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Charles Harvey Lecture Packet #1: Course Introduction, Water Balance Equation Where does water come from? It cycles. The total supply doesn’t change much.

100 Precipitation on land

39 Moisture over land 385 Precipitation on ocean 61 Evaporation from the land 424 Evaporation from the ocean

Surface runoff Infiltration Evapotranspiration and evaporation

Groundwater recharge Groundwater flow

38 surface discharge 1 Groundwater discharge

Low permeability strata Hydrologic cycle with yearly flow volumes based on annual surface precipitation on earth, ~119,000 km3/year.

3000 BC – Ecclesiastes 1:7 (Solomon) “All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again.” Greek Philosophers (Plato, Aristotle) embraced the concept, but mechanisms were not understood. 17th Century – Pierre Perrault showed that rainfall was sufficient to explain flow of the Seine.

1.72, Groundwater Hydrology Prof. Charles Harvey

Lecture Packet 1 Page 1 of 15

0 -4.0 2.998 Backscattering by air Reflection by clouds 4 Absorption by clouds 20 Absorption by atmosphere Net radiant emission by greenhouse gases 11 Net absorption by greenhouse gasses & clouds Net radiant emission by surface Atmosphere Net radiant emission by clouds Reflection by surface Net sensible heat flux Net latent heat flux Ocean and Land Absorption by surface 46 15 Heating of surface 7 46 24 0.0 Ocean Currents Latent Heat Sensible Heat -2.The earth’s energy (radiation) cycle Solar (shortwave) radiation Space Reflected 6 18 6 Terrestrial (long-wave) radiation Outgoing 4 39 27 Incoming 99. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.0 Total Flux 3.0 900 N 600 300 00 300 600 900 S Latitude 1.0 Energy Transfer (1022 cal/yr) 1.002 Circulation redistributes energy Net radiation flux (101 cal cm2/yr) 20 0 -20 -60 4.0 0 -1. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 2 of 15 .72.0 -3.

The Earth’s Energy (Radiation) Cycle: Spatial distribution of energy and temperature drives circulation – both global and local: Polar High Polar easterlies Polar front/subarctic low Westerlies Westerlies Subtropical high Trade winds Equitorial low Trade winds Trade Winds Subtropical high Westerlies Trade Winds Polar front/subarctic low Polar easterlies Polar High 1. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 3 of 15 .72. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.

72. 1.120) Lakes & marshes (102. 2.900) 71.000 Neg.000) 1.800 Ground Water (10.000 Soil Moisture (16.200 Oceans (1. precipitation.500) Neg.000 116. and actual rates may be much larger) Local rates depend on relief.700 2.700 Rivers (2. Another 2 or 3 x 109 Tons/Year is trapped in reservoirs. and rock type.000 505. 80% of material transported is particulate 20% is dissolved 0. Atmosphere (12.000 43.000.700 46.05 mm/yr (may have been accelerated by man.Coupled Earth Cycles Energy Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Material Cycle Solar Radiation Earth Radiation Evapotranspiration Erosion Dissolution Precipitation Tectonics Estimates from river outflows indicate 17 x 109 Tons/Year of material is transported into the Ocean.000) 44.000) Glaciers (24.800. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 4 of 15 . Groundwater Hydrology Prof.000 2.000) 458.000.338.000 Biomass (1.120) 71.

13 <0. atmosphere and oceans.01 0. fresh water.340 gallons/day 1.1 130 130 17.01 <0.003 0.Glaciers Fresh Water Atmosphere Oceans Relative volumes of water in glaciers.01 <0. What are water needs for humans? Primitive conditions – 3 to 5 gallons/day Urban use – 150 gallons/day US Fresh Water Use – 1.07 60 30 0.025 0.001 Residence Time ~4000 years ~10 years 1-10 years ~2 weeks 2 weeks – 1 year 2 weeks – 10.01 <0.13 120 60 0.25 0.1 <0.01 <0.72.55 <0.01 Volume % 94 <0. Groundwater Hydrology Prof. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 5 of 15 .1 Volume (km3) X 106 1370 0.01 4 2 <0.8 504 <0.0003% is potable and available.000 km3/yr (~5x more than Zaire-Congo) 0.000 years 10-1000 years ~10 days ~1 week Oceans and seas Lakes and reservoirs Swamps River channels Soil moisture Groundwater Icecaps and glaciers Atmospheric water Biospheric water Amazon is 6.007 0.01 Equivalent depth (m) 2500 0.01 <0.01 <0. Estimate of the World Water Balance Parameter Surface area (km2) X 106 361 1.

1 20. Item 1 pound of cotton 1 pound of grain-fed beef 1 loaf of bread 1 car 1 kilowatt of electricity 1 pound of rubber 1 pound of steel 1 gallon of gasoline 1 load of laundry 1 ten-minute shower Some points: • A lot of water is used for agriculture o 56% (76 BGD) is consumptive use o 20% (28 BGD) is lost in conveyance o 24% (33 BGD) is return flow A lot of water is used for thermoelectric power generation o 87% of all industrial water use A small savings in either of these categories would free up significant quantities for public supplies Water Use in the US in 1990 Fresh Water Use 1990 Total 339 BGD California Texas Idaho Illinois Colorado Louisiana Michigan New York Pennsylvania Indiana Montana Four states account for 27% 11 states account for 50% Gallons 2.1 19. Groundwater Hydrology Prof. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 6 of 15 .000 800 150 100.7 11.0 12.000 80 100 25 10 60 25-50 • • 35.4 9.7 11.5 9.6 10.Where does the water go? To make things…to clean things….3 1.72.7 18.8 9.

600 km3/year) Total runoff (40.426 km3/year) Geographically and temporally accessible runoff (AR) (12.RFWSland (110..km3/year (did not consider other northern rivers – conservative?).300 km3/year) Total evapotranspiration on land (69. • Flood water.980 km3/year (30%)] Human appropriation of total RFWSland [24.500 km3/year) Withdraws [4. Groundwater Hydrology Prof. • Subtract agricultural irrigation (2.430 km3/year (35%)] Instream uses [2. • Accessible runoff = Baseflow + reservoir capacity = 12.500 km3/year. from parks and lawns is irrigation (80 km3/year).980 km3/year (23%)] Analysis of human appropriation of renewable freshwater supply (RFSW) on land. 11. 2) Inaccessible runoff • 95 of the Amazon. 1992).72. Figure adapted from Postel et al. Half of the Zaire-Congo and all of the Polar rivers 7774 . Feb.200 km3/year (26%)] Human appropriation of AR [6.774 km3/year) Uncaptured floodwater (20. 758. 9. (271) p.500. Science.350 km3/year (19%)] Human appropriation of ET [18. • Capacity of man-made reservoirs is 5. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 7 of 15 . • Approximate people’s use of ET from the proportion of biomass – 30%.’s Calculations 1) Calculation of appropriated ET – indirect • 132 billion tons of biomass produced a year (Vitousek. 1996 Postel et al.100 km3/year of runoff is base flow (6).000 km3/year) and assume half the water.700 km3/year) Remote flow (7. • 30% used by people.780 km3/year (54%)] Human appropriation of accessible RFWSland [24. adjusted for accessible 1.

000 ha of world irrigated area. for domestic and commercial purposes. • 65% consumed = 1.3) Withdrawals (consumed) • 12.000. • 240. 50 km3/year. 1993. 1. applied to 1990 population. • • • • Industrial use: 975 km3/year.3 L/s per 1.000 m3/ha average irrigation water application. Estimated water use in the United States. billion gallons per day (bgd). 17% consumed.72.880 km3/year. Pierce. 4) Instream use • 28. 90 km3/year. Adapted from Solley.870 km3/year. Municipal use: 300 km3/year.285 km3/year. 9% consumed. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 8 of 15 . Total consumed = 2. • Neglects dispersed pollution (agricultural) and flood waters. • 2. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.000 population.350 km3/year. and Perlman.700 km3/year. • Assuming 50% of waste gets treatment – 2. Reservoir losses – 5% loss. 275 km3/year. 4.

although pollution can occur Not rapidly contaminated by radioactive fallout Act as conveyance systems. even where humid climate prevails Need large areas of land May fail catastrophically Varying water temperature Easily polluted Easily contaminated by radioactive fallout Water must be conveyed Subsurface Reservoirs Advantages Many large-capacity sites available Practically no evaporative loss Need very small areas of land Practically no danger of failure Water temperature uniform Usually high biological purity.72.Relative Merits of Surface and Subsurface Reservoirs Surface Reservoirs Disadvantages Few new sites free (in USA) High evaporative loss. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 9 of 15 . Groundwater Hydrology Prof. thus obviating the need for pipes or canals 1.

upstream of the cross-section. the lines drawn from both sides of the stream should intersect. the area over which water flowing along the surface will eventually reach the stream. If you do this right. Moving to either side P ET Gin S Q Gout 1.Watershed Hydrologic Budgets Delineation of a watershed (drainage basin. • Horizontal projection of this area is the drainage area. catchment) • Area that topographically appears to contribute all the water that flows through a given cross section of a stream. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 10 of 15 . and can be traced on a topographic map by starting at the location of the stream cross-section then drawing a line away from the stream that intersects all contour lines at right angles. • The boundaries of a watershed are called a divide. river basin. In other words.72. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.

or Hydrologic Circulation Q and P are the only quantities that we can try to measure directly.72. If steady state is assumed.Water Balance Equation ∂S = P + Gin − (Q + ET + Gout ) ∂t At steady-state: ∂S =0 ∂t P + Gin = (Q + ET + Gout ) Hydrologic Production Runoff. Q = P + (Gin − Gout ) − ET How much of Q is available to human use? How can we increase Q? Lake Parabola (A simple quadratic model of the cross section of a circular lake) 4 3 H = cr 2 2 H 1 A = πr 2 = H π c H H V ( H ) = ∫ A(h)dh = ∫ -2 0 0 π c Hdh = π 2c H2 -1 0 1 2 1. Groundwater Hydrology Prof. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 11 of 15 . From and engineering point of view we are interested in understanding what controls Q. these measurements can be used to calibrate models of evapotranspiration and groundwater flow.

1 [1/m] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 T [days] Discharge into and Evaporation out of Lake Parabola e = rate of evaporation [L/T] 1.72. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 12 of 15 . how does the depth depend on time? (At time 0. the charge in storage must equal the inflow Mass-balance (water balance) equation Q= dV ( H ) π d ( H 2 ) π dH = = H 2c dt dt dt c This differential equation can be solved by separation of variables T ∫π 0 cQ dt = ∫ hdh Ho H cQ H 2 Ho T= − π 2 2 3 2 H= 2cQ π T + Ho 2 2 H [m] 1 Q=10 [m3/day] c=0. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.Discharge into Lake Parabola If there is constant volume flux Q m3/day into the lake. the depth is Ho m) Since there is no outflow.

72.03) 1.6 m = πe π (0.03 [m/day] 200 400 600 T [days] 800 1000 Steady State Solution dH Qc = −e dt πH H= Qc (10)(0.1 [1/m] e=0. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 13 of 15 .1) = 10. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.dV ( H ) π = Q − Ae = Q − He dt c π c H dH π = Q − He dt c dH Qc = −e dt πH 10 8 H [m] 6 4 2 0 Q=10 [m3/day] c=0.

75 2.8 m.8 m H= 2kπ 1.25 0 200 400 Q=10 [m3/day] c=0. evaporation and seepage 4 3 2 H 1 -2 -1 0 1 2 dV ( H ) eπ kπ 2 = Q − eA − kHA = Q − H− H dt c c π c H dh eπ kπ 2 H− =Q− H dt c c 2.72.75 1. 2.Discharge. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.25 H [m] 2 dh Qc = − e − kH dt πH 1.5 2.1 [1/m] e=0.03 [1/day] 600 T [days] 800 1000 Steady State Solution dh Qc = − e − kH dt πH Qc π − eH − kH 2 = 0 Quadratic formula: − eπ ± (eπ ) 2 − 4ckπQ = -3.03 [m/day] k=0.50 1. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 14 of 15 .

765m 3 TR = V / Q = Consider yourself: 1. Assume no seepage. Q = input = output = 10 [m3/day] V (H ) = π 2c H2 = π 2(0.6 2 = 1. Groundwater Hydrology Prof.72.765m 3 = 176. Charles Harvey Lecture Packet 1 Page 15 of 15 .1 14 1.1) 10.5days 10m 3 / day Quantity Water weight [Kg] Average Intake [Kg/day] Residence Time [day] Men 60 3 14 Women 50 2. complete mixing) Very useful concept for degradation and chemical reactions No mixing Q Here at T0 Here at TR V = QTR TR = V/Q Exactly Complete mixing Q Q TR = V/Q On Average For this problem: Consider discharge and evaporation out of Lake Parabola.Residence Time (steady state.

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