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ADVANCED CALCULUS New Edition A COURSE ARRANGED WITH SPECIAL REFER- ENCE TO THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS BY FREDERICK S. WOODS PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF T?.cHNOLOGY A PREFACE The course in advanced calculus contained in this book has for many years been given by the author to students in the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology. The choice of the subject matter and the arrangement of the material are the result of the expe- rience thus gained. The students to whom the course has been given have been chiefly interested in the applications of the calculus and have felt the need of a more extensive knowledge than that gained in the elementary courses, but they have not been prima- rily concerned with theoretical questions. Hence there is no attempt to make this course one in analysis. However, some knowledge of theory is certainly necessary if correct use is to be made.of the science; therefore the author has endeavored to ii jtroduce the students to theoretical questions and possibly to incite in some a desire for more thorough study. As an example of the method used, a proof of the existence of the definite integral in one variable has been given; for the multiple integral the proof has been omitted and simply the result stated. The student who has mastered the simpler case is in a position to read the more difficult case in easily accessible texts. existence proofs have also been given for the simpler cases of implicit functions and of differential equations. In these proofs the author has preferred to make the assumption that the func- tions involved ‘may be expanded into Taylor series. This, of course, restricts the‘proof ; but the somewhat immature student gets a clearer idea of the meaning of the theorems when he sees an actual series as the solution. The more abstract concept of a function may well come later. Furthermore, the student is likely to apply his results only to functions which can be expanded into series. * Because of this constant use of the power scries that subject is taken up ‘irst, after certain introductory matter. Here again, fol- lowing the line of simplicity, the author has not discussed series in general. The gain in concreteness for the student justifies this, but the teacher who desires to discuss series of a more general type may do so with the aid of the exercises given for the student. iii PREFACE The Fourier series are introduced later as tools for solving certain partial differential equations, but no attempt has been made to develop their theory. 4 The subjects treated in the book may be, most easily seen by examining the table of contents. Experience has shown that the book may be covered in a year’s course. FREDERICK S. WOODS Nore ror THE 1922 PrinttNG. In this impression of the book certain improvements have been made. In particular, Osgood’s theorem has been inserted in Chapter I, the discussion of uniform convergence in Chapter IT has been improved, and the treatment of the plane in Chapter V has been changed. PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION In this edition additional exercises have been inserted at the end of most chapters. Also, in Chapter VI, certain proofs have been made more rigorous; namely, that for the existence of the” definite integral and that for the possibility of differentiating under the integral sign a definite integral with upper limit infinity. Al) the typégraphical errors that have been discovered have been corrected. FREDERICK 8S. WOODS