AP US History Chapter 4Experience of Empire (Revised 2009) Mercantilism 1

Mr. Blackmon






W 72hich of the following colonial powers exercised the least amount of control over the commercial and political practices in their colonies? A. Portugal B. The Netherlands C. Great Britain D. France E. Spain At the beginning of the eighteenth century, how did the English colonies differ from the Spanish colonies in the Americas? A. Spain permitted its colonies a greater degree of self-government B. While private investment was responsible for the development of the Spanish colonies, royal money was primarily responsible for the development of the English colonies. C. The compact pattern of Spanish settlement sharply contrasted with the English pattern of far-flung settlements. D. Unlike the Spanish, the English allowed settlers from a variety of nationalities and dissenting sects. E. The Spanish colonies were more responsive to the new circumstances of the Americas than the English colonies. The economic theory of mercantilism would be consistent with which of the following statements? A Economies will prosper most when trade is restricted as little as possible. B. A government should seek to direct the economy so as to maximize exports. C. Colonies are of little economic importance to the mother country. D. It is vital that a country imports more than it exports. E. Tariff barriers should be avoided as much as possible. The mercantilist system in the eighteenth century led to A. the restriction of governmental interference in the economy. B. the protection of Native Americans (Indians) from European economic exploitation. C. the expansion of the colonial economy. D. the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country. E. noncompetitive commercial relations among nations. The major purpose of England's mercantilist policy was to A. protect the infant industries of England's young colonies. B. increase England's prosperity. C. discourage other European powers from colonizing North America. D. reduce the need to an overseas empire. E. open the Atlantic to free trade. The fundamental goal of mercantilism in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was

AP United States History Chapter 4 Experience of Empire A. B.

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to eliminate the obstacles to free trade among the countries of Europe. to have "mother" countries serve as a source of raw materials and the colonists as a source of manufactured goods. C. to limit foreign imports and to encourage a favorable balance of trade. D. to encourage wealthy nations to provide economic assistance to the developing areas of the world. E. to discourage the growth of economic nationalism. Which of the following assumptions is a central part of mercantilism? A the amount of wealth in the world was unlimited B the goal of each nation was to become self-sufficient C each nation benefited from the economic success of other nations D nations should import goods worth the same amount that they exported E colonies were a drain on the economy of the home country An economic system in which a nation seeks to accumulate precious metals by maintaining a favorable balance of trade is most descriptive of: A. capitalism B. socialism C. mercantilism D. feudalism E. fascism Which of the following statements concerning the British colonial system prior to 1763 is not true? A. The colonial system was a secondary concern to Great Britain. British political attention focused more on the many changes within the British government from 1603 to the 1760s. B. The struggle of the British House of Commons for increased power provided a model for the lower houses of the colonial assemblies. C. The emergence of a two party system in British politics encouraged the acceptance of the concept of outspoken opposition to the government. D. Responsibility for governing and controlling the colonies rested clearly and completely in one part of the British government--the Board of Trade. E. India was considered to be a more valuable colony than all the North American colonies. Mercantilism as applied by Britain to its North American colonies meant that the British government A subsidized colonial merchants B encouraged the colonists to trade with other foreign countries C encouraged the colonies to become economically self-sufficient D regulated colonial shipping and tobacco production E barred trade with American Indians

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All of the following were main principles of the Navigation Acts EXCEPT A. trade in the colonies was limited to only British or colonial merchants. B. it prohibited the colonies from issuing their own paper currencies, greatly limiting their trading capabilities. C. all foreign goods bound for the colonies had to be shipped through England where they were taxed with British import duties. D. the colonists could not build or export products that directly competed with British export products. E. colonial enumerated goods could only be sold in England. By 1760, the biggest problem with the economy of the English colonies was A. smuggling B. a trade surplus so large that England was threatening to confiscate American assets to help balance the English economy. C. a lack of demand for the vast quantities of high-quality American manufactured goods now being produced, leading to high unemployment in the American colonies. D. a huge balance of trade deficit that threatened the solvency of the colonial currency. E. a lack of adequate deep-water ports to provide loading and unloading facilities for the large number of ships now trying to bring goods to or carry goods from the colonies. The British Parliament enacted which of the following to enforce mercantilist theories? A. Half-Way Covenant, 1662; Woolens Act 1699; Hat Act, 1732. B. Navigation Act, 1651; Enumerated Commodities Act, 1660; Staple Act, 1663. C. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1638; Act of Toleration, 1649; Navigation Act, 1651. D. Iron Act, 1750; Sugar Act, 1764; Stamp Act, 1765. E. Stamp Act, 1765; Quebec Act, 1774; Olive Branch Petition, 1775. In the 1790s, Virginia and Maryland exported 130,000,000 pounds per year. In 1775, 165,000 barrels of another product passed through Charleston and Savannah. New England exported 2,700,000 gallons of its chief product in 1775. These three exports are, respectively, A. corn, indigo, and fish. B. wheat, naval stores, and molasses C. rice, fish, and wheat. D. tobacco, rice, and rum. E. tobacco, naval stores, and fish. The Molasses Act was intended to enforce England's mercantilist policies by A. forcing the colonists to export solely to Great Britain. B. forcing the colonists to buy sugar from other British colonies rather from foreign producers. C. provide a favorable market for the products of the British East India Company. D [The secret possible answer which is not, however, the correct answer!] E. creating an economic situation in which gold tended to flow from the colonies to the mother country.

APAP United States History United States History Chapter 4 Experience of Empire Chapter 4 Experience of Empire

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Volume of American Colonies' Exports to England and Imports from England (value in pounds sterling) Year 1743 1742 1741 1740 Year 1743 1742 1741 1740 16 New England Exports Imports 63,185 172,461 53,166 148,899 60,052 198,147 72,389 171,081 Virginia and Maryland Exports 557,821 427,769 577,109 341,997 Imports 328,195 264,186 248,582 281,428 New York Exports Imports 15,067 135,487 13,536 167,591 21,142 140,430 21,498 118,777 Carolina Exports 235,136 154,607 236,830 266,560 Imports 111,499 127,063 204,770 181,821 Pennsylvania Exports Imports 9,596 8,527 17,158 15,048 79,340 75,295 91,010 56,751



According to eighteenth century theories of mercantilism, and in light of England's pattern of trade with America as shown in the chart above, England's most valuable colony or group of colonies was which of the following? A. New England B. New York C. Pennsylvania D. Virginia and Maryland E. Carolina The Navigation Acts were part of the British policy known as A isolationism B capitalism C mercantilism D monopolism E imperialism The North American colonies took advantage of Great Britain's policy of salutary neglect to A establish religious freedom as a fundamental right B work out trade arrangements to acquire needed products from other countries C introduce the practice of slavery into the New World D establish a standing army E make favorable territorial settlements with the French

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Section 6 19


The map below represents European powers in North America in approximately what year?



A. 1600 B. 1682 C. 1713 D. 1763 E. 1783 All of the following European powers competed for control of the Caribbean during the 17th Century EXCEPT A France B Holland C Spain D England E Sweden The chief significance of French explorer Samuel de Champlain's alienation of the Iroquois Indians was A. to prevent the French from establishing a profitable fur trade in Canada. B. to prevent Champlain from founding any permanent settlement along the St. Lawrence River. C. to prevent Champlain from making it back to France alive. D. to prevent New France from expanding southward into what is now the United States.

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E. the creation of an alliance of British and French colonists against the Iroquois. In which of the following areas of America did the French mostly settle? A. Hudson Bay B. Chesapeake Bay C. St. Lawrence River Valley and the West Indies D. Hudson Valley E. Delaware Valley During the seventeenth century, French settlements in North America were primarily A. permanent fishing villages shipping fish to the Catholic countries of Europe B. shipbuilding centers located near the sources of naval stores. C. places of refuge for French Huguenots wanting to practice their religion. D. commercial agricultural centers depending upon the exporting of wheat and corn. E. forts and trading stations serving the fur traders. Prior to successfully colonizing the New World, England defeated a major rival, and just prior to losing many of its New World colonies, England defeated another major rival. The rivals were first A. France and then the United States B. Spain, then France C. France, then Holland D. France, then Spain E. Portugal, then Spain The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were distinctive in that they A. were less militant Native American (Indian) tribes. B. all allied themselves with the American colonies against Great Britain in the Revolutionary War. C. successfully resisted incorporation into the English fur-trading system. D. were converted to Anglicanism. E. formed the most important Native American political organization to confront the colonists. In the colonial period, westward settlement in the Mohawk River valley west of Albany was A. blocked by the Iroquois Confederacy. B. stopped by the Appalachian Mountains. C. stimulated by the Erie Canal. D. encouraged by the Northwest Ordinance. E. accomplished by Scotch-Irish settlers. The Albany Congress of 1754 was convened for the major purpose of A. adding New York to the Dominion of New England B. getting the colonies to form a "grand council" to coordinate their western expansion and their common defense against Indians. C. uniting the colonies under a "grand council" to resist British economic sanctions and coordinate activities against British tax officials. D. cooperating with the French in their efforts to rid western New York and southern Canada of raiding Indian tribes. E. writing a proclamation to be sent to King George in protest of the Stamp Act.

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The famous cartoon of 1754 by Benjamin Franklin offered warning to the 13 colonies if they did which of the following?





A. Refused to enter the Seven Years' War B. continued to follow the British policy of mercantilism C. did not protest the Stamp Act D. continued trading with French Canada E. rejected the Albany Plan Which was not a result of the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)? A. France lost Canada B. Great incurred high war costs. C. Great Britain gained Louisiana D. Great Britain saw a need to tighten its administrative system. E. Great Britain made a decision to reinvigorate the mercantile system. The French and Indian War weakened the ties that bound the English colonies in North America to the British Empire by A. shattering the myth of British invincibility B. bolstering colonial self esteem C. encouraging the colonists to think of themselves more as Americans than English or British. D. eliminating the Spanish from North America E. A, B, and C The French and Indian War resulted in all of the following EXCEPT A. new lands in the trans-Mississippi West were opened to the colonists. B. colonists began thinking of themselves as Americans rather than English or British. C. Spain gained control of Louisiana. D. the treaty ending the war eliminated the French from the American colonial frontier. E. the myth of British invincibility was shattered. A major impact of the French and Indian War on the attitudes of Americans was A. it led many Americans to question the superiority of English colonial rule and to support French colonial rule.

AP United States History Chapter 4 Experience of Empire B. C.

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it convinced most Americans to avoid further exploration and settlement of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys until after the American Revolution. it bound the American colonies more tightly to England than ever before and made most of them realize they needed English protection from foreign powers such as the French. it led many colonists who had previously independence from England to call for moderation because they feared that the huge British military presence in the colonies (brought over from England to fight the French) could now be turned on rebellious colonists. with the threat of the French now gone from their borders, many colonists now felt that English protection was unnecessary and they felt free to take a more independent stand toward Britain than they had taken previously.

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