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A study of sheet metal stamping processes of lightweight parts

February 2008 Tan Chin Joo

Chapter
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Contents
Introduction. Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch. Two-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness of wheel disk. Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness. Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup. Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner.

Chapter 1 Introduction
Control of thickness distribution of stamped products for reduction in weight
Welding lines

Long welding lines & high material loss Tailor welded blank

One-dimensional distribution Tailor rolled blank

Flat Local thickening Stamping Small thickness: low strength

Large thickness: Small thickness blank Lightweight high strength Proposed method for reduction in weight

Forming of lightweight material for reduction in weight of parts


Magnesium alloy Advantages Density : 1/4 of mild steel Specific strength : 2 times of mild steel Disadvantages Low formability at room temperature Formed at elevated temperature Heating apparatus is expensive and complicated

A study of sheet metal stamping processes of lightweight parts


Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Contents
Introduction. Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch. Two-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness at inner corner at inner corner of wheel disk. Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness. Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup. Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner.

Chapter 2 Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch

Blanking Multi-stage stamping Welding Disk forming Steel Wheel

Bending, welding Roll forming

Rim forming

Forming process of steel wheel

Relationship between weight of wheel and fuel consumption


Wheels
Engine

Drive shaft

Wheels directly driven by engine Reduction in weight of wheel Less fuel consumption

Target portion of wheel disk for local thickening


Hat portion

Inner corner Steel wheel Disk Rim Drive shaft Cracks in fatigue test * Rotating bending fatigue test Forming of lightweight disk Local thickening at Strength Fatigue life Blank thickness

Metal, 39(4), p.325-336, 1987 (In Japanese). T. Yogo, Method for producing automobile wheel disk, Japan Patent JP2004074248, 2004 (in Japanese).

* K. Tanaka, K. Ishihara, H. Komatsu, Fatigue strength of car road wheels, Sumitumo

Conventional multi-stage stamping of wheel disk


Flat punch Die Inner punch Inner die Outer punch

(a) 1st stage Flat punch Die

Outer (d) 4th stage die

Middle (b) 2nd stage punch Outer Inner Outer punch punch punch Inner Die Inner Outer punch die die Equal Decrease in thickness Drawn cup with flange (e) 5th stage (c) 3rd stage

Increase in wall thickness at inner corner by means of conical punches


~ 1/3.5 actual size of wheel disk Conical punch 64.6 Conical punch 55.4 Equivalent to inner corner Outer Inner punch punch Die Increase in thickness
R7

Blank holder Die

Large compression
R3

58.6 R 5

48.4 R5

(b) 2nd stage (a) 1st stage Parameters for increase in thickness 1. Punch angle, 2. Drawn volume ratio

50.1 R2 R3 Outer . 8 die 62.5 Inner die (c) 3rd stage

R7

Relationship between drawn volume ratio and punch stroke


Punch stroke in 2nd stage / mm 30 Total volume, VT 20
Conical punch Die

10 Drawn volume ratio, Vr 0.41 0.47 0.38 0.44 0 10 20 30 Punch angle /

Drawn volume,V After 2nd stage

Vr=V/VT
Drawn volume ratio

Deformation behaviors for =0 and Vr=0.44

-6.3% Equivalent to inner corner (a) 1st stage Equivalent to inner corner (b) 2nd stage

14.3%15.0% 2.6% 3.9% 8.5%3.7% Inner corner (c) 3rd stage

Deformation behaviors for =25 and Vr=0.44

-3.9% Equivalent to inner corner (a) 1st stage Equivalent to inner corner (b) 2nd stage

15% 13.7% 5.9% -2% 9.2% Inner corner (c) 3rd stage

2.9%

Cross sections for =25 and Vr=0.44

(a) 1st stage

(b) 2nd stage

(c) 3rd stage

(d) 4th stage

~1/3 of 13 inch wheel disk (e) 5th stage

Thickness distributions of drawn cup having Vr = 0.41 for = 0, 20 and 30


Change in wall thickness: (t - to) = t x 100% o Hub hole Hat portion

Change in wall thickness / %

10 0

6%

Change in wall thickness / %

Around inner corner Hub hole Around inner corner 10 6%

0 -10 -20

-10 -20

Around inner corner

-30 0 20 40 60 Distance from center / mm (a) Calculated

0o o 20o 30

0o o 20o 30

-30 0 20 40 60 Distance from center / mm (b) Experiment

Thickness distributions of drawn cup having Vr = 0.44 for = 0, 20 and 30


Inner corner 6mm
Change in wall thickness at inner corner / %

Change in wall thickness at inner corner / %

Maximum 10 9.0% increase After 3rd stage After 2nd stage 0 20 o 10 Punch angle / (a) Calculated 30

10 9.4%

Maximum increase

After 3rd stage 0 After 2nd stage

10

-10 0 10 20 o 25 30 Punch angle / (b) Experiment

Average increase in wall thickness at inner corner for = 0, 20, 30 and different Vr
Average increase in wall thickness at inner corner / % 15 10 5 0 -5 0.38 10 20 Punch angle / 30 Vr=0.47 0.44 0.41

Compression

Stretching

-100

Optimum forming condition for increase in wall thickness at inner corner of wheel disk
25 20 Optimum condition 15 Increase in thickness 10 5 0 Vr=0.47 10 20 Punch angle / 100 Vr=0.44 50 0 30 150 Forming load 250 200 Maximum forming load in 3rd stage / kN Maximum increase in wall thickness at inner corner / %

Conclusions
Chapter 2 Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch Average 10% increase in wall thickness around the inner corner of the wheel disk was successfully obtained by means of the conical punches. The optimum forming conditions =25 and Vr=0.44 were summarized. The blank thickness can be reduced without decreasing the strength of the wheel for the reduction in weight

A study of sheet metal stamping processes of lightweight parts


Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Contents
Introduction. Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch. Two-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness at inner corner of wheel disk. Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness. Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup. Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner.

Chapter 3 Stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness at inner corner of wheel disk Welding Thin blank

Thick blank Laser welding of tailor circular blank Disadvantages High material loss. Difficult to control laser welding process. High cost.

Stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness at inner corner of wheel disk
Punch Wheel disk Punch Blank holder Die (a) 1st stage Increase in thickness Die Blank Punch holder (b) 2nd stage 2-stage stamping of tailor circular blank Die

(a) 1st stage Punch Die

(b) 2nd stage Large inner corner thickness Outer punch Inner Outer punch die Inner die Drawn cup with flange (c) 3rd stage 3-stage forming of drawn cup with flange

Conditions for local thickening process


54 R4 18 Punch 4 R c Blank c Blank holder s

Restricted Die by friction Blank holder

68 Punch
Low compression

R8

Die Equivalent portion Material was drawn into die cavity (a) 1st stage

High compression

Parameters : i) Stroke, s ii) Clearance between punch and die, c

Increase in thickness (b) 2nd stage

Deforming behavior for local thickening process (s = 6.5mm, c=2mm)

-3.1%

(a) 1st stage

Deforming behavior for local thickening process (s = 6.5mm, c=2mm)

12%

(b) 2nd stage

Calculated effect of stroke in 1st stage of local thickening process


(c=2mm) Change in wall thickness / % 30 20 10 0 Equivalent portion s / mm 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 Equivalent portion

-10 -20

-30 0 20 40 60 Distance from bottom center / mm

Effect of stroke in 2nd stage of local thickening process


Equivalent portion (c=2mm)

Change in wall thickness / %

30 20 10 0 12

Change in wall thickness %

s / mm 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 Flat Equivalent portion

30 20 10 0 -10 -20 12

s / mm 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 Flat Equivalent portion

-10 -20

-30 -30 0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60 Distance from bottom center / mmDistance from bottom center / mm (b) Experimental (a) Calculated

Effect of clearance in local thickening process


Max. increase in wall thickness in target portion/ % 14 12 10 c / mm 2 8 3 4 6 4 2 0 3 4 5 6 6.57 8 Punch stroke in 1st stage s / mm

Tailor circular blank was formed with the conditions s = 6.5mm, c=2mm

Forming load in 2nd stage and increase in wall thickness at target portion for different punch strokes in 1st stage
(c=2mm)
Maximum forming load in 2nd stage / kN 200 150 100 50 0 Load 4 5 6 6.5 7 Stroke in 1st stage s / mm Thickness 30 20 12 10 0 Maximum increase in wall thickness in target portion / %

-10 -20 -30

Conditions for 3-stage forming of drawn cup with flange from tailor circular blank
1.6mm Tailor circular blank Blankholder 48.4 Punch Die 55.4 120 1 of actual disk 3.5

13.5mm

58.6 Punch 64.6 (a) 1st stage

Die

(b) 2nd stage

Outer 0 . 8 punch R Inner R1 Punch R3 9.4 Outer .8 36.82 die Inner die (c) 3rd stage

50.1

.0 R2

15mm

Deforming behavior for 3-stage forming of drawn cup with flange from tailor circular blank
(s=6.5mm, c=2mm)

7.8%

1st stage

Deforming behavior for 3-stage forming of drawn cup with flange from tailor circular blank
(s=6.5mm, c=2mm)

5.9%

2nd stage

Deforming behavior for 3-stage forming of drawn cup with flange from tailor circular blank
(s=6.5mm, c=2mm)

14%

3rd stage

Wall thickness distribution of drawn cup with flange formed from tailor circular blank
Hub hole

Change in wall thickness %

Around inner corner 30 20 11 10 3 0 -10 -20 tailor flat Around inner corner

-30 0 20 40 60 Distance from bottom center / mm

Conclusions
Chapter 3 Two-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness of wheel disk. Extra 8% increase in wall thickness at the inner corner of wheel disk was successfully obtained by the tailor circular blank. Extra 2 stages of the local thickening process were added to the conventional multi-stage stamping of wheel disk for the increase. The cross sectional shape of the drawn cup formed from the locally thick blank is almost the same with the one formed from the flat blank.

A study of sheet metal stamping processes of lightweight parts


Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Contents
Introduction. Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch. Two-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness at inner corner of wheel disk. Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness. Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup. Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner.

Chapter 4 Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness
Forming conditions( =25 and Vr=0.44)
~ 1/3.5 actual size of wheel disk Outer Inner punch Conical punch Conical punch punch Blank 25 holder Large 25 Die compression Die 64.6 Increase in 55.4 thickness 50.1 48.4 R2 58.6 R R5 5 R3 Outer . 8 die 62.5 Inner die (b) 2nd stage Drawn cup with flange (a) 1st stage (c) 3rd stage Equivalent to inner corner
25.2 25.2
R3

R7

R7

Material properties
Material properties Mild steel High strength steel Tensile strength / MPa Flow stress / MPa Blank thickness / mm 408 MPa 590 Mpa

=629 0.15 =943.7 0.18 1.6 1.4

Thickness distributions of mild steel and high strength steel drawn cups
Inner corner Hub hole
Change in wall thickness / % 20 12.5 7.2 0 -20 Around inner corner Mild Less increase in thickness

at inner corner!!!

High strength Thickness / mm 1.4 1.6 -40 0 20 40 60 Distance from center / mm

Thickness distributions of drawn cups for different blank thicknesses


Inner corner
Max. increase in wall thickness at inner corner / % 20 15 10 5 Blank material=mild steel 0 1.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Blank thickness / mm Decrease in blank thickness lead to small increase in thickness at inner corner

Conditions for 2-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for high strength steel wheel disk
54 R4 18 Punch 4 R 3 Blank 3 Restricted Die by friction Blank holder Blank 1.4mm holder s

68 Punch

R8

Die Equivalent portion Material was drawn into die cavity (a) 1st stage

Low compression

High compression

Punch stroke s is a parameter

Increase in thickness (b) 2nd stage

Deformation behaviors of 2-stage stamping of tailor blank for s=8.5


Plastic equivalent strain
0.800 0.733 0.667 0.600 0.533 0.467 0.400 0.333 0.267 0.200 0.133 0.067 0.000

-2%

(a) 1st stage

Deformation behaviors of 2-stage stamping of tailor blank for s=8.5


Plastic equivalent strain
13%

1.570 1.000 0.909 0.818 0.727 0.636 0.545 0.455 0.364 0.273 0.182 0.909 0.000

(b) 2nd stage

Influence of punch stroke in 1st stage on amount of local thickening


Equivalent portion
Average increases in thickness at equivalent portion / % 14 12 Maximum

10 8.2 8 6 4 2 0

7 8 8.5 9 Punch stroke in 1st stage s / mm Forming of tailor blank using s=8.5mm

Deformation behaviors of 3-stage stamping of tailor blank for s=8.5


Plastic equivalent strain
1.900 1.740 1.580 1.420 1.270 1.110 0.950 0.792 0.633 0.475 0.317 0.158 0.000

10%

(a) 1st stage

Deformation behaviors of 2-stages stamping of tailor blank for s=8.5


Plastic equivalent strain
1.090 1.000 0.909 0.818 0.727 0.636 0.545 0.455 0.364 0.273 0.182 0.091 0.000

5%

(b) 2nd stage

Deformation behaviors of 2-stages stamping of tailor blank for s=8.5


Plastic equivalent strain
2.260 2.000 1.820 1.640 1.450 1.270 1.090 0.909 0.727 0.545 0.364 0.182 0.000

18%

(c) 3rd stage

Thickness distributions of drawn cups formed from tailor and flat blanks
Inner corner Hub hole
Change in wall thickness / % 20 14.5 7.2 0 -20 -40 Tailor

Amount of thickening becomes double !!!


Flat Around inner corner

0 20 40 60 Distance from center / mm

Cross sections of miniature wheel disk formed from tailor and flat blanks

Wrinkle

Tailor blank 21.9mm 21.0mm

8mm

94.1

94.1

(a) Disk formed from flat blank

(b) Disk formed from tailor blank

8mm

Conclusions
Chapter 4 Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness The increase in wall thickness at the inner corner of the high strength steel wheel disk becomes small due to the decrease in blank thickness. The high strength steel wheel disk formed from the tailor circular blank has 2 times of degree of increase in thickness at the inner corner if compared to the one formed from the flat blank. The cross section of high strength steel wheel disk formed from tailor blank is almost the same with the one formed from flat blank.

A study of sheet metal stamping processes of lightweight parts


Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Contents
Introduction. Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch. Two-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness at inner corner of wheel disk. Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness. Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup. Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner.

Chapter 5 Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup
Local thickening method
Constraint

Rotate 90 for 2nd thickening operation Compression (a) After 1st stage 1st thickened portion (b) After 2nd stage

1st thickening operation

Conditions for thickening operation


symmetry along vertical axis
80.0 45.3 33.3
R5 .0

Stopper Punch

R6

76.4 1.6

Square blank 1st thickened portion 34.0


46.0 90.0

Punch Holder
49.6

4.6

(a) 1st stage Parameter =40, 45, 50, 55, 60

Inner die

(c) Dimension of ditch in detail

0.15 0.15

R6 .6 R5 .0

Die

Inner die
48.0 46.0 34.0 32.0

0.2

Outer die Ditch

.6

(b) 2nd stage Punch

Deformation behavior for multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for = 55


1 model 4

(a) 1st stage

Deformation behavior for multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for = 55


1 model 4 20% increase in thickness

(b) 2nd stage

Deformation behavior for multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for = 55


1 model 4

Ditch

(c) 3rd stage

Deformation behavior for multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for = 55


Ditch 1st thickened portion 33% increase in thickness Ditch 1 model 4

Ditch (d) 4th stage

Deformed tailor square blank obtained from simulation for = 55


Y Z
m m 5 7 Max. 33% increase in thickness

1 model 4

Bulging
75 mm

m m ~1

~1 mm

Cross sections of tailor square blank after 1st thickening operation for different
76.8 (a) = 50 74.0 71.8 (b) = 55 Buckling

(c) = 60

Thickness distributions of tailor square blank after 1st thickening operation for different
Change in wall thickness / % 30 20 18 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 D istance fro m center / m m Ta rg e t p o rtio n

45 50 55

Thickness distribution along 1st thickened portion of tailor square blank after 2nd thickening operation
Change in wall thickness / % 40 33 30 20 10 Cross between 1st and 2nd thickened portions

Less increase in thickness due to bulging Portion equivalent to inner corner 10 20 30 Distance along X=18 from Y=0 40

Deformation behavior for deep drawing of square cup from tailor square blank

Y
R6

Punch 6 R6 R3 6m m 36mm 75 mm m 75m 54 mm m 54m Die


R6

R6

X
R6

10% Increase in thickness

(a) Conditions

(b) Deformation behavior

Cross sections of square cup formed from tailor blank and flat blank
Blank holder Die of cup Bottom corner Punch High strength (a) Formed from tailor blank

+10%

-17%
Low strength (b) Formed from flat blank

Thickness distribution of square cup formed from tailor square blank


Change in wall thickness / % Cup formed from 40 tailor blank Tailor blank 20

10
0

Cup formed from flat blank Bottom corner

-17
-20

0 10 20 30 40 Distance of bottom edge along X=18 / mm

Conclusions
Chapter 5 Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup The tailor square blank was successfully formed by stamping process. The tailor square blank having maximum 33% increase in wall thickness at the portion equivalent to the bottom corners of the square cup was formed. The square cup formed from the tailor blank have 10 % increase in wall thickness at bottom corners if compare to the one formed from flat blank having 17% decrease in wall thickness.

A study of sheet metal stamping processes of lightweight parts


Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Contents
Introduction. Multi-stage stamping of wheel disk having large inner corner thickness by means of conical punch. Two-stage stamping of tailor circular blank for increase in wall thickness at inner corner of wheel disk. Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness. Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup. Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner.

Chapter 6 Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner
Coolant Blank holder Heater Casing of laptop formed by hot stamping process Die

Punch

Disadvantage Heating apparatus is expensive and complicated

Conditions for two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner
Crack Punch m m Blank 5 = p holder R 18.6 20.0 Die

R4

aRp=1mm

Coil spring (a) 1st stage Small Outer punch bottom corner Inner punch 19.8 18.8 Drawn cup 10.0 bRp=5mm Drawn ratio =1.72 Container
s

(b) 2nd stage

Deformation behavior for round magnesium cup having small bottom corner

(a) 1st stage

(b) 2nd stage

Cross sections of round magnesium cup having small bottom corner

18.9 9.4

18.9 7.2
R
R1 .1

(a) 1st stage

5. 0

(b) 2nd stage s=2.6mm

Height and bottom corner radius of round cup for different punch strokes in 2nd stage
10 Height of cup / mm 8 Height of cup 5 4 3 2 1 Bottom corner radius / mm Calculated 6

Experimental Bottom corner radius Limit for 6 crack 4 Crack at bottom corner 2 s=2.8mm 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2.8 3 Punch stroke in 2nd stage / mm

Introducing conical punch and ironing die in 1st stage of cold stamping of round magnesium alloy cup
Conical punch 18.6
R =5

Crack

to= 0.5

Blank Holder
R4 Drawing die

a = 140

Blank 20.0 19.69 b

Ironing die

(b) = 150 Maximum

Ironing ratio, a= (to-b)/ to

Cross sections of round magnesium cup obtained from experiment


Straight 18.9 7.2
R1 .1

18.9
7.3

18.7
7.8

5 0.

6 0.

(a) By flat punch for s=2.6mm

(b) By conical punch (c) By conical punch for s=2.9mm for s=3.4mm and a=20%

Conditions for two-stage stamping of magnesium square cup having small bottom corner radius
R8
.4 3 R 18.8
R4

18 .8

Square blank Outer punch


R4

20 .0

R4

20.0 (a) 1st stage

Square cup

Inner punch 19.8 18.8 10

Container (b) 2nd stage

.1

27 Small bottom corner

Magnesium square cups obtained from experiment

5.2

3.8

(a) 1st stage

3. 7

(b) 2nd stage

R 0. 6

Conclusions
Chapter 6 Two-stage stamping of cold drawn magnesium alloy cup having small bottom corner The round and the square magnesium alloy cups having small bottom corners were successfully formed at room temperature. An extra stage is added for reducing the bottom corner radius. The employment of the conical punch and the ironing die improved the dimensions of the cup

List of publications
Reviewed journals: 1. Chin Joo Tan, Yohei Abe, Ken-ichiro Mori, Takayuki Nonaka and Osamu Ebihara, Increase of wall thickness around corner of multi-stage drawn cup with flange using conical punches, Key Engineering Materials, vol. 340-341, p. 761-766, 2007. 2. , Chin Joo Tan, , , , ,, ., Journal of Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity, vol. 48, no. 561, p. 55-59, 2007. 3. C. J. Tan, K. Mori and Y.Abe, Multi-stage stamping of high strength steel wheel disk, Journal of advanced manufacturing technology (Spec. ed.), vol. 1, no. 1, p.31-47, 2007. (ISSN:1985-3157). 4. C. J. Tan, K. Mori and Y.Abe, Forming of tailor blanks having local thickening for control of wall thickness of stamped products, Journal of Material Processing Technology, in press. 2007. Reviewed Conference papers: 5. C. J. Tan, K. Mori and Y.Abe, Increase in wall thickness at inner corner of multi-stage stamping of wheel disk by locally thick blank, Proc. 2nd International Conference on New Forming Technology (ed. F. Vollertsen et al.), p.371-380, 2007. 6. C. J. Tan, K. Mori and Y.Abe, Forming of high strength steel wheel disk having large inner corner thickness. Proc. International Conference on Engineering & ICT, vol. 1, p.41-48, 2007. (Best paper award).

Drawn cup for =25 and Vr=0.44

(a) Blank

(b) 1st stage

(c) 2nd stage

(d) 3rd stage 12mm

Effect of angle of bulging ring in local thickening process


Max. increase in wall thickness in target portion / % 14 12 10 8 c / mm 2 6 3 4 4 2 0 10 20 30 404350 o 60 Angle of bulging ring /

Reason for decrease in thickness for s = 7.5mm


Equivalent portion Die 53Outer Inner punch punch High compression
Low compression Increase in thickness Increase in thickness

(c=2mm)

Die 43Outer Inner punch punch


Low compression

High compression

(i) s= 7.5mm

(ii) s = 6.5mm

Photographs of deformed discs

10mm (a) 1st stage (b) 2nd stage 2-stages local thickening process (s=6.5mm, c=2mm)

10mm (ii) Formed from (i) Formed from flat blank locally thick blank Drawn cup with flange

Thickness distributions of drawn cups for different materials


Inner corner
Change in wall thickness / % Around inner corner Mild High strength -20 Blank thickness = 1.4mm -40

20 0

0 20 40 60 Distance from center / mm High strength steel has no influence on the increase in thickness

Forming of high strength steel drawn cup from tailor circular blank
Holder High strength steel wheel disk Blank Punch holder Die Equivalent to inner corner (a) 1st stage Increase in thickness Die Blank Punch holder (b) 2nd stage 2-stage stamping of tailor circular blank Conical punch Die (a) 1st stage Die (b) 2nd stage Large inner corner thickness Outer punch Inner Outer punch die Inner die Drawn cup with flange (c) 3rd stage 3-stage forming of drawn cup with flange

Forming load in 2nd stage for s = 8.5mm


200 2nd Die 100 Punch Blank holder 1st

Forming load / kN

150

50

4 6 8 Punch stroke s / mm

10

Miniature wheel disks formed from tailor and flat blanks

10mm (a) Formed from flat blank

10mm (b) Formed from tailor blank

Deformation behaviors of thickening operation for =55

Target portion

18%

(a) 1st stage

(b) 2nd stage

Chapter 5 Multi-stage stamping of tailor square blank for increase in wall thickness at bottom corner of square cup
40 Double thickening 2nd thickened portion 1st thickened portion 40 90 rotation 40
80

80 6

Equivalent to bottom edges of square cup

6 Equivalent to bottom corners of square cup (b) 2nd thickening operation (a) 1st thickening operation

Distribution of thickness and hardness of round cup in two-stage stamping process


1
Thickness / mm

Around bottom corner Hardness

100
Hardness / Hv

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Thickness

80 60 Initial thickness 40 1st stage 2nd stage 20

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Distance from bottom center / mm

Deformation behaviors of cup for = 150


Plastic equivalent strain
0.549 0.506 0.463 0.420 0.377 0.334 0.291 0.248 0.205 0.162 0.119 0.076 0.033 (a) 1st stage

Deformation behaviors of round magnesium cup for = 150


Plastic equivalent strain
0.950 0.879 0.808 0.737 0.666 0.596 0.525 0.454 0.383 0.312 0.241 0.171 0.010 (b) 2nd stage

Relationship between height of cup and bottom corner radius for different punch strokes in 2nd stage for a=20% & = 150
2 8
Height of cup / mm

Height 1.5

6 4 2 0 1 2 3 Punch stroke in 2nd stage s / mm Crack Limit for crack Radius 1 0.5 0 4

Bottom corner radius / mm

Distribution of thickness strain and hardness of cup after 1st and 2nd stage for a=20% & = 150
0.3
Thickness strain

Hardness

100
Hardness / HV

0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 0

Strain 80 60 40 Bottom corner after 2nd stage 1st 2nd 20

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Distance from bottom center / mm

Distribution of thickness strain and of hardness along cross section of square cup
0.3 0.2
Thickness strain

100 Hardness 80 60 Thickness strain Around bottom corner 40 20


Hardness / Hv

0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 0 1st 2nd

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Distance from bottom center / mm

Relationship between forming load in 3rd stage and conical punch angle
Forming load in 3rd stage / kN

250 200 150 100 0.41 50 0 0.38 10 20 Punch angle / 30 Vr=0.47 0.44