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Traffic Control

Traffic Control

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Published by Waruna Jayasooriya
Transportation safety and traffic control devices
Transportation safety and traffic control devices

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Categories:Types, Presentations
Published by: Waruna Jayasooriya on Feb 10, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Transportation Safety

Traffic Control Devices

Purpose and Understanding
• The purpose of traffic control devices, as well as the principles for their use, is: to promote highway safety and efficiency by providing for the orderly movement of all road users on streets, highways, bikeways, and private roads open to public travel throughout the Nation.

• Traffic control devices notify road users of regulations and provide warning and guidance needed for the uniform and efficient operation of all elements of the traffic stream in a manner intended to minimize the occurrences of crashes.

• Traffic control devices or their supports shall not bear any advertising message or any other message that is not related to traffic control.

Providing Directions Not confusion .

warn. . in the case of a private road. by authority of the private owner or private official having jurisdiction. markings. signals. bikeway. placed on. over.What is a Traffic Control Device? • Traffic control devices shall be defined as all signs. or. or adjacent to a street. and other devices used to regulate. pedestrian facility. or guide traffic. or private road open to public travel by authority of a public agency or official having jurisdiction. highway.

.Selection and Application of Each Device. and E. • To be effective. Command respect from road users. Command attention C. a traffic control device should meet five basic requirements: A. Fulfill a need B. Give adequate time for proper response. simple meaning D. Convey a clear.

and location of various traffic control devices. maintenance. placement. • Design. operation. and uniformity are aspects that should be carefully considered in order to maximize the ability of a traffic control device to meet the five requirements listed above. placement. . operation. • Vehicle speed and traffic volume should be carefully considered as an elements that governs the design.Selection and Application of Each Device.

color. and that uniformity. lighting or retroreflection. • The above combination will produce a clear meaning.Design of Traffic Control Devices • Devices should be designed so that features such as size. and reasonableness of the message combine to command respect. composition. shape. and contrast are combined to draw attention to the devices. that legibility and size combine with placement to permit adequate time for response. legibility. size. .

• To aid in conveying the proper meaning. . object. or situation to which it applies.Placement and Operation of Traffic Control Devices: • Placement of a traffic control device should be within the road user’s view so that adequate visibility is provided. • The location and legibility of the traffic control device should be such that a road user has adequate time to make the proper response in both day and night conditions. the traffic control device should be appropriately positioned with respect to the location.

Placement and Operation of Traffic Control Devices: .

. The fact that a device is in good physical condition should not be a basis for deferring needed removal or change.Placement and Operation of Traffic Control Devices: • Traffic control devices should be placed and operated in a uniform and consistent manner. • Unnecessary traffic control devices should be removed.

. legible.Maintenance of Traffic Control Devices • Functional maintenance of traffic control devices should be used to determine if certain devices need to be changed to meet current traffic conditions. properly mounted devices in good working condition command the respect of road users. • Clean. • Physical maintenance of traffic control devices should be performed to retain the legibility and visibility of the device. and to retain the proper functioning of the device.

maintenance. • Uniformity assists public highway officials through efficiency in manufacture. . thereby reducing perception/reaction time. law enforcement officers.Uniformity of Traffic Control Devices • Uniformity of devices simplifies the task of the road user because it aids in recognition and understanding. • Uniformity assists road users. installation. and administration. and traffic courts by giving everyone the same interpretation.

A standard device used where it is not appropriate is as objectionable as a non-standard device. because such misuse might result in disrespect at those locations where the device is needed and appropriate. in itself. constitute uniformity.Uniformity of Traffic Control Devices • Uniformity means treating similar situations in a similar way. • The use of uniform traffic control devices does not. . in fact. this might be worse.

with the private owner or private official having jurisdiction. that manual or supplement shall be in substantial conformance with the National MUTCD. . highway. operation. placement. bikeways. • When a State or other Federal agency manual or supplement is required.Responsibility for Traffic Control Devices • The responsibility for the design. • adopts the MUTCD as the national standard for all traffic control devices installed on any street. highways. or private road open to public travel. in the case of private roads open to public travel. • states that traffic control devices on all streets. and uniformity of traffic control devices shall rest with the public agency or the official having jurisdiction. bikeway. maintenance. and private roads open to public travel in each State shall be in substantial conformance with standards issued or endorsed by the Federal Highway Administrator. or.

Signs • The functions of signs are to provide regulations. and guidance information for road users. symbols. . • Words. • Signs are not typically used to confirm rules of the road. warnings. and arrows are used to convey the messages.

(Figure 2A-4. • heights and lateral locations of signs for typical installations are dictated by roadway users safety.) • Advance signing on an intersection approach help provide information gradually to the roadway users and prepare them ahead of time. Figures 2A-3 and 2A-4. and its visibility (illustrated in Figure 2A-2) • Per standards.) . Signs can be placed anywhere as long as the location is safe and visible to the roadway users ( locations for some typical signs at intersections.Standardization of Location • Standardization of position shall be used but it cannot always be attained in practice.





Traffic Control Devices (Signs) — Regulatory Signs. — Warning Signs and Object Markers — Guide Signs for Conventional Roads — Guide Signs for Freeways and Expressways — Toll Road Signs — Preferential and Managed Lane Signs — General Information Signs — General Service Signs — Specific Service (Logo) Signs — Tourist-Oriented Directional Signs — Changeable Message Signs — Recreational and Cultural Interest Area Signs — Emergency Management Signs .

Regulatory Signs (Size) .

Regulatory Signs (Panel) .

Regulatory Signs (Panel) .

Regulatory Signs (Panel) .

Regulatory Signs (Panel) .

Regulatory Signs (Applications) .

Regulatory Signs (Applications) .

Application of Warning Signs: the use of warning signs shall be based on an engineering study or on engineering judgment. street. Warning signs alert road users to conditions that might call for a reduction of speed or an action in the interest of safety and efficient traffic operations. .Function of Warning Signs: Warning signs call attention to unexpected conditions on or adjacent to a highway.Warning Signs and Object Markers . . or private roads open to public travel and to situations that might not be readily apparent to road users.

In situations where the condition or activity is seasonal or temporary.Warning Signs and Object Markers . . The use of warning signs should be kept to a minimum as the unnecessary use of warning signs tends to breed disrespect for all signs. the warning sign should be removed or covered when the condition or activity does not exist.Application of Warning Signs: the use of warning signs shall be based on an engineering study or on engineering judgment.

colors. all warning signs shall be diamond-shaped (square with one diagonal vertical) with a black legend and border on a yellow background. shapes. • Warning signs shall be designed in accordance with the sizes. or unless specifically designated otherwise. • A warning sign that is larger than the size shown in the Oversized column in Table 2C-2 for that particular sign may be diamond-shaped or may be rectangular or square in shape. and legends contained in the “Standard Highway Signs and Markings” book .Design of Warning Signs • Except as provided Below.

Design of Warning Signs .

Design of Warning Signs .

Warning Signs .

Warning Signs .

Object Markers .

towns. to identify nearby rivers and streams. villages.Conventional Road Guide Sign: • Guide signs are essential to direct road users along streets and highways. or other important destinations. . parks. direct manner possible. forests. to direct them to cities. and generally to give such information as will help them along their way in the most simple. to inform them of intersecting routes. and historical sites.

All messages. Color. Retroreflection. borders. guide signs on streets and highways shall have a white message and border on a green background.Guide Sign. and Illumination: • Except where otherwise requmended for individual signs or groups of signs. . and legends shall be retroreflective and all backgrounds shall be retroreflective or illuminated.

When the height of a lower-case letter is referenced. numerals. • The nominal loop height of the lower-case letters shall be 3/4 the height of the initial upper-case letter.Guide Sign Sizes: • The design of upper-case letters. warped. and highways on conventional road guide signs shall be a combination of lower-case letters with initial upper-case letters. and spacing shall be as provided in the “Standard Highway Signs and Markings” book. • When a mixed-case legend letter height is specified referring only to the initial upper-case letter. compressed. or otherwise manipulated. . the height of the lower-case letters that follow shall be determined by this proportion. lower-case letters. the reference is made to the nominal loop height and the height of the initial upper-case letter shall also be determined by this proportion. • The unique letter forms for each of the Standard Alphabet series shall not be stretched. route shields. streets. • All other word legends on conventional road guide signs shall be in uppercase letters. • The lettering for names of places.

Guide Sign Sizes: .

Guide Signs : .

Guide Signs : .



guidance. . Major marking types include pavement and curb markings. or warnings in ways not obtainable by the use of other devices. and other markings. and islands. markings are used alone to effectively convey regulations.Pavement Marking • Markings on highways and on private roads open to public travel have important functions in providing guidance and information for the road user. colored pavements. channelizing devices. • Markings are also used to supplement other traffic control devices such as signs. delineators. signals. In other instances.

However. traffic volumes.Visibility of the markings can be limited by snow. .Marking • Markings have limitations. and water on or adjacent to the markings. weather. .Marking durability is affected by material characteristics. . and location. . debris. under most highway conditions. markings provide important information while allowing minimal diversion of attention from the roadway.

Standardization of Application • Each standard marking shall be used only to convey the meaning prescribed for that marking. • Markings that are no longer applicable for roadway conditions or restrictions and that might cause confusion for the road user shall be removed or obliterated to be unidentifiable as a marking as soon as practical. . • All markings on Interstate highways shall be retroreflective. • Markings that must be visible at night shall be retroreflective unless ambient illumination assures that the markings are adequately visible.

bicyclists. and motorcyclists. • Consideration should be given to selecting pavement marking materials that will minimize tripping or loss of traction for road users. • Delineators should not present a vertical or horizontal clearance obstacle for pedestrians. . including pedestrians.Standardization of Application • The materials used for markings should provide the specified color throughout their useful life.

Color Standardization of Application
• • Markings shall be yellow, white, red, blue, or purple. When used, white markings for longitudinal lines shall delineate: A. The separation of traffic flows in the same direction, or B. The right-hand edge of the roadway. When used, yellow markings for longitudinal lines shall delineate: A. The separation of traffic traveling in opposite directions, B. The left-hand edge of the roadways of divided highways and one-way streets or ramps, or C. The separation of two-way left-turn lanes and reversible lanes from other lanes. When used, red raised pavement markers or delineators shall delineate: A. Truck escape ramps, or B. One-way roadways, ramps, or travel lanes that shall not be entered or used in the direction from which the markers are visible. When used, blue markings shall supplement white markings for parking spaces for persons with disabilities. When used, purple markings shall supplement lane line or edge line markings for toll plaza approach lanes that are restricted to use only by vehicles with registered electronic toll collection accounts.

Functions, Widths, and Patterns of Longitudinal Pavement Markings
The general functions of longitudinal lines shall be: A. A double line indicates maximum or special restrictions, B. A solid line discourages or prohibits crossing (depending on the specific application), C. A broken line indicates a permissive condition. D. A dotted line provides guidance or warning of a downstream change in lane function. • The widths and patterns of longitudinal lines shall be as follows: A. Normal line—4 to 6 inches wide. B. Wide line—at least twice the width of a normal line. C. Double line—two parallel lines separated by a discernible space. D. Broken line—normal line segments separated by gaps. E. Dotted line—noticeably shorter line segments separated by shorter gaps than used for a broken line.

Pavement Marking

Pavement Marking .

Pavement Marking .

Pavement Marking .

Pavement Marking (FDOT): .

Pavement Marking (FDOT): .

Pavement Marking (FDOT): .

HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SIGNALS • A careful analysis of traffic operations. . has provided a series of signal warrants that define the minimum conditions under which installing traffic control signals might be justified. coupled with engineering judgment. pedestrian and bicyclist needs. consideration should be given to removing it and replacing it with appropriate alternative traffic control devices. if any are needed. and other factors at a large number of signalized and unsignalized locations. • Engineering judgment should be applied in the review of operating traffic control signals to determine whether the type of installation and the timing program meet the current requirements of all forms of traffic • If changes in traffic patterns eliminate the need for a traffic control signal.

Peak Hour Warrant 4. Coordinated Signal System Warrant 7. Eight-Hour Vehicular Volume Warrant 2. Of the MUTCD .Studies and Factors for Justifying Traffic Control Signals • An engineering study of traffic conditions. • The investigation of the need for a traffic control signal shall include an analysis of factors related to the existing operation and safety at the study location and the potential to improve these conditions. pedestrian characteristics. Roadway Network Warrant 9. Crash Experience Warrant 8. School Crossing Warrant 6. and theapplicable factors contained in the following traffic signal warrants: Warrant 1. Pedestrian Volume Warrant 5. Four-Hour Vehicular Volume Warrant 3. and physical characteristics of the location shall be performed to determine whether installation of a traffic control signal is justified at a particular location. Intersection Near a Grade Crossing See section 4C.

hardware.Responsibility for Operation and Maintenance • Prior to installing any traffic control signal. the responsibility for the maintenance of the signal and all of the appurtenances. The responsible agency should provide for the maintenance of the traffic control signal and all of its appurtenances in a competent manner. and the timing plan(s) should be clearly established. and establish a policy to maintain a record of all timing changes and that only authorized persons are permitted to make timing changes. Keep every controller assembly in effective operation in accordance with its predetermined timing schedule. • To this end the agency should: A. software. check the operation of the controller assembly frequently enough to verify that it is operating in accordance with the predetermined timing schedule. .

F. C. Clean the optical system of the signal sections and replace the light sources as frequently as experience proves necessary. Clean and service equipment and other appurtenances as frequently as experience proves necessary. Maintain the appearance of the signal displays and equipment. D. E. using flashing mode or manual control. . H. Provide for alternate operation of the traffic control signal during a period of failure. G. Provide spare equipment to minimize the interruption of traffic control signal operation as a result of equipment failure. Have properly skilled maintenance personnel available without undue delay for all signal malfunctions and signal indication failures. or manual traffic direction by proper authorities as might be required by traffic volumes or congestion. Provide for the availability of properly skilled maintenance personnel for the repair of all components.Responsibility for Operation and Maintenance B. or by erecting other traffic control devices.

B. and pedestrian traffic. They are coordinated to provide for continuous or nearly continuous movement of traffic at a definite speed along a given route under favorable conditions. They assign the right-of-way to the various traffic movements and thereby profoundly influence traffic flow. adversely affecting the safety and efficiency of vehicular. and maintained will have one or more of the following advantages: A. .Advantages and Disadvantages of Traffic Control Signals • • When properly used. traffic control signals are valuable devices for the control of vehicular and pedestrian traffic. This belief has led to traffic control signals being installed at many locations where they are not needed. especially right-angle collisions. They are used to interrupt heavy traffic at intervals to permit other traffic. C. D. They provide for the orderly movement of traffic. They increase the traffic-handling capacity of the intersection if: 1. vehicular or pedestrian. and 2. E. Proper physical layouts and control measures are used. located. to cross. Traffic control signals that are properly designed. They reduce the frequency and severity of certain types of crashes. The signal operational parameters are reviewed and updated (if needed) on a regular basis (as engineering judgment determines that significant traffic flow and/or land use changes have occurred) to maximize the ability of the traffic control signal to satisfy current traffic demands. Traffic control signals are often considered a panacea for all traffic problems at intersections. bicycle. operated.

and D. Increased use of less adequate routes as road users attempt to avoid the traffic control signals. ineffectively placed. Excessive delay. C. B. . • Improper or unjustified traffic control signals can result in one or more of the following disadvantages: A. improperly operated. can be ill-designed. Excessive disobedience of the signal indications. Significant increases in the frequency of collisions (especially rear-end collisions). even when justified by traffic and roadway conditions.Advantages and Disadvantages of Traffic Control Signals • Traffic control signals. or poorly maintained.

Using your own words.Homework 1. minimum and oversized speed limit sign size used for a multilane conventional road? MUTCD: http://mutcd.gov/ .fhwa. explain the five basic requirements that traffic control device should meet? 2.dot. Using table 2B-1. what is the most adequate.

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