the Hence those branches are separated by DE cannot meet one another which contradicts : the hypothesis. and if it also meet the other branch of the second hyperbola in one point. the result will be the same. being th( points of meeting ith the first branch and 9 H. C.] i. Similarly. then the opposite branch of the first hyperbola will not meet either branch of the second. and therefore not branches DE. . an impossibility.

the opposite branch of the of the second. 8. two conies {including under the term a hyperbola with two branches) can intersect in more than four points. by the before. neither AC nor BC will ACB. if either met it in two it would not meet the branch AB. Hence D will be within the angle formed by AC. produced and will not meet C or AB. does. containing propositions capable of being ex- pressed in one general enunciation as follows Proposition 78. C that with the opposite branch. for. [IV.] hyperbola to be alone excluded.: 130 THE COXJCS OF ArOLLONIUS. D and are two consecutive points and to it is seen in a similar hyperbolas are branches. same principle as meet the branch opposite to Also they will not meet the branch C opposite to any other point than C. No 1. Suppose the double-branch [IV. by hypothesis. 2. . BC If a hyperbola touch one of the branches of a second its hyperbola with concavity in first will the opposite direction. which.5. A it in points.] is not meet the opposite branch The figure like that in (6) above except that in this case . manner that the second branches separated by the of the common tangent the first and therefore the second branches cannot meet. however. Group II. 54.

= ET:TP' = : ET IP EI:IPy . which is impossible. not meet the opposite branch in more 9—2 . DC such TE cuts that TD are harmonically divided. E. Let 0. so that there are no others between. being successive intersections. This is [IV. M' . Draw ENPP' through in parallel to AB or DC. 38. DC are parallel. (a) Join if AB. NP = NE = NP'. taken on AB. conies do not intersect in Thus the 2. DC and let produce them. MM' is then a diameter.] clear from the will fact that [Group I. ratios cannot hold simultaneously But these If therefore the conies do not intersect in a fifth point E. D. meeting is MM' and the conies in P. since MM' a diameter of both. Then. let there be five points of intersection 131 . If possible. the conies will be either ellipses or circles. more than four points. P'. 0' be conic. since it does not pass through any common : Therefore and where 00'. Bisect AB. \ intersect at /. 3] the conic meeting one branch points than two. Then the two conies in different points P. 00' be joined and produced it will meet each will and the the intersections to be tangents to the point except E. them meet at A. DC at M. If lines joining conies. C.INTERSECTING CONICS. A conic section not having two branches will not meet a double-branch hyperbola in more than four points. Then T. B. they meet. (b) AB. P'.

If one branch of a hyperbola cut one branch of a second first will in four points.] The text of the proof in gives a proof similar to that in be the asymptotal angle containing the one branch of the hyperbola. and ' ApoUonius Group is I. the from OK. 43. 5. the opposite branch of the [IV. Let HOH' first that containing the other branch. Similarly DC separates the former branch AB.] . 46. but Eutocius 5 above. 4.132 3. [IV. meeting one branch other. THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. ET is the supposed meets the inter- secting branches in whence the harmonic I jiroptTty produces an absurdity. Now of the second hyperbola. the other branch of the first will not meet the other branch of the second in more than one point.] not meet the opposite branch of the second. Avill not meet and therefore AB separates the latter from the asymptote OK'. The proof fifth is like that of 1 (a) above. If one branch of a hyperbola meet one branch of a second in three points. separate points. is If point and determined as before. Therefore the proposition follows. 44. [IV. If one branch of hyperbola cut each branch of a second first hyperbola in hyperbola will two points. corrupt. the opposite branch of the not meet either branch of the second.

and the tangents at Q parallel BO. Bisect AB. M'Q' at to '. whence which is RO' O'G = R'O' . [IV.O'G . MP' and M'Q. M'. the line joining their middle points will be a diameter of both conies. : . B. will be parallel to ^0.OE = T'P" T'q\ : [Prop.] . C\ and (if AB. Then the tangents Q'. DE be parallel. Then . E. let them meet in 0. T'. The two branches of a hyperbola do not meet the 6.DO. Q and P'. AB.TQ'^AO. : . R'. IXTEIISECTING CONICS. and the parallel chord through C If in both conies will be bisected by the diameter. . 55. L^t the tangents at P. 5i)] It follows that RO' O'G DO' O'E = R'O' O'G DO' O'E. Let R. . DE in M. DE be not parallel. two branches of another hyperbola in more points than four. and draw the diameters MP..OB -. Therefore. which (6) is impossible. in the respective hyperbolas. 133 in Let the tirst possible) the other («) if two branches intersect two in D. Then TP' -. impossible. Q' meet in T. CRR' be parallel io AO and meet the hyperbolas in and DO in 0'. etc.

and A cut in four points. ]. will not meet B' in [case (5) above]. for in tAvo points and B' in one point. 78 (1) above. [IV. 6] the branches A. have their concavities in the same direction. Then if (a) if A meet B. Let A. in two points. And similarly for all possible cases. 20. Group III. A' Avill not in more points than meet B' [Group I. 3] if {d) if A meet in one point and B' in one point. A' will not meet either (e) if or B' in two points [Group I. . . . A' cannot meet in one [Group I. A' be the two branches of the first hyperbola and B. the proposition follows from (3) above (6) A meet B' at point. Two 1. and A' cannot meet two [Group I. B' the two branches of the second.. . A' A' will not cut B' [case (4) above] nor [case (2) above] (/) if A meet more than one point in three points. being particular cases of Proposition 79. The proposition is true of all conies excluding hyperbolas with tw(j branches. cunicfi {includinij duiible lijperbulas) iuhich touch at one point cannot intersect in more than two other jwints. B' each . 5]. 134 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.] The proof follows the method of Pr(^i). and it can only meet in two points A could not have met B' if A' met all (which (c) it does) A meet in two points and A' meet B.

78 like the last If a hyperbola with two branches touch another hyperpoints. 78 (4).] like Prop. follows the method of Prop.INTERSECTING 2. but the proof of Prop. branch of the second in more than one point. 3. branch of the second in more than two points. 56. 48. 6. 28. 78 (3) can be applied. 47.] (. two conies touching each other at tiuo iJoints can intersect any other point. 3. merging in Proposition 80. 5. The proof case (4). the opposite does not meet either branch of the second.] (5). The proof 5. bola vith two branches in one point. No at 1.] in one point The text of Apollonius' proof is corrupt. 135 If one branch of a hyperbola touch one branch of another in and meet the other branch of the second hyperbola two points. 50.5). 49.] The proofs of the separate cases follow the I. Group IV. [IV. 29. first another hyperbola (having the opposite branch of the will not meet the opposite [TV. follows the method of Prop. Avill not meet the opposite [IV. first second in one point and cut the same branch in two other points. CONICVS. the opposite branch of the first will not meet either branch of the second. If one branch of a hyperbola touch one branch of a branch of the [IV. 78 If one branch of a its hyperbola touch one branch of concavity in the same direction). methods em- ployed in Group 8. The proposition is true of all conies excluding hyperbolas with two branches. [IV. 27.] . Proved by the harmonic property 4. the hyperbolas will not meet in more than two other and [IV. If one branch of a hyperbola touch one branch of a it second hyperbola in one point and meet the opposite branch of the fii^st in one other point.

If a single-branch conic touch each branch of a hyperintersect either branch in bola. . (a) If the tangents arc not parallel and C does not lie between property (6) A and B. the point of intersection of the tangents to the Then TV cannot pass through would touch both the parallel through G to conies.. let GD. the proposition proved from the harmonic if the tangents are parallel. or passes through it foils the angle adjacent to withiTi the angh- A TB . since ATB. Join GT. I. it will not any other point. B. touching BE. If one branch of a hyperbola touch each branch of a first will second hyperbola. cannot Therefore meet the opposite branch AC. let them also cut at G. the opposite branch of the either branch of the second. Suppose the conies touch at . . 136 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. the opposite branch to meeting in AB^ meet AG in T.] Let the branch AB touch the branches J5 AG. an absurdity. and G is between G. 4. the absurdity is proved by the chord the bisection of the chord of each conic through of contact which (c) if is G by a diameter the tangents are not parallel. But BT. 51. G.] This follows by the method employed in Group 3. and GT within the angle ATB. Draw the tangents at ^. Then. is B. If possible. not meet [IV. therefore Then falls is within the asymptotes to AB. [IV. which is impossible. for and B. of BT GT falls on the side GT remote from the branch AG. And the bisection of the chords parallel to A then which is through G in each conic results in 2. 40. BE in A. if possible. draw TVirom middle point of absurd. .

For the hyperbola CV:CP = CP:CT = GV-CP:CP-CT = PV:PT. If one branch of a hyperbola touch one branch of another points. cannot have [IV. 32] The proof is similar to the preceding.] double contact with the hyperbola. proved by the harmonic property. [IV. parabola And falls 3.] This 6. the hyperbolas will not meet in any other point. the opposite branches is in two do not intersect. the concavities of each pair being in the same no other points of intersection. 137 If one branch of i)ue if hyperbola touch one branch of another in one point. 52. This follows at once from the property that 2. for the P'V=P'T: is therefore the hyperbola outside the parabola. A parabola cannot have internal double contact with an [IV. there arc also the other branches touch in one point. 4. 8. [IV. Therefore PV>PT. which impossible. (5) I.] The proofs of the separate cases follow those of (3). 1. . 31.INTEUSECTING CONICS. 53. TP = V. V. 57. 30. ellipse or circle. If a hyperbola with two branches touch another hyper- bola with two branches in two points. 5. A parabola. [IV. (4). if it fall outside a h}^erbola. and direction. Propositions respecting double contact bet\vcon parabola cannot [IV.] This is proved at once by means of the bisection of chords parallel to the chord of contact.] touch another parabola in more points than one. above and Group Group conies.

let G be the centre. AB '\& diameter and accordingly passes through the centre.e. 4.] Proved by means 5.1:38 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Then TV is a diameter. . is absurd. Then CP^= CV. [IV. possible. Therefore the Therefore 5 do they are parallel. which i. [IV. tangents at ^. and let V If middle point of AB. 33. the chord of contact will pass through the centre.se have double contact Avith an ellipse or a having the same centre.CT= CP\ circle If an ellip. A hyperbola cannot have double contact with another hyjxirbola having the same centre. oiGV.] Let be the (if possible) the tangents at A. 34. GT=CF\ not meet. meet in T.

where between fuKJvz . 3.e.NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. 1. i.is meet the a hyperbola he d7'awn perpendicular and equal to one-half its parameter.sc 2 (quadrilateral is ). = In the particular ca. . let AL be the latus rectum or parameter. Let to AL be twice Join AM. Then A'L is parallel CM.. and if CM ordinate on the curve in H.) [V. [Props. Proposition 81.. A'L meeting PN in R. 2. 2. C and A' in the . then of any point ellipse or AM A A' PN PN' = 2 (quadrilateral ). NR PN' = AN(AM + HN) .] If in an to the aa. 3] . Therefore Now HR = LM = AM.•. PN"" = AN. (Preliminary.

e(jual to half the latus rectum. Then PN* = AL. if to the he a point on the axis such that AE is the side.AN + (AE'. if 2 ( CA - CN'H ). 4. AE . l. [The two pruptisitions. and ellipse.' 140 ellipse. [V. the note on Prop.ANf =^AE'+AN\ .AN. p.AN+EN' =^2AE.AN = 2AE. 23 above. then the curve is minimum he strairjht line from curve. if any other point on PE increases as moves further from A on either Also for any point PE'=AE' + AN-\ Let AL ho the parameter or latus rectum. we have PE'=2AE. the BC'^2ACAM.] Proposition 82. be the end of the minor axis of the quadrilateral becomes the triangle CAM.] 7/i a pardbola. Adding EN*. and.ist cases are proved by Apollonius in separate Cf. and P'N" = Also. 40. the ([uadrilateral becomes the difference between two triangles. THE coyjcs •' apolloxius.

side. moves the further and further from A.] Proposition 83. and let^X be bisected at if. G. if he any other point on it. straight line Also in the to the curve. and PN (produced if necessary) meet CM in MI perpendicular to HK. by similar triangles. side of the The area represented by the second term on the right-hand is of equation course described. EM and EN = NK. Apollonius takes three cases. AE. If he that AE is equal AE PE further from A on either . 5.] a point on the axis of a hyperbola or an ellipse such is the least to half the latus rectum. . (1) where (2) between and E. and he proves the result separately for each. where possible. (3) where AN greater than AE. so let that^iT/= J. The three cases will for the sake of brevity be compressed. in [In this as the succeeding is is propositions. where coincides with and PE is therefore perpen- dicular to the axis. of all the straight lines which can he draimi from moves increases as and. into one.e. value of PE is or AE A is shortest straight line from to the curve. MI = IK. in Apollonius' phrase.-'' similar to that contained by the axis (as base) and the sum (or difference) of the axis and its parameter. Then. and draw and in K. [V. Thus PE'^ > AE' and Also the increases with 141 as AN. then to the curve.^". * Join EP. as the rectangle on the base . i. A similar remark applies to the similar expression on the next page. and ' PE" = AE' + AN' {luhere the ^E" + ^4^^ AA [= to the e' • ^N'] upper sign refers ellipse hyperhola)*. Let be any point on the curve.NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. A' is the maximum from Let AL be dravn perpendicular to the axis and equal to the parameter. minimum proposition.

•..(IK±IH) = + ..HK = AE' + MI. Now and . [Prop.. 81] PE'=2(AEAM+ AMHK) = AE' + MI. PN^ = \\'=2.{3±). 2 ((luadrilateral ). ' (1)• .142 THE CONK'S OF APOLLONIUS.

to half the parameter. OPP' > . the PG minimum straight line from G carve [or normal at P].NORMALS AS MAXIMA \ MINIMA. and so on. 82. if 2' to the axis NP is dravm perpendicidar is the meeting the curve to the in P. . Let AEhQ set off along the axis equal ami join PE. if inid if G he a point on the axis such that that AG>\pa. [V. 83] and a fortiori >\ >. . 8. [V. 7. and OP (if any other point on increases as moves further and furtlier from A. PE > AE. if P' be another point more remote from A. ZEPP'>ZEP'P. PO>AO. then OA is the is minimum straight line from to the cin-ve. PO. 143 Proposition 84. Then so that [Props. P'E > PE.] If any point be taken on the a:cis of any conic such it) that AO < hpa.] I7i a imrahola. and a fortioH OFP. OP'>OP.•. Proposition 85. so that And. PA.•. be taken between A and G such NG then.

if G be any point on A' (within the curve) such that AG>^. [V. so that and if GN be measured towards the nearer veiiex A NG :CN = pa:A A' [= CB' : CA']. (caccording to the position of N'). P'G' = 2NG .144 THE COXICS OF APOLLONTUS. 9.] /// a hyperbola or an ellipse. Therefore. Thus it is clear that PG is the minimum as P' straight line from G to the curve [or the normal at P]. Proposition 86. 11. adding. moves further from /* in either direction. i. And P'G increases with NN'. // F' be any other jymnt on the curve. 10. Also P'G' = PG'-\-NN'\ Wchave Also P'N"=pa-AN' = 2NG.AN'. . N'G' = NN'^ + NG' ± 2NG NN' .AN+ NN'' + NG' = PN' + NG' + NN" = PG' + NN''. P'G increases as P' mon furthei' from in either direction.e.

from G be the curve [or PG is the PG is the P'G P] ai^d.yORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. if P' any other point on on either the curve. . if the ordinate 145 through line meet the curve in P. then.PG' = NN" . increases as P' moves further from side. to minimum nonnal at straight . Also P'G' . "^-4^4^ [=e\NN' where P'N' is the ordinate from P'.

as easily proved in a similar manner. {HI ± IK) = Thus it HP PG CA ± AM ' GA is NN' straight line from as follows that the minimum G to the curve. and CP increases continually as moves from to A. zGPP'>zGPP. centre.] If G be a point on the axis to the of a conic and is the GP be the mini- mum if straight line be any point to from G on PG. and P'G will increases with NN' P' moves further from in either direction. [V. the In the particular case where G coincides Avith C.146 Also P'G' THE coyics of apolloxius. PG''='2/\HH'K P'G' = HI . CB'. and the two maxima CA. In the ellipse GA' is be the maanmum straight line from G to the curve.{H'I±IK) = HI. and OP' continually increases as P' moves A [or to A']. = FN" + N'G* = 2 (quadr. AMHG) + ^CsEH'K. the two minimum straight lines are proved in a similar manner to be CB. curve \or the normal at P\ and then OP minimum straight line from from to the cui^je. Proposition 87. . 12. AMKN') + 2 H'N'G = 2 (quadr. CA'. Since FG > PG. Cor.

and only case of the three is given here. a fortimn. the convei-se of the propositions 85 and 86 just given. ANT) MINIMA. as in Prop. '^^] .] If E' be a point on to the minor axis of an ellipse at a distance then from is the equal half the parameter of straight line from it. for the three OP' > OP. and. by red actio ad crbsurdum. ApoUonius proves this sepai-ately for the cases (1) where ^<BB'. the (2) whei-e ^=BB'. The method first of proof the same for three cases. 84]. is and (3) where all ^>BB'. 18. Similarly OP" > OP' [There follow three propositions establishing curves.NORMALS AS MAXIMA Therefore. 16. BE' to the GA' or ^„ E'B he maximum side. curve . 17. if any other point on E'P diminishes as moves further from on either Also E'B'-E'P^Bn'. 147 OP ' > or OF .. *'"^"""'~?<"' "vT" .] Proposition 88.'> -----y<• - 10—2 . [Y. It is also proved that the normal makes with the axis towards the nearer vertex an acute angle. [&c.'' -^ [=£«'.

81 (which is applicable to either axis) we have. "=2»1•'. By Prop. OP diminishes continually as moves in either direction from to B'. BE'*=1AviBE'. Proposition 89.] If BE' to be measured along or the minor axis of an ellipse equal CA'^~\ half the jiciraineter ^ and any point then be taken on the the minor axis such that straight line BO > BE'.'. Also . k respectively.148 THE CONICS OF APOLLONIUS. But BE"-PE"=^2Amhk = mi ^ . 87. if be any point on it. 84. if Bm =^ = BE'. (hi — ki) = mi . . The proof follows the method of Props. to the OB is maximum otJier from curve. and. [V. . and Pn meets Cm. P/i'= 2((iua(lnlatcral mBnh). E'm in h. 19. (hi — mi) mB-CB whence the proposition folloAVS.•. PE'^=2AmBE'-2Amhk.

P'g diminishes as P' moves further from on either side to . if P' he any other point on the curve. 21.. and Pg' rg -nn CA'-CBn . and if Gn he measured to- luards so that Cn:ng = BB':p^[=CB':CA'l then the perpendicular through to BB' will meet the curve in two points such that Pg is the maximum straight line from g to the curve. or B'. . 149 Proposition 90. ^^. Also.NORMALS AS MAXIMA AX I) MINIMA. [V. 20.] If g he a point on the minor axis of an ellipse such that or ^ \ . 22.

^^ the . the angle viz. the maximum straight line from C Pg to the ellipse if is is perpendicular to BB'. if Pg is a maximum a normal].] .h'l• = hi (h'i . Now Pn^= ng^ . Pg^-Py=2/S}. if g be not the a PgB must [(jr be acute maximum . By subtraction.e. straight line that can be drawn from to the same part of the ellipse in which Pg is a maximum. 1. PO is the mammum. CA or GA'. 2. Also. semi-ellipse. OP' diminishes as In the particular case where g coincides with the centre C. Cor. to the semi-ellipse BPB'. P'g' Similarly = 2 {mBn'h' + hi'g).{h'i — hi' [Em . and if OF be drawn to any other point on the to or B'. follows that Pg is maximum straight line from g is to the curve. P' moves from Cor. 87. 2 (quadrilateral mBnh). (hi: ng = GB': GA\ [This corollary is proved separately by redmtio ad absurdum. and the difference between Pg^ and P'g^ the area described. and. 84. 89 that. = 2A}ing: Pg'=2(mBnJi + Ahng). i. centre. — ki) hi) = hi.•.150 THE OONICS OF APOLLONIUS. It follows from the same method of proof as that if used in Props. be any point on Pg produced beyond the minor axis.BC\ V BG -nn whence it .

151 Proposition 91. : CN. from the point line from the the in which it meets A A'. he on tlie minor axis of an to the curve.S. 90] [= : CA'] = p„: A A'.] We have Cn : ng = BB' CB'' : pb [Prop. 86] Proposition 92. the minimum from G and the maximum from g determine one and the same normal. by similar triangles. and gP is a nicucimum straight line from g and if gP meet the major axis GP is a minimum straight line from G to the cin've. [V. minimum straight line or PG is the normal determined as the from G. 26. Also Gn : ng = = PN NG : ng = NG : Pn.] If g in G.CN=pa:AA'. NG'. [V. [In other words.] Only one normal can be drawn from any one point of a whether such normal be regarded as the conic. . ellipse. [Prop. 25. 2. . or minimum straight line as the maximum straight it point in which (in the case of an ellipse) meets minor axis.NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. 24.•.

straight G by reductio ad ahsiirdum on assuming A A' in G.•.] The nonmil at any point as a a conic.. 152 This that is THE (JOXICS OF APOLLONIUS. 27. 29. or the Let the tangent at hyperbola or an ellipse. is perpendicular to the tangent at P. NG : pa = AN : NT. Then we have to A A' prove that TPG is a right angle. [V. Proposition 93. whetJter regarded minimum or as A A' from its intei'section with the axis a maximum from its intersection with BE (in the straight line ' case of an ellipse). in T. is TPG is a right angle. H) are minimum to the curve. .AN = PN\ a right angk• And the angle at . 28. and NG = ^'. axis meet the axis of the parabola. •so that TN. . and on a similar and assumption for the minor axis of an ellipse. 30. lines (meeting the axis from .NG=pa. at once proved PG.•. (1) For the parabola wo have I = ^.

PT drawn at right angles to PO will touch the . [V. 86] = TN.] Proposition 94. PN^ = TN. Hence a GP > GQ.. [Prop. [Apollonius gives an alternative proof applicable to conies. Then GKP > GPK. all three If GP is not perpendicular to the tangent.NG. . fortiori and therefore where GP > is GK. . Therefore &c.' : [Prop.] (1) a maadmum In general. 33.NT = •.NT. PG is minor axis of an ellipse.NG:CN. If Pg be the maximum straight line from g on the (3) A' in G. by the property of the minimum. this is impossible because GP is a minimum. (2) 158 For the hyperbola or ellipse PN':CN.•. and Q the point in which GK cuts the conic. if be any point luithin a or a minimum straight line from conic and OP be to the conic. and the result follows as in (2). 31. a straight line conic at P. 34. NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. while the angle at is is right TPG a right angle. U] = NG CN. let GK be perpendicular to it.•. and if Pg meet a minimum from G.

From any point between and the curve to this draw a straight line to and draw ORK perpendicular line \h meeting it at and the curve in R. drawn from 0' to meet the conic in one point but not produced so as to meet it in a second point. Then the angle OKP : a right angle. let it cut it again at Q. since the angle Therefore OPK is a right. which is OK > OP. If 0' be any point on OP produced outside the conic. is Therefore which impossible. since maximum. since OP > OK.154 (2) THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. of all straight lines (1) First. . Therefore TP must touch the curve. OK to meet i Then. let OP be a maocimum. If possible. OP OP is and a fortiori impossible. Therefore TP must touch the conic at P. and of the rest that which is nearer to it will be less than that which is more remote. and a fortiori OP > OR OP is a minimum. be a minimum. OPK > OR > OP : OKP. and draw PQ in and the curve in R. O'P vnll be tlie minimum. Then. let TP cut the curve again in Q. then. let Secondly. if does not touch the conic.

39. [V. 40. Suppose P' are is (1) further from the vertex than P. P'G' curve. and so on. 38. and in K. O'R to meet the curve in one point only. Then draw O'Q. RQ. Proposition 95. 37. G' to the . which is therefore at right angles to OP. Then. will meet at a point luithin the angle ACB'. 35. 86. Therefore O'R > O'Q.] (1) axis ' as meet the lucis of a parabola or the the normal at of a hyperbola or ellipse in G. Join O'P. since PG. and O'P the angle RP. but in the If hyperboL• the angle PGA will ahuays be less than the complement of half the angle betiueen the asymptotes. (3) ellipse. Therefore a fortiori O'Q > O'P. Then the angle O'QR is obtuse.the angle PGA increases or G moves further and further from A. as Let 0' be any point on OP produced.NORMALS AS MAXIMA (2) \ MINIMA. as Two normals at points on tJie same quadrant of an AB. 155 tangent at P. we have minimum straight lines from G. Dmw the PK. (2) Tiuo normals at points on the same side of the a-xis AA' will meet on the opposite side of that axis. and therefore O'RQ is acute. let O'Q meet PK is a Then O'K > minimum.

56 THE (a) (JOXJCS OF APOLLONIUS. ''>\ . For the parabola and '> ..

if AA'>pa. i. it that through the point of to PG.. from Regard the two normals as the maximum straight g. (/'. 42. But whence toAvards it On >0n•. if AA' he not greater than pa. by the '. CA .AL>PN:NG\ PGN is less than CLA. since PG meet another diameter.] (1) In a parabola or an ellipse any normal PG will meet the cu?-ve again.S] AL AM= CA AL : : :. Therefore on the side of BB' A (2) above. . 41. 43. lies And. [Prop. some normals luill meet the same branch again and others not. But . On' : Cg = On . NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. 90] = Cn ng . Og > follows that Pg. contact of the tangent parallel it. P'g' must cross at a point lies before cutting the minor axis. 17 [Prup. Og. below AG. meets a diameter (the axis). (2) It follows at once on one side of (3) lines A A' from (1) that two normals at points \\\ meet on the other side of A A'. Therefore it viz. 2.•.e. the diameter bisecting will meet the curve again. no (2) normal can meet the curve in a second point on the same branch but (b).•. therefore lies within Proposition 96. . (1) For the ellipse the proposition is sufficiently obvious. [V. In the hyperbola (a). the points where they meet the minor axis of the ellipse.•. Gg. . and will in the parabola. Then On : n'g' = BE : : : pi. .

[Prop. CA : -^ AM. and to let the tangent at A meet them FO be any normal and Take AM equal in L.. [Prop. . (b) Suppose C^ > ^il/ or ^ . asymptotes. . : and CA AM = CA' CA If^AL. CL be the .AM>LA Take a point on AL such that KA -.ACL'>ZFGN. 28] ..AM^LA : AC. hence the angle CLA is not greater than ACL or ACL'. L FN the ordinate. Let CL. LA . Therefore will will not meet CL towai'ds L' and therefore not meet the branch of the hyperbola again. by hypothesis. Then . Let Then. ~. CZ^ > PGiV /.•. 95] But . 18 (2) (a) THE voyics of apollonius. ACL' together with the angle It follows that the angle adjacent to FON will FO be greater than two right angles.AC.

: AL.•. But the normals beyond at points between A and make with the axis angles less than the angle PGN. NG PN = AM A : : : : = CA Hence . and NG . ex aequali. at P. . and produce let it 159 in to meet the hvperbola the normal. and do not meet. Therefore. the asymptote CL'. CL' are parallel PGN. and normals at points make with the axis angles greater than PGN.CN=pa:AA' =AM:Aa Also CN PN=AC AK. or the branch of the hyperbola.hy similar triangles. ^ACL'=Z ACL = PG. and PG PG is then the minimum from G to the curve.NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. Join CK. will not Therefore normals at points between A and meet . and PN be the ordinate. from above. again but normals bevond meet the branch again. P.

-A^. OP^. and if he joined to any othei' point on conic (ill that further supposed in the case of the ellipse three lines OP^. 47. Proposition 97. a conic meeting the ^ in [V. AO < AK when AG> AK when is intermediate between P. Let P^P^ meet the axis in T. ^. 46.. lie hetiueen • does not P^ and P^.. 45.] he nornuds at points on one side of the cucis of 0. First let the conic be a parabola. (it heincf then y 1 ) OP if cannot he a normal to the curve (2) at OP meet the axis in K. 48. and draw the ordinatcs P. If Pfi^.• . and P^. 160 THE CONICS OF APOLLONIUS. and I. and PG he the normal P. OP cut the same half of the aads). 44.

N:HN. (3). NORMALS AS MAXIMA AM) MINIMA. HN^ (3). Thus.M. or HiY^ (1). This is done in order to exhibit the three mind that attention must be confined to one at a time as indicated in the course of the proof.^ (1).TN>N^N:HN^ <N.^. letters. but or < TN^ or HN^ (2). (2).: . 4- Therefore Similarly Therefore . c. and measure MH towards the vertex equal to ^ Then and Therefore MH = A\G„ MH : N^H=G. TN^:TN>HN:HN^_ <HN'. N. 161 Draw OM perpendicular to the axis. . K. Ave have now three cases TN<TN^ TN>TN^ TN>TN^ (3i.HN. 11 . (2).) ^^. denoting the several cases by the numbers we have N.N'. and If TN^ = HNJ be a variable point and ^ ^" PN the ordinate*. (1). HN.. in the figure denoted by the same . <N. and we derive respectively (1). = HM HM . or ^^Y.M0 = : by similar triangles. \\ : = PjiVjj MO.N:HN.^ = G^M . different cases it is and only necessary to bear in H.] : ^ ^' = P^N^ P^N^ whence N^h\ : HN^ = \^ : TN^ . >HN:HN^ * It will be obser\-ed that there are three sets of points P. (2). (3).

(S)) (1) and (3). : PN>HN HN. <HN:HN.. .. ^^^\. Let the normals at Pj dicular to P. and all : FN < PN (1) Therefore.NH MO . <HN. OM be similarly divided at L. But in (1) and (3) FN > PN. .NH (3). : (1) and (3).N.. a fortiori in ^ the cases.PN = MK:NK. MK NK> NH HM <NH:HM NK obtain MN > MN we whence <MN:HM HM or NG > NK in (1) and 80 that and < NK in : : (1 ) and (3).PN>NH:HM .H>PN. we P^N. NP meet P^P^ in F.162 If THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. (2).NH Hence Therefore HM.e. (2). MO > PN. parallel to Draw HVR parallel OM and LVE. Oi?P CM. <NH:HM and (2) MO'. (2).hy(A)aho. (2). Let the conic be a hyperbola or an ellipse. Divide CM : (internally the hyperbola and externally for the ellipse) so that CH and to let : HM = AA' pa [or CA' : CB']. and (3).•. in and draw OM perpenfor the axis.NH. (3). II. (2).^ meet at 0. in (2) (1) and (8). by similar triangles. Thus the proposition is proved. (!) and <PN. (l)and Thus P^N^. <PN. : have.HN. Therefore -. (2). : FX>HN HN...

NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. Suppose P. Join OP meeting meet P^P.3 EL in T. and let on the curve.. Take any other point k. the axes in K.N. P.Pi produced to meet 1G. meet it in U„ U. and let FiN^. in Q and EL in U. 11—2 ..

U. FG:GE = GG..:TU.JJ.'.. Therefore. by similar triangles.GH = P. = FG±Gg. P. = Gg.G.V=PM.= VU.:GN^ = GG.HN..U. : N. U.~GM:GN. GE. .U. . FE EG=AA' pa = GN^ .. TUi. NM. ..V= U. UV. L\V: U.: VU.UV.U.V. : 2\U^. hence ••• ^: 7 > i7F PJ\^.•.:U. UU. and FG GM = Fg. >PU.: TU.G.:TU>UU. ^ ^' Now suppose (1) that then . AN < AN'^.. componendo for the hyperbohx and dividendo for CM:GH=GG. or EG.U.V.^.. from (C) above /7. whence and = TU.• . \ Therefore a fortiori UJ>QU.U. t/^.p„ = GH: HM.±PJ(. : N. '. . = ' . by U. GH = {FG : C^) {GM CiO = {Fg. GM EG.: VU.QU>UV: UJ.==GG. .N.. in like manner . : from (A) and (B).>N. Now the ellipse.l TU. (B). : : : : Thus FG:N. = FgS':PJJ. .•. MG.EV=PM.F > TU. : . .F. ! : Again FG.:PM. 1G4• THE coxirs of apollonius. Fg.= VUj : : similar triangles.).).-GH = MG. by similar triangles.U.{MG.:P. Ui V..'.•. Next so that (A). = MG.: GM = FG : il/(?o .. . OiY.V = PJJi.

QU:P^U^< U^V UV.. and (3) as in (1) above.OR Lastly (3) let AN be > AN. >LO. Therefore {a fortiori) PU UV >P^U^. whence or TU:TU^< UJ: UV.UV. UV\ LO. LO-. (2) that Suppose yliY>^iY. . >PU . TU^ > UV. V.UJ .UV.1\= CE .e. UV to refer to That is.SU^ UV:LV.LO = uR. we shall have. TU^ < UV..•.LV. Then . . whence TU:TU^> U^V UV QU:P^U^>U^V: UV.• = LO.•. U^U:Tl\>l\U: UV. U^U:TU^< U. but Then . But 1\^ 165 \ . CE. and LV^US. . NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA.U: UV. LS-.•.OR>PU. iVuin above•. LO. i.OR>FU.OR.•. •.UV. : by similar triangles. LU: US^LU-.•. Thus we have for cases (1) and for (2) LO.uR>PU.PU^ UV:OR. LO. supposing the upper symbol (1) and (3) and the lower to (2).OR<PU. < xiN^. : and afortioH .EV.

In the particular case of a quadrant of an ellipse where P. when lies is not between P^ and P^ NG.f/i. componendo or dividendo. iVG < [This in Prop. NK^NG. Cor. and P. while Pg^ meets the axis in K. : CM:MH^Fk:PU'. it follows that no other normal besides P. : : jB:6' ^ CiV^ : iVZ. CN NK^FE: = EC. if be a point between A and P. NK. FE or i. NG > NK. and when between P. NK>NG. coincides \vith B.LV^FO: or SU. or Fk PU. i. yl^':^^.e. whence the proposition NK< follows. 2^^':j)„. Avhere coincides with g^.] 77<?-ee 95 2.•. It follows that FO'. and P. i. But (7i\r:i\r(. { . This follows at once from the preceding propositions. and. But if is lie between P. separately proved by ApoUonius from the property (8). 1. FC: CE^Fk:PU ^FkTFC:PU+CE J Ck J CK : : i\r/f Therefore. Bg^ can be drawn through g^ to the quadrant. C(JU.e. ellipse normals at i^oints on one quadrant of an cannot meet at one point.^.e.•. . 166 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.. . .

OP is not a normal. 167 Four 7ioi'mals at points on one semi-ellipse bounded by the major axis cannot meet at one point. Cor. : AA' jh : is not greater and . or (2) meet in one must (1) separate one normal from the three must separate two from the other two. the perpendicular line to and if be any point on the through M.e. and a fortiori Therefore \: < NG.] In amj conic. i. In cases (1) and (3) a contradiction of the preceding proposition is involved.•.NORMALS AS MAXIMA AND MINIMA. 3. if be any point on axis the axis such that AM is not greater than half the latus rectum. and in case (2) a contradiction of Prop. then no straight drawn to to opposite any point on and meeting the curve on the side of the axis the axis between A and can be a normal. We have in the parabola. Let let OP be draAvn to the curve meeting the axis in K. if four such normals cut the major axis and point. CN NM > AA' pa >CN:NG. 50. : : .•. 90 (3) which requires two points of intersection. [V. < NG. CN:NM>CA :AM. the centre others. For. ellipse For the hyperbola and than CA AM. one on each side of the minor axis. or (3) must lie on one of them. a fortiori. and PN be the ordinate at P. since AM'i^^ NM<^. 49. Proposition 98. Therefore.<NG. NM<NG. .

inter- mediate between the two I.4 . and. 52. and divide AH t tlmt //. as before 0.Y. hut. Measure at .. so MH towards the vertex equal to §. NK< NG.] If the AM measured along the axis he greater than ^ {but in case of the ellipse less than 2)erj)endicular to the a^is. OP is not. only one normal can he so drawn through OP he any other straight line drawn to the curve and meeting the axis in K.. [V. = 2. OM > y. if if OM=y. and if MO be drawn a certain length [?/] can be assigned such that (a) if .V.ds in K. PROPOSITIOXS LEADING IMMEDIATELY TO THE DETERMINATION OF THE VOLUTE. then AC). and. NK greater than NG according as iiornials. 51. or is. no normal can be drawn through be which cuts the axis if OP . where ordinate and PG the normal at (b) 0.V. Proposition 99. any straight line draiun to the curve is the cutting the a. is if he OM < y. (c) < NG. if less or OP two normals can be so draiun through any other straight line drawn to the curve. Suppose the conic is a parabola.

. : iVjii.•. and N^K^ <N^G^.e. and let the ordinate PN meet the tangent at P. Suppose OM > y. Join OP meeting the axis K. Then ..HM\ OM:P^N^>N^H:HM. . iV^A<f• Therefore OP^ is not a normal. i.P^N^ = or MK^ K^N^ >N^H: : HM HM. in Q. y. N^H. : iY. henee so that il/iV. > il/i\r^ < HM. Join QP^ meeting the axis in K^ .PR()P(JSITI()NS DETEHMIXIXG THE EVoLVTE./i^. in Next let be any other point. 160 Take a length y such that where P^N^ (a) is the ordinate passing through iV.

a fortiori . so that OM.MH=RN. N^N:NH>N^N:NJ. . '. as before.NJI>PN.N^ QN : and a fortiori or >PN:P^N^. Let N^li be measured along iV. But .NH.'.. Therefore OM MH.H .HM. if J/ < 7/. OM OM. . and N^K^ = HM= have in this case MN. is in this case equal to . P^N^. . triangles. P. NJ>NH. . we have.N.'.H. ^ and P. any other point.MH>PN. OP is not a normal. or N.c. 70 THE COyiCS OF APOLLONIUS Then.N^. if ^iV< AN^ . Suppose OM = y. .NK=MN.PN>NH. and it follows as before that OP is not normal. > P^N^ N^H. OM. P^N^. or i. componendo. (c) Lastly. by hypothesis MK:KN>NH:HM. by similar Therefore. since \=2\ = \. OM MH > PN NH.N^H>PN. \>.P.. HN^ whence thus or P^N^: TN^:TN>HN. QN>HN:HN^. and NK < NG. and < NG. If AN>AN^.MH<P^N^.N^H>PN.NH. avc have.HM. OM.HN^. \HN>TN: > TN^ P.N. whence Therefore (b) MN NK > MN NK < HM ov ^ : : HM.G. . and PjiYj N^JI .NH'.0 If is is a normal.NH. or OM:P^N^<N^H:HM.

. HL as asymptotes draw a hyperbola passing through This hyperbola will therefore cut the parabola in two points. HL be drawn perpendicular to the axis. and PO is normal. .•. and with AH. If then x. R.•. or and.AN^ = N^H' :4a'. PROPOSITIONS DETERMINING THE EVOLVTE. componendo. PN. by the property of the hyperbola. P'. . MK KN = NH HM.2a). NK=HM=^^ = NCr. is is the intersection of two consecutive normals. [It is clear that in and the rest of the second case where i. so that AM=x.] . HM=2a. af = AN.N^H' = ^\{x-2a)\ i/' or 27(/ is = 4 (. y be the coordinates of 0. 97.e. OM=y.r - 2(0'.N^H = OM MH. above .. say P. MN NK = MN HM : : : : . which the Cartesian e([uation of the evolute of a parabola..NH = RN^. N^H = l{x-1a\ Also or AN^ = ^{x. the centre of curvature at the point P^. 171 Thus Let R lies within the curve. Similarly P'O is Thus we have two normals meeting the proposition follows from Prop.HM.•. and if 4a=^j„. Now. in 0. y':P^N^'=N^H':HM\ y':^a. from OM:PN = NH '. normal.

THE CUXIC.172 II.S OF APOLLONIUS. lui Lol the curve be a HYPERBOLA or have ELLIPSE. so that CA AxM< AA' : jh- Q . : Wo AM > -^^ .

: MH) .N^H<CN^. But OM and y : : P. and Take two mean proportionals OiV. (1).U. 97] P^O is not a normal.•. PjiY. or Adding or subtracting the rectangle U^N^ N^H.. Let P^N^ meet EL in U^. .N^U^. : : we must have [from the proof of P^U.V<CH. Take a point CA and L on OM (in the hyperbola) or on OM Draw both produced (in the ellipse) such that OL : LM = AA' and CE..• CH HM=OL LM. CI between let P^N^ be the ordinate through iV. OR in both parallel to the let axis. {\ : i\^.P^N^>y:P^N^.N^>HA\:Nfi P^N^. . HVR Join perpendicular to the axis.C). and meeting the axis in K^.. = (Ci¥ : il/^) .OR. Let the tangent at P^ meet the axis and EL in W. we have ..UJ=LO. . N^U^:P.i\^. = (Oil/ ML) : (il/X : P^N^) = {OM:ML). But. PROPOSITIONS DETERMININO THE EVOLUTE. for a normal at Pj. (a) Suppose that OM > y OM'. : pa. 0P„ y be such a length that y : P^N^ = (CM first .HV <LO. {HN^ : iV.•. 173 CH*.OR. and [as in the proof of * For ApoUonius' method of finding two mean proportionals see the Intro- duction. P^L\. LVE.C). Therefore Prop. Prop.(iyiV^j:i\''.{N^U^:P^N^).C') = (Oi¥:i/X). 97] •.

Nfi WUU^V. ff.iV.u^v>Qu.. n^N^ i\''.N^u^.P. since thus P. and. = HN^ iV^C. . K^ have to P..iV. CH CN^ = P^u^ P^iV^. . CA\ :CA = CI . PU. : (where thus PiV meets PjWj WjV > . > Pu uv. leading to the same result. HN. since U^N^ •.. Next let be any other point than P^. whence w?i. iV. be taken on i/'. Now CN^ CT = CA\ CT is a third . . = u^w . u^w = HN^ = u^v. But CX^ and is a third proportional to CH.N^.'.OR. imi^^> uv . ~ CT = HN^ N^T. uv. so that CA = CA CI.•.N.'. adding or subtracting the and the proof proceeds as in the first column. and let U. . : u^v in Q). CA. .•. . parallel to = HN.A\T. > Pu But. such that ^\: and draw wuu^v .uv .N^.«. 174 THE COXICS OF APOLLOXIUS. : .. If AN>AN^. P. Also. wu < u^v. let w. : uw > Qu > nv uv n^v. uu^ : uv > > > uu^ : wu^. GN^ : (2). riv vu wiL Qi(' : wu^ Qi< ". P.UV<LO.H = CN^. CH : CN^ = CN^ And since = CH-^ CN^ 6'iY. and WjW : uw > : u^u : u^v. have the same relation to that U^. a fortiori. : : CT proportional to CiV. : CN^ = : CH CT CI. . afortioH. rectangle i<. whence u^w . from (2) above : : : : \\ : : : = P^u^ : P^N^ thus <^.Nfi=u^N^:P^N^.u^. N.".> HN^ i\\P^ : N<0 by : (1) above.

OR Therefore. \ :\0: Ave CN^. 97] is the property of the Therefore one normal can be drawn from If be any other point on the curve. normal at P.V in the case where where UW< U^V. the hyperbola.U. 0.U^W in the case U.Hv>Pu. U^N^. it will be shown as before that U^W= U^V.V=CH.N^U^ = P^A\.UV for or PU. hx\tNK<NCT. as in the proof of Prop. whence. PU.Hv. .•.Hv + uU.V>QU. and NK < -tYG.JS\ =y : P. CH.PROPOSITIONS DETKHMININO THE P^u^.UVkLO.UV >PU.^\. exactly as before. and this [Prop.W > UV.HV=LO. because in this case the lines WV.UV for the ellipse. a fortiori. \'01. U. so that Oil/: P.•. PU UV<LO. in either case. or PU.N^H.uv. and.UV<CH.UV<CH.UV<CH. 175 = CH. and UW> UV> UU. adding or subtracting the rectangle PU.HV. UV.. have Adding or subtracting P^U^. (b) Next suppose OM = y. 97. -.u^v . and thence that Therefore afortion. PO is not a normal. UU^ : UU. uU. PO is not a normal.N^H. ..U. we derive that P.OR. wv coincide .OR .•. and obtain in this case ^^:^^ = . UV. : U. also : UU.Hv-uU.

176 (c) THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. if OM < y. Lastly. wc shall have in this case .

C. refers to the hyperbola.^ + » iV ' . UV=P'U'. And. V. P'O are both normals.uR<PJJ^. GA\' = a\CH (.. S be taken on 1\\ such that LO .Nfi = H. _j^_C^HN^ GN ^ ^ and where the upper sign N"^ +^''.OR = SU^. so that PO. From and . or the of curvature at P. .GI.„ 6'iV.GH ^ .PROPOSITIONS DETERMINING THE EVOLUTK. This hyperbola will therefore meet the conic two points P. lastly. [It is clear that in case (6) the point of intersection centre of the circle of two consecutive normals. U'V=SU^. P'.OR. = a. . (4). through ' describe a hyperbola whose asymptotes are i7. CHa^ Also GH _ I (1).UJ. The rest of the proposition follows at once is from Prop. MR.by(3). (4) = GN^: GI =GI :CH GN.5). ft* ^.• =1 (3).UJ^LU. 1 2 .' = a. To find the Cartesian equation of the evolute we have X = CM.•. . 97. and in VW and F// produced. from (2). 177 and we Let shall derive LO. and by the property of the hyperbola PU. P^N^ jl_^GAI^ HN. a : GN.

if P' be any other point. or nearer to. ^ ^^.] jiC : We have . b . N'K' is less or greater than N'G' according as P' is further from. (6). whence C . and. any point on either of and if OP meet the major axis in K. ± . then if OB BG <^ A A' BA. = (1). BA' pa. (7).i\7=-^ 6' P. but : NK < NG . but Apollonius proves (a) it separately thus.N.] If (a) the be a point on the minor axis of an : : ellipse. CN^' = -^^—yt a' . Thus. and be quadrants except the point B. . 178 THE COXWS OF APOLLONIUS. normal only besides OB can be drawn to either of the tivo quadrants as OP. 54.« Therefore. if OB BC < A A' : pa. [V.•.) . ^ whence But. or CN:NK> AA' : pa. : . from (6) and (7). NK<NG. by (5). whence and CN NK > ON NG.. from b\l•. ( by the aid of by ax \i a*±6V {ax)i W±bV + {byf y^ ' = {a' ± 6^)1] Proposition lOO. the minor axis than P. 53. OB BC < On: : : On nC.. one [This proposition follows at once as a particular case of the preceding. PO (6) cannot be a normal.' = [-^^^ (3). Thus 6> P. CH = a ax .

(b) 179 Suppose now that 0'B:BC<AA':pa.PROPOSITIONS DETERMINING THE KVOLUTE.pa- . Take a point on O'B such that O'n : nC = AA' -.

and draw LI. I and perpendicular to the axis as asymptotes describe a [rectangular] hyperbola passing through 0. and AM > AC tlirough is the foot of the perpendicular to the ellipse on the aids). IH parallel Then with IL. respectively. .CONSTRUCTION OF NORMALS.] If is any point {where beloiv the axis A A' of an ellipse. 5G. can from always be drawn more than cutting the a:vis between A and C. 5o. then one normal one such normal. [V. Proposition lOl. but never Produce OM to CM to so that OL LM= CH HM= AA' L and : : : p^. 57.

HM.DI>UL. since two normals a normal. from the property of the hyperbola. R'. Produce axis in K'.. Cor. Therefore in R.LL it Thus. and AA' :pa consequently EN^ = iMH. BC to meet OP. by similar triangles. . NK > NG. 97. Therefore. meet the ellipse in some point P. but [at P. Pa = -1/^ . EK^.MH : since EN^ = MH. AA':pa = AA' : CH:HM. This will 181 For. Let be any other point such that OP meets AC in K.LM>OL.] And. Now = OL:LM : = ME Also . Produce OP^ both ways to meet the asymptotes and draw R'E perpendicular to the axis. if is between A and P„ < NG. FP is not NK' > NG.•. B] meet in F. : : j)a LM: or AH. and therefore must meet the must meet xiD ellipse in some point P. and P^O is Therefore a normal. N^K^ = N^G^.•..CH EK^ . AD. [Prop. and join FP.CONSTRUCTION OF NORMALS. the tangent at A. drawing in I).. fortiori. between A and D. OR=P^R'. 1. AD. meeting the Then. to meet IL produced we have AH:HM>CH:HM > AA' > OL . in F.

59. and PK In is a normal. GO. [V. Therefore NK^P^. OP be joined and produced to meet the axis in and HR in R.•(1. HA as asymptotes. and. we have = NK. 58. in a point P.182 THE comes OF APOLLONIUS. and. hyperbola or ellipse take the on CM or on CM ])(1(•. HR perpendicular to the axis on the same with HR. Proposition 102. direction of the axis produced outside the curve. 61. we can draw a normal to the curve through 0. and L on 67/ OM or OM produced. but not on the ct-xis iuhose A. For the parabola we have only to measure in the and of length MH equal to ^ . so :HM=OL:LM=AA' that Pa- . to describe a This will meet the curve at once if [rectangular] hyperbola through 0.] If extremity be is any point outside a conic. to draw side as 0.

CONSTRUCTION OF NORMALS. and ILW L parallel to the axis. . 183 Then draw through HIR perpendicular to the axis.

HN=MK'.184 THE COXICS OK APOLLONIUS.•. UR'. by similar triangles.IU.R'L = MO OL = MG GH. Therefore or. Thus. PU : OL = LI lU. NK = NG. Therefore. : For we have since (1) HN = MK = = MO : : LR'.•. : and hence. as : : : : before (A). so that GN:NK=GH: HM = AA':pa\ . we derive GK GM=GN:GH. C are on opposite branches of the same rectangular hyperbola]. alternately. and oy is the normal at P.LI=GH. and therefore IL UR'. OR = PR'.• : OL. = : MC : : CH. Therefore MK •. and R'L = IU=HN] MK. : by similar triangles. MK:MC=NH:HG In case (2) or [so that 0.R'L^LI-. in either case. alternately. (A). OL : LM = CH HM.GK = GH:GM.HI. Then OP will be a normal. I . CH HM = OL LM. MK MG = NH iTC. whence . GN. : OL.

NK. (3) 185 coincides with C. 63. in the particuhir case where is on the conjugate axis.pa=uL: LC = OP : and [The particular case is = CN. so that divide OC and then diaw is LP parallel to OL LC=AA':pa.] If he an internal point. wc need only in L. .] Proposition 103. that in which the hyperbola used in the construction reduces to two straight lines. for AA' .CONSTRUCTION OF NORMALS. we can draw through (J a normal to the conic. NK^NCr. 62. or For the hyperbola. AA' to meet the : hyperbola in 1\ then the foot of the normal through 0. [V.

and for the hi/perhola or ellipse MK. NK:CN = HM.•.186 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.HN=OM: = : OL . The case of the parabola is obvious .•. The construction and proof proceed as in the preceding proposition. CM CH = CM ± MK CH ± HN : : = CK:CN• . .CH = 2^a :AA'\ . and PO is a normal. NK=NG.•. mutatis mutandis. CM CH.

where in the case of the parabola ij. . 99. and P. In the case where all OM > y. 64. for any straight line the curve and cutting the axis but. and also (a) OM must be either greater than or equal to y. Proposition 104. and that nearer to OA is less than that which is more remote. we must have AM>^. [V.] If be a jjoint below the axis of any conic such that either no normal. is the OM be perpendicular to the axis. in the case we have proved in Prop. itself. three curves that. (J5. 66. OA is which If least of the lines OP cutting the axis. or only one normal. for to between A where OM = y. can be drawn to the curve through which cuts the then aa-is {betiueen A and C in the case of the ellipse). 67.OTHER PROPOSITIONS RESPECTING MAXIMA AND MINIxMA. 99 OP drawn from in K.P^N^ (6) = N^H:HM: in the case of the hyperbola or ellipse with the notation of Prop. except P. NK< NG . < NG for for any point which N^K^ = N^G^.

as centre describe a circle. UP= OA. the angle (1) OPT is acute.188 Also for THE CONICS OF APOLLONIUS. and as falls within the curve. OA. since PT. With OP as radius and Since the angle OPT is acute. any point more remote from A than P^ it is still true that I. P. for all points NK < NG. to < NG. tangents A F. Consider now the ease of any of the three conies where. It follows that the circle must cut the conic Therefore outside it : some intermediate point circle. if possible. RU must meet the which is absurd. Draw the Let be any point other than A. the angle ORU it acute. But falls wholly Therefore (2) OP is not equal to OA. but AL will lie wholly without in it. if possible. Suppose. PG perpendicular PT. as R. li is RU be the tangent to the conic at R. is is obtuse. Therefore the perAlso. this circle will cut the tangent PT. Suppose. < NG. pendicular at A to AO. OP < . Then the angle OA AL.

. the angle OPT' is obtuse because the angle dicular from to OPT is viz.e. Where only one normal. ()A It < OP. &c.OTHER PROPOSITIONS RESPECTING MAXIMA AND MINIMA. If the tangent TP OP. (excluding P. acute. be produced to T'. 0P^. P' be a point beyond P. itself) and also applies to the comparison between tAvo points each of which is more remote from A than P. P'. will apply to P. cutting the axis can be drawn from 0. OP < OP'. OP < OP'. and PE. Therefore II. drawn with must cut in some point. proved in the same manner as before. if remains to be proved that. OP is neither etjual to (J A nor loss than OA. In this case the circle 189 as centre and UP is as radius AM And an absurdity Therefore i. OA < OP. the above proof applies to all points between A and P. ialls Therefore the perpenwithin the curve. the same proof as was used for A. D.

must then meet the conic in an intermediate point R.190 It only (a) THE COXK'S OF APOLLONIUS.. Measure along OQ a length Oq such that Oq is as centre and Oq as greater than OP.) [V. that OP = OP^. and less than OQ. then TQ < TQ'. ) (a) straight line OP' beyond OP^. 70. 71. OQ > OP. OP > OP^. lies is 0 07-*.j. so that. Then. an Thus the proposition completely established. Proposition 105. on OP. by taking less 0. Q' are on one quadrant of an ellipse: for the angle TVQ' is greater than the angle TVQ. that Again suppose. and if Q be nearer to the axis than Q'.] If two tangents at points Q. Therefore. 69. Thus. 68. fore is less OQ is less than OR. With This circle radius describe a circle meeting OP^ produced in p^. Therefore OP is not equal to OP^. remains therefore to prove that straight line OP^ > any OP^ < any OP between 0 and OP^. greater than OP^ and than OP. a length absurdity is if possible. and QV=Vq. (b) If OP' exactly similar more remote from than proof will show that OP^ < OP'. an proved in the same manner. if possible. Q' on one side of the aads of a conic meet in T. and let Q be any point between them. propcjsition for is The proved at once for the parabola and hyperbola and the case where Q. and there- than Oq : which is absurd. Suppose first. since OP is neither equal OP<OP^. . (Lemma. to nor gi-eater than OP^. by the preceding proof. by the preceding proof.

as before. [Prop. Cor. CQ > CR. 86. Q' are on different quadrants of an produce the ordinate Q'N' to meet the ellipse again Join q'C and produce in q. it to meet the and q'G= CR.•. Proposition 106. NOAV . . Then parallel to the axis. Q'N' Let = N'q'. being nearer to the vertex A than P^). ellipse.] zGVQ>zGVQ' TQ<TQ'. 72.OTHER PROPOSITIONS RESPECTING MAXIMA AND MINIMA. RM>QN.] below the axis of a jxirabola or hyperbola If from a point draw two normals OP^. Therefore the base 191 TQ is less than the base TQ'. RM be the ordinate of R. then it is possible to . OP^ cutting the axis (P. so that Q'R is ellipse in R.•. In the case where Q. [V. and if further be any othei• point on the carve and UP be joined. and. >0Q'.

OP^ is the greatest of all OP.. P' is a point between andP. between and P. 104. if lies between P.ses continually as moves from P. and the nearer OP^ is less than the more remote. Therefore Similarly OP^. That OP increa. by Prop.192 (1) the lines THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. or beyond to OP^ is the least of all the lines OP. and let the tangents at Pj. . if can be proved that. if NK < NG. Thus the proposition is established. OP'kOP. if lies behueen A and F^. 99. we Therefore. and P^. By but Prop. . 104. meet in T. . and that which is nearer to is OP^ on each side is greater than that which (2) more remote. and consequently the angle OPT OP < it obtuse. Also since A We towards P. by the same proof as that employed moves that OP increases continually as is from as have therefore to prove that OP diminishes continually moves from P. to Pj..^. Let be any point between P. < TP. P. further away from A and P^ is proved by the method of Prop.» + OP^' > TP' + 0P\ is AK > AG.. 105. OP is not a normal. find in Prop. Then. Join OT. and Pj.

13 . meeting in T. OP^ nill he the greatest of all the straight to the semi-ellipse.OTHER MAXIMA AND . It follows from Props. Also drawn from to the semi-ellipse. 73. 99 and 101 thcat. and that OAI must be greater than the length y determined as in must lie Prop. and that which is nearer lines drawn from the semi-ellipse to OP^ luill be greater than that which OA' will be the least of all the straight is lines more remote. and is nearer that 104• OA' the least of all OP increases con- tinually as passes from A' to B. Thus to for all points A' than is G is. we use the method of For any point P' between Prop. drawing the tangents at P' and B. 99.] If it is be a point below the possible to draio through major axis of an ellipse one normal only to the sucJi that ivhole of ABA'. it is between A' and B. c. is on the quadrant AB. ifOP^ be that normal and P. since proved by the method of Prop. between C and A'. 106. then. 193 Proposition 1 [V. such lines OP. 7 . u. if OM be per- pendicular to the axis. and P.

since only one normal can be drawn to the quadrant AB. established by the method employed in the last proposition. 104. 99 that. [V. at once that Thus we derive OB < 0P\ and similarly that OP' to P^. which on the quadrant AB. . 74. by the method of Prop. OP^. moves and diminishes as is passes from P^ to A'. and that OP^ is one of the only two It follows from Prop. joining lines. as also that OP increases as moves from P. and that which is nearer to it is greater than that which is more least remote. and A we employ the method of reductio ad absurdum used in the second part of Prop. 99. also 0M=y determined as in OP Prop.194 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Proposition 108.. increases continually as P' passes from For the part of the curve between P. That from it OP increases as to P^. 104. the extremity of the other. Also OA. then that normal. to B.] be a point below the major ao^is of an ellipse such that If two normals only can be draiun through it to the whole semiellipse ABA'. the point at is if be nearer to A than to is the centre of curvature. In this case. possible normals. then P. is on the quadrant A' . we prove that increa. is the of all such straight A'. which cuts the minor a^is is the greatest of all straight lines from to the semi-ellipse.ses as moves from A to P. Avhile P^. to the nearer vertex A.

P3. on producing OM to . . is Part (2) of this proposition Prop. 77. OM. 195 Proposition 109. a| We GN^ have •.N.N^. OP3 > OP^. Op.. at points Pj. < MG. then (if P^ be nearest (1) to the vertex OP^is the greatest of all lines drawn from to to points on the semi-ellipse between A' and P^. in jt). or P. fortiori. Pj.N^G^ = A A' : p^ = CN^ : ^ . we have at once. P. a fortiori 0P^> OP.. established by the p^ method of Part (1) is proved 107. OTHER MAXIMA AND MINIMA. and the nearer either side is greater than the OP^ on more remote lines from to (2) OP^ is the greatest of all to points on the on either side semi-ellipse is from A P^. 106. meeting the curve R.R>PA so that . by similar triangles. . : and.N^ > P. If then Pjj^ be parallel to the axis. < MN^ whence : ^.P^N^<OM:P. P^ are on the quadrant AB and P^ on the quadrant BA'. It remains to prove (3). MG.] //' he a point below the major axis of an to the semi-ellipse ellipse such that three normals can be draxun ABA' A).. 76. (3) of the two majdma. and the nearer to OP^ greater than the more remote. a Nfi. by the method of Prop.. 13—2 . > OP. 75.•. : . [V. tuhere P.

(2) If be on the minor axis. . and the nearer than the more remote.196 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. and one normal (besides OB) is can be drawn to either quadrant as OP.. and the nearer greater than the more remote. and no normal except ellipse. then OP^ greatest of to it is the all straight lines from to the curve. OB can be drawn to the straight line ft-om OB is greater than any other to it is greater to the curve. As (1) particular cases of the foregoing propositions If we have be on the minor axis.

The is straight line subtending a segment of a circle or a conic 4. parallels to the base being drawn from points on each segment to meet respectively proportional to the corresponding the diameter at points proportionally distant from the vertex. Conies are said to be similar the same number of ordinates being drawn all to the axis at proportional distances from the vertex. in Segments arc similar which the angles between the respective bases and diameters are equal. if. When this is not the unequal. Conic sections are said to be equal Avhen one can be such a way that they everywhere applied to the other in coincide and nowhere cut one another. the ordinates are respectively proportional to the corresponding abscissae. 6. case they are 2.EQUAL AND SIMILAR CONICS. and the point where the diameter meets the segment 5. Otherwise they are unequal. The diameter it of the segment is is the straight line which bisects all chords in parallel to the base. called the base of the segment. 1. 3. and in which. Definitions. each parallel is abscissa in each. . Equal segments are way such that one can be applied to the other in such a that they everywhere coincide and nowhere cut one another. the vertex of the segment. Otherwise they are dissimilar.

tvhile a parabola and a hyperbola be equal to either of the proceed to infinity. [VI. [Here follow the six easy propositions. 3. if the ordinates to a diameter in each parabolas are are inclined to the respective diameters at equal angles. and conversely. they can be If then applied to one another so as to coincide throughout. the two conies are equal.198 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. Proposition 111.] . and if the ttuo the corresponding parameters are equal. chiefly depending upon symmetrical form of a conic. because : AN' = PN' P'N'\ : Therefore the same holds for the hyperbola : which is im- PN' P'N" = AN. Proposition llO.] Since an ellipse is limited. (1) 1. is at once established by means of the fundamental properties (1) QV' = PL. — 3.A'N AN' : : . A'N'. if a parabola be equal to a hyperbola. (2) If the ordinates to a diameter in each of two hyperbolas or two ellipses are equally inclined to the respective diameters. and if the diameters as This proposition well as the corresponding parameters are equal respectively. an ellipse cannot Also a parabola cannot be equal to a hyperbola. other curves.PV QV* = for for the parabola. For. Therefore a parabola and hyperbola cannot be equal. AN' be taken along the axes in each we have for the parabola AN possible.VR 1 proved in Props. equal. which need not be re- produced. and the hyperbola or ellipse (2) PV. [VI. eijual abscissae AN. 2.] In two parabolas.

13. Then the angles CPT. ch as diameters describe circles. Then the fore. : .AK Suppose the diameters to be axes in the first place (conjugate axes for hyperbolas. 2). and the ratios of each diameter to its parameter are equal. be diameters in two hyperbolas or two corresponding ordinates such that the make equal angles with the diameters. . Proposition 112. : : and the condition of similarity Again. A' =pn' an. .] (1) 199 All parabolas are similar. cp in H. Draw AH. the "figure" on a diameter of one (1) The result is derived at once from the property FN'=Pa. ratio pa AA' is the same in both curves. 12. ah perpendicular to the axes and meeting CP. r.EQUAL AND SIMILAR CONICS. meeting the axes in T. a. let '.na'. h and on GH. is satisfied (Def. t respectively. ellipses. a parallel respeccircles just tively to the tangents at P. [VI. qar through A. Avhich therefore pass respectively through A.•. A' AN^ = an na' /^^ A'N AN= a'n an PN'':AN'=pn':an\ PN AN = pn an. Draw QAR. . AN. or ellipses. Hyperbolas. : : : . we have at the But because or PN^ AN. and meeting the described in R. Thereusing capital letters for one conic and small letters for the : and making same time other. and both major or both minor (2) axes for ellipses) so that the ordinates are at right angles to the diameters in both. AN : : an equal to AA' : : aa'. 11. (2) are similar to one another when is similar to the "figure" on a diameter of the other and the ordinates to the diameters in each make equal angles ivith the diameters respectively. Draw tangents at P. cpt are equal.

since the angle AV A VC : VR = av : vr {a). are similar. or AV':CV. . since the "figures" on PP' ]' . V be the middle points of AQ. so that V. aq. 1 4] whence and. is etpial to the angle avc. . : [ Prop. CP. cp respectively. AV':AV.VR = av':av. it follows that the angles at C. lie Let V.VH= av' cv vh.200 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.vr. c arc etjual. on Then.

ZAKV= Zakv: . kvi. and the middle points 0 AR. . kvi are similar. in the same ratio the triangles KVA. since : ai . since VI. vi are divided at -i4. the triangles Therefore. we derive from : VA AI = va and. ZKVI= KVI. ar. if 201 /.EQUAL AND SIMILAR CONICS. k be the centres uf the (a) circles.•. [For. i K. kva are similar.

so that FV. gpq' are similar and similarly situated. FV: FT = pv and the tangents are equally inclined to the axes.202 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. is neither similar to is a hyperbola nor to an and a hyperbola not similar to an ellipse. [Prop. 14] Therefore (by the previous case) the conies are similar. (2) And.] (1) If FT. the diameters through further. j) are also equal. pt then the segments QFQ'. Draw PiV. whence the its ratio of ' to its parameter and that of «a' to parameter are equal. if.pt be tangents t to tivo similar conies meeting the axes in T. the CFT. or KGA = Therefore. [VI.] the angles at F. cpt are similar. simiUirly situated. are equal. qq respectively: be the chords through V. 18. if the segments are similar and :pt. parallel to FT. . and if QQ'. since triangles kca.] A ellipse parabola .p/i perpendicular that and it will follow FN':CN. FV:FT = pv:pt. respectively be and making equal angles with them.] Proposition 114. 15. 14.nt.NT = 2^n'-cn. [Proved by reductio ad absurdum from the ordinate properties. to the axes. hence the halves of these angles. conversely. 17. Proposition 113. or of their supplements. [VI. measured along F.

,

EQUAL AND SIMILAR CONICS.
I.

203

Let the conies be parahokis.
the tangents at A, a meeting the diameters through
It,

Draw
P,
in

H,

and

let

PL, pi be such lengths that
:

PL 2PT = OP PH\
:

and
where
0,

pi

:

2pt

=

op

-.pit,

)

are the points of intersection of

AH, PT and
the

ah, pt.

Therefore

PL, pi

are
pv.

the parameters of

ordinates
[Prop. 22]

to the diameters

PV,

Hence

(1)

,

QV' = PL.PV, qv^ = pi pv.
.

since

zPTA=Zpta,

and the triangles
Therefore
so that

,
a

Z0PH=
:

Zoph,

oph are similar.
:

= op OP PL PT = pi
:

ph
pt.

:

But, by h}^othesis,

.•.

PV:PT = pv:pt\ PL:PV = pl:pv,
mean
proportional between

and, since

QV
pi,

is

PV, PL, and

qv

between pv,

QV:PV=qv

.pv.

204
Similarly,
if

THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.

V,

v'

be points on

PV, pv such
:pv',

that

PV: PV'=2)v
and therefore
it

PL

:

PV =pl

:

pv',

follows that the ordinates passing through
ratio to their respective abscissae.

V,

v'

are in the

same

Therefore the segments are similar.
(2)

(Def. 6.)

If the

segments are similar and similarly situated,

have to prove that

=
and
:

Zpta,
:

PV PT = pv
Now
the tangents at P,

2)t.

are parallel to QQ', qq' respecare equal. are equal.

tively,

and the angles at V,

Therefore the angles
Also,

PTA,pta

by similar segments,

QV: PV=qv
while
.•.
:

:

pv,
:

PL QV = QV PV,
PL:PV=pl:pv.

and pi

:

qv

= qv

:pv\

But

PL 2PT = OP PH)
: :

pi

:

"Ipt

=

op

:

ph
ph,

'

j

and
by similar triangles.
Therefore
II.

UP

:

PH= op
:

:

PV PT = pv
curves be

:

pt.

If

the

hyperbolas

or

ellipses,

suppose a

similar construction made,

and

let

the ordinates

PN, pn

be

drawn
qq',

to the

major or conjugate axes.

We

can use the figures

of Prop. 112, only

remembering that the chords arc here QQ', and do not pass through A, a.
Since the conies are similar, the ratio of the axis to is the same for both.
its

(1)

parameter

EQUAL AND SIMILAR CONICS.
Therefore

205
[

FX' CN
:

.

NT = pn'

:

en

.

nt.

Prop.

1

4]

Also the angles
therefore

PTN,

ptn are diual,
:
:

Hence
and
Therefore also

PN NT = pn PN CN =pn en, ZPCN= pen.
nt.
: :

CPT=
OP OP
:

It follows that the triangles

,

cpt

oph are similar.
:

Therefore

But
whence
Also,

:

PH = op PH = PL
:

ph.
:

2PT\
'

op
:

ph=pl

•.2pt
:

j

PL PT = pl
by similar
triangles,

pt.

PT :GP=pt:ep;
.•.

PL:CP=pl:cp,

or

PL: PP'=pl.pp'
Therefore the

(A).

"figures" on the diameters PP', pp' are

similar.

Again,
so that

we made

PV PT =pv PL: PV = pl
:

:

pt,

:

pv

(B).

We
and

derive,

by the method employed

be proportionally divided in the points v, the ordinates through these points are in the same ratios.
that, \{

,

in Prop. 112, that

QV:PV=qv:pv,
V,

Also the angles at V,

are equal.

Therefore the segments are similar,
(2)

If the

segments are

similar, the ordinates are in the

ratio of their abscissae,

and we have

QV:PV=qv

;

206

THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.
Then
.•.

QV:

Q' V"

=

qv'

:

q'v"

and
so that

PV.VP'-.PV. V'P'=pv.vp''.pv.v'p, PV: PV =pv pv', P'V P'V =p'v p'v'.
: : :

From
and

these equations

it

follows that
:vv')
'
:

py
:

:

VV'=pv'

whence
.•.

P'V FF' = jjV V = p'v' P'V
:

vy'j

:

pv
v'p

;

P'

V VP -.PV'^ p'v'
. :

.

:

pv'*.

But
.•.

PV':Q'V'=pv":q'v'*;
P'F'. F'P

Q'V"=p'v'.v'p

:

q'v'^.

But these
parameters.

ratios are those of

PP', pp'

to their respective

Therefore the "figures" on PP',
the angles at F,

pp

are similar; and, since

are equal, the conies are similar.
" figures "

Again, since the conies are similar, the
axes are similar.

on the

Therefore

PN""

:

C'iV

.

NT = pn'

:

C7i

.

nt,

and the angles at N,
to the angle cpt.

are right, while the angle

CPT

is

equal

Therefore the triangles

CPT,

cpt are similar,

and the angle

CTP
and
it

is

equal to the angle
since

ctp.
:
.

Now,

PV. VP' QV^ = pv

vp'

:

qv^,

follows that

whence

QV:PV' = qv':pv'\ PV P'V ==pv p'v, PP' PV = pp' pv.
: : : :

But, by the similar triangles
:

CPT,
:

cpt,

CP PT = cp
or
.•.

pt,

PP' :PT = pp' :pt; PV: PT = pv:pt,
proved.

and the proposition

is

EQUAL AND SIMILAR

CONICS.

207

Proposition 115.
[VI. 21, 22.]

If two ordinates he drawn to the axes of two parabolas, or the major or conjugate axes of two similar ellipses or two similar on hyperbolas, as PN, P'N' andpn, p'n, such that the ratios

AN

:

and AN'

:

an' are each equal to the ratio of the respective latera

recta, then the

segments PP',

pp

will he similar

;

also

PP'

will

not he similar to

any segment in

the other conic which is cut off

by

ttvo

ordinates other than pn, p'n,

and

vice versa.
line.s

[The method of proof adopted follows the
previous
propositions,

of the

and accordingly

it

is

unnecessary to

reproduce it]

Proposition 116.
[VI. 26, 27.]

If any cone

be cut by two parallel planes

making hyperbolic

or elliptic sections, the sections will be similar but not equal.

On
drawn,
line

referring to the figures of Props. 2

and

3, it will

be seen

at once that, if another plane parallel to the plane of section be
it will

cut the plane of the axial triangle in a straight

p'pm

parallel to also

P'PM and
will

the base in a line

dme

parallel

to

DME;
i.e.

p'pm

be the diameter of the resulting
to
it will

hyperbola or

ellipse,

and the ordinates

be parallel to

dme,

to

DME.
the
ordinates
to

Therefore

the

diameters are equally

inclined to those diameters in both curves.
Also,
if

PL,

pi are the corresponding parameters,
:

PL PP' = BF. FC -.AF'^pl:
'^

pp.
crrvr.

208

THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.
Hence the rectangles

PL PP'
.

and

i)l

.pp are similar.
[Prop. 112]

It follows that the conies are similar.

And they
2)1.

cannot be equal, since

PL PP'
.

cannot be equal to
[Cf. Prop.

pp.

110(2)]

[A
Prop.

similai•
1,

proposition holds for
is

the parabola, since, by

PL

:

a constant ratio.

Therefore two parallel

parabolic sections have different parameters.]

PROBLEMS.
Proposition 117.
[VI. 28.]

In a given right cone
given parabola.

to

find a parabolic section equal

to

a

Let the given parabola be that of which
al the latus rectum.
is

am

is

the

a.xis

and

Let the given right cone be OBO, where

the apex and

BC

the circular base, and let

OBC

be a

triangle through the axis meeting the base in

BC.

Measure

0

along
al
:

OB

such that

OA =

B(f

:

BO

.

0(1

H. C.

14

210

THE

COXIt'S

OF APOLLONIUS.

DraAV AM parallel to OC meeting BG in M, and through AM draw a plane at right angles to the plane OBC and cutting
the circuhvr base in
Thi'u T)E
is

DME.
AM,
and the section

perpendicular to
is

DAE

is

a parabola whose axis

AM.
is

Also [Prop.

1],

\ AL

the latus rectum,

AL:AO = BG'
whence

.BO. 00,
is

AL = aI,

and the parabola

equal to the given one

[Prop. 110].

No other parabola with vertex on OB can be found which is equal to the given parabola except DAE. For, if another such parabola were possible, its plane must be perpendicular to the
plane

OBC
:

and

its

axis

must be

parallel to 00.

If

A' were

the supposed vertex and A'L' the latus rectum,

we should have
if

A'L'

A'O = BG^

•.

BO 00 = AL AO.
.

:

Thus,

coincide with A, A'L' cannot be equal to

AL

or

A' does not al, and the

parabola cannot be equal to the given one.

Proposition 118.
[VI. 29.]

Ln a given right cone
hyperbola.

to

find a section equal

to

a given

{A necessary

condition of possibility is that the 7'atio

of the square on the axis of the cone to the square on the radius of the base must not be greater titan the ratio of the transverse
a.vis

of the given hyperbola

to its

parameter.)
aa', al are

Let the given hyperbola be that of which
transverse axis and parameter respectively.
I.

the

Suppose 07"

:

BP < aa'

:

al,

vhere I

is

the centre of the

base of the given cone.

Let a

circle

be circumscribed about the axial triangle OBC,
to

and produce

01

meet the

circle

again in D.

.

NC•.^=al. It follows. this If OP BP > aa' : : al. since aa':al=OI II. . and let For.HK = OH. which is absurd. ON'>OP. we shall If and OQ. and the axis of BC. But 0>.HK. while nr.BH. if such a section were possible and OH were parallel the axis of such a section. both coincide with OD.212 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. or OQ will : = aa' : al. is on OC. NO. since the A A' = A^A' = aa'. let ON be drawn parallel to its axis meeting : BG in N. no section can be found in the right cone which is equal to the given hyperbola. OP :BI. that AL = AJ.HC = 0H': OH. have 01 ID = aa' : : al. . OH could not be coincident either Avith OQ or OQ'. This is proved after the manner of the preceding proposition for the parabola.IC> ON^ BN. aa' the section w^ere possible. In this case there will be only one section equal to the given hyperbola whose vertex section will be perpendicular to III. There are no other equal sections having their vertices on 00. we should have. in where AL.IE=OH:HR. :al=OH^'. and the circle again in K. . AJj^ arc the parameters of AA'. sections are each equal to the given Hence the two hyperbolic hyi)crbola. which is impossible. For to ( 1 ). If then (2) OH meet BO if in H. QQ in R. there be such a section. Thon we must have so that aa' al = ON'' : : BN NO. if possible. A^A^ sections respectively.

^1. F' ciise 80.I'RORLEMS.' in the angle is BOG so that they are each equal to aa\ while ^1.] to find a section equal to a given ellipse. •2\:\ Proposition 119. and these planes determine equal to the given ellipse. Then we place straight lines '. LVL In a given right cone In this F./!. Q'. The proof follows the method of the preceding proposition. we describe the circle about OBG and suppose if taken on BO produced in both directions such that. through Next suppose planes drawn two sections each of which is A A'. OF. OF:FQ=OF':F'Q' = . A^A^' each perpendicular to the plane of OBC.1' parallel to OQ and A^A. to OQ. at. . OF' meet the circle in Q.

EA.EM = AL -. Thus the plane section which is of the given parabola cuts the cone in a also a parabola. = '.AE. 31.214 THE coyics of apollonius. and the given parabola be that of which AN is the axis and AL and the latus rectum.EM = AL. and in this plane make the angle NAM equal to the angle OBC. AL:AM = BG:BO = AM:AE.] To find a rir/ht cone similar to a given one and containing a given parabola as a section of it. AM' •. . Now or . Let let OBC be an axial section of the given right cone. = = AN. EM is parallel to the axis of the parabola.AL. The cone For therefore AM will be the cone required. Erect a plane passing through AN perpendicular to the plane of the parabola.'. [VI. AM as base. Proposition 120. describe the triangle : : AM similar to the triangle described with vertex OBC. AM' = EA. Let and on AM be taken of such a length that AL AM= EG BO. Then suppose a cone and base the circle on as diameter AM in a plane perpendicular to the plane AM. in the plane MAN.

•. if AF. or the given parabola not a section of the cone FA R. FR are the sides of the axial triangle of the FR must be parallel to liN. is AL cannot be equal. with vertex F. the cone if FAR ^X' be the made by AL' rectum of the parabolic section of the plane of the given parabola. 32. having There can be no other right cone similar to the given on•. a necessary condition of possibility is that the ratio OB' DB'^ must not be greater than To find a nr/ht cone similar to given liyperhoki as a section of it. the axis of the parabola. and so that F must ^AFR = aBOC=aAEM. and AM is the cone required. Again. Therefore AL'. Therefore the given parabola is itself the parabolic section. :AF = AR':AF. latus Let AM meet FR in R. 21 ot" Hence the cone AL is the latus rectum of the })arabolic section of the given parabohi. lie on ^^ or produced. draw through the axis of this cone a plane cutting the plane of the given parabola at right angles. and iis containing that parabola For.) : .PROBLEMS. [VI.EM = AL:AE. another such cone be possible. its vertex on the same side of the given parabola. and therefore F must the plane of ^^lY. or to EM. and if A A'. cone. AL be the axis and parameter of tJie given hyperbola.FR = AM':AE. if a section. in The planes must then intersect lie in AN. It is made by the plane also the latus rectum of the given parabola. {If : the ratio AA' AL. Proposition 121. Then.] a given one and containing a OBC be the given cone and D the centre of its base BG.

the given in the plane so described.216 THE LVyiCS OF APOLLONIUS. describe a segment of a circle containing an /p . Let a plane be drawn through the axis of its plane. and on hyperbola and perpendicular to '.

by construction. A'K:KQ=^QN:NR. and in the plane of the circle draw AR making with AQ an angle equal to the angle OBG. : : A. whence they coincide [Prop. It follows that AA':AL = QN':AN.KQ' = A'K.IH : FK KQ. a We have. Join A'Q. and Take a point draw the chord QQ' of the circle parallel to AA'.KA :KQ\ But. axis The two hyperbolas accordingly have the same and parameter. Suppose a cone formed with vertex of the circle Q and base the circle described on J. and QQ' produced in N. and the cone QAR has the re([uired property. Therefore [Prop. by the parallelogram QKAN. : : 217 on EI such that FI IH = AA' AL.puom. FQ. and KA:KQ = QN A' . through / Join FQ meeting ^^' in K. is This cone will be such that the given hyperbola section of it. by parallels.NR. AQ. : whence KQ' = QN' AN . AA' : AL = FI = -. OBC. Let AR meet A'Q produced in R. . Then. NE.KQ-. ^FK.KMs. and AR'iH parallel to Also the triangle QAR is similar to the triangle OBG.ii as diameter in a plane perpendicular to that FQA. since the angle QAR is equal to the angle ^FQA = \^A'QA = \^BOC. 2] section of the cone AL is the QAR made parameter of the hyperbolic by the plane of the given hyperbola. 110 (2)].

which absurd. if possible. : If UD-: DB''>AA' AL. FT TP < FI : : IE. FT:TP = AA'. and contains that hyperbola as a section. since the cone similar to the given cone.•. we must have (if FP meet A'A in T) . FT.TP = FI: IH. is impossible. has its apex on the same side of the plane of the given hyperbola. draw through axis a plane cutting the plane of the given hyperbola at right angles. its if such a cone be possible with apex P.AL• But Hence Therefore. For. other right cone except these two can be found which is similar to the given one. no right cone having the desired properties can be drawn. : apex In this case Q. AA':AL=FT:TP. by the converse of the preceding proof. lie And.218 THE coyics of apollonius. Q' coalesce Avith E. as before. Suppose that OD' so that : ' : = AA' AL. . let be the apex of such a cone. FQA is the cone required. and the cone with as diameter perpendicular and base the circle on AG to the plane of III. must on the arc A'QA. whence the plane of the circle must FQA. : FI IE = AA' AL. : : or FI is : IE. and we shall have. Then. For. The plane thus described must is then pass lie in through the axis of the given hyperbola. Another such cone is found by taking the point Q' instead of Q and No proceeding as before. etc. AA' AL < OD' DB'. which II.

PROBLEMS. Q'. : AN parallel to QF. meeting in N. a given one and containing a given ellipse as a section of As on before. the vertical angle of the given cone. the arc of the segment in F. Draw two and such lines FK. This cone will be such that the given ellipse is one of its sections. :VA. FK' to that. through ' perpendiciUar to the plane of the given ellipse and in the plane so circle drawn describe Bisect AA' as base a segment of a containing an angle equal to the angle BOC. and Conceive a cone drawn with Q as apex and as bii. FK KQ = FK' : : K'Q' = A A' AL. if they respectively meet AA' produced both ways meet the segment in Q. .se the circle on of AR as diameter and in a plane at right angles to that AFA'. DraAv QiV parallel to AA'. 21) Proposition 122. take a plane . [VI.] find a right cone similar to it. Join AQ. A'Q. and let A'Q meet AN in R.

as in the preceding proposition. Therefore the triangles the cones QAR. and let A meet A' in S. = FK. must lie on the arc A FA'.KA:KQ' = {A'K:KQ). . meeting Join AP. : A ).KQ:KQ' = A'K. are similar. and A' parallel to FP. MS= AT. as before. since FQ. ZFQR= ^ARQ. TP : TP\ in the same way We and must therefore have AA' this is impossible. Therefore [Prop. AR arc parallel. same For. is itself Therefore that ellipse In like manner another similar right cone can be found with apex Q' such that the given ellipse is a section. of the cone AL QAR is the latus rectum of the elliptic of the given made by the plane the elliptic section. : AL = FT: TP . 3] section ellipse.(KA:KQ) = (QN NR) .220 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. : by construction. A'P. parallel to The shall triangle : PA'S will then be similar to OBG. A'A. No other right cone besides these two can be found satis- fying the given conditions and having its apex on the side of the plane of the given ellipse. by parallels. if any. OBG. and we have PM' A'M. its apex Draw in PM M.•.AL = FK:KQ.{QN: = QN':AN. . A A' AL = FK KQ. because AA'. A' : TP^ = FT. zARQ^zFAA' = OBG. For. And AL is the latus rectum of the given ellipse. And zAQR=zAFA' = BOG. OBG : and likewise QAR.NR. P.

AA\ AP':AN. any obviously correspondinR properties of the parabola. in connection with particular propositions about a central conic. .A'H. and then. [=AN{AN + p„)] This is proved at once from the property to each side. if along the aocis a^uay from PN be an ordinate and to the AH be vieusnred and equal latus rectum. [VII. 2. is mainly concerned with conjuKato diameters of a central conic. be any ordinate. by adding AN^ Proposition 124 (Lemma). Though Book VII.VALUES OF CERTAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE LENGTHS OF CONJUGATE DIAMETERS.NH=AA'. one or two propositions for the parabola are inserted. internally for so the hyperbola. Proposition 123 (Lemma). 1. no doubt in order to show. that AH : HA' = p„•. :l] If if A A' be divided at H. AP' = AN. PN^ = p„ AN.NH. exte^'n ally PN * for the ellipse.] [VIL In a parabola*. .

A'N = p„: A A' = [Prop. Thus But AN. A'H.xis of an .NK.>„ is the minor the corresponding parameter.NK = PN\ Therefore AP^ AN.NH = AA':A'H.AK=AP\ since AN. so that thus AN. 8] .AK:AN. or NK:A'N = AH. A' : A'N=AA' A'H.A'N = PN':AN. by construction.NH = A A' A'H.•. AN.A'H. Hence . AH : = '^*. is true \ AA' a. : : : or A'K ±AA' A'N ±A'H = AA' A'H.AN. AK:NH = AA':A'H. It folloAvs that A'N ±NK A'N = A'H ± AH A'H : : (where the upper sign applies to the hyperbola).222 Pro(iuce THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. ^ to K. : : The same ellipse proposition and .

Also.PT = PT. . . Therefore ^. CA to meet GP. since [Prop. %. [VII.] If in a hyperhnUt or an A' in T. TF let at right angles to in 0.PF = Pr .LENGTHS OF TONJUOATE DIAMETERS. 4. From (1) and (2) we have : CD^ = PF:GP = NT -.CN. Draw AE. we have ^. . and if ellipse the tangent at meet the aa-ift OD be the semi-diameter pfarallel to : PT. and A meet if PT Then. 223 Proposition 125 (Lemma).CP = CD' Now OP :PE=TP:PF. 23] CD is parallel to PT.•. be the parameter of the ortlinates to PP'. then CD' = NT : CN. it is conjugate to CP.(2). (1).PT=OP:PE.PF.

meet the axis in G. In a parabola. EPO are GT:TP=OP:PE. Then. if he the latus rectum. 5. 2 . and X the principal ordinate. Let the tangent at through in A meet PT in and the diameter E. ' ' similar. and let PG.224 THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. he the parameter of the ordinates to the diameter through P. Proposition 126 (Lemma). at right angles to PT. since the triangles PTG.] [VII. and if AL p^AL + 4>AN.

[Note. c.• it latus rectum) incidentally proved here by regarding as the Cf. the parameter of the ordinates to A A'. also .') The property is of the normal (iV(V = halt' th. (A'M. A'H' he the " hoDwlogues" in a hypei'bola or an ellipse. H' such that A'H where pa is : AH= AH' to : A'H'=AA' the : p^. (A'Q' : AQ') : . in each of two points H. A'C= CA. and let the tangent at meet A A' in T.CD' = NT CN : [Prop. 22. [VII. since in V). 85 where the normal line to the tangent at is that point. perpendicnlar through Prop. A'H' (corresponding homologues. Proposition 127. //" 6. regarded as the mininnim straight from G to the curve..] AH. If AA' be divided. and if AQ he draivn parallel to DD' meeting the curve in Q. X H. . ex : aeqiiali. In this definition pa in proportion) called A A' may be either the major or the minor axis of an ellipse. 7. Then. A'M MH') MH) (. : : Join A'Q. then are AH. and QM he perpendicular to AA' then PP" DD" = MH' MH. LENGTHS OF CONJUOATE DIAMETERS. DD' any two conjugate diameters. (where GP meets QA 1 A'Q is parallel to Now And. '• I .1^/ AM. 2] = by similar AM : A'3i. and PP'. internally for the hyperbola. by similar triangles.] Def. and externally for the ellipse. CP' CD' = (AM A'M) = (AM A'M) : : . CP':Pr = A'Q':AQ\ whence. triangles.2a\aQV= VA CV.MH' X {A'Q' : MH : AQ').

.226 THE C'OXICS OF Al'OLLONIUS.

8.. A'H : A'lM MH'. : AA' = AH' A A'. [VII.MHJ. from above. hold for both the hyperbola (1) (2) (3) and : A A'•' : {PP' : + DD'f = A' . ± DD") = A'H MH+ MH'. whence. GT GP' = A'M. . -.TUOATE DTAMKTFRS. by Prop. 11. 15—2 . It follows that or CP' CD"" = MH' MH. Proposition 128. 14] by similar triangles. A' A : A'Q' = A'M. MH' = A A' AH' : [Prop. LENGTHS OF COX. ). alternately.MH': MH'\ (a). : the parameter of the ordinates to PP'. MH' {MH' ± '^MH. 9.MH'. A'H. : : : This result may of course be written in the form PP' where is : = MH' MH.MH :AQ' = A'H A'M. A A: A'M. 227 •.' = ':'. Therefore. A' A A'q\ : : : : : [Prop. PP" DD" = MH' MH. : AA'•' : AA'' {PP" PP' DD' = A'H: x^MH. AA" PP" = CA' CT' AA" PP" = CN. 124.] In the figures of the last proposition the follovnng relations the ellipse . : and Also AM. 124] = AA':A'H = A'M. : (1) We have . Now A'Q' : A'M.'. A'M.•. AA":PP" = A'H:MH' = A'H. 10. =(A'M AM) (MM' : : : . But.MH' AM.

: AA" {PP" + DD") = A'H Proposition 129.MH'f.MH' {MH' + ^MH. Therefore by : (a). : Therefore by (a). : ex aequal .. : . : (3) From {). 127] = MH"':MH. Hence and PP' PP' ± DD' = MH' MH' + \'MH MH'. : : . ex aeqmdi. THE COXICS OK APOLI. (a).DD' = MH' \/MH MH' (7).MH'• PP' '.] /?? every ellipse the sum. PP" DD" = MH' MH {). and in every hyperbola the difference.OXirs. 228 Again.MH'. 12. to the of the squares on any two conjugate diameters is equal or difference respectively of the squares on the axes. ex aequali. by = A'H -.AA" + BB" = A'H:HH' .MH'f Therefore by (a) above. figures and construction of the preceding two we have AA" BB" = AA' : : p« construction. sum Using the propositions. [VII. 13. A A" (2) {PP• ± DD'f = A'H. : Therefore A A" A A" ± BB" = A'H A'H ± A'H' : : (where the upper sign belongs to the or ellipse).A'H'. [Prop. A A" PP' DD' = A'H s/MH. 30. AA".. : . PP" {PP " ± DD") = MH' : : MH ± MH'.. PP" (PP' ± DD'f = : : MH" : : {MH' ± ^MH. We derive from (7) above PP" PP' DD' = MH' ^MWTMH'. = A'H AH. 29. MH + MH'. : : .

and : AA":FF" + p' = A'H. by means : of () in the same proposition. Comparing this with (a) above. 128 (1).. we obtain : AA" {FF"±DD") = A'H HH'. 17. we have at once Proposition 130. 14.HH'. [VII. : MH\ MH'f. .p = A'H MH. (a)] [ibid.LENGTHS OF COXJLTgaTK DIAMKTEHS. Again. 15. 20. 220 AA'':FF" = A'H:i]IH'. and.MH' MH" ± MH\ : We have AA"' and : FF'^ = A'H MH'. A A" FF" : ~ DD" = A'H if : 2CJ/. by (a) in Prop. 128 (1). from the preceding proposition. AA" {FF'±pY = A'H MH' {MH ± : AA" :FF'. FF'. : FF" {FF" + DD") = MH' From the hist two relations : MH ± MH' = MH'. FF" FF" : - DD" = MH' MH' ~ = 2CM lu ' : {}] : the ellipse. denote the parameter and for both the ellipse to of the ordinates (2) (3) (4) (5) (1) : and hyperbola. 16. : [Prop. (1) For the ellipse. MH' . : AA" p' = A'H.] Tlie following results can be denved viz. 18. Therefore for the ellipse AA":FF"-- JJJJ" = A'H : 2CM/. 19.

. 127 :. if AA' ^^. PP" And .MH' MH\ : : (3) By Prop. Also. = MH'. ' PP' : {PP' = : = : ± MH')\ MH'\ as before . if PP'.•. MH' MH". by Prop. PP' = A'H MH'.MH. 21.•. other two conjufjute diameters.•. 23. 127. = A'H. 127. AA" p' = A'H. PP". PP' = DD'.] In a hyperbola. as before.^'. For either curve : " . [Prop. as PP" PP" ± p' = MH" MH" ± MH\ : before. -. MH' : MH" + MH\ Proposition 131.MH':MH'\ : and. then. "( ± ":'•' . 127] AA'':PP'. [VII.p = A'H:MH.PP'. 22. .J BB'.p = PP' : : as before. : by means of Prop. : (5) and AA" :PP" = A'H. PP'':f = MH"':MH'•. AA" : (PP' ±pf = A'H : . the P' ^^^ DD' ^ \ . MH' (MH + MH'y.230 (2) THE coyics of apollonius.•. : AA": PP" ± if = A'H. if AA' = BB'. : (4) and A A" PP' = A'H MH'. respectively and ratio PP' : DD' continually "^ > J as (or increases moves farther from A on either side. DD' he anij .•. .

then AA'=pa. and the second to the case where AA'kBB'. (1) 2^1 to Of the figures of Prop. and if PP'. DD' and if be A A' any be the imijor. MH = MH' = GM. a-ris. (2) AA' = BB'. it follows PF'' . In this case therefore AH = AH' = AG. [VII. Taking then the from \ ^ figure respectively.^ ^ i PP" DD'\ : and the latter ratio as moves further from ^4. 2+. by = AH' AH. and while AH' : AH ^^> MH' \ : MH. "^ MH' i.] In an ellipse. the first corresponds the case where AA' > BB'. 1 27] PP' ^j. Therefore AA" \ BB'\^. (or mcreasesj And the same is true of the ratios : : AA' BB' and PP' DD'. and PP' = DD' always. moves further from : A along the curve. .DD'* = that MH' : MH : [Pn.p. : construction. then : : AA' BB' > PP' DD'.e. Also AA '' : BB"' = A A' : pa = A'H AH.> DD'. and BB' the minor. and both and //' coincide with G. : MH \ . Proposition 132. the latter ratio diminishes continually as moves from A to B. continually as moves further (or increases] from A. or P. as Q.LENGTHS OF CONJUGATE DIAMETERS. 127. other two conjugate diameters.

: . But.S OF APOLLUNIUS. and AN^ N^A > P.A' = PN' P^N.NA'>PN\ CA' > CP\ and." .GN^' > P^N. will be further from Again. buing further from A than P.•. . Also GB' CA' = BM. AN. ' . adding C'iV"^ to each. : . And But and A' AN^ N. P. Therefore and. .•. GB' < GD' BB'kDD' (^)• P^P^.AN A' > P^N^' . MB' < DM\ . We have CA' CB' = AN : '' : PN' . A = GN' . thus or GP•' > GP^\ (3).•. .n. . if than D.N^A'>AN.PN\ AN.. p.N^\ AN^ N^A '-AN.PN' . (4). adding BM . ' . 232 THE COXIC." CN' .".CiY. or AA'>PP' (1). as above. . D. AN^.•.NA'. PP'>PJ\' In an exactly similar manner we prove that DD' <D^D. MB' DM' : : where DM is the ordinate to BB'.'>pn\ AN^ N^A' . D^D^ be another pair of conjugates. CM\ . .

.* [Prop. are the parameter corresponding to A A'. P<p„ etc. 129] {AA' -\- BB') (^.] (1) In a hi/perbola or an ellipse AA' + BB'<PP' + DD'. In the hyperbola PP' + DD' increases continually as (2) moves further from A. In the case where AA'^BB'. and. . by the aid of Prop. ~ For the hyperbola AA" or ~ BB" = PP" ( DD" . 12!>] AA"+BB" = PP" + DD": AA' + BB'<PP' + DD'. Proposition 133. while in the ellipse it increases as moves from A until PP'. proved that PP' + DD' increases ] as moves further from A. PyP^y that Pct<p. and. (1) lulien it is a maximum. 131. .BB'>PP'. : : .•. [VII.DB'. (2) PP' = DD'.•. Similarly it is AA' ~ BB' > PP' ~ DD' AA' + BB'<PP' + DD'. /).4' ~ BB') . ApoUouius draws this inference directly. if pa. FP' DD' > PJ\' : : D^D^'.•. DD' take the position of the equal conjugate diameters. where PP\ DD' are any conjugate diameters other than the axes. and PP'>AA• For the ellipse : : . by (3) and (4). 238 We have therefore. AA'. p. It is at once clear. Cor. PP'. by (1) and (2). iind gives no intenuediute stt'pe. and the proposition still holds. 26. 25. = PP' + DD') (PP' ~ DD '). [Prop. {A A" But * AA' BB' > PP' DD' + BB") {AA' + BB')' > {PP" + DD") {PP' + DD'f.. LENGTHS OF CONJUGATK niAMETKKS.

For the ellipse the proposition clear from Avhat was proved in Prop. in the hyperbola con- and in the ellipse until PP'.] Proposition 135. [This proposition should more properly have Prop. DD' is take up the position of the equal conjugate diameters. when begins to diminish again. [VII. -27. because it is latter diminishes continually as moves further come before regards the really used (so far as hyperbola) in the proof of that proposition. 133. PP' . [Prop. (A A' +BB'y < (PP' + DD'f. DD' are any other conjugate diameters.•. DD' it that PP' + DD' increases as take the position of the equal conjugate diameters. tinually.DD' increases as moves aiuay from A. 133] . and PP' . 132.] In every hyperbola or . Proposition 134. with the equal conjugate diameters. and the from A.DD' diminishes. AA' BB' < PP' DD'. AA' ~BB'>PP' ~DD'.234 Similarly it THE COXICS OF Al'OLLONIUS. 28. as moves from A. and in the ellipse until PP'.] J II every ellipse or hyperbola having unequal axes AA''-BB'>PP' -DD'. DD' coincide Wc so that have . moves from may be proved until PP'. ellipse . in the hyperbola continually. [VII. AA' + BB' < PP' + DD'. ~ DD". luliei'e PP'. For the hyperbola AA" and It follows that - BB" = PP" PP'>AA'. Also.

.GT. Therefore. Hence. . : .PN\ = CA' CA CB = PO C'P CT PN. T' be an ordinate to A A'. •235 AA"+ BB" = PP'' + Dl)"'. in For the Ityperhola [proof omitted Apollonius] PP' > A A'. Let such that meet the axis AA' in T. by subtraction. Let the tangents at P. DD' coincide with the equal conjugate diameters.BB' <PP' .DD\ and until in like manner it will be shown that PP . BB'. Now or . DD' increases PP'. 0:: . and take a D length PO PO' = aN. DD' both away from A. CT.] an ellipse or drawn at the four extremities forming a parallelogram LL'MM'.GB. [Prop. CN NT PN' = PO''.CT=GA.•. then be two conjugate diameters in in conjugate hyperbolas. and PP'. for the ellipse. 1 2!)] AA' . A A' . CA' or : PO. respectively. CA' GB' = : .CT = CA GB GT PN.CN:PO. alternately. Hence increase continually as is the proposition obvious. 1 4] : .LENGTHS OF CONJUOATK 1)1•:{> And. If PP'. : . moves DD' > BB'. :u. : [Prop.PN (1). DD' and if tangents be the parallelogram LL'MM' = red.NT. Proposition 136. . [Vll.

] Supposing pa to be the parameter corresponding to the axis A A' in a Jujperhola. : (CZ) = PO CN = PO CT CT CN = CT. Again. quadrupling each CJLL'MM'^AA'. (1) if A A' he not less than p^.5. 3:}. and increases continually as moves farther from A . : : [Prop. from (1) above. 2ACPT=CT. proportional between 2 for But the parallelogram (CL) CTT and 2 A DC. so that : CD' = NT CN. : . : Also PO is a mean proportional between CN and : iVT. :3. .236 THE CONICS OF Al'OLLONIUS. . . S^.2AT'DC. .•. = CA CB.PN.PN CA CB. then p„ < p. [VII. : . Proposition 137. 125] 2 CPT : 2 'DC = NT is CN. Therefore 2ACPT And or.BB'. and to be the parameter corresponding to a diameter PP'. (CL) side. a mean 2ACPT:(CL) = PT:CD = CP DT' = {GL)'.

Let be any point on the branch with vertex draw A'Q parallel to CP meeting the same branch in Q.LENGTHS OF CONJUOATR DIAMETERS. as in Prop. and (0) increases as moves away from -^ there can be A . Therefore in- creases (2) all the more. then p. 131 (2)] PP'=p = and PP'. and draw the ordinate QM. p. . found a diametei' . and therefore away from A. Suppose AA'<pa but ^^. Divide A' A at H. AA'>BB'. moves away from A. H' so that A'H : HA = AH' : H'A' = A A' : pa. But PP' : : and. increases as than any other parameter . we have [Prop.^ on either side of the aa-is suck that p^='2P^P^. < p. diminishes continually as increases. and therefore PP' p.. 131 (1). as in the preceding propositions. I)D\ moves increases continually as (b) If AA'>pa. PP' DD'. (o) '=. (2) 2ii7 if A A' he lesa than p„ but not less than '-^' . and Also p» is less moves further from Po (1) ill either direction. A . if AA' < .

> AH' but iif 2AH'. alternately. : A'H. these : ratios are respectively equal to Therefore or AA" p'. and A A" AA" p' < AA" pa\ : : pa.238 Thcreiuic THE We And have now ' " AH : COXIC'S pa' OF AI^OLLONIUS. Therefore. MH < 2MH' .AH': AH\ : But. iMH+HA)AH'>AH' (). .AH'< (MH + HA) AM+AH' AH' : <MH':AH' whence (7). since AH :|* 2AH'.MH' <M^H'.MH' A'H. + HM) MH' > MH\ (/3) a similar relation to that in above except that substituted for A. M^H' M^ H' < A' : M^H'. MH' . is the foot of the ordinate Qil/.•. . is is. componendo. MH+HA. : or AM : ^F'. and il/. by Prop. MH' MH' < A'H. also Thus This is is (. and by the : result (a) above.AH' < MH' AH\ : or. M^H + HM>2MH. the corresponding result () above. MH+HA>2AH. = : AH' (a). AH>AH:AH'. and M^ for M.MH\ MH' MH\ AA'^ p^' < A A" p\ .. if A'Q^ then. proposition is proved. . A' . or whence or so that /) A' . 130 (2). and if Pj be a point further from A than parallel to CP^. We to thus derive. or It follows that {MH + HA) AM (MH + HA) AH'. : : : < p^ and the . by the same proof. Pa<PAgain.

. to each side the rectangle Add have {MH + HH) MH'.' MoH':MH'>MoH'.. •29 Now Mo let ^^' .1/. MH' MH\ : : or AA'':p:>AA":2f.W > A'H. and we (MM+HAI)MH'<iMH\ This again corresponds to the relation substituted for above...H'. Lastly.H. Then since M. . let Q. since HH' = H'M„. and Mo and and. In this case H'M > . be less than 2 • Take a point related to such that HH' = Q. interchanging substituting the opposite sign of relation.= 2P. and we have MH' H'M^ > HH". 'Mo. let be a point on the curve between P„ and ^l. and Q. let A than P^ is. M^ for M.LENGTHS OF (3) DIAMKTKllS. corresponding points. and are to il/. 1\ be in the same way that : Then PoPo' Po = M. with . 127] It follows.H' M. that [Pn.. P. Next. by the last preceding proof.P:.. and < instead The result corresponding to (7) above is . AA" and : p' < AA" : po\ p>Po• In the same way we prove that increases ai> moves further away from and A. Therefore >pn• And in like manner we prove that be more remote from jj increases as 7^ moves from Po to ^.H'M<HH'\ MH'<M. .•.MH': M. is Hence the proposition established. : '^. () of >..H'.

(PP' . then (1) AA' ~ Pa is the maximum value all points hetween A and P^. BB' respectively. and it follows that PP''-p>P^P^' ^p. p.p„f. and so on.'hethe equal conjugate diameters and PP'.pY >AA": (A A' . Pb he the parameters corresponding to PqPO. and PP' - for of PP' diminishes con- tinually as moves from A to Po. Pa. are.MH'>A'H. A A" (A A' ~ paf = A'H. if pa he the parameter that corresponding to PP'. : Hence Similarly. M^ be further from A than P.p. : : : : : Also [Prop.•240 THE CON/rS OF APOLLONIUR. P. and PP' diminishes continually as moves away from A. Df^D..MH'. MH' HH'\ A'H. 37. A A'.] In an ellipse.AH'. 130 (3)] A A" But . 36.•.. : AA'- : (PP' ~ pY = A'H. [VII. atid if po. DD' any other conjiigate diameters. Proposition 139.] In a hyperbola corresponding to witli A A' and unequal axes. whence A'H HA = AH' H'A' = AA' p„. PP'. if P^Po. [VII. we have A'H. AH' HH". Proposition 138. if AA' ~ ])„> PP' . . With the same notation as in the preceding propositions.M^H'>A'H. AA' -pa>PP''P.

where PP' is any other diameter on the same moves away from of the axis. it foiiow. and PP'+j) will he approaches to A. -i^^pa'.> BB' = A A' AA' ~ pa. lt> . [VII. ' ^^{AH AID AM or AM:AJI'. 137 (1)] along with it. > A A'. if A A' be not less than I j)„. and Therefore (b) PP' increases as moves from PP' + also increases continually. as PqPo. C. and pt. AH'^\AH\ AH'-^liAH + AH'). is the maximum 2\.^^'+ is than side PP' + p. (2) smaller the nearer If AA' <^p)a. 39. : Since pb : once that BB' -^ pi. ...] (1) In a hyperbola. Also PP' + p increases as The construction being the same AA'-^pa. -^{AH ^ AH')\ thus and {AH + Hence 4>{AH+AH')AM ')' {+)'.s at Proposition 140. (1) (ft) we suppose In this case [Prop. BB'-pu>AA'-pa. + : (.1 // + . PP' + p >AA'+pa. luhere PP' is any other diameter and the the corresponding parameter.LENGTHS OF CONJUGATE DIAMETERS. Suppose AA' <pah\\t . 40. points between and to ami ' value of PP' - for all - diminishes continually as passes from (3) Po. 38. such that P^Po' less = ^Po (f>i(l . y)„. P. A. as before. results (1) The (3) and (2) follow at once from Prop. (2) 241 BB' - pi.•. of the axis a diameter. 182. there is on each side .

P: : ^Jo = M^H' . = i -^^o-H". 4il/„^'. M. a point between A and Po.•. is . . {MH + MH') MH' > {MH + MH')\ Pj be another point further from And. A than is. 180(3)]. by the same proof for as before (substituting '. since AA' + pa< PP' + 2^• AH'i 1{AH + AH'). il/„7/'>il/ii". : : {M^H + M^HJ < A'H. : : It follows that or . .H=l:S.•. for . AA'':{PP' + pf<AA":{AA' + py [by Prop.242 and. and il/. Make H'M^ Then and Next. 4 if MH'>l{MH + MH').AH': {AH + AH J : . so that = Now suppose to be M. PoPo' -/-'^' f. componendo. MoH' = ^MoH. PP'+p< P. Qi .' We derive (2) A and M).H'f > {M^H + MH') .MH' {MH + MHJ. {MoH+M. 4A3T(AH + AH') + (AH + AHy<{]\IH + MHy.H + M.• . . ^HH'. since equal to so that P. so that We have AH' < ^AH. Hence Again.M.•. + + + Now (3iH + MH'f -{AH + AHy = 2AM(3IH + MH' +AH +AH') . ':'^^ ')+( •. and the proposition established. >4>AM{AH + AH'). MH' AH' < (MH + MH'y (AH + A'H.MH' {MH + MHJ < A'H . we il/j have.( '. AH'< \HH'.P^+p. points corresponding to Q.H').H'=i{M. . THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS.

: A'H.P. P.') ^fMM^.. we have . Subtracting from each side the rectangle 243 ( (M^H + . . componendo.MoH' : {M. H' > + .'. MH' {MH + MH'f. if (' + i>o)' > AA" {PP'-^pf. shall ( have J/„ // (MH + MM') If to both sides ^M.+p.1/// + MH')\ .Hy : > . and the method of proof used above gives PoPo' + p«<PP'+/>. they become respectively (MH + M.H ^ MH') 4MH'. and so on. {M. + MH'y > (MoH + MH') ^MH' .. and so on. : PP' + p>1\P:+p. }')„.': MH'>(M. > (MoH + MoH'f 4MM. bo added the of this inequality there rectangle (MH + . is Hence the proposition IG— 2 . or MM. Lastly. : Tlierefore [Prop. Therefore.H+MH') Hence . if > M„H. : Mil'.>PP' + p. established.•.H + MH') 4il/il/„ : {M.LENGTHS OF COXJUOATE DIAMETERS. we . .. Pi be a point betveen and A. : >{MJI+MH')AMM. . ( -.H+M.H') ^MH' and (. + ')\ . 130 (3)] AA" and Again. (MH + MH'f > (MH + ilA H') and we prove exactly as before that ^MH'.+{MH+MH'y {MH+MH'f (MH + MH'f..

.H' HH'\ and A A" + From (a) and (). is to '->' nearer Q. AA"'.f = A'H. Again AA":{PP' + pf = A'H. = p. = A'H M. from which it follows. A'H. 41. With the same construction as before. its parameter.' ' + + .:BB'.HH'"AA'^:BB" = AA':pa = A'H:A'H' = A'H. J and : : Therefore. . + p. [VII..P. A A" {AA' + 2^ = '-' HH" = A'H.A'H':A'H" BB" {BB' + p^f = A'H" HH" : Then Also : (a).A'H':HH'' (). that AA'-\-2)a<PP'+P. Proposition 141. and PP' + ]) is the less the A. if PP' be any diameter and PP' -\-p> AA' -{•>.MH' HH'\ [Prop.H' > A'H'. : vhere Pj is between and B..H'A' = AA''.244 THR COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. AA' + pa<BB' + pi. Also +.. \ i. since : (/ .AH' '. since AH' > MH' > M. P.(BB' + p(.HA = AH''.] In any ellipse.p. ex aequali..<BB' + p. AH' > A'H'.' and the proposition follows. : 130 (3)] .

moves from A.") Proposition 142. 43.] In an ellipse AA'. (1) (2) if if A A' ^ AA' < Pa.pa<PP'. 44.aid. if PP' be any diameter luith parameter p.] In a hyperbola. so does . and PP' .p. a hyperbola. Proposition 143. AA'. {A A' . where PP' is any diameter. [VII.p. 1 : = A A'' PP'.pa<PP'.p = DD'\] Proposition 144. 42.p.p increases as maximum The luhen is coincides with or B'. 45. [Both propositions are also at once obvious since PP'. like the last proposition. AA'. or Pa.p. and PP'^ + j)^ increases as moves away from A . [VII. since MH increases as PP'.. result derived at once. but AA"^}. We and while have A'H A'll : HA = A A" : AA'. 4. : 30 { 4 )] AH<MH• . moves aivay from A. 24. 130 (4).pa< PP'.pa. [VII.p increases as moves away from A. LENGTHS OF CONMrcATI•: mAMKTKKS.p„)\ then AA" + Pa'<PP" + p\ where PP' is any diameter. from Prop.p. reaching a and PP'.•.] //. [Prop.

24U (3) if THE COXICS OF APOLLONIUS. ris there will he found on either side of the and . and (1)]. so that . (MH + AH') AM AH' + AH'\ Therefore. AA' <PP'. MH':AH'<2{MH + AH')AM + AH' + AH". MH' > and (if AM. MH' AH' < MH' + MH" AH' + AH". as AA' be not less than paPP' be any other diameter.H'.AH' to each side of the last inequality. for we prove in for M.AH' >HH'\ Adding 2AH . AH'. also increases moves further from A [Prop. A . 130(5)] : : : : . 2MH" > HH". since AA"-\-pa'<PP"+p'. componendo. < 2 : AM ." + " is to a diameter PoP» such that PqPo^ will he less than = hi^oPo " PoT. or . Then. that a similar manner. then a. Also PP''- + p^ will he the smaller the nearer PP' PoPJ. since AA' = : AH = AH' A'H'. > AM) HH".AH'+HH" >AH' + AH"•. AA"-^pa'<PP"+p\ moves further from A. . 2AH"^HH'\ and niH'.AH' + AH'\ and MH' + MH" = AH' + AH" + 2AM {MH + AH').AH' AH' + AH". (1) Let if Then. or AA":PP" + p'<AA":AA" + pa'. and PP'^ + p'^ increases continually as (2) Let A A' be : less j^a than pa.•. but A A" ^ : | (A A' ~ paf. 137 moves further from which increases as .MH' MH' + MH" < A'H . by substituting A and il/. 2{MH + AH')AH'>2AH. PP'^ + p\ where PP' is any other diameter. '^ < ^(' ~ paT.•. [Prop. 2{MH+AH')AM:2{MH + AH')AH'.•. 2M. > pa. Thus Again.

(3) Let ' LEN(. if Pj be between A and P. AM. .Air<III['\ Make 2MoH'' Now so that HH'\ M..H' < M.H' M. if 2M.H') M.p.1/oif Adding 2 2MH. and.MH'<HH'\ 2.THS OF COXJUOATE DlAMKTKIiS. 2MH'. and. > AM.H'.'. whence (adding 2M.H. bo less 247 than ^{AA' - /)„)'. in the + M.H'.'-' + PJ\"+p.M.MH'>HH".' < ^.H') 2 (iViT and. 2M. Again. .H' + Avay. if be between and Po> "* and = HH". same '•^+/</^+• Similarly Lastly. wiual to : : .H = Pol\' p„ = i (PoPu' ~ }\y. if /'^ + .'>PP"+p\ and so on. so that 2.iMoH'>HH".1'^ + pa\ AM > AM^.MH' to each side. {M. PP''+/>PuP.H + MH') MH' < MIP + MH'\ way as before. exactly in the same we prove that '•-•+<"-' + /. whence we derive in like manner that iV." A [ . 1 27] Next.

: and BB" (BB" : +pi. while this latter increases as moves fy^om Pq on either (1) Suppose AA":i(^^{AA'+2)af• : Also + A'H" = AA" AA" +Pa'• = = A A' p^ = A'H A'H' BB" BB' AA" pi. hence. 47. 2 A' .pn will then he less than ''^ quadrant. . [VII. AA" Again. ^ accis if AA'^ > ^{AA' + paf. then there luill be oii each side a diameter PqPo such that PqPo'^ = ^{PoPo + 2>)\ -p^ in the same .1'. : {AA'-'+pa') = A'H. since 2A'M. A'H' : A'H' + A'H'\ and.MH'<MH' + MH" (1). A'H.') = A'H" A'H' + : A'H'' .AH'^HH'\ whence Subtracting 2 '. or AM MH'. as above. .AM 2A'M. we have . >2A'M. AH' : ' : : : : = A'H. Proposition 145. 48. ex aequali. 2A'H. reaching a . .248 THE cosies OF AlOLLOXIUS. ' : < ".AM -. maximum (2) of the and side.•.MH' + MH". MH'.•. A'H' A'H". : AA":i^^{AA'+pJ. 2. : .!/ AM + MH' + MH" = A'H' + A'H". AH' A'H' + A'H". A A" {BB" + pi') = A'H : . and. 2A'M.] In an (1) if A A" when -if \{AA' + pa)\ coincides with then " + pa' < PP" + p\ and the latter increases as moves away from A.

H\ ur J/i/.•.^ M.H'. 130 ()] + '<. or MM. //'. A'H. componendOy we have : : MH' M.H" = J//P + il///" 2 (i/iZT' : > MM. H. : . thus. - MH) i/. + J/. u fortiori.MW MIP + MH'\ (^1^1'" + ^v) > A A {PP" -f /).H\ MH' + MH" and it ^ M. H' + M. • > J/.1 '.CM.->)] Again.V. : AH' + A'H" = AA" M.H'\ 2 J/jiT' + MJi" > M.MH) + M. alternately.H'- MH) .' .//' - J/i/).^^ . 2 (. > M^ir .H'.H"• therefore."+'• If MH<^M.1/. LENGTHS OF CONJUfJATK DIAMETKUS.H" + M. . H'\ But il/if^ + il/^'* . A'H . . i^ /^" and * MJP .H") = 2 {CM* . H'\ as before.U.'. .. H' + M.') il/J/i 2(/^' .AH' A'H' + A'H" > : whence A A"' : AH' MH' > A'H' + A'W' MIP + MH'\ A'U.' .H'>MH' + MH" M.1/.H' : {MJi' .> 2.V.J///). Let J/i/-^ MH<M.H' : : and so that (b) yl^'^ : " PP"^ +/ > ^1^'^ : '^ +^ MJP + MJP\ [Prop. 2 (J/^/i '.+ .!/.(M.iV//)* .1/. 24!) we have.MH' MH' + MH" > A'H . .y/^ + M. in the : same way A'H.//'^ : BB'+po'. JAUi 2{M. .MH' MH' + MH">A'H. H' + . JAii'. 130 (. since MJP + Mjr. : : : '= : [. //'.M. either (a) < M. PP''+p-<PJ\''+p.•. that : results. + J/7/'^ Then and . : = A A" : + ih\ As in (1) ftbove. . compunendo.// .H' + M.MJP and Lastly.•.

").) Now 2 (6'/ + CM. to each side. //^' (7J/o = M.H' 4Cifo . MM. whence and If then (a) = HH' .MW MH' + MH"<A'H. if . : < 2 (6'i¥+ CM.) M. : : It follows that 2 (CM + CM.M.2')0 THE COMCS shown in the (JF Al'OLLONIUS. MM" = yiH" = HH' .H'. or MM. it is same nianiier that (2) Suppose AA'^ > h {A A' +p„)\ so that 2AH">HH'\ equal to Make 2M.H' Mjr ~ M." -\- p^' < PI'"' + p\ ^il/j < AM.M. so that . . and we prove.) MM. . MH' and : : il/o//' < MH' + i/i/'^ M.H' > (. •1HH'.CH'>2MH. CH' . Adding 2MMq. and again.\ .M.H' whence Similarly.) MM.) M.H'. 2(CM + ClM. : : A'H.H'• ' : .' + . M.M.H'.' + .•. AM < AM..H'.\ .H'.H' : -OH' CH'.H CM.¥o^'' so that. CH' + 2il/il/o • il/oiT' > 2M.MH'. Hir:Mjr = M.H" HH".H' + il/„^".. = //Zf M. adding '^CM^. pp''-^p^<pj>:-^^p. componendo.CM>2M. in the same manner as above.H M. ^GMo.H. + il/o H' + .H M. (/„* + . 2 (C/il/ + CM.").

^//^ = xl^' pa\ = ^^" .•.] (1) if A A' >pa./. > II . "Jol And. H AM > AM^.AH' : : .e. AM^>AM./ moves farther from A i)icreases as also PP" ~ p' > AA" ~ pa AA' but < 2 (^ A'^' ~ p^ AA') (2) if A A' < Pa. (1) As . .1//' + AH HH'. Proposition 146. : ' also AA''^''Pa>PP''-^p\ which diminishes as moves away A PP" ~ p' > . then A A" .„'- [l*iop• 130 (5)] or ^^'•^-_p«''<PP"^-yr. mauner Lastly (6). [Vll. where PP' L• amj diameter. MJP.•.MH' AH" ~ AH\ : A'H.1. : ) i. . and PP" .•.1//'^' ~ ^1//* AA" if PP'" . usual..1'* ~ Pa\ : : Now . F. Ill a Ityperhola.AH' ' : : ^if'^ . 2 (^1^'^ : « pa AA'). DIAMK IKKS.•.MH' . 50. . : ^1/^'* : - il/^"^< A'H.Pa' < PP" .AH. the same method of proof gives etc.MH'kMJI -MilMJP:MH'<MJl+ MJI Mir + : Mil. < Hence MH" . .p*< A A" yl^"" ~ /. Again. iVif il///' ^ii' <MH. . 41). J/. : : ^^' < MH' + AH' + AH < {MH' + MH) HH' (.KN(!THS OF . then . A' ^i7 = AH' : ^'//' A'H. // '. since in like 2////' ( M/.

252 THE aoxic.uP' = PP"-PP'.0P' 2'. PP' be produced to so that PO = p. i)roccecling as befuro. A A'). if FO be measured along PP' eciual to }).PP' = AA"-2)a A A' .PO' = >2PP'.'<jj„.e. > MH" ~ il/Zf^ : ^^'^ ~ AH\ Therefore.0P' + 0P". . > {MH' + MH)HH' (^^' + ^ii) iiii'. 12!)] . PP" ~ ^/ > ^1^'^ ~ Pa . . ^^' but < 2 (yl^'^ ~ p« . PP'' ~ / > PP' . .OP'. .•. ^1^1'). (2) If^lJ. 129] AA"-pa. But PP'. .•. . [Prop.PO = PP"-p. il/i/':^/i'>il/i/:yliJ. And PP" -- if = PP" . J\IB' : ^i/" > MH' + MH : : ^iT' + AH.AA' = PP"'-p.4'^ or > -^„. we find in this case PP"~p'<AA"'-pa\ Similarly and so on. [Prop. wo find and so on. PP"^p'=2P0. OP' but < 2PP' OP'. + ' 2 (4. Now.PP' = PP'. MW : ^'i/ ^ii' . if Lastly. and ^'i/ i.s of apollonius. proceeding as above.ind.•.

AC 2HH' . 2.p^ diminishes as {!) moves further from B. AA"--p„'>PP"^jf.p\ : : [Prop. [VII. 51.\jik• way '- A'H.Mjr<MH''~ and therefore (2) Mil-. BB" -^ Pf. if PP' he any diameter such PP' < p. < Therefore.ltS. and between C and A' if is on the (juadrant AB.•.] In an (1) ellipse.' > PP'•' ^ p\ and PP'^ . if ^lil/j AA"--pa'>PP"'-2}\ >AM.ENOTIIS OF COX.p^ diminishes as (2) moves further from that A . MJI MJl\ PP" ~ / > PJ'" in this case lie .MH': A'H.AH'. and PP'^ . we shall have in the s. must between and the extremity will lie of either of the equal conjugate diameters. . alternately.MH'< 2HH' .CM : i.. In this case (using the figure of Prop. AH" ~ AH' MH" ~ MH\ : A'H.MH' MH' . if PP' he any diameter such that PP' > p. and so on.e.irOATE lHAMKTF.AH' AH" : ~ AH' < A'H. A'H. 130 (5)] and Also.')^ Proposition 147. 141) AH' MH' < AC CM : : .A'H.MH\ : Hence A A" AA" ~ 2^a < AA" PP" .p^.

. MH' - MH" : M^H' ~ M^H'\ whence. camiiripor: phintkd «y j. at the university press.HH':2CM^. i.254 Then. ' and .•. A' .p^ increases as moves nearer to B. . we have MH'>M^H'. : : ili. if THE COXIVS OF APOLLONIUS. M^ corresponds to another point P. clay. being a maximum when coincides with B.e. . ' > CM > CM^ >2CM. c. f. in the same manner.HH'. we prove and PP'* . and AAI^ > AM. CM < CM^.

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